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1

SOIL PARENT MATERIALS Low-carbonate alluvium  

E-print Network

, rhyolite and undifferentiated volcanics are low-carbonate. High- and low- carbonate parent materials CLIMATIC ZONES 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Kilometers 1 0 1 2 3 Miles N RhyoliteR V Volcanic (undiff.) Intermediate

2

Dryland soil microbial communities display spatial biogeographic patterns associated with soil depth and soil parent material.  

PubMed

Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common to drylands worldwide. We employed replicated, spatially nested sampling and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the soil microbial communities in three soils derived from different parent material (sandstone, shale, and gypsum). For each soil type, two depths (biocrusts, 0-1 cm; below-crust soils, 2-5 cm) and two horizontal spatial scales (15 cm and 5 m) were sampled. In all three soils, Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria demonstrated significantly higher relative abundance in the biocrusts, while Chloroflexi and Archaea were significantly enriched in the below-crust soils. Biomass and diversity of the communities in biocrusts or below-crust soils did not differ with soil type. However, biocrusts on gypsum soil harbored significantly larger populations of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and lower populations of Cyanobacteria. Numerically dominant operational taxonomic units (OTU; 97% sequence identity) in the biocrusts were conserved across the soil types, whereas two dominant OTUs in the below-crust sand and shale soils were not identified in the gypsum soil. The uniformity with which small-scale vertical community differences are maintained across larger horizontal spatial scales and soil types is a feature of dryland ecosystems that should be considered when designing management plans and determining the response of biocrusts to environmental disturbances. PMID:23621290

Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R

2013-10-01

3

Dryland soil microbial communities display spatial biogeographic patterns associated with soil depth and soil parent material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common to drylands worldwide. We employed replicated, spatially nested sampling and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the soil microbial communities in three soils derived from different parent material (sandstone, shale, and gypsum). For each soil type, two depths (biocrusts, 0–1 cm; below-crust soils, 2–5 cm) and two horizontal spatial scales (15 cm and 5 m) were sampled. In all three soils, Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria demonstrated significantly higher relative abundance in the biocrusts, while Chloroflexi and Archaea were significantly enriched in the below-crust soils. Biomass and diversity of the communities in biocrusts or below-crust soils did not differ with soil type. However, biocrusts on gypsum soil harbored significantly larger populations of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and lower populations of Cyanobacteria. Numerically dominant operational taxonomic units (OTU; 97% sequence identity) in the biocrusts were conserved across the soil types, whereas two dominant OTUs in the below-crust sand and shale soils were not identified in the gypsum soil. The uniformity with which small-scale vertical community differences are maintained across larger horizontal spatial scales and soil types is a feature of dryland ecosystems that should be considered when designing management plans and determining the response of biocrusts to environmental disturbances.

Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

2013-01-01

4

Nature and Properties of Lateritic Soils Derived from Different Parent Materials in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils. PMID:24883366

2014-01-01

5

Nature and properties of lateritic soils derived from different parent materials in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils. PMID:24883366

Ko, Tzu-Hsing

2014-01-01

6

Assessment of soil parent material formation in periglacial environments through medium scale landscape evolution modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil parental materials represent the weathering product of any surficial geological substrates comprising in-situ fragmented and dissolved rocks, unconsolidated sediments of various types and origins, or even paleosoils. Weathering, erosion, transport and accumulation processes of geological materials governing the formation of soil parent materials display a highly complex non-linear behaviour at larger spatial scales over smaller geological time periods (< 50.000 years) in lithologically complex settings. This is particularly evident in periglacial environments where regional allochthonous sediment supply contributes to soil parent material formation. We propose a GIS implementation of a landscape evolution model (LEM) for the spatiotemporal investigation of soil parent material evolution following a lithologically differentiated approach. The well-established LEM tool GOLEM has been adapted and realized as a module for the open-source GIS SAGA to operate in a spatially distributed framework, taking advantage of the highly developed capabilities of SAGA for morphometric digital terrain analysis. The LEM is driven by high-resolution paleo-climatic data (temperature, precipitation) representative for periglacial areas in Northern Germany over the last 50.000 years. The initial conditions of the LEM are determined for a test site by a digital terrain model and a geological model. The geological model was parameterized through geological field data derived from rock mass rating procedures and soft sediment analyses to account for a lithologically differentiated LEM set up with respect to first-order mechanical properties of both rock-type and unconsolidated lithologies. Weathering, erosion and transport functions of the LEM are calibrated using the extrinsic (climatic) and intrinsic (lithology) parameter data. First results indicate that our differentiated LEM-based approach displays some evidence for the spatiotemporal prediction of important soil parental material properties (e.g., thickness, structure, texture, and composition). However, the results have to be validated against field data, and the influence of discrete events (landslides, floods) has to be evaluated.

Bock, M.; Günther, A.; Ringeler, A.; Baritz, R.; Böhner, J.

2012-04-01

7

Shrubby Reed-Mustard Habitat: Parent Material, Soil, and Landscape Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrubby reed-mustard (Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, a.k.a. Schoenocrambe suffrutescens, Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, or Hesperidanthus suffrutescens) is an endangered perennial shrub endemic to the southern Uinta Basin in northeast Utah. Only seven populations of shrubby reed-mustard have been identified. The arid area where the plant grows is rich in natural gas and oil deposits, as well as oil shale. Oil wells already dot the landscape, and there is significant concern that further development of these resources will threaten the continued existence of shrubby reed-mustard. Determination of the parent material, soil and landscape characteristics associated with shrubby reed-mustard habitat is imperative to facilitate conservation management. Shrubby reed-mustard grows where little else does and, based on field observations and remotely sensed spectral data, appears to occur in a particular type of strata. Our objective is to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of shrubby reed-mustard's environment. Site characteristics such as parent material and associated vegetation have been identified and documented. Soil properties such as water-soluble and total leachable elements, particle-size distribution, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus and potassium are being determined. During the course of this investigation, soils within four shrubby reed-mustard habitat areas were sampled. Soils from non-shrubby reed-mustard areas adjacent to the four shrubby reed-mustard populations were also sampled. Soil samples were collected from a total of twenty-five shrubby reed-mustard soil pits and twenty-four non-shrubby reed-mustard soil pits. The soil horizons of each pedon were delineated, and samples were collected from each horizon. Field data indicate that shrubby reed-mustard occurs exclusively in shale-derived, shallow soils on bedrock-controlled uplands. Although there is some overlap of plant species on both types of soils, soils that do not support shrubby reed-mustard are dominated by black sage, a species not found in shrubby reed-mustard habitat. To date, statistical analyses to compare shrubby reed-mustard sites and non-shrubby reed-mustard sites have included Mann-Whitney rank sum tests and t-tests. Statistical results to date show that chemical properties differ between shrubby reed-mustard and non-shrubby reed-mustard sites. Concentrations of several soluble and total metals were significantly higher in shrubby reed-mustard soils compared to adjacent soils, including copper, lead, nickel, and lithium. Soluble, total, and available phosphorus were significantly lower in shrubby reed-mustard soils than in non-shrubby reed-mustard soils. Elevated metals may be indicative of shrubby reed-mustard tolerance of these elements, while low phosphorus concentrations in shrubby reed-mustard soils may indicate that this plant can tolerate low-nutrient status soils. Additional laboratory analyses are underway to further characterize the habitat of shrubby reed-mustard. Descriptive analysis is continuing. Statistical analyses will be finalized upon completion of all laboratory tests. Based on these determinations, shrubby reed-mustard habitat will be better defined and understood, which will assist with the preservation of this endangered species in the face of further resource development.

Kelly, L. S.; Boettinger, J. L.

2012-12-01

8

The impact of parent material, climate, soil type and vegetation on Venetian forest humus forms: a direct gradient approach  

E-print Network

1 The impact of parent material, climate, soil type and vegetation on Venetian forest humus forms and vegetation on forest humus forms was studied in the Veneto Region (northern Italy). A total of 352 study, warmer climate associated to lower elevation, lower soil acidity, deciduous (as opposed to coniferous

Boyer, Edmond

9

The chemistry and parent material of urban soils in Bristol (UK): implications for contaminated land assessment.  

PubMed

An earlier survey of topsoil from parks and allotment in the city of Bristol (UK) revealed the presence of relatively high levels of "pseudo-total" Cd, As, Cu, Pb and Zn, with Cd and As exceeding present UK soil guidelines. This follow-up work aimed at (1) estimating geochemical thresholds for these elements based on "near-total" soil, bedrock and sediment heavy metals and (2) determining the genetic relationship between soil and bedrock using rare earth elements (REEs or lanthanides) as tracers. "Near-total" concentration of 34 elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Zn, Y and the rare earth elements Ce, Dy, Er, Eu, Gd, Ho, La, Lu, Nd, Pr, Sm, Tb, Yb) were obtained by ICP-MS and ICP-OES. The results show that the soil composition is largely controlled by the soil parent material, though extreme outliers are indicative of contamination at a few sites of parkland and allotments. Cumulative frequency plots show the presence of different data sets for which separate "background" values should be determined. The REE data provide evidence that weathering of the underlying sandstone was a determinant factor leading to the relatively high heavy metal enrichment found in soil samples and sediments. Reference to UK soil guidelines to decide on possible remediation measures could be very misleading due to the natural high background levels of some elements in the underlying bedrock. Before defining land as "contaminated", a thorough geochemical investigation is required at local scale in order to produce a more realistic and correct environmental assessment. PMID:22740127

Giusti, L

2013-02-01

10

Multiscale analysis of nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms in soils developed over sandstone and basic parent materials with contrasting texture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mono- and multifractal analysis of soil nitrogen adsorption isotherms (NAI) have been proven to be useful, allowing a better characterization of soil surface properties and soil porous system. Multiscale analysis of nitrogen desorption isotherms (NDI), which was less frequently performed, can also provide very valuable information. The multifractal theory was used to analyse both soil adsorption and desorption isotherms from soils developed over contrasting parent material and with different texture. We sampled 32 soil horizons from 6 soil profiles in neighbouring sites from São Paulo State, Brazil. Three of the profiles, developed over sandstone, were sandy loam or loamy, whereas the other three profiles, developed over weathered sediments or basic parent material, were clayey textured. Soil specific surface area (SSA) varied, from about 3.0 to 46 m2 g-1. Surface parameters showed a strong correlation with clay content, but they were not correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC). The scaling properties of both nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms from all the studied soil horizons could be fitted reasonably well with multifractal models. Multifractal parameters from NAIs and NDIs showed great differences. The singularity spectra, f(?) of the desorption isotherms had an asymmetrically long left part and its asymmetry was in general higher compared with adsorption isotherms. Moreover, adsorption isotherms behaved like more clustered measures, showing lower entropy dimension, D1, smaller correlation dimension, D2, and higher heterogeneity than desorption isotherms. Differences in multifractal behaviour of NAIs and NDIs had been proven to be mainly related to the characteristics of the hysteretic loop measured at high relative pressures. Several multifractal parameters extracted from NAIs and NDIs also distinguished between sandy-loam and loam soils and clayey soils. Multifractal parameters calculated from NAIs and NDIs provide new insight to assess soil surface properties.

Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Marinho, Mara de A.; de Abreu, Cleide A.

2014-05-01

11

The importance of parent material information derived from globally available small scale legacy data for soil mapping at medium scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Up to now, harmonized global soil information is solely available from the FAO-Unesco Soil map of the world at 1:5M scale (FAO-Unesco 1974-1981). However, for monitoring global environmental changes and sustainable land resource management, higher resolution soil maps are urgently needed. At the global scale, the soil forming factors climate, soil parent material (SPM) and topography can be considered the most important parameters for spatial prediction of soil associations and their properties. While topographic and climatic information is available at high spatial resolutions, SPM information can only be derived from small-scale geological maps or soil maps. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of commonly available SPM data derived from small scale soil and geological maps for soil mapping at the 1:250k scale. The study was conducted for a test site in Southern Saxony, Germany, 140*85 km wide, representing diverse soil landscapes. Additionally, SPM maps were derived from a reclassification of the geological overview map of Germany at 1:1M scale, and the European Soil database. The proposed SPM classification, developed in the framework of the EU-FP7 eSOTER project, is based on the degree of SPM consolidation, its geochemical character, and the major bedrock types. In addition, SPM-related surface processes are characterized since SPM is defined here as the original lithological material before the onset of weathering and soil formation processes. To assess the potential of SPM data for the spatial delineation of soil associations, random forest-based predictions of soils and its properties were carried out using relief attributes from digital elevation model data. Model runs were performed (i) with and (ii) without spatial information on SPM properties. The outputs were compared with independent soil information of model validation areas. Training and validation point data was selected from a comprehensive dataset representing more than 14.000 samples. The data mainly includes information on soil types and their substrates. For more than 800 sample sites, additional soil data on texture, pH, exchangeable cations, nutrients, and efficient cation exchange capacity are available. Our study demonstrates the extend SPM information derived from legacy data is capable to enhance the spatial prediction of soil associations and their properties as e.g. texture or cation exchange capacity. We conclude discussing potentials and limitations of SPM information derived from small-scale geological and soil maps.

Schuler, U.; Bock, M.; Günther, A.; Willer, J.; Pickert, E.; Asch, K.; Baritz, R.

2012-04-01

12

Parent Material and Vegetation Influence Soil Microbial Community Structure Following 30-Years of Rock Weathering and Pedogenesis.  

PubMed

The process of pedogenesis and the development of biological communities during primary succession begin on recently exposed mineral surfaces. Following 30 years of surface exposure of reclaimed surface mining sites (Appalachian Mountains, USA), it was hypothesized that microbial communities would differ between sandstone and siltstone parent materials and to a lesser extent between vegetation types. Microbial community composition was examined by targeting bacterial and archaeal (16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)) and fungal (internal transcribed spacer (ITS)) genes and analyzed using Illumina sequencing. Microbial community composition significantly differed between parent materials and between plots established with tall fescue grass or pitch x loblolly pine vegetation types, suggesting that both factors are important in shaping community assembly during early pedogenesis. At the phylum level, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria differed in relative abundance between sandstone and siltstone. The amount of the heavy fraction carbon (C) was significantly different between sandstone (2.0 mg g(-1)) and siltstone (5.2 mg g(-1)) and correlated with microbial community composition. Soil nitrogen (N) cycling was examined by determining gene copy numbers of ureC, archaeal amoA, and bacterial amoA. Gene quantities tended to be higher in siltstone compared to sandstone but did not differ by vegetation type. This was consistent with differences in extractable ammonium (NH4 (+)) concentrations between sandstone and siltstone (16.4 vs 8.5 ?g NH4 (+)-N g(-1) soil), suggesting that nitrification rates may be higher in siltstone. Parent material and early vegetation are important determinants of early microbial community assembly and could be drivers for the trajectory of ecosystem development over longer time scales. PMID:25370885

Yarwood, Stephanie; Wick, Abbey; Williams, Mark; Daniels, W Lee

2014-11-01

13

Impact of climate and parent material on chemical weathering in Loess-derived soils of the Mississippi River valley  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Peoria Loess-derived soils on uplands east of the Mississippi River valley were studied from Louisiana to Iowa, along a south-to-north gradient of decreasing precipitation and temperature. Major element analyses of deep loess in Mississippi and Illinois show that the composition of the parent material is similar in the northern and southern parts of the valley. We hypothesized that in the warmer, wetter parts of the transect, mineral weathering should be greater than in the cooler, drier parts of the transect. Profile average values of CaO/TiO2, MgO/ TiO2, K2O/TiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, Sr/Zr, Ba/Zr, and Rb/Zr represent proxies for depletion of loess minerals such as calcite, dolomite, hornblende, mica, and plagioclase. All ratios show increases from south to north, supporting the hypothesis of greater chemical weathering in the southern part of the valley. An unexpected result is that profile average values of Al2O3/TiO2 and Fe2O3/TiO2 (proxies for the relative abundance of clay minerals) show increases from south to north. This finding, while contrary to the evidence of greater chemical weathering in the southern part of the transect, is consistent with an earlier study which showed higher clay contents in Bt horizons of loess-derived soils in the northern part of the transect. We hypothesize that soils in the northern part of the valley received fine-grained loess from sources to the west of the Mississippi River valley either late in the last glacial period, during the Holocene or both. In contrast, soils in the southern part of the valley were unaffected by such additions.

Muhs, D.R.; Bettis, E. Arthur, III; Been, J.; McGeehin, J.P.

2001-01-01

14

Magnetic separation and evaluation of magnetization of Brazilian soils from different parent materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten selected Brazilian soils representative of Oxisols, Ultisols, Alfisols and Inceptisols and derived from gneiss, basalt, sandstone, diabase and itabirite were sampled and examined to provide insight into the behavior of their magnetic minerals. The objective was to measure the magnetization of the sand, silt and clay fractions and to submit the clay fraction to variable magnetic fields to obtain

M. P. F. Fontes; T. S. de Oliveira; L. M. da Costa; A. A. G. Campos

2000-01-01

15

Applying a new procedure to assess the controls on aggregate stability - including soil parent material and soil organic carbon concentrations - at the landscape scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aggregate stability is an important physical indicator of soil quality and influences the potential for erosive losses from the landscape, so methods are required to measure it rapidly and cost-effectively. Previously we demonstrated a novel method for quantifying the stability of soil aggregates using a laser granulometer (Rawlins et al., 2012). We have developed our method further to mimic field conditions more closely by incorporating a procedure for pre-wetting aggregates (for 30 minutes on a filter paper) prior to applying the test. The first measurement of particle-size distribution is made on the water stable aggregates after these have been added to circulating water (aggregate size range 1000 to 2000 µm). The second measurement is made on the disaggregated material after the circulating aggregates have been disrupted with ultrasound (sonication). We then compute the difference between the mean weight diameters (MWD) of these two size distributions; we refer to this value as the disaggregation reduction (DR; µm). Soils with more stable aggregates, which are resistant to both slaking and mechanical breakdown by the hydrodynamic forces during circulation, have larger values of DR. We made repeated analyses of DR using an aggregate reference material (RM; a paleosol with well-characterised disaggregation properties) and used this throughout our analyses to demonstrate our approach was reproducible. We applied our modified technique - and also the previous technique in which dry aggregates were used - to a set of 60 topsoil samples (depth 0-15 cm) from cultivated land across a large region (10 000 km2) of eastern England. We wished to investigate: (i) any differences in aggregate stability (DR measurements) using dry or pre-wet aggregates, and (ii) the dominant controls on the stability of aggregates in water using wet aggregates, including variations in mineralogy and soil organic carbon (SOC) content, and any interaction between them. The sixty soil sampling locations were selected based on the quantities of SOC from previous analysis (on samples collected at sites across the entire region). We chose the samples to encompass a wide range of SOC concentrations (1.2-7%) within each of six strongly contrasting soil parent material (PM) groups (sandstone, mudstone, clay, chalk, limestone and marine alluvium). The DR values (calculated using re-scaled size distributions for particle diameters < 500 µm) ranged from 17 to 151 µm. The co-efficient of variation for DR analyses using fourteen aliquots of the RM was reasonably small (21 %). The PM groups accounted for a larger proportion of the variation in DR than SOC concentrations; together they accounted for around 50% of the variation in DR values. There was no evidence to include an interaction term between PM and SOC concentration. The proportion of clay-sized particles in the material after sonication was not a statistically significant predictor of DR. Pre-wetting the aggregates typically resulted in substantially smaller values of DR by comparison to using air-dried aggregates in our test. We suggest that the effects of differential clay swelling as a disruptive force during the wetting stage are greater than those associated with slaking (fragmentation due to trapped air). We believe this rapid (duration after the wetting procedure is 10 minutes), reproducible test could could be an effective means to monitor changes in this important soil property and improve predictions of soil erosion. Reference: Rawlins, B. G., Wragg, J. & Lark, R. M. 2012. Application of a novel method for soil aggregate stability measurement by laser granulometry with sonication. European Journal of Soil Science, 64, 92-103.

Turner, Gren; Rawlins, Barry; Wragg, Joanna; Lark, Murray

2014-05-01

16

Similarity analysis of soils formed on limestone/marl-alluvial parent material and different topography using some physical and chemical properties via cluster and multidimensional scaling methods.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to analyze the similarity of soils formed on limestone/marl alluvial parent material and different topography using some physical and chemical properties via cluster analysis (CA) and multidimensional scaling analysis (MDSA). Physical and chemical soil properties included in this study are texture, CaCO3, organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and available water content. The study was carried out in Çetinkaya region located on Bafra Deltaic Plain. The study area has two main physiographic units. The first one is the flat or gently slope alluvial lands (0-2 %), and the other one involves hills with slopes ranging from middle to steep (3-20 %). The soil in the study area is mainly classified as entisol, inceptisol and vertisol. According to the CA results, while C horizons of the soils formed on alluvial deposits (typic ustifluvent and typic ustipsamment) bear similarity, Ap horizons of the soils formed on lime/marl parent material (vertic ustorhent, vertic calciustept, and calci haplustert) appear in the same group. Additionally, in order to support CA, MDSA was performed. Significant correlations were observed between the results of both analyses. PMID:25663394

Sa?lam, Mustafa; Dengiz, Orhan

2015-03-01

17

[Vertical distribution patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in Chinese pine forest soils developed from different parent materials in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve, Beijing of China].  

PubMed

Taking the soils developed from two kinds of parent materials (granite and limestone) under Pinus tabulaeformis forest at the same altitude in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve of Beijing as test objects, this paper studied the vertical distribution patterns of soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium. The soil developed from granite had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1.61-2. 35 g kg-1, 5. 84-10.74 mg kg- 1, and 39.33-93.66 mg kg-1, while that developed from limestone had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1. 69 -2. 36 g kg-1, 4.45-8.57 mg . kg-1, and 60.66-124.00 mg kg-1, respectively. The total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents in the two soils were the highest in 0-10 cm layer, decreased with increasing depth, and had significant differences between different layers, showing that the soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium had a strong tendency to accumulate in surface layer. Such a tendency was more obvious for the soil developed from limestone. The paired t-test for the two soils indicated that the total nitrogen content in different layers had no significant difference, whereas the available phosphorus content in 0-10 cm layer and the available potassium content in 10-20 cm layer differed significantly. PMID:23898652

Gou, Li-hui; Sun, Zhao-di; Nie, Li-shui; Luo, Pan-pan; Wu, Ji-Gui; Xu, Wu-de

2013-04-01

18

Elemental and strontium isotopic geochemistry of the soil profiles developed on limestone and sandstone in karstic terrain on Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China: Implications for chemical weathering and parent materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limestone and yellow sandstone soil profiles from SW China were measured for chemical and Sr isotope compositions of the bulk soils and their sequential leachates (labile, carbonate, and residue or silicate fraction), aiming to characterize the parent materials of the soils, to understand the soil weathering and formation processes, and to discuss the origin of the red residua (terra rossa). The studied yellow sandstone soil, yellow limestone soil, and black limestone soil show different pH values, SiO2 contents, Rb/Sr abundance ratios, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios. The sequential leachates of different soil types also have different 87Sr/86Sr and Ca/Sr ratios. The major chemical compositions of the studied soil profiles suggest that all the sandstone and limestone soils are developing at a stage that feldspar is exhausting and the clay minerals are changing from smectite to kaolinite and gibbsite. As compared with the red residua distributed in the karst region, the soils studied here show lower CIA values (58-84), but both higher Na2O/K2O (0.9-2.7) and Na2O/Al2O3 concentration ratios (0.07-0.26) on average, suggesting a lower weathering intensity than that of the red residua. The depth profiles of soil CIA values, Na2O/K2O and Rb/Sr ratios, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios indicate that the weathering intensity is slightly lower for the upper and higher for the deeper soils, which suggest that the sandstone and limestone soil profiles were formed through both accumulation and weathering of in situ weathering residue and input of external detritus or soil from upper land. During weathering of the soils, preferential release of Ca and retention of Sr in soil result in higher Ca/Sr ratios in both labile and carbonate fractions than those in the residue fractions of all soil profiles. The co-variations of Hf/Nb and Zr/Nb ratios, together with those Rb/Sr and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of limestone soils, sandstone soils, and the red residua, demonstrate that their parent materials are distinct, and support the point that the widely distributed red residua is originated from the weathering residua of both carbonate and silicate clastic rocks, and further weathering of the weathering residua resulted in intensive release of Si, Na, Ca and relative enrichment of Al, K and other immobile elements in the red residua.

Liu, Wen-Jing; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Zhao, Zhi-Qi; Xu, Zhi-Fang; Liang, Chong-Shan; Li, Long-bo; Feng, Jia-Yi

2013-05-01

19

Possibilities of including the taxonomy of soils and parent materials of Moscow city into the classification system of the soils of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of the taxonomy of the soils and soil-forming rocks of Moscow city was performed in view of the compatibility of the taxonomy proposed with the new classification system of the soils of Russia. The common platform, which determines the possibility to incorporate the taxonomy of urban soils into the new classification system, is the principle of the priority of the diagnostic horizons, which provides the properties-oriented conceptual background of the compared systems. It was shown that the considered classification developments do not have any fundamental differences either in ideology or in concrete manifestations. Some contradictions in place can be eliminated by respective discussions and agreements.

Lebedeva, I. I.; Gerasimova, M. I.

2011-05-01

20

An initial study to assess the use of geological parent materials to predict the Se concentration in overlying soils and in five staple foodstuffs produced on them in Scotland.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that dietary-intakes of the essential element selenium have fallen in Scotland in recent years, due to changing sources of bread-making wheat. The Scottish environment is thought to be Se-poor due to the geology and climate. This initial study assessed whether geological parent-materials could be used to predict relatively high and low soil-Se areas in Scotland and whether differences in soil-Se were reflected in foodstuff-Se produced on them. Samples (n=8 per farm) of wheat, calabrese (broccoli), potato, beef-steak, milk, cattle pasture (grass) and soil were collected from pairs of farms (one in each high/low predicted Se area (PSA)). Potatoes and soils were collected from a further 34 farms in high/low PSAs to assess a greater geographical zone. Total soil-Se ranged from 0.115 to 0.877mgkg(-1) but most samples (90%) could be classed as Se-deficient (<0.6mgkg(-1)), irrespective of PSA. Total soil-Se was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the high than in the low PSAs as expected; however, the difference between the two was small (mean 0.48 and 0.37mgkg(-1), respectively). Water-soluble soil-Se (6.69 to 26.78?gkg(-1)) concentrations were not significantly different between the two PSAs (p=0.71). Soil loss-on-ignition (indicating organic matter content) correlated significantly with total and water-soluble soil-Se (p<0.001) and exerted a greater control than parent-material on soil-Se. Significant differences between the PSAs for beef-Se (p<0.001), wheat-Se (p<0.001), calabrese-Se (p<0.01) and beef-farm grass-Se (p<0.05) indicated partial success of the parent-material soil-Se prediction. However, only wheat-Se (p<0.001) and potato-Se (p<0.001) correlated significantly with total soil-Se. The results suggest that soil-Se concentrations in the main agricultural areas of Scotland are generally low. Given the low Se concentrations also reported in the food commodities; further investigations may be warranted to fully characterise the Se-status of Scottish produce and dietary-Se intakes in Scotland. PMID:20813394

Fordyce, F M; Brereton, N; Hughes, J; Luo, W; Lewis, J

2010-10-15

21

IMPORTED SOIL OR SOIL-FORMING MATERIALS  

E-print Network

-forming materials on brownfield, landfill or otherwise disturbed sites. Forest Research is able to give advice No limitations; however, the placement location of materials of different texture on site should be related Regeneration Introduction Many sites in the UK have been left with little or no soil cover suitable

22

Spatial distribution of metals in soils in Baltimore, Maryland: Role of native parent material, proximity to major roads, housing age and screening guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the spatial distribution of heavy metal above-background (anthropic) contents of Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn in Baltimore City surface soils and related these levels to potential contaminating sources. Composite soil samples (0–10cm depth) were digested using a nitric and hydrochloric extraction technique. Slightly more than 10% of plots exceeded United States

I. D. Yesilonis; R. V. Pouyat; N. K. Neerchal

2008-01-01

23

DETERMINATION OF EFFECTIVE POROSITY OF SOIL MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of a compacted soil liner is partly a function of the porosity, where the transport of materials through the liner occurs via the pore space. The project studies the pore spaces of compacted soil materials to estimate the effective porosity, which is the portion o...

24

Soils - Part 8: Characteristics of Fertilizer Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The various characteristics of fertilizer materials being sold on the market today will be discussed. You will learn to identify some of the consequences of using each type of fertilizer material and how that material was developed and manufactured.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

25

EPR-based material modelling of soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past few decades, as a result of the rapid developments in computational software and hardware, alternative computer aided pattern recognition approaches have been introduced to modelling many engineering problems, including constitutive modelling of materials. The main idea behind pattern recognition systems is that they learn adaptively from experience and extract various discriminants, each appropriate for its purpose. In this work an approach is presented for developing material models for soils based on evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR). EPR is a recently developed hybrid data mining technique that searches for structured mathematical equations (representing the behaviour of a system) using genetic algorithm and the least squares method. Stress-strain data from triaxial tests are used to train and develop EPR-based material models for soil. The developed models are compared with some of the well-known conventional material models and it is shown that EPR-based models can provide a better prediction for the behaviour of soils. The main benefits of using EPR-based material models are that it provides a unified approach to constitutive modelling of all materials (i.e., all aspects of material behaviour can be implemented within a unified environment of an EPR model); it does not require any arbitrary choice of constitutive (mathematical) models. In EPR-based material models there are no material parameters to be identified. As the model is trained directly from experimental data therefore, EPR-based material models are the shortest route from experimental research (data) to numerical modelling. Another advantage of EPR-based constitutive model is that as more experimental data become available, the quality of the EPR prediction can be improved by learning from the additional data, and therefore, the EPR model can become more effective and robust. The developed EPR-based material models can be incorporated in finite element (FE) analysis.

Faramarzi, Asaad; Alani, Amir M.

2013-04-01

26

Microscale investigation into the geochemistry of arsenic, selenium, and iron in soil developed in pyritic shale materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we report on the distribution and mineralogy of micron-sized mineral aggregates formed in the top horizon of an acid sulfate soil. The distribution and oxidation state of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) were also determined. The soil used in this study was formed from pyritic shale parent materials on the east side of the California Coast Range.

Daniel Strawn; Harvey Doner; Mavrik Zavarin; Scott McHugo

2002-01-01

27

Controls of soil organic material stability in coastal wetland soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we utilize ramped pyrolysis to identify relative stability differences in bulk soil organic material (SOM) from three wetland types (fresh, brackish, and salt marshes). Wetland soils are responsible for the storage of 500-700 Pg of carbon, globally. Understanding the stability of this carbon is important for predicting its role as source or sink in the global carbon cycle and with various changes in climate. By comparing and relating our ramped pyrolysis stability index to the SOM depth, TOC, composition, and source, we are able to determine which of these factors plays the larger role in controlling its stability. Preliminary results indicate that, of these factors, the source of OM has the most control over SOM stability in these wetland environments, with fresh marsh SOM being more stable than salt and brackish marsh SOM. As fresh marshes are replaced by salt marshes accompanying sea-level rise, our results imply that this will initiate the accumulation of less stable OM in these soils.

Williams, Elizabeth; Rosenheim, Brad

2014-05-01

28

Soil Quality: Science and Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

parent materials, topographies, and biota, all acting over geologic time (Jenny, 1941). Inherent differences are The term soil quality (SQ) encompasses both a soil's productive well reflected by the soil series description of the U.S.

Michelle M. Wander; Gerald L. Walter; Todd M. Nissen; German A. Bollero; Susan S. Andrews; Deborah A. Cavanaugh-Grant

29

Evaluation of an alternative bituminous material as a soil stabilizer  

E-print Network

granular base materials, the PRB material coated soil or aggregate particles and decreased the volume of voids, which can be thought as potential water flow channels. Consequently, the PRB material is expected to reduce permeability....

Kim, Yong-Rak

2012-06-07

30

Contrasting environmental memories by ancient soils on different parent rocks in the South-western Italian Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient soils (pre-Holocenic paleosols and vetusols) are uncommon on the Alps, because of the extensive Pleistocenic glaciations which erased most of the previously existing soils, the slope steepness and climatic conditions favoring soil erosion. However, in few sites, particularly in the outermost sections of the Alpine range, Pleistocene glaciers covered only small and scattered surfaces because of the low altitude reached in the basins, and ancient soils could be preserved for long periods of time on particularly stable surfaces. We described and sampled soils on 11 stable surfaces in the Upper Tanaro valley, Ligurian Alps (Southwestern Piemonte, Italy). The sampling sites were characterized by low steepness and elevation between 600 to 1600 m, under present day lower montane Castanea sativa/Ostrya carpinifolia forests, montane Fagus sylvatica and Pinus uncinata forests or montane heath/grazed grassland, on different substrata. In particular, we sampled soils developed on dolomite, limestone, quartzite, gneiss and shales. The soils were always well representative of the pedogenic trends active on the respective parent materials, i.e. the skeletal fraction in each soil was always composed of just one rock type, despite the proximity of lithological boundaries and the small dimensions of the different outcrops, often coexisting on the same stable surface. All the considered profiles showed signs of extremely long pedogenesis and/or different phases of intense pedogenesis interrupted by the deposition of periglacial cover beds in the steepest sites. Up to four phases of intense pedogenesis were recognized where cover beds were developed, presumably during cold Pleistocene phases, as present-day climate is not cold enough to create such periglacial morphologies. In such cases, each cover bed underwent similar pedogenesis, strongly dependent on the parent material: on quartzite, podzols with thick E horizons and well developed placic ones were formed in all phases except the most superficial one (i.e., Holocene phase), where non cemented spodic horizons or weakly cemented ortstein were formed; placic horizons were never found in Holocene soils. On limestone, each cover bed separated soils with extremely hard petrocalcic horizons overlaid by argillic ones. Where no cover beds were observed, podzols with extremely thick E horizons (up to more than 2 m thick) and a very hard, very thick ortstein were formed on quartzite. Red Nitisols-like or reddish brown Luvisols were formed on limestone and dolomite, while red, extremely acidic Alisols, with or without fragipan horizons were formed on shales. Very large stone circles and other large patterned ground features, which can be interpreted as evidence of past permafrost conditions, were preserved on coarse quartzitic conglomerate. These soils represent excellent pedo-signatures of different specific past climatic or environmental conditions, as a response of different lithologies to specific soil-forming environments, which range from warm and humid climates typical of red Luvisols and Nitisols, to cool and wet climates leading to the formation of Podzols with placic or ortstein horizons, to extremely cold and dry ones characterizing permafrost sites and often associated with fragipan formation, to warm and dry leading to the cementation of petrocalcic horizons. The precise dating and interpretation of these soils are intriguing.

D'Amico, Michele; Catoni, Marcella; Bonifacio, Eleonora; Zanini, Ermanno

2014-05-01

31

Carbonaceous materials in soil-derived dusts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wind erosion affects over 500 million ha of land worldwide and creates between 500 and 5000 Tg of fugitive dust annually. This dust carries a disproportionate amount of organic and inorganic carbon when compared to the soil of origin. This loss of soil carbon degrades the soil of origin and may re...

32

The influence of carbonates in parent rocks on the biological properties of mountain soils of the Northwest Caucasus region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biological activity of different subtypes of soddy-calcareous soils (rendzinas) of the Northwest Caucasus region was studied. In the Novorossiisk-Abrau-Dyurso region (dry subtropics), typical soddy-calcareous soils with the high content of carbonates predominate; in the more humid conditions of the Lagonaki Plateau (Republic of Adygeya), leached soddy-calcareous soils carbonate-free down to the parent rock are spread. The number of microarthropods, the populations of fungi and bacteria, and the enzyme activity (catalase, dehydrogenase, and invertase) testify that the biological activity of these soils significantly differs. In the typical soddy-calcareous soils of the dry subtropics, the content of carbonates does not affect the characteristics mentioned; in the more humid conditions of the West Caucasus region, the presence of carbonates in the parent rocks intensifies the biological activity of the soddy-calcareous soils.

Kazeev, K. Sh.; Kutrovskii, M. A.; Dadenko, E. V.; Vezdeneeva, L. S.; Kolesnikov, S. I.; Val'kov, V. F.

2012-03-01

33

Bottom-up effects of geologic parent material through ecological interaction webs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Community ecologists study the interactions between species to understand what controls the distribution and abundance of different populations. Communities are thus portrayed as "interaction webs", in which different species exert reciprocal pressures on each other. In the case of one population being a resource for which another population is the consumer (i.e. food-web), reciprocal pressures are commonly referred to as "bottom-up" vs. "top-down" effects. The starting point for studying bottom-up effects is usually the vegetation (primary producers), and its end-point the decomposer community responsible for breaking down detrital matter from each trophic level. In my presentation, I will present results from three former graduate students, to argue that the starting point for studying bottom-up effects should be the geologic parent material (GPM), whose importance has often been overlooked by community ecologists. For example, our data show that GPM had a stronger effect on forest floor nutrient budgets than the identity or successional stage of the vegetation. Likewise, GPM had a strong effect on the structure of forest floor microbial communities, as well as their resistance to, and resilience from, disturbance. GPM also had a significant effect on the richness and diversity of understory plant communities from similar forest stands. Finally, we present evidence that soil fertility controls the resistance and tolerance of certain plant species to selective browsing, thereby affecting the composition of the dominant plant cover and the feeding patterns of large herbivores.

Bradley, R.

2012-04-01

34

On identifying parent plutonic rocks from lunar breccia and soil fragments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Breccia fragments expected from a well-studied boulder of Stillwater anorthosite have been modeled to test the ability to identify parental rock types from examination of breccia and soil fragments. Depending on their size, the boulder fragments give distributions that suggest mixtures of rock types, including monominerallic anorthosite with subordinant amounts of more gabbroic anorthosite, anorthosite, and gabbro for small fragments. The distribution of FeO in samples of lunar ferroan anorthosite (FAN) indicates that FAN has a heterogeneous distribution of mafic minerals like the boulder.

Haskin, Larry A.; Lindstrom, David J.

1988-01-01

35

The radon emanation power of building materials, soils and rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 222Rn emanation power of building materials, soil and rock samples is determined by collecting exhalated radon on activated charcoal. Median values are 0.2 for dry soils and stones, 0.06 for sand, 0.025 for bricks, 0.006 for ceramic tiles, 0.008 for mineral slag and 0.3 for gypsum. The emanation power of soil rises with water content, in accordance with literature.

Peter Bossew

2003-01-01

36

Colluvisols as a Component of Erosional and Accumulative Soil Cover Structures of East Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 30% of Lithuania is undulating and hilly. Under the influence of water and agriculture operations, soil erosion in hilly landscape changes the environment components. New soil parent material (colluvium) emerges. In some parts of hilly Lithuania, colluvium composes more than 20 % of the soil parent material. According to the former Lithuanian soil classification the soils developed on talus

BAUZIENE Ieva

37

Hygrothermal Simulations of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties  

SciTech Connect

Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. The computational approach for heat transfer via the ground is well defined (EN-ISO-13370:, 2007) together with simplified methods (Staszczuk, Radon, & Holm). Though the soil moisture transfer is generally ignored, it is proven not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, & Hens, 2004). Even though reliable material properties of soils are required to perform realistic hygrothermal calculations of soils coupled to buildings, such material properties have not been well defined in hygrothermal calculations tools. Typical building constructions which are greatly influenced by soils are basements, crawl spaces and slab on grade and reliable hygrothermal performance of such construction are highly requested; as it is ranked within the top 10 Building America Enclosure Research Ideas according to Enclosures STC - Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting, February 29, 2012 Austin, TX. There exists an extensive amount of measurements on soil properties in Soil Science though this information must be gathered as well as adapted to be applicable in Building Science and for hygrothermal simulation purposes. Soil properties are important when analyzing and designing both new building constructions and retrofitting measures, where the outer boundary of the buildings enclosure consists of soil materials. Concerning basement energy retrofits, interior solutions of improving the energy demand has to cooperate with the existing soil properties and must therefore be designed thereafter. In concerns of exterior retrofits, the soil material can be replaced, if needed, with a more suitable filling material, though this approach applies only for basement walls. The soil material beneath the basement floor can naturally not be replaced hence the soil properties of this part of the buildings enclosure still must be taken into consideration. This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from soil science. The obtained information must be applicable for Building Science related tasks and validated in hygrothermal calculation tools hence the second part of this study will focus on validation of the implemented soil properties. Basic changes in the software code may be requested as well. Different basement constructions will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI, from which simulations will be compared with existing or on-going measurements. The final outcome of the study is to enable an evaluation of several soil types in several climate zones combined with a number of basement assemblies. The study will define which type of soil together with a certain building construction which is considered most and least reliable in concerns of energy consumption and moisture safety. Further, what influences different soils will have on the total energy loss via the ground and if the performance of a different soils can be measured by a comparison of soil properties solely.

Pallin, Simon B [ORNL; Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL

2013-01-01

38

Gender and Material Transfers between Older Parents and Children in Ismailia, Egypt  

PubMed Central

In Egypt, kin relations have been governed by a patriarchal contract, which defines expectations for intergenerational support along gendered lines. Social changes may be disrupting these customs and bringing attention to the ways gender may influence intergenerational support in rapidly changing contexts. Using data from 4,465 parent–child dyads in Ismailia, Egypt, we examined whether intergenerational material transfers favored women over men and whether gaps in needs and endowments accounted for gender differences in transfers. Fathers gave children money and goods more often than did mothers; mothers received material transfers from children more often than did fathers. Compared to sons, daughters made transfers to parents less often and received transfers from parents more often. We found residual advantages to mothers and daughters, even adjusting for differential needs and endowments. Findings corroborate persistent norms of gender complementarity, patrilocal endogamy, and reciprocation for women’s caregiving, despite changes that have threatened patriarchal rules of exchange. PMID:22448075

Yount, Kathryn M.; Cunningham, Solveig A.; Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily M.

2011-01-01

39

Hygrothermal Simulation of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties  

SciTech Connect

The hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well defined (EN ISO 13370:2007, 2007), and simplified methods have been developed (Staszczuk, Radon, and Holm 2010). However, these approaches generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, and Hens 2004). This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from Soil Science. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in Building Science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools. Future parts of this study will focus on the validation aspect of the soil properties to be implemented. Basic changes in the software code may be requested at this time. Different types of basement construction will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI. Simulations from WUFI will be compared with existing or ongoing measurements. The intentions of the first part of this study have been fulfilled. The soil properties of interest in Building Science have been defined for 12 different soil textures. These properties will serve as input parameters when performing hygrothermal calculations of building constructions coupled to soil materials. The reliability of the soil parameters will be further evaluated with measurements in Part 2.

Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

2012-10-01

40

Parental separation and adult psychological distress: an investigation of material and relational mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background An association between parental separation or divorce occurring in childhood and increased psychological distress in adulthood is well established. However relatively little is known about why this association exists and how the mechanisms might differ for men and women. We investigate why this association exists, focussing on material and relational mechanisms and in particular on the way in which these link across the life course. Methods This study used the 1970 British Cohort Study (n?=?10,714) to investigate material (through adolescent and adult material disadvantage, and educational attainment) and relational (through parent–child relationship quality and adult partnership status) pathways between parental separation (0–16 years) and psychological distress (30 years). Psychological distress was measured using Rutter’s Malaise Inventory. The inter-linkages between these two broad mechanisms across the life course were also investigated. Missing data were multiply imputed by chained equations. Path analysis was used to explicitly model prospectively-collected measures across the life course, therefore methodologically extending previous work. Results Material and relational pathways partially explained the association between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress (indirect effect?=?33.3% men; 60.0% women). The mechanisms were different for men and women, for instance adult partnership status was found to be more important for men. Material and relational factors were found to interlink across the life course. Mechanisms acting through educational attainment were found to be particularly important. Conclusions This study begins to disentangle the mechanisms between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress. Interventions which aim to support children through education, in particular, are likely to be particularly beneficial for later psychological health. PMID:24655926

2014-01-01

41

Adaptive transgenerational plasticity in an annual plant: grandparental and parental drought stress enhance performance of seedlings in dry soil.  

PubMed

Stressful parental (usually maternal) environments can dramatically influence expression of traits in offspring, in some cases resulting in phenotypes that are adaptive to the inducing stress. The ecological and evolutionary impact of such transgenerational plasticity depends on both its persistence across generations and its adaptive value. Few studies have examined both aspects of transgenerational plasticity within a given system. Here we report the results of a growth-chamber study of adaptive transgenerational plasticity across two generations, using the widespread annual plant Polygonum persicaria as a naturally evolved model system. We grew five inbred Polygonum genetic lines in controlled dry vs. moist soil environments for two generations in a fully factorial design, producing replicate individuals of each genetic line with all permutations of grandparental and parental environment. We then measured the effects of these two-generational stress histories on traits critical for functioning in dry soil, in a third (grandchild) generation of seedling offspring raised in the dry treatment. Both grandparental and parental moisture environment significantly influenced seedling development: seedlings of drought-stressed grandparents or parents produced longer root systems that extended deeper and faster into dry soil compared with seedlings of the same genetic lines whose grandparents and/or parents had been amply watered. Offspring of stressed individuals also grew to a greater biomass than offspring of nonstressed parents and grandparents. Importantly, the effects of drought were cumulative over the course of two generations: when both grandparents and parents were drought-stressed, offspring had the greatest provisioning, germinated earliest, and developed into the largest seedlings with the most extensive root systems. Along with these functionally appropriate developmental effects, seedlings produced after two previous drought-stressed generations had significantly greater survivorship in very dry soil than did seedlings with no history of drought. These findings show that plastic responses to naturalistic resource stresses experienced by grandparents and parents can "preadapt" offspring for functioning under the same stresses in ways that measurably influence realized fitness. Possible implications of these environmentally-induced, inherited adaptations are discussed with respect to ecological distribution, persistence under novel stresses, and evolution in natural populations. PMID:22523124

Herman, Jacob J; Sultan, Sonia E; Horgan-Kobelski, Tim; Riggs, Charlotte

2012-07-01

42

EFFECTS OF DRYING TREATMENTS ON POROSITY OF SOIL MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of three drying techniques on total porosity and pore size distribution of three soil materials were studied by Hg intrusion porosimetry. Some samples were dried in an oven at 40 C for 7 d; some samples were quick frozen in liquid N and lyophilized; some samples were ...

43

Evaluation of soils for use as liner materials: a soil chemistry approach.  

PubMed

Movement of NH(4)(+) below animal waste lagoons is generally a function of the whole-lagoon seepage rate, soil mineralogy, cations in the lagoon liquor, and selectivity for NH(4)(+) on the soil-exchange sites. Binary exchange reactions (Ca(2+)-K(+), Ca(2+)-NH(4)(+), and K(+)-NH(4)(+)) were conducted on two soils from the Great Plains and with combinations of these soils with bentonite or zeolite added. Binary exchanges were used to predict ternary exchanges Ca(2+)-K(+)-NH(4)(+) following the Rothmund-Kornfeld approach and Gaines-Thomas convention. Potassium and NH(4)(+) were preferred over Ca(2+), and K(+) was preferred over NH(4)(+) in all soils and soils with amendments. Generally, the addition of bentonite did not change cation selectivity over the native soils, whereas the addition of zeolite did. The Rothmund-Kornfeld approach worked well for predicting equivalent fractions of cations on the exchanger phase when only ternary-solution phase compositions were known. Actual swine- and cattle-lagoon solution compositions and the Rothmund-Kornfeld approach were used to project that native soils are predicted to retain 53 and 23%, respectively, of the downward-moving NH(4)(+) on their exchange sites. Additions of bentonite or zeolite to soils under swine lagoons may only slightly improve the equivalent fraction of NH(4)(+) on the exchange sites. Although additions of bentonite or zeolite may not help increase the NH(4)(+) selectivity of a liner material, increases in the overall cation exchange capacity (CEC) of a soil will ultimately decrease the amount of soil needed to adsorb downward-moving NH(4)(+). PMID:15843659

DeSutter, Tom M; Pierzynski, Gary M

2005-01-01

44

Estimation of Relative Bioavailability of Lead in Soil and Soil-Like Materials Using Young Swine  

PubMed Central

In this article we summarize the results of a series of studies that measured the relative bioavailability (RBA) of lead in a variety of soil and soil-like test materials. Reference material (Pb acetate) or Pb-contaminated soils were administered orally to juvenile swine twice a day for 15 days. Blood samples were collected from each animal at multiple times during the course of the study, and samples of liver, kidney, and bone were collected at sacrifice. All samples were analyzed for Pb. We estimated the RBA of a test material by fitting mathematical models to the dose–response curves for each measurement end point and finding the ratio of doses that gave equal responses. The final RBA for a test material is the simple average of the four end point–specific RBA values. Results from 19 different test materials reveal a wide range of RBA values across different exposure materials, ranging from 6 to 105%. This variability in RBA between different samples highlights the importance of reliable RBA data to help improve risk assessments for Pb in soil. Although the RBA value for a sample depends on the relative amounts of the different chemical and physical forms of Pb present, data are not yet adequate to allow reliable quantitative predictions of RBA from chemical speciation data alone. PMID:16882520

Casteel, Stan W.; Weis, Christopher P.; Henningsen, Gerry M.; Brattin, William J.

2006-01-01

45

Workshop on Parent-Body and Nebular Modification of Chondritic Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics considered include: thermal Metamorphosed Antarctic CM and CI Carbonaceous Chondrites in Japanese Collections, and Transformation Processes of Phyllosilicates; use of Oxygen Isotopes to Constrain the Nebular and Asteroidal Modification of Chondritic Materials; effect of Revised Nebular Water Distribution on Enstatite Chondrite Formation; interstellar Hydroxyls in Meteoritic Chondrules: Implications for the Origin of Water in the Inner Solar System; theoretical Models and Experimental Studies of Gas-Grain Chemistry in the Solar Nebula; chemical Alteration of Chondrules on Parent Bodies; thermal Quenching of Silicate Grains in Protostellar Sources; an Experimental Study of Magnetite Formation in the Solar Nebula; the Kaidun Meteorite: Evidence for Pre- and Postaccretionary Aqueous Alteration; a Transmission Electron Microscope Study of the Matrix Mineralogy of the Leoville CV3 (Reduced-Group) Carbonaceous Chondrite: Nebular and Parent-Body Features; rubidium-Strontium Isotopic Systematic of Chondrules from the Antarctic CV Chondrites Yamato 86751 and Yamato 86009: Additional Evidence for Late Parent-Body Modification; oxygen-Fugacity Indicators in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Parent-Body Alteration or High-Temperature Nebular Oxidation; thermodynamic Modeling of Aqueous Alteration in CV Chondrites; asteroidal Modification of C and O Chondrites: Myths and Models; oxygen Fugacity in the Solar Nebular; and the History of Metal and Sulfides in Chondrites.

Zolensky, M. E. (Editor); Krot, A. N. (Editor); Scott, E. R. D. (Editor)

1997-01-01

46

Extralunar materials in cone-crater soil 14141.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiochemical neutron activation analysis has been used to determine Ni, Zn, Ga, Ge, Cd, In, Ir, and Au in duplicate samples of lunar soil 14141 and in one additional replicate each of soils 14163 and 14259. The concentrations of extralunar trace elements Ni, Ge, Ir, and Au in 14141 and 14163 are, respectively, about 69 and 82% as high as those in 14259. Although most of the mass of 14141 appears to be ejecta from Cone Crater, a sizable contamination by mature Fra Mauro soil such as 14259 is also present. The siderophilic-element concentrations of the subregolith Fra Mauro materials are estimated to be 25 plus or minus 25% of those observed in 14259.

Wasson, J. T.; Chou, C.-L.; Bild, R. W.; Baedecker, P. A.

1973-01-01

47

Sulphate release from construction and demolition material in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Berlin and many other cities soils are heavily influenced by anthropogenic activities and deposited substrates. A widespread technical substrate in technosols is construction and demolition material from residential and industrial buildings. Existing rubble landfills without sealing facilities pose threats to ground water quality. In the central city of Berlin rising sulphate concentrations of groundwaters (up to 1200 mg/L) are measured since more than two decades. Previous studies point out that the high sulphate concentrations are mainly attributed to World War II rubble. The major part of debris was deposited in form of landfills and contains approximately 0.3 wt% gypsum. The scope of our research is to determine mechanisms of sulphate release from debris material, interactions between sulphate release, soil hydraulic properties and potential sinks of sulphur. To estimate equilibrium concentration and kinetics of sulphate release of various debris components batch and column experiments are conducted. The same method is applied to determine potential adsorptive character of common debris components. To analyse the impacts of soil hydraulic properties on sulphate leaching we carry out soil column experiments with defined upper and lower boundary conditions, varying water flow velocity and induced preferential flow. Simultaneously we monitor sulphate concentration of soil leachate in a 2 m³ lysimeter. First results of the batch experiments show that gypsum from broken stucco is the main source of sulphate in the observed technosols. Other components as mortar and slag show a quite low sulphate release. Similar results are found within the column experiments. For brigs medium and strongly time dependent sulphate release is determined. Concentrations up to 1500 mg/L are measured in the soil leachate from the lysimeter.

Abel, Stefan; Wessolek, Gerd

2013-04-01

48

Forming artificial soils from waste materials for mine site rehabilitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface mining activities often produce large volumes of solid wastes which invariably requires the removal of significant quantities of waste rock (overburden). As mines expand, larger volumes of waste rock need to be moved which also require extensive areas for their safe disposal and containment. The erosion of these dumps may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of contaminants such as trace metals, elevated sediment delivery in adjacent waterways, and the subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. The management of solid waste materials from industrial operations is also a key component for a sustainable economy. For example, in addition to overburden, coal mines produce large amounts of waste in the form of fly ash while sewage treatment plants require disposal of large amounts of compost. Similarly, paper mills produce large volumes of alkaline rejected wood chip waste which is usually disposed of in landfill. These materials, therefore, presents a challenge in their use, and re-use in the rehabilitation of mine sites and provides a number of opportunities for innovative waste disposal. The combination of solid wastes sourced from mines, which are frequently nutrient poor and acidic, with nutrient-rich composted material produced from sewage treatment and alkaline wood chip waste has the potential to lead to a soil suitable for mine rehabilitation and successful seed germination and plant growth. This paper presents findings from two pilot projects which investigated the potential of artificial soils to support plant growth for mine site rehabilitation. We found that pH increased in all the artificial soil mixtures and were able to support plant establishment. Plant growth was greatest in those soils with the greatest proportion of compost due to the higher nutrient content. These pot trials suggest that the use of different waste streams to form an artificial soil can potentially be used in mine site rehabilitation where there is a nutrient-rich source of waste.

Yellishetty, Mohan; Wong, Vanessa; Taylor, Michael; Li, Johnson

2014-05-01

49

Effects of Soil Reinforcing Materials on the Surface Hardness, Soil Bulk Density, and Water Content of a Sand Root Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

increased surface hardness on two of the 11 rating dates. When the rate was increased to 7.5 g kg 1 , significant This study was conducted to determine the effect of various types increases in surface hardness were reported on eight of and rates of soil reinforcing materials on soil bulk density, soil water the 11 rating dates. During dry

A. S. McNitt; P. J. Landschoot

2003-01-01

50

Parent Education Workbook for Mainstreamed Students. Teachers Guide. Contemporary Parenting Choices: Materials for Mainstreamed Classrooms. Module 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fourth part of a parenthood education curriculum series, the Parent Education Workbook consists of a teachers guide (and 12 student lesson units not replicated in the guide) divided into two parts, the first part focusing on relationships and the second on child care. The units are intended for use by mainstreamed mentally disabled (MD) and…

Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Home Economics Education.

51

Soil solid materials affect the kinetics of extracellular enzymatic reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTRODUCTION Soil solid materials affect the degradation processes of many organic compounds by decreasing the bioavailability of substrates and by interacting with degraders. The magnitude of this effect in the environment is shown by the fact that xenobiotics which are readily metabolized in aquatic environments can have long residence times in soil. Extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of cellobiose (enzyme: beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger) was chosen as model degradation process since it is easier to control and more reproducible than a whole cell processes. Furthermore extracellular enzymes play an important role in the environment since they are responsible for the first steps in the degradation of organic macromolecules; beta-glucosidase is key enzyme in the degradation of cellulose and therefore it is fundamental in the carbon cycle and for soil in general. The aims of the project are: 1) quantification of solid material effect on degradation, 2) separation of the effects of minerals on enzyme (adsorption ?change in activity) and substrate (adsorption ?change in bioavailability). Our hypothesis is that a rate reduction in the enzymatic reaction in the presence of a solid phase results from the sum of decreased bioavailability of the substrate and decreased activity of enzyme molecules. The relative contribution of the two terms to the overall effect can vary widely depending on the chemical nature of the substrate, the properties of the enzyme and on the surface properties of the solid materials. Furthermore we hypothesize that by immobilizing the enzyme in an appropriate carrier the adsorption of enzymes to soil materials can be eliminated and that therefore immobilization can increase the overall reaction rate (activity loss caused by immobilization < activity loss caused by adsorption to soil minerals). MATERIALS AND METHODS Enzymatic kinetic experiments are carried out in homogeneous liquid systems and in heterogeneous systems where solid materials (bentonite, kaolinite, goethite, activated charcoal) are suspended in a mixed liquid (standard experimental conditions: 66 mM phosphate buffer, pH 5, 25°C, 20 mg solid/ml buffer). The enzyme in an immobilized form (covalent bonding to oxirane groups on the surfaces of macroporous Eupergit® C particles) is used to exclude a direct effect of soil solid materials on the enzyme without excluding their effect on the availability of the substrate.The progress of the reactions is determined by measuring the accumulation of the product (i.e. glucose) in the systems at different times (after destroying enzymatic activity by boiling the samples) with a coupled enzymatic assay and an automatic microplate spectrophotometer. A regression analysis on the data points is performed to calculate the initial reaction rates, which is the parameter that allows to compare the different systems. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results show that, under the standard experimental conditions, cellobiose is not adsorbed by the clay minerals bentonite and kaolinite and by the iron oxyhydroxide goethite. In the case of activated charcoal a rapid adsorption phase in the first 20' is followed by a much slower process; after 4h 30' approximately 98% of cellobiose was adsorbed. The results from the adsorption experiments of beta-glucosidase to bentonite, kaolinite, goethite and activated charcoal show that, under the standard experimental conditions, the adsorption process is rapid in all cases (more than 80% of the adsorption takes place in the first 20 minutes). After 1h 20min the following fractions of enzyme were adsorbed: 30 % to bentonite, 60% to kaolinite, 67% to goethite, 100% to activated charcoal. The effect of kaolinite on the reaction rate was quantified: under the standard experimental conditions the initial reaction rate in presence of the mineral was 22% less then in the control. The fraction of enzyme molecules which are adsorbed to kaolinite (60%) loses 37% of its activity. CONCLUSIONS The results from the adsorption experiments lead to the conclusion that, among the sol

Lammirato, C.; Miltner, A.; Kästner, M.

2009-04-01

52

Non-volcanic andic soils - a new soil type?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous sites are described all over the world with soils fulfilling all requirements of andic soil properties developed in non-volcanic and non-allophanic parent materials, and in different bioclimatic zones. Up to now these soils are mainly assigned to Andisols/Andosols or andic Inceptisols in WRB and US Soil Taxonomy. Common factors and properties of this group of soils are in general acid parent materials, advanced soil development, comparably high amounts of oxidic Fe and Al compounds, leaching environment, and a probably underestimated role of iron with respect to the specific soil properties, e.g. extremely stabile, pseudo-sand like micro-aggregates. Considering the worldwide occurrence of these soils and the specificity of their physicochemical properties, I suggest soil forming processes and a new soil type clearly different from Andosols/Andisols in a narrow sense.

Bäumler, Rupert

2014-05-01

53

TECHNICAL REPORTS Agricultural liming materials are used to correct soil acidity  

E-print Network

considerably in their pH, and most temperate crops grow best when soil pH is approximately 6.5 to 7.0. For many centuries, lime in various forms has been used to raise soil pH and thereby improve soil fertility. LimeTECHNICAL REPORTS 2058 Agricultural liming materials are used to correct soil acidity

54

Use of Biochar from the Pyrolysis of Waste Organic Material as a Soil Amendment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biochar is being promoted for its potential to improve soil properties, fertility and carbon sequestration in soil. How this material might impact agricultural soils within temperate regions is largely unknown, Validation of biochar as a beneficial soil amendment and carbon sink would add important...

55

Sulfate Induced Heave: Addressing Ettringite Behavior in Lime Treated Soils and in Cementitious Materials  

E-print Network

....................................................................................................60 4.3. Materials and Methods ...................................................................................63 4.3.1. Soil Classification and Sulfate Testing...............................................63 4.3.2. Phase Diagram......................................................................................68 4.4.1. Soil Classification and Sulfate Testing...............................................68 4.4.2. Soil Sensitivity Based on Thermodynamic Phase Diagrams..............69 4.4.3. Soil Sensitivity to Ettringite Formation Based...

Kochyil Sasidharan Nair, Syam Kumar

2012-02-14

56

Mobile system for extracting spilled hazardous materials from excavated soils. Final report Dec 76Apr 82  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory tests were conducted with three separate pollutants (phenol, arsenic trioxide, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and two soils of widely different characteristics (sand\\/gravel\\/silt\\/clay and organic loam) to evaluate techniques for cleansing soil contaminated with released or spilled hazardous materials. The tests show that scrubbing of excavated soil on site is an efficient approach for freeing soils of certain contaminants but

R. Scholz; J. Milanowski

1983-01-01

57

Soil and xylem water potential and soil water content in contrasting Pinus contorta ecosystems, Southeastern Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between volumetric soil water content (?), in situ soil water potential (?soil) and predawn xylem pressure potential (?predawn) were quantified in four contrasting lodgepole pine ecosystems in Wyoming, USA. On three of the sites, changes in ?soil correlated closely with ?predawn, but on a porous soil derived from coarse granitic parent material, ?predawn declines occurred much sooner than

T. J. Fahey; D. R. Young

1984-01-01

58

Overview of recent magnetic studies of high T c cuprate parent compounds and related materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies of the magnetic properties of several high superconducting transition temperature (T c ) cuprate parent compounds and related materials will be reviewed. The observations of a Heisenberg to XY-like crossover upon cooling below ˜ 300 K towards the Néel temperature T N =257 K and a subsequent magnetic field-induced XY-like to Ising-like crossover near T N in single crystals of the K2NiF4-type spin 1/2 model compound Sr2CuO2Cl2 will be described. The spin 1/2 linear chain compound Sr2CuO3, the parent of the Sr2CuO3+? oxygen-doped superconductors, is found to exhibit classic Bonner-Fisher magnetic behavior, with a large antiferromagnetic Cu-Cu superexchange coupling constant. Studies of the evolution of La2-x SrxCuO4 with Sr doping in the insulating regime (x<0.05) will be summarized, which indicate that the doped holes reside in walls separating undoped domains. We have found that BaCuO2.1, a copper-oxygen cluster compound, exhibits ferromagnetic rather than antiferromagnetic Cu-Cu superexchange interactions. Finally, a summary of the magnetic properties of single crystals of the recently discovered RNi2B2C layered structure superconductors will be given.

Johnston, D. C.; Ami, T.; Borsa, F.; Canfield, P. C.; Carretta, P.; Cho, B. K.; Cho, J. H.; Chou, F. C.; Corti, M.; Crawford, M. K.; Dervenagas, P.; Erwin, R. W.; Fernandez-Baca, J. A.; Goldman, A. I.; Gooding, R. J.; Huang, Q.; Hundley, M. F.; Harlow, R. L.; Harmon, B. N.; Lascialfari, A.; Miller, L. L.; Ostenson, J. E.; Salem, N. M.; Stassis, C.; Sternlieb, B.; Suh, B. J.; Torgeson, D. R.; Vaknin, D.; Vos, K. J. E.; Wang, X.-L.; Wang, Z. R.; Xu, M.; Zarestky, J.

59

Fate of anilide and aniline herbicides in plant-materials-amended soils.  

PubMed

The fate of herbicides trifluralin, pendimethalin, alachlor and metolachlor in paddy field soils amended with plant materials was investigated. The plant materials were purple sesbania, vegetable soybean and rice straw. The investigation was performed at two temperatures (25 and 40 degrees C) and two soil water moistures (60 and 90% water-holding capacity). The results showed linear and Freudlich equations described the adsorption of amide compound to soil. Adsorption coefficient (K(d)) fit to linear equation were in general greater in plant material-amended soils than in non-amended soil, especially in soil amending with rice straw. Increasing temperature and soil water moisture content shortened the half-lives of compounds in various treated soils. The movement of compounds in the soil columns showed the maximum distribution of aniline type compound, trifluralin and pendimethalin, appeared at the upper top of 0 to 5 and 0 to 10 cm of soil column, respectively, and of anilide type, alachlor and metolachlor, were distributed at 0 to 25 cm of the soil column. The mobility of chemicals in the different treated soils was simulated by the behavior assessment model (BAM). There was no significant difference among different plant material incubated soils on dissipation and mobility of compounds in soils. PMID:18576218

Yen, Jui-Hung; Tsai, Pi-Wen; Chen, Wen-Ching; Wang, Yei-Shung

2008-06-01

60

Is soil variation random?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A typical geostatistical analysis of soil data proceeds on the assumption that the properties of interest are the outcomes of random processes. Is the assumption reasonable? Many factors have contributed to the soil as we see it, both in the parent material and during its formation. Each has a physical cause, each must obey the laws of physics, and each

R. Webster

2000-01-01

61

Measurement and modeling of energetic-material mass transfer to soil-pore water - Project CP-1227 final technical report.  

SciTech Connect

Military test and training ranges operate with live-fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low-order detonations also disperse solid-phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution. This final report documents the results of experimental and simulation model development for evaluating mass transfer processes from solid-phase energetics to soil-pore water.

Stein, Joshua S.; Sallaberry, Cedric M.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Phelan, James M.; Hadgu, Teklu

2006-05-01

62

The Medical Geochemistry of Dusts, Soils, and Other Earth Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Town clenched in suffocating grip of asbestos"USA Today, article on Libby,Montana, February, 2000"Researchers find volcanoes are bad for your health… long after they finish erupting"University of WarwickPress Release, 1999"Toxic soils plague city - arsenic, lead in 5 neighborhoods could imperil 17,000 residents"Denver Post, 2002"Ill winds - dust storms ferry toxic agents between countries and even continents"Science News, 2002A quick scan of newspapers, television, science magazines, or the internet on any given day has a fairly high likelihood of encountering a story (usually accompanied by a creative headline such as those above) regarding human health concerns linked to dusts, soils, or other earth materials. Many such concerns have been recognized and studied for decades, but new concerns arise regularly.Earth scientists have played significant roles in helping the medical community understand some important links between earth materials and human health, such as the role of asbestos mineralogy in disease (Skinner et al., 1988; Ross, 1999; Holland and Smith, 2001), and the role of dusts generated by the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake in an outbreak of Valley Fever ( Jibson et al., 1998; Schneider et al., 1997).Earth science activities tied to health issues are growing (Skinner and Berger, 2003), and are commonly classified under the emerging discipline of medical geology (Finkelman et al., 2001; Selinus and Frank, 2000; Selinus, in press).Medical geochemistry (also referred to as environmental geochemistry and health: Smith and Huyck (1999), Appleton et al. (1996)) can be considered as a diverse subdiscipline of medical geology that deals with human and animal health in the context of the Earth's geochemical cycle ( Figure 1). Many medical geochemistry studies have focused on how chemical elements in rocks, soils, and sediments are transmitted via water or vegetation into the food chain, and how regional geochemical variations can result in disease clusters either through dietary deficiency of essential elements or dietary excess of toxic elements. (28K)Figure 1. Potential human exposure routes within the earth's geochemical cycle can come from a wide variety of both natural and anthropogenic sources. This chapter focuses on a somewhat narrower area of medical geochemistry: the study of mechanisms of uptake of earth materials by humans and animals and their reactions to these materials. In order for earth materials to affect health, they must first interact with the body across key interfaces such as the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and eyes. In some way, all of these interfaces require the earth materials to interact chemically with water-based body fluids such as lung fluids, gastrointestinal fluids, saliva, or blood plasma.The primary goal of this chapter, co-authored by a geochemist and a toxicologist, is to provide both geochemists and scientists from health disciplines with an overview of the potential geochemical mechanisms by which earth materials can influence human health. It is clear that significant opportunities for advancement in this arena will require continued and increased research collaborations between geochemists and their counterparts in the health disciplines.

Plumlee, G. S.; Ziegler, T. L.

2003-12-01

63

Mineral Control of Soil Carbon Dynamics in Forest Soils: A Lithosequence Under Ponderosa Pine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of soil organic carbon in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentration has spurred interest in both quantifying existing soil C stocks and modeling the behavior of soil C under climate change scenarios. Soil parent material exerts direct control over soil organic carbon content through its influence on soil pH and mineral composition. Soil acidity and mineral composition also influence soil microbial community composition and activity, thereby controlling soil respiration rates and microbial biomass size. We sampled a lithosequence of four parent materials (rhyolite, granite, basalt, limestone) under Pinus ponderosa to examine the effects of soil mineralogy and acidity on soil organic carbon content and soil microbial community. Three soil profiles were examined on each parent material and analyzed by X-ray diffraction, pH, selective dissolution, C and N content, and 13C signature. Soils from each of the four parent materials were incubated for 40 days, and microbial communities were compared on the basis of community composition (as determined through T-RFLP analysis), specific metabolic activity, biomass, ?13C of respired CO2, and cumulative amount of C mineralized over the course of the incubation. Soil C content varied significantly among soils of different parent material, and was strongly and positively associated with the abundance of Al-humus complexes r2 = 0.71; P < 0.0001, Fe-humus complexes r2 = 0.74; P = 0.0003, and crystalline Fe-oxide content r2 = 0.63; P = 0.0023. Microbial community composition varied significantly among soils and showed strong associations with soil pH 1:1 in KCl; r2 = 0.87; P < 0.0001, concentration of exchangeable Al r2 = 0.81; P < 0.0001, amorphous Fe oxide content r2 = 0.59; P < 0.004, and Al-humus content r2 = 0.35; P < 0.04. Mineralization rates, biomass and ?13C of respired CO2 differed among parent materials, and also varied with incubation time as substrate quality and N availability changed. The results demonstrate that within a specific ecosystem type, soil parent material exerts significant control over the lability and bioavailability of soil C and soil microbial community composition. We suggest that soil parent material and mineralogy are critical parameters for predicting soil C dynamics and recalcitrance of soil C stocks.

Heckman, K. A.; Welty-Bernard, A.; Rasmussen, C.; Schwartz, E.; Chorover, J.

2008-12-01

64

Net microbial amino sugar accumulation process in soil as influenced by different plant material inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the impact of plant material inputs on soil amino sugar synthesis may advance our knowledge of microbial transformation\\u000a processes in soils. In a 12-week laboratory microcosm incubation, 1, 2, 4, and 6% (w\\/w) soybean leaf or maize stalk were initially\\u000a added to soil, respectively, whereas soil without plant addition was used as a control. The results showed that adding

Chao Liang; Xudong Zhang; Teri C. Balser

2007-01-01

65

Chemical analyses of soils and other surficial materials, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction: The favorable response to the reports on the geochemistry of unconsolidated surficial materials of the conterminous United States (informally called the '50-mile geochemical survey,' Shacklette and others, 1971a, 1971b, 1973, and 1974) led us, in 1975, to initiate a somewhat similar survey of Alaska. The principal objective of studies of this type is to establish estimates of the abundance of elements in soils and other surficial materials. Such information is useful in the evaluation of geochemical data for (1) mineral resources, (2) environmental appraisals, and (3) the definition of broad-scale geochemical patterns. For about six years this effort progressed slowly on a non-funded, time-available basis. During fiscal years 1982 and 1983, however, some funds were made available through the USGS Energy Lands and Alaska Mineral Surveys programs which allowed for the completion of the field-work phase of the project. The sampling plan was kept simple because, as with the 50-mile study, the acquisition of samples depended on the voluntary cooperation of field personnel (only about 40 percent of the total number of samples was obtained by the authors).

Gough, L.P.; Peard, J.L.; Severson, R.C.; Shacklette, H.T.; Thompkins, M.L.; Stewart, K.C.; Briggs, P.H.

1984-01-01

66

MOBILE SYSTEM FOR EXTRACTING SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS FROM EXCAVATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory tests were conducted with three separate pollutants (phenol, arsenic trioxide, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and two soils of widely different characteristics (sand/gravel/silt/clay and organic loam) to evaluate techniques for cleansing soil contaminated with r...

67

Geobotanical discrimination of ultramafic parent materials An evaluation of remote sensing techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Color and color infrared aerial photography and imagery acquired from a Daedalus DEI-1260 multispectral airborne scanner were employed in an investigation to discriminate ultramafic rock types in a test site in southwest Oregon. An analysis of the relationships between vegetation characteristics and parent materials was performed using a vegetation classification and map developed for the project, lithologic information derived from published geologic maps of the region, and terrain information gathered in the field. Several analytical methods, including visual image analysis, band ratioing, principal components analysis, and contrast enhancement and subsequent color composite generation were used in the investigation. There was a close correspondence between vegetation types and major rock types. These were readily discriminated by the remote sensing techniques. It was found that ultramafic rock types were separable from non-ultramafic rock types and serpentine was distinguishable from non-serpentinized peridotite. Further investigations involving spectroradiometric and digital classification techniques are being performed to further identify rock types and to discriminate chromium and nickel-bearing rock types.

Mouat, D. A.; Morrissey, L. A.; Horn, E. M.

1984-01-01

68

Soils and Fertilizers. Competency Based Teaching Materials in Horticulture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based curriculum unit on soils and fertilizers is one of four developed for classroom use in teaching the turf and lawn services area of horticulture. The four sections are each divided into teaching content (in a question-and-answer format) and student skills that outline taking soil samples, testing samples, preparing soil for…

Legacy, Jim; And Others

69

CLASSIFICATION OF COAL SURFACE MINE SOIL MATERIAL FOR VEGETATION MANAGEMENT AND SOIL WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

An Alabama minesoil classification system was developed based on soil texture, soil color value and soil pH. Only five different soil classes were found in this study. However, the classification scheme allows for the inclusion of any minesoil that occurs on the basis of its text...

70

Element concentrations in soils and other surficial materials of Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mean concentrations of 35 elements, ash yields, and pH have been estimated for samples of sils and other unconsolidated surficial materials from 266 collection locations throughout Alaska. These background values can be applied to studies of environmental geochemistry and health, wildlife management, and soil-forming processes in cold climates and to computation of element abundances on a regional or worldwide scale. Limited data for an additoinal eight elements are also presented. Materials were collected using a one-way, three-level, analysis-of-variance samplling design in which collecting procedures were simplified for the convenience of the many volunteer field workers. The sample collectors were asked to avoid locations of known mineral deposits and obvious contamination, to take samples at a depth of about 20 cm where possible, and to take a replicate sample about 100 m distant from the first sample collected. With more than 60 percent of the samples replicated and 14 percent of the samples split for duplicate laboratory analyses, reliable estimates were made of the variability in element concentrations at two geographic scales and of the error associated with sample handling and laboratory procedures. Mean concentrations of most elements in surficial materials from the state of alaska correspond well with those reported in similar materials from the conterminous United STatess. Most element concentrations and ranges in samples of stream and lake sediments from Alaska, however, as reported in the literature, do not correspond well with those found in surficial materials of this study. This lack of correspondence is attributed to (1) a merger of two kinds ofsediments (stream and lake) for calculating means; (2) elimination from the sediment mean calculations of values below the limit of quantitative determination; (3) analytical methods different from those of the surficial materials study; and (4) most importantly, the inherent differences in chemistry of the materials. The distribution of variability in element concentrations o Alaskan surficial-material samples was, for most elements, largely among sampling locations, with only a samll part of the variability occurring between replicate samples at a location. The geochemical uniformity within sampling locations in Alaska is an expression of uniform geochemical cycling processes within small geographic areas. The concentration values for 35 elements in 266 samples were plotted on maps by symbols representing classes of concentration frequency distributions. These plotted symbols form patterns that may or may not be possible to interpret but nevertheless show differences that are observable at several geographical scales. The largest pattern is one generally low concentrations of many elements in materials from arctic and oceanic tundra regions, as contrasted to their often high concentrations in samples from interior and southeastern Alaska. The patttern for sodium isespecially pronounced. Intermediate-sized patterns are shown, for example, by the generally high values for magnesium and low values for silicon in the coastal forest region of southeastern Alaska. Many elements occur at low concentratoins in samples from the Alaskan peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. The degree of confidence in patterns of element abundance is expected to be in direct proportion to the number of samples included in the area. As the patterns become smaller, the probability increases that the patterns are not reproducible.

Gough, L.P.; Severson, R.C.; Shacklette, H.T.

1988-01-01

71

Mobile system for extracting spilled hazardous materials from excavated soils. Final report Dec 76-Apr 82  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were conducted with three separate pollutants (phenol, arsenic trioxide, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and two soils of widely different characteristics (sand/gravel/silt/clay and organic loam) to evaluate techniques for cleansing soil contaminated with released or spilled hazardous materials. The tests show that scrubbing of excavated soil on site is an efficient approach for freeing soils of certain contaminants but that the effectiveness depends on the washing fluid (water + additives) and on the soil composition and particle size distribution. Based on the test results, a full-scale, field-use system was designed, engineered, fabricated, assembled, and briefly tested; the unit is now ready for field demonstrations.

Scholz, R.; Milanowski, J.

1983-10-01

72

Fractionation of copper and cadmium and their binding with soil organic matter in a contaminated soil amended with organic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The contamination of agricultural soils by heavy metals is a worldwide problem. Organic amendments can be used for the immobilization\\u000a and binding of heavy metal ions in soils by complexation, adsorption, and precipitation. A field trial was carried out to\\u000a evaluate the influence of some low-cost organic materials such as rice straw (RS), green manure (GM), and pig manure (PM)

Ibrahim Mohamed; Bocar Ahamadou; Ming Li; Changxiu Gong; Peng Cai; Wei Liang; Qiaoyun Huang

2010-01-01

73

SOME CONSTRUCTION EXPERIENCES ON SOFT SOIL USING LIGHT WEIGHT MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time dependent settlement of soft soil poses s erious maintenance problem to the developments along the coastal area encountering thick marine deposits. Rehabilitation works for properties s uffering settlement problem in soft soil deposits generally face with time and facility services constraints. These c onstraints hampered the selection o f remedial methods which require longer construction duration and a mple

C. H. Gan; S. M. Tan

74

Rice cultivation and its environmental conditions in the Mediterranean countries II. Soils, their fertility and mineralogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Italy paddy aolls have a broad varfability with respect to region and age of the parent material. The regional characteristics, however, predominate over the age relations, i.e., the Po delta soils have higher potentialities than the youngest of those in the middle reaches of the Po. Among soils of the middle reaches the older the parent material, the more

Kazutake Kyuma; Tomoo Hattori; Keizaburo Kawaguchi

1974-01-01

75

Online Soil Science Lesson 3: Soil Forming Factors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This lesson explores the five major factors of soil formation, namely: 1) climate; 2) organisms; 3) time; 4) topography; and 5) parent material and their influence in forming soil. The distinction between active and passive factors, moisture and temperature regimes, organism and topographic influen...

76

Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science  

SciTech Connect

Saving energy in buildings is top of mind with today s building professionals. Although designing energy-efficient walls and roofs is mostly a no-brainer, ensuring that below-grade foundations do not generate moisture problems has become even more complex, particularly because of how soil is involved. Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well-defined, and simplified methods have been developed. These approaches, however, generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible. The intention of an ongoing study at Oak Ridge (TN) National Laboratory, therefore, is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from soil science as well. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in building science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools, where additional plugins to the existing software code WUFI (an acronym for Warme unde Felichte Instructionar, which translates to unsteady heat and moisture) are required. (See the sidebar, opposite page, for specifics on WUFI.)Simulation results from WUFI are being compared with existing thermal-only measurements and are being accomplished with ongoing hygrothermal measurements. The final outcome of the study will be the evaluation of several soil types in several climate zones for a number of basement assembly types. The study will define the type of soil, together with the type of building construction considered most and least reliable with respect to energy consumption and moisture safety. Furthermore, the study will determine the influences that different soils have on total energy loss through the ground.

Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL] [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

77

Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Soils Engineering 3-1. Edition 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This individualized, self-paced course for independent study in soils engineering was adapted from military curriculum materials for use in vocational education. The course is designed to acquaint students with various soil types and their characteristics using various procedures, tests, and recording forms. Some of these duties are determining…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

78

Unit The World of the Soil, First Trial Materials, Inspection Set, [Australian Science Education Project].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Australian Science Education project is producing materials designed for use in grades 7 - 10 of Australian schools. This is the first trial version of a unit expected to take about 20 40-minute periods to complete. Included are a teacher's guide to the unit, four pupil booklets ("Looking at Soils,""Things to do With Soils,""What is it…

Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

79

Inorganic Materials as Ameliorants for Soil Remediation of Metal Toxicity to Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved

Mateus Rosas Ribeiro Filho; José Oswaldo Siqueira; Jaco Vangronsveld; Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares; Nilton Curi

2011-01-01

80

FRESHWATER ASSAY USING SOIL ELUATES AS SAMPLE MATERIAL (SINGLE LABORATORY EVALUATION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Chlorophyta assay, which uses soil as sample material, has been a useful bioassessment technique for screening hazardous waste site problems. n eluate is prepared from a 125-gram soil sample and then diluted into three separate concentrations prior to being tested using Selen...

81

Correspondence and Least Squares Analyses of Soil and Rock Compositions for the Viking Lander 1 and Pathfinder Sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Correspondence and Least Squares Mixing Analysis techniques are applied to the chemical composition of Viking 1 soils and Pathfinder rocks and soils. Implications for the parent composition of local and global materials are discussed.

Larsen, K. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Clark, B. C.

2000-01-01

82

Gender and Material Transfers between Older Parents and Children in Ismailia, Egypt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Egypt, kin relations have been governed by a patriarchal contract, which defines expectations for intergenerational support along gendered lines. Social changes may be disrupting these customs and bringing attention to the ways gender may influence intergenerational support in rapidly changing contexts. Using data from 4,465 parent-child dyads…

Yount, Kathryn M.; Cunningham, Solveig A.; Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily M.

2012-01-01

83

Soil Structure, Soil Water and Drought  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As much as 40% of the variation in crop yields may be attributed to soil physical conditions. These are partly inherited from\\u000a the parent material but others are intrinsic to the soil itself – especially the fine-granular structure that distinguishes\\u000a chernozem everywhere and determines its exceptional fertility, and which is created by grass roots. Several physical properties\\u000a like particle density

Igori Arcadie Krupenikov; Boris P. Boincean; David Dent

84

Trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the relation of trace element concentrations in soil to those in house mice (Mus musculus), common reed (Phragmites australis) and ladybugs (Coccinella septempunctata) at five disposal facilities for dredged material. The sites had a wide range of soil trace element concentrations, acid soils and a depauperate fauna. They were very poor wildlife habitat because they were dominated by the common reed. Bioassay earthworms exposed to surface soils from three of the five sites died, whereas those exposed to four of five soils collected a meter deep survived, presumably because the deeper, unoxidized soil, was not as acid. Concentrations of Ni and Cr in the biota from each of the sites did not seem to be related to the concentrations of the same elements in soil. Although Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in biota were correlated with those in soil, the range of concentrations in the biota was quite small compared to that in soil. The concentrations of Pb detected in mice were about as high as the concentrations previously reported in control mice from other studies. Mice from the most contaminated site (530 ppm Pb in soil) contained only slightly more Pb (8 ppm dry wt) than did mice (2-6 ppm dry wt) from sites containing much less Pb (22-92 ppm in soil). Despite the acid soil conditions, very little Cd was incorporated into food chains. Rather, Cd was leaching from the surface soil. We concluded that even the relatively high concentrations of trace elements in the acid dredged material studied did not cause high, concentrations of trace elements in the biota.

Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.; Simmers, J.W.

1990-01-01

85

Trace Metal Availability in Soils Amended with Metal-Fixing Inorganic Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immobilization of metals by two materials (zeolite, AZ, and a synthetic, carbonate-rich material, “slovakite”, SL) was tested\\u000a in a pot experiment with two soils from urban areas of Sevilla and two soils affected by a mine spill. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Hispanic) was grown in the pots, and metal contents were measured after 31 days in shoots and roots. Available metal

M. C. Florido

2009-01-01

86

Detection of tritium sorption on four soil materials.  

PubMed

In order to measure groundwater age and design nuclear waste disposal sites, it is important to understand the sorption behavior of tritium on soils. In this study, batch tests were carried out using four soils from China: silty clays from An County and Jiangyou County in Sichuan Province, both of which could be considered candidate sites for Very Low Level Waste disposal; silty sand from Beijing; and loess from Yuci County in Shanxi Province, a typical Chinese loess region. The experimental results indicated that in these soil media, the distribution coefficient of tritium is slightly influenced by adsorption time, water/solid ratio, initial tritium specific activity, pH, and the content of humic and fulvic acids. The average distribution coefficient from all of these influencing factors was about 0.1-0.2 mL/g for the four types of soil samples. This relatively modest sorption of tritium in soils needs to be considered in fate and transport studies of tritium in the environment. PMID:21194813

Teng, Yanguo; Zuo, Rui; Wang, Jinsheng; Hu, Qinhong; Sun, Zongjian; Zeng, Ni

2011-02-01

87

The Use of Soil Forming Factors in the Development of Soil Taxonomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past and present roles of the five soil-forming factors in creating categories in USDA Soil Taxonomy have been analyzed. The factorial and genetic approach is clearly present in Soil Taxonomy, but was not so evident in the 7th Approximation of 1960. Soil climate is the most important factor in Soil Taxonomy. Climate is used at the highest level to define two of the 12 soil orders: Aridisols, the soils of the dry regions, and Gelisols, the permafrost-affected soils and is also used to differentiate suborders in eight of the remaining orders. Parent material is used to fully define two orders: Histosols and Andisols, and partially to define the suborders in the Entisol order (Fluvents, Psamments). Only one group of organisms, the worms (Verm-), is used at the great-group and subgroup levels in several orders. Relief and time are not used in defining taxa in Soil Taxonomy. Three of the eight epipedons are defined on the basis of parent material (folistic, histic, melanic), two on the basis of human activities (anthropic and plaggen), and two from the interaction of climate and vegetation (mollic and umbric). Of the 19 subsurface horizons, 11 originate from the interaction of climate and parent material. This analysis reveals there is an imbalance in the utilization of the soil-forming factors in Soil Taxonomy, with an emphasis on climate and parent material.

Bockheim, JG; Gennadiyev, AN; Hartemink, Alfred E.; Brevik, Eric C.

2014-05-01

88

Does thermal carbonization (Biochar) of organic material increase more merits for their amendments of sandy soil?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic materials (e.g. furfural residue) are generally believed to improve the physical and chemical properties of the soils with low fertility. Recently, biochar have been received more attention as a possible measure to improve the carbon balance and improve soil quality in some degraded soils. However, little is known about their different amelioration of a sandy saline soil. In this study, 56d incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of furfural and its biochar on the properties of saline soil. The results showed that both furfural and biochar greatly reduced pH, increased soil organic carbon (SOC) content and cation exchange capacity (CEC), and enhanced the available phosphorus (P) in the soil. Furfural is more efficient than biochar in reducing pH: 5% furfural lowered the soil pH by 0.5-0.8 (soil pH: 8.3-8.6), while 5% biochar decreased by 0.25-0.4 due to the loss of acidity in pyrolysis process. With respect to available P, 5% of the furfural addition increased available P content by 4-6 times in comparison to 2-5 times with biochar application. In reducing soil exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), biochar is slightly superior to furfural because soil ESP reduced by 51% and 43% with 5% furfural and 5% biochar addition at the end of incubation. In addition, no significant differences were observed between furfural and biochar about their capacity to retain N, P in leaching solution and to increase CEC in soil. These facts may be caused by the relatively short incubation time. In general, furfural and biochar have different amendments depending on soil properties: furfural was more effectively to decrease pH and to increase available P, whereas biochar played a more important role in increasing SOC and reducing ESP of saline soil.

Wu, Y.; Xu, G.; Sun, J. N.; Shao, H. B.

2014-02-01

89

Soils - Part 1: The Origin and Development of Soil(How Soil Gets a Life and a Name)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, you will gain an understanding of the five soil forming factors and will be able to describe how each influences soil development. You will learn to identify common parent materials, determine the age of a soil, identify the types of native vegetation associated with different soils in Nebraska and define soil horizons.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

90

Boride Zone Formation in Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Pairings of Parent Superalloy Materials with Different Compositions and Grain Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two nickel-base superalloys are joined via transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding with boron as the MPD. Boride formation is observed in the parent materials at some distance from the solid/liquid interface. The boron concentration profile over the joint is measured with glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). Boron concentration peaks are observed corresponding to the boride formation. Boron distribution is discussed on the basis of theoretical predictions in the literature. It is concluded that diffusion of another element is necessary to explain the results with the second element influencing the solubility of boron.

Steuer, S.; Singer, R. F.

2013-05-01

91

Overview of recent magnetic studies of high T{sub c} cuprate parent compounds and related materials  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of the magnetic properties of several high superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) cuprate parent compounds and related materials will be reviewed. The observations of a Heisenberg to XY-like crossover upon cooling below {approximately}300K towards the Neel temperature T{sub N} = 257 K and a subsequent magnetic field-induced XY-like to Ising-like crossover near TN in single crystals of the K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4} type spin 1/2 model compound Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} will be described.

Johnston, D.C.; Ami, T.; Borsa, F. [and others

1995-12-01

92

Soil Materials and Health: An new experience for teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cationic clays are very extended compounds on the earth surface so they constitute the main component of soils and sedimentary rocks. Due to their presence and special properties that they have, mankind has used them with therapeutic aims from Prehistory, not being rare to find references to this subject in works of classic authors. During the Renaissance and with the appearance of the first Pharmacopeia, its use was regulated to a certain extent. The scientific development reached during the XXth century has allowed to understand and to study the reasons of the useful and peculiar properties of clays, directly related to their colloidal size and crystalline structure. These properties are translated in a high specific surface area, optimal rheological properties and/or excellent sorptive capacity; everything makes cationic clays very useful for a wide range of applications. In the field of health, cationic clays are used in Pharmaceutical Technology and Dermopharmacy as ideal excipients and substances of suitable biological activity due to their chemical inertness and low or null toxicity for the patient (Carretero, 2002; Lopez Galindo et al., 2005; Choy et al., 2007; del Hoyo, 2007). Cationic clays can be used in a wide range of applications in health. However, it must be also considered that the risk exposure to cationic clays may cause several diseases, as it has been seen above. Cationic clays have been used as excipients and active principles in the pharmaceutical industry. The last tendencies are their use in geomedicine, as much to come up as to treat diseases. One stands out his presence in spas and aesthetic medicine. Development of new pharmaceutical formulations is observed, based on cationic clays, for cancer therapy. It has to emphasize the importance in the synthesis of biosensors with cationic clays. Cationic clays can be considered a group of promising materials in the development of new health applications. The study of the use of the cationic clays in the field of the health is a source to develop numerous studies of cases in the teaching of different subjects related to the geoscience and a new opportunity to connect the learning with the reality. References -Carretero, MI 2002. Clay Minerals and Their Beneficial Effects upon Human Health. A review. Appl. Clay Sci. 21, pp. 155-163. -Choy, J.H., Choi, S.J., Oh, J.M., Park, T. 2007. Clay minerals and layered double hydroxides for novel biological applications. Appl. Clay Sci. 36 pp. 122-132. -Del Hoyo, C. 2007. Layered double hydroxides and human health: An overview. Appl. Clay Sci. 36, pp. 103-121. -Lopez-Galindo, A., Viseras Iborra, C. & Cerezo Gonzalez, P. 2005. Arcillas y salud. In: Conferencias de la XIX Reunion de la Sociedad Espanola de Arcillas. Rives, Ed., pp. 15-18.

Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

2014-05-01

93

Microbial respiration as an indication of metal toxicity in contaminated organic materials and soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of heavy metals on microbial respiration in organic materials used as soil amendments was evaluated to assess the stability of the materials. Solutions of Pb (II), Cu (II) and Zn (II) at rates of 5, 10 and 50mg metalg?1 were added to green waste compost, peat, coir and wood bark. Metal toxicity led to a significant decrease in

O. I. Nwachukwu; I. D. Pulford

2011-01-01

94

Nitrilotriacetate Stimulation of Anaerobic Fe(III) Respiration by Mobilization of Humic Materials in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enrichment culture capable of naphthalene mineralization reduced Fe(III) oxides without direct contact in anaerobic soil microcosms when the Fe(III) was placed in dialysis membranes or entrapped within alginate beads. Both techniques demonstrated that a component in soil, possibly humic materials, facilitated Fe(III) reduction when direct contact between cells and Fe(III) was not possible. The addition of the synthetic Fe(III)

Y. Luu; B. A. Ramsay; J. A. Ramsay

2003-01-01

95

Reactions between fulvic acid, a soil humic material, and dialkyl phthalates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fulvic acid, a water-soluble soil humic material that occurs widely in soils and waters, can “complex” hydrophobic dialkyl phthalates and make them soluble in water. The extent of the reaction depends on the type of phthalate. Thus, one number-average molecular weight of FA can solubilize four moles of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate but only one mole of dibutyl phthalate, while 2

Keiichiro Matsuda; Morris Schnitzer

1971-01-01

96

Nitrilotriacetate Stimulation of Anaerobic Fe(III) Respiration by Mobilization of Humic Materials in Soil  

PubMed Central

An enrichment culture capable of naphthalene mineralization reduced Fe(III) oxides without direct contact in anaerobic soil microcosms when the Fe(III) was placed in dialysis membranes or entrapped within alginate beads. Both techniques demonstrated that a component in soil, possibly humic materials, facilitated Fe(III) reduction when direct contact between cells and Fe(III) was not possible. The addition of the synthetic Fe(III) chelator, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), to soil enhanced Fe(III) reduction across the dialysis membrane and alginate beads, with the medium changing from clear to a dark brown color. An NTA-soil extract was more effective in Fe(III) reduction than the extracted soil itself. Characteristics of the NTA extract were consistent with that of humic substances. The results indicate that NTA improved Fe(III) reduction not by Fe(III) solubilization but by extraction of humic substances from soil into the aqueous medium. This is the first study in which stimulation of Fe(III) reduction through the addition of chemical chelators is shown to be due to the extraction of electron-shuttling compounds from the soil and not to solubilization of the Fe(III) and indicates that mobilization of humic materials could be an important component of anaerobic biostimulation. PMID:12957911

Luu, Y.; Ramsay, B. A.; Ramsay, J. A.

2003-01-01

97

Parents' regulation and self-regulation and performance in children with intellectual disability in problem-solving using physical materials or computers.  

PubMed

This study compared mothers and fathers' regulation with respect to 29 children with intellectual disability (ID) and 30 typically developing (TD) children, matched on their mental age (MA), as they solved eight tasks using physical materials and computers. Seven parents' regulatory strategies were coded as they supported their child's identification of the objective, planning, attention, motivation, joint attention, behaviour regulation and evaluation. Children's performance was scored. Regulation by the parents of the two groups did not differ significantly, regardless of the medium, except that the degree of parental regulation of the child's behaviour was greater in the ID group than in the TD group. In tasks involving the computer, we observed a higher degree of regulation of children's planning and a lower degree of regulation of their evaluation for the two groups. The parents displayed significantly less regulation with respect to the children with the highest MA than towards the children with the lowest MA, in each group. There was a significant interaction effect of medium and children's MA on overall parents' regulation and on their support of identification of objective and of planning. Most parental strategies were negatively linked with ID and TD children's performance in tasks. In both groups, with control for MA, parental support with the identification of the objective, with planning and with attention was negatively linked to the corresponding self-regulatory strategies of the children with each medium; however, parents' joint attention was positively linked with children's joint attention. PMID:22119692

Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Lefèvre, Nathalie

2012-01-01

98

Inorganic materials as ameliorants for soil remediation of metal toxicity to wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.).  

PubMed

The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved plant growth with 45% and reduced metal uptake by over 70% in comparison to untreated soil. Reductions in availability as estimated by BaCl2-extractable metals reached up to 90% for Zn and 65% for Cd as compared to unamended soil. These reductions were associated with lower shoot and root metal contents. Shoot Zn content was reduced from 1,369 microg g(-1) in plants grown on untreated soil to 377 microg g(-1) when grown on cyclonic ash amended soil while Cd decreased from 267 to 44 microg g(-1) in steel shots amended soil. Superphosphate addition had no ameliorating effect. On the contrary, it increased BaCl2-extractable amounts of Zn. Considering all parameters we determined, steel shots, cyclonic ash and silifertil are the most promising for remediating metal contaminated soil in the tropics. Further studies evaluating impacts, cost-effectiveness and durability of effects will be conducted. PMID:21598779

Ribeiro Filho, Mateus Rosas; Siqueira, José Oswaldo; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Curi, Nilton

2011-01-01

99

Plastic Fibre Reinforced Soil Blocks as a Sustainable Building Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid waste management, especially the huge quantity of waste plastics, is one of the major environmental concerns nowadays. Their employability in block making in the form of fibres, as one of the methods of waste management, can be investigated through a fundamental research. This paper highlights the salient observations from a systematic investigation on the effect of embedded fibre from plastic waste on the performance of stabilised mud blocks. Stabilisation of the soil was done by adding cement, lime and their combination. Plastic fibre in chopped form from carry bags and mineral water bottles were added (0.1% & 0.2% by weight of soil) as reinforcement. The blocks were tested for density, and compressive strength, and observed failure patterns were analysed. Blocks with 0.1% of plastic fibres showed an increase in strength of about 3 to 10%. From the observations of failure pattern it can be concluded that benefits of fibre reinforcement includes both improved ductility in comparison with raw blocks and inhibition of crack propogation after its initial formation.

Prasad, C. K. Subramania; Nambiar, E. K. Kunhanandan; Abraham, Benny Mathews

2012-10-01

100

Soil Loss From Tillage Ridge as Affected by Waste Materials and Soil Amendments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In semi-arid regions with low crop residues, tillage ridges are used to mitigate wind and water erosion. Unfortunately, without sufficient immobile soil aggregates, bare ridges also often need additional protection. From late winter through early summer of 2006-2008 the reduction in erosion by vario...

101

Orientation Booklet for Parents Enrolled in Parent Education Cooperative Groups. Columbia Basin College Parent Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides parents with information to help them get the most from their enrollment in parent education cooperative groups. Orientation information is presented for both the Parent Walkabout/Parent Toddler Programs and the Parent Cooperative Preschool Programs at Columbia Basin College (CBC), Washington. Informative material on the…

Debban, Barbara, Comp.; And Others

102

Soil Acidity and Liming L. A. Redmon, M. L. McFarland, V. A. Haby, and D. H. Bade  

E-print Network

. The most common factors are: 3 Parent material: Soils formed from acidic rocks have a lower pH than those Acidity Measurement and Ratings Soil pH is a measure of hydrogen ion activity in the soil solu- tion. However, a buffer-pH test should be used to more accurately predict the limestone needed to raise soil pH

103

Microbial respiration as an indication of metal toxicity in contaminated organic materials and soil.  

PubMed

The effect of heavy metals on microbial respiration in organic materials used as soil amendments was evaluated to assess the stability of the materials. Solutions of Pb (II), Cu (II) and Zn (II) at rates of 5, 10 and 50mg metal g(-1) were added to green waste compost, peat, coir and wood bark. Metal toxicity led to a significant decrease in carbon dioxide evolved by the contaminated materials, up to 80% less at the highest rate of addition compared to the untreated material. There was a significant negative correlation between the organic carbon content of an amendment and the inhibition of CO(2) evolution by all three heavy metals. There was also a significant negative correlation between an amendment's cation exchange capacity and the inhibition of CO(2) evolution caused by Cu and Zn. The ability of the organic materials to enhance respiration in a soil from the vicinity of a Pb/Zn mine was also evaluated, by applying them to the soil at rates of 1, 10 and 20%. CO(2) evolution from the contaminated soil was enhanced significantly by the addition of all of the amendments, with coir causing up to 90% enhancement at high levels of addition. PMID:21041022

Nwachukwu, O I; Pulford, I D

2011-01-30

104

CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA FILL MATERIALS AND SOILS - 1990  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Foundation Fill Data Base project of the Foundation Fill Materials Specifications Task Area of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). ork included determination of radon concentrations ...

105

CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA FILL MATERIALS AND SOILS 1990  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Foundation Fill Data Base project of the Foundation Fill Materials Specifications Task Area of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). Work included determination of radon concentrations...

106

Theoretical Analysis of the Soiling of "Nonstick" Organic Materials  

E-print Network

"nonstick" properties for a solid homogeneous organic material (see below), liquid and solid poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS(l) and PDMS- (s)), a low-density poly(ethylene) (PE.LD), and natural rubber. Liquid PDMS and butter fat have very similar dielectric properties to olive oil); fatty acids by 22-tricosenoic acid

Chan, Derek Y C

107

Strontium-Doped Hematite as a Possible Humidity Sensing Material for Soil Water Content Determination  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work is to study the sensing behavior of Sr-doped hematite for soil water content measurement. The material was prepared by solid state reaction from commercial hematite and strontium carbonate heat treated at 900 °C. X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used for microstructural characterization of the synthesized powder. Sensors were then prepared by uniaxially pressing and by screen-printing, on an alumina substrate, the prepared powder and subsequent firing in the 800–1,000 °C range. These sensors were first tested in a laboratory apparatus under humid air and then in an homogenized soil and finally in field. The results evidenced that the screen printed film was able to give a response for a soil matric potential from about 570 kPa, that is to say well below the wilting point in the used soil. PMID:24025555

Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Baroni, Chiara; Zavattaro, Laura; Grignani, Carlo

2013-01-01

108

Transport and anaerobic biodegradation of propylene glycol in gravel-rich soil materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continued input of airplane de-icing/anti-icing fluids (ADAF) to runway adjacent soils may result in the depletion of soil-borne terminal electron acceptors. We studied the transport and transformation of propylene glycol (PG), the major constituent of many ADAF, in topsoil and subsoil samples using saturated column experiments at 4 °C and 20 °C. The export of soil-borne DOC was generally high, non-exhaustive and rate limited. Retardation of added PG was negligible. Rapid PG degradation was observed only in topsoil materials high in organic matter at 20 °C. At 4 °C, no significant degradation was observed. Thus, under unfavorable, i.e., wet and cold conditions typical for winter de-icing operations, PG and its metabolites will be relocated to deeper soil horizons or even to the groundwater. In subsoil materials, PG degradation was very slow and incomplete. We found that subsoil degradation depended on the import of active microorganisms originating from the organic-rich topsoil material. The degradation efficiency is strongly influenced by the flow velocity, i.e., the residence time of PG in the soil column. Poorly crystalline iron(III) and manganese(IV) (hydr)oxides are used during microbial respiration acting as terminal electron acceptors. This results in the formation and effective relocation of reduced and mobile Fe and Mn species. Long-term application of ADAF to runway adjacent soil as well as the lasting consumption of Fe and Mn will tend to decrease the soil redox potential. Without proper counteractive measures, this will eventually favor the development of methanogenic conditions.

Jaesche, Philipp; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

2006-05-01

109

A cement kiln flue-dust evaluated as a soil liming material  

E-print Network

A CEMENT KILN FLUE-DUST EVALUATED AS A SOIl LIMING MATERIAL A Thesis by RAIMUND STACHA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE 1973 NJSbj t.... Such is the case with "flue-dust" materials formed in portland cement production processes. Since this flue-dust material has a 78. 67. CaCO& equivalent, it may have promise as an agricultural liming material. The use of industrial cement kiln by...

Stacha, Raimund

1973-01-01

110

Analyses of exobiological and potential resource materials in the Martian soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential Martian soil components relevant to exobiology include water, organic matter, evaporites, clays, and oxides. These materials are also resources for human expeditions to Mars. When found in particular combinations, some of these materials constitute diagnostic paleobiomarker suites, allowing insight to be gained into the probability of life originating on Mars. Critically important to exobiology is the method of data analysis and data interpretation. To that end, methods of analysis of potential biomarker and paleobiomarker compounds and resource materials in soils and rocks pertinent to Martian geology are investigated. Differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromotography is shown to be a highly useful analytical technique for detecting this wide and complex variety of materials.

Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Marshall, John R.; White, Melisa R.

1992-01-01

111

Analyses of exobiological and potential resource materials in the Martian soil.  

PubMed

Potential Martian soil components relevant to exobiology include water, organic matter, evaporites, clays, and oxides. These materials are also resources for human expeditions to Mars. When found in particular combinations, some of these materials constitute diagnostic paleobiomarker suites, allowing insight to be gained into the probability of life originating on Mars. Critically important to exobiology is the method of data analysis and data interpretation. To that end we are investigating methods of analysis of potential biomarker and paleobiomarker compounds and resource materials in soils and rocks pertinent to Martian geology. Differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromatography is shown to be a highly useful analytical technique for detecting this wide and complex variety of materials. PMID:11538128

Mancinelli, R L; Marshall, J R; White, M R

1992-01-01

112

METHOD OF ESTIMATING THE TRAVEL TIME OF NONINTERACTING SOLUTES THROUGH COMPACTED SOIL MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The pollutant travel time through compacted soil material (i.e., when a pollutant introduced at the top first appears at the bottom) cannot be accurately predicted from the permeability (saturated hydraulic conductivity) alone. The travel time is also dependent on the effective p...

113

EFFECT OF SALINITY ON THE DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS : IMPLICATION FOR SOIL  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF SALINITY ON THE DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS : IMPLICATION FOR SOIL of saline deposits for the detection and mapping of moisture in arid regions on both Earth and Mars. We then present a simulation and experimental study in order to assess the effect of salinity on the permittivity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

Advanced Characterisation of Pavement and Soil Engineering Materials Loizos, Scarpas & Al-Qadi (eds)  

E-print Network

1241 Advanced Characterisation of Pavement and Soil Engineering Materials ­ Loizos, Scarpas & Al and economical alternative for the repair of deteriorated pavements, reflective cracking continues to be major approaches have not provided a direct means for the study of crack initiation and propagation in pavements

Paulino, Glaucio H.

115

Interference Problems with Phosphoantimonylmolybdenum Colorimetric Measurement of Phosphorus in Soil and Plant Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical evaluation of potential chemical interference on a molybdenum?based phosphorus (P) colorimetric method that is used widely for soil, plant, and water research was conducted. A wide variety of elements and compounds [aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), nitrate (NO3), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)] commonly found in these materials or extracting

C. G. Kowalenko; D. Babuin

2007-01-01

116

Studies related to the evolution of the lunar soil materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the chemistry and morphology of the lunar samples are reported. The presence of fragments of plagoclase in the centers of the impact craters indicate that the glass spheres were derived by meteoritic impact from high velocity particles, while the glass was at high temperatures. From the study of the Apollo 16 samples, it is suggested that this material was formed in a hot impact ejecta blanket, or in an igneous environment, and later exposed to meteoritic impact. It is suggested that particles from Apollo 17 were formed in a cloud of siliceous vapors.

Carter, J. L.

1973-01-01

117

Air-surface exchange of mercury with soils amended with ash materials  

SciTech Connect

Air-surface exchange of mercury (Hg) was measured from soil low in Hg amended with four different ash materials: a wood ash containing {approximately} 10% coal ash, amixture of two subbituminous coal fly ashes, a subbituminous coal ash containing {approximately} 10% petroleum coke ash and an ash from incinerated municipal sewage sludge (4.3 mg/kg Hg) using a dynamic flux chamber. Ash was added to soil to simulate agricultural supplements, soil stabilization, and pad layers used in livestock areas. For the agricultural amendment, {approximately} 0.4% ash was well mixed into the soil. To make the stabilized soil that could be used for construction purposes, {approximately} 20% ash was mixed into soil with water. The pad layer consisted of a wetted 1-cm layer of ash material on the soil surface. Diel trends of Hg flux were observed for all of the substrates with significantly higher Hg emissions during the day and negligible flux or deposition of Hg during the night. Hg fluxes, which were measured in the summer months, were best correlated with solar radiation, temperature, and air O{sub 3} concentrations. Mean Hg fluxes measured outdoors for unamended soils ranged from 19 to 140 ng/m{sup 2} day, whereas those for soil amended with ash to simulate an agricultural application ranged from 7.2 to 230 ng/m{sup 2} day. Fluxes for soil stabilized with ash ranged from 77 to 530 ng/m{sup 2} day and for soil with pads constructed of ash ranged from -50 to 90 ng/m{sup 2} day. Simple analytical tests were performed to assess whether algorithms based on these tests could be used to predict Hg fluxes observed outdoors using the flux chamber. Based on this study, no consistent relationships could be developed. More work is needed to assess long-term and seasonal variations in Hg flux from substrates before annual estimates of emissions can be developed. 45 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Jody Ericksen; Mae Sexauer Gustin [University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States). Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences

2006-07-15

118

Air-surface exchange of mercury with soils amended with ash materials.  

PubMed

Air-surface exchange of mercury (Hg) was measured from soil low in Hg (0.013 mg/kg) amended with four different ash materials: a wood ash containing -10% coal ash (0.070 mg/kg Hg), a mixture of two subbituminous coal fly ashes (0.075 mg/kg Hg), a subbituminous coal ash containing -10% petroleum coke ash (1.2 mg/kg Hg), and an ash from incinerated municipal sewage sludge (4.3 mg/kg Hg) using a dynamic flux chamber. Ash was added to soil to simulate agricultural supplements, soil stabilization, and pad layers used in livestock areas. For the agricultural amendment, -0.4% ash was well mixed into the soil. To make the stabilized soil that could be used for construction purposes, -20% ash was mixed into soil with water. The pad layer consisted of a wetted 1-cm layer of ash material on the soil surface. Diel trends of Hg flux were observed for all of the substrates with significantly higher Hg emissions during the day and negligible flux or deposition of Hg during the night. Hg fluxes, which were measured in the summer months, were best correlated with solar radiation, temperature, and air O3 concentrations. Mean Hg fluxes measured outdoors for unamended soils ranged from 19 to 140 ng/m2 day, whereas those for soil amended with ash to simulate an agricultural application ranged from 7.2 to 230 ng/m2 day. Fluxes for soil stabilized with ash ranged from 77 to 530 ng/m2 day and for soil with pads constructed of ash ranged from -50 to 90 ng/m2 day. Simple analytical tests (i.e., total Hg content, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure, heating, and indoor gas-exchange experiments) were performed to assess whether algorithms based on these tests could be used to predict Hg fluxes observed outdoors using the flux chamber. Based on this study, no consistent relationships could be developed. More work is needed to assess long-term and seasonal variations in Hg flux from (intact and disturbed) substrates before annual estimates of emissions can be developed. PMID:16878589

Ericksen, Jody; Gustin, Mae Sexauer

2006-07-01

119

Use of Fly Ash as a Liming Material for Corn and Soybean Production on an Acidic Sandy Soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fly ash (FA) produced from subbituminous coal combustion can potentially serve as a lime material for crop production in acidic soils in areas. A five-year study was conducted to determine if FA can be used as a liming material in an acid sandy soil under corn and soybean grain production. Fly ash...

120

Radon-222 in soil, water and building materials: Presentation of laboratory measurement methods in use at Ris  

E-print Network

Radon-222 in soil, water and building materials: Presentation of laboratory measurement methods Abstract Three methods for measurements of radon-222 in soil, water and building materials are de- scribed, and sample results are given. The methods are used both in connection with the health problem of radon-222

121

Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials.  

PubMed

The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available to the landfill operator. Therefore, the methane oxidation capacity of different soils was assessed under simulated landfill conditions. Five sandy potential landfill top cover materials with varying contents of silt and clay were investigated with respect to methane oxidation and corresponding soil gas composition over a period of four months. The soils were compacted to 95% of their specific proctor density, resulting in bulk densities of 1.4-1.7 g cm(-3), reflecting considerably unfavourable conditions for methane oxidation due to reduced air-filled porosity. The soil water content was adjusted to field capacity, resulting in water contents ranging from 16.2 to 48.5 vol.%. The investigated inlet fluxes ranged from 25 to about 100g CH(4)m(-2)d(-1), covering the methane load proposed to allow for complete oxidation in landfill covers under Western European climate conditions and hence being suggested as a criterion for release from aftercare. The vertical distribution of gas concentrations, methane flux balances as well as stable carbon isotope studies allowed for clear process identifications. Higher inlet fluxes led to a reduction of the aerated zone, an increase in the absolute methane oxidation rate and a decline of the relative proportion of oxidized methane. For each material, a specific maximum oxidation rate was determined, which varied between 20 and 95 g CH(4)m(-2)d(-1) and which was positively correlated to the air-filled porosity of the soil. Methane oxidation efficiencies and gas profile data imply a strong link between oxidation capacity and diffusive ingress of atmospheric air. For one material with elevated levels of fine particles and high organic matter content, methane production impeded the quantification of methane oxidation potentials. Regarding the design of landfill cover layers it was concluded that the magnitude of the expected methane load, the texture and expected compaction of the cover material are key variables that need to be known. Based on these, a column study can serve as an appropriate testing system to determine the methane oxidation capacity of a soil intended as landfill cover material. PMID:21067907

Rachor, Ingke; Gebert, Julia; Gröngröft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

2011-05-01

122

EFFECT OF SOIL PROPERTIES AND A SYNTHETIC MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE ON THE RETENTION OF CD, NI, PB, AND ZN IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Batch equilibrium metal immobilization studies were conducted using seven soil and sediment materials spiked with varying concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The objective was to examine the potential mobility of metals in subsoils of metals-contaminated sites. Soil pH influenc...

123

Assessment of isotopically exchangeable Al in soil materials using 26Al tracer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of aluminium (Al) in many acidic soils is controlled by complexation reactions with soil organic matter. In such soils, Al solubility is theoretically a function of the pool size of "active" Al, i.e., the total amount of Al that equilibrates with the soil solution within a defined period of time. To date, no reliable measurements of "active" Al in soil materials exist. In this study, we determined the isotopically exchangeable pool of Al ( EAl) as an operationally defined assessment of "active" Al in acidic mineral soils. The suitability of CuCl 2 and pyrophosphate (Na 4P 2O 7) as extractants for "active" Al was also evaluated. Eleven samples, mostly from spodic B horizons, were spiked with carrier-free 26Al and equilibrated for different time periods (1-756 h). The size of the Al pool with which the 26Al tracer exchanged increased with time during the whole experimental period. Thus, contact time between solid and solution phases needs to be defined when assessing the "active" Al pool. Values of EAl obtained after 1 to 5 d of equilibration were equal to the amount of CuCl 2 extractable Al, but considerably smaller than the Na 4P 2O 7-extractable pool. Equilibration times greater than 5 d resulted in CuCl 2 extractable Al concentrations that under-estimated the "active" Al pool. Three of the investigated samples were rich in imogolite-type materials (ITM). In these samples, 30-50 % of the added 26Al rapidly became associated with soil constituents in forms that could not be extracted by Na 4P 2O 7, indicating that a part of ITM may be in a dynamic state.

Kleja, D. Berggren; Standring, W.; Oughton, D. H.; Gustafsson, J.-P.; Fifield, K.; Fraser, A. R.

2005-11-01

124

Table Set-up with Materials near Lamp Stand (below) Target Audience: Parents of elementary school students (grades 3-6) and Middle and High School Students  

E-print Network

Table Set-up with Materials near Lamp Stand (below) Target Audience: Parents of elementary school the colors of visible light; violet to red using small handheld, spectroscope and diffraction slide. 4. Observe difference of color spectrum with different light sources; compact fluorescent, LED, incandescent

Linhardt, Robert J.

125

Parents' Regulation and Self-Regulation and Performance in Children with Intellectual Disability in Problem-Solving Using Physical Materials or Computers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared mothers and fathers' regulation with respect to 29 children with intellectual disability (ID) and 30 typically developing (TD) children, matched on their mental age (MA), as they solved eight tasks using physical materials and computers. Seven parents' regulatory strategies were coded as they supported their child's…

Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Lefevre, Nathalie

2012-01-01

126

Mineralogical evidence for a local volcanic origin of the parent material of Bermuda Quaternary paleosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alternation of carbonate deposits and paleosols compose the emerged part of the Bermuda archipelago. The pedological units present a complex and diversified mineralogy. Former studies demonstrated that the paleosols are not primarily a product of the unique dissolution of the surrounding carbonates, but contain a massive input of allochthonous non-carbonate detrital material. Researchers during more than the past three decades have attributed this flux of insoluble residues (IR) to Saharan dusts. We carried out systematic field and mineralogical analyses on the Quaternary paleosols from the Bermuda archipelago. Their mineralogical assemblage predominantly includes carbonates, clay minerals (kaolinite, chlorite and chlorite/vermiculite), phosphates, and aluminium and iron oxides/hydroxides. This assemblage is strikingly close to the mineralogy of the weathered volcanic substrate of Bermuda, but noticeably different from the mineralogy of Saharan dust. Moreover, we found volcanic lithoclasts in numerous paleosol profiles all over the archipelago and in all the recorded time intervals. We thus consider the volcanic seamount underlying Bermuda as the main source of non-carbonate minerals detected in the paleosols. This hypothesis further resolves the anomalous maturity of Bermudan paleosols compared to their southern counterparts in the Bahamas and Barbados.

Prognon, François; Cojan, Isabelle; Kindler, Pascal; Thiry, Médard; Demange, Michel

2011-01-01

127

Soils and the soil cover of the Valley of Geysers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of field studies of the soil cover within the tourist part of the Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka performed in 2010 and 2011 are discussed. The morphology of soils, their genesis, and their dependence on the degree of hydrothermal impact are characterized; the soil cover patterns developing in the valley are analyzed. On the basis of the materials provided by the Kronotskii Biospheric Reserve and original field data, the soil map of the valley has been developed. The maps of vegetation conditions, soil temperature at the depth of 15 cm, and slopes of the surface have been used for this purpose together with satellite imagery and field descriptions of reference soil profiles. The legend to the soil map includes nine soil units and seven units of parent materials and their textures. Soil names are given according to the classification developed by I.L. Goldfarb (2005) for the soils of hydrothermal fields. The designation of soil horizons follows the new Classification and Diagnostic System of Russian Soils (2004). It is suggested that a new horizon—a thermometamorphic horizon TRM—can be introduced into this system by analogy with other metamorphic (transformed in situ) horizons distinguished in this system. This horizon is typical of the soils partly or completely transformed by hydrothermal impacts.

Kostyuk, D. N.; Gennadiev, A. N.

2014-06-01

128

Lithosequence of Soils and Associated Vegetation on Subalpine Range of the Wasatch Plateau, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) in soil and parent material are important in the accumula- tion of nitrogen (N) and organic carbon (Corg) in soils. In an observational study, the role of P and S in soil development was explored on a small knoll in the Wasatch subalpine summer range of central Utah that had been severely eroded during uncontrolled

James O. Klemmedson; Arthur R. Tiedemann

129

Parent material which produces saline outcrops as a factor in differential distribution of perennial plants in the northern Mojave Desert  

SciTech Connect

An area of 0.46 km/sup 2/ divided into six zones in the northern Mojave Desert transitional with the Great Basin Desert has been studied. Diversity is high among the perennial plant species within the 0.46 km/sup 2/ area. Common species for the two deserts that are present in the area studied are Atriplex confertifolia (Torr. and Frem.) S. Wats., Ceratoides lanata (Pursh) J.T. Howell, Grayia spinosa (Hook.) Moq., Ephedra nevadensis S. Wats. Some other species present include Lycium andersonii A. Gray, Lycium pallidum Miers, Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) Payne., Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC) Cov., Acamptopappus shockleyi A. Gray, and Krameria parvifolia, Benth. Some of the species are relatively salt tolerant and some are relatively salt sensitive. A total of 4282 individual plants were measured. There was considerable variation in distribution of the 10 dominant species present, apparently due to zonal variations of salinity dispersed within the study area. Correlation coefficients among pairs of the species for different zones illustrate interrelationships among the salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive species. Observations on an adjacent hillside with rock outcroppings indicate that the saline differences in this area are partly due to outcroppings of parent volcanic rock materials that yield Na salts upon weathering.

Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.; Wood, R.A.; El-Ghonemy, A.A.; Bamberg, S.A.

1980-01-01

130

Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the handout is to identify the three major types of soils: pedalfer, pedocal, and laterite, and to understand the soil profile. This is accomplished with brief descriptions of the soil horizons and the designation of common elements to pedalfers, pedocals, and laterite soils. The handout is concluded with a discussion of soil erosion. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Gore, Pamela

1995-08-29

131

Impact of rock materials and biofertilizations on P and K availability for maize (Zea Maize) under calcareous soil conditions.  

PubMed

The present work evaluated the synergistic effects of soil fertilization with rock P and K materials and co-inoculation with P and K-dissolving bacteria [PDB (Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum) and KDB (Bacillus mucilaginosus and B. subtilis)] on the improvement of P and K uptake, P and K availability and growth of maize plant grown under limited P and K soil conditions (calcareous soil). The experiment was establishment with eight treatments: without rock P and K materials or bacteria inoculation (control), rock P (RP), rock K (RK), RP + PDB, RK + KDB and R(P + K)+(P + K)DB. Under the same conditions of this study, co-inoculation of PDB and KDB in conjunction with direct application of rock P and K materials (R(P + K)) into the soil increased P and K availability and uptake, and the plant growth (shoot and root growth) of maize plants grown on P and K limited soils. PMID:23961162

Abou-El-Seoud, I I; Abdel-Megeed, A

2012-01-01

132

Impact of rock materials and biofertilizations on P and K availability for maize (Zea Maize) under calcareous soil conditions  

PubMed Central

The present work evaluated the synergistic effects of soil fertilization with rock P and K materials and co-inoculation with P and K-dissolving bacteria [PDB (Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum) and KDB (Bacillus mucilaginosus and B. subtilis)] on the improvement of P and K uptake, P and K availability and growth of maize plant grown under limited P and K soil conditions (calcareous soil). The experiment was establishment with eight treatments: without rock P and K materials or bacteria inoculation (control), rock P (RP), rock K (RK), RP + PDB, RK + KDB and R(P + K)+(P + K)DB. Under the same conditions of this study, co-inoculation of PDB and KDB in conjunction with direct application of rock P and K materials (R(P + K)) into the soil increased P and K availability and uptake, and the plant growth (shoot and root growth) of maize plants grown on P and K limited soils. PMID:23961162

Abou-el-Seoud, I.I.; Abdel-Megeed, A.

2011-01-01

133

Materials testing for in situ stabilization treatability study of INEEL mixed wastes soils  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the contaminant-specific materials testing phase of the In Situ Stabilization Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study (TS). The purpose of materials testing is to measure the effectiveness of grouting agents to stabilize Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Acid Pit soils and select a grout material for use in the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Treatability Study within the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Test results will assist the selecting a grout material for the follow-on demonstrations described in Test Plan for the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Phases of the In Situ Stabilization Treatability Study at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

Heiser, J.; Fuhrmann, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1997-09-01

134

Mass Transport within Soils  

SciTech Connect

Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated zone with three major horizons, the saturated zone can be further divided into other zones based on hydraulic and geologic conditions. Wetland soils are a special and important class in which near-saturation conditions exist most of the time. When a contaminant is added to or formed in a soil column, there are several mechanisms by which it can be dispersed, transported out of the soil column to other parts of the environment, destroyed, or transformed into some other species. Thus, to evaluate or manage any contaminant introduced to the soil column, one must determine whether and how that substance will (1) remain or accumulate within the soil column, (2) be transported by dispersion or advection within the soil column, (3) be physically, chemically, or biologically transformed within the soil (i.e., by hydrolysis, oxidation, etc.), or (4) be transported out of the soil column to another part of the environment through a cross-media transfer (i.e., volatilization, runoff, ground water infiltration, etc.). These competing processes impact the fate of physical, chemical, or biological contaminants found in soils. In order to capture these mechanisms in mass transfer models, we must develop mass-transfer coefficients (MTCs) specific to soil layers. That is the goal of this chapter. The reader is referred to other chapters in this Handbook that address related transport processes, namely Chapter 13 on bioturbation, Chapter 15 on transport in near-surface geological formations, and Chapter 17 on soil resuspention. This chapter addresses the following issues: the nature of soil pollution, composition of soil, transport processes and transport parameters in soil, transformation processes in soil, mass-balance models, and MTCs in soils. We show that to address vertical heterogeneity in soils in is necessary to define a characteristic scaling depth and use this to establish process-based expressions for soil MTCs. The scaling depth in soil and the corresponding MTCs depend strongly on (1) the composition of the soil and physical state of the soil, (2) the chemical and physic

McKone, Thomas E.

2009-03-01

135

Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

Horner, John R.

136

STUDIES OF INTERFACE FRICTION BETWEEN JACKING PIPE MATERIALS AND FRICTIONAL SOILS AND THE IMPACT ON JACKING FORCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of studies have been conducted at Georgia Institute of Technology to study the interface frictional behavior between a variety of jacking pipe materials and frictional soils. The pipe materials which included Polycrete, Hobas, Vitrified Clay, Permalok, and Concrete (both dry-packerhead and wet cast) were characterized to define the surface roughness. Each pipe material was then sheared against a

Kimberlie Staheli; David Frost; Mehmet Iscimen

137

Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

138

Deterministic uncertainty and complex pedogenesis in some Pleistocene dune soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deterministic uncertainty is a perspective on soil spatial variability that reconciles the traditional reductionist view (variability can be explained with more and better measurements) and the emerging nonlinear dynamics view (variability may be an irresolvable outcome of complex system dynamics). In the podzolized soils of the 77 ka Newport Barrier, age, parent material, climate, and general vegetation cover are constant,

J. D. Phillips; D. Perry; A. R. Garbee; K. Carey; D. Stein; M. B. Morde; J. A. Sheehy

1996-01-01

139

Soils, time, and primate paleoenvironments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils are the skin of the earth. From both poles to the equator, wherever rocks or sediment are exposed at the surface, soils are forming through the physical and chemical action of climate and living organisms. The physical attributes (color, texture, thickness) and chemical makeup of soils vary considerably, depending on the composition of the parent material and other variables: temperature, rainfall and soil moisture, vegetation, soil fauna, and the length of time that soil-forming processes have been at work. United States soil scientists1 have classified modern soils into ten major groups and numerous subgroups, each reflecting the composition and architecture of the soils and, to some extent, the processes that led to their formation. The physical and chemical processes of soil formation have been active throughout geologic time; the organic processes have been active at least since the Ordovician.2 Consequently, nearly all sedimentary rocks that were deposited in nonmarine settings and exposed to the elements contain a record of ancient, buried soils or paleosols. A sequence of these rocks, such as most ancient fluvial (stream) deposits, provides a record of soil paleoenvironments through time. Paleosols are also repositories of the fossils of organisms (body fossils) and the traces of those organisms burrowing, food-seeking, and dwelling activities (ichnofossils). Indeed, most fossil primates are found in paleosols. Careful study of ancient soils gives new, valuable insights into the correct temporal reconstruction of the primate fossil record and the nature of primate paleoenvironments. ?? 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

1993-01-01

140

Launching Parent to Parent Schemes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Parent to Parent" is a telephone-contact self-help group for families of special needs children. Support parents are recruited and trained to provide counseling to other parents. Professionals lead the training course, which focuses on listening, understanding, and action planning. Parents carry out the support group's administrative tasks via…

Hornby, Garry

1988-01-01

141

Effect of Ground Rubber vs. ZnSO4 on Spinach Accumulation of Cd from Cd-Mineralized California Soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Certain soils derived from marine shale in Salinas Valley, CA, USA, contain significant levels of natural Cd but normal levels of Zn, all derived from the soil parent materials. Crops grown on these soils contain high levels of Cd, and because of the high Cd:Zn, this Cd is highly bioavailable and a...

142

Development of construction materials like concrete from lunar soils without water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of construction materials such as concrete from lunar soils without the use of water requires a different methodology than that used for conventional terrestrial concrete. A unique approach is attempted that utilizes factors such as initial vacuum and then cyclic loading to enhance the mechanical properties of dry materials similar to those available on the moon. The application of such factors is expected to allow reorientation, and coming together, of particles of the materials toward the maximum theoretical density. If such a density can provide deformation and strength properties for even a limited type of construction, the approach can have significant application potential, although other factors such as heat and chemicals may be needed for specific construction objectives.

Desai, Chandra S.; Saadatmanesh, H.; Frantziskonis, G.

1989-01-01

143

THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC SOIL MATERIALS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINED LAND SITES  

SciTech Connect

Abandoned mine sites associated with coal and metal mining across the western United States have been left as unproductive wastelands. The availability of soil materials or other materials to support the restoration of the vegetative cover and enhance the recovery of such areas is limited. The restoration of these areas often requires the use of available amendments such as organic waste products or to help stabilize the soil. Many of the organic waste products, including sewage sludge, clarifier sludge, fly ash sludge, and other by-products from the agricultural industries such as compost can be employed for beneficial uses. This study looked at the feasibility of applying organic waste products to a mine soil in Montana to increase soil fertility and enhance plant productivity. Waste rock samples were tested for acid forming potential via acid base accounting. Samples cores were constructed and leached with simulated rainwater to determine amendment affect on metal leaching. A greenhouse study was completed to determine the most suitable amendment(s) for the field mine land site. Results from the acid base accounting indicate that acid formed from the waste rock would be neutralized with the alkalinity in the system. Results also show that metals in solution are easily held by organics from the amendments and not allowed to leach in to the surrounding water system. Data from the greenhouse study indicated that the amendment of sewage sludge was most promising. Application of 2% sewage sludge along with 1% sewage sludge plus 1% clarifier sludge, 2% compost, and no treatment were used for mine land application. Initial results were encouraging and it appears that sewage sludge may be a good reclamation option for mine lands.

Song Jin

2006-03-01

144

Does material disadvantage explain the increased risk of adverse health, educational, and behavioural outcomes among children in lone parent households in Britain? A cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To test the hypothesis that material disadvantage explains the increased risk among children and young people of adverse health, educational, and behavioural problems associated with living in lone parent households in Britain Study design: Secondary analysis of a cross sectional survey of a representative sample of British households with children and youth Main outcomes: Parent reported fair/poor health, longstanding illness and disability, statement of special educational needs, suspension and/or expulsion from school, and in trouble with the police. Participants: Data were available on 15 636 (8049 boys and 7587 girls) aged 0–18 years in 8541 households in the third sweep (2001) of the British government's families and children study Results: Lone parenthood was associated with increased risk of health and educational problems, and antisocial behaviour among boys and girls in a logistic regression model adjusting for child's age alone. Adding age of main carer, number of dependent children, and child's rank in the household made little difference to the associations. Addition of housing tenure, household hardship index, and an interaction term for lone parenthood and hardship eliminated the relation with lone parenthood for all outcomes except parent reported health among girls. Similar results were obtained for households headed by lone parents for at least a year. An interaction effect of lone parenthood with hardship for parent reported health and statement of special educational needs was noted. Conclusion: Adverse effects of lone parenthood on health, education, and antisocial behaviour were apparently explained by material disadvantage in this cross sectional sample of British households with children and youth. PMID:15650148

Spencer, N.

2005-01-01

145

Reflectance and Mossbauer spectroscopy of ferrihydrite-montmorillonite assemblages as Mars soil analog materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectroscopic analyses show that Fe(3+)-doped smectites prepared in the laboratory exhibit important similarities to the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite has been identified as the interlayer ferric component in Fe(3+)-doped smectites by a low quadrupole splitting and magnetic field strength of approximately 48 tesla in Mossbauer spectra measured at 4.2 K, as well as a crystal field transition at 0.92 micrometer. Ferrihydrite in these smectites explains features in the visible-near infrared region that resemble the energies and band strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. Clay silicates have met resistance in the past as Mars soil analogs because terrestrial clay silicates exhibit prominent hydrous spectral features at 1.4, 1.9, and 2.2 micrometers; and these are observed weakly, if at all, in reflectance spectra of Mars. However, several mechanisms can weaken or compress these features, including desiccation under low-humidity conditions. The hydration properties of the interlayer cations also effect band strengths, such that a ferrihydrite-bearing smectite in the Martian environment would exhibit a 1.9 micrometers H2O absorption that is even weaker than the 2.2 micrometers structural OH absorption. Mixing experiments demonstrate that infrared spectral features of clays can be significantly suppressed and that the reflectance can be significantly darkened by mixing with only a few percent of a strongly absorbing opaque material. Therefore, the absolute reflectance of a soil on Mars may be disproportionately sensitive to a minor component. For this reason, the shape and position of spectral features and the chemical composition of potential analogs are of utmost importance in assessing the composition of the soil on Mars. Given the remarkable similarity between visible-infrared reflectance spectra of soils in bright regions on Mars and Fe(3+)-doped montmorillonites, coupled with recent observations of smectites in SNC meteorites and a weak 2.2 micrometers absorption in some Mars soils, ferrihydrite-bearing smectites warrant serious consideration as a Mars soil analog.

Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.; Chang, S. (Principal Investigator)

1993-01-01

146

Reflectance and Mossbauer spectroscopy of ferrihydrite-montmorillonite assemblages as Mars soil analog materials.  

PubMed

Spectroscopic analyses show that Fe(3+)-doped smectites prepared in the laboratory exhibit important similarities to the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite has been identified as the interlayer ferric component in Fe(3+)-doped smectites by a low quadrupole splitting and magnetic field strength of approximately 48 tesla in Mossbauer spectra measured at 4.2 K, as well as a crystal field transition at 0.92 micrometer. Ferrihydrite in these smectites explains features in the visible-near infrared region that resemble the energies and band strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. Clay silicates have met resistance in the past as Mars soil analogs because terrestrial clay silicates exhibit prominent hydrous spectral features at 1.4, 1.9, and 2.2 micrometers; and these are observed weakly, if at all, in reflectance spectra of Mars. However, several mechanisms can weaken or compress these features, including desiccation under low-humidity conditions. The hydration properties of the interlayer cations also effect band strengths, such that a ferrihydrite-bearing smectite in the Martian environment would exhibit a 1.9 micrometers H2O absorption that is even weaker than the 2.2 micrometers structural OH absorption. Mixing experiments demonstrate that infrared spectral features of clays can be significantly suppressed and that the reflectance can be significantly darkened by mixing with only a few percent of a strongly absorbing opaque material. Therefore, the absolute reflectance of a soil on Mars may be disproportionately sensitive to a minor component. For this reason, the shape and position of spectral features and the chemical composition of potential analogs are of utmost importance in assessing the composition of the soil on Mars. Given the remarkable similarity between visible-infrared reflectance spectra of soils in bright regions on Mars and Fe(3+)-doped montmorillonites, coupled with recent observations of smectites in SNC meteorites and a weak 2.2 micrometers absorption in some Mars soils, ferrihydrite-bearing smectites warrant serious consideration as a Mars soil analog. PMID:11539454

Bishop, J L; Pieters, C M; Burns, R G

1993-01-01

147

Parent Resources Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide provides an annotated bibliography of 101 articles and newsletters of interest to parents and teachers of children in preschool through grade 3. The bibliography contains the titles and short descriptions of materials, selected with the assistance of parents and teachers from across Alberta (Canada), on a wide range of topics…

Alberta Education Response Centre, Edmonton.

148

Sorption/desorption reversibility of phenanthrene in soils and carbonaceous materials  

SciTech Connect

Sorption/desorption of phenanthrene in two soil samples and carbonaceous materials was found to yield co-incident equilibrium isotherms and no significant hysteresis was observed. Additionally, release of native phenanthrene was investigated. Equilibrium sorption and desorption isotherms were determined using pulverized samples of Pahokee peat, lignite, and high-volatile bituminous coal, a mineral soil, and an anthropogenic soil. Instead of the conventional decant-and-refill batch method, sorption/desorption was driven by temperature changes using consistent samples. Sorption started at 77{sup o}C and was increased by reducing the temperature stepwise to 46, 20, and finally 4{sup o}C. For desorption the temperature was increased stepwise again until 77{sup o}C was reached. Besides the co-incident sorption and desorption isotherms at each temperature step, the solubility-normalized sorption/desorption isotherms of all different temperatures collapse to unique overall isotherms. Leaching of native phenanthrene occurred at much lower concentrations but was well predicted by extrapolation of the spiked sorption isotherms indicating that the release of native phenanthrene involves the same sorption/desorption mechanisms as those for newly added phenanthrene. 35 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Guohui Wang; Sybille Kleineidam; Peter Grathwohl [University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany). Center for Applied Geoscience

2007-02-15

149

Parent Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The push for parent involvement shows up at the federal, state, and district level. Without a plan that includes a definition, specific goals, and research-based practices, the result can be parent interference--not parent involvement. Lists publications, organizations, and Web sites that address parent involvement in education. (MLF)

Black, Susan

1998-01-01

150

Evaluation of lunar rocks and soils for resource utilization: Detailed image analysis of raw materials and beneficiated products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rocks and soils of the Moon will be the raw materials for fuels and construction needs at a lunar base. This includes sources of materials for the generation of hydrogen, oxygen, metals, and other potential construction materials. For most of the bulk material needs, the regolith, and its less than 1 cm fraction, the soil, will suffice. But for specific mineral resources, it may be necessary to concentrate minerals from rocks or soils, and it is not always obvious which is the more appropriate feedstock. Besides an appreciation of site geology, the mineralogy and petrography of local rocks and soils is important for consideration of the resources which can provide feedstocks of ilmenite, glass, agglutinates, anorthite, etc. In such studies, it is very time-consuming and practically impossible to correlate particle counts (the traditional method of characterizing lunar soil petrography) with accurate modal analyses and with mineral associations in multi-mineralic grains. But x ray digital imaging, using x rays characteristic of each element, makes all this possible and much more (e.g., size and shape analysis). An application of beneficiation image analysis, in use in our lab (Oxford Instr. EDS and Cameca SX-50 EMP), was demonstrated to study mineral liberation from lunar rocks and soils. Results of x ray image analysis are presented.

Taylor, Lawrence A.; Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Jerde, Eric A.; Mckay, David S.; Graf, John; Oder, Robin R.

1993-01-01

151

Low-temperature and low atmospheric pressure infrared reflectance spectroscopy of Mars soil analog materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared reflectance spectra of carefully selected Mars soil analog materials have been measured under low atmospheric pressures and temperatures. Chemically altered montmorillonites containing ferrihydrite and hydrated ferric sulfate complexes are examined, as well as synthetic ferrihydrate and a palagonitic soil from Haleakala, Maui. Reflectance spectra of these analog materials exhibit subtle visible to near-infrared features, which are indicative of nanophase ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides and are similar to features observed in the spectra of the bright regions of Mars. Infrared reflectance spectra of these analogs include hydration features due to structural OH, bound H2O and adsorbed H2O. The spectal character of these hydration features is highly dependent on the sample environment and on the nature of the H2O/OH in the analogs. The behavior of the hydration features near 1.9 micrometers, 2.2 micrometers, 2.7 micrometers, 3 micrometers, and 6 micrometers are reported here in spetra measured under Marslike atmospheric environment. In spectra of these analogs measured under dry Earth atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micrometer band depth is 8-17%; this band is much stonger under moist conditions. Under Marslike atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micrometer feature is broad and barely discernible (1-3% band depth) in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil samples. In comparable spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonite the 1.9-micrometer feature is also broad, but stronger (6% band depth). In the low atmospheric pressure and temperature spectra of the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite this feature is sharper than the other analogs and relatively stronger (6% band depth). Although the intensity of the 3- micrometer band is weaker in spectra of each of the analogs when measured under Marslike conditions, the 3-micromter band remains a dominant feature and is especially broad in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil. The structural OH features observed in these materials at 2.2-2.3 micrometers and 2.27 micrometers remain largely unaffected by the environmental conditions. A shift in the Christiansen feature towards shorter wavelengths has also been observed with decreasing atmospheric pressure and temperature in the midinfrared spectra of these samples.

Bishop, Janice L.; Pieters, Carle M.

1995-01-01

152

THE IMPACT OF PARENT AND CHILD RESPONSIVENESS ON THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PRINTED MATERIALS IN THE HOME AND CHILD LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

of the Parent-Child Interaction……..64 Caregiver Facilitators……………………………………………….………..64 Conveys Aceptance and Warmth…………………………………..64 Uses Descriptive Language………………………………….……….65 vii Follows Child’s Lead……………………………………..…………66 Maintains or Extends... Child’s Focus…………………………………66 Uses Stres Reducing Strategies……………………………………..67 Caregiver Interupters………………………………………………………..69 Uses criticism or Harsh Voice……………………………….………69 Uses Restrictions/Intrusions………………………………………….70 Rejects Child’s Bid...

Gould, Sara Rebecca

2010-04-02

153

Material properties data and volume estimate of silt loam soil at the NRDWL Reserve, McGee Ranch  

SciTech Connect

A closure and postclosure plan for the Hanford Site Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL) was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and submitted for regulatory agency review in 1990. In the closure plan, construction of a final cover over the NRDWL is proposed. The design specifies a topsoil component consisting of layers of compacted and noncompacted fine-textured soil. The objective of compacting a portion of the topsoil layer is to impede infiltration of soil moisture. The McGee Ranch area on the Hanford Site is proposed as the source area for fine-textured soils to support cover construction. A number of data needs are identified in the closure plan for definitive design of the NRDWL final cover. Specifically, the plan identifies a need to characterize potential borrow areas for fine-textured soil, to ensure that (1) material properties vary within acceptable limits for the application, and (2) sufficient quantities of suitable material are available.

Not Available

1994-02-17

154

Plant material as bioaccumulator of arsenic in soils affected by mining activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metal contamination is an important environmental problem, since the metals are harmful to humans, animals and tend to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to determine the total concentration of As, As (III) and As(V) in soil samples, leaves and roots of plant material, growing in a mining area in Spain (Murcia). Ditichia viscosa was used as the plant of reference. The concentrations of bioavailable As in plant samples were calculated by different soil chemical extraction methods; deionized water, 0.5N NaHCO3 (Olsen extraction), oxidizable medium, 0.5 HCl, 0.05M (NH4)2SO4, 0.005M DTPA and Mehra-Jackson extraction. For this study, fourteen samples were collected in the surrounding area of Sierra Minera and Portman Bay (Murcia, SE Spain). Samples were air dried and sieved to < 2mm for general analytical determinations. To determine the As content, soil samples were first ground to a fine powder using an agate ball mill. Fresh vegetable samples were separated into root and aboveground biomass and then lyophilized. Arsenic levels were obtained by using atomic fluorescence spectrometry with an automated continuous flow hydride generation (HG-AFS) spectrometer. Samples showed pH average values close to neutrality. Most samples showed a very low organic matter percentage. Electrical conductivity and calcium carbonate content were considerably low in most samples. The mineralogical analysis showed that the main minerals were quartz, muscovite, kaolinite and illite, while the minority minerals were alteration products derived of mining activities (iron oxides and hydroxides, siderite, jarosite and gypsum), calcite and feldspars. Although the plants do not absorb arsenic in the same proportion, the results suggest that a good relationship exists between the total content of As in soil and the total content in plant. The results showed that the arsenic content in roots was positively correlated with the oxidizable-organic matter and sulfides fraction (oxidaizable medium extraction procedure). Arsenic concentration in leaves was positively correlated with the arsenic extracted by HCl, with the oxidizable-organic matter and sulfides fraction and with the arsenic extracted by Mehra-Jackson extraction. According to our results, As is accumulated in the leaves of the plants and is linked with iron oxides of these soils affected by mining activities.

Martínez-López, Salvadora; Martínez-Sánchez, Maria Jose; García-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen

2010-05-01

155

Quantities and associations of lead, zinc, cadmium, manganese, chromium, nickel, vanadium, and copper in fresh Mississippi delta alluvium and New Orleans alluvial soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of this study is the effect of anthropogenic metals on the geochemical quality of urban soils. This is accomplished by comparing the metal contents and associations between two alluvial soils of the lower Mississippi River Delta, freshly deposited alluvial parent materials and alluvial soils collected from a nearby urban environment. Fresh alluvium samples (n=97) were collected from the

H. W. Mielke; C. R. Gonzales; M. K. Smith; P. W. Mielke

2000-01-01

156

Parenting Multiples  

MedlinePLUS

... for parents of multiples can help, as can marriage counselors or clergy. It's important that you do ... and from early on it's apparent that their relationship is special. Parenting multiples has its ... reviewed: October 2013 Back

157

Reclamation with Recovery of Radionuclides and Toxic Metals from Contaminated Materials, Soils, and Wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites. In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded, and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (polyuranate) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

Francis, A. J.; Dodge, C. J.

1993-01-01

158

Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes with a Chitin-Urea Soil Amendment and Other Materials  

PubMed Central

Field trials were conducted with a chitin-urea soil amendment and several other nematicides on four crop-nematode combinations: tomato-Meloidogyne incognita; potato-Meloidogyne chitwoodi; walnut-Pratylenchus vulnus; and brussels sprouts-Heterodera schachtii. Significant (P ? 0.10) nematode population reductions were obtained with the chitin-urea soil amendment in the trims on potato and walnut. In the trials on brussels sprouts and on tomato, phytotoxicity occurred at rates of 1,868 and 1,093 kg/ha, respectively. Significant (P ? 0.10) nematode reductions were also obtained with metham sodium on potato; with 1,3-D on tomato and brussels sprouts; and with sodium tetrathiocarbonate, XRM 5053, fenamiphos, ethoprop, LX1075-05, LX1075-07, and SN 109106 on tomato. The following materials did not provide significant nematode control under the conditions of the particular experiments: metham sodium, oxamyl, and Yucca extract on tomato; and dazomet granules on brussels sprouts. PMID:19283044

Westerdahl, B. B.; Carlson, H. L.; Grant, J.; Radewald, J. D.; Welch, N.; Anderson, C. A.; Darso, J.; Kirby, D.; Shibuya, F.

1992-01-01

159

Soils of the Pacific Northwest shrubsteppe: Occurrence and properties of soils on the Arid Land Ecology Reserve, Hanford Reservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soils of the Arid Land Ecology Reserve, encompassing the IBP Grassland Biome intensive study site on the ERDA Hanford Reservation, are representative of a larger geographical region including much of the Columbia Plateau and Pacific Northwest shrub-steppe. This results from a unique diversity in parent materials of mixed origin derived from the loess eolian, lacustrine and stream-laid material including

R. E. Wildung

1977-01-01

160

Effect of Soil Solid-Phase Material Migration on Soil Properties within a Small Watershed Detected Using the Magnetic Tracer Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed detailed studies of the lateral migration of the solid soil material and the soil cover within a small catchment area (Russia, Tula region, Lokna river basin). The main goal of this work is to characterize the migration and accumulation features of the soil solid-phase material within a small watershed and to analyze the effect of the lateral mass transfer on the crucial soil fertility-related properties in the catchment basin under study. The total area of the catchment and the ravine network elements is 96 ha. The catchment basin is drop-shaped; it slightly curves and is latitudinally oriented. The catchment basin's slopes are of southern, eastern, northern, and intermediate exposures with average inclination of 1,5-5 degrees. The magnetic tracer method was used to assess the volumes and rates of the lateral migration of the solid-phase soil material on the selected territory. This method is based on the investigation of the spherical magnetic particles (SMPs), which fall onto the soil cover from the atmosphere, where they arrive at the burning of coals and some other fuels, mostly in steam locomotives. The period of the most intensive emission of SMPs into the soil in the territory of Russia corresponds to the last 100-150 years [1]. The reserve of SMPs in the 0- to 25-cm layer is estimated to be 3.8 g/m2on the least eroded sub-horizontal surface. The zones with the concentration of SMPs lower than their average content on the least eroded surface were characterized as dispersion zones. The zones of the basin with significant exceeding the value of 3.8 g/m2 were marked as accumulation zones of the soil solid-phase material. Dispersion zones are found in the middle part of the ridge in the north-eastern area, in the middle part of a longslope in the south-western area of the catchment basin, and other [2]. Accumulation zones are observed in a cup-shaped depression on the plowed slope adjacent to the ravine's head, on steep unplowed slopes of the ravine adjacent to its bottom, on the ravine's bottom, and other [2]. The genesis of these zones is result of the summary effect of the exposure, the inclination, and the slope's length, the spatial interference of the zones, the variability of the carrying capacity of the water flow, etc. The total area of the revealed dispersion zones makes up 35% of the catchment basin; the accumulation zones occupy 26% of the catchment area. The transit-buffer area occupies 39% of the catchment basin. The area proportions of the different functional zones characterize the specific migration structure of the small watershed. [1] Olson K., Gennadiyev A., Zhidkin A., Markelov M., Golosov V., and Lang J. Use of magnetic tracer and radio-cesium methods to determine past cropland soil erosion amounts and rates. Catena 104 (2013), 103-110. [2] Gennadiev A., Koshovskii T., Zhidkin A., and Kovach R. Lateral migration of soil solid-phase material within a landscape-geochemical arena detected using the magnetic tracer method. Eurasian Soil Science 46, 10 (2013), 983-993.

Koshovskii, Timur; Gennadiev, Alexander; Zhidkin, Andrei

2014-05-01

161

Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements (i.e., As, B, and Se), i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation, and/or rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material is applied to soil. Three FGD materials collected from two power plants were used. Our results show Hg released into the air and uptake in grass from all FGD material-treated soils were all higher (P < 0.1) than the amounts observed from untreated soil. Hg in the soil amended with the FGD material collected from a natural oxidation wet scrubber (i.e., SNO) was more readily released to air compared to the other two FGD materials collected from the synthetic gypsum dewatering vacuum belt (i.e., AFO-gypsum) and the waste water treatment plant (i.e., AFO-CPS) of a forced oxidation FGD system. No Hg was detected in the leachates collected during the only 3-hour, 1-inch rainfall event that occurred throughout the 4-week testing period. For every kilogram of FGD material applied to soil, AFO-CPS released the highest amount of Hg, B, and Se, followed by SNO, and AFO gypsum. Based on the same energy production rate, the land application of SNO FGD material from Plant S released higher amounts of Hg and B into ambient air and/or grass than the amounts released when AFO-gypsum from Plant A was used. Using FGD material with lower concentration levels of Hg and other elements of concern does not necessary post a lower environmental risk. In addition, this study demonstrates that considering only the amounts of trace elements uptake in surface vegetation may under estimate the overall release of the trace elements from FGD material-amended soils. It also shows, under the same soil amendment conditions, the mobility of trace elements varies when FGD materials produced from different processes are used. PMID:22442930

Cheng, Chin-Min; Chang, Yung-Nan; Sistani, Karamat R; Wang, Yen-Wen; Lu, Wen-Chieh; Lin, Chia-Wei; Dong, Jing-Hong; Hu, Chih-Chung; Pan, Wei-Ping

2012-02-01

162

ICSE6 Paris -August 27-31, 2012 Herrier, Chevalier, Froumentin, Cuisinier, Bonelli, Fry Lime treated soil as an erosion-resistant material  

E-print Network

-176 Lime treated soil as an erosion-resistant material for hydraulic earthen structures Gontran HERRIER1 research project, "SOil TREatment for DIkes" undertaken by the Lhoist Group, a lime producer, in collaboration with several research centers and universities. Lime-treatment of soils is a process that improves

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

163

The distribution and genesis of calcic horizons in some soils of the Texas Coast Prairie  

E-print Network

. Ehrlich et al. (1967) found that high carbonate levels in parent materials were related to thinner sola and retarded soil development; no direct link to clay illuviation was cited however. A gravelly soil formed in Wisconsin-age glacial deposits dated...

Sobecki, Terrence Michael

2012-06-07

164

Tillage and crop rotation effects on soil quality in two Iowa fields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil quality is affected by inherent (parent material, climate, and topography) and anthropogenic (tillage and crop rotation) factors. We evaluated effects of five tillage treatments on 23 potential soil quality indicators after 31 years in a corn (Zea mays L.)/soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotat...

165

The macromolecular organic composition of plant and microbial residues as inputs to soil organic matter  

E-print Network

input, the proportion of various plant parts and their distribution (below-ground/above-ground), as wellReview The macromolecular organic composition of plant and microbial residues as inputs to soil 29 July 2001 Abstract Plant litter and the microbial biomass are the major parent materials for soil

California at Berkeley, University of

166

Potentials of reconstructing the formation and transformation of slope deposits by the use of soil micromorphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pleistocene periglacial slope deposits were studied in the Spessart mountains (central Ger-many). The standard research methodology was supplemented by soil micromorphology. Thin section analyses are providing new possibilities for reconstructing the formation of slope deposits. Three periglacial cover beds of Late Pleistocene age constitute the parent material of the studied soils: The \\

Susann Müller; Heinrich Thiemeyer

2010-01-01

167

Pedo-hydrological and sediment responses to simulated rainfall on soils of the Konya uplands (Turkey)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microplot experiments using a portable rainfall simulator were carried out in April 1992 on 15 Turkish soils with textures ranging from clay loam to loamy clay and slopes from 3° to 12°. In order to determine the effects of a change in land use on infiltration and erosion, pairs of sites with soils developed on identical parent material were chosen.

P. Böhm; G. Gerold

1995-01-01

168

Continental-scale patterns in soil geochemistry and mineralogy: results from two transects across the United States and Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) initiated a pilot study that involved collection of more than 1500 soil samples from 221 sites along two continental transects across Canada and the United States. The pilot study was designed to test and refine protocols for a soil geochemical survey of North America. The two transects crossed a wide array of soil parent materials, soil ages, climatic conditions, landforms, land covers and land uses. Sample sites were selected randomly at approximately 40-km intervals from a population defined as all soils of the continent. At each site, soils representing 0 to 5 cm depth, and the O, A, and C horizons, if present, were collected and analyzed for their near-total content of over 40 major and trace elements. Soils from 0–5 cm depth were also collected for analysis of organic compounds. Results from the transects confirm that soil samples collected at a 40-km spacing reveal coherent, continental- to subcontinental-scale geochemical and mineralogical patterns that can be correlated to aspects of underlying soil parent material, soil age and climate influence. The geochemical data also demonstrate that at the continental-scale the dominance of any of these major factors that control soil geochemistry can change across the landscape. Along both transects, soil mineralogy and geochemistry change abruptly with changes in soil parent materials. However, the chemical influence of a soil’s parent material can be obscured by changing climatic conditions. For the transects, increasing precipitation from west to east and increasing temperature from north to south affect both soil mineralogy and geochemistry because of climate effects on soil weathering and leaching, and plant productivity. Regional anomalous metal concentrations can be linked to natural variations in soil parent materials, such as high Ni and Cr in soils developed on ultramafic rocks in California or high P in soils formed on weathered Ordovician limestones in central Kentucky. On local scales, anomalous metal concentrations recognized in soil profiles, such as high P in soils from animal confinement sites, are consistent with local anthropogenic disturbances. At a larger scale, the distribution of Hg across the west to east transect demonstrates that it can be difficult to distinguish between natural or anthropogenic contributions and that many factors can contribute to an element’s spatial distribution. Only three samples in a subset of seventy-three 0–5 cm depth soil samples from the north to south transect had organochlorine pesticides values above the method detection limit, apparently related to historic usage of the pesticides DDT and dieldrin.

Woodruff, L.G.; Cannon, W.F.; Eberl, D.D.; Smith, D.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Horton, J.D.; Garrett, R.G.; Klassen, R.A.

2009-01-01

169

PRODUCTION OF METHYL SULFIDE AND DIMETHYL DISULFIDE FROM SOIL-INCORPORATED PLANT MATERIALS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CONTROLLING SOILBORNE PATHOGENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil-incorporated plant materials have been associated with reduction in soilborne pathogens and diseases. Most credits have been given to secondary products of glucosinolate hydrolysis. Little is known about the production of volatile sulfur compounds and even less on their efficacy against soilb...

170

Heavy Metals and Benzo[a]pyrene in Soils from Construction and Demolition Rubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rubble is an important component in urban soils worldwide, especially in Europe. In Berlin, Germany, rubble composed soils cover about 17% of the total city area and 60% of the inner city. This study assesses the contamination status of rubble soil, particularly for heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The results of 164 soil surveys from Berlin, including more than 2000 analyzed soil samples of topsoils, rubble subsoils, and parent material have been analyzed for typical contamination patterns. The concentrations of all contaminants range over several orders of magnitude and follow negatively skewed log-normal distribution functions. For rubble containing subsoils a proportion of 34, 71, 67, 68, 74, and 61% of the analyzed samples exceed precautionary values of the German Soil Conservation Act, regarding Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg and B[a]P respectively. Similar results were found for topsoils. A minor part of the soils is contaminated with Cd, while Pb and Hg are the most typical contaminants of rubble material. In contrast to topsoils and rubble containing subsoils, the majority of the parent subsoil material is not contaminated. Only low to moderate positive correlations were found between the contaminants. Compared to parent soil material, rubble containing soils show clearly elevated concentrations of heavy metals and B[a]P. As the most characteristic contaminants for rubble are Pb and Hg, these heavy metals should first be analyzed as proxy contaminants.

Abel, Stefan; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd

2014-05-01

171

Approaches toward soil mapping of urban territories with the city of perm as an example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of urban soils and technogenic surface formations (TSFs) in the city of Perm is predetermined by the diverse lithologic and geomorphic conditions; different types of land use (residential areas with low-rise and multistory buildings, industrial zones, and agricultural zones) further enhance it. The soil cover of Perm has a mosaic pattern with contrasting changes in the morphology and genesis of its components. The areas of separate soils and TSFs cannot be delineated upon medium- and even large-scale mapping of the territory. We suggest that urban pedocomplexes—combinations of soils and TSFs developing within a given functional zone of the city from the same parent materials—should be shown on the map. Urban pedocomplexes differ from one another in the character of the predominant soils and TSFs. They inherit some features from the natural soils and parent materials and are transformed under the impact of the major type of land use.

Shestakov, I. E.; Eremchenko, O. Z.; Fil'kin, T. G.

2013-12-01

172

Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western U.S.A. III. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plant uptake of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from mine soils was assessed using alfalfa Medicago sativa, sainfoin Onobrychis viciaefolia, smooth brome Bromus inermis, crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum, slender wheatgrass A. trachycaulum and intermediate wheatgrass A. intermedium; mine soil (cover-soil and spoil material) samples were collected from rehabilitated areas of 11 western US surface-coal mines in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Correlations between metals in plants and DTPA-extractable metals from mine soils were generally not statistically significant and showed no consistent patterns for a single metal or for a single plant species. Metal uptake by plants, relative to amounts in DTPA extracts of mine soil, was positively related to mine soil organic matter content or negatively related to mine soil pH. DTPA-extractable metal levels were significantly correlated with mine soil pH and organic-matter content.-from Authors

Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

1984-01-01

173

Parent's Notebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This parent resource manual was developed for use in home-based preschool programs and is part of a learning package which instructs prospective family workers, family worker trainers, and parents in the entry level skills, knowledge, and orientations needed to provide children from birth through 8 years of age with school oriented learning…

Gotts, Edward E., Ed.

174

Valuing Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, a young faculty member commented that e-mail and inexpensive long distance rates were hampering her first-year students' development by making it too easy for them to stay in touch with their parents. Similarly, Judith Shapiro, president of Barnard College, argued in her August 22, 2002, New York Times op-ed piece, "Keeping Parents Off…

Gerdes, Eugenia Proctor

2004-01-01

175

Parenting Conflicts  

MedlinePLUS

... life, and you are not going to let differences undermine your common goals. Each of you needs to demonstrate some flexibility. As you form ground rules for the family, identify the areas in which each parent excels. That parent should then exert leadership in the areas of his or her strength, ...

176

Perspectives on Parenting  

E-print Network

Parents' Perspectives on Parenting Styles and Disciplining Children The National Children's Strategy Research Series #12;#12;Parents' Perspectives on Parenting Styles and Disciplining Children 2010 Intergenerational transmission of discipline strategies 3 Parenting styles 3 Parental attitudes to physical

O'Mahony, Donal E.

177

Comparison of the results of soil profiles' diagnostics performed in three classification systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three soil classification systems—the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), Soil Taxonomy, and the recent Russian system—were used for the identification of 17 soil profiles in southwestern Poland; all the systems put emphasis on the soil properties as diagnostic criteria. Different soils developed on glaciofluvial plains, loessic uplands, and in the Sudetes Mountains were classified. The best correlation between the classification decisions in the different systems was obtained for the most widespread soils owing to the similarity of the diagnostic criteria, which were essentially close although not coinciding. The most prominent divergence between the systems in both the names and the taxonomic categories of the soils was found for the polygenetic soils and for the soils developing from the lithologically discontinuous parent materials. It was also found that the diagnostic elements differ in terms of their taxonomic importance among the classification systems.

Gerasimova, M. I.; Khitrov, N. B.

2012-12-01

178

Immobilization of heavy metals in polluted soils by the addition of zeolitic material synthesized from coal fly ash.  

PubMed

The use of zeolitic material synthesized from coal fly ash for the immobilization of pollutants in contaminated soils was investigated in experimental plots in the Guadiamar Valley (SW Spain). This area was affected by a pyrite slurry spill in April 1998. Although reclamation activities were completed in a few months, residual pyrite slurry mixed with soil accounted for relatively high leachable levels of trace elements such as Zn, Pb, As, Cu, Sb, Co, Tl and Cd. Phytoremediation strategies were adopted for the final recovery of the polluted soils. The immobilization of metals had previously been undertaken to avoid leaching processes and the consequent groundwater pollution. To this end, 1100 kg of high NaP1 (Na6[(AlO2)6(SiO2)10] .15H2O) zeolitic material was synthesized using fly ash from the Teruel power plant (NE Spain), in a 10 m3 reactor. This zeolitic material was manually applied using different doses (10000-25000 kg per hectare), into the 25 cm topsoil. Another plot (control) was maintained without zeolite. Sampling was carried out 1 and 2 years after the zeolite addition. The results show that the zeolitic material considerably decreases the leaching of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn. The sorption of metals in soil clay minerals (illite) proved to be the main cause contributing to the immobilization of these pollutants. This sorption could be a consequence of the rise in pH from 3.3 to 7.6 owing to the alkalinity of the zeolitic material added (caused by traces of free lime in the fly ash, or residual NaOH from synthesis). PMID:16039695

Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Moreno, Natàlia; Alvarez-Ayuso, Esther; García-Sánchez, Antonio; Cama, Jordi; Ayora, Carles; Simón, Mariano

2006-01-01

179

The vesicular layer and carbonate collars of desert soils and pavements: formation, age and relation to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vesicular, fine-grained A horizon (Av) is the widespread, ubiquitous surficial horizon of desert soils in diverse landforms and parent materials of varying ages. Now known to form mostly through accumulation of eolian dust, recent studies show that dust accumulation and concomitant soil development are genetically linked to stone pavement formation. Changes in the magnitude of eolian activity and effective

Leslie D McFadden; Eric V McDonald; Stephen G Wells; Kirk Anderson; Jay Quade; Steven L Forman

1998-01-01

180

[Desorption characteristics of phosphorus in tea tree rhizosphere soil].  

PubMed

In order to explore the phosphorus (P) release process and its supply mechanism in tea tree rhizosphere soil, an exogenous P adsorption and culture experiment was conducted to study the P desorption process and characters in the tea tree rhizosphere soils having been cultivated for different years and derived from different parent materials. The least squares method was used to fit the isotherms of P desorption kinetics. There was an obvious difference in the P desorption process between the rhizosphere soils and non-rhizosphere soils. The P desorption ability of the rhizosphere soils was significantly higher than that of the non-rhizosphere soils. As compared with non-rhizosphere soils, rhizosphere soils had higher available P content, P desorption rate, and beta value (desorbed P of per unit adsorbed P), with the average increment being 5.49 mg x kg(-1), 1.7%, and 24.4%, respectively. The P desorption ability of the rhizosphere soils derived from different parent materials was in the order of granite > quaternary red clay > slate. The average available P content and P desorption ability of the rhizosphere soils increased with increasing cultivation years. PMID:24175512

Yang, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Jun; Bao, Chun-Hong; Miao, Xiao-Lin; Hu, Wen-Min

2013-07-01

181

Assessing the efficacy of dredged materials from lake panasoffkee, florida: Implication to environment and agriculture part 1: Soil and environmental quality aspect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aims and Scope  Dredged materials because of its variable but unique physical and chemical properties are often viewed by society and regulators\\u000a as pollutants, but many have used these materials in coastal nourishment, land or wetland creation, construction materials,\\u000a and for soil improvement as a soil amendment. Environmental impact assessment is an important pre-requisite to many dredging\\u000a initiatives. The ability

Gilbert C. Sigua; Mike L. Holtkamp; Samuel W. Coleman

2004-01-01

182

Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China.  

PubMed

Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth. PMID:17048298

Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen

2006-11-01

183

Comparison of American Society of Testing Materials and Soil Science Society of America Hydrometer Methods for Particle-Size Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Particle-size analysis (PSA) is widely used in both soil science and geo-engineering. Soil classification schemes are built on PSA values while recent developments in pedotransfer functions rely on PSA to estimate soil hydraulic properties. Because PSA is method dependent, the standardization of experimental procedures is important for the comparison of reported results. A study was conducted to compare the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) hydrometer method (D422) for particle-size analysis with the hydrometer method published by the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). Tests on soils ranging in texture from sand to a sandy clay loam were conducted at temperatures ranging from 20 C to 30 C. The main difference between methods is the temperature correction, with the ASTM method relying on an empirical correction and the SSSA method using a blank hydrometer reading. Identical texture estimates for all but one sample was observed between methods. Percent fines, silt, and clay demonstrated relatively consistent values between methods. D50 and D30 showed reasonable agreement between methods, with differences of less than 4 percent and 8 percent. For D10 values, the agreement was less satisfactory, with uncertainties of as much as 10 percent. The results suggest that ASTM and SSSA methods can be used interchangeably for textural analysis.

Keller, Jason M.; Gee, Glendon W.

2006-05-31

184

Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China*  

PubMed Central

Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth. PMID:17048298

Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen

2006-01-01

185

Soils of the Pacific Northwest shrub-steppe. Occurrence and properties of soils on the Arid Land Ecology Reserve, Hanford Reservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soils of the Arid Land Ecology Reserve, encompassing the IBP Grassland Biome intensive study site on the ERDA Hanford Reservation, are representative of a larger geographical region including much of the Columbia Plateau and Pacific Northwest shrub-steppe. This results from a unique diversity in parent materials of mixed origin derived from the loess eolian, lacustrine and stream-laid material including

Wildung

2009-01-01

186

Influence of soils on Landsat spectral signatures of corn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat data have been investigated extensively to determine crop types and acreage. However, confounding site factors have been found to reduce accuracy. Soils data in a small, contiguous area in southeast South Dakota were used to stratify Landsat data. A June 5 and July 29 CCT were used in a statistical analysis of corn training data. Significant soil parameters causing differences in study area soils were slope and parent material. Implication of the results is that, in this region, stratification of CCT data along parent material boundaries would improve corn classification accuracy. Research expanding on the interaction of soils and crops is both in progress and scheduled for additional studies in east central South Dakota.

Dalsted, K. J.; Worcester, B. K.; Devries, M. E.

1980-01-01

187

Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the New Brunswick Site, Middlesex County, New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the New Brunswick Site, located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides of concern and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the New Brunswick Site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. The guidelines derived in this report are intended to apply to the remediation of these remaining residual radioactive materials at the site. The primary radionuclides of concern in these remaining materials are expected to be radium-226 and, to a lesser extent, natural uranium and thorium. The DOE has established generic cleanup guidelines for radium and thorium in soil; however, cleanup guidelines for other radionuclides must be derived on a site-specific basis.

Dunning, D.; Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

1996-02-01

188

Effect of active roots on the decomposition of soil organic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of one form of soil organic matter, such as living roots or root exudates on another form of soil organic matter, such as dead roots or incorporated litter and litter leachates, has been studied from various perspectives over the last 25 years. The effect seems to be either positive (priming) or negative (conserving). The present review concentrates on

J. F. Dormaar

1990-01-01

189

Particle size distribution of eroded material from semi-arid soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The particle size distribution (PSD) of eroded sediments can be used to deduce potential nutrient losses, pollution hazards and the redistribution of soil components over the landscape. We studied eroded sediments from three semi-arid soils, with different clay contents, that were wetted at a slow (...

190

Contributions of pyrogenic materials on the accumulation of soil organic matter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil amendment of charcoal co-product (HHVdb as high as coal) from thermochemical waste biomass-to-energy conversion (slow/fast pyrolysis and gasification) has received considerable interests for both contaminated and agricultural lands. Biochar amendment not only increases soil organic carbon cont...

191

Evaluation of Greek low-rank coals as potential raw material for the production of soil amendments and organic fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates Greek peat and coal samples for applications in the agricultural\\/horticultural sector and assesses the suitability of a certain peat\\/coal either as soil conditioner or as raw material for manufacturing organic fertilizers.Twenty-six samples of different rank ranging from peat to subbituminous coal obtained from several Greek peat\\/coal deposits, were studied. The laboratory tests included: a) pH and electrical

Andriana Giannouli; Stavros Kalaitzidis; George Siavalas; Adamantia Chatziapostolou; Kimon Christanis; Stefanos Papazisimou; Cassiani Papanicolaou; Antonis Foscolos

2009-01-01

192

Production of methyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide from soil-incorporated plant materials and implications for controlling soilborne pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil-incorporated plant materials have been associated with reduction in soilborne pathogens and diseases. Mechanisms of the\\u000a biocidal actions are complex and not well understood. A glasshouse experiment, a non replicated field demonstration, and a\\u000a field experiment were conducted to determine volatile compounds after incorporation of various plant species and their effect\\u000a on pest control. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea), canola (Brassica rapa),

D. Wang; C. Rosen; L. Kinkel; A. Cao; N. Tharayil; J. Gerik

2009-01-01

193

Selection of permeable reactive barrier materials for treating acidic groundwater in acid sulphate soil terrains based on laboratory column tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shoalhaven region of NSW experiences environmental acidification due to acid sulphate soils (ASS). In order to trial an\\u000a environmental engineering solution to groundwater remediation involving a permeable reactive barrier (PRB), comprehensive\\u000a site characterisation and laboratory-based batch and column tests of reactive materials were conducted. The PRB is designed\\u000a to perform in situ remediation of the acidic groundwater (pH 3)

Alexandra N. Golab; Mark A. Peterson; Buddhima Indraratna

2009-01-01

194

Reflectance spectroscopy of ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites as Mars soil analog materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectroscopic analyses have shown that smectites enhanced in the laboratory with additional ferric species exhibit important similarities to those of the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite in these chemically treated smectites has features in the visible to near-infrared region that resemble the energies and band strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. New samples have been prepared with sulfate as well, because S was found by Viking to be a major component in the surface material on Mars. A suite of ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites, prepared with variable Fe3+ and S concentrations and variable pH conditions, has been analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy in the visible and infrared regions, Mossbauer spectroscopy at room temperature and 4 K, differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. These analyses support the formation of ferrihydrite of variable crystallinity in the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonites and a combination of schwertmannite and ferrihydrite in the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites. Small quantities of poorly crystalline or nanophase forms of other ferric materials may also be present in these samples. The chemical formation conditions of the ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites influence the character of the low temperature Mossbauer sextets and the visible reflectance spectra. An absorption minimum is observed at 0.88-0.89 micrometers in spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing samples, and at 0.89-0.92 micrometers in spectra of the ferrihydrate-bearing montmorillonites. Mossbauer spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites indicate variable concentrations of ferrihydrite and schwertmannite in the interlaminar spaces and along grain surfaces. Dehydration under reduced atmospheric pressure conditions induces a greater effect on the adsorbed and interlayer water in ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite than on the water in ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonite. Reflectance spectra of ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonite include a strong 3-micrometers band that is more resistant to dry atmospheric conditions than the 3-micrometers band in spectra of similarly prepared ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonites.

Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.; Edwards, J. O.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Froschl, H.

1995-01-01

195

Total parenting.  

PubMed

In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins to cast being a parent as a matter of "parenting," a technological deployment of skills and techniques, with the loss of older, more spontaneous and intuitive relations between parents and children. Smith examines this phenomenon further through a discussion of how it is captured to some extent in Hannah Arendt's notion of "natality" and how it is illuminated by Charles Dickens in his classic novel, Dombey and Son. PMID:20662172

Smith, Richard

2010-01-01

196

Working Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... Go for a walk or go to the gym. Do some recreational reading. While family time is ... Every Parent Needs to Know Family Life Health Management - Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting ...

197

Suppression of Boride Formation in Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Pairings of Parent Superalloy Materials with Different Compositions and Grain Structures and Resulting Mechanical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Ni-based superalloys, columnar grained Alloy 247 and single-crystal PWA1483, are joined by transient liquid phase bonding using an amorphous brazing foil containing boron as a melting point depressant. At lower brazing temperatures, two different morphologies of borides develop in both base materials: plate-like and globular ones. Their ratio to each other is temperature dependent. With very high brazing temperatures, the deleterious boride formation in Alloy 247 can be totally avoided, probably because the three-phase-field moves to higher alloying element contents. For the superalloy PWA1483, the formation of borides cannot be completely avoided at high brazing temperatures as incipient melting occurs. During subsequent solidification of these areas, Chinese-script-like borides precipitate. The mechanical properties (tensile tests at room and elevated temperatures and short-term creep rupture tests at elevated temperatures) for brazed samples without boride precipitation are very promising. Tensile strengths and creep times to 1 pct strain are comparable, respectively, higher than the ones of the weaker parent material for all tested temperatures and creep conditions (from 90 to 100 pct rsp. 175 to 250 pct).

Steuer, Susanne; Singer, Robert F.

2014-07-01

198

Parents' talk : multiple schemas and parenting practice  

E-print Network

relationships, parenting styles, and child behavior.style on parenting practices and affect in interactions with their children;parenting behaviors and affects are twofold: Parents’ attachment style has profound effects on the child’

Sarda, Zoltan G.

2012-01-01

199

Mathematical modelling and optimization of synthetic textile dye removal using soil composites as highly competent liner material.  

PubMed

Soil is widely used as adsorbent for removing toxic pollutants from their aqueous solutions due to its wide availability and cost efficiency. This study investigates the potential of soil and soil composites for removal of crystal violet (CV) dye from solution on a comparative scale. Optimisation of different process parameters was carried out using a novel approach of response surface methodology (RSM) and a central composite design (CCD) was used for determining the optimum experimental conditions, as well as the result of their interactions. Around 99.85 % removal of CV was obtained at initial pH 6.4, which further increased to 99.98 % on using soil and cement composite proving it to be the best admixture of those selected. The phenomenon was found to be represented best by the Langmuir isotherm at different temperatures. The process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and was determined to be spontaneous chemisorption in nature. This adsorbent can hence be suggested as an appropriate liner material for the removal of CV dye. PMID:25138552

Das, Papita; Banerjee, Priya; Mondal, Sandip

2015-01-01

200

Body for Parents (Girls)  

MedlinePLUS

... Illness & disability Drugs, alcohol & smoking Your feelings Relationships Bullying Safety Your future Environmental health Skip section navigation ( ... parents Girls' feelings for parents Relationships for parents Bullying for parents Safety for parents The future for ...

201

Immobilization of Cu, Pb and Zn in mine-contaminated soils using reactive materials.  

PubMed

Immobilization processes were used to chemically stabilize soil contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn from mine tailings and industrial impoundments. We examined the effectiveness of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), phosphoric acid and MgO at immobilizing Cu, Pb and Zn in soil contaminated by either mine tailings or industrial and mine wastes. The effectiveness was evaluated using column leaching experiments and geochemical modelling, in which we assessed possible mechanisms for metal immobilization using PHREEQC and Medusa numerical codes. Experimental results showed that Cu was mobilized in all the experiments, whereas Pb immobilization with H(3)PO(4) may have been related to the precipitation of chloropyromorphite. Thus, the Pb concentrations of leachates of pure mining and industrial contaminated soils (32-410 ?g/l and 430-1000 ?g/l, respectively) were reduced to 1-60 and 3-360 ?g/l, respectively, in the phosphoric acid experiment. The mobilization of Pb at high alkaline conditions, when Pb(OH)(4)(-) is the most stable species, may be the main obstacle to the use of OPC and MgO in the immobilization of this metal. In the mining- and industry-contaminated soil, Zn was retained by OPC but removed by MgO. The experiments with OPC showed the Zn decrease in the leachates of mining soil from 226-1960 ?g/l to 92-121 ?g/l. In the industrial contaminated soil, the Zn decrease in the leachates was most elevated, showing >2500 ?g/l in the leachates of contaminated soil and 76-173 ?g/l in the OPC experiment. Finally, when H(3)PO(4) was added, Zn was mobilized. PMID:21190796

Navarro, Andrés; Cardellach, Esteve; Corbella, Mercé

2011-02-28

202

The disposal of a lime water treatment residue on soil and spoil material from a coalmine: a glasshouse investigation.  

PubMed

Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), Cenchrus ciliaris L., and Digitaria eriantha Steud. were grown in a soil (Psammentic Haplustalf) and spoil material from a coalmine both treated with a lime water treatment residue (WTR) at rates of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 g kg(-1). The yield of the grasses, from the sum of the three harvests, and concentrations of B, Ca, Cu, K, Fe, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, and Zn in foliage from the second harvest were determined. The yield of grasses grown in the soil decreased exponentially as WTR application increased. The yields of C. ciliaris, D. eriantha, and E. tef (in the 400 g kg(-1) WTR treated soil) decreased by 74.4, 78.7, and 59.8%, respectively, when compared with the control treatments. In the spoil, the yield of E. tef and D. eriantha decreased by 13.6% and and D. eriantha by 23.9%, while an increase was observed for C. ciliaris (45.4%), at the highest WTR application rate. No relationship existed between yield of E. tef and WTR application rate when grown in the spoil, while a weak negative linear relationship (p < 0.05) was found for D. eriantha and a positive linear relationship existed for C. ciliaris. Magnesium concentrations of the grasses were positively correlated to WTR application rate. Grasses grown in the soil had higher Na concentrations, while those grown in the spoil typically had higher B, N, and Zn concentrations. The decreases in yield were attributed to nutrient deficiencies (notably Zn), induced by high WTR application rates that led to high substrate pH. Disposal of high rates of WTR on the mine materials was not recommended. PMID:17332261

Titshall, L W; Hughes, J C; Morris, C D; Zacharias, P J K

2007-01-01

203

Soil Investigations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the basics about soil, including its formation through the cycling of the Earth's materials, as well as its characteristics and importance. They are also introduced to soil profiles and how engineers conduct site investigations to learn about soil quality for development, contamination transport, and assessing the general environmental health of an area.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

204

Parental Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescence is a developmental period during which many youth experiment with risk practices. This paper examined the association of parental monitoring with a range of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use behaviors among high-risk youth, while controlling for other demographic and environmental variables previously found to be associated with AOD…

Shillington, Audrey M.; Lehman, Stephanie; Clapp, John; Hovell, Melbourne; Sipan, Carol; Blumberg, Elaine

2005-01-01

205

Total Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins…

Smith, Richard

2010-01-01

206

Map Scale in the Context of Progress in Soil Geography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation, we review historical soil maps from a geographical perspective, in contrast to the more traditional temporal perspective. Our geographical perspective is operationalized by comparing soil maps based on their scale and classification system. To analyze the connection between scale in historical soil maps and their associated classification systems, we place soil maps into three categories of cartographic scale. We then examine how categories of cartographic scale correspond to the selection of environmental soil predictors used to initially create the maps, as reflected by the maps' legend. Previous analyses of soil mapping from the temporal perspective have concluded that soil classification systems have co-evolved with gains in soil knowledge. We conclude that paradigm shifts in soil mapping and classification can be better explained by their correlation to historical improvements in scientific understanding, differences in purpose for mapping, and advancement in geographic technologies. We observe that, throughout history, small cartographic scale maps have tended to emphasize climate-vegetation zonation. Medium cartographic scale maps have put more emphasis on parent material as a variable to explain soil distributions. And finally, soil maps at large cartographic scales have relied more on topography as a predictive factor. Importantly, a key characteristic of modern soil classification systems is their multi-scale approach, which incorporates these phenomena scales within their classification hierarchies. Although most modern soil classification systems are based on soil properties, the soil map remains a model, the purpose of which is to predict the spatial distributions of those properties. Hence, multi-scale classification systems still tend to be organized, at least in part, by this observed spatial hierarchy. Although the hierarchy observed in this study is generally known in pedology today, it also represents a new view on the evolution of soil science. Increased recognition of this hierarchy may also help to more holistically combine soil formation factors with soil geography and pattern, particularly in the context of digital soil mapping.

Miller, Bradley; Schaetzl, Randall

2014-05-01

207

System for high throughput water extraction from soil material for stable isotope analysis of water  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A major limitation in the use of stable isotope of water in ecological studies is the time that is required to extract water from soil and plant samples. Using vacuum distillation the extraction time can be less than one hour per sample. Therefore, assembling a distillation system that can process m...

208

SORPTION-DESORPTION OF IMIDACLOPRID AND ITS METABOLITES IN SOIL AND VADOSE ZONE MATERIALS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sorption-desorption is arguably the most important process affecting the transport of pesticides through soil since it controls the amount of pesticide available for transport. Sorption is usually characterized by determining batch sorption coefficients. These coefficients are often used in transpor...

209

Parental Power and Adolescents' Parental Identification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combines McDonald's social power of parental identification with sex-linked models of parental identification to account for the identification of daughters (N=199) and sons (N=147) with their parents. Found that because of a halo effect, a gain in identification with one parent is not at the other parent's expense. (JAC)

Acock, Alan C.; Yang, Wen Shan

1984-01-01

210

Soil experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil experiment with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil experiment without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.

Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim

1987-01-01

211

Differences in soil solution chemistry between soils amended with nanosized CuO or Cu reference materials: implications for nanotoxicity tests.  

PubMed

Soil toxicity tests for metal oxide nanoparticles often include micrometer-sized oxide and metal salt treatments to distinguish between toxicity from nanometer-sized particles, non-nanometer-sized particles, and dissolved ions. Test result will be confounded if each chemical form has different effects on soil solution chemistry. We report on changes in soil solution chemistry over 56 days-the duration of some standard soil toxicity tests-in three soils amended with 500 mg/kg Cu as nanometer-sized CuO (nano), micrometer-sized CuO (micrometer), or Cu(NO3)2 (salt). In the CuO-amended soils, the log Cu2+ activity was initially low (minimum -9.48) and increased with time (maximum -5.20), whereas in the salt-amended soils it was initially high (maximum -4.80) and decreased with time (minimum -6.10). The Cu2+ activity in the nano-amended soils was higher than in the micrometer-amended soils for at least the first 11 days, and lower than in the salt-amended soils for at least 28 d. The pH, and dissolved Ca and Mg concentrations in the CuO-amended soils were similar, but the salt-amended soils had lower pH for at least 14 d, and higher Ca and Mg concentrations throughout the test. Soil pretreatments such as leaching and aging prior to toxicity tests are suggested. PMID:24992481

McShane, Heather V A; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Whalen, Joann K; Hendershot, William H

2014-07-15

212

Does the feedstock origin of pyrolyzed materials influence the leaching quality and quantity of dissolved organic carbon from soils?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils play a major role in the global C cycle and can be both a source of C emissions to the atmosphere and also a C sink. In order to sequester vast quantities of C and increase soil C stocks, which may be used to partly offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the future, new technologies are needed. Recently, there has been an abundance of interest in the use of pyrolyzed biomass C, termed biochar, as an amendment to terrestrial ecosystems to provide a large and long term sink of C. However, the stability and permanence of this black C source in soil is still relatively unknown and the uncertainty surrounding its turnover time may have implications for both C sequestration and the fate and transport of dissolved organic C leached to nearby water resources. Biochar can be derived from a multitude of feed stocks (e.g. walnut shells, wood chippings, poultry litter) and under a variety of pyrolysis conditions (e.g. high temperature or low temperatures); each process and feed stock can yield very different materials that has many different physical (e.g. surface area) and chemical (e.g. CEC, C and N content) properties. Each feed stock and pyrolysis condition may consequently contribute to a distinct recalcitrance in soil. Therefore, we undertook a pot trial to evaluate the chemical characteristics of leachate from soils incubated with biochars derived from 15 different feed stocks. Using optical property parameters such as SUVA, chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) slope parameter and fluorescence characteristics, we were able to determine the C leaching potential of each feedstock. Preliminary data suggests that there are distinct variations in optical properties with feed stock origin, for example an algae digestate showed a lower absorbance at 350 nm (a350) (25.7 m-1) and a steeper spectral slope at 290-350 nm (S290-350 x10-3) (17.7 nm-1) indicative of the presence of lower molecular weight compounds compared to control treatment with a signature typical of SOC (a350 = 29.2 m-1; S290-350 = 16.8 nm-1). The ramifications for the transport of both the quantity and quality of C to aquatic systems will be discussed, especially in light of the popularity of "designer" biochars that could be used as a soil amendment in the future

Suddick, E.; Spencer, R. G.; Pereira, E. I.; Six, J. W.

2011-12-01

213

Aggregating available soil water holding capacity data for crop yield models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.

Seubert, C. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Holt, D. A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

1984-01-01

214

Parent Academic Overview Student-Parent Orientation  

E-print Network

their academic, personal, and professional goals by providing high quality academic advisingParent Academic Overview Student-Parent Orientation Program University of California, Irvine #12;Purpose of Parent Academic Overview 1.Provide the Mission Statement of the UCI

Rose, Michael R.

215

Formation of free acid in soil materials exposed by excavation for highways in East Texas  

E-print Network

Texas). In the Louisiana study ( 13), vegeta- tive cover and growth was established and mainta1ned for 3 years by calcitic l1me treatments of very acid (pH 2. 6) soil mater1al ex- posed by deep roadcuts. The results of the Louisiana study indi- cated... solution from the 1n1t1al pH to pH 4; 3+ 2) Exchangeable Al was determined by the meq of NaOH required to raise the soil:1N KCl solut1on from pH 4 to pH 5. 6; and 3) Exchangeable acidity was determined by the total meq of NaOH requ1red to raise...

Miller, Wesley Leroy

2012-06-07

216

Methods using earthworms for the evaluation of potentially toxic materials in soils  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using earthworms to indicate effects of potentially toxic wastes when such wastes are intentionally or accidentally added to soils. Initial work with metals has shown that earthworms exhibit specific growth and reproductive responses. These responses are related to the concentration and solubility of the metal. Of the metals tested, cadmium was found to be the most toxic, followed by nickel, copper, zinc, and lead. The metal concentration in earthworm tissue and the background manure-metal mixture was measured, permitting the concentration factor to be computed. The concentration factor is the ratio of the metal in the worm tissue to that in the surrounding manure-metal mixture. These and other studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that the methods described in this paper may be used to predict the effect of land-applied or atmospherically deposited residues on the soil biota.

Neuhauser, E.F.; Loehr, R.C.; Malecki, M.R.

1982-01-01

217

Analysis of remotely sensed data for detecting soil limitations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During 1971 and 1972 a detailed study was conducted on a fallow field in the proposed Oahe Irrigation Project to determine the relationship between the tonal variation observed on aerial photographs and the properties of eroded soil. Correlation and regression analysis of digitized, multiemulsion, color infrared film (2443) data and detailed field data revealed a highly significant correlation between film transmittance and several soil properties indicative of the erosion limitation. Computer classification of the multiemulsion film data resulted in maps portraying the eroded soil and the normal soil. Both correlation and computer classification results were best using the reflectance data from the red spectral band. The results showed film transmittance was actually measuring the reflectivity of the soil surface which was increased by the incorporation of the light colored, calcareous parent material exposed by erosion or tillage on soils with thin surface horizons.

Benson, L. A.; Frazee, C. J.; Waltz, F. A.

1973-01-01

218

Mercury in humus horizons of soils in the Transbaikal region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total mercury content has been determined in gray forest soils, chernozems, chestnut soils, and in different parent materials in the Transbaikal region. The mercury content is below the clarke value in the intrusive, effusive, and alluvial soil-forming rocks (0.004-0.024 mg/kg). In the humus horizons of the soils, it reaches 0.011-0.026 mg/kg, which is higher than the clarke value for the pedosphere. The mean background content of mercury in the soils of the Transbaikal region is 0.018 mg/kg. No significant positive correlation between the mercury content and the humus content of the soils has been revealed.

Ivanov, G. M.; Kashin, V. K.

2010-01-01

219

Attenuation coefficients of soils and some building materials of Bangladesh in the energy range 276-1332 keV.  

PubMed

The linear and mass attenuation coefficients of different types of soil, sand, building materials and heavy beach mineral samples from the Chittagong and Cox's Bazar area of Bangladesh were measured using a high-resolution HPGe detector and the gamma-ray energies 276.1, 302.8, 356.0, 383.8, 661.6 and 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV emitted from point sources of 133Ba, 137Cs and 60Co, respectively. The linear attenuation coefficients show a linear relationship with the corresponding densities of the samples studied. The variations of the mass attenuation coefficient with gamma-ray energy were exponential in nature. The measured mass attenuation coefficient values were compared with measurements made in other countries for similar kinds of materials. The values are in good agreement with each other in most cases. PMID:11300413

Alam, M N; Miah, M M; Chowdhury, M I; Kamal, M; Ghose, S; Rahman, R

2001-06-01

220

The Systems Mapping of Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil, together with rocks, waters, air, and living organisms, is one of the natural elements, which make up landscapes. At the same time soil is a unique (derivative) natural element because only it originates from the interaction of all the other (basic) natural elements. Reasoning from this fact, soil maps must be unique too - fundamentally different from geological, geomorphological, natural vegetation, and other thematic maps of the basic natural elements. It is suggested creating conceptually new soil maps, namely the systems soil maps, which are derived from the systems landscape maps. Legends of such maps are based on hierarchical classification of natural landscapes-systems. The last-mentioned are regarded as elementary structural units of the Earth's landscape envelope comprised of interacting landscape elements. The landscapes-systems step by step are divided into divisions and subdivisions of different hierarchical levels unless reaching separate and isolated landscapes-systems, which can not be divided further because of their homogeneity. Criteria used to differentiate between landscapes-systems include the most prominent properties of natural landscape elements, for instance: sequence of the elements, range of altitudes and slopes, zonal vegetation types associated with effective heat sum and precipitation ratio, the main genetic soil horizons, genetic types and forms of relief, lithology of parent materials, depth of humus horizons, chemical composition of ground waters, and so forth. Levels at which criteria of classification are soil properties are named the "soil" one; they are the lowest one in each scale range. The systems soil maps are produced for "soil" levels and show certain soil properties in connection with those properties of the basic natural elements, which cause these soil properties. In GIS environment the systems soil maps are produced automatically from an integrated polygon layer created manually on the basis of expert analysis of the maximum possible quantity of thematic, mainly paper, maps, and texts. The hierarchy of the natural landscapes, as well as hierarchy of the properties of their elements, is displayed with the help of an additional line layer containing information about rank-ordered natural boundaries. Currently, polygon systems maps of Saratov oblast in GIS format and paper systems maps of the Nechernozemnaya Zone of the European Russia have been created. Scale of the main topographic maps, which were used, is 1:1,500,000. The systems soil mapping is regarded as a pathway to development of a global soil data infrastructure and universal soil classification system.

Nikiforova, Alexandra; Fleis, Maria; Borisov, Mickail

2013-04-01

221

Parental stress, parenting behavior and observed parent-child interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between parental stress, social support, and directly observed parenting behavior and dyadic interaction in a non-clinical sample of 26 parent-child dyads, in which the child was age five or younger. This study also explored the differential impact of various types of stress on parenting behavior and dyadic interaction, including life stress as measured by the

Katrina L Adams

2006-01-01

222

A soil toposequence characterization on evaporites in the semiarid Central Ebro Basin (NE-Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Ebro Basin is a semi-arid region where evapotranspiration exceeds considerably the precipitation, and where Miocene gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is abundant as soil parent material (ITGE, 1995). These are favourable conditions to develop gypseous soils, which cover less tan 1% of the Earth's land surface, being especially scarce in Europe (IUSS, 1998). In order to get a detailed soil description of soils distribution along the landscape, the morphological, physical and chemical properties of five selected soil profiles along a slope were determined. Soils were classified using the Soil Taxonomy System (STS) and the World Reference Base (WRB). Geomorphic unitSoil forming processes Horizons and diagnostic properties Soil Taxonomy System (SSS, 2006) World Reference Base (IUSS, 2006) Head slope Erosion Gypsiric material Lithic contact Lihic Torrirorthent Haplic Gypsiric Leptosol Shoulder slope Gypsification Hypergypsic Lithic contact Lithic Haplogypsid Hypergypsic Leptic Gypsisol Back slope Gypsification Hypergypsic Xeric Haplogypsid Hypergypsic Humic Gypsisol Foot slope Gypsification Gypsic Xeric Haplogypsid Haplic Humic Gypsisol Toes slope Gypsification SalinizationGypsic & Salic Fluvic properties Xeric Haplogypsid Endosalic Skeletic Gypsisol Table 1. Soil forming processes, horizons and diagnostic properties and classification of the soils studied by the WRB (IUSS, 2006) taxonomy system and Soil Taxonomy System (SSS, 2006). The surface horizons on the top of the slope have the lowest soil organic matter and soil aggregate stability value, both directly and significantly related (R: 0.89; P

Martínez-Aznar, J.; Badía-Villas, D.; Martí-Dalmau, C.; León-Miranda, F. J.

2012-04-01

223

Acceptance of Soil from Off Site Sources In order to guard against receiving contaminated soils to used as fill material on campus,  

E-print Network

Acceptance of Soil from Off Site Sources I. Policy In order to guard against receiving contaminated of these soils on and off-site a contaminated site. Phase I Site Assessment (PSA) A PSA consists of a historical soils from off-site sources. II. Authority California Code of Regulations Title 22 III. Scope The use

de Lijser, Peter

224

Survey and evaluation of contaminants in earthworms and in soils derived from dredged material at confined disposal facilities in the Great Lakes region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils derived from dredged material were collected, together with earthworms from nine confined disposal facilities located in the Great Lakes Region. These samples were analyzed for 18 elements, 11 organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The concentrations detected in earthworms were evaluated in terms of their potential hazard to wildlife, which for the sake of the evaluation were assumed to prey entirely either on earthworms or on other soil invertebrates having similar concentrations. The soil concentrations (dry wt.) of the contaminants of greatest concern were < 1.9 to 32 ppm Cd, < 0.053 to 0.94 ppm Hg, 4.6 to 550 ppm Pb, and < 0.1 to 1.0 ppm PCBs. The concentrations in earthworms (dry wt., ingested soil included) were as high as 91 ppm Cd, 1.6 ppm Hg, 200 ppm Pb, and 1.8 ppm PCBs. Based on laboratory toxicity studies of relatively sensitive species, and on concentration factors calculated from the earthworm and soil data, we estimated that lethal or serious sublethal effects on wildlife might be expected at concentrations of 10 ppm Cd, 3 ppm Hg, 670 ppm Pb, and 1.7 ppm PCBs in alkaline surface soils derived from dredged material. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in earthworms were well below those in soil.

Beyer, W.N.; Stafford, C.

1993-01-01

225

The distribution of soil phosphorus for global biogeochemical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) is a major element required for biological activity in terrestrial ecosystems. Although the total P content in most soils can be large, only a small fraction is available or in an organic form for biological utilization because it is bound either in incompletely weathered mineral particles, adsorbed on mineral surfaces, or, over the time of soil formation, made unavailable by secondary mineral formation (occluded). In order to adequately represent phosphorus availability in global biogeochemistry-climate models, a representation of the amount and form of P in soils globally is required. We develop an approach that builds on existing knowledge of soil P processes and databases of parent material and soil P measurements to provide spatially explicit estimates of different forms of soil P on the global scale. We assembled data on the various forms of phosphorus in soils globally, chronosequence information, and several global spatial databases to develop a map of total soil P and the distribution among mineral bound, labile, organic, occluded, and secondary P forms in soils globally. The amount of P, to 50 cm soil depth, in soil labile, organic, occluded, and secondary pools is 3.5 ± 3, 8.7 ± 6, 13.2 ± 9, and 3.3 ± 2 Pg P respectively. The amount in soil mineral particles to the same depth is estimated at 12.5 ± 9 Pg P for a global soil total of 41.2 ± 20 Pg P. The large uncertainty in our estimates reflects our limited understanding of the processes controlling soil P transformations during pedogenesis and lack of measurements of soil P. In spite of the large uncertainty, the estimated global spatial variation and distribution of different soil P forms presented in this study will be useful for global biogeochemistry models that include P as a limiting element in biological production by providing initial estimates of the available soil P for plant uptake and microbial utilization.

Yang, X.; Post, W. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Jain, A.

2012-11-01

226

PARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families  

E-print Network

Irvine parent, you play a unique role. Your involvement with the university and the support you pro- videPARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families Seeing your child leave for college, whether, 2013 Dear UCI Parents, Welcome to the UC Irvine Family! The UC Irvine Student Housing staff is looking

Rose, Michael R.

227

Fractionation of Volatile Elements by Heating of Solid Allende: Implications for the Source Material of Earth, Moon, and the Eucrite Parent Body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CI-chondrites have average solar-system abundances of moderately volatile (Na, K, Rb, Sn, etc.) and highly volatile (Cs, Pb, etc.) elements. In most other types of chondrites and in samples from differentiated planetary bodies, these elements are more or less depleted relative to CI chondrites. Volatile-element fractionation occurred either by evaporation or incomplete condensation [1]. Recent data on the isotopic composition of K indicate that depletion of volatiles did not occur by evaporation from a melt of CI-chondritic composition [2]. Evaporative loss from a solid, however, would not necessarily lead to isotopic fractionation of K in the residue [e.g., 3]. In order to study loss of volatile elements from solids, we performed a series of heating experiments under variable oxygen fugacities at temperatures of 1050 degrees C to 1300 degrees C. Residues were analyzed by INAA [4]. We report here additional analyses (K, Rb, Cs, Sn, Pb) of these residues by isotope dilution-SSMS. Results (including Na data from INAA) are shown in Fig. 1. Results at other oxygen fugacities are similar, i.e., there is no strong dependence on fO2, contrary to the results for Au, As, and Zn [4]. Elements are arranged in the order of decreasing condensation temperatures. Depletions increase with increasing temperature and, at least for the 1050 degrees C experiment, with decreasing condensation temperature. The CI- normalized Allende pattern has no strong depletions of Cs and Pb, unlike the experimental results, indicating that evaporation from a solid cannot produce patterns observed in volatile-element-depleted meteorites. Even heating at temperatures as low as 1050 degrees C, affecting alkali elements only slightly, leads to large losses of lead, which are an order of magnitude greater than required for producing CV chondrite patterns. Depletions of these elements apparently occurred in the solar nebula before accretion by incomplete condensation or removal of gas during condensation. Nearly-CI-chondritic Sn/Pb ratios are observed in Allende and other carbonaceous chondrites. Evaporation from a solid leads to a severe increase in this ratio. Similarly, Rb/Cs ratios (about 12) are approximately CI-like in all groups of carbonaceous chondrites, perhaps reflecting the inability of nebular processes to fractionate these ratios. In contrast, terrestrial, lunar, and eucritic rocks have much higher Rb/Cs ratios [5]. As volatile loss from molten magmas is excluded [2], their low Cs contents must be characteristic of the parent material. This may exclude carbonaceous chondrites as source materials of eucrites, the Earth, and the Moon. The low Cs in planetary precursor materials may have been produced by secondary heating of small fragments of solid matter at subsolidus temperatures before final accretion. Equilibrated chondrites also show high Rb/Cs ratios, perhaps indicating mobilization of Cs at metamorphic temperatures. References: [1] Palme H. et al. (1988) in Meteorites and the Early Solar System, 436-461, Univ. of Arizona. [2] Humayan M. and Clayton R. N. (1993) LPSC XXIV, 685-686. [3] Davis A. M. et al. (1990) Nature, 347, 655-658. [4] Wulf A. V. and Palme H. (1991) LPSC XXII, 1527-1528. [5] McDonough W. F. et al. (1992) GCA, 56, 1001-1012. Figure 1 appears here in the hard copy.

Jochum, K. P.; Palme, H.

1993-07-01

228

Is the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program Acceptable to Parents from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioural parenting programs are an effective intervention for behavioural and emotional problems in children, however these programs have low utilisation rates by culturally diverse parents. We examined the cultural acceptability of program materials, preferences for delivery methods, and barriers to use of the Triple P-Positive Parenting

Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew; Goadby, Elizabeth; Headley, Clea; Hodge, Lauren; McAuliffe, Christine; Pope, Sue; Anderson, Emily

2011-01-01

229

Generation Differences in Perceptions of Parents and Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although anecdotal material suggests that parenting changes people, experimental tests in this area are lacking. Undergraduates (N=139) and their same-sex parents read one of eight summaries of parent-child interactions which varied in terms of success and in terms of the sex of the story character. Descriptions were reduced to three parent

McBride, Angela Barron; Austin, Joan Kessner

230

Titanium Mass-balance Analysis of Paso Robles Soils: Elemental Gains and Losses as Affected by Acid Alteration Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Columbia Hills soils have been exposed to aqueous alteration in alkaline [1] as well as acid conditions [2,3]. The Paso Robles class soils are bright soils that possess the highest S concentration of any soil measured on Mars [2]. Ferric-sulfate detection by Moessbauer analysis indicated that acid solutions were involved in forming these soils [4]. These soils are proposed to have formed by alteration of nearby rock by volcanic hydrothermal or fumarolic activity. The Paso Robles soils consist of the original Paso Robles-disturbed-Pasadena (PR-dist), Paso Robles- PasoLight (PR-PL), Arad-Samra, Arad-Hula, Tyrone- Berker Island1 and Tyrone-MountDarwin [2 ,3. ]Chemical characteristics indicate that the PR-dist and PR-PL soils could be derived from acid weathering of local Wishstone rocks while the Samra and Hula soils are likely derived from local Algonquin-Iroquet rock [3]. The Paso Robles soils were exposed to acidic sulfur bearing fluids; however, little else is known about the chemistry of the alteration fluid and its effects on the alteration of the proposed parent materials. The objectives of this work are to conduct titanium normalized mass-balance analysis to1) assess elemental gains and losses from the parent materials in the formation of the Paso Robles soils and 2) utilize this information to indicate the chemical nature of the alteration fluids.

Sutter, Brad; Ming, Douglas W.

2010-01-01

231

Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Soil Biota  

E-print Network

Conservation Service May 2001 Rangeland Sheet 8 What are soil biota? Soil biota, the biologically active, and earthworms), can live in an acre of soil and are more diverse than the community of plants and animals above and earthworms, shred dead leaves and residue, mix them with the soil, and make organic material more accessible

232

Variability of organic material in surface horizons of the hyper-arid Mars-like soils of the Atacama Desert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work was to investigate the variability of surface organic carbon within the hyper-arid Yungay region of the Atacama Desert. The fraction of Labile Organic Carbon (LOC) in these samples varied from 2 to 73 ?g per gram of soil with a bi-modal distribution with average content of 17 ± 9 ?g LOC and 69 ± 3 ?g LOC for "low" and "high" samples, respectively. Interestingly, there was no relation between organic levels and geomorphologic shapes. While organics are deposited and distributed in these soils via eolic processes, it is suggested that fog is the dynamic mechanism that is responsible for the variability and peaks in organic carbon throughout the area, where a "high" LOC content sample could be indicative of a biological process. It was determined that there was no significant difference between topological feature or geographical position within the hyper-arid samples and LOC. This very curious result has implications for the investigation of run-off gullies on the planet Mars as our work suggests a need for careful consideration of the expectation of increases in concentrations of organic materials associated with following aqueous altered topology.

Fletcher, Lauren E.; Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Perez-Montaño, Saul; Condori-Apaza, Renee M.; Conley, Catharine A.; McKay, Christopher P.

2012-01-01

233

Summary of hydrologic and physical properties of rock and soil materials, as analyzed by the hydrologic laboratory of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1948-60  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Hydrologic Laboratory was established in 1948 to serve as the central testing laboratory for the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since then, thousands of samples of rock and soil materials have been analyzed in the laboratory. Analytical data on samples from 42 States and for the period 1948-60 are summarized in this report. The data are presented in a form that allows easy comparison of the physical and hydrologic properties of many sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rock and soil materials. Sedimentary rocks--the principal water-bearing rocks analyzed--are discussed in detail.

Morris, D.A.; Johnson, A.I.

1967-01-01

234

Descriptors: Elementary School Parents  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to analyze parental or guardian attitudes, general education behavior of parents and homework assistance behavior. The amount of time spent on assisting students with homework will also be studied. The objectives of this study was to (1) analyze parental involvement attitudes in relationship to grade level of the child, parent’s gender, parent’s age, educational level of the parent, employment status of the parent and child’s grades, (2) analyze parental behaviors in relationship to grade level of the child, parent’s gender, parent’s age, educational level of the parent, employment status of the parent and child’s grades, and (3) analyze the relationship of parent’s help with schoolwork and the child’s grades. The population of this study consisted of parents or guardians from Area Three of the Chicago Public School System to respond to the questionnaire designed by the i researcher to question the relationships between parent attitudes, parent behaviors, and the child’s grades and parents help with schoolwork. The research instrument for this study was divided into three parts. Part I contains demographic information. Part II consists of 26 attitude questions ranked on a

Veronica Mcdaniel

235

Development of a standard reference material for Cr(vi) in contaminated soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the last several decades, considerable contamination by hexavalent chromium has resulted from the land disposal of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR). COPR contains a number of hexavalent chromium-bearing compounds that were produced in high temperature industrial processes. Concern over the carcinogenic potential of this chromium species, and its environmental mobility, has resulted in efforts to remediate these waste sites. To provide support to analytical measurements of hexavalent chromium, a candidate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material?? (SRM 2701), having a hexavalent chromium content of approximately 500 mg kg -1, has been developed using material collected from a waste site in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. The collection, processing, preparation and preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the material are discussed. A two-phase multi-laboratory testing study was carried out to provide data on material homogeneity and to assess the stability of the material over the duration of the study. The study was designed to incorporate several United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) determinative methods for hexavalent chromium, including Method 6800 which is based on speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), an approach which can account for chromium species inter-conversion during the extraction and measurement sequence. This journal is ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.

Nagourney, S.J.; Wilson, S.A.; Buckley, B.; Kingston, H.M.S.; Yang, S.-Y.; Long, S.E.

2008-01-01

236

Keep your soil covered  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn residue is being considered as a possible feedstock for biofuels production. The long-term impacts on soil health of removing this residue are not well understood. Plant material is one of the soil’s main sources of organic materials. Organic matter is a very important component of soil. It su...

237

Earthworms and soil fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Earthworms redistribute organic materials within the soil, increase soil penetrability and, und certain conditions, influence ion transport in soils. Root distribution may be modified and microbial activity increased by their burrowing and feeding activities. Earthworms influence the supply of nutrients in several ways. Not only is earthworm tissue and cast material enriched in certain nutrients, relative to the soil

J. K. Syers; J. A. Springett

1984-01-01

238

Cr(VI) adsorption/desorption on untreated and mussel shell-treated soil materials: fractionation and effects of pH and chromium concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used batch-type experiments to study Cr(VI) adsorption/desorption on granitic material, forest soil, pyritic material, mussel shell, and on forest soil and granitic material amended with 12 t ha-1 shell, considering the effects of varying Cr(VI) concentration and pH. Sequential extractions were carried out to fractionate adsorbed Cr(VI) and to determine the stability of Cr(VI) retention. The pyritic material had the highest Cr(VI) retention capacity, whereas the granitic material showed the lowest retention potential. When high Cr concentrations were added, some saturation of the adsorbent surfaces became apparent, but Cr release remained low. The highest Cr retention was achieved at very acid pH value, with release progressively increasing as a function of increasing pH. The amendment with 12 t ha-1 mussel shell did not cause marked changes in Cr(VI) retention. Adsorption data were satisfactory adjusted to the Freundlich model. Regarding Cr(VI) fractionation, the soluble fraction (weakly bound) was the dominant in mussel shell and in the un-amended and amended granitic material, whereas more stable fractions dominated in the pyritic material (residual fraction) and in the forest soil (oxidizable fraction). In conclusion, the pyritic material presented the highest Cr(VI) retention capacity, while the retention was low and weak on the granitic material; mussel shell was characterized by not marked Cr(VI) retention potential, and it did not cause remarkable increase in Cr(VI) retention when used to amend the granitic material or the forest soil.

Otero, M.; Cutillas-Barreiro, L.; Nóvoa-Muñoz, J. C.; Arias-Estévez, M.; Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J.; Álvarez-Rodríguez, E.; Núñez-Delgado, A.

2014-12-01

239

A quantitative comparison of Soil Development in four climatic regimes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new quantitative Soil Development Index based on field data has been applied to chronosequences formed under different climatic regimes. The four soil chronosequences, developed primarily on sandy deposits, have some numeric age control and are located in xeric-inland (Merced, Calif.), xeric-coastal (Ventura, Calif.), aridic (Las Cruces, N. Mex.), and udic (Susquehanna Valley, Pa.) soil-moisture regimes. To quantify field properties, points are assigned for developmental increases in soil properties in comparison to the parent material. Currently ten soil-field properties are quantified and normalized for each horizon in a given chronosequence, including two new properties for carbonate-rich soils in addition to the eight properties previously defined. When individual properties or the combined indexes are plotted as a function of numeric age, rates of soil development can be compared in different climates. The results demonstrate that (1) the Soil Development Index can be applied to very different soil types, (2) many field properties develop systematically in different climatic regimes, (3) certain properties appear to have similar rates of development in different climates, and (4) the Profile Index that combines different field properties increases significantly with age and appears to develop at similar rates in different climates. The Soil Development Index can serve as a preliminary guide to soil age where other age control is lacking and can be used to correlate deposits of different geographical and climatic regions. ?? 1983.

Harden, J.W.; Taylor, E.M.

1983-01-01

240

Soil Chemistry Still Affected 23 Years After Large Application of Fluidized Bed Material  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to assess the movement of arsenic, aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury and zinc in an old apple (Malus domestica Borkh) orchard that received a one time application of 36 kg/ m2 of fluidized bed combustion material (FBCM) 23 years earlier. S...

241

MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...

242

Discipline: Parents' and  

E-print Network

Parenting Styles and Discipline: Parents' and Children's Perspectives SUMMARY REPORT The National Children's Strategy Research Series #12;#12;Parenting Styles and Discipline: Parents' Perspectives SUMMARY national survey of parenting styles and discipline in Ireland. A large body of research literature

O'Mahony, Donal E.

243

Proactive Parent Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents examples of teacher-parent interactions designed to help teachers communicate with parents. The scenarios involve a teacher communicating with parents about a struggling student, a teacher communicating with parents about a student's behavior problems, and a teacher attempting to communicate with a confrontational parent. Teacher prompts…

Babcock, Sharel; Backlund, Judy

2001-01-01

244

ANALYSIS OF SULFUR IN SOIL, PLANT AND SEDIMENT MATERIALS: SAMPLE HANDLING AND USE OF AN AUTOMATED ANALYZER  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods for analyzing soil, vegetation and sediment samples for total S and handling soil samples for analysis of S constituents were examined. ECO automated total S anelyzer (SC-132) was used for the analysis of vegetation, sediments and soil samples. esults from the LECO analyz...

245

Questions about Biological Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... About Biological Parents Family Life Listen Questions About Biological Parents Article Body As you raise your adopted ... to her life—the fact that she has biological parents elsewhere—that may make it necessary for ...

246

Acidification of forest soil in Russia: From 1893 to present  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is commonly believed that fine-textured soils developed on carbonate parent material are well buffered from possible acidification. There are no data, however, that document resistance of such soils to acidic deposition exposure on a timescale longer than 30-40 years. In this paper, we report on directly testing the long-term buffering capacity of nineteenth century forest soils developed on calcareous silt loam. In a chemical analysis comparing archived soils with modern soils collected from the same locations ???100 years later, we found varying degrees of forest-soil acidification in the taiga and forest steppe regions. Land-use history, increases in precipitation, and acidic deposition were contributing factors in acidification. The acidification of forest soil was documented through decreases in soil pH and changes in concentrations of exchangeable calcium and aluminum, which corresponded with changes in communities of soil microfauna. Although acidification was found at all three analyzed locations, the trends in soil chemistry were most pronounced where the highest loading of acidic deposition had taken place. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

Lapenis, A.G.; Lawrence, G.B.; Andreev, A.A.; Bobrov, A.A.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

2004-01-01

247

Acidification of forest soil in Russia: From 1893 to present  

SciTech Connect

It is commonly believed that fine-textured soils developed on carbonate parent material are well buffered from possible acidification. There are no data, however, that document resistance of such soils to acidic deposition exposure on a timescale longer than 30-40 years. In this paper, we report on directly testing the long-term buffering capacity of nineteenth century forest soils developed on calcareous silt loam. In a chemical analysis comparing archived soils with modern soils collected from the same locations similar to 100 years later, we found varying degrees of forest-soil acidification in the taiga and forest steppe regions. Land-use history, increases in precipitation, and acidic deposition were contributing factors in acidification. The acidification of forest soil was documented through decreases in soil pH and changes in concentrations of exchangeable calcium and aluminum, which corresponded with changes in communities of soil microfauna. Although acidification was found at all three analyzed locations, the trends in soil chemistry were most pronounced where the highest loading of acidic deposition had taken place.

Lapenis, A.G.; Lawrence, G.B.; Andreev, A.A.; Bobrov, A.A.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

2003-01-02

248

Parental Involvement to Parental Engagement: A Continuum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the literature of the field, this article traces a continuum between parental involvement with schools, and parental engagement with children's learning. The article seeks to shed light on an area of confusion; previous research has shown that different stakeholder groups understand "parental engagement" in different ways.…

Goodall, Janet; Montgomery, Caroline

2014-01-01

249

Resilient Parenting: Overcoming Poor Parental Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identified groups of mothers with varying patterns of adaptive functioning and bonds with their own parents. These patterns were related to mothers' parenting of their own children to understand how some mothers avoid repeating the cycle of poor parenting. Data from 210 new mothers were analyzed before hospital discharge about bonding…

Travis, Wendy J.; Combs-Orme, Terri

2007-01-01

250

Changes in soil CO2 efflux of organic calcaric soils due to disturbance by wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disturbances such as windthrow or insect infestations are supposed to have a significant influence on the soil carbon balance of affected forests. Increasing soil temperatures and changes in the soil moisture regime, caused by the removed tree layer, are expected to change soil CO2 efflux, also known as soil respiration. Beside an anticipated stimulation of the carbon mineralization, the main part of root allocated CO2 is offset due to the blown down trees. On mountain forest sites of the Northern Limestone Alps, where highly active organic soils above calcareous parent material are characteristic (Folic Histosols and Rendzic Leptosols), an increase of the mineralization rate of carbon may contribute to enormous humus losses. Serious site degradation can be the consequence, especially on south exposed slopes where extreme climatic conditions occur. The present study tries to give insights to disturbance induced changes in temporal and spatial behaviour of soil respiration for a montane mountain forest located in the Northern Limestone Alps of Upper Austria. Soil respiration, soil temperature and volumetric water content were measured on two windthrow areas (blow down dates were 2007 and 2009 respectively) as well as in an adjacent mature mixed forest during the vegetation periods of 2010 and 2011. Soil respiration in both years was mainly driven by soil temperature, which explained up to 90 % of the concerning temporal variation. Volumetric water content had a significant influence as additional temporal driver. After removing the temperature trend, significant differences in basal soil respiration rates were found for the disturbance area and the forest stand. Inter seasonal declines in soil respiration were ascertained for the mature stand as well as for the recent windthrow. Particular decreases are related to drought stress in summer 2011 and a proceeded decomposition of labile soil carbon components at the windthrow site. An interaction between soil type and stratum showed a distinctive decrease in the soil CO2 efflux pattern for organic soils by comparing the recent and old disturbance areas. Such a downward trend was also detected on the more recently disturbed area in the consecutive years. These findings support the assumption that carbon mineralization can account for excessive losses in soil organic carbon after forest disturbance, whereas organic humus soils are supposed to be particularly vulnerable. This study is part of the INTERREG Bayern-Österreich 2007 -2013 project 'SicAlp - Standortssicherung im Kalkalpin' which is funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and national funding.

Mayer, M.; Katzensteiner, K.

2012-04-01

251

A new model for humic materials and their interactions with hydrophobic organic chemicals in soil-water or sediment-water systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A generalized model of humic materials in soils and sediments, which is consistent with their observed properties, is presented. This model provides a means of understanding the interaction of hydrophobic pollutants with humic materials. In this model, it is proposed that the humic materials in soils and sediments consist of a number of different oligomers and simple compounds which result from the partial degradation of plant remains. These degradation products are stabilized by incorporation into humic aggregates bound together by weak bonding mechanisms, such as hydrogen bonding, pi bonding, and hydrophobic interactions. The resulting structures are similar to micelles or membranes, in which the interiors of the structures are hydrophobic and the exteriors are hydrophilic. Hydrophobic compounds will partition into the hydrophobic interiors of the humic micelles or "membrane-like" structures. ?? 1986.

Wershaw, R.L.

1986-01-01

252

Organic carbon stocks and sequestration rates of forest soils in Germany  

PubMed Central

The National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) provides the Greenhouse Gas Reporting in Germany with a quantitative assessment of organic carbon (C) stocks and changes in forest soils. Carbon stocks of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil (30 cm) were estimated on the basis of ca. 1.800 plots sampled from 1987 to 1992 and resampled from 2006 to 2008 on a nationwide grid of 8 × 8 km. Organic layer C stock estimates were attributed to surveyed forest stands and CORINE land cover data. Mineral soil C stock estimates were linked with the distribution of dominant soil types according to the Soil Map of Germany (1 : 1 000 000) and subsequently related to the forest area. It appears that the C pool of the organic layer was largely depending on tree species and parent material, whereas the C pool of the mineral soil varied among soil groups. We identified the organic layer C pool as stable although C was significantly sequestered under coniferous forest at lowland sites. The mineral soils, however, sequestered 0.41 Mg C ha?1 yr?1. Carbon pool changes were supposed to depend on stand age and forest transformation as well as an enhanced biomass input. Carbon stock changes were clearly attributed to parent material and soil groups as sandy soils sequestered higher amounts of C, whereas clayey and calcareous soils showed small gains and in some cases even losses of soil C. We further showed that the largest part of the overall sample variance was not explained by fine-earth stock variances, rather by the C concentrations variance. The applied uncertainty analyses in this study link the variability of strata with measurement errors. In accordance to other studies for Central Europe, the results showed that the applied method enabled a reliable nationwide quantification of the soil C pool development for a certain period. PMID:24616061

Grüneberg, Erik; Ziche, Daniel; Wellbrock, Nicole

2014-01-01

253

Soil Response to Global Change: Soil Process Domains and Pedogenic Thresholds (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacity of soil to withstand perturbations, whether driven by climate, land use change, or spread of invasive species, depends on its chemical composition and physical state. The dynamic interplay between stable, well buffered soil process domains and thresholds in soil state and function is a strong determinant of soil response to forcing from global change. In terrestrial ecosystems, edaphic responses are often mediated by availability of water and its flux into and through soils. Water influences soil processes in several ways: it supports biological production, hence proton-donor, electron-donor and complexing-ligand production; it determines the advective removal of dissolution products, and it can promote anoxia that leads microorganisms to utilize alternative electron acceptors. As a consequence climate patterns strongly influence global distribution of soil, although within region variability is governed by other factors such as landscape age, parent material and human land use. By contrast, soil properties can vary greatly among climate regions, variation which is guided by the functioning of a suite of chemical processes that tend to maintain chemical status quo. This soil 'buffering' involves acid-base reactions as minerals weather and oxidation-reduction reactions that are driven by microbial respiration. At the planetary scale, soil pH provides a reasonable indicator of process domains and varies from about 3.5 to10, globally, although most soils lie between about 4.5 and 8.5. Those that are above 7.5 are strongly buffered by the carbonate system, those that are characterized by neutral pH (7.5-6) are buffered by release of non-hydrolyzing cations from primary minerals and colloid surfaces, and those that are <6 are buffered by hydrolytic aluminum on colloidal surfaces. Alkali and alkaline (with the exception of limestone parent material) soils are usually associated with arid and semiarid conditions, neutral pH soils with young soils in both dry and wet environments and acid soils with wet environments. Furthermore acid soils often have lost much of their easily weatherable primary minerals and their soluble (plant nutrient) ions, and thus much of their ability to buffer against acidity introduced by biological respiration and its products. Acid soils are closer to thermodynamic equilibrium with their near-surface environment and are less vulnerable to change compared with soils that contain a substantial supply of weatherable minerals (young soils) or carbonate minerals (dry soils). The impact of changing seasonal and annual rainfall and evapotranspiration patterns associated with climate change depends on how current pedogenic thresholds manifest across the landscape. We expect that humid soils subjected to drying should undergo less change than arid or semi-arid soils subjected to wetter seasonal conditions. Land-use changes can drive differential responses depending on changing chemistry and porosity. Collectively these factors provide the framework from which to predict and map soil sensivity to global change and climate change in particular.

Chadwick, O.; Kramer, M. G.; Chorover, J.

2013-12-01

254

Bioremediation of distillery sludge into soil-enriching material through vermicomposting with the help of Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was bioremediation of distillery sludge into a soil-enriching material. It was mixed with a complementary waste, cattle dung, and subjected to vermicomposting with (V) and without (T, control) Eisenia fetida in the ratio of 0:100 % (V1, T1), 10:90 (V2, T2), 25:75 (V3, T3), 50:50 (V4, T4), 75:25 (V5, T5) and 100:0 % (V6, T6), respectively. Survival rate, growth rate, onset of maturity, cocoon production and population build-up increased with increasing ratio of cattle dung. Maximum mortality of earthworm was observed in V6 mixture. On the basis of response surface design, the concentration of sludge giving highest number of worms, cocoons and hatchlings came out to be 21.11, 24.51 and 17.19 %, respectively. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium and pH increased during vermicomposting but decreased in the products without earthworm and there was increase in the contents of transition metals in the products of both the techniques. However, organic carbon, electrical conductivity and potassium showed an opposite trend. PMID:25113550

Singh, Jaswinder; Kaur, Arvinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

2014-10-01

255

"Lou soil", a fertile anthropogenic soil with thousands of years of cultivating history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese farmers have a very long history of using manures in their fields. Owing to the long-term addition of manures, an anthropogenic layer was formed on the top of original soil profile (drab soil) in Guanzhong Plains on the south edge of the Loess Plateau, North China. This soil is named the Manural Loessial soil (or Lou soil, "Lou" means the different stories of a building in Chinese). The depth of anthropogenic layer is in range of about 30 to 100 cm depth, which has a close relationship with the soil productivity. This fertile agricultural soil has sustained the agriculture in the region for millenniums. We had determined the organic carbon (SOC) in 7 soil profiles, and found that the depths of anthropogenic layer of were in range of 40 to 71 cm (averaging 59 cm). And the anthropogenic layer became shallower as the profile was far from the village due to less manure application. The organic C stocks in this layer accounted for 69% of organic C stocks in 0-100 cm soil profiles. Organic C stocks in Lou soil was higher than that in the newly cultivated soil developed from loess parent materials. Our 30-day incubation experiment found that addition of synthetic N fertilizer significantly increased the decomposition of SOC in the soils. However, The decomposition rate of SOC in the soil added with manure and inorganic fertilizers for 18-yr (MNPK soil) was significantly lower than in the soils added without fertilizer or inorganic fertilizers (NF soil, and NPK soils). The half-life of the organic C in MNPK soils was also slower than the NF soil, and NPK soil. It indicates that long-term combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers improves the stabilization of soil organic C. Long-term cultivation has not only increased organic C stocks, but also stabilization of organic C in soil profile. It provides us a unique sample to study the mechanism of accumulation and stabilization of organic C in soil to balance agricultural production and C sequestration in a warming earth. Our micro-plot experiment with 15N-labeled fertilizer in the long-term fertilizer trial found that the use efficiency of N fertilizer (NUE) in MNPK soil was higher than the NPK soil and NF soil in both wheat-summer fallow and winter wheat and summer corn rotation system. However, the N fertilizer losses in MNPK soil was lower than the NPK soil and NF soil in the two systems. We concluded that the long-term combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers improves N synchrony between the supply and crop demand, and reduces its loss. Since the 1980s, however, the application of manure to arable fields has declined in Guanzhong Plain, and in other parts of China, due to the increasing use of inorganic fertilizers, and labor costs to apply manure. The nutrient input of the arable fields are heavily dependent on inorganic fertilizers. It changes the biogeochemical cycling of the ecosystem, and results in a series of problems, including eutrophication, greenhouse gas emission, and nitrate leaching. Therefore, we need to find the alternatives to solve the problems, to conserve this old anthropogenic soil while producing enough food to feed the growing population.

Zhou, J.; Liang, B.; Yan, J.; Zhao, W.

2012-12-01

256

New elements in teaching soil-landscape relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A landscape is an area whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors. Landscapes are fundamental spatial units for soil scientists working in the fields of soil survey and soil geography. For these scientists but also for those who use their products (e.g. maps), interrelations between geology, geomorphology, soil formation and derived soil patterns in relation to land use are keys to the understanding of landscape functions. Many of these relations have been documented in aging soil survey reports but these are often difficult to access. As a result, important and unique soil-landscape phenomena remain hidden for other environmental scientists or the general public. In the Netherlands, efforts have been undertaken to aggregate information from soil survey reports and recent scientific insights into a new book with the aim to teach students the basic elements in soil-landscape research and to provide insights into valuable earth phenomena that are in need of preservation and/or careful management. New elements include amongst others: - State-of-the-art graphics to show how basic soil forming factors such as climate (change), parent material and time are interrelated. - Detailed catenas for specific soil-landscape systems, showing the relations between geomorphology and soil genesis. - Combining traditional soil maps with high-resolution DEM data to make soil-landscape relations more explicit. - Indicating the extent and impacts of land use change using maps of land use history. With this approach, current insights into natural patterns of geodiversity and pedodiversity are documented and available as a resource for education but also for policy makers working in the fields of geoheritage.

Sonneveld, M. P. W.

2012-04-01

257

Parental Involvement. IDRA Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter contains seven articles about meaningful participation by parents, particularly Hispanic and other minority parents, in the education of their children. "Parents Reclaiming Their Schools: New Initiative Brings Parents Together for Better Schools" (Aurelio M. Montemayor) describes objectives and activities of a Texas-based coalition…

IDRA Newsletter, 1994

1994-01-01

258

Parent Hearing Aid Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

2012-01-01

259

A Chance to Parent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While parents with disabilities may face big challenges, with appropriate supports, many can be great parents. Just like other parents, they do not have to be responsible for every part of childrearing all by themselves. All parents rely on supports to help raise their children, such as day care, carpools, schools, babysitting co-ops, or advice…

Yuan, Susan; Brillhart, Lindsay; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

260

Customizing Parenting Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors of this article discuss customizing parent education which requires customized assessment. At Auburn University, Kreg Edgmon and Wally Goddard developed a parent assessment based on the National Extension Parent Education Model (NEPEM) (Smith, Cudaback, Goddard, & Myers-Walls, 1994). All items in the parent assessment were tested with…

Goddard, H. Wallace; Dennis, Steven A.

2004-01-01

261

Involving Latino Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes barriers to Latino parent involvement in educational activities, factors to consider when involving Latino parents, and two examples of Latino involvement programs in California: Family Literacy Workshop at James Monroe Elementary School, Madera Unified School District, and Parents Take P.A.R.T. (Parent Assisted Reading Training) at…

Quezada, Reyes L.; Diaz, Delia M.; Sanchez, Maria

2003-01-01

262

Codependency and Parenting Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between the parent-child relationship (as perceived by late adolescent-early adult children) and the adolescent's codependency. College students 17through 22 years of age (N = 175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father (via ratings of perceived parental support and coercive control) and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style

Judith L. Fischer; Duane W. Crawford

1992-01-01

263

School Parent Involvement Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This school parent involvement policy is divided into three sections: (1) Development and Adoption of the Parent Involvement Policy; (2) Contents of the Parent Involvement Policy; and (3) Distributing and Revising the School's Parent Involvement Policy. This paper presents the provision of the Section 1118 of Title I of the No Child Left Behind…

Center for Law and Education (NJ3), 2005

2005-01-01

264

Cultural Approaches to Parenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing

Marc H. Bornstein

2012-01-01

265

Correlates of Adolescent Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied correlates of teenage parenting in self-selected sample of 177 teenage parents. Parental race, punitive attitudes toward child rearing, and parental age were statistically significant predictors of total Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores. Older, white adolescent mothers with less punitive attitudes toward child…

Reis, Janet S.; Herz, Elicia J.

1987-01-01

266

MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPORT EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC MATERIALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLO-GICAL MATERIAL (EPA/600/SR-97/099)  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...

267

Influence of perennial plants on chemical properties of arid calcareous soils in Iran  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted a study in Bajgah to determine the influence of perennial plants on some selected properties of soils formed on the highly calcareous parent material. The major plant genera were determined to be Agropyron, Artemisia, Astragalus, Dianthus, Eryngium, Peganum, Polygonum, Stipa, and Thymus. Tops of plants genera were found to be significantly different in ash, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Zn, and Cu; the concentration of Fe was not significantly different. The authors found the plants to differ significantly in their influence on soil properties. Peganum caused an accumulation of organic matter (OM) as high as 7% in the soil, in an environment where the soils typically contain less than 1% OM. Soil concentrations of P, K, Mn, Zn, and Cu were also found to vary significantly beneath different plant genera. They suggest these differences in OM accumulation were caused by plant litter. Concentration of Fe in the soils formed beneath different plant genera was statistically unchanged.

Karimian, N.; Razmi, K. (Shiraz Univ. (Iran))

1990-10-01

268

Spatial variability characteristics of soil available N, P, and K and their influencing factors at the county scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial variability, a major feature of soils, was generally influenced by various factors, relative studies on which laid solid foundations for precision agriculture. In this investigation, method of geostatistics combined with GIS was used to analyze the spatial variability characteristics of soil available nitrogen (SAN), soil available phosphorus (SAP) and soil available potassium (SAK) and their influencing factors in Shuangliu county Sichuan province, China. The results showed that, SAP and SAK were normally distributed through naturally logarithmic transformation. Semivariogram analysis revealed that SAN and SAK were highly spatial correlated, while SAP moderately spatial correlated, and the spatially dependent ranges of SAN, SAK and SAP contents were 21590m, 76903m and 23300m, respectively. Through ordinary Kriging interpolation, SAN, SAP and SAK presented different varying tendencies in the study area. SSR test indicated that SAN was significantly different depending on different soil types; SAP was significantly different depending on terrain conditions and soil parental materials; SAK was strongly affected by soil parental materials. The fertilizer application rate at the regions with high soil available N, P and K contents was obviously higher than that with low soil available nutrient contents.

Pang, Su; Li, Tinxuan; Wang, Yongdong; Yu, Haiying

2009-06-01

269

Lunar Soil Particle Separator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) beneficiates soil prior to in situ resource utilization (ISRU). It can improve ISRU oxygen yield by boosting the concentration of ilmenite, or other iron-oxide-bearing materials found in lunar soils, which can substantially reduce hydrogen reduction reactor size, as well as drastically decreasing the power input required for soil heating

Berggren, Mark

2010-01-01

270

Reconceptualizing Parent Involvement: Parent as Accomplice or Parent as Partner?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policy statements of the last two decades have directed schools to enter into partnerships with parents to enhance the social, emotional, and academic growth of their children. However, in practice and scholarship, parental involvement has been constructed as attendance to school-based activities and needs. This article draws on data from an…

Stitt, Nichole M.; Brooks, Nancy J.

2014-01-01

271

Novel approach for quantitatively estimating element retention and material balances in soil profiles of recharge basins used for wastewater reclamation.  

PubMed

We investigated changes in element content and distribution in soil profiles in a study designed to monitor the geochemical changes accruing in soil due to long-term secondary effluent recharge, and its impact on the sustainability of the Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) system. Since the initial elemental contents of the soils at the studied site were not available, we reconstructed them using scandium (Sc) as a conservative tracer. By using this approach, we were able to produce a mass-balance for 18 elements and evaluate the geochemical changes resulting from 19 years of effluent recharge. This approach also provides a better understanding of the role of soils as an adsorption filter for the heavy metals contained in the effluent. The soil mass balance suggests 19 years of effluent recharge cause for a significant enrichment in Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mg, K, Na, S and P contents in the upper 4m of the soil profile. Combining the elements lode record during the 19 years suggest that Cr, Ni, and P inputs may not reach the groundwater (20 m deep), whereas the other elements may. Conversely, we found that 58, 60, and 30% of the initial content of Mn, Ca and Co respectively leached from the upper 2-m of the soil profile. These high percentages of Mn and Ca depletion from the basin soils may reduce the soil's ability to buffer decreases in redox potential pe and pH, respectively, which could initiate a reduction in the soil's holding capacity for heavy metals. PMID:25300016

Eshel, Gil; Lin, Chunye; Banin, Amos

2015-01-01

272

Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions and Parenting Practices  

PubMed Central

A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the Five-Factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the five personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process. PMID:21443335

Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

2011-01-01

273

Spatial variability of available soil microelements in an ecological functional zone of Beijing.  

PubMed

Understanding the spatial variability of soil microelements and its influencing factors is of importance for a number of applications such as scientifically formulated fertilizer and environmental protection. This study used descriptive statistics and geostatistics to investigate the spatial variability of available soil Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn contents in agricultural topsoil (0-20 cm) in an ecological functional zone located at Yanqing County, Beijing, China. Kriging method was applied to map the spatial patterns of available soil Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn contents. Results showed that the available soil Cu had a widest spatial correlation distance (e.g., 9.6 km), which for available soil Fe, Mn, and Zn were only 1.29, 2.58, and 0.99 km, respectively. The values of C 0/sill for available soil Fe and Zn were 0.12 and 0.11, respectively, demonstrating that the spatial heterogeneity was mainly due to structural factors. The available soil Mn and Cu had the larger values of C 0/sill (i.e., 0.50 and 0.44 for Mn and Cu, respectively), which showed a medium spatial correlation. Mapping of the spatial patterns of the four microelements showed that the decrease trend of available soil Fe and Mn were from northeast to southwest across the study area. The highest amount of available soil Cu was distributed in the middle of the study area surrounding urban region which presented as a "single island". The highest amount of available soil Zn was mainly distributed in the north and south of the study area. One-way analysis of variance for the influencing factors showed that the lithology of parental materials, soil organic matter, and pH were important factors affecting spatial variability of the available microelements. The topography only had a significant influence on the spatial variability of available soil Fe and Mn contents, parental materials, and the land use types had little influence on the spatial variability. PMID:25619696

Ye, Huichun; Shen, Chongyang; Huang, Yuanfang; Huang, Wenjiang; Zhang, Shiwen; Jia, Xiaohong

2015-02-01

274

Effects of organic materials added to vary acid soils on pH, aluminum, exchangeable NHâ, and crop yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alfalfa meal, sucrose, and peat moss were added in large amounts to very acid soil to find their effects on yields of barley and alfalfa grown in the greenhouse. Alfalfa meal was found to be the most effective. Its action was attributed primarily to complexing of exchangeable Al and, in consequence, decreasing toxic quantities of Al in the soil. The

P. B. Hoyt; R. C. Turner

1975-01-01

275

Games in an Introductory Soil Science Course: A Novel Approach for Increasing Student Involvement with Course Material  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An optional 1-credit recitation course was developed to supplement a traditionally taught 4-credit lecture-plus-laboratory course in soil science at Oregon State University. Popular, competitive games that would be familiar to students were revised to be "soils-based" and were employed in the recitation class. These games were seen as a potential…

Sulzman, Elizabeth W.

2004-01-01

276

Conserving Soil. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book of enrichment materials is an interdisciplinary study of soil designed for students in grades 6-9. The materials are presented in three units. Unit 1 contains eight activities in which students investigate soil science and study the social impact of soil by examining the history of land use by local Native Americans. Unit 2 contains 10…

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

277

Mercury content of Illinois soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For a survey of Illinois soils, 101 cores had been collected and analyzed to determine the current and background elemental compositions of Illinois soils. Mercury and other elements were determined in six samples per core, including a surface sample from each core. The mean mercury content in the surface samples was 33 ?? 20 ??g/kg soil, and the background content was 20 ?? 9 ??g/kg. The most probable sources of mercury in these soils were the parent material, and wet and dry deposition of Hg0 and Hg2+ derived from coal-burning power plants, other industrial plants, and medical and municipal waste incinerators. Mercury-bearing sewage sludge or other fertilizers applied to agricultural fields could have been the local sources of mercury. Although the mercury content correlated with organic carbon content or clay content in individual cores, when all the data were considered, there was no strong correlation between mercury and either the organic carbon or the clay-size content.

Dreher, G.B.; Follmer, L.R.

2004-01-01

278

Lateral diversity of regolith and soils under a mountain slope - implications for interpretation of hillslope materials and processes, Central Sudetes, SW Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent forestry road cut on the slopes of Mt Wysoka (Sudetes Mountains, Central Europe) exposed a 1.6 km-long, nearly continuous outcrop of hillslope regolith. The regolith is divided into two main parts. The lower one is made of disintegrated tuff, while the upper part, from less than 1 m to at least 3 m thick, includes five different lithological types which combine to form recurring layered vertical sequences of cover materials. This upper part is markedly transformed by pedogenesis. The main aims of the paper are to examine and explain vertical and lateral diversity of these cover materials and to review the findings in the context of their origin and age. Methods included field regolith mapping and soil research followed by basic laboratory analyses of soil properties, including particle size distribution, pH and organic carbon content. Topmost fine-grained and coarse open-work surface materials have been subject to some, although limited downslope transport, while the underlying layers, although lithologically different, are interpreted as mainly products of bedrock weathering and pedogenic alterations, with minimal downslope movement. Slope corrugation into shallow hollows, indistinct spurs and long sections of planar slope exerts an effect on hillslope materials and soil-forming processes via pathways of groundwater circulation. Open-work structures are mainly products of preferential eluviation. Periglacial inheritance in the regolith is uncertain and these layered materials should not be interpreted as indicators of changing environmental conditions in the late Pleistocene. Regional models of hillslope covers do not fit the complexity of regolith present on Mt Wysoka. Generalizations about hillslope materials are better avoided if a limited number of outcrops is investigated.

Migo?, Piotr; Kacprzak, Andrzej

2014-09-01

279

Data analysis of the 1984 and 1986 soil sampling programs at Materials Disposal Area T in the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

An environmental surveillance program for Materials Disposal Area T (MDA-T) at Los Alamos, New Mexico is described. The waste-use history of this disposal site is described, followed by a description of the materials and methods used to analyze data from two surface soil radionuclide sampling programs performed at this disposal site. The disposal site`s physical features are related to the spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration contours in an attempt to evaluate radionuclide migration mechanisms in and around the site. The usefulness of the data analysis efforts is evaluated and recommendations are made for future studies.

Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.

1993-09-01

280

Origin of nitrogen in reforested lignite-rich mine soils revealed by stable isotope analysis  

SciTech Connect

Restoration of the nitrogen cycle is an important step in the recovery of an ecosystem after open-cast mining. Carbon and nitrogen in rehabilitated lignite containing mine soils can be derived from plant material as well as from lignite inherent to the parent substrate. We assessed the use elemental and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements to trace the origin of soil nitrogen and applied these techniques to elucidate the origin of mineral N in the soil and the soil solution. The conceptual approach of this study included physical fractionation in addition to sampling of vegetation and soil from a lignite-containing mine site in Lusatia rehabilitated in 1985 with Pinus Nigra. We studied the elemental and isotopic composition of bulk samples as well as isolated fractions and soil solution. Our data indicate that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of the soil samples are the result of mixing between plant material and substrate inherent lignite. {delta}{sup 15}N isotopes may be used as indicators of nitrogen contribution from plants to solid samples as well as soil solution. N-isotope composition of ammonia shows low spatial and interannual variability, despite strong concentration changes. Plant-derived nitrogen contributes in higher amounts to the soil solution compared to the bulk mineral soil. 45 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Abad Chabbi; Mathieu Sebilo; Cornelia Rumpel; Wolfgang Schaaf; Andre Mariotti [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Department of Soil Protection and Recultivation

2008-04-15

281

Distribution and characterization of soils and landform relationships in Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the spatial distribution of soils from the northern part of Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, which is the largest ice-free area of the South Shetlands archipelago, Maritime Antarctica. Physical and chemical characteristics are presented for 23 soil profiles. Soil parent materials vary from marine sedimentary to volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks, intruded by igneous bodies. To assess soil-landscape relationships, twenty-three soil profiles were described and sampled. Soil samples of selected horizons were submitted to chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses. Soil mapping was based on the soil profiles, integrated with the existent topographic map (1:25.000 scale), a digital elevation model, the geological map and a satellite image. Twenty different soil units were identified and mapped. According to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) system, soils were classified as Fluvisols, Regosols, Leptosols or Cryosols, which correspond mostly to Fluvents, Orthents/Psamments, Inceptsols and Gelisols, respectively, according to the Soil Taxonomy. Soils from northern Byers Peninsula are generally shallow and coarse textured, with low organic matter content. Three soils from the rocky platforms of the northern coastal region possess ornithogenic character, with lower pH, higher P, Al3 + and organic C values when compared to soils not influenced by sea birds. In non-ornithogenic soils, the presence of easily weatherable minerals in the clay fraction indicates that physical weathering occurs with limited chemical alteration of primary minerals. The influence of penguin and other birds on coastal soils alters clay mineralogy, with formation of poorly crystalline P-rich phases. A better understanding of the depth of the permafrost table and the spatial distribution of permafrost is necessary for a more conclusive classification of Cryosols or Gelisols.

Moura, Pedro Adnet; Francelino, Marcio R.; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Simas, Felipe N. B.; de Mendonça, Bruno A. F.

2012-06-01

282

There is Significant Stress among Parents Having Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the level of parenting stress and associating factors of stress in parents rearing children with autism. Materials and Methods: The sample included 60 parents (30 fathers, 30 mothers) of 30 children with diagnosis of autism. The sample was taken from different hospitals and institutions of mental retardation in Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Wah Cantt, Pakistan from 2005-2006. Stress

Fazaila Sabih; Wahid Bakhsh Sajid

283

Soil moisture: Some fundamentals. [agriculture - soil mechanics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief tutorial on soil moisture, as it applies to agriculture, is presented. Information was taken from books and papers considered freshman college level material, and is an attempt to briefly present the basic concept of soil moisture and a minimal understanding of how water interacts with soil.

Milstead, B. W.

1975-01-01

284

Parent to Parent: Giftedness with a Twist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discovering that a child is gifted can be both exhilarating and daunting. Parents watch in amazement and awe as their 3-year-old reads a first-grade-level book flawlessly, or they might listen to their preschool child's distress over seeing a homeless person on the street. Parents observe as their 6-year-old dismantles a broken CD player and…

McGee, Christy D.

2012-01-01

285

Some characteristics of soils on the man made mounds in the Harran Plain of Turkey.  

PubMed

Morphological, chemical and some mineralogical characteristics of five soils, were researched to understand the genesis of soils on the man made mounds in the Harran Plain, in the Southeast Anatolia Region of Turkey. Five soil profiles developed on the man made mounds in the arid region. Time and climate have affected soil formation. Also, parent material has influenced the chemistry of soils. The parent material of man made mounds were carried from around soils in the Harran Plain by men in years ago. The parent materials of around soils are calcareous parent materials and alluvium materials. Pedon 1 was described on the Konuklu man made mounds the northeast of the study area and Pedon 5 was described on the Küplüce man made mounds the southeast of the study area. According to the place of man made mounds were ordered from north to south as following: Pedon 1, Pedon 2, Pedon 3, Pedon 4 and Pedon 5. The old of Konuklu mounds is approximately 5000-6000 years. The old of Sultantepe and Koruklu mounds are approximately 6000 years. Pedon 4 which was described on the old Harran city remnants have the youngest soils of study area. The Harran mounds was made in 1258 A.I. by Mongolians. Mongolians destroyed the Harran City and made the Harran mounds. The most important pedogenic processes is carbonate leaching and accumulation in the pedon 5 on the Küplüce man made mounds. The CaCO3 content of Pedon 5 may be attributed to eolian addition from Syria. Total Al2O3 contents of soils higher than total Fe2O3 content. According to the degree of soil formation the profiles were ordered as following: Pedon 3 > Pedon 5 > Pedon 2 > Pedon 1 > Pedon 4. The results of total elements analysis were used to determine the beta leaching factor according to Jenny. The leaching factor were determined as < 1 in the Pedon 1 (0.99), Pedon 2 (0.97), Pedon 3 (0.74) and Pedon 5 (0.92). The leaching factor were determined as >1 in the Pedon 4(1.13). PMID:19093499

Irmak, Seyyid; Surucu, Abdülkadir

2007-12-15

286

A simple method to determine mineralization of (14) C-labeled compounds in soil.  

PubMed

Degradation of organic compounds in soil is often determined by measuring the decrease of the parent compound and analyzing the occurrence of its metabolites. However, determining carbon species as end products of parent compound dissipation requires using labeled materials that allow more accurate determination of the environmental fate of the compound of interest. The current conventional closed system widely used to monitor degradation of (14) C-labeled compounds in soil is complex and expensive and requires a specialized apparatus and facility. In the present study, the authors describe a simple system that facilitates measurement of mineralization of (14) C-labeled compounds applied to soil samples. In the system, soda lime pellets to trap mineralized (14) C-carbon species, including carbon dioxide, were placed in a cup, which was then inserted above the treated soil sample in a tube. Mineralization of [(14) C]2,4-D applied to soil samples in the simple system was compared with that in the conventional system. The simple system provided an equivalent detection of (14) C-carbon species mineralized from the parent compound. The results demonstrate that this cost- and space-effective simple system is suitable for examining degradation and mineralization of (14) C-labeled compounds in soil and could potentially be used to investigate their mineralization in other biological matrices. PMID:24677225

Myung, Kyung; Madary, Michael W; Satchivi, Norbert M

2014-06-01

287

Spatial variability and temporal changes in the trace metal content of soils: implications for mine restoration plan.  

PubMed

Trace metals in soils may be inherited from the parent materials or added to the system due to anthropogenic activities. In proposed mining areas, trace metals become an integral part of the soil system. Usually, researchers undertake experiments on plant species selection (for the restoration plan) only after the termination of mining activities, i.e. without any pre-mining information about the soil-plant interactions. Though not shown in studies, it is clear that several recovery plans remain unsuccessful while carrying out restoration experiments. Therefore, we hypothesize that to restore the area effectively, it is imperative to consider the pre-mining scenario of metal levels in parent material as well as the vegetation ecology of the region. With these specifics, we examined the concentrations of trace metals in parent soils at three proposed bauxite locations in the Eastern Ghats, India, and compared them at a spatio-temporal scale. Vegetation quantification and other basic soil parameters accounted for establishing the connection between soil and plants. The study recorded significant spatial heterogeneity in trace metal concentrations and the role of vegetation on metal availability. Oxidation reduction potential (ORP), pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) directly influenced metal content, and Cu and Ni were lithogenic in origin. It implies that for effective restoration plant species varies for each geological location. PMID:24493264

Chandra, Rachna; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Azeez, P A

2014-06-01

288

2000 years of paddy soil development - gain and loss of soil carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term impact of lowland rice growing on C stocks in soils was evaluated in the coastal region of subtropical China. During the past 2000 years new farmland was created through consecutive land reclamation by protective dikes, providing a unique chronosequence of soil formation under agricultural use. Parts of the land were used for paddy rice, other parts for a variety of non-irrigated crops, allowing study of the C dynamics of paddy soil development in direct comparison to soils not used for lowland rice cultivation (non-paddy). Beside one soil profile at the mudflat, which represents the parent material, soil profiles of the chronosequence were sampled by horizon in triplicate, ranging from 50 to 2000 years of paddy soil use and from 50 to 700 year old non-paddy soils. All samples were analysed for 14C concentrations and for bulk density, total C (TC) as well as organic C (OC) and inorganic C (IC) concentrations, and the corresponding stocks were calculated. In addition, topsoils were subjected to a physical fractionation procedure to evaluate changes of OC saturation in particle size fractions during soil development. In the first 300 years, rice cultivation did not significantly change TC stocks of the soils compared to that of non-paddy soils. The fast decalcification in paddy soils was compensated by a similar gain of OC in the topsoil. Higher 14C concentrations indicate the original C of the sediment in paddy topsoils was replaced faster by recently photosynthesized C than in non-paddy topsoils. OC accumulation in paddy topsoils appears to be complete after 300 years. High increases of OC in paddy topsoils may be due to high OC inputs associated with retarded decomposition during flooding of paddy fields. After 300 years, the decalcification in paddy soils was not compensated anymore by further enrichment of OC in the topsoil. In addition, the paddy soils lost OC in the subsoil. The dense plough pan decreases OC transport from the paddy topsoil into the subsoil, while OC transport in non-paddy soils is unimpeded. Therefore, the replacement of the old sedimentary C by new OC was slower in the paddy subsoils than in the non-paddy soils as indicated by 14C data. The enrichment of OC in paddy topsoils in the first 300 years can be directly related to increasing OC contents and saturation levels in the silt- and clay-sized fractions. However, ongoing redistribution of OC between silt- and clay- sized fractions after 300 years indicates that small-scale processes of OC storage are still proceeding.

Koelbl, A.; Kalbitz, K.; Fiedler, S.; Braeuer, T.; Grootes, P. M.; Cao, Z.; Jahn, R.; Vogelsang, V.; Wissing, L.; Koegel-Knabner, I.

2010-12-01

289

Can Low Water/Rock Hydrothermal Alteration of Impact Materials Explain the Rock Component of the Martian Soil?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The martian regolith is a globally homogenized product of chemical and aeolian weathering processes. The soil is thought to consist of a rock component, with lesser amounts of mobile elements (Ca, Na, and K) than a presumed protolith, and a salt or mobile element component enriched in sulfur and chlorine. In this study we consider the contributions of hydrothermal processes to the origin of the rock component of the martian soil.

Nelson, M. J.; Newsom, H. E.

2003-01-01

290

Soil development as limiting factor for shrub expansion in southwestern Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern Greenland currently experiences an increase in summer temperatures and a prolonged growing season (Masson-Delmotte et al. 2012), resulting in an increased shrub cover at the boreal - tundra border ecotone (Normand et al. 2013). These findings suggest the beginning of a greener Greenland in which tundra vegetation is transformed to a boreal woody flora. However, vegetation at borderline ecotones is influenced by further ecologic factors than just temperature. In this study, the ecologic conditions at a selection of sites along an elevation gradient near Igaliku in southern Greenland were examined to identify potential factors limiting the expansion of woody vegetation apart from temperature. The sites differ in elevation, topography, shrub density and soil parent material. The three study sites comprise i) well established birch shrubs growing between 50 and 180 m a.s.l., where the parent material origins from the Julianehab granite (Brooks 2012); ii) extended shrub patches at about 250 m a.s.l., where the parent material consists of Gardar Sandstones and Lavas (Brooks 2012) and iii) restricted shrub patches at an elevation of 250 m a.s.l., where the soil parent material originates from the Gardar intrusions (Brooks 2012). The extent of the shrub areas, topography and soil moisture were mapped, additionally soil samples were analyzed for C-and N-content, texture including coarse fraction and pH and used as soil development indicators. Our results show that the topographic setting regulates the existence or absence of soil while the soil parent material is an important limiting factor for soil moisture. According to these findings, we suggest that a high proportion of areas where temperature increase would allow the increase of shrub cover is not suitable for a woody flora. Brooks, Kent. 2012. "A Tale of Two Intrusions—where Familiar Rock Names No Longer Suffice." Geology Today 28 (1): 13-19. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2451.2012.00815.x. Masson-Delmotte, V., D. Swingedouw, A. Landais, M. S. Seidenkrantz, E. Gauthier, V. Bichet, C. Massa, B. Perren, V. Jomelli, and G. Adalgeirsdottir. 2012. "Greenland Climate Change: From the Past to the Future." Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/wcc.186/full. Normand, Signe, Christophe Randin, Ralf Ohlemüller, Christian Bay, Toke T. Høye, Erik D. Kjær, Christian Körner, et al. 2013. "A Greener Greenland? Climatic Potential and Long-Term Constraints on Future Expansions of Trees and Shrubs." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 368 (1624) (August 19): 20120479. doi:10.1098/rstb.2012.0479.

Caviezel, Chatrina; Hunziker, Matthias; Zoller, Oliver; Wüthrich, Christoph; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

2014-05-01

291

When Parents Argue  

MedlinePLUS

... you. But your parents' arguments are never your fault. Parents are responsible for their own actions and ... feels better and life can get back to normal. Being part of a family means everyone pitches ...

292

Sexual Orientation (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... being gay is caused by early childhood experiences, parenting styles, or the way someone is raised. Efforts to ... 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents ... and Answers About Sex Teaching Your Child Tolerance Transgender People Am I in a Healthy ...

293

Parent Outreach Success  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through the Massachusetts Parent Involvement Project (MassPIP), teams of community businesses, service organizations, school personnel, parents, and children joined together and planned and conducted science, mathematics, and technology related activities

Nitzberg, Joel; Sparrow, Judith

2001-11-01

294

Bacterial community composition in Brazilian Anthrosols and adjacent soils characterized using culturing and molecular identification.  

PubMed

Microbial community composition was examined in two soil types, Anthrosols and adjacent soils, sampled from three locations in the Brazilian Amazon. The Anthrosols, also known as Amazonian dark earths, are highly fertile soils that are a legacy of pre-Columbian settlement. Both Anthrosols and adjacent soils are derived from the same parent material and subject to the same environmental conditions, including rainfall and temperature; however, the Anthrosols contain high levels of charcoal-like black carbon from which they derive their dark color. The Anthrosols typically have higher cation exchange capacity, higher pH, and higher phosphorus and calcium contents. We used culture media prepared from soil extracts to isolate bacteria unique to the two soil types and then sequenced their 16S rRNA genes to determine their phylogenetic placement. Higher numbers of culturable bacteria, by over two orders of magnitude at the deepest sampling depths, were counted in the Anthrosols. Sequences of bacteria isolated on soil extract media yielded five possible new bacterial families. Also, a higher number of families in the bacteria were represented by isolates from the deeper soil depths in the Anthrosols. Higher bacterial populations and a greater diversity of isolates were found in all of the Anthrosols, to a depth of up to 1 m, compared to adjacent soils located within 50-500 m of their associated Anthrosols. Compared to standard culture media, soil extract media revealed diverse soil microbial populations adapted to the unique biochemistry and physiological ecology of these Anthrosols. PMID:19381712

O'Neill, B; Grossman, J; Tsai, M T; Gomes, J E; Lehmann, J; Peterson, J; Neves, E; Thies, J E

2009-07-01

295

Spatial distributions and potential risk analysis of total soil selenium in Guangdong Province, China.  

PubMed

A total of 260 soil profiles were examined to investigate the spatial distribution of total soil selenium (Se) in Guangdong province, China. In the investigated area, the soil Se concentrations follow an approximately lognormal distribution. The soil Se geometric mean concentration of 0.23 mg kg(-1) is higher than that of Chinese soils; however, Se concentration varies over the study area. The baseline concentration of 0.13 to 0.41 mg kg(-1) indicates that the soil Se concentration is mostly in the range of deficiency to medium level for surface soils in Guangdong province. In A-, B-, and C-horizon, soil Se spatial distribution is correlated with the nature of the parent material, with high Se concentration mainly located in limestone and sandshale areas and low Se concentration associated with purple shale and granite areas. The spatial distribution pattern of soil Se concentrations suggests that potential Se deficiency may be an issue for human health in this province. Moreover, due to soil degradation and erosion, calculated soil Se exported into surrounding waters could reach approximately 23,000 kg yr(-1) in the study area. PMID:18453398

Zhang, H H; Wu, Z F; Yang, C L; Xia, B; Xu, D R; Yuan, H X

2008-01-01

296

Parenting after Infertility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

Olshansky, Ellen

2009-01-01

297

Single Parent Adoption.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presenting two views of the single-parent family, this pamphlet includes an article by two researchers (William Feigelman and Arnold R. Silverman) and a short statement by a single adoptive parent (Amanda Richards). The first paper summarizes earlier research on single-parent adoptions and discusses the results of a nationwide survey of 713…

Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

298

A Parent Communication Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this communication group is to train parents in the skills of active listening and conflict resolution. The model borrows extensively from Gordon's Parent Effectiveness Training. The parents learn to use communication skills and problem-solving techniques. (Author/PC)

McWhirter, J. Jeffries; Kahn, Sharon E.

1974-01-01

299

The Parent Loan Trap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the cost of college has spiraled ever upward and median family income has fallen, the loan program, called Parent PLUS, has become indispensable for increasing numbers of parents desperate to make their children's college plans work. Last year the government disbursed $10.6-billion in Parent PLUS loans to just under a million families. Even…

Wang, Marian; Supiano, Beckie; Fuller, Andrea

2012-01-01

300

Perspectives on Parenting Styles  

E-print Network

Children's Perspectives on Parenting Styles and Discipline: A Developmental Approach The National Children's Strategy Research Series #12;#12;Children's Perspectives on Parenting Styles and Discipline Aims of the study 9 Approach to the research 10 2. liTerATure review 11 Effects of parents on children

O'Mahony, Donal E.

301

NYS Foster Parent Manual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed for use in foster parents' day-to-day life with the children in their care. It gives them practical information on topics like medical care, payments, and the role of the court, and also provides guidance on areas like welcoming a child, discipline, and parent visits. The manual emphasizes the role of foster parents in…

McBride, Rebecca

2007-01-01

302

Effects of aqueous extract of soil-like substrate made from three different materials on seed germination and seedling growth of rice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biologically processing rice and wheat straws into soil-like substrate (SLS) and then reusing them in plant cultivation system to achieve waste recycle is very crucially important in Bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). However, rice is a plant with strong allelopathic potential. It is not clear yet that what kinds of raw materials can be processed into proper SLS to grow rice in BLSS. Therefore, in this study, the aqueous extract of SLS made from three different materials including rice straw, wheat straw and rice-wheat straw mixture was utilized to investigate its effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of rice. The gradients of the extract concentrations (soil:water) were 1:3, 1:5, 1:9, and 1:15 with deionized water used as control. The effects of different types of SLS on seed germination and seedling vitality of rice were confirmed by analyzing the germination rate, seedling length, root length, the fresh weight and other indicants. In addition, based on the analysis towards pH, organic matter composition and other factors of the SLS as well as the chlorophyll, hormone content of rice, and the mechanism of the inhibition was speculated in order to explore the preventive methods of the phenomenon. Finally, the feasibility of cultivating rice on SLSs made from the raw materials mentioned above was evaluated and wheat raw was determined as the most appropriate material for growing rice.

Shao, Lingzhi; Fu, Yuming; Fu, Wenting; Yan, Min; Li, Leyuan; Liu, Hong

2014-03-01

303

Rock and Soil Types at Pathfinder Landing Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Type areas of rocks and soils. (A) Dark rock type and bright soil type: Shown is the dark rock Barnacle Bill. Reflectance spectra typical of fresh basalt and APXS spectra indicating more silica-rich basaltic andesite compositions characterize this type. These rocks are typically the small boulders and intermediate-sized cobbles at the Pathfinder site. The bright soil type is very common and in this case comprises Barnacle Bill's wind tail and much of the surround soil area. This soil has a high reflectance and a strongly reddened spectrum indicative of oxidized ferric minerals. (B) Bright rock type: Shown is the bright rock Wedge. Reflectance spectra typical of weathered basalt and APXS spectra indicating basaltic compositions characterize this type. These rocks are typically larger than 1 meter in diameter and many display morphologies indicating flood deposition. (C) Pink rock type: Shown is the pink rock Scooby Doo. APXS and reflectance spectra indicate a composition and optical characteristics similar to the drift soil. However, the morphology of the pink rock type indicates a cemented or rocklike structure. This material may be a chemically cemented hardpan that underlies much of the Pathfinder site. (D) Dark soil type: The dark soil type is typically found on the windward sides of rocks or in rock-free areas like Photometry Flats (shown here) where the bright soil has been striped away by aeolian action or in open areas. Other locations include the Mermaid Dune. (E) Disturbed soil type: The darkening of disturbed soil relative to its parent material, bright soil, as a result of changes in soil texture and compaction caused by movement of the rover and retraction of the lander airbag. (F) Lamb-like soil type: This soil type shows reflectance and spectral characteristics intermediate between the bright and dark soils. Its distinguishing feature is a weak spectral absorption near 900 nanometers not seen in either the bright or dark soils.

NOTE: original caption as published in Science Magazine

Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

1997-01-01

304

A history of Soil Survey in England and Wales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early soil mapping in Britain was dominated, as in the USA, by soil texture with maps dating back to the early 1900's identifying surface texture and parent rock materials. Only in the 1920's did Dokuchaev's work in Russia involving soil morphology and the development of the soil profile start to gain popularity, drawing in the influence of climate and topography on pedogenesis. Intentions to create a formal body at this time responsible for soil survey were not implemented and progress remained slow. However, in 1939 definite steps were taken to address this and the soil survey was created. In 1947, its activities were transferred from Bangor to the research branch of the Rothamsted experimental station in Hertfordshire under Professor G.W. Robinson. Soon after, a number of regional offices were also established to act as a link with the National Agricultural Advisory Service. At this time a Pedology Department was established at Rothamsted, focussing on petrological, X-ray, spectrographic and chemical analyses. Although not a Rothamsted Department itself, the Survey did fall under the 'Lawes Agricultural Trust'. A Soil Survey Research Advisory Board was also formed to act as a liaison with the Agricultural Field Council. In Scotland by contrast, soil survey activities became centred on the Macaulay Institute in Aberdeen. Developments in the survey of British soils were accompanied in parallel by the development of soil classification systems. In 1930 a Soils Correlation Committee had been formed to ensure consistency in methods and naming of soil series and to ensure the classification was applied uniformly. In England and Wales the zonal system adopted was similar to that used in the USA, where soil series were named after the location where they were first described. American soil scientists such as Veitch and Lee provided stimulus to the development of mapping methods. In Scotland a differing classification was adopted, being similar to that used in Canada, recognising the importance of the soil drainage characteristics within areas of similar parent material. This led to the adoption of the soil catena approach and the usage of soil 'associations'. With Britain entering the Second World War in 1939, there followed the almost complete cessation of survey activities and it was only in the aftermath of that war that recruitment of surveyors could re-commence. The first Soil Survey Field Handbook was published in 1940. Systematic and formal national soil survey activities across both England and Wales can be dated back to 1947 when work commenced to provide a complete picture of the soil resources of the two countries. Mapping at 1:25,000 scale, almost half the land was covered when, in 1979, the survey received instructions, together with the Scottish survey, to complete respective national maps at 1:250,000, which were published in the early 1980s. Attention then turned again to mapping lowland areas in more detail as well as specialised and thematic maps. However, in 1987 systematic survey was terminated and staff of the Soil Survey of England and Wales disbanded to form the Soil Survey and Land Research Centre (SSLRC) at what became Cranfield University - where its successor, the National Soil Resources Institute (NSRI) operates currently.

Hallett, S.; Deeks, L.

2012-04-01

305

The occurrence, sources and spatial characteristics of soil salt and assessment of soil salinization risk in Yanqi basin, northwest China.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the soil salinization risk of the oases in arid land of northwest China, we chose a typical oasis-the Yanqi basin as the research area. Then, we collected soil samples from the area and made comprehensive assessment for soil salinization risk in this area. The result showed that: (1) In all soil samples, high variation was found for the amount of Ca2+ and K+, while the other soil salt properties had moderate levels of variation. (2) The land use types and the soil parent material had a significant influence on the amount of salt ions within the soil. (3) Principle component (PC) analysis determined that all the salt ion values, potential of hydrogen (pHs) and ECs fell into four PCs. Among them, PC1 (C1-, Na+, SO4(2-), EC, and pH) and PC2 (Ca2+, K+, Mg2+and total amount of salts) are considered to be mainly influenced by artificial sources, while PC3 and PC4 (CO3(-) and HCO3(2-)) are mainly influenced by natural sources. (4) From a geo-statistical point of view, it was ascertained that the pH and soil salt ions, such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3(-), had a strong spatial dependency. Meanwhile, Na+ and Cl- had only a weak spatial dependency in the soil. (5) Soil salinization indicators suggested that the entire area had a low risk of soil salinization, where the risk was mainly due to anthropogenic activities and climate variation. This study can be considered an early warning of soil salinization and alkalization in the Yanqi basin. It can also provide a reference for environmental protection policies and rational utilization of land resources in the arid region of Xinjiang, northwest China, as well as for other oases of arid regions in the world. PMID:25211240

Zhaoyong, Zhang; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Yimit, Hamid

2014-01-01

306

The Occurrence, Sources and Spatial Characteristics of Soil Salt and Assessment of Soil Salinization Risk in Yanqi Basin, Northwest China  

PubMed Central

In order to evaluate the soil salinization risk of the oases in arid land of northwest China, we chose a typical oasis-the Yanqi basin as the research area. Then, we collected soil samples from the area and made comprehensive assessment for soil salinization risk in this area. The result showed that: (1) In all soil samples, high variation was found for the amount of Ca2+ and K+, while the other soil salt properties had moderate levels of variation. (2) The land use types and the soil parent material had a significant influence on the amount of salt ions within the soil. (3) Principle component (PC) analysis determined that all the salt ion values, potential of hydrogen (pHs) and ECs fell into four PCs. Among them, PC1 (C1-, Na+, SO42-, EC, and pH) and PC2 (Ca2+, K+, Mg2+and total amount of salts) are considered to be mainly influenced by artificial sources, while PC3 and PC4 (CO3- and HCO32-) are mainly influenced by natural sources. (4) From a geo-statistical point of view, it was ascertained that the pH and soil salt ions, such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3-, had a strong spatial dependency. Meanwhile, Na+ and Cl- had only a weak spatial dependency in the soil. (5) Soil salinization indicators suggested that the entire area had a low risk of soil salinization, where the risk was mainly due to anthropogenic activities and climate variation. This study can be considered an early warning of soil salinization and alkalization in the Yanqi basin. It can also provide a reference for environmental protection policies and rational utilization of land resources in the arid region of Xinjiang, northwest China, as well as for other oases of arid regions in the world. PMID:25211240

Zhaoyong, Zhang; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Yimit, Hamid

2014-01-01

307

Evaluation of a Blog Based Parent Involvement Approach by Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the well-known benefits of parent involvement in children's education, research clearly shows that it is difficult to effectively involve parents. This study aims to capture parents' views of a Blog Based Parent Involvement Approach (BPIA) designed to secure parent involvement in education by strengthening school-parent communication. Data…

Ozcinar, Zehra; Ekizoglu, Nihat

2013-01-01

308

Evaluation of meat and bone meal combustion residue as lead immobilizing material for in situ remediation of polluted aqueous solutions and soils: "chemical and ecotoxicological studies".  

PubMed

As a result of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, meat and bone meal (MBM) production can no longer be used to feed cattle and must be safely disposed of or transformed. MBM specific incineration remains an alternative that could offer the opportunity to achieve both thermal valorization and solid waste recovery as ashes are calcium phosphate-rich material. The aim of this work is to evaluate ashes efficiency for in situ remediation of lead-contaminated aqueous solutions and soils, and to assess the bioavailability of lead using two biological models, amphibian Xenopus laevis larvae and Nicotiana tabaccum tobacco plant. With the amphibian model, no toxic or genotoxic effects of ashes are observed with concentrations from 0.1 to 5 g of ashes/L. If toxic and genotoxic effects of lead appear at concentration higher than 1 mg Pb/L (1 ppm), addition of only 100 mg of ashes/L neutralizes lead toxicity even with lead concentration up to 10 ppm. Chemical investigations (kinetics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis) reveals that lead is quickly immobilized as pyromorphite [Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2] and lead carbonate dihydrate [PbCO(3).2H2O]. Tobacco experiments are realized on contaminated soils with 50, 100, 2000 and 10000 ppm of lead with and without ashes amendment (35.3g ashes/kg of soil). Tobacco measurements show that plant elongation is bigger in an ashes-amended soil contaminated with 10000 ppm of lead than on the reference soil alone. Tobacco model points out that ashes present two beneficial actions as they do not only neutralize lead toxicity but also act as a fertilizer. PMID:17240054

Deydier, E; Guilet, R; Cren, S; Pereas, V; Mouchet, F; Gauthier, L

2007-07-19

309

Quantifying soil and critical zone variability in a forested catchment through digital soil mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying catchment-scale soil property variation yields insights into critical zone evolution and function. The objective of this study was to quantify and predict the spatial distribution of soil properties within a high-elevation forested catchment in southern Arizona, USA, using a combined set of digital soil mapping (DSM) and sampling design techniques to quantify catchment-scale soil spatial variability that would inform interpretation of soil-forming processes. The study focused on a 6 ha catchment on granitic parent materials under mixed-conifer forest, with a mean elevation of 2400 m a.s.l, mean annual temperature of 10 °C, and mean annual precipitation of ~ 85 cm yr-1. The sample design was developed using a unique combination of iterative principal component analysis (iPCA) of environmental covariates derived from remotely sensed imagery and topography, and a conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS) scheme. Samples were collected by genetic horizon from 24 soil profiles excavated to the depth of refusal and characterized for soil mineral assemblage, geochemical composition, and general soil physical and chemical properties. Soil properties were extrapolated across the entire catchment using a combination of least-squares linear regression between soil properties and selected environmental covariates, and spatial interpolation or regression residual using inverse distance weighting (IDW). Model results indicated that convergent portions of the landscape contained deeper soils, higher clay and carbon content, and greater Na mass loss relative to adjacent slopes and divergent ridgelines. The results of this study indicated that (i) the coupled application of iPCA and cLHS produced a sampling scheme that captured the greater part of catchment-scale soil variability; (ii) application of relatively simple regression models and IDW interpolation of residuals described well the variance in measured soil properties and predicted spatial correlation of soil properties to landscape structure; and (iii) at this scale of observation, 6 ha catchment, topographic covariates explained more variation in soil properties than vegetation covariates. The DSM techniques applied here provide a framework for interpreting catchment-scale variation in critical zone process and evolution. Future work will focus on coupling results from this coupled empirical-statistical approach to output from mechanistic, process-based numerical models of critical zone process and evolution.

Holleran, M.; Levi, M.; Rasmussen, C.

2015-01-01

310

Volatile element depletion and K-39/K-41 fractionation in lunar soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence for selective loss and isotopic fractionation (in the case of K) of volatile elements during formation of agglutinates by micrometeoritic bombardment of lunar soils is presented. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of volatile elements (K, Rb, Pb) and nonvolatile elements (U, Th, Ba, Sr, rare earths) in separates taken from soils 14163, 14259, 15041, 68501, and 71500 are examined. Rayleigh fractionation calculations applied to K-39/K-41 isotopic data indicate ten-fold recycling of bulk soil, to account for observed isotopic anomalies. The lunar soil fines fraction seems to be a site of deposition for volatile or labile Pb produced during agglutination. Local fines (below 75 microns) are viewed as representative of the parent material for agglutinates formed in situ by micrometeoritic impact. Magnetic separation of agglutinates from soil 68501 revealed a bimodal population, with one class comprising welded blocky magnetic glasses.

Church, S. E.; Tilton, G. R.; Wright, J. E.; Lee-Hu, C.-N.

1976-01-01

311

Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil at the Former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company Site, Fairfield, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company site in Fairfield, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that, after remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed (1) 30 mrem/yr for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or (2) 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material (RESRAD) computer code, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

Faillace, E.R.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

1995-01-01

312

Amount of organic matter required to induce sulfate reduction in sulfuric material after re-flooding is affected by soil nitrate concentration.  

PubMed

Acid sulfate soils (ASS) with sulfuric material can be remediated through microbial sulfate reduction stimulated by adding organic matter (OM) and increasing the soil pH to >4.5, but the effectiveness of this treatment is influenced by soil properties. Two experiments were conducted using ASS with sulfuric material. In the first experiment with four ASS, OM (finely ground mature wheat straw) was added at 2-6% (w/w) and the pH adjusted to 5.5. After 36 weeks under flooded conditions, the concentration of reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) and pore water pH were greater in all treatments with added OM than in the control without OM addition. The RIS concentration increased with OM addition rate. The increase in RIS concentration between 4% and 6% OM was significant but smaller than that between 2% and 4%, suggesting other factors limited sulfate reduction. In the second experiment, the effect of nitrate addition on sulfate reduction at different OM addition rates was investigated in one ASS. Organic matter was added at 2 and 4% and nitrate at 0, 100, and 200 mg nitrate-N kg(-1). After 2 weeks under flooded conditions, soil pH and the concentration of FeS measured as acid volatile sulfur (AVS) were lower with nitrate added at both OM addition rates. At a given nitrate addition rate, pH and AVS concentration were higher at 4% OM than at 2%. It can be concluded that sulfate reduction in ASS at pH 5.5 can be limited by low OM availability and high nitrate concentrations. Further, the inhibitory effect of nitrate can be overcome by high OM addition rates. PMID:25600239

Yuan, Chaolei; Mosley, Luke M; Fitzpatrick, Rob; Marschner, Petra

2015-03-15

313

Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions, and Parenting Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the 5-factor model

Marc H. Bornstein; Chun-Shin Hahn; O. Maurice Haynes

2011-01-01

314

Games in an Introductory Soil Science Course: A Novel Approach for Increasing Student Involvement with Course Material  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes an optional recitation course that was developed to supplement a traditionally taught lecture-plus-laboratory course in soil science. Popular, competitive games that would be familiar to students were revised to be "soils-based" and were employed in the recitation class. These games were seen as a potential means to use knowledge in an atypical fashion while at the same time generating enthusiasm for the subject. Evaluation of two terms of games implementation showed that these activities increased both student enthusiasm and, potentially, course performance.

Sulzman, Elizabeth

315

Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western USA. I. Chemical characteristics of spoil and replaced cover-soil.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A range of at least one order of magnitude was observed for DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and organic matter content of samples of spoil and cover-soil from eleven western USA surface-coal mines. The observed pH of these samples ranged from 3.9 to 8.9; however, most samples were near-neutral to alkaline in reaction. Most constituent levels were found to be below proposed guidelines for maximum permissible levels in mine soil. -from Authors

Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

1983-01-01

316

Soil processes and functions across an international network of Critical Zone Observatories: Introduction to experimental methods and initial results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth in human population and demand for wealth creates ever-increasing pressure on global soils, leading to soil losses and degradation worldwide. Critical Zone science studies the impact linkages between these pressures, the resulting environmental state of soils, and potential interventions to protect soil and reverse degradation. New research on soil processes is being driven by the scientific hypothesis that soil processes can be described along a life cycle of soil development. This begins with formation of new soil from parent material, development of the soil profile, and potential loss of the developed soil functions and the soil itself under overly intensive anthropogenic land use, thus closing the cycle. Four Critical Zone Observatories in Europe have been selected focusing research at sites that represent key stages along the hypothetical soil life cycle; incipient soil formation, productive use of soil for farming and forestry, and decline of soil due to longstanding intensive agriculture. Initial results from the research show that soil develops important biogeochemical properties on the time scale of decades and that soil carbon and the development of favourable soil structure takes place over similar time scales. A new mathematical model of soil aggregate formation and degradation predicts that set-aside land at the most degraded site studied can develop substantially improved soil structure with the accumulation of soil carbon over a period of several years. Further results demonstrate the rapid dynamics of soil carbon; how quickly it can be lost, and also demonstrate how data from the CZOs can be used to determine parameter values for models at catchment scale. A structure for a new integrated Critical Zone model is proposed that combines process descriptions of carbon and nutrient flows, a simplified description of the soil food web, and reactive transport; all coupled with a dynamic model for soil structure and soil aggregation. This approach is proposed as a methodology to analyse data along the soil life cycle and test how soil processes and rates vary within, and between, the CZOs representing different life cycle stages. In addition, frameworks are discussed that will help to communicate the results of this science into a more policy relevant format using ecosystem service approaches.

Banwart, Steven; Menon, Manoj; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Bloem, Jaap; Blum, Winfried E. H.; Souza, Danielle Maia de; Davidsdotir, Brynhildur; Duffy, Christopher; Lair, Georg J.; Kram, Pavel; Lamacova, Anna; Lundin, Lars; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.; Novak, Martin; Panagos, Panos; Ragnarsdottir, Kristin Vala; Reynolds, Brian; Robinson, David; Rousseva, Svetla; de Ruiter, Peter; van Gaans, Pauline; Weng, Liping; White, Tim; Zhang, Bin

2012-11-01

317

Preschool Parent's Questionnaire: An Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Preschool Parent's Questionnaire (PPQ) was administered, in English and Spanish, to 120 parents (95 Black, 25 Mexican) of preschool children enrolled in child care programs, to ascertain the parents' attitudes regarding four basic issues: (1) parent's relationship to the child care program, (2) parent's attitudes toward teachers, (3) parent's…

Smith, Rutha L.

318

Carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of bulk soils, particle-size fractions and organic material after treatment with hydrofluoric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Soils and sediments contain only small amounts oforganic matter, and large concentrations ofpara- magnetic metals can give poor solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra oforganic matter. Pretreatment of samples with hydrofluoric acid (HF) dissolves significant proportions of the mineral matrix and extracts paramagnetic elements. We investigated the effects of 10% HF treatment on the stable isotope content ofcarbon (C)

G. G LEIXNER

2005-01-01

319

Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level II Modules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

320

Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level I Modules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

321

A Small but Sure Step: Hong Kong's First Parents Resource Centre.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes Hong Kong's first parent resource center for parents of children with handicaps, which opened in August 1990. The need by parents for emotional, educational, material, and other support and services is documented. Parents of special children are seen as a resource for each other and as advocates for their children. The report…

Ho, Sandra

322

Parenting by lying  

PubMed Central

The present set of studies identifies the phenomenon of `parenting by lying', in which parents lie to their children as a means of influencing their emotional states and behaviour. In Study 1, undergraduates (n = 127) reported that their parents had lied to them while maintaining a concurrent emphasis on the importance of honesty. In Study 2 (n = 127), parents reported lying to their children and considered doing so to be acceptable under some circumstances, even though they also reported teaching their children that lying is unacceptable. As compared to European American parents, Asian American parents tended to hold a more favourable view of lying to children for the purpose of promoting behavioural compliance. PMID:20930948

Heyman, Gail D.; Luu, Diem H.; Lee, Kang

2010-01-01

323

The distribution of soil phosphorus for global biogeochemical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) is a major element required for biological activity in terrestrial ecosystems. Although the total P content in most soils can be large, only a small fraction is available or in an organic form for biological utilization because it is bound either in incompletely weathered mineral particles, adsorbed on mineral surfaces, or, over the time of soil formation, made unavailable by secondary mineral formation (occluded). In order to adequately represent phosphorus availability in global biogeochemistry-climate models, a representation of the amount and form of P in soils globally is required. We develop an approach that builds on existing knowledge of soil P processes and databases of parent material and soil P measurements to provide spatially explicit estimates of different forms of naturally occurring soil P on the global scale. We assembled data on the various forms of phosphorus in soils globally, chronosequence information, and several global spatial databases to develop a map of total soil P and the distribution among mineral bound, labile, organic, occluded, and secondary P forms in soils globally. The amount of P, to 50cm soil depth, in soil labile, organic, occluded, and secondary pools is 3.6 ± 3, 8.6 ± 6, 12.2 ± 8, and 3.2 ± 2 Pg P (Petagrams of P, 1 Pg = 1 × 1015g) respectively. The amount in soil mineral particles to the same depth is estimated at 13.0 ± 8 Pg P for a global soil total of 40.6 ± 18 Pg P. The large uncertainty in our estimates reflects our limited understanding of the processes controlling soil P transformations during pedogenesis and a deficiency in the number of soil P measurements. In spite of the large uncertainty, the estimated global spatial variation and distribution of different soil P forms presented in this study will be useful for global biogeochemistry models that include P as a limiting element in biological production by providing initial estimates of the available soil P for plant uptake and microbial utilization.

Yang, X.; Post, W. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Jain, A.

2013-04-01

324

Parent Abuse: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse).\\u000a This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears\\u000a to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily focused on prevalence rates and

Nicola Kennair; David Mellor

2007-01-01

325

Schooling and Parental Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of a parent is one of the most traumatic events a child can face. If loss of a parent reduces investments in children, it can also have long-lasting implications. This study uses parametric and seminonpara-metric matching techniques to estimate how one human capital investment, school enrollment, is affected by a parent's recent death. We analyze data from 600,000 households

Paul Gertler; David I. Levine; Minnie Ames

2004-01-01

326

Schooling and Parental Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of a parent is one of the most traumatic events a child can face. If loss of a parent reduces investments in children, it can also have long-lasting implications. This study uses parametric and semi-nonparametric matching techniques to estimate how one human capital investment, school enrollment, is affected by a parent's recent death. We analyze data from 600,000 households

Paul Gertler; David I. Levine; Minnie Ames

2002-01-01

327

The distribution of organic material and its contribution to the micro-topography of particles from wettable and water repellent soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic coatings on mineral particles will mask the physic-chemical properties of the underlying mineral surface. Surface images and force measurements obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM) provide information about the nature of and variability in surfaces properties at the micro- to nano-scale. As AFM technology and data processing advance it is anticipated that a significant amount of information will be obtained simultaneously from individual contacts made at high frequency in non-contact or tapping mode operation. For present purposes the surfaces of model materials (smooth glass surfaces and acid-washed sand (AWS)) provide an indication of the dependency of the so-called AFM phase image on the topographic image (which is obtained synoptically). Pixel wise correlation of these images reveals how the modulation of an AFM probe is affected when topographic features are encountered. Adsorption of soil-derived humic acid (HA) or lecithin (LE), used here as an example for natural organic material, on these surfaces provides a soft and compliant, albeit partial, covering on the mineral which modifies the topography and the response of an AFM tip as it partially indents the soft regions (which contributes depth to the phase image). This produces a broadening on the data domain in the topographic/phase scatter diagram. Two dimensional classifications of these data, together with those obtained from sand particles drawn from water repellent and wettable soils, suggest that these large adsorbate molecules appear to have little preference to attach to particular topographic features or elevations. It appears that they may effectively remain on the surface at the point of initial contact. If organic adsorbates present a hydrophobic outer surface, then it seems possible that elevated features will not be immune from this and provide scope for a local, albeit, small contribution to the expression of super-hydrophobicity. It is therefore speculated here that the water repellency of a soil is the result of not only of particle surface chemistry and soil pore space geometry, but also of the micro-topography generated by organic material adsorbed on particle surfaces.

Bryant, Rob; Cheng, Shuying; Doerr, Stefan H.; Wright, Chris J.; Bayer, Julia V.; Williams, Rhodri P.

2010-05-01

328

The Influence of Soil Biodiversity on Hydrological Pathways and the Transfer of Materials between Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The boundaries between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, known as critical transition zones (CTZ), are dynamic interfaces\\u000a for fluxes of water, sediment, solutes, and gases. Moreover, they often support unique or diverse biotas. Soils, especially\\u000a those of riparian zones, have not been recognized as CTZ even though they play a critical role in regulating the hydrologic\\u000a pathways of infiltration and leaching,

R. D. Bardgett; J. M. Anderson; V. Behan-Pelletier; L. Brussaard; D. C. Coleman; C. Ettema; A. Moldenke; J. P. Schimel; D. H. Wall

2001-01-01

329

Humic acids as proxies for assessing different Mediterranean forest soils signatures using solid-state CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Humic acids (HAs) of four representative forest soils profiles from Central Spain (two with different vegetation - pine and oak - but same parent material - granitie, and two with same vegetation - holm oak - but different parent material - granite and limestone) were investigated by solid-state cross polarization with magic angle spinning (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The objectives included the investigation of the impact of different forest properties on HA composition, assessing how the structural characteristics of the HA vary with soil depth, and evaluating the role of HA as surrogates for mapping the different forest soils signatures using structural data derived from (13)C NMR spectroscopy. On average, alkyl C is the dominant C constituent (38-48% of the total NMR peak area) in all HA samples, followed by aromatic (12-22%) and O-alkyl C (12-19%), and finally carboxyl C (7.0-10%). The NMR data also indicated that HA composition is likely to be differently affected by the soil physico-chemical properties and type of forest vegetation. The structural characteristics of the HA from soil under oak did not differ broadly downward in the profile, whereas soil HA under pine forest exhibits a somewhat higher recalcitrant nature as a consequence of a higher degree of decomposition. The soil HA from holm oak forests differed from the other two forest soils, exhibiting a progressive decomposition of the alkyl C structures with increasing depth, while the carbohydrate-like indicator (O-alkyl C) is apparently being protected from mineralization in the horizons below the ground level. Overall, these differences in soil HA NMR signatures are an important diagnostic tool for understanding the role of different soil environmental factors on the structural composition of HA from Mediterranean forest soils. PMID:23332874

Duarte, Regina M B O; Fernández-Getino, Ana P; Duarte, Armando C

2013-06-01

330

Expectant parents’ experiences of parental education within the antenatal health service  

PubMed Central

Being an expectant parent is a life changing event and it is something that most people will experience in their lifetime. Many people who are parents for the first time will participate in parenting education. Most of the previous studies associated with parenting education focus on subjects such as birth outcome and breastfeeding. The purpose of this study is to focus on the less investigated aspect of the parents’ experience of participating in parenting education with Maternal Healthcare Services (MVC). A qualitative, phenomenological, hermeneutical method was selected to be used to analyze our findings and we used the statements of twenty participants to accumulate enough material to develop it into twelve sub-themes and five themes. The results of this study show that these expectant parents had few or no expectations of the parenting education that they were going to participate in. Generally speaking the parents seemed to be satisfied with the program. They described their reasons for participating as a chance to get together with other people in similar circumstances and to share information and they found a midwife to be a trustworthy professional person to confirm the information that was available to them from other sources. PMID:22241955

Norling-Gustafsson, Ann; Skaghammar, Katarina; Adolfsson, Annsofie

2011-01-01

331

INTRODUCTION Parental care demands an investment of parental resources, and  

E-print Network

of behavioral diversification, including several independent transitions in parental care strategy (Goodwin et3269 INTRODUCTION Parental care demands an investment of parental resources, and represents a trade of parental care but, despite this, males and females frequently differ in the amount and nature of parental

Renn, Susan C.P.

332

Parenting behaviour among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to the extensive amount of empirical findings about parental perceptions, parenting cognitions, and coping in families with a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research about parenting itself is very scarce. A first goal of this study was to examine the factor structure and internal consistency of two scales to measure parenting behaviour: the Parental Behaviour Scale-short version (PBS,

Greet Lambrechts; Karla Van Leeuwen; Hannah Boonen; Bea Maes; Ilse Noens

2011-01-01

333

Parenting Styles and Conceptions of Parental Authority during Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 100 mostly white, middle-class, 6th, 8th, and 10th graders and their parents. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Differences were primarily over the…

Smetana, Judith G.

1995-01-01

334

Handbook of Parenting. Volume 1: Children and Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned with different types of parents and the forces that shape parenting, this volume, the first of four volumes on parenting deals specifically with parent-child relationships throughout the lifespan and the parenting of children of different physical, behavioral, and intellectual needs. The volume consists of 12 chapters as follows: (1)…

Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.

335

Dismay and Disappointment: Parental Involvement of Latino Immigrant Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental involvement in schools has become more popular over the past decade due to Goals 2000 and research suggesting that student academic success increases when parents are included in the education of their children. Although researchers have examined the issue of parents and schools, limited research on parental involvement has been conducted within immigrant communities. Latino immigrant parents within a

A. Y. Fred Ramirez

2003-01-01

336

Handbook of Parenting. Volume 1: Children and Parenting. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned with different types of parents and the forces that shape parenting, this volume, the first of five volumes on parenting, deals specifically with parent-child relationships throughout the lifespan and the parenting of children of different physical, behavioral, and intellectual needs. The volume consists of the following 14 chapters: (1)…

Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.

337

Quality soil management or soil quality management : performance versus semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 200 years, soil science has used reductionist research to develop agricultural technologies that have unlocked the hidden potential of earth's natural systems to feed, clothe, and provide raw materials to the human population of over six billion. The soil quality paradigm seeks to change that scientific approach, the nomenclature of soil science, and institutional priorities for soil

R. E Sojka; D. R Upchurch; N. E Borlaug

2003-01-01

338

Multiple parent bodies of ordinary chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal histories of chondrite parent bodies are calculated from an initial state with material in a powder-like form, taking into account the effect of consolidation state on thermal conductivity. The very low thermal conductivity of the starting materials makes it possible for a small body with a radius of less than 100 km to be heated by several hundred degrees even if long-lived radioactive elements in chondritic abundances are the only source of heat. The maximum temperature is determined primarily by the temperature at which sintering of the constituent materials occurs. The thermal state of the interior of a chondrite parent body after sintering has begun is nearly isothermal. Near the surface, however, where the material is unconsolidated and the thermal conductivity is much lower, the thermal gradient is quite large. This result contradicts the conventional 'onion-shell' model of chondrite parent bodies. But because the internal temperature is almost constant through the whole body, it supports a 'multiple-parent bodies' model, according to which each petrologic type of chondrite comes from a different parent body.

Yomogida, K.; Matsui, T.

1984-01-01

339

Landmarks of History of Soil Science in Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sri Lanka is a tropical Island in the Southern tip of Indian subcontinent positioned at 50 55' to 90 50' N latitude and 790 42' to 810 53' E longitude surrounded by the Indian Ocean. It is an island 435 km in length and 224 km width consisting of a land are of 6.56 million ha with a population of 20 million. In area wise it is ranked as 118th in the world, where at present ranked as 47 in population wise and ranked 19th in population density. The country was under colonial rule under Portuguese, Dutch and British from 1505 to 1948. The majority of the people in the past and present earn their living from activities based on land, which indicates the important of the soil resource. The objective of this paper is to describe the landmarks of the history of Soil Science to highlight the achievements and failures, which is useful to enrich our present understanding of Sri Lankan soils. The landmarks of the history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka can be divided to three phases namely, the early period (prior to 1956), the middle period (1956 to 1972) and the present period (from 1972 onwards). During the early period, detailed analytical studies of coffee and tea soils were compiled, and these gave mainly information on up-country soils which led to fertilizer recommendations based on field trials. In addition, rice and forest soils were also studied in less detail. The first classification of Sri Lankan soils and a provisional soil map based on parent material was published by Joachim in 1945 which is a major landmark of history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka. In 1959 Ponnamperuma proposed a soil classification system for wetland rice soils. From 1963 to 1968 valuable information on the land resource was collected and documented by aerial resource surveys funded by Canada-Ceylon Colombo plan aid project. This covered 18 major river basins and about 1/4th of Sri Lanka, which resulted in producing excellent soil maps and information of the areas called the Kelani Aruvi Ara and Walawe basins. The provisional soil map was updated by many other workers as Moorman and Panabokke in 1961 and 1972 using this information. The soil map produced by De Alwis and Panabokke in 1972 at a scale of 1:500,000 was the soil maps mostly used during the past years During the present era, the need for classification of Soils of Sri Lanka according to international methods was felt. A major leap forward in Soil Survey, Classification leading to development of a soil data base was initiated in 1995 with the commencement of the "SRICANSOL" project which was a twining project between the Soil Science Societies of Sri Lanka and Canada. This project is now completed with detail soil maps at a scale of 1:250,000 and soil classified according to international methods for the Wet, Intermediate and Dry zones of Sri Lanka. A digital database consisting of soil profile description and physical and chemical data is under preparation for 28, 40 and 51 benchmark sites of the Wet, Intermediate and Dry zones respectively. The emphases on studies on Soil Science in the country at present is more towards environmental conservation related to soil erosion control, reducing of pollution of soil and water bodies from nitrates, pesticide residues and heavy metal accumulation. Key words: Sri Lanka, Provisional soil map

Mapa, R.

2012-04-01

340

Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

2006-01-01

341

Tetanus (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... called Clostridium tetani , which is often found in soil. Once the bacteria are in the body, they ... more likely to cause tetanus. Wounds contaminated with soil, saliva, or feces — especially if not properly cleaned — ...

342

Ascariasis (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... of the parasite Ascaris lumbricoides commonly found in soil and human feces are ingested. The eggs can be transmitted from contaminated food, drink, or soil. The roundworms range in size from 5.9 ...

343

Parent News Offline, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is comprised of the two issues in volume 3 of "Parent News Offline," a publication of the National Parent Information Network (NPIN) designed to introduce those without Internet access to the activities and information available through NPIN. The Spring 2001 issue contains the following articles: (1) "What To Consider in Starting a…

Robertson, Anne S., Ed.

2001-01-01

344

Rh Incompatibility (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

KidsHealth from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Q&A Recipes En Español Teachers - ...

345

Pneumocystis Pneumonia (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

KidsHealth from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Q&A Recipes En Español Teachers - ...

346

Parents and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents and the extended family are the most influential factors in the child's lifelong eating habits, general health and development, and brain power. Convincing parents of diet components that insure adequate nutrition is of prime importance; if the home does not support the content of the school's nutritional curriculum, the child may feel…

Boehnlein, Mary Maher

347

Parental Involvement in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Initially, public education came into being in this country as a direct result of the efforts of parents. However, affluence in the 1950s resulted in less need for parental assistance in the schools. Since the 1950s, the erosion of the relationship between school and home has continued. The publication "A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for…

Kimmel, Carol

348

Parent Resources Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource inventory is for the use of parent groups and others who are concerned with parent education and support services. The inventory contains the titles of articles, copies of which are available through the Alberta Education Response Centre. The articles and publications listed cover a wide range of topics related to child development…

Alberta Education Response Centre, Edmonton.

349

Handling "Helicopter Parents"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Once upon a time, parents would help their children move into dorm rooms and apartments, then wave good-bye for the semester. Not anymore. Baby boomers have arguably been more involved in their children's educations--and their lives in general--than any preceding generation of parents, university observers say. And boomers see no reason why that…

Lum, Lydia

2006-01-01

350

Understanding the Parent's Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sally Smith's contribution to the world of children with learning disabilities is well documented, particularly by the other contributors to this journal. An area deserving attention, but one usually overlooked, is Smith's understanding of the parent's perspective--the challenges of parenting a child with learning disabilities. It was a priceless…

Tilley, Kim

2010-01-01

351

Parents, Peers and Pot.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book looks at the problem of drug abuse, particularly the use of marihuana by children ages 9 to 14, and describes one strategy parents can use to prevent drug use by their children. On the premise that nonmedical drug use is not acceptable for children, parents need to provide guidance and exercise discipline with respect to drug use among…

Manatt, Marsha

352

Parents' Views on Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 73 parents, most having gifted children, examined perceptions of the development of leadership abilities. Parents identified: leader characteristics; their children's strongest and weakest areas of leadership skills; methods for encouraging leadership development; school opportunities for leadership experiences; the role of teachers,…

Meriweather, Suzanne; Karnes, Frances A.

1989-01-01

353

Pinterest for Parent Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As more parents are using the Internet to answer their questions, Extension needs to provide practical, research-based resources in an accessible format. Pinterest is a platform that can be used by Extension educators to provide continued education and make reputable resources more discoverable for parents. Based on Knowles adult learning theory…

Routh, Brianna; Langworthy, Sara; Jastram, Hannah

2014-01-01

354

Exceptional Parent, 1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the nine issues of the journal "Exceptional Parent" published during 1993. This journal contains articles particularly aimed at parents of children with disabilities. Major articles published during this period are the following: "Annual Guide to Products and Services"; "Coping with Incontinence" (Katherine F. Jeter);…

Klein, Stanley D., Ed.

1993-01-01

355

Partnering with Latino Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research confirms that parents have a profound impact on their children's educational attainment, particularly in the secondary grades. Yet many Latino parents, particularly those of first-generation college students, lack information and knowledge about what their children need to prepare for college and are less likely to help…

Clark, Amy Aparicio; Dorris, Amanda

2007-01-01

356

Parent News Offline, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is comprised of the two issues published in volume 1 (1999) of "Parent News Offline," a newsletter of the National Parent Information Network (NPIN), designed to introduce those without Internet access to the activities and information available through NPIN. The spring 1999 issue contains the following articles: (1) "Child Care: How…

Robertson, Anne S., Ed.

1999-01-01

357

Popular Primers for Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent and characteristics of the parental audience for practical child care manuals are discussed. Information is integrated from four studies: a survey of child care publications; a questionnaire about sources of child care advice; a questionnaire distributed to readers of parenting books through the public library; and interviews with…

Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison

1978-01-01

358

Pointers for Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are 11 brief articles designed to help parents enhance their children's school performance and generally improve the home environment. Included is information on the following topics: the role of the social worker in parent education, home activities to improve a child's reading skills, developing listening skill through instructional…

Bessant, Helen P., Ed.

359

Exceptional Parent, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve 1996 issues of "Exceptional Parent" magazine provide a variety of articles and resources on parenting the child or young adult with a disability. The January issue is a resource guide, with directories of national organizations, associations, products, and services. The February issue focuses on early childhood, including articles on…

Klein, Stanley, Ed.

1996-01-01

360

The role of soil-forming processes in the definition of taxa in Soil Taxonomy and the World Soil Reference Base  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern soil taxonomic systems, including Soil Taxonomy (ST) and the World Reference Base (WRB) for Soil Resources, classify soils using diagnostic horizons, properties, and materials. Although these systems are based on genetic principles, the approaches used have de-emphasized the role of soil processes in soil taxonomic systems. Meanwhile, a consideration of soil processes is important for understanding the genetic underpinnings

J. G. Bockheim; A. N. Gennadiyev

2000-01-01

361

Soil: The Great Decomposer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to understand that soil, under different environmental conditions, plays a role in the decomposition of organic materials. Students use bottle experiments to observe changes in the decomposition of vegetable scraps. Students vary temperature, moisture, and light conditions to determine the conditions that best facilitate the decomposition of organic material in soil.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

362

Variation in woody plant mortality and dieback from severe drought among soils, plant groups, and species within a northern Arizona ecotone.  

PubMed

Vegetation change from drought-induced mortality can alter ecosystem community structure, biodiversity, and services. Although drought-induced mortality of woody plants has increased globally with recent warming, influences of soil type, tree and shrub groups, and species are poorly understood. Following the severe 2002 drought in northern Arizona, we surveyed woody plant mortality and canopy dieback of live trees and shrubs at the forest-woodland ecotone on soils derived from three soil parent materials (cinder, flow basalt, sedimentary) that differed in texture and rockiness. Our first of three major findings was that soil parent material had little effect on mortality of both trees and shrubs, yet canopy dieback of trees was influenced by parent material; dieback was highest on the cinder for pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) and one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma). Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) dieback was not sensitive to parent material. Second, shrubs had similar mortality, but greater canopy dieback, than trees. Third, pinyon and ponderosa pines had greater mortality than juniper, yet juniper had greater dieback, reflecting different hydraulic characteristics among these tree species. Our results show that impacts of severe drought on woody plants differed among tree species and tree and shrub groups, and such impacts were widespread over different soils in the southwestern U.S. Increasing frequency of severe drought with climate warming will likely cause similar mortality to trees and shrubs over major soil types at the forest-woodland ecotone in this region, but due to greater mortality of other tree species, tree cover will shift from a mixture of species to dominance by junipers and shrubs. Surviving junipers and shrubs will also likely have diminished leaf area due to canopy dieback. PMID:20532566

Koepke, Dan F; Kolb, Thomas E; Adams, Henry D

2010-08-01

363

Parenting with disabilities: experiences from implementing a parenting support programme in Sweden.  

PubMed

This article reports on the initial stages of implementing an Australian-based education programme for parents with intellectual disabilities (IDs) in Sweden. The clinical utility of the programme, Parenting Young Children (PYC), in the new country context is explored through Swedish professionals' experiences in learning and using it. Study participants found PYC well suited for use in their working environment. Most of them reported the programme to have strengthened their work with parents. The programme was seen as benefiting both the study participants in their work with parents with IDs and these parents themselves, and its structure and content were found to be helpful in several ways. The checklists forming part of PYC were considered useful, but their purpose was sometimes misunderstood. The reported study helps to identify what is needed to improve the translation of the programme into the new country context, to promote appropriate and more effective use of programme materials. PMID:23515187

Starke, Mikaela; Wade, Catherine; Feldman, Maurice A; Mildon, Robyn

2013-06-01

364

Soils of Sub-Antarctic tundras: diversity and basic chemical characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctic peninsula is known as specific part of Antarctica, which is characterizes by humid and relatively warm climate of so-called sub Antarctic (maritime) zone. Annual precipitation and long above zero period provides the possibility of sustainable tundra's ecosystem formation. Therefore, the soil diversity of these tundra landscapes is maximal in the whole Antarctic. Moreover, the thickness of parent material debris's is also highest and achieves a 1 or 2 meters as highest. The presence of higher vascular plants Deshampsia antarctica which is considered as one of the main edificators provides the development of humus accumulation in upper solum. Penguins activity provides an intensive soil fertilization and development of plant communities with increased density. All these factors leads to formation of specific and quite diverse soil cover in sub Antarctic tundra's. These ecosystems are presented by following permafrost affected soils: Leptosols, Lithoosols, Crysols, Gleysols, Peats and Ornhitosols. Also the post Ornhitosols are widely spreaded in subantarcic ecosystems, they forms on the penguin rockeries during the plant succession development, leaching of nutrients and organic matter mineralization. "Amphibious" soils are specific for seasonal lakes, which evaporates in the end if Australian summer. These soils have specific features of bio sediments and soils as well. Soil chemical characteristic as well as organic matter features discussed in comparison with Antacrtic continental soil in presentation.

Abakumov, Evgeny; Vlasov, Dmitry; Mukhametova, Nadezhda

2014-05-01

365

Gamma ray attenuation in the soils of Northern Ireland, with special reference to peat.  

PubMed

This study considers gamma ray attenuation in relation to the soils and bedrock of Northern Ireland using simple theory and data from a high resolution airborne survey. The bedrock is considered as a source of radiogenic material acting as parent to the soil. Attenuation in the near-surface is then controlled by water content in conjunction with the porosity and density of the soil cover. The Total Count radiometric data together with 1:250 k mapping of the soils and bedrock of Northern Ireland are used to perform statistical analyses emphasising the nature of the low count behaviour. Estimations of the bedrock response characteristics are improved by excluding areas covered by low count soils (organic/humic). Equally, estimations of soil response characteristics are improved by excluding areas underlain by low count bedrock (basalt). When the spatial characteristics of the soil-classified data are examined in detail, the low values form spatially-coherent zones (natural clusters) that can potentially be interpreted as areas of increased water content for each soil type. As predicted by theory, the highest attenuation factors are associated with the three organic soil types studied here. Peat, in particular, is remarkably skewed to low count behaviour in its radiometric response. Two detailed studies of blanket bogs reveal the extent to which peat may be mapped by its radiometric response while the intra-peat variations in the observed response may indicate areas of thin cover together with areas of increased water content. PMID:22858640

Beamish, David

2013-01-01

366

SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP PRODUCTIVITY OF AN ERODED SOIL AMENDED WITH CATTLE MANURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erosion changes soil properties, especially physical properties, mainly because it removes surface soil rich in organic materials and exposes lower soil layers. In 1988, a study was established to determine the effects of soil erosion and long-term manure applications on selected soil phys­ ical properties and corn (Zea mays L.) production. After 10 years of an­ nual manure applications, soil

Francisco J. Arriaga; Birl Lowery

2003-01-01

367

SOIL PHYSICS AND HYDROLOGY: CONDITIONERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil conditioners have been used since ancient times, even before the chemical and physical basis of conditioner effectiveness was accurately understood. Soil conditioners have included both organic and mineral materials as well as natural and synthetic materials. Examples of natural organic soil ...

368

A Novel Approach to Investigate Soil Organic Matter Development Using Isotopes and Thermal Analysis: C Sourcing from Various Plant Materials and Mineral Influence on Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomolecular input quality and mineral constituents are important factors that regulate turnover and stabilization of natural organic matter. The complexity and variability of natural soil systems might shadow basic mechanisms occurring between organic and mineral components. Utilizing an in vitro model decomposition system allows for control over inputs and turnover time. We created a model soil system with composted plant litter that was enriched with 13-C in order to investigate C use during the formation of stabilized SOM. The litter was subjected to microbially-mediated, aerobic decomposition before pure clays were added and allowed to incubate further. Isotopically labeled organic inputs allowed us to focus on C derived from known plant sources as a qualitative assessment of SOM formation. Thermogravimetry-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TG-DSC) has been used successfully to quantify thermochemical properties of SOM reactivity/stability in three regions of exothermic activity corresponding generally to carbohydrates and lipids (Exo 1; 150-350 C), aromatic and condensed polymers (Exo 2; 400-460 C) and refractory/mineral associated C (Exo 3; 500-550 C). Thermal separation of the organics allows for in-line evolved gas analysis via Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) to measure 13-C isotopic values of those thermally separated organic compound classes. This coupled analysis is ideal in that it is fast, reproducible, and requires no sample pretreatment other than drying/grinding and it provides stability, mass loss, and isotopic data from a single sample. DSC results show the development of a higher temperature, energetically recalcitrant C pool over the course of decomposition in mineral-free litters and its absence in clay-litter mixtures, implicating the influence of mineral surfaces on soil organic matter energetic stability. Preliminary IRMS results indicate that mineral presence influences C sourcing from particular plant materials in some SOM compound classes. For example, in mineral-free treatments containing 13-C enriched woody material, gas evolution from Exo 3 that was enriched in 13-C and was therefore derived from the woody material. However, the presence of montmorillonite clay minerals resulted in gas evolution that was depleted in 13-C and was therefore derived from the non-woody plant inputs present (grass and leaves). This shows a change in mechanism: either the microbial sourcing of C from woody material to produce Exo 3 compounds changed in the presence of the mineral or mineral interaction with the organics altered the thermal reactivity of those wood-derived compounds, causing them to thermally separate differently. We are also exploring the effect of bridging metal interaction with minerals and plant litter as SOM develops. We are able to show that this analytical method is useful for probing mineral influence on SOM stability and differentiation in litter C utilization during decomposition in a single sample. TG-DSC-IRMS analysis can be used for any soil-organic matter investigation, with isotopically enriched or natural abundance materials: applications range from measuring terrestrial C sequestration efforts and organic waste management efficacy to sustainable agricultural practices.

Bower, J.; Horwath, W. R.

2012-12-01

369

A comparison between the effect of fresh and dried organic materials added to soil on carbon and nitrogen mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Incubation experiments were carried out at 29°C in which fresh chopped, dried chopped, or dried and ground material of wheat plants,Polygonum nodosum, Senecio congestus (R. Br. DC.) and lucerne was mixed with a heavy calcareous loam. The C\\/N ratios of these materials were 45.9, 32.0, 19.3, and 12.6, respectively. At intervals of one or two weeks the content of

D. A. Van Schreven

1964-01-01

370

Soil stratigraphy and plant soil interactions on a Late Glacial Holocene fluvial terrace sequence, Sierra Nevada National Park, northern Venezuelan Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of a flight of alluvial terraces in the Sierra Nevada National Park near Pico Mucuñuque in the Eastern Mérida Andes has yielded information on geomorphic, pedogenic, and vegetational changes from Late Glacial time to the present. The terraces formed in large part due to stream incision/migration triggered by neotectonic uplift (>7000 yr BP) of a Late Glacial/Early Holocene glaciolacustrine lithosequence and, with the exception of the oldest/highest terrace, exhibit near-uniform lithology/parent materials. Soils developed in the terrace materials range from thin, weakly developed profiles (O/C/Cu horizons) to Entisols with O/Ah/Cox/Cu horizons and similar buried counterparts representing former short periods of floodplain stability or slow aggradation. The buried soils provide organic-rich material that yields radiocarbon ages, which provide time constraints on individual pedons and the geomorphic development of the site. Iron and aluminum extracts of soil matrix material provide information on the formation and accumulation of goethite and hematite, the relative accumulation of ferrihydrite (gain/loss), and the downward translocation of organically complexed Al as a function of soil development and age. SEM analysis of heavy mineral grains indicates varying material sources and degrees of weathering in the soil chronosequence. A qualitative study of plant functional types across the terrace sequence shows that older surfaces support greater plant diversity. The study also suggests ways in which the plant communities influence soil development at the site through varying organic matter inputs and varying soil moisture use by specific species (e.g., ferns on the oldest terrace), which may explain the absence of B horizons in the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene soils.

Mahaney, William C.; Dirszowsky, Randy W.; Milner, Michael W.; Harmsen, Rudolf; Finkelstein, Sarah A.; Kalm, Volli; Bezada, Maximilano; Hancock, R. G. V.

2007-01-01

371

Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied soils on high-purity limestones of Quaternary age on the western Atlantic Ocean islands of Barbados, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas. Potential soil parent materials in this region, external to the carbonate substrate, include volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent (near Barbados), volcanic ash from the islands of Dominica and St. Lucia (somewhat farther from Barbados), the fine-grained component of distal loess from the lower Mississippi River Valley, and wind-transported dust from Africa. These four parent materials can be differentiated using trace elements (Sc, Cr, Th, and Zr) and rare earth elements that have minimal mobility in the soil-forming environment. Barbados soils have compositions that indicate a complex derivation. Volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent appears to have been the most important influence, but African dust is a significant contributor, and even Mississippi River valley loess may be a very minor contributor to Barbados soils. Soils on the Florida Keys and islands in the Bahamas appear to have developed mostly from African dust, but Mississippi River valley loess may be a significant contributor. Our results indicate that inputs of African dust are more important to the genesis of soils on islands in the western Atlantic Ocean than previously supposed. We hypothesize that African dust may also be a major contributor to soils on other islands of the Caribbean and to soils in northern South America, central America, Mexico, and the southeastern United States. Dust inputs to subtropical and tropical soils in this region increase both nutrient-holding capacity and nutrient status and thus may be critical in sustaining vegetation. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Prospero, J.M.; Carey, S.N.

2007-01-01

372

Parents a dead end life”: The main experiences of parents of children with leukemia  

PubMed Central

Background: The quantitative studies show that due to the widespread prevalence, high death rate, high treatment expenses, and long hospital stay, leukemia influences the families and their children to a great extent. In this regard, no qualitative study has been conducted in Iran. So, this study was conducted in Arak in 2011 with the aim of expressing the experiences of the parents whose children suffered from leukemia. Materials and Methods: Using qualitative research approach, by applying content analysis method, 22 participants were interviewed in two educational hospitals during 2 months. The study was started by purposive sampling and continued by theoretical one. The data were analyzed based on the content analysis method. Resluts: Data analysis showed that insolvency, knapsack problems, cancer secrecy, trust on God, self-sacrifice, adaptation, medical malpractice, and hospital facilities were the level 3 codes of parents’ experiences and “parents a dead end life” was the main theme of this study. Conclusion: In this study, the experiences of the parents whose children suffered from cancer were studied deeply by the use of qualitative method, especially by the use of resources syncretism rather than studying quantitatively. Parents a dead end life emerged as the main theme of this study, emphasizing the necessity of paying further attention to the parents. On the other hand, making more use of parents’ experiences and encouraging them helps make the treatment more effective. It is suggested that these experiences be shared with parents in the form of pamphlets distributed right at the beginning of the treatment process.

Jadidi, Rahmatollah; Hekmatpou, Davood; Eghbali, Aziz; Memari, Fereshteh; Anbari, Zohreh

2014-01-01

373

A study of the direct determination of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in certified reference materials of soils by solid sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and rapid method for the direct determination of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in soil was developed. The method was developed using three certified reference materials of soil: Eutric Cambisol, Orthic Luvisols and Rendzina, which differed in their matrix composition. Chemical modifiers were essential to achieve reproducible and interference-free signals for the analytes studied. The best results were obtained with a Pd/Mg(NO 3) 2 admixture for the determination of Cd, Pb and Zn and NH 4F for Cu. The combination of W (as a permanent modifier) and Mg(NO 3) 2 provided well-defined signal profiles for Cr. The following spectral lines were used: Cd 228.8 nm, Cr 520.6 nm, Cu 218.2 nm, Pb 205.3 nm and Zn 307.6 nm. The limit of detection was 4.2 ng g - 1 for Cd, 1.1 ?g g - 1 for Cr, 0.5 ?g g - 1 for Cu, 1.3 ?g g - 1 for Pb and 8.6 ?g g - 1 for Zn for the maximum sample mass used. Under optimized conditions, the analyte and matrix were separated effectively in situ, and aqueous standards could be used for calibration.

Török, Peter; Žemberyová, Mária

2011-01-01

374

Calcium carbonate precipitation by strain Bacillus licheniformis AK01, newly isolated from loamy soil: a promising alternative for sealing cement-based materials.  

PubMed

The relevant experiments were designed to determine the ability of indigenous bacterial strains isolated from limestone caves, mineral springs, and loamy soils to induce calcium carbonate precipitation. Among all isolates examined in this study, an efficient carbonate-precipitating soil bacterium was selected from among the isolates and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequences as Bacillus licheniformis AK01. The ureolytic isolate was able to grow well on alkaline carbonate-precipitation medium and precipitate calcium carbonate more than 1?g?L(-1) . Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) examinations were performed in order to confirm the presence of calcium carbonate in the precipitate and to determine which polymorphs were present. The selected isolate was determined to be an appropriate candidate for application in a surface treatment of cement-based material to improve the properties of the mortar. Biodeposition of a layer of calcite on the surface of cement specimens resulted in filling in pore spaces. This could be an alternative method to improve the durability of the mortar. The kind of bacterial culture and medium composition had a profound impact on the resultant CaCO3 crystal morphology. PMID:25590872

Vahabi, Ali; Ramezanianpour, Ali Akbar; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Vali, Hojatollah; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

2015-01-01

375

Lead in vegetation, forest floor material, and soils of the spruce-fir zone, Great Smoky Mountains National Park  

SciTech Connect

Based on a survey during 1982, lead concentrations in vegetation, litter and soils of the spruce-fir zone of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park are generally less than values reported for similar sites in the northeastern United States and western Europe. As expected, lead concentrations increased with increasing age of spruce and fir foliage, and with increasing degree of decomposition of litter. Fir bole wood was higher in lead than spruce bole wood, but both species were far below acutely phytotoxic levels. Although the results of this study indicated no immediate cause for concern, periodic monitoring of lead and other metals in the spruce-fir zone should be continued to provide early detection of significant changes. 32 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Bogle, M.A.; Turner, R.R.

1983-01-01

376

Pedogenic Magnetic Minerals in Soils: Some Tests of Current Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic enhancement of soils is increasingly used as a proxy for continental climate, since it is related to the formation of pedogenic iron minerals under warm, humid conditions. Ultrafine magnetite is believed to be the major responsible of the magnetic enhancement, however, very little is known on the detailed formation mechanism, ant its relation to the soil iron cycle. Furthermore, the 'textbook' case of the Chinese Loess Plateau is not well replicated around the World: Loessic soils from the Midwestern US are systematically less enhanced than their Chinese counterpart under similar climatic conditions, and many loessic soils in Argentina are not enhanced at all. In trying to find a rationale behind these differences, I will address three main questions that need to be answered in a bottom-up approach to the problem. The first question is whether susceptibility is indeed controlled by fine magnetite, excluding any significant role of other minerals such as ferrihydrite, goethite, and hematite. This is a rock magnetic problem addressing the interpretation of magnetic measurements: is susceptibility an adequate proxy for the concentration of magnetic minerals in soils? Answering this question allows us to think directly in terms of abundance specific magnetic minerals, which is fundamental for any subsequent interpretation. The second question is directed to understanding the role of magnetic minerals in the soil iron cycle and how they are formed. This brings us to a discussion of the transfer function linking magnetic enhancement with climate. Is indeed rainfall the only parameter controlling pedogenesis? Why is rainfall apparently related with the logarithm of susceptibility in enhanced soils? Can we test current pedogenetic models against this empirical transfer function? The third question points to the role of parent material and later dust inputs. Midwestern US and Argentinian loesses are different from Chinese loess. Is this a reason for the differences observed in the magnetic enhancement of the respective soils? Enough material is now available to test current models and hypotheses with respect to the first two questions.

Egli, R.

2008-12-01

377

H-binding of size- and polarity-fractionated soil and lignite humic acids after removal of metal and ash components.  

PubMed

A fractionation technique, combining dialysis removal of metal and ash components with hydrofluoric acid and pH 10 citrate buffer followed by chromatography of dialysis permeate on XAD-8 resin at decreasing pH values, has been applied to lignite humic acid (lignite-HA) and soil humic acid (soil-HA). H-binding data and non ideal competitive adsorption-Donnan model parameters were obtained for the HA fractions by theoretical analysis of H-binding data which reveal a significant increase of the carboxyl and the phenolic charge for the lignite-HA fractions vs. the parental lignite humic acid (LParentalHA). The fractionated lignite-HA material consisted mainly of permeate fractions, some of which were fulvic acid-like. The fractionated soil-HA material consisted mainly of large macromolecular structures that did not permeate the dialysis membrane during deashing. Chargeable groups had comparable concentrations in soil-HA fractions and parental soil humic acid (SParentalHA), indicating minimal interference of ash components with carboxyl and phenolic (and/or enolic) groups. Fractionation of HA, combined with theoretical analysis of H-binding, can distinguish the supramolecular vs. macromolecular nature of fractions within the same parental HA. PMID:24297463

Drosos, Marios; Leenheer, Jerry A; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Deligiannakis, Yiannis

2014-03-01

378

Sleepwalking (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... pauses in breathing while sleeping) bedwetting (enuresis) night terrors Back Continue Is Sleepwalking Harmful? Sleepwalking itself is ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Night Terrors Nightmares Sleep Problems in Teens What Causes Night ...

379

Alpha Thalassemia (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... of alpha thalassemia trait may want to seek genetic counseling if they're considering having children. If your ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Genetic Testing Genetic Counseling All About Genetics Blood Blood Test: Hemoglobin Electrophoresis ...

380

Gay and Lesbian Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... in a civil union. The AAP supports civil marriage for all same sex parents who wish to ... of legal and economic security as does Civil Marriage. Children are interested in and affected by their ...

381

Single Parent Families  

MedlinePLUS

... be a more desirable circumstance than the tumultuous marriage that preceded it. Many single parents describe the ... having put the tension and dissension of their marriage behind them, and in making a new life ...

382

Enterovirus (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... spread beyond the digestive tract can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease , hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (an infection of the eye), ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Coxsackievirus Infections Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) What Are Germs? Why Is ...

383

Lactose Intolerance (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... to Know Lactose Intolerance KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Digestive System > Lactose Intolerance Print A A A Text Size ... Child Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Digestive System About Recipes for Kids With Lactose Intolerance Lactose ...

384

Understanding Depression (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Word! Depression Bipolar Disorder Talking to Parents About Depression Stress & Coping Center Seasonal Affective Disorder Going to a Therapist Finding Low-Cost Mental Health Care 5 Ways to Fight Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Cutting Death and Grief Depression ...

385

Gun Safety (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC School Violence and the News Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents ... Your Child Gun Safety Should You Worry About School Violence? Someone at School Has a Weapon. What Should ...

386

Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... to Expect Ebola: What to Know Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccine KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Your Kid's ... bacterial infection that can lead to bacterial meningitis . Immunization Schedule Vaccination is recommended: when kids are 11 ...

387

EMG (Electromyography) (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Checkups: What to Expect Ebola: What to Know EMG (Electromyogram) KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > EMG ( ... muscular dystrophy and nerve disorders. How Is an EMG Done? Muscles are stimulated by signals from nerve ...

388

Parental Socialization of Emotion  

PubMed Central

Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed. PMID:16865170

Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

2006-01-01

389

Living Now: For Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... most parents and kids are ready for the NG tube.” —Becky Manes, RN, MSN, CPON, BMT Coordinator, Vanderbilt ... more often, it could indicate that a nasogastric (NG) tube might be needed. An NG tube is a ...

390

Diabetes Movie (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Crisp Choosing Safe Toys Checkups: What to Expect Ebola: What to Know Diabetes Movie KidsHealth > Parents > Diabetes ... purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...

391

EVALUATION OF FUNGAL GROWTH ON FIBERGLASS DUCT MATERIALS FOR VARIOUS MOISTURE, SOIL, USE, AND TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS (JOURNAL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a series of experiments, each lasing 6 weeks, conducted in static environmental chambers to assess some of the conditions that may impact the ability of a variety of fiberglass materials to support the growth of a fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum. (NOTE:...

392

Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements in the three potential mitigation pathways, i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation (i.e., grass), and rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material ...

393

Foster Parent College: Interactive Multimedia Training for Foster Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foster Parent College was recently developed through Northwest Media, Inc. as an interactive multimedia training venue for foster parents. Users can take brief parenting courses, either online (http://www.FosterParentCollege.com) or on DVD, on a variety of topics dealing with serious child behavior problems. Currently, these problems include…

Pacifici, Caesar; Delaney, Richard; White, Lee; Cummings, Kelli; Nelson, Carol

2005-01-01

394

Real Parents, Real Children: Parenting the Adopted Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parenting an adopted child is, for the most part, the same as parenting any other child, but is different in some unique and critical ways related to the child's separation from birth parents and genetic roots. Understanding how a child interprets, understands, and feels about adoption, and why, can help the parent guide the adopted child…

van Gulden, Holly; Bartels-Rabb, Lisa M.

395

Stages of Parental Engagement in a Universal Parent Training Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports findings on parental engagement in a community-based parent training intervention. As part of a randomized trial, 821 parents were offered group-based Triple P as a parenting skills prevention program. Program implementation was conducted by practitioners. The intervention was implemented between Waves 1 and 2 of a longitudinal…

Eisner, Manuel; Meidert, Ursula

2011-01-01

396

Contrasting soils and landscapes of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, eastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces comprise 80 percent of the Atlantic Coastal states from New Jersey to Georgia. The provinces are climatically similar. The soil moisture regime is udic. The soil temperature regime is typically thermic from Virginia through Georgia, although it is mesic at altitudes above 400 m in Georgia and above 320 m in Virginia. The soil temperature regime is mesic for the Piedmont and Coastal Plain from Maryland through New Jersey. The tightly folded, structurally complex crystalline rocks of the Piedmont and the gently dipping "layer-cake" clastic sedimentary rocks and sediments of the Coastal Plain respond differently to weathering, pedogenesis, and erosion. The different responses result in two physiographically contrasting terrains; each has distinctive near-surface hydrology, regolith, drainage morphology, and morphometry. The Piedmont is predominantly an erosional terrain. Interfluves are as narrow as 0.5 to 2 km, and are convex upward. Valleys are as narrow as 0.1 to 0.5 km and generally V-shaped in cross section. Alluvial terraces are rare and discontinuous. Soils in the Piedmont are typically less than 1 m thick, have less sand and more clay than Coastal Plain soils, and generally have not developed sandy epipedons. Infiltration rates for Piedmont soils are low at 6-15 cm/h. The soil/saprolite, soil/rock, and saprolite/rock boundaries are distinct (can be placed within 10 cm) and are characterized by ponding and/or lateral movement of water. Water movement through soil into saprolite, and from saprolite into rock, is along joints, foliation, bedding planes and faults. Soils and isotopic data indicate residence times consistent with a Pleistocene age for most Piedmont soils. The Coastal Plain is both an erosional and a constructional terrain. Interfluves commonly are broader than 2 km and are flat. Valleys are commonly as wide as 1 km to greater than 10 km, and contain numerous alluvial and estuarine terrace sequences that can be correlated along valleys for tens of kilometers. Coastal Plain soils are typically as thick as 2 to 8 m, have high sand content throughout, and have sandy epipedons. These epipedons consist of both A and E horizons and are 1 to 4 m thick. In Coastal Plain soils, the boundaries are transitional between the solum and the underlying parent material and between weathered and unweathered parent material. Infiltration rates for Coastal Plain soils are typically higher at 13-28 cm/h, than are those for Piedmont soils. Indeed, for unconsolidated quartz sand, rates may exceed 50 cm/h. Water moves directly from the soil into the parent material through intergranularpores with only minor channelization along macropores, joints, and fractures. The comparatively high infiltration capacity results in relatively low surface runoff, and correspondingly less erosion than on the Piedmont uplands. Due to differences in Piedmont and Coastal Plain erosion rates, topographic inversion is common along the Fall Zone; surfaces on Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Coastal Plain are higher than erosional surfaces on regolith weathered from late Precambrian to early Paleozoic crystalline rocks of the Piedmont. Isotopic, paleontologic, and soil data indicate that Coastal Plain surficial deposits are post-middle Miocene to Holocene in age, but most are from 5 to 2 Ma. Thus, the relatively uneroded surfaces comprise a Pliocene landscape. In the eastern third of the Coastal Plain, deposits that are less than 3.5 Ma include alluvial terraces, marine terraces and barrier/back-barrier complexes as morphostratigraphic units that cover thousands of square kilometers. Isotopic and soil data indicate that eastern Piedmont soils range from late Pliocene to Pleistocene in age, but are predominantly less than 2 Ma old. Thus, the eroded uplands of the Piedmont "peneplain" comprise a Pleistocene landscape. ?? 1990.

Markewich, H.W.; Pavich, M.J.; Buell, G.R.

1990-01-01

397

Implications of antisocial parents.  

PubMed

Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children. PMID:21293928

Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B

2011-12-01

398

Internet informs parents about growth hormone  

PubMed Central

Background Parent knowledge influences decisions regarding medical care for their children. Methods Parents of pediatric primary care patients aged 9-14 years, irrespective of height, participated in open focus groups (OFG). Moderators asked, “How do people find out about growth hormone (GH)?” Because many parents cited the Internet, the top 10 results from the Google searches, growth hormone children and parents of children who take growth hormone, were examined as representative. Three investigators independently performed content analysis, then reached consensus. Results were tabulated via summary statistics. Results Eighteen websites were reviewed, most with the purpose of education (56%) and many funded by commercial sources (44%). GH treatment information varied, with 33% of sites containing content only about U.S Food and Drug Administration-approved indications. Fifty-six percent of sites included information about psychosocial benefits from treatment, 44% acknowledging them as controversial. Although important to OFG participants, risks and costs were each omitted from 39% of websites. Conclusion Parents often turn to the Internet for GH-related information for their children, though its content may be incomplete and/or biased. Clinicians may want to provide parents with tools for critically evaluating Internet-based information, a list of pre-reviewed websites, or their own educational materials. PMID:23942255

Cousounis, Pamela; Lipman, Terri H.; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Grimberg, Adda

2013-01-01

399

In-situ vitrification of soil  

DOEpatents

A method of vitrifying soil at or below a soil surface location. Two or more conductive electrodes are inserted into the soil for heating of the soil mass between them to a temperature above its melting temperature. Materials in the soil, such as buried waste, can thereby be effectively immobilized.

Brouns, Richard A. (Kennewick, WA); Buelt, James L. (Richland, WA); Bonner, William F. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

400

Parent Involvement in Education: A Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive bibliography on parent involvement in education includes published and unpublished materials on this topic dating from January 1970 through October 1978. References were gathered from the following sources: "Education Index,""Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature,""Books in Print," and the ERIC data base ("Current Index to…

Henniger, Michael L., Comp.

401

Parents Sharing Books: Motivation and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet focuses on reading motivation, especially on specific steps to motivate the middle school child to learn. The main topics explored are: finding or making time for reading for pleasure; filling or flooding the house with interesting reading materials; and reading as a way of life. Practical questions from parents are answered and…

Shefelbine, John

402

Parental Substance Use Impairment, Parenting and Substance Use Disorder Risk  

PubMed Central

Using data from a nationally representative sample, this study investigated substance use disorder (SUD) among respondents ages 15-54 as a function of their parents’ substance-related impairment and parents’ treatment history. Additionally, associations among maternal and paternal substance-related impairment, specific parenting behaviors, and the risk for SUD in the proband were examined. As expected, parental substance-related impairment was associated with SUD. Paternal treatment history was associated with a decreased risk for SUD in the proband, but did not appear to be associated with positive parenting practices. Results of post-hoc analyses suggested that parenting behaviors might operate differently to influence SUD risk in children where parents are affected by substance use problems compared to non-affected families. Future research is warranted to better understand the complex relationships among parental substance use, treatment, parenting behaviors, and SUD risk in offspring. Opportunities might exist within treatment settings to improve parenting skills. PMID:22112506

Arria, Amelia M.; Mericle, Amy A.; Meyers, Kathleen; Winters, Ken C.

2011-01-01

403

ACT College Planning Guide: A Presentation for Students and Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials in this College Planning Guide support a 40-50 minute general college planning presentation. It is most effective when delivered to high school juniors (and their parents) in the spring. It can also be used in the fall with seniors or with sophomores and their parents who desire an overview of the college planning process. The…

ACT, Inc., 2007

2007-01-01

404

Parenting Practices, Parenting Style, and Children’s School Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, drawing on data from the 2002 Survey of Approaches to Educational Planning (SAEP), examined the predictive effects\\u000a of parenting practices and parenting style on children’s school achievement, and the predictive effects of parental expectations\\u000a and parental beliefs on parenting style for 6,626 respondents with children aged 5–18 years in Canada. Hierarchical multiple\\u000a regression analyses, after controlling for family socioeconomic

Shaljan Areepattamannil

2010-01-01

405

Characterizing Phosphorus in Eroding Streambank Soils in Chittenden County, Vermont  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Champlain has had persistent algal blooms associated with excess phosphorus (P) from the landscape. Streambank erosion is ubiquitous throughout the Champlain Basin with 75% of Vermont stream reaches classified as unstable. The P contribution of streambank erosion has not been well quantified, yet could be a significant source of non-point P. The objectives of this study were to 1) assess the variability in total P (TP) and soil test P (MM-P) for eroding riparian soils; 2) relate TP and MM-P with soil physical and chemical properties, including texture, Al, Ca, and Fe; 3) relate TP and MM-P to landscape parameters, including land use/land cover (LULC), landscape position, soil type and parent material; and 4) quantify the potential P load from eroding streambanks. Soil samples were taken from 76 erosion features to a depth of 90 cm on 4 streams in Chittenden County, Vermont. Samples were analyzed for texture, total P, Modified-Morgan's P, and total aluminum, calcium, iron, and manganese. A subset of samples was extracted with acid ammonium oxalate to estimate the degree of P saturation. Landscape parameters were assessed using available spatial databases for LULC, parent material, soil type, landscape position. Mean concentrations of TP and MM-P were similar among the four streams and through depth, but not correlated with each other. A strong relationship existed between Ca and TP in excess of apatite ratios suggesting apatite-P is a common P form in these soils. Low MM-P concentrations and oxalate results indicate that eroded streambank soil may act as a sink rather than a source of P. Landscape parameters including LULC and landscape position correlated with TP and MM-P. Streambank erosion from four streams in Chittenden County contributed a total of 11.2 to 14.1 MT of TP and 37.7 kg of MM-P to corresponding stream corridors. Estimated potential P load from eroding streambanks was equivalent to 50 to 60% of total non-point P load. Streambank soils may contribute a significant amount of P to the aquatic system, although the ultimate fate of the eroded P is uncertain.

Ross, D. S.; Ishee, E. R.

2011-12-01

406

Arsenic fractions in soils: A case study in the Amblés valley (Castilla-León, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic (As) is a trace element whose distribution and toxicology in the environment is a serious issue. In Spain, presence of As has been mainly related with mining activities because oxidation of sulphur minerals releases As into the environment. As has been detected in aquifers and soils in southern areas of the Spanish Autonomous Castilla-León Community (central Spain). Risk of human contact with As has increased substantially in the last two decades as residential areas continue to expand into former agricultural land. As distribution in topsoil horizons in the high Adaja river basin in the Amblés Valley, Ávila (Autonomous Castilla-León Community) were studied. In this area, the principal soil use is conventional farming. Three As-soil fractions: total content, extractable with EDTA and water-soluble, were determined. The origin and the causes that might favour their higher or lower concentrations were investigated. Geochemical baseline concentrations were established, and the relationships between the concentration of the different As fractions and soil properties were investigated. Iron-aluminium oxides, clay content, soil organic matter, and soil pH were the main controlling factors for As soil concentrations. Total As content in soils was related with parent material, whereas anthropogenic activities affected its solubility.

Joaquin Ramos-Miras, Jose; Díaz-Fernández, Pedro; Sanjosé Wery, Ana; Rodríguez-Martín, Jose Antonio; Boluda, Rafael; Bech, Jaume; Gil, Carlos

2014-05-01

407

Active Parenting Now: Program Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…

Popkin, Michael H.

408

Parents, Teens, and Online Privacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most parents of teenagers are concerned about what their teenage children do online and how their behavior could be monitored by others. Some parents are taking steps to observe, discuss, and check up on their children's digital footprints. A new survey of 802 parents and their teens shows that: (1) 81% of parents of online teens say they are…

Madden, Mary; Cortesi, Sandra; Gasser, Urs; Lenhart, Amanda; Duggan, Maeve

2012-01-01

409

Parent Perceptions of Children's Fears.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined fears of fifth grade students and ways in which their parents perceived the fears. Responses from 66 students and 47 parents suggest that children have more fears than parents think they have. Children reported concerns over accidents, nuclear war, and death, while parents expected children to have more fears about scary movies, the dark,…

Jones, Elizabeth A.; Borgers, Sherry

1988-01-01

410

Changes in soil properties and soil cover structure due to intensive erosion and accumulation processes in loess soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive water and tillage erosion and consequent accumulation are the most important processes affecting the agroecosystems in loess regions and changing soil properties, e.g. organic carbon content, carbonate content or structure stability, and general distribution of soil units in the landscape. South Moravian loess belt, formerly covered mostly by Haplic Chernozem, is now formed by a highly diversified soil mosaic. At a morphologically heterogenous study plot (6 ha), a study on relationship between soil properties and terrain characteristics was held. DTM analysis, detailed terrain survey and laboratory analysis were the main methods adopted in the study. Three main soil units were identified: Haplic Chernozem, calcareous Regosol and Colluvial soil. The distribution of each soil unit correlates with different terrain attributes. Regosols are significatly connected to the steep slope, while their correlation with the curvature or hydrological indexes is lower. On the contrary, the Colluvial soils distribution depends mainly on values of curvature and topographical wetness index and is independent on the slope. Chernozem is related to a specific terrain position more than to any of the terrain attributes. Soil depth and humus horizon thickness vary extremelly - from 0.2 m at the erosionally exposed slopes to more than 2.5 m at the concave parts and the toeslope. Soil depth is significantly correlated with all of the tested terrain attributes except of the slope - the strongest correlation was proved in case of mean curvature, topographical wetness index and catchment area. Different degree of changes in particular soil properties results from the specificity of both erosion process and parent material character. Organic carbon content in the topsoil varies significantly. Humus is practically absent in the steepest parts of the slope where the loess is exposed. High amounts of Corg were identified in the undisturbed A horizons of the Chernozem unit. In the concave parts of the slope and at the toeslope, the Corg content in the plough layer is lower due to an admixture of non-humus material transported from the steep parts of the plot. Nevertheless, the deeper (0.7 - 2 m), buried parts of the colluvial profiles are very rich in organic carbon (up to 4 %). These horizons may represent fossil chernic horizons of former Chernozems, buried by intensive sedimentation of humic material. Similar variability was found in carbonate content values, always due to amount of loess admixture in the plough horizon. While the soil structure stability, depending strongly on humus content, was the highest in the Chernozem unit, in the eroded parts it was highly unstable. Changes in the cation exchange capacity and pH are less distinctive. CEC slightly increases in humus-rich soils and pH is higher in the eroded parts of the plot due to the loess exposition. Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (grant No. GA CR 526/08/0434) and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (grant No. MSM 6046070901).

Zadorova, Tereza; Penizek, Vit; Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka; Jirku, Veronika; Fer, Miroslav

2010-05-01

411

Soil Carbon Storage and Turnover in an Old-Growth Coastal Redwood Forest and Adjacent Prairie  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests store lots of carbon in aboveground tree biomass because redwoods are very long-lived and can grow very large. Redwood is known for its high resistance to decay, a result of high levels of aromatic compounds (tannins) in the tree’s tissues. We tested the hypothesis that because coastal redwoods are highly productive and produce organic matter that is chemically resistant to decay, old-growth redwood forests should store large amounts of stabilized soil carbon. We measured soil C storage to 110 cm depth in an old-growth coastal redwood forest and used physical soil fractionation combined with radiocarbon measurements to determine soil organic matter turnover time. In addition, we measured soil C storage and turnover at an adjacent prairie experiencing the same climate and with soils derived from the same parent material. We found larger soil C stocks to 110 cm at the prairie (350 Mg C ha-1) than the redwood forest (277 Mg C ha-1) even with O-horizons included for the forest. Larger N stocks were also observed at the prairie than the redwood and these differences in stocks were driven by higher C and N concentrations in mineral soils at the prairie. Differences between ecosystems in soil C and N concentrations, C:N ratios, and C and N stocks were observed for the top 50 cm only, suggesting that the influence of the different litter types did not extend to deeper soils. Contrary to what was expected, bulk soil and heavy density-fraction ?14C values were higher, indicating shorter turnover times, for the redwood forest than the prairie. In summary, we did not observe greater C storage or 14C-based turnover times in old-growth redwood forest compared to adjacent prairie, suggesting chemical recalcitrance of litter inputs does not drive soil C stabilization at these ecosystems.

McFarlane, K. J.; Torn, M. S.; Mambelli, S.; Dawson, T. E.

2010-12-01

412

Using Radiocarbon to Assess Soil Organic Matter Stabilization in a Transect of Mature Forests in the Pacific Northwest USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils influence the cycling of nutrients, movement and storage of water, and serve as an important global reservoir of carbon (C). The accumulation and storage of C in soils is a major factor in the global C cycle and is crucial for sustaining ecosystem health and function, yet gaps remain in our understanding of the processes that lead to the accumulation and stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM). This information is essential for ascertaining ecosystem health and the trajectory of carbon sequestration. Because vegetation, clay mineralogy, and environmental conditions play important roles in the production, stabilization, and sequestration of SOM, we developed a study to investigate their role in the accumulation of SOM across a range of forested soils in the Pacific Northwest USA. We selected 8 mature (? 150 years old) forest stands in the Oregon Coast Range Mountains and Cascade Mountains. These forests cover a range of forest types, environments and soil parent materials. Annual precipitation values range from less than 30 cm for the dry Juniper forest to more than 300 cm for the wet coastal Douglas-fir and Sitka spruce forests. Parent materials include volcanic ash, other volcanics, marine sediments and basalts. Soil chemical and physical properties were quantified. Soil particle size distribution and clay mineralogy was determined. We hypothesized that particle density is directly proportional to SOM stability (i.e., residence time), and separated SOM by density using sodium polytungstate. Total C and N and ?13C and ?15N in whole soil and in 4 density fractions were determined for each soil horizon. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was used to measure the 14C in the whole soil from each horizon for the purpose of determining radiocarbon-based mean residence times of C. Infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize C chemistry. We found a 5-fold difference between the amount of C in the soil with the lowest soil C and the soil with the greatest soil C. Clay mineralogy of the sites is quite diverse, reflecting the soil parent material, age and weathering environment. The amount of heavy-density fraction associated organic matter seems to be related to the amount and kind of clay present in the soil. Radiocarbon abundance decreased with increasing depth, indicating higher mean residence times in deep soil. Soil C at depth was much older in the wet forest soils and the most recent C was found in the dry forest soils. However, the strongest relationship appears to be between mean residence times and the amount of clay, which is indicative of the protective and stabilizing nature of clay on SOM. These data along with environmental data and forest site history provide a unique way to evaluate the interacting factors that affect the accumulation and stabilization of SOM in forested soils in the Pacific Northwest USA.

Johnson, M. G.; Swanston, C.

2011-12-01

413

When a Parent Is Away: Promoting Strong Parent-Child Connections during Parental Absence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How does a parent stay connected with an infant or toddler during a prolonged separation? Research has shown how important early connections are for child development. When a parent is not present physically, there are strategies that military parents have been using to keep a parent and child connected, promoting mindfulness. Because infants and…

Yeary, Julia; Zoll, Sally; Reschke, Kathy

2012-01-01

414

The Relations between Parents' Smoking, General Parenting, Parental Smoking Communication, and Adolescents' Smoking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined whether the associations between general parenting practices (i.e., support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and parental smoking on the one hand and older and younger siblings' smoking on the other were mediated by parental smoking communication (i.e., frequency and quality of parent-adolescent…

Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Vermulst, Ad A.; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

2010-01-01

415

The Influences of the Sixth Graders' Parents' Internet Literacy and Parenting Style on Internet Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to explore the sixth grade students' parents' Internet literacy and parenting style on Internet parenting in Kaohsiung County in Taiwan. Upon stratified cluster sampling, a total of 822 parents from 34 classes in 28 schools participated in this study. The descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used to analyze the responses…

Lou, Shi-Jer; Shih, Ru-Chu; Liu, Hung-Tzu; Guo, Yuan-Chang; Tseng, Kuo-Hung

2010-01-01

416

Child adjustment and parenting in planned lesbian-parent families.  

PubMed

One hundred planned lesbian-parent families (i.e., two-mother families in which the child was born to the lesbian relationship) were compared with 100 heterosexual-parent families on child adjustment, parental characteristics, and child rearing. Questionnaires, observations, and a diary of activities were used to collect the data. The results show that especially lesbian social mothers (i.e., nonbiological mothers) differ from heterosexual fathers on parental characteristics (e.g., more parental justification and more satisfaction with the partner as coparent) and child rearing (e.g., more parental concern and less power assertion). Child adjustment is not associated with family type (lesbian-parent families vs. heterosexual-parent families), but is predicted by power assertion, parental concern, and satisfaction with the partner as coparent. PMID:17352583

Bos, Henny M W; van Balen, Frank; van den Boom, Dymphna C

2007-01-01

417

Linking soil element-mass-transfer to microscale mineral weathering in the Santa Catalina Critical Zone Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil chemical denudation and mineral transformation contributes significantly to landscape evolution and to our understanding of water and carbon cycling across ecosystems. The main objective of this research was to couple the chemical composition of bulk soils to the elemental changes associated with microscale mineral transformations to better understand climatic controls on soil development in semi-arid and sub-humid environments. Soil profiles to the depth of refusal and representative parent rock samples were collected from granitic terrain across the Santa Catalina Mountain Critical Zone observatory (SCM-CZO) environmental gradient that spans desert scrub to mixed conifer forest ecosystems. Bulk elemental chemistry, including major, minor, and trace elemental constituents, was determined by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) for all samples and microscale weathering patterns were quantified using electron microprobe analyses. From these data, elemental mass-transfer percentages were calculated and normalized to the parent rock materials using Na and Zr as the mobile and immobile inputs, respectively. Chemical depletions of Na, a proxy for plagioclase feldspar weathering, was observed in both the desert scrub and mixed conifer ecosystems. Na chemical loss was most consistent with depth and across soil pedons (n = 4) in the mixed conifer system where sodium depletion averaged 46% (± 5%) relative to the parent material, providing evidence for loss of plagioclase to chemical weathering. Electron microprobe analyses of surface and subsurface soils at the mixed conifer site revealed a significant decrease in sodium weight percent from the unaltered regions of the grains (Na of ~7-8%) to fully transformed areas of the grains (Na of ~0.2-0.3%) located in joint fractures and at grain edges. In contrast, soils from the desert scrub site exhibited highly variable Na loss in the bulk soils with Na depletion ranging from 23 to 50%. Electron microprobe analyses of desert scrub soils indicated incomplete mineral transformation where sodium weight percents spanned ~7% in un-altered grain centers to ~4% in grain fractures and edges. Backscattered electron (BSE) images support these patterns where more completely transformed minerals were observed in the mixed conifer soils compared to incomplete transformations in soils at the desert scrub site. These results document an important link between bulk soil element loss and microscale weathering processes with increased chemical denudation and mineral transformation in wetter, higher elevation mixed conifer ecosystems.

Lybrand, R. A.; Rasmussen, C.

2012-12-01

418

Learning to Live with Neuromuscular Disease: A Message for Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... physical limitations. 21 Touch the Future — Become an MDA Advocate Advocacy is a way for parents to ... calling (800) 572-1717 or visiting mda.org. MDA PUBLICATIONS MDA publishes a variety of materials for ...

419

Soils affected by heavy metals due to old mining on perudic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to assess the actual status of the soils of a natural environment surrounding an abandoned mine (exploited since the Roman Age) where Pb, Zn, Fe and Cu were obtained. The study has been carried out in the Aitzondo valley (Guipuzkoa, North of Iberian Peninsula), which cross the exploited mountainous area with middle temperatures and perudic soil moisture regime Soils in the valley are polygenic, acids, very washed and sometimes show redoximorphic features and have undergone a great mobilization of trace metals due to these physical-chemical characteristics that enhance the heavy metals solubility and mobility. The analysis of soil surface samples shows a punctual and intense pollution at Meazuri area (where the mine is located) and another more dispersal and wide pollution due to the parent material (Palaeozoic shales). The main soil type of the area has been characterized by means of the performance of a soil and six surface samples have been collected along an altitudinal transect, which goes down from 460 to 75 meters. Both profile and surface samples have been analysed for suitable parameters due to their repercussion in mobility and fixation of some heavy metals (organic matter, clay content…). Total (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Cd, Cr) and extractable fraction (using NH4Ac-EDTA pH=4.65, as extracting agent, have been analysed. Trace elements Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn have been measured. On summary, the soils studied are characterized by high levels of trace metals inherited from the parent material whose composition shows a great metallic richness. Hence, values of trace metals are very high even in remote areas where there has not been anthropic influence. Besides, the physical-chemical properties (acidity, base saturation, organic matter) have enhanced the mobility of trace metals. The anthropogenic activity (mining activity) has caused an increase in values of several metals, reaching, in some cases, concentrations above the levels established by legislation.

Garrigo, Jordi; Elustondo, David; Laheras, Ester; Oiarzabal, Maite; Jaume, Bech

2010-05-01

420

Source identification and health risk assessment of metals in urban soils around the Tanggu chemical industrial district, Tianjin, China.  

PubMed

We conducted an investigation to identify the sources of metals in urban surface soils, and to assess the associated human health risks, around the Tanggu chemical industrial district, Tianjin, China. The metal concentrations and spatial distributions in 70 soil samples from the study area were determined. Pollution sources were identified using multivariate statistical analysis. They mainly attributed Cu, Pb, and Zn pollution to vehicular traffic and industrial discharges, Cd pollution to industrial activities and anthropogenic waste including industrial discharges, sewage sludge, and municipal solid waste, As and Hg pollution to coal combustion and point source emissions from the chemical industry, and Cr and Ni pollution to the soil parent material. Soil properties, particularly the organic matter content, were found to be important factors in the distribution and composition of metals. A health risk assessment showed that samples from the northwestern and southeastern parts of the study area may pose significant health risks to the population. PMID:24061056

Zhao, Long; Xu, Yafei; Hou, Hong; Shangguan, Yuxian; Li, Fasheng

2014-01-15

421

(The determination of sup 222 Rn flux from soils based on sup 210 Pb and sup 226 Ra disequilibrium)  

SciTech Connect

The emanating fraction of radon in soils from the southern part of the United States is about 40% greater than in those from the northern part. The mean {sup 226}Ra activity in the southern soils is also slightly higher and as a consequence the {sup 222}Rn flux derived from the top 50 cm. is greater in the southern samples. We tentatively attribute these observations to the greater degree of weathering associated with the pre-glacial age of the parent material of many of the southern soils. The weathering has concentrated {sup 226}Ra near grain surfaces and results in an increased emanating power for {sup 222}Rn. The estimated correction in {sup 210}Pb analyses described above results in a small decrease in our estimate of the mean loss rate of {sup 222}Rn from the upper 50 cm of soils.

Turekian, K.K.

1991-01-01

422

Teaching Soil Morphology to Introductory Soil Science Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses procedures for teaching basic soil morphological concepts using soil cores collected along a toposequence. Describes materials and methods for collecting, laboratory use of cores, and student evaluation results. Shows a table of criteria used to describe soils for profile descriptions. (RT)

Vepraskas, M. J.; And Others

1988-01-01

423

PROPOSED CHANGES TO SOIL TAXONOMY THAT MAY AFFECT MINE SOIL CLASSIFICATION1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mine soils begin developing horizons from natural processes after mining excavation and transportation of spoil ceases. Spoil deposits and altered landforms are easily recognized from a distance but the soils in those landforms seldom contain proof of their origin. Soil Taxonomy provides a few diagnostic horizons and materials and classes for mine soils. Most excavated or transported mine soils are

J. M. Galbraith

424

Perceptions of Child Neglect among Urban American Indian/Alaska Native Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 101 American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) parents in Los Angeles was conducted to explore perceptions of child neglect among urban AIAN parents and factors associated with perceptions. Participants rated substance abuse by parents as the most serious type of neglect. Providing material necessities and providing adequate structure were…

Evans-Campbell, Teresa

2008-01-01

425

Linking the flux of water to soil development and carbon storage in the critical zone. Examples from the Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, CA, USA.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flux of water through the critical zone can be viewed as the engine driving the development of soil physical, mineral, and geochemical properties. To the extent that these soil properties control the capacity of the soils to store carbon, water flux also influences the carbon sequestration potential of the soil systems over long timescales. In addition, over comparatively shorter timescales, the water flux is an essential transport mechanism of organic carbon in the critical zone, directly influencing the supply of carbon to regions of stabilization within soil profiles. In the face of global and regional changes in the hydrologic cycle, it is useful to better quantify the role of water flux for long-term soil carbon stability. We explored linkages between water flux, soil development, and carbon stabilization in the critical zone. Specifically, we integrated estimates of carbon-mineral stabilization within a geochemical reactive transport model. Building on the work of Maher et al. (2009), who simulated the weathering of parent material and the subsequent precipitation of clay minerals of the Marine Terrace Chronosequence in Santa Cruz, CA, we attempted to simulate measured storage and turnover time of carbon in soils ranging in age from ~90 to ~225 ka. The results of this work provide gauge of the importance of soil mineral controls of carbon cycling relative to other mechanisms of long-term carbon stabilization and lend insight into the potential influence of climate change and other disturbance on the stability of organic carbon in soils.

Lawrence, Corey; Harden, Jennifer; Maher, Kate; Masiello, Caroline; Kiparski, Guntram

2010-05-01

426

Toxocariasis (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... your kids don't accidentally eat dirt or soil Diagnosis and Treatment A doctor can usually diagnose ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

427

Parental Smoking Affects Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)

Science News, 1978

1978-01-01

428

The Right to Parent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Legal and ethical issues concerned with whether the mentally handicapped have a "right to parent" are considered in the context of Canadian and American Supreme Court decisions concerning sterilization, the role of the family, and the welfare of the child. (DB)

Vogel, Paul

1987-01-01