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1

SOIL PARENT MATERIALS Low-carbonate alluvium  

E-print Network

, rhyolite and undifferentiated volcanics are low-carbonate. High- and low- carbonate parent materials CLIMATIC ZONES 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Kilometers 1 0 1 2 3 Miles N RhyoliteR V Volcanic (undiff.) Intermediate

2

Dryland soil microbial communities display spatial biogeographic patterns associated with soil depth and soil parent material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common to drylands worldwide. We employed replicated, spatially nested sampling and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the soil microbial communities in three soils derived from different parent material (sandstone, shale, and gypsum). For each soil type, two depths (biocrusts, 0–1 cm; below-crust soils, 2–5 cm) and two horizontal spatial scales (15 cm and 5 m) were sampled. In all three soils, Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria demonstrated significantly higher relative abundance in the biocrusts, while Chloroflexi and Archaea were significantly enriched in the below-crust soils. Biomass and diversity of the communities in biocrusts or below-crust soils did not differ with soil type. However, biocrusts on gypsum soil harbored significantly larger populations of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and lower populations of Cyanobacteria. Numerically dominant operational taxonomic units (OTU; 97% sequence identity) in the biocrusts were conserved across the soil types, whereas two dominant OTUs in the below-crust sand and shale soils were not identified in the gypsum soil. The uniformity with which small-scale vertical community differences are maintained across larger horizontal spatial scales and soil types is a feature of dryland ecosystems that should be considered when designing management plans and determining the response of biocrusts to environmental disturbances.

Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

2013-01-01

3

Parental material and cultivation determine soil bacterial community structure and fertility.  

PubMed

Microbes are the key components of the soil environment, playing important roles during soil development. Soil parent material provides the foundation elements that comprise the basic nutritional environment for the development of microbial community. After 30 years artificial maturation of cultivation, the soil developments of three different parental materials were evaluated and bacterial community compositions were investigated using the high-throughput sequencing approach. Thirty years of cultivation increased the soil fertility and soil microbial biomass, richness and diversity, greatly changed the soil bacterial communities, the proportion of phylum Actinobacteria decreased significantly, while the relative abundances of the phyla Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Armatimonadetes and Nitrospira were significantly increased. Soil bacterial communities of parental materials were separated with the cultivated ones, and comparisons of different soil types, granite soil and quaternary red clay soil were similar and different with purple sandy shale soil in both parental materials and cultivated treatments. Bacterial community variations in the three soil types were affected by different factors, and their alteration patterns in the soil development also varied with soil type. Soil properties (except total potassium) had a significant effect on the soil bacterial communities in all three soil types and a close relationship with abundant bacterial phyla. The amounts of nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as the abundances of the nifH gene in all cultivated soils were higher than those in the parental materials; Burkholderia and Rhizobacte were enriched significantly with long-term cultivation. The results suggested that crop system would not deplete the nutrients of soil parental materials in early stage of soil maturation, instead it increased soil fertility and changed bacterial community, specially enriched the nitrogen-fixing bacteria to accumulate nitrogen during soil development. PMID:25764534

Sun, Li; Gao, Jusheng; Huang, Ting; Kendall, Joshua R A; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

2015-01-01

4

Nature and Properties of Lateritic Soils Derived from Different Parent Materials in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils. PMID:24883366

2014-01-01

5

Nature and properties of lateritic soils derived from different parent materials in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils. PMID:24883366

Ko, Tzu-Hsing

2014-01-01

6

THE PARENT MATERIALS of the soil of the  

E-print Network

Hawaiian Islands have weathered under climatic conditions which are favorable for the develop-ment of lateritic and laterite soils. Cline (i n press) , in his classification of Hawaiian soils, has recognized the following four groups of lateritic and la terite soils: ( a) low humic latosols-a group of soils which have developed in regions having a rainfall ranging from 15 to 80 inches. These soils have silica to sesquioxide ratios varying from 1.3 to 1.8; (b) humic I latosols-this group of soils has developed in areas having a rainfall from 60 to 150 inches. These soils have developed silica to sesquioxide ratios varying from 0.5 to 0.8; (c) hydrol humic latosols-these soils are found in the regions receiving avery heavy rainfall, 120 to 300 inches. The silica to sesquioxide rat ios of this group of soils vary from 0.3 to 0.6; and (d) ferruginous humic latosols-soils belonging to this group have ~ concentration of heavy min-erals in the A 2 horizon. These soils have de-veloped in regions receiving a relatively wide range of rainfall, 25 to 150 inches. The silica to sesquioxide ratios of these soils show great variation, ranging from 0.05 to 1.0. Each group of soils _possesses clays which have distinct and definite chemical properties ~nd these properties were used as a basis for the classification of lateritic soils into the four groups. Since each group of these soils occurs-in regions having different climatic conditions, it is likely that climate plays a major role in development._Since the geological ages of the

G. Donald Sherman

1949-01-01

7

Shrubby Reed-Mustard Habitat: Parent Material, Soil, and Landscape Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrubby reed-mustard (Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, a.k.a. Schoenocrambe suffrutescens, Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, or Hesperidanthus suffrutescens) is an endangered perennial shrub endemic to the southern Uinta Basin in northeast Utah. Only seven populations of shrubby reed-mustard have been identified. The arid area where the plant grows is rich in natural gas and oil deposits, as well as oil shale. Oil wells already dot the landscape, and there is significant concern that further development of these resources will threaten the continued existence of shrubby reed-mustard. Determination of the parent material, soil and landscape characteristics associated with shrubby reed-mustard habitat is imperative to facilitate conservation management. Shrubby reed-mustard grows where little else does and, based on field observations and remotely sensed spectral data, appears to occur in a particular type of strata. Our objective is to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of shrubby reed-mustard's environment. Site characteristics such as parent material and associated vegetation have been identified and documented. Soil properties such as water-soluble and total leachable elements, particle-size distribution, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus and potassium are being determined. During the course of this investigation, soils within four shrubby reed-mustard habitat areas were sampled. Soils from non-shrubby reed-mustard areas adjacent to the four shrubby reed-mustard populations were also sampled. Soil samples were collected from a total of twenty-five shrubby reed-mustard soil pits and twenty-four non-shrubby reed-mustard soil pits. The soil horizons of each pedon were delineated, and samples were collected from each horizon. Field data indicate that shrubby reed-mustard occurs exclusively in shale-derived, shallow soils on bedrock-controlled uplands. Although there is some overlap of plant species on both types of soils, soils that do not support shrubby reed-mustard are dominated by black sage, a species not found in shrubby reed-mustard habitat. To date, statistical analyses to compare shrubby reed-mustard sites and non-shrubby reed-mustard sites have included Mann-Whitney rank sum tests and t-tests. Statistical results to date show that chemical properties differ between shrubby reed-mustard and non-shrubby reed-mustard sites. Concentrations of several soluble and total metals were significantly higher in shrubby reed-mustard soils compared to adjacent soils, including copper, lead, nickel, and lithium. Soluble, total, and available phosphorus were significantly lower in shrubby reed-mustard soils than in non-shrubby reed-mustard soils. Elevated metals may be indicative of shrubby reed-mustard tolerance of these elements, while low phosphorus concentrations in shrubby reed-mustard soils may indicate that this plant can tolerate low-nutrient status soils. Additional laboratory analyses are underway to further characterize the habitat of shrubby reed-mustard. Descriptive analysis is continuing. Statistical analyses will be finalized upon completion of all laboratory tests. Based on these determinations, shrubby reed-mustard habitat will be better defined and understood, which will assist with the preservation of this endangered species in the face of further resource development.

Kelly, L. S.; Boettinger, J. L.

2012-12-01

8

The impact of parent material, climate, soil type and vegetation on Venetian forest humus forms: a direct gradient approach  

E-print Network

1 The impact of parent material, climate, soil type and vegetation on Venetian forest humus forms and vegetation on forest humus forms was studied in the Veneto Region (northern Italy). A total of 352 study, warmer climate associated to lower elevation, lower soil acidity, deciduous (as opposed to coniferous

Boyer, Edmond

9

Unexpected dominance of parent-material strontium in a tropical forest on highly weathered soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Controls over nutrient supply are key to understanding the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Conceptual models once held that in situ mineral weathering was the primary long-term control over the availability of many plant nutrients, including the base cations calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K). Recent evidence has shown that atmospheric sources of these "rock-derived" nutrients can dominate actively cycling ecosystem pools, especially in systems on highly weathered soils. Such studies have relied heavily on the use of strontium isotopes as a proxy for base-cation cycling. Here we show that vegetation and soil-exchangeable pools of strontium in a tropical rainforest on highly weathered soils are still dominated by local rock sources. This pattern exists despite substantial atmospheric inputs of Sr, Ca, K, and Mg, and despite nearly 100% depletion of these elements from the top 1 m of soil. We present a model demonstrating that modest weathering inputs, resulting from tectonically driven erosion, could maintain parent-material dominance of actively cycling Sr. The majority of tropical forests are on highly weathered soils, but our results suggest that these forests may still show considerable variation in their primary sources of essential nutrients. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

Bern, C.R.; Townsend, A.R.; Farmer, G.L.

2005-01-01

10

Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east–west from Virginia to California, and north–south from northern Manitoba to the US–Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba–North Dakota segment of the north–south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

Klassen, R.A.

2009-01-01

11

The chemistry and parent material of urban soils in Bristol (UK): implications for contaminated land assessment.  

PubMed

An earlier survey of topsoil from parks and allotment in the city of Bristol (UK) revealed the presence of relatively high levels of "pseudo-total" Cd, As, Cu, Pb and Zn, with Cd and As exceeding present UK soil guidelines. This follow-up work aimed at (1) estimating geochemical thresholds for these elements based on "near-total" soil, bedrock and sediment heavy metals and (2) determining the genetic relationship between soil and bedrock using rare earth elements (REEs or lanthanides) as tracers. "Near-total" concentration of 34 elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Zn, Y and the rare earth elements Ce, Dy, Er, Eu, Gd, Ho, La, Lu, Nd, Pr, Sm, Tb, Yb) were obtained by ICP-MS and ICP-OES. The results show that the soil composition is largely controlled by the soil parent material, though extreme outliers are indicative of contamination at a few sites of parkland and allotments. Cumulative frequency plots show the presence of different data sets for which separate "background" values should be determined. The REE data provide evidence that weathering of the underlying sandstone was a determinant factor leading to the relatively high heavy metal enrichment found in soil samples and sediments. Reference to UK soil guidelines to decide on possible remediation measures could be very misleading due to the natural high background levels of some elements in the underlying bedrock. Before defining land as "contaminated", a thorough geochemical investigation is required at local scale in order to produce a more realistic and correct environmental assessment. PMID:22740127

Giusti, L

2013-02-01

12

Impact of terrain attributes, parent material and soil types on gully erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gully erosion is a worldwide matter of concern because of the irreversible losses of fertile land, which often have severe environmental, economic and social consequences. While most of the studies on the gullying process have investigated the involved mechanisms (either overland flow incision, seepage or piping erosion), only few have been conducted on the controlling factors of gully wall retreat, an important, if not the dominant, land degradation process and sediment source in river systems. In a representative 4.4 km2 degraded area of the Drakensberg foothills (South Africa) the main objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the rate of gully bank retreat (GBR) and parent material, soil types and selected terrain attributes (elevation, specific drainage area, mean slope gradient, slope length factor, stream power index, compound topographic index and slope curvatures). The survey of gully bank retreat was performed during an entire hydrological year, from September 2007 to September 2008, using a network of pins (n = 440 from 110 pits). Both the gully contours and pin coordinates were determined, using a GPS with a 0.5 m horizontal accuracy (n = 20,120). The information on the parent material and the soil types was obtained from field observations complemented by laboratory analysis, while terrain attributes were extracted from a 20 m DEM generated from 5 m interval contour lines. The average GBR value for the 6512 m of gully banks found in the area was 0.049 ± 0.0013 m y- 1, which, considering bank height and soil bulk density, corresponded to an erosion rate of 2.30 ton ha- 1 y- 1. There was no significant difference in GBR between sandstone and dolerite and between Acrisols and Luvisols. Despite a weak one-to-one correlation with the selected terrain attributes (r < 0.2), a principal component analysis (PCA), the first two axes of which explained 68% of the data variability, pointed out that GBR was the highest at hillslope inflexion points (profile and plan slope curvatures close to zero), in the vicinity of the head cuts and for drainage areas up to 500 m2, as both situations experience a high removal rate of the soil material produced from the gully bank collapse and protecting gullies from laterally retreating. These results could be used to digitally map the more active gully banks for the improved implementation of preventive measures of gully growth, if high resolution DEMs are available. There remained, however, a certain amount of unexplained variability in the data, that further research studies on the mechanisms and associated factors of control of GBR could help to address.

Chaplot, Vincent

2013-03-01

13

Soil humic compounds and microbial communities in six spruce forests as function of parent material, slope aspect and stand age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences on soil chemical and microbial properties of parent material, north south aspect and time measured as stand\\u000a age were investigated in six spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests located in the alpine range of Northern Italy. Soil samples from A horizons were analysed for humic\\u000a substances and in parallel Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) community profiles and

Paolo Carletti; Elena Vendramin; Diego Pizzeghello; Giuseppe Concheri; Augusto Zanella; Serenella Nardi; Andrea Squartini

2009-01-01

14

Geochemical evidence of Saharan dust parent material for soils developed on Quaternary limestones of Caribbean and western Atlantic islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most previous workers have regarded the insoluble residues of high-purity Quaternary limestones (coral reefs and oolites) as the most important parent material for well-developed, clay-rich soils on Caribbean and western Atlantic islands, but this genetic mechanism requires unreasonable amounts of limestone solution in Quaternary time. Other possible parent materials from external sources are volcanic ash from the Lesser Antilles island arc and Saharan dust carried across the Atlantic Ocean on the northeast trade winds. Soils on Quaternary coral terraces and carbonate eolianites on Barbados, Jamaica, the Florida Keys (United States), and New Providence Island (Bahamas) were studied to determine which, if either, external source was important. Caribbean volcanic ashes and Saharan dust can be clearly distinguished using ratios of relatively immobile elements ( Al2O3 TiO2, Ti Y, Ti Zr, and Ti Th). Comparison of these ratios in 25 soils, where estimated ages range from 125,000 to about 870,000 yr, shows that Saharan dust is the most important parent material for soils on all islands. These results indicate that the northeast trade winds have been an important component of the regional climatology for much of the Quaterary. Saharan dust may also be an important parent material for Caribbean island bauxites of much greater age. ?? 1990.

Muhs, D.R.; Bush, C.A.; Stewart, K.C.; Rowland, T.R.; Crittenden, R.C.

1990-01-01

15

Multiscale analysis of nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms in soils developed over sandstone and basic parent materials with contrasting texture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mono- and multifractal analysis of soil nitrogen adsorption isotherms (NAI) have been proven to be useful, allowing a better characterization of soil surface properties and soil porous system. Multiscale analysis of nitrogen desorption isotherms (NDI), which was less frequently performed, can also provide very valuable information. The multifractal theory was used to analyse both soil adsorption and desorption isotherms from soils developed over contrasting parent material and with different texture. We sampled 32 soil horizons from 6 soil profiles in neighbouring sites from São Paulo State, Brazil. Three of the profiles, developed over sandstone, were sandy loam or loamy, whereas the other three profiles, developed over weathered sediments or basic parent material, were clayey textured. Soil specific surface area (SSA) varied, from about 3.0 to 46 m2 g-1. Surface parameters showed a strong correlation with clay content, but they were not correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC). The scaling properties of both nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms from all the studied soil horizons could be fitted reasonably well with multifractal models. Multifractal parameters from NAIs and NDIs showed great differences. The singularity spectra, f(?) of the desorption isotherms had an asymmetrically long left part and its asymmetry was in general higher compared with adsorption isotherms. Moreover, adsorption isotherms behaved like more clustered measures, showing lower entropy dimension, D1, smaller correlation dimension, D2, and higher heterogeneity than desorption isotherms. Differences in multifractal behaviour of NAIs and NDIs had been proven to be mainly related to the characteristics of the hysteretic loop measured at high relative pressures. Several multifractal parameters extracted from NAIs and NDIs also distinguished between sandy-loam and loam soils and clayey soils. Multifractal parameters calculated from NAIs and NDIs provide new insight to assess soil surface properties.

Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Marinho, Mara de A.; de Abreu, Cleide A.

2014-05-01

16

Climate and Parent Material Influence on Development and Characteristics of Soils on Non-Calcareous Loess in Croatia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three profiles of the representative climax soils formed on non-calcareous loess (two Stagnic Cutanic Albeluvisols and one Luvic Stagnosol) were studied along the mean annual precipitation (MAP) gradient in the Pannonian region of Croatia. The purpose of the study was to compare the soil profiles' characteristics and to determine the main processes of their formation, in order to test the concept of soil climosequence on non-calcareous loess in this part of the Pannonian Basin. Each soil profile was opened on level plateau terrain and under well developed forest vegetation (Epimedio-carpinetum betuli community). The results pointed to several soil characteristics as consistent with the precipitation gradient. At the same time, given the merely partial uniformity of loess parent materials across the investigated transect, clay content and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil profiles studied did not correspond to the MAP gradient. Although all three soil profiles developed from pre-cycled and post-depositionally modified loess parent materials of same provenance, the uneven environmental conditions of eolian depositions caused variations in loess characteristics, i.e. formation of brown loess at the site of one analyzed profile and loess derivates at the sites of two remaining profiles. Therefore, climosequences sensu stricto could not have formed on non-calcareous loess in the Pannonian region of Croatia. Nevertheless, the effects of acidification and pseudogleization were found to be least expressed at the site with the lowest MAP, and most expressed at the site with the highest MAP. At the other hand, rate of lessivage, as the third major pedogenic process identified, did not increase along with the increase of MAP, i.e. it depended more on soil pH and clay mineralogy, than on the amount of precipitation. Keywords: Stagnosols; Albeluvisols; Loess derivates; Brown loess; Climosequence.

Rubinic, Vedran; Durn, Goran; Husnjak, Stjepan; Tadej, Neven

2014-05-01

17

Parent material and vegetation influence soil microbial community structure following 30-years of rock weathering and pedogenesis.  

PubMed

The process of pedogenesis and the development of biological communities during primary succession begin on recently exposed mineral surfaces. Following 30 years of surface exposure of reclaimed surface mining sites (Appalachian Mountains, USA), it was hypothesized that microbial communities would differ between sandstone and siltstone parent materials and to a lesser extent between vegetation types. Microbial community composition was examined by targeting bacterial and archaeal (16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)) and fungal (internal transcribed spacer (ITS)) genes and analyzed using Illumina sequencing. Microbial community composition significantly differed between parent materials and between plots established with tall fescue grass or pitch x loblolly pine vegetation types, suggesting that both factors are important in shaping community assembly during early pedogenesis. At the phylum level, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria differed in relative abundance between sandstone and siltstone. The amount of the heavy fraction carbon (C) was significantly different between sandstone (2.0 mg g(-1)) and siltstone (5.2 mg g(-1)) and correlated with microbial community composition. Soil nitrogen (N) cycling was examined by determining gene copy numbers of ureC, archaeal amoA, and bacterial amoA. Gene quantities tended to be higher in siltstone compared to sandstone but did not differ by vegetation type. This was consistent with differences in extractable ammonium (NH4 (+)) concentrations between sandstone and siltstone (16.4 vs 8.5 ?g NH4 (+)-N g(-1) soil), suggesting that nitrification rates may be higher in siltstone. Parent material and early vegetation are important determinants of early microbial community assembly and could be drivers for the trajectory of ecosystem development over longer time scales. PMID:25370885

Yarwood, Stephanie; Wick, Abbey; Williams, Mark; Daniels, W Lee

2015-02-01

18

PEDOGENIC FORMATION OF KAOLINITE-SMECTI TE MIXED LAYERS IN A SOIL TOPOSEQUENCE DEVELOPED FROM BASALTIC PARENT MATERIAL IN SARDINIA (ITALY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Format ion of kaolinite-smectite (K-S) mixed layers in a soil toposequence developed from basaltic parent material was examined. The soil formed in a temperate climate with alternating dry and wet seasons in Sardinia (Italy). Chemical composition and charge characteristics of the smectite compo- nent in the K-S mixed layers were analyzed to help determine a mechanism for formation. Soils were

FABIO TERRIBILE; SABINE PETIT

19

Impact of climate and parent material on chemical weathering in Loess-derived soils of the Mississippi River valley  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Peoria Loess-derived soils on uplands east of the Mississippi River valley were studied from Louisiana to Iowa, along a south-to-north gradient of decreasing precipitation and temperature. Major element analyses of deep loess in Mississippi and Illinois show that the composition of the parent material is similar in the northern and southern parts of the valley. We hypothesized that in the warmer, wetter parts of the transect, mineral weathering should be greater than in the cooler, drier parts of the transect. Profile average values of CaO/TiO2, MgO/ TiO2, K2O/TiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, Sr/Zr, Ba/Zr, and Rb/Zr represent proxies for depletion of loess minerals such as calcite, dolomite, hornblende, mica, and plagioclase. All ratios show increases from south to north, supporting the hypothesis of greater chemical weathering in the southern part of the valley. An unexpected result is that profile average values of Al2O3/TiO2 and Fe2O3/TiO2 (proxies for the relative abundance of clay minerals) show increases from south to north. This finding, while contrary to the evidence of greater chemical weathering in the southern part of the transect, is consistent with an earlier study which showed higher clay contents in Bt horizons of loess-derived soils in the northern part of the transect. We hypothesize that soils in the northern part of the valley received fine-grained loess from sources to the west of the Mississippi River valley either late in the last glacial period, during the Holocene or both. In contrast, soils in the southern part of the valley were unaffected by such additions.

Muhs, D.R.; Bettis, E. Arthur, III; Been, J.; McGeehin, J.P.

2001-01-01

20

Modeling Water Flux at the Base of the Rooting Zone for Soils with Varying Glacial Parent Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils of varying glacial parent materials in the Great Lakes Region (USA) are characterized by thin unsaturated zones and widespread use of agricultural pesticides and nutrients that affect shallow groundwater. To better our understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants, improved models of water fluxes through the vadose zones of various hydrogeologic settings are warranted. Furthermore, calibrated unsaturated zone models can be coupled with watershed models, providing a means for predicting the impact of varying climate scenarios on agriculture in the region. To address these issues, a network of monitoring sites was developed in Indiana that provides continuous measurements of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET), soil volumetric water content (VWC), and soil matric potential to parameterize and calibrate models. Flux at the base of the root zone is simulated using two models of varying complexity: 1) the HYDRUS model, which numerically solves the Richards equation, and 2) the soil-water-balance (SWB) model, which assumes vertical flow under a unit gradient with infiltration and evapotranspiration treated as separate, sequential processes. Soil hydraulic parameters are determined based on laboratory data, a pedo-transfer function (ROSETTA), field measurements (Guelph permeameter), and parameter optimization. Groundwater elevation data are available at three of six sites to establish the base of the unsaturated zone model domain. Initial modeling focused on the groundwater recharge season (Nov-Feb) when PET is limited and much of the annual vertical flux occurs. HYDRUS results indicate that base of root zone fluxes at a site underlain by glacial ice-contact parent materials are 48% of recharge season precipitation (VWC RMSE=8.2%), while SWB results indicate that fluxes are 43% (VWC RMSE=3.7%). Due in part to variations in surface boundary conditions, more variable fluxes were obtained for a site underlain by alluvium with the SWB model (68% of recharge season precipitation, VWC RMSE=7.0%) predicting much greater drainage than HYDRUS (38% of recharge season precipitation, VWC RMSE=6.6%). Results also show that when calculating drainage flux over the recharge period, HYDRUS is highly sensitive to model initialization using observed water content from in-situ instrumentation. Simulated recharge season drainage flux is as much as 3.5 times higher when a one-month spin-up period was performed in the HYDRUS model for the same site. SWB results are less sensitive to water content initialization, but drainage flux is 1.6 times higher at one site using the same spin-up analysis. The long-term goals of this effort are to leverage the robust calibration data set to establish optimal approaches for determining hydraulic parameters such that water fluxes in the lower vadose zone can be modeled for a wider range of geomorphic settings where calibration data are unavailable.

Naylor, S.; Ellett, K. M.; Ficklin, D. L.; Olyphant, G. A.

2013-12-01

21

Applying a new procedure to assess the controls on aggregate stability - including soil parent material and soil organic carbon concentrations - at the landscape scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aggregate stability is an important physical indicator of soil quality and influences the potential for erosive losses from the landscape, so methods are required to measure it rapidly and cost-effectively. Previously we demonstrated a novel method for quantifying the stability of soil aggregates using a laser granulometer (Rawlins et al., 2012). We have developed our method further to mimic field conditions more closely by incorporating a procedure for pre-wetting aggregates (for 30 minutes on a filter paper) prior to applying the test. The first measurement of particle-size distribution is made on the water stable aggregates after these have been added to circulating water (aggregate size range 1000 to 2000 µm). The second measurement is made on the disaggregated material after the circulating aggregates have been disrupted with ultrasound (sonication). We then compute the difference between the mean weight diameters (MWD) of these two size distributions; we refer to this value as the disaggregation reduction (DR; µm). Soils with more stable aggregates, which are resistant to both slaking and mechanical breakdown by the hydrodynamic forces during circulation, have larger values of DR. We made repeated analyses of DR using an aggregate reference material (RM; a paleosol with well-characterised disaggregation properties) and used this throughout our analyses to demonstrate our approach was reproducible. We applied our modified technique - and also the previous technique in which dry aggregates were used - to a set of 60 topsoil samples (depth 0-15 cm) from cultivated land across a large region (10 000 km2) of eastern England. We wished to investigate: (i) any differences in aggregate stability (DR measurements) using dry or pre-wet aggregates, and (ii) the dominant controls on the stability of aggregates in water using wet aggregates, including variations in mineralogy and soil organic carbon (SOC) content, and any interaction between them. The sixty soil sampling locations were selected based on the quantities of SOC from previous analysis (on samples collected at sites across the entire region). We chose the samples to encompass a wide range of SOC concentrations (1.2-7%) within each of six strongly contrasting soil parent material (PM) groups (sandstone, mudstone, clay, chalk, limestone and marine alluvium). The DR values (calculated using re-scaled size distributions for particle diameters < 500 µm) ranged from 17 to 151 µm. The co-efficient of variation for DR analyses using fourteen aliquots of the RM was reasonably small (21 %). The PM groups accounted for a larger proportion of the variation in DR than SOC concentrations; together they accounted for around 50% of the variation in DR values. There was no evidence to include an interaction term between PM and SOC concentration. The proportion of clay-sized particles in the material after sonication was not a statistically significant predictor of DR. Pre-wetting the aggregates typically resulted in substantially smaller values of DR by comparison to using air-dried aggregates in our test. We suggest that the effects of differential clay swelling as a disruptive force during the wetting stage are greater than those associated with slaking (fragmentation due to trapped air). We believe this rapid (duration after the wetting procedure is 10 minutes), reproducible test could could be an effective means to monitor changes in this important soil property and improve predictions of soil erosion. Reference: Rawlins, B. G., Wragg, J. & Lark, R. M. 2012. Application of a novel method for soil aggregate stability measurement by laser granulometry with sonication. European Journal of Soil Science, 64, 92-103.

Turner, Gren; Rawlins, Barry; Wragg, Joanna; Lark, Murray

2014-05-01

22

Similarity analysis of soils formed on limestone/marl-alluvial parent material and different topography using some physical and chemical properties via cluster and multidimensional scaling methods.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to analyze the similarity of soils formed on limestone/marl alluvial parent material and different topography using some physical and chemical properties via cluster analysis (CA) and multidimensional scaling analysis (MDSA). Physical and chemical soil properties included in this study are texture, CaCO3, organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and available water content. The study was carried out in Çetinkaya region located on Bafra Deltaic Plain. The study area has two main physiographic units. The first one is the flat or gently slope alluvial lands (0-2 %), and the other one involves hills with slopes ranging from middle to steep (3-20 %). The soil in the study area is mainly classified as entisol, inceptisol and vertisol. According to the CA results, while C horizons of the soils formed on alluvial deposits (typic ustifluvent and typic ustipsamment) bear similarity, Ap horizons of the soils formed on lime/marl parent material (vertic ustorhent, vertic calciustept, and calci haplustert) appear in the same group. Additionally, in order to support CA, MDSA was performed. Significant correlations were observed between the results of both analyses. PMID:25663394

Sa?lam, Mustafa; Dengiz, Orhan

2015-03-01

23

[Vertical distribution patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in Chinese pine forest soils developed from different parent materials in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve, Beijing of China].  

PubMed

Taking the soils developed from two kinds of parent materials (granite and limestone) under Pinus tabulaeformis forest at the same altitude in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve of Beijing as test objects, this paper studied the vertical distribution patterns of soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium. The soil developed from granite had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1.61-2. 35 g kg-1, 5. 84-10.74 mg kg- 1, and 39.33-93.66 mg kg-1, while that developed from limestone had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1. 69 -2. 36 g kg-1, 4.45-8.57 mg . kg-1, and 60.66-124.00 mg kg-1, respectively. The total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents in the two soils were the highest in 0-10 cm layer, decreased with increasing depth, and had significant differences between different layers, showing that the soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium had a strong tendency to accumulate in surface layer. Such a tendency was more obvious for the soil developed from limestone. The paired t-test for the two soils indicated that the total nitrogen content in different layers had no significant difference, whereas the available phosphorus content in 0-10 cm layer and the available potassium content in 10-20 cm layer differed significantly. PMID:23898652

Gou, Li-hui; Sun, Zhao-di; Nie, Li-shui; Luo, Pan-pan; Wu, Ji-Gui; Xu, Wu-de

2013-04-01

24

Soils as Construction Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This geotechnical project will introduce you with the concept of using soils as construction materials.This project involves characterizing soils using various laboratory analyses and applying the Unified Soil Classification System in naming the soil. Keywords: Geotechnical, Mass Wetness, Grain Size Analysis, Atterberg Limits

Douglas Kowalewski

25

Focus on Parents: The Parenting Materials Information Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To bridge the gap between producers of parenting materials and potential users, the National Institute of Education funded the Southwest Educational Laboratory to design, develop, and research the effectiveness of a model Parenting Materials Information Center. During the last 2 years this model has been developed to include more than 1400…

Espinoza, Renato

26

Elemental and strontium isotopic geochemistry of the soil profiles developed on limestone and sandstone in karstic terrain on Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China: Implications for chemical weathering and parent materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limestone and yellow sandstone soil profiles from SW China were measured for chemical and Sr isotope compositions of the bulk soils and their sequential leachates (labile, carbonate, and residue or silicate fraction), aiming to characterize the parent materials of the soils, to understand the soil weathering and formation processes, and to discuss the origin of the red residua (terra rossa). The studied yellow sandstone soil, yellow limestone soil, and black limestone soil show different pH values, SiO2 contents, Rb/Sr abundance ratios, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios. The sequential leachates of different soil types also have different 87Sr/86Sr and Ca/Sr ratios. The major chemical compositions of the studied soil profiles suggest that all the sandstone and limestone soils are developing at a stage that feldspar is exhausting and the clay minerals are changing from smectite to kaolinite and gibbsite. As compared with the red residua distributed in the karst region, the soils studied here show lower CIA values (58-84), but both higher Na2O/K2O (0.9-2.7) and Na2O/Al2O3 concentration ratios (0.07-0.26) on average, suggesting a lower weathering intensity than that of the red residua. The depth profiles of soil CIA values, Na2O/K2O and Rb/Sr ratios, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios indicate that the weathering intensity is slightly lower for the upper and higher for the deeper soils, which suggest that the sandstone and limestone soil profiles were formed through both accumulation and weathering of in situ weathering residue and input of external detritus or soil from upper land. During weathering of the soils, preferential release of Ca and retention of Sr in soil result in higher Ca/Sr ratios in both labile and carbonate fractions than those in the residue fractions of all soil profiles. The co-variations of Hf/Nb and Zr/Nb ratios, together with those Rb/Sr and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of limestone soils, sandstone soils, and the red residua, demonstrate that their parent materials are distinct, and support the point that the widely distributed red residua is originated from the weathering residua of both carbonate and silicate clastic rocks, and further weathering of the weathering residua resulted in intensive release of Si, Na, Ca and relative enrichment of Al, K and other immobile elements in the red residua.

Liu, Wen-Jing; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Zhao, Zhi-Qi; Xu, Zhi-Fang; Liang, Chong-Shan; Li, Long-bo; Feng, Jia-Yi

2013-05-01

27

An initial study to assess the use of geological parent materials to predict the Se concentration in overlying soils and in five staple foodstuffs produced on them in Scotland.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that dietary-intakes of the essential element selenium have fallen in Scotland in recent years, due to changing sources of bread-making wheat. The Scottish environment is thought to be Se-poor due to the geology and climate. This initial study assessed whether geological parent-materials could be used to predict relatively high and low soil-Se areas in Scotland and whether differences in soil-Se were reflected in foodstuff-Se produced on them. Samples (n=8 per farm) of wheat, calabrese (broccoli), potato, beef-steak, milk, cattle pasture (grass) and soil were collected from pairs of farms (one in each high/low predicted Se area (PSA)). Potatoes and soils were collected from a further 34 farms in high/low PSAs to assess a greater geographical zone. Total soil-Se ranged from 0.115 to 0.877mgkg(-1) but most samples (90%) could be classed as Se-deficient (<0.6mgkg(-1)), irrespective of PSA. Total soil-Se was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the high than in the low PSAs as expected; however, the difference between the two was small (mean 0.48 and 0.37mgkg(-1), respectively). Water-soluble soil-Se (6.69 to 26.78?gkg(-1)) concentrations were not significantly different between the two PSAs (p=0.71). Soil loss-on-ignition (indicating organic matter content) correlated significantly with total and water-soluble soil-Se (p<0.001) and exerted a greater control than parent-material on soil-Se. Significant differences between the PSAs for beef-Se (p<0.001), wheat-Se (p<0.001), calabrese-Se (p<0.01) and beef-farm grass-Se (p<0.05) indicated partial success of the parent-material soil-Se prediction. However, only wheat-Se (p<0.001) and potato-Se (p<0.001) correlated significantly with total soil-Se. The results suggest that soil-Se concentrations in the main agricultural areas of Scotland are generally low. Given the low Se concentrations also reported in the food commodities; further investigations may be warranted to fully characterise the Se-status of Scottish produce and dietary-Se intakes in Scotland. PMID:20813394

Fordyce, F M; Brereton, N; Hughes, J; Luo, W; Lewis, J

2010-10-15

28

Amorphous clay materials of towada ando soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Towada Ando soils consisted of five soils—Towada-a (1,000 years old), Towada-b (2,000 years old), Chuseri (4,000 years old), Nanbu (8,600 years old), and Ninokura soils (10,000 years Amorphous clay materials of these soils taken at different localities were studied by the combined use of selective dissolution and differential infrared spectroscopy, X-ray analysis, electron microscopy, etc.The main clay minerals of Towada-a

Sadao Shoji; Masahiko Saigusa

1977-01-01

29

Assessing parent material uniformity of Phaeozems in the Azul Sierras landscape: preliminary studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South of Azul Co. (Argentina) there is an area with Precambrian and Paleozoic gneiss and migmatite outcrops that conform the wider system of Pampian Sierras, with slopes and intermountain areas covered by loess. The Phaeozems distribution in the Azul Sierras is complex and their genesis either being derived from a uniform parent material or a lithologic discontinuity is not known. The objective of this study was to confirm whether pedological processes or a lithologic discontinuity may be responsible for the textural contrast within soil profiles. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was used to determine elemental concentrations in various soil fractions. Three landscape units were defined: a) rocky, b) side slope and c) intermountain plain. Rocky area: 8-10 % slope, soils develop in between rock outcrops, are rather shallow with high organic matter content, coarse texture and gravely. They include: Endoleptic Phaeozems, Haplic Phaeozems (Pachic) and (Pachic Arenic). Sideslope: coarse textured soils with abundant gravels and lime free close to the rocky area; OC is high up to 50 cm depth; incipient clay illuviation is observed as coatings on pebbles. Half slope a petrocalcic horizon (tosca) appears at variable depth, coarse fragments diminish with increasing distance from the rock outcrops, OC remains high in the first 50 cm. All soil profiles have mollic horizon and argic horizon less than 20 cm thick. The petrocalcic horizon has a minimum depth of 50 cm. Soils classify as Luvic Phaeozem (Skeletic), Luvic Petrocalcic Phaeozem (Endoskeletic) and Luvic Petrocalcic Phaeozem. Intermountain plains: soils are deep, with clay accumulation, no coarse fragments nor rock outcrops, and gentle sloping. The mollic horizon reaches 53 cm thick and there is a well developed argic horizon. These soils classify as Luvic Phaeozems. Results showed that all indicators of parent material uniformity, i.e., depth distribution curves of Zr and Y in various fractions and Y:Zr ratio showed clear inflection and variation in side slope soils, indicanting soils developed from contrasting materials, so different trends in particle size fractions between 0-34 cm compared to the underlying layers are due to parent material differences and not pedogenesis. While Pampian soils are mainly developed from loess, the influence of gneiss and migmatites on soils in this landscape appears as an important conclusion.

Roca, Núria; Rodríguez, Javier; Pazos, Mabel Susana

2014-05-01

30

DETERMINATION OF EFFECTIVE POROSITY OF SOIL MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of a compacted soil liner is partly a function of the porosity, where the transport of materials through the liner occurs via the pore space. The project studies the pore spaces of compacted soil materials to estimate the effective porosity, which is the portion o...

31

Soils - Part 8: Characteristics of Fertilizer Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The various characteristics of fertilizer materials being sold on the market today will be discussed. You will learn to identify some of the consequences of using each type of fertilizer material and how that material was developed and manufactured.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

32

Developmental effects of parental exposure to soil contaminated with urban metals.  

PubMed

Soil is a highly complex material, and because of rapid population growth, intense industrial activity and petrochemical development, it has suffered from contamination with substances of various origins. These environmental contaminants may have detrimental effects on human health, particularly during development. Due to the ability to transmit contaminants to the fetus, evaluating the effects of exposure of pregnant women on the psychomotor development of their offspring is of particular interest. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure of female rats to an urban soil influenced by the dispersion of air contaminants during periods of pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation on offspring development. Using physiological, behavioral and hematological parameters, deleterious effects on offspring were assessed. In behavioral parameters, parental exposure during pregnancy and lactation resulted in no significant differences in the evaluated parameters when compared to the control group. In contrast, pups from the pre-pregnancy group displayed decreased locomotor and exploratory activity in addition to increased levels of anxiety. Furthermore, offspring of rats exposed to contaminated urban soil during pre-pregnancy demonstrated significant changes in weight gain and development length and a reduction in the number of platelets compared to controls. Significantly, pups born to mothers exposed to contaminated urban soil during the pregnancy displayed changes in birth weight, weight gain during the growth, development length, incisor eruption and opening of the ears in addition to a reduction in their physical performance and a change in the number of lymphocytes. These results clearly show the negative influence of parental exposure to contaminated urban soil on the general development of the rats during the periods studied. These data indicate that developing organisms are highly sensitive to external factors. Further, they demonstrate the utility of these various biomarkers for identifying and displaying toxic effects of exposure to contaminated soils. PMID:25817757

Garcia, Edariane Menestrino; da Silva Junior, Flavio Manoel Rodrigues; Soares, Maria Cristina Flores; Muccillo-Baisch, Ana Luiza

2015-07-01

33

Infrared optical properties of Mars soil analog materials: Palagonites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The globally distributed bright soils on Mars represent products of chemical alteration of primary igneous materials. As such, understanding the chemistry and mineralogy of these soils provides clues about the nature of the parent materials and the type, duration, and extent of the chemical weathering environments on Mars. Such clues are key in developing an understanding of the interior and surficial processes that have operated throughout Mars' history to yield the surface as it is currently observed. The generally homogeneous nature of these soils is illustrated by a variety of observational data. These data include (1) direct determination of elemental abundances by the X-ray fluorescence instruments on both Viking Landers, (2) Earth-based telescopic observations, and (3) space-based observations. Based on their spectral properties in the visible and near-infrared, terrestrial palagonitic soils have been suggested as analogs for the bright regions on Mars. Palagonites represent the weathering products of basaltic glass and as such are composed of a variety of minerals/materials. In order to gain an understanding regarding the chemical, mineralogical, and spectral properties of a broad suite of palagonites, several samples were collected from the eastern and central regions of the island of Hawaii.

Roush, Ted L.

1992-01-01

34

Teacher-Parent Communication and Parents' Ability to Select Reading Material: A Study of a Baggy Book Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of a home-reading program on parent-teacher communication and on the ability of parents to select reading material for their children. In this qualitative case study, parents of 4th grade students participated in a reading homework program with their children. Using constructivist theories, the study's…

Lorenz, Kelley M.

2013-01-01

35

Parent Training in Corrections: Mission, Methods, Materials, and Best Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A parent's incarceration significantly influences his or her children. Most incarcerated persons have little contact with their children, leading to negative consequences for the children. When incarcerated parents are freed, they often have a hard time reuniting the family, partly because they lack effective parenting skills. Parent training is…

Lange, Stephen M.

36

Response of plant species to coal-mine soil materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-year experiment was conducted on the Black Mesa Coal Mine near Kayenta, Arizona to investigate the growth and establishment of seven plant species in unmined soil (undisturbed soil) and coal-mine soil (spoils). Natural rainfall (20 cm\\/yr) and natural rainfull plus sprinkler irrigation (50 cm\\/yr) were the irrigation treatments applied to each soil material.

A. D. Day; T. C. Tucker; J. L. Thamest

1983-01-01

37

Soil Quality: Science and Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

parent materials, topographies, and biota, all acting over geologic time (Jenny, 1941). Inherent differences are The term soil quality (SQ) encompasses both a soil's productive well reflected by the soil series description of the U.S.

Michelle M. Wander; Gerald L. Walter; Todd M. Nissen; German A. Bollero; Susan S. Andrews; Deborah A. Cavanaugh-Grant

38

Optimal mapping of terrestrial gamma dose rates using geological parent material and aerogeophysical survey data.  

PubMed

Regulatory authorities need ways to estimate natural terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates (nGy h?¹) across the landscape accurately, to assess its potential deleterious health effects. The primary method for estimating outdoor dose rate is to use an in situ detector supported 1 m above the ground, but such measurements are costly and cannot capture the landscape-scale variation in dose rates which are associated with changes in soil and parent material mineralogy. We investigate the potential for improving estimates of terrestrial gamma dose rates across Northern Ireland (13,542 km²) using measurements from 168 sites and two sources of ancillary data: (i) a map based on a simplified classification of soil parent material, and (ii) dose estimates from a national-scale, airborne radiometric survey. We used the linear mixed modelling framework in which the two ancillary variables were included in separate models as fixed effects, plus a correlation structure which captures the spatially correlated variance component. We used a cross-validation procedure to determine the magnitude of the prediction errors for the different models. We removed a random subset of 10 terrestrial measurements and formed the model from the remainder (n = 158), and then used the model to predict values at the other 10 sites. We repeated this procedure 50 times. The measurements of terrestrial dose vary between 1 and 103 (nGy h?¹). The median absolute model prediction errors (nGy h?¹) for the three models declined in the following order: no ancillary data (10.8) > simple geological classification (8.3) > airborne radiometric dose (5.4) as a single fixed effect. Estimates of airborne radiometric gamma dose rate can significantly improve the spatial prediction of terrestrial dose rate. PMID:23147566

Rawlins, B G; Scheib, C; Tyler, A N; Beamish, D

2012-12-01

39

Multi-Elemental Nuclear Analysis of soil reference material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elements concentration in the soil reference material (IAEA/SOIL-7) was obtained using the parametric Neutron Activation Analysis technique in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (CNEN-SP). The results obtained were in good agreement with the respective nominal values from this reference material suggesting the viability of using this parametric procedure for environmental investigations.

Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Medeiros, I. M. M. Amaral; Menezes, M. À. B. C.

2011-08-01

40

Contrasting environmental memories by ancient soils on different parent rocks in the South-western Italian Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient soils (pre-Holocenic paleosols and vetusols) are uncommon on the Alps, because of the extensive Pleistocenic glaciations which erased most of the previously existing soils, the slope steepness and climatic conditions favoring soil erosion. However, in few sites, particularly in the outermost sections of the Alpine range, Pleistocene glaciers covered only small and scattered surfaces because of the low altitude reached in the basins, and ancient soils could be preserved for long periods of time on particularly stable surfaces. We described and sampled soils on 11 stable surfaces in the Upper Tanaro valley, Ligurian Alps (Southwestern Piemonte, Italy). The sampling sites were characterized by low steepness and elevation between 600 to 1600 m, under present day lower montane Castanea sativa/Ostrya carpinifolia forests, montane Fagus sylvatica and Pinus uncinata forests or montane heath/grazed grassland, on different substrata. In particular, we sampled soils developed on dolomite, limestone, quartzite, gneiss and shales. The soils were always well representative of the pedogenic trends active on the respective parent materials, i.e. the skeletal fraction in each soil was always composed of just one rock type, despite the proximity of lithological boundaries and the small dimensions of the different outcrops, often coexisting on the same stable surface. All the considered profiles showed signs of extremely long pedogenesis and/or different phases of intense pedogenesis interrupted by the deposition of periglacial cover beds in the steepest sites. Up to four phases of intense pedogenesis were recognized where cover beds were developed, presumably during cold Pleistocene phases, as present-day climate is not cold enough to create such periglacial morphologies. In such cases, each cover bed underwent similar pedogenesis, strongly dependent on the parent material: on quartzite, podzols with thick E horizons and well developed placic ones were formed in all phases except the most superficial one (i.e., Holocene phase), where non cemented spodic horizons or weakly cemented ortstein were formed; placic horizons were never found in Holocene soils. On limestone, each cover bed separated soils with extremely hard petrocalcic horizons overlaid by argillic ones. Where no cover beds were observed, podzols with extremely thick E horizons (up to more than 2 m thick) and a very hard, very thick ortstein were formed on quartzite. Red Nitisols-like or reddish brown Luvisols were formed on limestone and dolomite, while red, extremely acidic Alisols, with or without fragipan horizons were formed on shales. Very large stone circles and other large patterned ground features, which can be interpreted as evidence of past permafrost conditions, were preserved on coarse quartzitic conglomerate. These soils represent excellent pedo-signatures of different specific past climatic or environmental conditions, as a response of different lithologies to specific soil-forming environments, which range from warm and humid climates typical of red Luvisols and Nitisols, to cool and wet climates leading to the formation of Podzols with placic or ortstein horizons, to extremely cold and dry ones characterizing permafrost sites and often associated with fragipan formation, to warm and dry leading to the cementation of petrocalcic horizons. The precise dating and interpretation of these soils are intriguing.

D'Amico, Michele; Catoni, Marcella; Bonifacio, Eleonora; Zanini, Ermanno

2014-05-01

41

Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The newsletter of the California Association for the Gifted includes the following brief articles on parenting: "Your Challenge, Their Lives" (Barry Ziff); "Courage to Be Who I Am, Unafraid" (Elizabeth Meckstroth); "Attribution: A Key to Encouraging More Responsible Behavior in the Gifted" (Saundra Sparling); "A Parent's Perspective" (Carolyn…

Ziff, Barry, Ed.; Hostettler, Karen, Ed.

1989-01-01

42

The radon emanation power of building materials, soils and rocks.  

PubMed

The 222Rn emanation power of building materials, soil and rock samples is determined by collecting exhalated radon on activated charcoal. Median values are 0.2 for dry soils and stones, 0.06 for sand, 0.025 for bricks, 0.006 for ceramic tiles, 0.008 for mineral slag and 0.3 for gypsum. The emanation power of soil rises with water content, in accordance with literature. For water content above 10% the emanation power of soil is about twice as high as for dry soil. PMID:14622941

Bossew, Peter

2003-01-01

43

The susceptibility of parental and hybrid willows to plant enemies under contrasting soil nutrient conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted an experimental study of the effects of nutrient addition on the susceptibility of two species of willows (Salix \\u000a eriocephala and S. sericea) and their hybrid to a pathogen and several herbivores. We hypothesized that the relative susceptibility of parental and\\u000a hybrid willows would depend upon soil nutrient availability and vary among plant enemies. Using potted plants in a

C. M. Orians; T. Floyd

1997-01-01

44

Investigation of solid waste soil as road construction material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geotechnical properties of solid waste soils for use as sub-base materials in road construction were investigated. A series of field tests and laboratory tests were performed to assess the physical and mechanical properties of the solid waste soils sampled from a landfill site, near to a riverside, which had been reclaimed over the last two decades. The tests showed

Y.-S. Song; J.-M. Yun; W.-P. Hong; T.-H. Kim

2003-01-01

45

Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science  

SciTech Connect

Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. However they are important when numerical simulation of coupled heat and moisture transport for below-grade building components are performed as their temperature and moisture content has an influence on the durability of the below-grade building component. Soils can be classified by soil texture. According to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCA), 12 different soils can be defined on the basis of three soil components: clay, sand, and silt. This study shows how existing material properties for typical American soils can be transferred and used for the calculation of the coupled heat and moisture transport of building components in contact with soil. Furthermore a thermal validation with field measurements under known boundary conditions is part of this study, too. Field measurements for soil temperature and moisture content for two specified soils are carried out right now under known boundary conditions. As these field measurements are not finished yet, the full hygrothermal validation is still missing.

Pallin, Simon B [ORNL] [ORNL; Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

46

Hygrothermal Simulations of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties  

SciTech Connect

Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. The computational approach for heat transfer via the ground is well defined (EN-ISO-13370:, 2007) together with simplified methods (Staszczuk, Radon, & Holm). Though the soil moisture transfer is generally ignored, it is proven not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, & Hens, 2004). Even though reliable material properties of soils are required to perform realistic hygrothermal calculations of soils coupled to buildings, such material properties have not been well defined in hygrothermal calculations tools. Typical building constructions which are greatly influenced by soils are basements, crawl spaces and slab on grade and reliable hygrothermal performance of such construction are highly requested; as it is ranked within the top 10 Building America Enclosure Research Ideas according to Enclosures STC - Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting, February 29, 2012 Austin, TX. There exists an extensive amount of measurements on soil properties in Soil Science though this information must be gathered as well as adapted to be applicable in Building Science and for hygrothermal simulation purposes. Soil properties are important when analyzing and designing both new building constructions and retrofitting measures, where the outer boundary of the buildings enclosure consists of soil materials. Concerning basement energy retrofits, interior solutions of improving the energy demand has to cooperate with the existing soil properties and must therefore be designed thereafter. In concerns of exterior retrofits, the soil material can be replaced, if needed, with a more suitable filling material, though this approach applies only for basement walls. The soil material beneath the basement floor can naturally not be replaced hence the soil properties of this part of the buildings enclosure still must be taken into consideration. This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from soil science. The obtained information must be applicable for Building Science related tasks and validated in hygrothermal calculation tools hence the second part of this study will focus on validation of the implemented soil properties. Basic changes in the software code may be requested as well. Different basement constructions will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI, from which simulations will be compared with existing or on-going measurements. The final outcome of the study is to enable an evaluation of several soil types in several climate zones combined with a number of basement assemblies. The study will define which type of soil together with a certain building construction which is considered most and least reliable in concerns of energy consumption and moisture safety. Further, what influences different soils will have on the total energy loss via the ground and if the performance of a different soils can be measured by a comparison of soil properties solely.

Pallin, Simon B [ORNL; Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL

2013-01-01

47

Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various aspects of child-rearing are covered in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Authors of current popular books on parenting are interviewed. Benjamin Spock discusses changes (including sex role revisions) in his "Baby and Child Care" since the 1946 first edition. Eda…

Spock, Benjamin; And Others

48

Artificial soil formation and stabilization of material cycles in closed ecological systems for Mars habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists are increasingly pressured to investigate novel ways in which to feed astronauts for the first mission to Mars in the 2030s. It is the aim of this thesis to conduct a preliminary investigation for soil formation of NASA JSC Mars-1A Regolith Simulant in an environmentally closed ecosystem to simulate plant growth within these initial habitats, and the prospect of soil formation from a Mars parent material for agricultural purposes. The rhizosphere and plant stress will be the main regions of research focus. It is hypothesized rhizosphere activity will determine the rate of stable soil formation adequate to support the agricultural needs of Mars's first human inhabitants. A Brassica rapa (Wisconsin FastPlant(TM)) was grown on several different substrates, and evaluated for plant stress, elemental analysis, soil fertility, and mineralogical analysis to identify the biogeochemical factors related to areas inside and outside of the rhizosphere, which affect soil formation. In addition, multiple plant generations were grown to investigate bioavailability of nutrients within the system, and lay down preliminary approaches for mathematical model development in order to predict & evaluate future conditions and applications under reduced resource availability situations. Overall, the story of early soil formation from a Mars regolith simulant is further defined to aid in the success of our first human adventurers to the red planet.

Borchardt, Joshua D.

49

On identifying parent plutonic rocks from lunar breccia and soil fragments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Breccia fragments expected from a well-studied boulder of Stillwater anorthosite have been modeled to test the ability to identify parental rock types from examination of breccia and soil fragments. Depending on their size, the boulder fragments give distributions that suggest mixtures of rock types, including monominerallic anorthosite with subordinant amounts of more gabbroic anorthosite, anorthosite, and gabbro for small fragments. The distribution of FeO in samples of lunar ferroan anorthosite (FAN) indicates that FAN has a heterogeneous distribution of mafic minerals like the boulder.

Haskin, Larry A.; Lindstrom, David J.

1988-01-01

50

Hygrothermal Simulation of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties  

SciTech Connect

The hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well defined (EN ISO 13370:2007, 2007), and simplified methods have been developed (Staszczuk, Radon, and Holm 2010). However, these approaches generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, and Hens 2004). This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from Soil Science. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in Building Science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools. Future parts of this study will focus on the validation aspect of the soil properties to be implemented. Basic changes in the software code may be requested at this time. Different types of basement construction will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI. Simulations from WUFI will be compared with existing or ongoing measurements. The intentions of the first part of this study have been fulfilled. The soil properties of interest in Building Science have been defined for 12 different soil textures. These properties will serve as input parameters when performing hygrothermal calculations of building constructions coupled to soil materials. The reliability of the soil parameters will be further evaluated with measurements in Part 2.

Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

2012-10-01

51

Variation of Water Retention in Various Soils of Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil properties varied in water retention; due to soil texture and organic matter content. Variations of texture in many soils are effected mostly to soil forming factors of parent materials of the soil; biological activities; climactic variation; and duration of soil reaction. While the organic matter contents are affected totally by the environmental conditions of the soils. Water holding capacity

M. Abdal; M. Suleiman; M. Albaho

2002-01-01

52

Variation Of Water Retention In Various Soils Of Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil properties varied in water retention; due to soil texture and organic matter content. Variations of texture in many soils are effected mostly to soil forming factors of parent materials of the soil, biological activities, climactic variation, and duration of soil reaction. While the organic matter contents are affected totally by the environmental conditions of the soils. Water holding capacity

M. Abdal; M. Suleiman; S. Al-Ghawas

2002-01-01

53

Composting of Lignocellulosic Waste Material for Soil Amendment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Composting of lignocellulosic waste material and application of compost as soil amendment improves the physical, chemical,\\u000a and biological properties of soils. Composting method includes in-vessel, windrow, aerated pile, continuous-feed, and vermicomposting.\\u000a The composting process proceeds through three phases: the mesophilic phase, the thermophilic phase, and the cooling and maturation\\u000a phase. Extensive studies are available on the population of bacteria, actinomycetes,

Ramesh Chander Kuhad; Piyush Chandna; Lata; Ajay Singh

54

Differentiating pedogenesis from diagenesis in early terrestrial paleoweathering surfaces formed on granitic composition parent materials  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unconformable surfaces separating Precambrian crystalline basement and overlying Proterozoic to Cambrian sedimentary rocks provide an exceptional opportunity to examine the role of primitive soil ecosystems in weathering and resultant formation of saprolite (weathered rock retaining rock structure) and regolith (weathered rock without rock structure), but many appear to have been affected by burial diagenesis and hydrothermal fluid flow, leading some researchers to discount their suitability for such studies. We examine one modern weathering profile (Cecil series), four Cambrian paleoweathering profiles from the North American craton (Squaw Creek, Franklin Mountains, Core SQ-8, and Core 4), one Neoproterozoic profile (Sheigra), and one late Paleoproterozoic profile (Baraboo), to test the hypothesis that these paleoweathering profiles do provide evidence of primitive terrestrial weathering despite their diagenetic and hydrothermal overprinting, especially additions of potassium. We employ an integrated approach using (1) detailed thin-section investigations to identify characteristic pedogenic features associated with saprolitization and formation of well-drained regoliths, (2) electron microprobe analysis to identify specific weathered and new mineral phases, and (3) geochemical mass balance techniques to characterize volume changes during weathering and elemental gains and losses of major and minor elements relative to the inferred parent materials. There is strong pedogenic evidence of paleoweathering, such as clay illuviation, sepic-plasmic fabrics, redoximorphic features, and dissolution and alteration of feldspars and mafic minerals to kaolinite, gibbsite, and Fe oxides, as well as geochemical evidence, such as whole-rock losses of Na, Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, Fe, and Mn greater than in modern profiles. Evidence of diagenesis includes net additions of K, Ba, and Rb determined through geochemical mass balance, K-feldspar overgrowths in overlying sandstone sections, and K-feldspars with reaction rims in weathered basement. The sub-Cambrian paleoweathering profiles formed on granite are remarkably similar to modern weathering profiles formed on granite, in spite of overprinting by potassium diagenesis. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

Driese, S.G.; Medaris, L.G., Jr.; Ren, M.; Runkel, A.C.; Langford, R.P.

2007-01-01

55

Strategies and Materials for Teachers and Parents Helping Children Adjust to Geographic Relocation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effects of relocation on children and adolescents, and suggests strategies that parents and teachers can use to aid in the adjustment process. An annotated bibliography is provided which includes fiction for children relocating and children left behind, nonfiction, and materials from moving companies and realtors. (58 notes with…

Dowd, Frances A.

1987-01-01

56

Challenging Ideological Exclusion of Curriculum Material: Rights of Students and Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that, as a matter of constitutional law, public school boards of education do not possess unrestricted authority to exclude material from the curriculum on the basis of ideological content, and explores the rights of students and parents to challenge such exclusions. Available from Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, Harvard…

Stern, Nat

1979-01-01

57

EFFECTS OF DRYING TREATMENTS ON POROSITY OF SOIL MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of three drying techniques on total porosity and pore size distribution of three soil materials were studied by Hg intrusion porosimetry. Some samples were dried in an oven at 40 C for 7 d; some samples were quick frozen in liquid N and lyophilized; some samples were ...

58

Development of a material processing plant for lunar soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently there is considerable interest in developing in-situ materials processing plants for both the Moon and Mars. Two of the most important aspects of developing such a materials processing plant is the overall system design and the integration of the different technologies into a reliable, lightweight, and cost-effective unit. The concept of an autonomous materials processing plant that is capable of producing useful substances from lunar regolith was developed. In order for such a materials processing plant to be considered as a viable option, it must be totally self-contained, able to operate autonomously, cost effective, light weight, and fault tolerant. In order to assess the impact of different technologies on the overall systems design and integration, a one-half scale model was constructed that is capable of scooping up (or digging) lunar soil, transferring the soil to a solar furnace, heating the soil in the furnace to liberate the gasses, and transferring the spent soil to a 'tile' processing center. All aspects of the control system are handled by a 386 class PC via D/A, A/D, and DSP (Digital Signal Processor) control cards.

Goettsch, Ulix; Ousterhout, Karl

1992-01-01

59

Diverse Chemical Zoning Trends in Acapulco Chromites: How Many Sources for the Parental Materials?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acapulco is considered to be a link between primitive chondritic meteorites and the differentiated achondrites. Its parent body presumably formed by accretion of material of chondritic compositions at an fO2 that lies between that of H- and enstatite chondrites [1]. The accreted chondritic material was subjected 4.557 Gyr ago to peak temperatures close to 1200 degrees C that lead to

A. El Goresy; J. Janicke

1995-01-01

60

Evaluation of soils for use as liner materials: a soil chemistry approach.  

PubMed

Movement of NH(4)(+) below animal waste lagoons is generally a function of the whole-lagoon seepage rate, soil mineralogy, cations in the lagoon liquor, and selectivity for NH(4)(+) on the soil-exchange sites. Binary exchange reactions (Ca(2+)-K(+), Ca(2+)-NH(4)(+), and K(+)-NH(4)(+)) were conducted on two soils from the Great Plains and with combinations of these soils with bentonite or zeolite added. Binary exchanges were used to predict ternary exchanges Ca(2+)-K(+)-NH(4)(+) following the Rothmund-Kornfeld approach and Gaines-Thomas convention. Potassium and NH(4)(+) were preferred over Ca(2+), and K(+) was preferred over NH(4)(+) in all soils and soils with amendments. Generally, the addition of bentonite did not change cation selectivity over the native soils, whereas the addition of zeolite did. The Rothmund-Kornfeld approach worked well for predicting equivalent fractions of cations on the exchanger phase when only ternary-solution phase compositions were known. Actual swine- and cattle-lagoon solution compositions and the Rothmund-Kornfeld approach were used to project that native soils are predicted to retain 53 and 23%, respectively, of the downward-moving NH(4)(+) on their exchange sites. Additions of bentonite or zeolite to soils under swine lagoons may only slightly improve the equivalent fraction of NH(4)(+) on the exchange sites. Although additions of bentonite or zeolite may not help increase the NH(4)(+) selectivity of a liner material, increases in the overall cation exchange capacity (CEC) of a soil will ultimately decrease the amount of soil needed to adsorb downward-moving NH(4)(+). PMID:15843659

DeSutter, Tom M; Pierzynski, Gary M

2005-01-01

61

Parental separation and adult psychological distress: an investigation of material and relational mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background An association between parental separation or divorce occurring in childhood and increased psychological distress in adulthood is well established. However relatively little is known about why this association exists and how the mechanisms might differ for men and women. We investigate why this association exists, focussing on material and relational mechanisms and in particular on the way in which these link across the life course. Methods This study used the 1970 British Cohort Study (n?=?10,714) to investigate material (through adolescent and adult material disadvantage, and educational attainment) and relational (through parent–child relationship quality and adult partnership status) pathways between parental separation (0–16 years) and psychological distress (30 years). Psychological distress was measured using Rutter’s Malaise Inventory. The inter-linkages between these two broad mechanisms across the life course were also investigated. Missing data were multiply imputed by chained equations. Path analysis was used to explicitly model prospectively-collected measures across the life course, therefore methodologically extending previous work. Results Material and relational pathways partially explained the association between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress (indirect effect?=?33.3% men; 60.0% women). The mechanisms were different for men and women, for instance adult partnership status was found to be more important for men. Material and relational factors were found to interlink across the life course. Mechanisms acting through educational attainment were found to be particularly important. Conclusions This study begins to disentangle the mechanisms between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress. Interventions which aim to support children through education, in particular, are likely to be particularly beneficial for later psychological health. PMID:24655926

2014-01-01

62

Estimation of Relative Bioavailability of Lead in Soil and Soil-Like Materials Using Young Swine  

PubMed Central

In this article we summarize the results of a series of studies that measured the relative bioavailability (RBA) of lead in a variety of soil and soil-like test materials. Reference material (Pb acetate) or Pb-contaminated soils were administered orally to juvenile swine twice a day for 15 days. Blood samples were collected from each animal at multiple times during the course of the study, and samples of liver, kidney, and bone were collected at sacrifice. All samples were analyzed for Pb. We estimated the RBA of a test material by fitting mathematical models to the dose–response curves for each measurement end point and finding the ratio of doses that gave equal responses. The final RBA for a test material is the simple average of the four end point–specific RBA values. Results from 19 different test materials reveal a wide range of RBA values across different exposure materials, ranging from 6 to 105%. This variability in RBA between different samples highlights the importance of reliable RBA data to help improve risk assessments for Pb in soil. Although the RBA value for a sample depends on the relative amounts of the different chemical and physical forms of Pb present, data are not yet adequate to allow reliable quantitative predictions of RBA from chemical speciation data alone. PMID:16882520

Casteel, Stan W.; Weis, Christopher P.; Henningsen, Gerry M.; Brattin, William J.

2006-01-01

63

Material Testing and Constitutive Modeling of Alaskan Frozen Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of laboratory tests, conducted using a unique high-pressure, low-temperature triaxial cell and the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), provided data to construct a well-determined constitutive database for Alaskan frozen soil at confining pressures up to 100 MPa and temperatures down to -25 degree C. The test cell is capable of operating at temperatures as low as -65 degree C and confining pressures up to 500 MPa. The operating conditions of temperature and pressure were achieved using an externally cooled pressure vessel, composed of HP 9-4-20 alloy steel and equipped with 12 coaxial feed-throughs. Quasi-static compression tests and indirect tension (or Brazilian) tests constrain the variabilities of material properties of the frozen soil. The SHPB tests determine dynamic compression properties and the strain rate dependency of the frozen soil. The results from laboratory material testing showed that Alaskan frozen soil exhibits pressure and temperature dependence, rate sensitivity, anisotropy, brittle and ductile behavior, volumetric compaction, and dilation. The rate-sensitive and anisotropic form of a plasticity model, developed by Fossum and Fredrich (2000), captured the deformation behavior of this material very well. This model includes high strain-rate sensitivity and anisotropy in both the elastic and plastic regimes. The model comprises a continuous yield and loading surface for unified dilation and compaction phenomena. It is envisioned that this model will be used to predict the deformation and failure of frozen soil under the dynamic loading conditions resulting from projectile penetration into frozen soil targets.

Lee, M. Y.; Fossum, A. F.; Bronowski, D. R.

2002-12-01

64

Filter properties of seam material from paved urban soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depositions of all kinds of urban dirt and dust including anthropogenic organic substances like soot change the filter properties of the seam filling material of pervious pavements and lead to the formation of a new soil substrate called seam material. In this study, the impact of the particular urban form of organic matter (OM) on the seam materials CECpot, the specific surface area (As), the surface charge density (SCD), the adsorption energies (Ea) and the adsorption of Cd and Pb were assessed. The Cd and Pb displacement through the pavement system has been simulated in order to assess the risk of soil and groundwater contamination from infiltration of rainwater in paved urban soils. As, Ea and SCD derived from water vapor adsorption isotherms, CECpot, Pb and Cd adsorption isotherms where analyzed from adsorption experiments. The seam material is characterized by a darker munsell-color and a higher Corg (12 to 48g kg-1) compared to the original seam filling. Although, the increased Corg leads to higher As (16m2g-1) and higher CECpot (0.7 to 4.8cmolckg-1), with 78cmolckg-1C its specific CECpot is low compared to OM of non-urban soils. This can be explained by a low SCD of 1.2×10-6molc m-2 and a low fraction of high adsorption energy sites which is likely caused by the non-polar character of the accumulated urban OM in the seam material. The seam material shows stronger sorption of Pb and Cd compared to the original construction sand. The retardation capacity of seam material for Pb is similar, for Cd it is much smaller compared to natural sandy soils with similar Corg concentrations. The simulated long term displacement scenarios for a street in Berlin do not indicate an acute contamination risk for Pb . For Cd the infiltration from puddles can lead to a breakthrough of Cd through the pavement system during only one decade. Although they contain contaminations itself, the accumulated forms of urban OM lead to improved filter properties of the seam material and may retard contaminations more effectively than the originally used construction sand.

Nehls, T.; Jozefaciuk, G.; Sokolowska, Z.; Hajnos, M.; Wessolek, G.

2008-04-01

65

Extralunar materials in cone-crater soil 14141.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiochemical neutron activation analysis has been used to determine Ni, Zn, Ga, Ge, Cd, In, Ir, and Au in duplicate samples of lunar soil 14141 and in one additional replicate each of soils 14163 and 14259. The concentrations of extralunar trace elements Ni, Ge, Ir, and Au in 14141 and 14163 are, respectively, about 69 and 82% as high as those in 14259. Although most of the mass of 14141 appears to be ejecta from Cone Crater, a sizable contamination by mature Fra Mauro soil such as 14259 is also present. The siderophilic-element concentrations of the subregolith Fra Mauro materials are estimated to be 25 plus or minus 25% of those observed in 14259.

Wasson, J. T.; Chou, C.-L.; Bild, R. W.; Baedecker, P. A.

1973-01-01

66

Sulphate release from construction and demolition material in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Berlin and many other cities soils are heavily influenced by anthropogenic activities and deposited substrates. A widespread technical substrate in technosols is construction and demolition material from residential and industrial buildings. Existing rubble landfills without sealing facilities pose threats to ground water quality. In the central city of Berlin rising sulphate concentrations of groundwaters (up to 1200 mg/L) are measured since more than two decades. Previous studies point out that the high sulphate concentrations are mainly attributed to World War II rubble. The major part of debris was deposited in form of landfills and contains approximately 0.3 wt% gypsum. The scope of our research is to determine mechanisms of sulphate release from debris material, interactions between sulphate release, soil hydraulic properties and potential sinks of sulphur. To estimate equilibrium concentration and kinetics of sulphate release of various debris components batch and column experiments are conducted. The same method is applied to determine potential adsorptive character of common debris components. To analyse the impacts of soil hydraulic properties on sulphate leaching we carry out soil column experiments with defined upper and lower boundary conditions, varying water flow velocity and induced preferential flow. Simultaneously we monitor sulphate concentration of soil leachate in a 2 m³ lysimeter. First results of the batch experiments show that gypsum from broken stucco is the main source of sulphate in the observed technosols. Other components as mortar and slag show a quite low sulphate release. Similar results are found within the column experiments. For brigs medium and strongly time dependent sulphate release is determined. Concentrations up to 1500 mg/L are measured in the soil leachate from the lysimeter.

Abel, Stefan; Wessolek, Gerd

2013-04-01

67

Forming artificial soils from waste materials for mine site rehabilitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface mining activities often produce large volumes of solid wastes which invariably requires the removal of significant quantities of waste rock (overburden). As mines expand, larger volumes of waste rock need to be moved which also require extensive areas for their safe disposal and containment. The erosion of these dumps may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of contaminants such as trace metals, elevated sediment delivery in adjacent waterways, and the subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. The management of solid waste materials from industrial operations is also a key component for a sustainable economy. For example, in addition to overburden, coal mines produce large amounts of waste in the form of fly ash while sewage treatment plants require disposal of large amounts of compost. Similarly, paper mills produce large volumes of alkaline rejected wood chip waste which is usually disposed of in landfill. These materials, therefore, presents a challenge in their use, and re-use in the rehabilitation of mine sites and provides a number of opportunities for innovative waste disposal. The combination of solid wastes sourced from mines, which are frequently nutrient poor and acidic, with nutrient-rich composted material produced from sewage treatment and alkaline wood chip waste has the potential to lead to a soil suitable for mine rehabilitation and successful seed germination and plant growth. This paper presents findings from two pilot projects which investigated the potential of artificial soils to support plant growth for mine site rehabilitation. We found that pH increased in all the artificial soil mixtures and were able to support plant establishment. Plant growth was greatest in those soils with the greatest proportion of compost due to the higher nutrient content. These pot trials suggest that the use of different waste streams to form an artificial soil can potentially be used in mine site rehabilitation where there is a nutrient-rich source of waste.

Yellishetty, Mohan; Wong, Vanessa; Taylor, Michael; Li, Johnson

2014-05-01

68

Soil solarization with biodegradable materials and its impact on soil microbial communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of soil solarization (SS), one of the most promising techniques for the control of soilborne pathogens, is seriously limited by the drawback regarding the disposal of the used plastic materials. A possible solution to this problem is the use of biodegradable plastics. The aim of this study was to make comparisons between the impact of SS performed with

Giuliano Bonanomi; Mario Chiurazzi; Silvia Caporaso; Giovanni Del Sorbo; Giancarlo Moschetti; Scala Felice

2008-01-01

69

Adaptive transgenerational plasticity in an annual plant: grandparental and parental drought stress enhance performance of seedlings in dry soil.  

PubMed

Stressful parental (usually maternal) environments can dramatically influence expression of traits in offspring, in some cases resulting in phenotypes that are adaptive to the inducing stress. The ecological and evolutionary impact of such transgenerational plasticity depends on both its persistence across generations and its adaptive value. Few studies have examined both aspects of transgenerational plasticity within a given system. Here we report the results of a growth-chamber study of adaptive transgenerational plasticity across two generations, using the widespread annual plant Polygonum persicaria as a naturally evolved model system. We grew five inbred Polygonum genetic lines in controlled dry vs. moist soil environments for two generations in a fully factorial design, producing replicate individuals of each genetic line with all permutations of grandparental and parental environment. We then measured the effects of these two-generational stress histories on traits critical for functioning in dry soil, in a third (grandchild) generation of seedling offspring raised in the dry treatment. Both grandparental and parental moisture environment significantly influenced seedling development: seedlings of drought-stressed grandparents or parents produced longer root systems that extended deeper and faster into dry soil compared with seedlings of the same genetic lines whose grandparents and/or parents had been amply watered. Offspring of stressed individuals also grew to a greater biomass than offspring of nonstressed parents and grandparents. Importantly, the effects of drought were cumulative over the course of two generations: when both grandparents and parents were drought-stressed, offspring had the greatest provisioning, germinated earliest, and developed into the largest seedlings with the most extensive root systems. Along with these functionally appropriate developmental effects, seedlings produced after two previous drought-stressed generations had significantly greater survivorship in very dry soil than did seedlings with no history of drought. These findings show that plastic responses to naturalistic resource stresses experienced by grandparents and parents can "preadapt" offspring for functioning under the same stresses in ways that measurably influence realized fitness. Possible implications of these environmentally-induced, inherited adaptations are discussed with respect to ecological distribution, persistence under novel stresses, and evolution in natural populations. PMID:22523124

Herman, Jacob J; Sultan, Sonia E; Horgan-Kobelski, Tim; Riggs, Charlotte

2012-07-01

70

Workshop on Parent-Body and Nebular Modification of Chondritic Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics considered include: thermal Metamorphosed Antarctic CM and CI Carbonaceous Chondrites in Japanese Collections, and Transformation Processes of Phyllosilicates; use of Oxygen Isotopes to Constrain the Nebular and Asteroidal Modification of Chondritic Materials; effect of Revised Nebular Water Distribution on Enstatite Chondrite Formation; interstellar Hydroxyls in Meteoritic Chondrules: Implications for the Origin of Water in the Inner Solar System; theoretical Models and Experimental Studies of Gas-Grain Chemistry in the Solar Nebula; chemical Alteration of Chondrules on Parent Bodies; thermal Quenching of Silicate Grains in Protostellar Sources; an Experimental Study of Magnetite Formation in the Solar Nebula; the Kaidun Meteorite: Evidence for Pre- and Postaccretionary Aqueous Alteration; a Transmission Electron Microscope Study of the Matrix Mineralogy of the Leoville CV3 (Reduced-Group) Carbonaceous Chondrite: Nebular and Parent-Body Features; rubidium-Strontium Isotopic Systematic of Chondrules from the Antarctic CV Chondrites Yamato 86751 and Yamato 86009: Additional Evidence for Late Parent-Body Modification; oxygen-Fugacity Indicators in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Parent-Body Alteration or High-Temperature Nebular Oxidation; thermodynamic Modeling of Aqueous Alteration in CV Chondrites; asteroidal Modification of C and O Chondrites: Myths and Models; oxygen Fugacity in the Solar Nebular; and the History of Metal and Sulfides in Chondrites.

Zolensky, M. E. (Editor); Krot, A. N. (Editor); Scott, E. R. D. (Editor)

1997-01-01

71

Assessing lithologic discontinuities and parent material uniformity within the Texas sandy mantle and implications for archaeological burial and preservation potential in upland settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alfisols within the Texas Gulf Coast Plain commonly exhibit textural contrasts between sandy, artifact-bearing A-E horizons (i.e., sandy mantle), and artifact-sterile clay-rich Bt (argillic) horizons. This has invoked debate about parent material uniformity and pedogenic versus geomorphic sandy mantle origins, which has implications for the scientific value of buried archaeological sites. To improve our understanding of archaeological burial in upland settings, we evaluated parent material uniformity within five pedons to distinguish pedogenically derived textural changes from geomorphologically created lithologic discontinuities. Depth trends in clay-free particle size classes and stable/immobile Ti and Zr constituents failed to reveal lithologic discontinuities between the sandy mantle and Bt horizons, and the observed textural differences are interpreted to have resulted from pedogenic processes. This interpretation is supported by clay skins, fine clay increases in Bt horizons, and micromorphological observations. Consequently, artifacts buried in upland summits have likely moved down the soil profile due to biomantle processes. Deep sandy mantle sites, non-parallel contacts between the sandy mantle and Bt horizons, and paleogullies incised into Eocene bedrock are better explained by colluvial/soil creep processes adjacent to summits, where archaeological materials may exhibit preservation potential. No single explanation can account for sandy mantle origins, and we advocate a case-by-case approach.

Ahr, Steven W.; Nordt, Lee C.; Driese, Steven G.

2012-07-01

72

Use of Biochar from the Pyrolysis of Waste Organic Material as a Soil Amendment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biochar is being promoted for its potential to improve soil properties, fertility and carbon sequestration in soil. How this material might impact agricultural soils within temperate regions is largely unknown, Validation of biochar as a beneficial soil amendment and carbon sink would add important...

73

Measurement and modeling of energetic material mass transfer to soil pore water : Project CP-1227 : FY04 annual technical report.  

SciTech Connect

Military test and training ranges operate with live fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low order detonations also disperse solid phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution impacts. This report documents interim results of a mass transfer model evaluating mass transfer processes from solid phase energetics to soil pore water based on experimental work obtained earlier in this project. This mass transfer numerical model has been incorporated into the porous media simulation code T2TNT. Next year, the energetic material mass transfer model will be developed further using additional experimental data.

Stein, Joshua S.; Webb, Stephen Walter

2005-01-01

74

Microbiological destruction of composite polymeric materials in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Representatives of the same species of microscopic fungi developed on composite materials with similar polymeric matrices independently from the type of soils, in which the incubation was performed. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Clonostachys solani were isolated from the samples of polyurethane. Fusarium solani, Clonostachys rosea, and Trichoderma harzianum predominated on the surface of ultrathene samples. Ulocladium botrytis, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Fusarium solani predominated in the variants with polyamide. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus ochraceus, and Acremonium strictum were isolated from Lentex-based composite materials. Mucor circinelloides, Trichoderma harzianum, and Penicillium auranthiogriseum were isolated from composite materials based on polyvinyl alcohol. Electron microscopy demonstrated changes in the structure of polymer surface (loosening and an increase in porosity) under the impact of fungi. The physicochemical properties of polymers, including their strength, also changed. The following substances were identified as primary products of the destruction of composite materials: stearic acid for polyurethane-based materials; imide of dithiocarbonic acid and 1-nonadecen in variants with ultrathene; and tetraaminopyrimidine and isocyanatodecan in variants with polyamide. N,N-dimethyldodecan amide, 2-methyloximundecanon and 2-nonacosane were identified for composites on the base of Lentex A4-1. Allyl methyl sulfide and imide of dithiocarbonic acid were found in variants with the samples of composites based on polyvinyl alcohol. The identified primary products of the destruction of composite materials belong to nontoxic compounds.

Legonkova, O. A.; Selitskaya, O. V.

2009-01-01

75

Non-volcanic andic soils - a new soil type?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous sites are described all over the world with soils fulfilling all requirements of andic soil properties developed in non-volcanic and non-allophanic parent materials, and in different bioclimatic zones. Up to now these soils are mainly assigned to Andisols/Andosols or andic Inceptisols in WRB and US Soil Taxonomy. Common factors and properties of this group of soils are in general acid parent materials, advanced soil development, comparably high amounts of oxidic Fe and Al compounds, leaching environment, and a probably underestimated role of iron with respect to the specific soil properties, e.g. extremely stabile, pseudo-sand like micro-aggregates. Considering the worldwide occurrence of these soils and the specificity of their physicochemical properties, I suggest soil forming processes and a new soil type clearly different from Andosols/Andisols in a narrow sense.

Bäumler, Rupert

2014-05-01

76

Soil Properties and Geomorphology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To prepare for this exercise, the students have been lectured on soil formation and on a field trip, described a simple soil within loess. Here, the students use data collected from a chronosequence to compare the relative age and amount of soil formation on a series of fluvial terraces. The students are to insert the data into a graphic program and generate specific graphs of soil properties. The students then interpret the amount of soil formation compared to the relative age of the fluvial terraces. Finally, the students assess how the 5 soil forming factors (climate, organisms, relief, parent material, and time) influenced soil formation in this setting. Designed for a geomorphology course

Mark Sweeney

77

Processing lunar soils for oxygen and other materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two types of lunar materials are excellent candidates for lunar oxygen production: ilmenite and silicates such as anorthite. Both are lunar surface minable, occurring in soils, breccias, and basalts. Because silicates are considerably more abundant than ilmenite, they may be preferred as source materials. Depending on the processing method chosen for oxygen production and the feedstock material, various useful metals and bulk materials can be produced as byproducts. Available processing techniques include hydrogen reduction of ilmenite and electrochemical and chemical reductions of silicates. Processes in these categories are generally in preliminary development stages and need significant research and development support to carry them to practical deployment, particularly as a lunar-based operation. The goal of beginning lunar processing operations by 2010 requires that planning and research and development emphasize the simplest processing schemes. However, more complex schemes that now appear to present difficult technical challenges may offer more valuable metal byproducts later. While they require more time and effort to perfect, the more complex or difficult schemes may provide important processing and product improvements with which to extend and elaborate the initial lunar processing facilities. A balanced R&D program should take this into account. The following topics are discussed: (1) ilmenite--semi-continuous process; (2) ilmenite--continuous fluid-bed reduction; (3) utilization of spent ilmenite to produce bulk materials; (4) silicates--electrochemical reduction; and (5) silicates--chemical reduction.

Knudsen, Christian W.; Gibson, Michael A.

1992-01-01

78

Laboratory evaluation of frozen soil target materials with a fused interface.  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the performance of artificial frozen soil materials with a fused interface, split tension (or 'Brazilian') tests and unconfined uniaxial compression tests were carried out in a low temperature environmental chamber. Intact and fused specimens were fabricated from four different soil mixtures (962: clay-rich soil with bentonite; DNA1: clay-poor soil; DNA2: clay-poor soil with vermiculite; and DNA3: clay-poor soil with perlite). Based on the 'Brazilian' test results and density measurements, the DNA3 mixture was selected to closely represent the mechanical properties of the Alaskan frozen soil. The healed-interface by the same soil layer sandwiched between two blocks of the same material yielded the highest 'Brazilian' tensile strength of the interface. Based on unconfined uniaxial compression tests, the frictional strength of the fused DNA3 specimens with the same soil appears to exceed the shear strength of the intact specimen.

Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul

2004-10-01

79

All the Children are Above Average: Parents' Perceptions of Education and Materialism as Media Effects on their Own and Other Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research shows parents manifest parental third-person perceptions on behalf of their children; that is, they believe their children are less affected by media sex and violence than other children. This study (N = 171) found parental third-person perceptions for materialism effects of television and parental first-person perceptions for advanced educational effects of public television. Perceptions of materialism effects on one's own

Patrick C. Meirick; Jeanetta D. Sims; Eileen S. Gilchrist; Stephen M. Croucher

2009-01-01

80

Measurement and modeling of energetic-material mass transfer to soil-pore water - Project CP-1227 final technical report.  

SciTech Connect

Military test and training ranges operate with live-fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low-order detonations also disperse solid-phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution. This final report documents the results of experimental and simulation model development for evaluating mass transfer processes from solid-phase energetics to soil-pore water.

Stein, Joshua S.; Sallaberry, Cedric M.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Phelan, James M.; Hadgu, Teklu

2006-05-01

81

Economic Development Planning for Single Parents. Curriculum Materials for Vocational Teachers of Adolescents and Single Parents. Special Emphasis on Meeting the Needs of the Teen Parent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended for use in school-based intervention programs intended to help single parents (particularly teenagers who are expecting or already have a child) master basic money management and consumer skills. The guide is divided into sections dealing with the following topics: interpersonal relationships, value clarification,…

Simpson, Kawanna J.; And Others

82

EFFECT OF SOIL MOISTURE, SOIL DENSITY, AND CONE PENETROMETER MATERIAL ON FINITE ELEMENT PREDICTION OF SOIL HARDPAN DEPTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An accurate soil hardpan determination is important for maximum precision tillage performance. Soil cone penetrometer data are often analyzed to predict soil hardpan depths. The prediction in layered soils may be limited due to the complexity of soil reaction to cone penetration. An axisymmetric fin...

83

Mineral Control of Soil Carbon Dynamics in Forest Soils: A Lithosequence Under Ponderosa Pine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of soil organic carbon in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentration has spurred interest in both quantifying existing soil C stocks and modeling the behavior of soil C under climate change scenarios. Soil parent material exerts direct control over soil organic carbon content through its influence on soil pH and mineral composition. Soil acidity and mineral composition also influence soil microbial community composition and activity, thereby controlling soil respiration rates and microbial biomass size. We sampled a lithosequence of four parent materials (rhyolite, granite, basalt, limestone) under Pinus ponderosa to examine the effects of soil mineralogy and acidity on soil organic carbon content and soil microbial community. Three soil profiles were examined on each parent material and analyzed by X-ray diffraction, pH, selective dissolution, C and N content, and 13C signature. Soils from each of the four parent materials were incubated for 40 days, and microbial communities were compared on the basis of community composition (as determined through T-RFLP analysis), specific metabolic activity, biomass, ?13C of respired CO2, and cumulative amount of C mineralized over the course of the incubation. Soil C content varied significantly among soils of different parent material, and was strongly and positively associated with the abundance of Al-humus complexes r2 = 0.71; P < 0.0001, Fe-humus complexes r2 = 0.74; P = 0.0003, and crystalline Fe-oxide content r2 = 0.63; P = 0.0023. Microbial community composition varied significantly among soils and showed strong associations with soil pH 1:1 in KCl; r2 = 0.87; P < 0.0001, concentration of exchangeable Al r2 = 0.81; P < 0.0001, amorphous Fe oxide content r2 = 0.59; P < 0.004, and Al-humus content r2 = 0.35; P < 0.04. Mineralization rates, biomass and ?13C of respired CO2 differed among parent materials, and also varied with incubation time as substrate quality and N availability changed. The results demonstrate that within a specific ecosystem type, soil parent material exerts significant control over the lability and bioavailability of soil C and soil microbial community composition. We suggest that soil parent material and mineralogy are critical parameters for predicting soil C dynamics and recalcitrance of soil C stocks.

Heckman, K. A.; Welty-Bernard, A.; Rasmussen, C.; Schwartz, E.; Chorover, J.

2008-12-01

84

Impact of carbonaceous materials in soil on the transport of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events.  

PubMed

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) transported from contaminated soils by surface runoff pose significant risk for aquatic ecosystems. Based on a rainfall-runoff simulation experiment, this study investigated the impact of carbonaceous materials (CMs) in soil, identified by organic petrology analysis, on the transport of soil-bound PAHs under rainfall conditions. The hypothesis that composition of soil organic matter significantly impacts the enrichment and transport of PAHs was proved. CMs in soil, varying significantly in content, mobility and adsorption capacity, act differently on the transport of PAHs. Anthropogenic CMs like black carbon (BC) largely control the transport, as PAHs may be preferentially attached to them. Eventually, this study led to a rethink of the traditional enrichment theory. An important implication is that CMs in soil have to be explicitly considered to appropriately model the nonpoint source pollution of PAHs (possibly other hydrophobic chemicals as well) and assess its environmental risk. PMID:23938446

Luo, Xiaolin; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Bin; Lin, Zhongrong; Han, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

2013-11-01

85

Long-Term Effects of Fluidized Bed Combustion Material Applied at Disposal Levels on Soil Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to assess changes in soil properties of a soil that received a one-time application (360 Mg ha) of fluidized bed combustion material (FBCM) 23 years earlier. Soil samples were taken at three depths (0–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm). Samples were also collected from an adjacent field with the same soil type for control. Hot nitric acid

Eton E. Codling; Akanksha W. Raja

2012-01-01

86

Chemical analyses of soils and other surficial materials, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction: The favorable response to the reports on the geochemistry of unconsolidated surficial materials of the conterminous United States (informally called the '50-mile geochemical survey,' Shacklette and others, 1971a, 1971b, 1973, and 1974) led us, in 1975, to initiate a somewhat similar survey of Alaska. The principal objective of studies of this type is to establish estimates of the abundance of elements in soils and other surficial materials. Such information is useful in the evaluation of geochemical data for (1) mineral resources, (2) environmental appraisals, and (3) the definition of broad-scale geochemical patterns. For about six years this effort progressed slowly on a non-funded, time-available basis. During fiscal years 1982 and 1983, however, some funds were made available through the USGS Energy Lands and Alaska Mineral Surveys programs which allowed for the completion of the field-work phase of the project. The sampling plan was kept simple because, as with the 50-mile study, the acquisition of samples depended on the voluntary cooperation of field personnel (only about 40 percent of the total number of samples was obtained by the authors).

Gough, L.P.; Peard, J.L.; Severson, R.C.; Shacklette, H.T.; Thompkins, M.L.; Stewart, K.C.; Briggs, P.H.

1984-01-01

87

MOBILE SYSTEM FOR EXTRACTING SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS FROM EXCAVATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory tests were conducted with three separate pollutants (phenol, arsenic trioxide, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and two soils of widely different characteristics (sand/gravel/silt/clay and organic loam) to evaluate techniques for cleansing soil contaminated with r...

88

The determination of boron in soil extracts, plant materials, composts, manures, water and nutrient solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid colorimetric method for the determination of boron in soil extracts, plant materials, composts, manures, water and nutrient solution is proposed. The method is rapid, reliable and carried out in aqueous solution. A marked advantage is that boron can be determined in the same soil extract or plant material digest used for determination of other elements.

Benjamin Wolf

1971-01-01

89

Difference in PAH release processes from tar-oil contaminated soil materials with similar contamination history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar-oil contaminated sites, for example, former manufactured gas- and tar-processing sites, pose a continuing threat to soil and groundwater in Europe. In this study, the release processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of five soil materials from four locations in Germany are discussed. All materials were investigated by means of column outflow experiments. Variable flow conditions were applied to reveal

Markus Wehrer; Kai Uwe Totsche

2009-01-01

90

Promoting Prenatal and Early Childhood Health: Evaluation of a Statewide Materials-Based Intervention for Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. There is a critical need for effective, large-scale health communi- cation programs to support parents of children aged 0-5 years. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Kit for New Parents, a multimedia health and parenting re- source now distributed annually to 500 000 parents in California. Methods. In this quasi-experimental study, 462 mothers in the intervention group and 1011

Linda Neuhauser; Wendy L. Constantine; Norman A. Constantine; Karen Sokal-Gutierrez; Susan K. Obarski; Lacy Clayton; Mona Desai; Gerald Sumner; S. Leonard Syme

2007-01-01

91

The Use of Media Materials and Role Training Programs with Parents in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines why parents of visually impaired children in India sometimes fail to assume appropriate roles in the rehabilitation process. It describes the media available to educate parents and discusses two direct training programs in rural villages, which teach rehabilitation techniques to parents and children. (Author/DB)

Mathur, M. L.

1992-01-01

92

CLASSIFICATION OF COAL SURFACE MINE SOIL MATERIAL FOR VEGETATION MANAGEMENT AND SOIL WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

An Alabama minesoil classification system was developed based on soil texture, soil color value and soil pH. Only five different soil classes were found in this study. However, the classification scheme allows for the inclusion of any minesoil that occurs on the basis of its text...

93

Inexpensive and Easily Made Instructional Materials: A Training Manual for Teachers and Parents for Working with Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use in parent education activities, the manual presents guidelines for making 24 instructional toys and lesson plans for using the toys with preschool handicapped children. Each toy is presented in terms of an illustration, a list of specific skills to be developed by the child using the toy, materials needed, time required to make…

Kutac, Ethel M., Comp.

94

Mobile system for extracting spilled hazardous materials from excavated soils. Final report Dec 76-Apr 82  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were conducted with three separate pollutants (phenol, arsenic trioxide, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and two soils of widely different characteristics (sand/gravel/silt/clay and organic loam) to evaluate techniques for cleansing soil contaminated with released or spilled hazardous materials. The tests show that scrubbing of excavated soil on site is an efficient approach for freeing soils of certain contaminants but that the effectiveness depends on the washing fluid (water + additives) and on the soil composition and particle size distribution. Based on the test results, a full-scale, field-use system was designed, engineered, fabricated, assembled, and briefly tested; the unit is now ready for field demonstrations.

Scholz, R.; Milanowski, J.

1983-10-01

95

What Is Soil?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Soil is the solid material on Earth's surface that results from the interaction of weather and biological activities with the underlying geologic formation. Soil is produced from broken down rocks, organic matter (decayed animal and plant life), water, and air. Soil generally loosens from its parent material at a rate of one centimeter every 250 to 2,500 years. This lesson encourages students to think about the differences in soil. The Table of Contents, Preface, and a section that describes how to use this book are included in this free selection.

2001-01-01

96

Geobotanical discrimination of ultramafic parent materials An evaluation of remote sensing techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Color and color infrared aerial photography and imagery acquired from a Daedalus DEI-1260 multispectral airborne scanner were employed in an investigation to discriminate ultramafic rock types in a test site in southwest Oregon. An analysis of the relationships between vegetation characteristics and parent materials was performed using a vegetation classification and map developed for the project, lithologic information derived from published geologic maps of the region, and terrain information gathered in the field. Several analytical methods, including visual image analysis, band ratioing, principal components analysis, and contrast enhancement and subsequent color composite generation were used in the investigation. There was a close correspondence between vegetation types and major rock types. These were readily discriminated by the remote sensing techniques. It was found that ultramafic rock types were separable from non-ultramafic rock types and serpentine was distinguishable from non-serpentinized peridotite. Further investigations involving spectroradiometric and digital classification techniques are being performed to further identify rock types and to discriminate chromium and nickel-bearing rock types.

Mouat, D. A.; Morrissey, L. A.; Horn, E. M.

1984-01-01

97

Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science  

SciTech Connect

Saving energy in buildings is top of mind with today s building professionals. Although designing energy-efficient walls and roofs is mostly a no-brainer, ensuring that below-grade foundations do not generate moisture problems has become even more complex, particularly because of how soil is involved. Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well-defined, and simplified methods have been developed. These approaches, however, generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible. The intention of an ongoing study at Oak Ridge (TN) National Laboratory, therefore, is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from soil science as well. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in building science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools, where additional plugins to the existing software code WUFI (an acronym for Warme unde Felichte Instructionar, which translates to unsteady heat and moisture) are required. (See the sidebar, opposite page, for specifics on WUFI.)Simulation results from WUFI are being compared with existing thermal-only measurements and are being accomplished with ongoing hygrothermal measurements. The final outcome of the study will be the evaluation of several soil types in several climate zones for a number of basement assembly types. The study will define the type of soil, together with the type of building construction considered most and least reliable with respect to energy consumption and moisture safety. Furthermore, the study will determine the influences that different soils have on total energy loss through the ground.

Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL] [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

98

Inorganic Materials as Ameliorants for Soil Remediation of Metal Toxicity to Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved

Mateus Rosas Ribeiro Filho; José Oswaldo Siqueira; Jaco Vangronsveld; Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares; Nilton Curi

2011-01-01

99

FRESHWATER ASSAY USING SOIL ELUATES AS SAMPLE MATERIAL (SINGLE LABORATORY EVALUATION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Chlorophyta assay, which uses soil as sample material, has been a useful bioassessment technique for screening hazardous waste site problems. n eluate is prepared from a 125-gram soil sample and then diluted into three separate concentrations prior to being tested using Selen...

100

Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Soils Engineering 3-1. Edition 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This individualized, self-paced course for independent study in soils engineering was adapted from military curriculum materials for use in vocational education. The course is designed to acquaint students with various soil types and their characteristics using various procedures, tests, and recording forms. Some of these duties are determining…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

101

Unit The World of the Soil, First Trial Materials, Inspection Set, [Australian Science Education Project].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Australian Science Education project is producing materials designed for use in grades 7 - 10 of Australian schools. This is the first trial version of a unit expected to take about 20 40-minute periods to complete. Included are a teacher's guide to the unit, four pupil booklets ("Looking at Soils,""Things to do With Soils,""What is it…

Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

102

Online Soil Science Lesson 3: Soil Forming Factors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This lesson explores the five major factors of soil formation, namely: 1) climate; 2) organisms; 3) time; 4) topography; and 5) parent material and their influence in forming soil. The distinction between active and passive factors, moisture and temperature regimes, organism and topographic influen...

103

Trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the relation of trace element concentrations in soil to those in house mice (Mus musculus), common reed (Phragmites australis) and ladybugs (Coccinella septempunctata) at five disposal facilities for dredged material. The sites had a wide range of soil trace element concentrations, acid soils and a depauperate fauna. They were very poor wildlife habitat because they were dominated by the common reed. Bioassay earthworms exposed to surface soils from three of the five sites died, whereas those exposed to four of five soils collected a meter deep survived, presumably because the deeper, unoxidized soil, was not as acid. Concentrations of Ni and Cr in the biota from each of the sites did not seem to be related to the concentrations of the same elements in soil. Although Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in biota were correlated with those in soil, the range of concentrations in the biota was quite small compared to that in soil. The concentrations of Pb detected in mice were about as high as the concentrations previously reported in control mice from other studies. Mice from the most contaminated site (530 ppm Pb in soil) contained only slightly more Pb (8 ppm dry wt) than did mice (2-6 ppm dry wt) from sites containing much less Pb (22-92 ppm in soil). Despite the acid soil conditions, very little Cd was incorporated into food chains. Rather, Cd was leaching from the surface soil. We concluded that even the relatively high concentrations of trace elements in the acid dredged material studied did not cause high, concentrations of trace elements in the biota.

Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.; Simmers, J.W.

1990-01-01

104

Detection of tritium sorption on four soil materials.  

PubMed

In order to measure groundwater age and design nuclear waste disposal sites, it is important to understand the sorption behavior of tritium on soils. In this study, batch tests were carried out using four soils from China: silty clays from An County and Jiangyou County in Sichuan Province, both of which could be considered candidate sites for Very Low Level Waste disposal; silty sand from Beijing; and loess from Yuci County in Shanxi Province, a typical Chinese loess region. The experimental results indicated that in these soil media, the distribution coefficient of tritium is slightly influenced by adsorption time, water/solid ratio, initial tritium specific activity, pH, and the content of humic and fulvic acids. The average distribution coefficient from all of these influencing factors was about 0.1-0.2 mL/g for the four types of soil samples. This relatively modest sorption of tritium in soils needs to be considered in fate and transport studies of tritium in the environment. PMID:21194813

Teng, Yanguo; Zuo, Rui; Wang, Jinsheng; Hu, Qinhong; Sun, Zongjian; Zeng, Ni

2011-02-01

105

Correspondence and Least Squares Analyses of Soil and Rock Compositions for the Viking Lander 1 and Pathfinder Sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Correspondence and Least Squares Mixing Analysis techniques are applied to the chemical composition of Viking 1 soils and Pathfinder rocks and soils. Implications for the parent composition of local and global materials are discussed.

Larsen, K. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Clark, B. C.

2000-01-01

106

Using soil E horizon in salvaged topsoil material - effect on soil texture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Topsoil is a limited natural resource that needs to be efficiently salvaged during landscape reconstruction operations for its further use as topsoil. Current guidelines for borrowed topsoil define topsoil as the surface layer of native soil, or soil A horizon. Using information from nearly 8,000 ...

107

Soil Materials and Health: An new experience for teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cationic clays are very extended compounds on the earth surface so they constitute the main component of soils and sedimentary rocks. Due to their presence and special properties that they have, mankind has used them with therapeutic aims from Prehistory, not being rare to find references to this subject in works of classic authors. During the Renaissance and with the appearance of the first Pharmacopeia, its use was regulated to a certain extent. The scientific development reached during the XXth century has allowed to understand and to study the reasons of the useful and peculiar properties of clays, directly related to their colloidal size and crystalline structure. These properties are translated in a high specific surface area, optimal rheological properties and/or excellent sorptive capacity; everything makes cationic clays very useful for a wide range of applications. In the field of health, cationic clays are used in Pharmaceutical Technology and Dermopharmacy as ideal excipients and substances of suitable biological activity due to their chemical inertness and low or null toxicity for the patient (Carretero, 2002; Lopez Galindo et al., 2005; Choy et al., 2007; del Hoyo, 2007). Cationic clays can be used in a wide range of applications in health. However, it must be also considered that the risk exposure to cationic clays may cause several diseases, as it has been seen above. Cationic clays have been used as excipients and active principles in the pharmaceutical industry. The last tendencies are their use in geomedicine, as much to come up as to treat diseases. One stands out his presence in spas and aesthetic medicine. Development of new pharmaceutical formulations is observed, based on cationic clays, for cancer therapy. It has to emphasize the importance in the synthesis of biosensors with cationic clays. Cationic clays can be considered a group of promising materials in the development of new health applications. The study of the use of the cationic clays in the field of the health is a source to develop numerous studies of cases in the teaching of different subjects related to the geoscience and a new opportunity to connect the learning with the reality. References -Carretero, MI 2002. Clay Minerals and Their Beneficial Effects upon Human Health. A review. Appl. Clay Sci. 21, pp. 155-163. -Choy, J.H., Choi, S.J., Oh, J.M., Park, T. 2007. Clay minerals and layered double hydroxides for novel biological applications. Appl. Clay Sci. 36 pp. 122-132. -Del Hoyo, C. 2007. Layered double hydroxides and human health: An overview. Appl. Clay Sci. 36, pp. 103-121. -Lopez-Galindo, A., Viseras Iborra, C. & Cerezo Gonzalez, P. 2005. Arcillas y salud. In: Conferencias de la XIX Reunion de la Sociedad Espanola de Arcillas. Rives, Ed., pp. 15-18.

Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

2014-05-01

108

The Use of Soil Forming Factors in the Development of Soil Taxonomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past and present roles of the five soil-forming factors in creating categories in USDA Soil Taxonomy have been analyzed. The factorial and genetic approach is clearly present in Soil Taxonomy, but was not so evident in the 7th Approximation of 1960. Soil climate is the most important factor in Soil Taxonomy. Climate is used at the highest level to define two of the 12 soil orders: Aridisols, the soils of the dry regions, and Gelisols, the permafrost-affected soils and is also used to differentiate suborders in eight of the remaining orders. Parent material is used to fully define two orders: Histosols and Andisols, and partially to define the suborders in the Entisol order (Fluvents, Psamments). Only one group of organisms, the worms (Verm-), is used at the great-group and subgroup levels in several orders. Relief and time are not used in defining taxa in Soil Taxonomy. Three of the eight epipedons are defined on the basis of parent material (folistic, histic, melanic), two on the basis of human activities (anthropic and plaggen), and two from the interaction of climate and vegetation (mollic and umbric). Of the 19 subsurface horizons, 11 originate from the interaction of climate and parent material. This analysis reveals there is an imbalance in the utilization of the soil-forming factors in Soil Taxonomy, with an emphasis on climate and parent material.

Bockheim, JG; Gennadiyev, AN; Hartemink, Alfred E.; Brevik, Eric C.

2014-05-01

109

Use of Biochar from the Pyrolysis of Waste Organic Material as a Soil Amendment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biochar is a charcoal-like material produced by the thermochemical pyrolysis of biomass materials. It is being considered as a potentially significant means of storing carbon for long periods to mitigate greenhouse gases. Much of the interest comes from studies of Amazonian soils that appear to have...

110

Soils - Part 1: The Origin and Development of Soil(How Soil Gets a Life and a Name)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, you will gain an understanding of the five soil forming factors and will be able to describe how each influences soil development. You will learn to identify common parent materials, determine the age of a soil, identify the types of native vegetation associated with different soils in Nebraska and define soil horizons.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

111

External gamma dose responses from residual radioactive materials in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

External gamma dose responses from radioactive soils have previously been calculated as air-absorbed doses in a point receptor above the ground. Such responses, however, are not accurate measures for estimating the effective dose equivalent (H{sub E}) for assessing radiological risks to humans, as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The ambient dose equivalent H*(10), as defined by

S. Y. Chen; Y. C. Yuan

1989-01-01

112

Material Testing and Constitutive Modeling of Alaskan Frozen Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of laboratory tests, conducted using a unique high-pressure, low-temperature triaxial cell and the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), provided data to construct a well-determined constitutive database for Alaskan frozen soil at confining pressures up to 100 MPa and temperatures down to -25 degree C. The test cell is capable of operating at temperatures as low as -65 degree

M. Y. Lee; A. F. Fossum; D. R. Bronowski

2002-01-01

113

A description and classification of soils and landscapes of the lower Kolyma river, northeastern Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of glacial history, ice?rich parent materials, and ultra?continental climate has produced unique soil landscapes in the Lower Kolyma River, a region representative of much of the arctic and subarctic lowlands of unglaciated western Beringia. All soils observed in the study area were underlain by permafrost. Soil development is generally controlled by available soil moisture, surface organic layer thickness,

C. A. S. Smith; D. K. Swanson; J. P. Moore; R. J. Ahrens; J. G. Bockheim; J. M. Kimble; G. G. Mazhitova; C. L. Ping; C. Tarnocai

1995-01-01

114

Gender and Material Transfers between Older Parents and Children in Ismailia, Egypt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Egypt, kin relations have been governed by a patriarchal contract, which defines expectations for intergenerational support along gendered lines. Social changes may be disrupting these customs and bringing attention to the ways gender may influence intergenerational support in rapidly changing contexts. Using data from 4,465 parent-child dyads…

Yount, Kathryn M.; Cunningham, Solveig A.; Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily M.

2012-01-01

115

Shock-treated Lunar Soil Simulant: Preliminary Assessment as a Construction Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an effort to examine the feasibility of applying dynamic compaction techniques to fabricate construction materials from lunar regolith, preliminary explosive shock-loading experiments on lunar soil simulants were carried out. Analysis of our shock-treated samples suggests that binding additives, such as metallic aluminum powder, may provide the necessary characteristics to fabricate a strong and durable building material (lunar adobe) that takes advantage of a cheap base material available in abundance: lunar regolith.

Boslough, Mark B.; Bernold, Leonhard E.; Horie, Yasuyuki

1992-01-01

116

Nitrilotriacetate Stimulation of Anaerobic Fe(III) Respiration by Mobilization of Humic Materials in Soil  

PubMed Central

An enrichment culture capable of naphthalene mineralization reduced Fe(III) oxides without direct contact in anaerobic soil microcosms when the Fe(III) was placed in dialysis membranes or entrapped within alginate beads. Both techniques demonstrated that a component in soil, possibly humic materials, facilitated Fe(III) reduction when direct contact between cells and Fe(III) was not possible. The addition of the synthetic Fe(III) chelator, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), to soil enhanced Fe(III) reduction across the dialysis membrane and alginate beads, with the medium changing from clear to a dark brown color. An NTA-soil extract was more effective in Fe(III) reduction than the extracted soil itself. Characteristics of the NTA extract were consistent with that of humic substances. The results indicate that NTA improved Fe(III) reduction not by Fe(III) solubilization but by extraction of humic substances from soil into the aqueous medium. This is the first study in which stimulation of Fe(III) reduction through the addition of chemical chelators is shown to be due to the extraction of electron-shuttling compounds from the soil and not to solubilization of the Fe(III) and indicates that mobilization of humic materials could be an important component of anaerobic biostimulation. PMID:12957911

Luu, Y.; Ramsay, B. A.; Ramsay, J. A.

2003-01-01

117

Characterization of humic materials extracted from hazelnut husk and hazelnut husk amended soils.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine effects of composted hazelnut husk (CHH) on some chemical properties of soil and soil humic acid (HA). Compost application increases organic matter (OM) content of the soil considerably, OM value of 3.18% became 3.89% in 3 years time interval. Before application of compost, the soil pH was found to be 5.37, while after compost application it became 5.61. FTIR characteristics of humic acid/humic acid-like materials extracted from the original hazelnut husk, composted hazelnut husk and composted hazelnut husk amended soil have been investigated. C and O content of humic acid-like/humic acid materials were in the range of 41.4-50.8% and 37.8-50.5%, respectively. The N content of the humic acid/humic acid-like materials are in the expected range for humic materials which is 2-6%. Comparison of FTIR spectra of hazelnut husk and composted hazelnut husk humic acid-like fractions shows that both exhibit similar but not identical series of IR bands indicating the presence of the same functional groups in both samples. The only difference in the spectra seemed to be a decrement in the peak intensities of composted sample compared to uncomposted one. The similar differentiation of the intensities of IR bands of compost applied soil sample has also been observed. The FTIR spectral results show that the characteristics of composted material tend to become similar to that of soil humic acids characteristics in time. PMID:16909328

Cimen, Funda; Ok, Sonay Sozudogru; Kayran, Ceyhan; Demirci, Sahinde; Bender Ozenc, Damla; Ozenc, Nedim

2007-06-01

118

Soil Carbon Dioxide Flux in Antarctic Dry Valley Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Antarctic dry valleys of southern Victoria Land are extreme desert environments where abiotic factors, such as temperature gradients, parent material, and soil water dynamics, may have a significant influence on soil carbon dioxide (CO 2) flux. Previous measurements of soil respiration have demonstrated very low rates of CO 2 efflux, barely above detection limits. We employed a modified infrared

Andrew N. Parsons; J. E. Barrett; Diana H. Wall; Ross A. Virginia

2004-01-01

119

Laboratory-scale bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil of Kuwait with soil amendment materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A huge amount of oil-contaminated soil remains unremediated in the Kuwait desert. The contaminated oil has the potentiality to cause pollution of underground water and to effect the health of people in the neighborhood. In this study, laboratory scale bioremediation experiments were carried out.Hyponex (Hyponex, Inc.) and bark manure were added as basic nutrients for microorganisms, and twelve kinds of

Byung-Hoop Cho; Hiroyuki Chino; Hirokazu Tsuji; Takashi Kunito; Kazunari Nagaoka; Shigeto Otsuka; Kazuhiro Yamashita; Satoshi Matsumoto; Hiroshi Oyaizu

1997-01-01

120

A cement kiln flue-dust evaluated as a soil liming material  

E-print Network

A CEMENT KILN FLUE-DUST EVALUATED AS A SOIl LIMING MATERIAL A Thesis by RAIMUND STACHA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE 1973 NJSbj t...:~StlCh tt A CEMENT KILN FLUE-DUST EVALUATED AS A SOIL I IMING MATERIAL A Thesis by RAIMUND STACHA Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Me er) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Member) 1973 ABSTRACT A...

Stacha, Raimund

1973-01-01

121

Own education, current conditions, parental material circumstances, and risk of myocardial infarction in a former communist country  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To study the association between own education, adult and parental circumstances and the risk of myocardial infarction in a former communist country.?DESIGN—Population based case-control study.?SETTING—General population of five districts of the Czech Republic in the age group 25-64 years.?PARTICIPANTS—Random sample of population (938 men and 1048 women, response rate 77%) served as controls to 282 male and 80 female cases of non-fatal first myocardial infarctions.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Myocardial infarction was defined by the WHO MONICA criteria based on ECG, enzymes and symptoms. The following socioeconomic indicators were studied: own education, crowded housing conditions (more than one person per room), car ownership, and education and occupation of mother and father.?RESULTS—There was a weak correlation between education and car ownership, and a strong association between own education and parental education and occupation. Crowding was not related to other socioeconomic factors. The risk of myocardial infarction was inversely related to education, and was unrelated to material conditions and parental education and occupation. The age-sex-district adjusted odds ratios for apprenticeship, secondary, and university education, compared with primary education, were 0.87, 0.74 and 0.46, respectively (p for trend 0.009); odds ratios for car ownership and crowding were 1.01 (95% confidence intervals 0.77, 1.34) and 0.92 (0.76, 1.12), respectively. Further adjustment for parental circumstances and adult height did not change these estimates but adjustment for coronary risk factors reduced the gradient. Increased height seemed, anomalously, to confer a small increased risk.?CONCLUSIONS—In this population, the social gradient in non-fatal myocardial infarction is only apparent for own education. Materialist explanations for this gradient seem unlikely but behaviours seem responsible for a part of the gradient.???Keywords: myocardial infarction; ischaemic heart disease; socioeconomic factors; epidemiology; Eastern Europe PMID:10715740

Bobak, M.; Hertzman, C.; Marmot, M.

2000-01-01

122

CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA FILL MATERIALS AND SOILS 1990  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Foundation Fill Data Base project of the Foundation Fill Materials Specifications Task Area of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). Work included determination of radon concentrations...

123

Effect of organic materials on the chemical properties of saline soil in the Yellow River Delta of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 180-day incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different organic materials on the chemical properties of coastal soil with high salinity and relatively low pH. Four organic materials (three kinds of plant residues: straw, composted straw, and fresh reed; and one kind of poultry manure: chicken manure) were applied at a ratio of 15 g·kg-1 to samples of costal saline soil from the Yellow River Delta of China. The results showed that the soil pH and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) decreased, whereas soil cation exchangeable capacity (CEC) and macronutrient concentrations increased, regardless of the type of organic material used. All treatments showed a remarkable increase in soil soluble organic carbon (SOC) during the 180-day incubation. The peak values of SOC in descending order were chicken manure, reed, composted straw, straw, and control soil. At the end of incubation, the highest level of SOC occurred in the straw-amended soil, followed by composted straw, reed, and chicken manureamended soils. Soil respiration rate and available nitrogen were significantly influenced by the type of material used. Although reed-amended soil had a relatively high SOC and respiration rate, the ESP was reduced the least. Considering the possible risk of heavy metals caused by chicken manure, it is proposed that straw and composted straw are the more efficient materials to use for reclaiming costal saline soil and improving the availability of macronutrients.

Yu, Yan; Liu, Jie; Liu, Chunmeng; Zong, Shuang; Lu, Zhaohua

2014-09-01

124

The structural and sorptive characteristics of high-surface-area carbonaceous material (HSACM) in soils.  

PubMed

The structural and sorptive characteristics of the high-surface-area carbonaceous material (HSACM) isolated from soils were investigated. The HSACM contents in soils were first identified by the organic petrology method. A novel isolation method using acid demineralization, base extraction, and ZnBr(2) floatation sequential steps was developed to extract the HSACM from soil. The differences in structural and sorptive characteristics with the HSACM and the intact soil were investigated using nitrogen adsorption isotherms and trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption isotherms at low concentrations (0 to about 2 mg/L) both with and without tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as the cosolute. It was found that HSACM possesses a much higher specific surface area and pore volume as well as a smaller pore size than the original soil. Moreover, the sorption of TCE to HSACM is noticeably more nonlinear and competitive than to the original soil. A small amount of highly adsorptive HSACM is largely responsible for the nonlinear soil sorption of a single solute at very low concentrations. PMID:16839670

Huang, Hui-Chen; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu; Lee, Chung-Kung; Chen, Jiunn-Chen

2006-12-01

125

Strontium-Doped Hematite as a Possible Humidity Sensing Material for Soil Water Content Determination  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work is to study the sensing behavior of Sr-doped hematite for soil water content measurement. The material was prepared by solid state reaction from commercial hematite and strontium carbonate heat treated at 900 °C. X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used for microstructural characterization of the synthesized powder. Sensors were then prepared by uniaxially pressing and by screen-printing, on an alumina substrate, the prepared powder and subsequent firing in the 800–1,000 °C range. These sensors were first tested in a laboratory apparatus under humid air and then in an homogenized soil and finally in field. The results evidenced that the screen printed film was able to give a response for a soil matric potential from about 570 kPa, that is to say well below the wilting point in the used soil. PMID:24025555

Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Baroni, Chiara; Zavattaro, Laura; Grignani, Carlo

2013-01-01

126

Heavy metal fractionation and pedogenesis in subalpine and alpine soils on ophiolitic materials, western Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils on ultramafic materials are usually rich in Mg, Fe and heavy metals (particularly Ni, Cr, Mn, Co). These chemical properties could cause toxicity effects on biological communities. Metal fractionation shows the soil phases to which metals are associated (exchangeable, associated with organic matter, with amorphous or crystalline Fe or Mn oxides, in the crystal structure of primary minerals), and thus it is strictly related with metal mobilization and bioavailability. Ni, Cr, Mn, Co and Fe fractionations (6 fractions, analysed by a selective sequential extraction technique) were analysed in 6 subalpine and in 17 alpine soils (i.e., respectively under coniferous forest or above the present-day treeline) in the ophiolitic area of Mont Avic Natural Park (Valle d'Aosta, Italian Alps), on soils formed from metal-rich serpentinite or from metal-poor mafic rocks and calcschists. The results show a tight relationship between vegetation, soil forming processes, metal fractionation and bioavailability: below and above the present-day treeline soil forming processes and metal speciation change dramatically. Serpentinite soils are always extremely rich in metals, but metal speciation in analogous habitats is similar on every substrate. The results show a tight relationship between vegetation, soil forming processes, metal fractionation and bioavailability: below and above the present-day treeline soil forming processes and metal speciation change dramatically. Serpentinite soils are always extremely rich in metals, but metal speciation in analogous habitats is similar on every substrate. Under subalpine forest, the main pedogenic process is podzolization. In the extremely acidic and leached podzolic soils, all metals are mobilized and their lowest concentration is in the bleached E horizon, while there is a higher content in organic matter-rich surface horizon and in the spodic (illuvial) B. Not considering the amount associated with primary minerals (residual fraction), all the fractions of Ni, Co and Mn are strictly correlated with each other: in A and Bs horizons, the greatest amount is associated with organic matter and with crystalline Fe-oxides. The content in easily mobilizable forms associated with Mn and amorphous Fe oxides is only slightly lower. The greatest amount is in the residual fraction, as pedogenic forms are easily removed from the soil profiles by leaching; this is particularly evident in E horizons. Cr is less released by weathering, and the greatest fraction is associated with organic matter and amorphous Fe-oxides. No Cr could be detected associated with Mn oxides. The high mobility of metals in these soils increases their bioavailability. Above the treeline, the situation changes dramatically. Leaching is important only on stable, flat surfaces. Total and pedogenic fractions of Ni, Cr, Co and Fe increase from the bottom to the top of the soil profile, while all forms of Mn are strongly depleted in the upper horizons because of chemical reduction due to waterlogging at snowmelt. In fact, Mn is particularly sensitive to reduction processes. The most important factors involved in metal geochemistry are erosion and cryoturbation, which bring "fresh", metal-rich materials on the top of the profiles; weathering later releases the metals associated with pedogenic materials. The weak leaching due to limited acidification increases the concentration of potentially bioavailable metals (Fe, Co, Cr, and Ni) in the biologically active soil horizons. All metals are mobilized by waterlogging at snowmelt: extremely high contents of "labile" pedogenic forms of metals also in deep horizons of soils developed on metal-poor materials. However, the concentration due to the processes described above is stronger than leaching for Ni, Co, Fe and Cr.

D'Amico, M.; Previtali, F.

2009-04-01

127

Molecular size exclusion by soil organic materials estimated from their swelling in organic solvents  

SciTech Connect

A published method previously developed to measure the swelling characteristics of powered coal samples has been adapted for swelling measurements on various peat, pollen, chitin, and cellulose samples. The swelling of these macromolecular materials is the volumetric manifestation of absorption, that is, sorption by dissolution (or partitioning) of the sorbed liquids into cross-linked macromolecular solid phases. Direct evidence for the existence of this additional category of sorbed materials has been obtained for soil organic materials by the present research; however, it seems to be limited by molecular size-exclusion effects to fairly small molecules. Liquids with molar volumes greater than about 93 cm[sup 3] mol[sup [minus]1] appeared to be strongly excluded from sorption inside most cross-linked soil organic materials studied in this work. Cellulose excluded liquids with molar volumes greater than about 88 cm[sup 3] mol[sup [minus]1].

Lyon, W.G.; Rhodes, D.E. (ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Ada, OK (United States))

1993-08-01

128

Analyses of exobiological and potential resource materials in the Martian soil.  

PubMed

Potential Martian soil components relevant to exobiology include water, organic matter, evaporites, clays, and oxides. These materials are also resources for human expeditions to Mars. When found in particular combinations, some of these materials constitute diagnostic paleobiomarker suites, allowing insight to be gained into the probability of life originating on Mars. Critically important to exobiology is the method of data analysis and data interpretation. To that end we are investigating methods of analysis of potential biomarker and paleobiomarker compounds and resource materials in soils and rocks pertinent to Martian geology. Differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromatography is shown to be a highly useful analytical technique for detecting this wide and complex variety of materials. PMID:11538128

Mancinelli, R L; Marshall, J R; White, M R

1992-01-01

129

Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil  

SciTech Connect

A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications.

Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Loureiro, C. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Chia, Y.P. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Geology

1993-04-01

130

Evaluation of liming and magnesium materials for increasing soil pH and available magnesium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four liming and Mg materials were compared in a greenhouse experiment with soybeans for their ability to raise soil pH, supply Mg, and their effect on the availability of Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn. Three materials were added at rates of 0, 1, and 2 times the lime requirement, calcitic lime, dolomitic lime, and Hydra?Mag (an industrial by?product containing 20%

L. M. Shuman

1985-01-01

131

Calibration Experiment on the Detection of Fissioning Material in Soil by Means of Neutron Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mass of a fissioning material and its distribution in soil can be estimated by analyzing the results of the detection of neutron and\\/or ? radiation in wells drilled in a clean zone near the assumed location of the material [1]. The PRIZMA.D program [2] with the BAS library [3] and the MCNP program [4] with the ENDF-BV library, which

N. V. Gorin; V. V. Zakharov; Ya. Z. Kandiev; E. N. Lipilina; A. P. Pokatashkin; G. V. Rukavishnikov; A. I. Ul'yanov; D. V. Shmakov; A. N. Shcherbina

2005-01-01

132

METHOD OF ESTIMATING THE TRAVEL TIME OF NONINTERACTING SOLUTES THROUGH COMPACTED SOIL MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The pollutant travel time through compacted soil material (i.e., when a pollutant introduced at the top first appears at the bottom) cannot be accurately predicted from the permeability (saturated hydraulic conductivity) alone. The travel time is also dependent on the effective p...

133

Beneficial effects of plants in the remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with organic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of plants in remediation of soil and unconfined groundwater contaminated with organic materials is appealing for a variety of reasons: (1) plants provide a remediation strategy that utilizes solar energy; (2) vegetation is aesthetically pleasing; (3) plant samples can be harvested and tested as indicators of the level of remediation; (4) plants help contain the region of contamination

J. F. Shimp; J. C. Tracy; L. C. Davis; E. Lee; W. Huang; L. E. Erickson; J. L. Schnoor

1993-01-01

134

EFFECT OF SALINITY ON THE DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS : IMPLICATION FOR SOIL  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF SALINITY ON THE DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS : IMPLICATION FOR SOIL of saline deposits for the detection and mapping of moisture in arid regions on both Earth and Mars. We then present a simulation and experimental study in order to assess the effect of salinity on the permittivity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

135

Studies related to the evolution of the lunar soil materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the chemistry and morphology of the lunar samples are reported. The presence of fragments of plagoclase in the centers of the impact craters indicate that the glass spheres were derived by meteoritic impact from high velocity particles, while the glass was at high temperatures. From the study of the Apollo 16 samples, it is suggested that this material was formed in a hot impact ejecta blanket, or in an igneous environment, and later exposed to meteoritic impact. It is suggested that particles from Apollo 17 were formed in a cloud of siliceous vapors.

Carter, J. L.

1973-01-01

136

Air-surface exchange of mercury with soils amended with ash materials.  

PubMed

Air-surface exchange of mercury (Hg) was measured from soil low in Hg (0.013 mg/kg) amended with four different ash materials: a wood ash containing -10% coal ash (0.070 mg/kg Hg), a mixture of two subbituminous coal fly ashes (0.075 mg/kg Hg), a subbituminous coal ash containing -10% petroleum coke ash (1.2 mg/kg Hg), and an ash from incinerated municipal sewage sludge (4.3 mg/kg Hg) using a dynamic flux chamber. Ash was added to soil to simulate agricultural supplements, soil stabilization, and pad layers used in livestock areas. For the agricultural amendment, -0.4% ash was well mixed into the soil. To make the stabilized soil that could be used for construction purposes, -20% ash was mixed into soil with water. The pad layer consisted of a wetted 1-cm layer of ash material on the soil surface. Diel trends of Hg flux were observed for all of the substrates with significantly higher Hg emissions during the day and negligible flux or deposition of Hg during the night. Hg fluxes, which were measured in the summer months, were best correlated with solar radiation, temperature, and air O3 concentrations. Mean Hg fluxes measured outdoors for unamended soils ranged from 19 to 140 ng/m2 day, whereas those for soil amended with ash to simulate an agricultural application ranged from 7.2 to 230 ng/m2 day. Fluxes for soil stabilized with ash ranged from 77 to 530 ng/m2 day and for soil with pads constructed of ash ranged from -50 to 90 ng/m2 day. Simple analytical tests (i.e., total Hg content, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure, heating, and indoor gas-exchange experiments) were performed to assess whether algorithms based on these tests could be used to predict Hg fluxes observed outdoors using the flux chamber. Based on this study, no consistent relationships could be developed. More work is needed to assess long-term and seasonal variations in Hg flux from (intact and disturbed) substrates before annual estimates of emissions can be developed. PMID:16878589

Ericksen, Jody; Gustin, Mae Sexauer

2006-07-01

137

Use of Fly Ash as a Liming Material for Corn and Soybean Production on an Acidic Sandy Soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fly ash (FA) produced from subbituminous coal combustion can potentially serve as a lime material for crop production in acidic soils in areas. A five-year study was conducted to determine if FA can be used as a liming material in an acid sandy soil under corn and soybean grain production. Fly ash...

138

Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials.  

PubMed

The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available to the landfill operator. Therefore, the methane oxidation capacity of different soils was assessed under simulated landfill conditions. Five sandy potential landfill top cover materials with varying contents of silt and clay were investigated with respect to methane oxidation and corresponding soil gas composition over a period of four months. The soils were compacted to 95% of their specific proctor density, resulting in bulk densities of 1.4-1.7 g cm(-3), reflecting considerably unfavourable conditions for methane oxidation due to reduced air-filled porosity. The soil water content was adjusted to field capacity, resulting in water contents ranging from 16.2 to 48.5 vol.%. The investigated inlet fluxes ranged from 25 to about 100g CH(4)m(-2)d(-1), covering the methane load proposed to allow for complete oxidation in landfill covers under Western European climate conditions and hence being suggested as a criterion for release from aftercare. The vertical distribution of gas concentrations, methane flux balances as well as stable carbon isotope studies allowed for clear process identifications. Higher inlet fluxes led to a reduction of the aerated zone, an increase in the absolute methane oxidation rate and a decline of the relative proportion of oxidized methane. For each material, a specific maximum oxidation rate was determined, which varied between 20 and 95 g CH(4)m(-2)d(-1) and which was positively correlated to the air-filled porosity of the soil. Methane oxidation efficiencies and gas profile data imply a strong link between oxidation capacity and diffusive ingress of atmospheric air. For one material with elevated levels of fine particles and high organic matter content, methane production impeded the quantification of methane oxidation potentials. Regarding the design of landfill cover layers it was concluded that the magnitude of the expected methane load, the texture and expected compaction of the cover material are key variables that need to be known. Based on these, a column study can serve as an appropriate testing system to determine the methane oxidation capacity of a soil intended as landfill cover material. PMID:21067907

Rachor, Ingke; Gebert, Julia; Gröngröft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

2011-05-01

139

EFFECT OF SOIL PROPERTIES AND A SYNTHETIC MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE ON THE RETENTION OF CD, NI, PB, AND ZN IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Batch equilibrium metal immobilization studies were conducted using seven soil and sediment materials spiked with varying concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The objective was to examine the potential mobility of metals in subsoils of metals-contaminated sites. Soil pH influenc...

140

Encopresis (Soiling)  

MedlinePLUS

... can be. Many parents assume that kids who soil their pants are simply misbehaving or that they' ... teaching (generally older than 4 years) who frequently soil their underwear have a condition known as encopresis . ...

141

Thermal analysis of soil treated with biochars from different raw materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal analysis (DTA, DSC, TG and dTG) has been used for decades to characterize carbonaceous materials used as fuels (oil, coal). In the last years, these techniques has been used with soils in order to assess proportions of labile and recalcitrant organic matter and to study the evolution of organic matter in amended soils during laboratory incubations. Indeed, thermogravimetric behaviour of soils can be quantified as the weight loss of samples attributed to different temperature ranges: WL1 from 25 to 150ºC; WL2 from 200 to 350ºC and WL3 from 375 to 600ºC . WL2 and WL3 correspond to weight loss associated to organic matter combustion (Worg=WL2+WL3). It is established that first peak was associated with combustion of less humified organic matter, while the second one was related to the more humified. Also, the WL3/WL2 ratio, named thermostability index, was previously identified as a reliable parameter for evaluating the level of stability of organic matter in composts and other organic wastes that indicated the relative amount of the thermally more stable fraction of organic matter with respect to less stable one. These stability can be related with the soil CO2 emmisions after biochar application. The objective of this presentation is to show the application of thermal analysis to study the stability of soil organic matter in soils treated with different biochars.

Ana, Méndez; Paola, Cely; Gabriel, Gascó

2014-05-01

142

Gamma ray concentrations in soil and building materials in Ordu, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The city of Ordu is in the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey with a population of approximately 716,000. Presently there is no information available about radioactivity levels in Ordu soil and building materials. For this reason, activity concentrations in soil and building material samples collected from different sampling stations in Ordu were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. In addition to natural radionuclides, 137Cs was detected in the soil samples and the possible origins of this radionuclide were discussed. The activity concentrations of soil samples ranged from 13.4 to 151.7 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, from 14.3 to 98.5 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, from 303 to 1107 Bq kg-1 for 40K and from 67.4 to 275.3 Bq kg-1 for 137Cs. The mean concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in selected building materials were 34.5, 26.9 and 378.4 Bq kg-1, respectively. The results were compared with the reported data from different works. From the measurements, radium equivalent activity, terrestrial absorbed dose, annual effective dose rate, external hazard indices and internal hazard indices were calculated, and were found to be within the acceptable limits. The data presented in this study might be useful as a baseline data for future estimations of a population's exposure.

Celik, N.; Damla, N.; Cevik, U.

143

Parents Handbook Parents Office  

E-print Network

and Intervention 40 Substance Abuse Prevention 42 Sexual Violence Prevention and Victim Support 43 Campus Map 44Parents Handbook 2011 Parents Office 228F Schine Student Center Syracuse, NY 13244-1120 315-443-1200 parents.syr.edu #12;#12;1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Message from the Director of the Parents Office 4 Message from

Raina, Ramesh

144

Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Soil is an example of a non-living thing. Soil contains nutrients and living organisms, but the soil itself is not alive. Soil is important in plant growth because soil gives plants a place to anchor their roots and it also provides the plant with essential nutrients.

Scott Bauer (USDA-ARS; )

2006-05-23

145

The Soil Series in Soil Classifications of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organized national soil survey began in the United States in 1899, with soil types as the units being mapped. The soil series concept was introduced into the U.S. soil survey in 1903 as a way to relate soils being mapped in one area to the soils of other areas. The original concept of a soil series was all soil types formed in the same parent materials that were of the same geologic age. However, within about 15 years soil series became the primary units being mapped in U.S. soil survey. Soil types became subdivisions of soil series, with the subdivisions based on changes in texture. As the soil series became the primary mapping unit the concept of what a soil series was also changed. Instead of being based on parent materials and geologic age, the soil series of the 1920s was based on the morphology and composition of the soil profile. Another major change in the concept of soil series occurred when U.S. Soil Taxonomy was released in 1975. Under Soil Taxonomy, the soil series subdivisions were based on the uses the soils might be put to, particularly their agricultural uses (Simonson, 1997). While the concept of the soil series has changed over the years, the term soil series has been the longest-lived term in U.S. soil classification. It has appeared in every official classification system used by the U.S. soil survey (Brevik and Hartemink, 2013). The first classification system was put together by Milton Whitney in 1909 and had soil series at its second lowest level, with soil type at the lowest level. The second classification system used by the U.S. soil survey was developed by C.F. Marbut, H.H. Bennett, J.E. Lapham, and M.H. Lapham in 1913. It had soil series at the second highest level, with soil classes and soil types at more detailed levels. This was followed by another system in 1938 developed by M. Baldwin, C.E. Kellogg, and J. Thorp. In this system soil series were again at the second lowest level with soil types at the lowest level. The soil type concept was dropped and replaced by the soil phase in the 1950s in a modification of the 1938 Baldwin et al. classification (Simonson, 1997). When Soil Taxonomy was released in 1975, soil series became the most detailed (lowest) level of the classification system, and the only term maintained throughout all U.S. classifications to date. While the number of recognized soil series have increased steadily throughout the history of U.S. soil survey, there was a rapid increase in the recognition of new soil series following the introduction of Soil Taxonomy (Brevik and Hartemink, 2013). References Brevik, E.C., and A.E. Hartemink. 2013. Soil maps of the United States of America. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77:1117-1132. doi:10.2136/sssaj2012.0390. Simonson, R.W. 1997. Evolution of soil series and type concepts in the United States. Advances in Geoecology 29:79-108.

Indorante, Samuel; Beaudette, Dylan; Brevik, Eric C.

2014-05-01

146

Evaluation of Varying Biochars as Carrier Materials for Bacterial Soil Inoculants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The incorporation of biochar into agricultural soils for carbon sequestration and improved soil fertility creates an opportunity to simultaneously deliver plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Many characteristics of biochar materials indicate that these particles could be conducive as inoculum carriers. This could provide a value-added component for biochar marketing and has an advantage over traditional carrier materials, which can be unsustainable or expensive to produce. Here, we assessed the suitability of 10 biochar types, made from 5 feedstocks at 2 pyrolysis temperatures (300°C and 600°C), to serve as carriers for 2 model PGPR strains, Enterobacter cloacae UW5 and Pseudomonas putida UW4. All biochars were characterized based on BET specific surface area, C-N content, pH, EC, and their abilities to adsorb bacterial cells from a liquid inoculum. Further studies incorporated qPCR to quantify the survival of inoculants after introduction into soils via biochar carriers. The biochars that performed well were further assayed for their influence on PGPR traits, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and auxin production. Peat and vermiculite served as traditional carrier materials to which we compared the biochars. Our findings indicated that biochars varied in their interactions with our model PGPR strains. Based on our analysis several biochar types were able to serve as carriers which were as good, if not better than, the traditional carrier materials. Future work should seek to assess shelf life and varying inoculation methods for the biochar-inoculant complexes.

Hale, Lauren; Crowley, David

2014-05-01

147

Free aluminium extraction from various reference materials and acid soils with relation to plant availability.  

PubMed

The single extractions with 15 extractants (agents) (H(2)O, KCl, NH(4)Cl, NH(4)F, CaCl(2), BaCl(2), CuCl(2), LaCl(3), Na(2)S(2)O(4), (NH(4))(2)C(2)O(4), Na(4)P(2)O(7), NTA, EDTA, DTPA, HCl), the optimised BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) three-step sequential extraction procedure (SEP) and the solid phase extraction (SPE) by the chelating ion-exchanger Iontosorb Salicyl (cellulose resin containing covalently bound salicylic acid functional groups) were used for the partitioning of Al in very acid soil samples taken from an area influenced by acid mine solutions. The precision, accuracy and repeatibility for all steps of the optimised BCR SEP were checked on the various reference materials (CRM 483 sewage sludge amended soil, CRM BCR 701 freshwater sediment, SRM 2710 and SRM 2711 Montana soils). Also the new indicative values of the optimised BCR SEP fractional Al concentrations were obtained for these reference materials. The aluminium amounts obtained by the used extraction procedures were valuated and discussed from the aspect of the Al concentration in the plants (grass) growing on the same studied soils. The aluminium toxicity indexes (ATI) calculated for the studied soils, the BaCl(2) and acetic acid soil extracts and the grass stems and roots were used for the assessment of the Al toxicity to the plants. The ATI value was defined as the ratio of the nutrient cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na) concentration sum to the Al concentration. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (LOQ=0.2mgl(-1)) and the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (LOQ=0.03mgl(-1)) were used for the aluminium quantification. PMID:18970873

Matús, Peter; Kubová, Jana; Bujdos, Marek; Medved', Ján

2006-12-15

148

Electrokinetic removal of charged contaminant species from soil and other media using moderately conductive adsorptive materials  

DOEpatents

Method for collecting and concentrating charged species, specifically, contaminant species in a medium, preferably soil. The method utilizes electrokinesis to drive contaminant species into and through a bed adjacent to a drive electrode. The bed comprises a moderately electrically conductive adsorbent material which is porous and is infused with water or other solvent capable of conducting electrical current. The bed material, preferably activated carbon, is easily removed and disposed of. Preferably, where activated carbon is used, after contaminant species are collected and concentrated, the mixture of activated carbon and contaminant species is removed and burned to form a stable and easily disposable waste product.

Lindgren, Eric R. (Albuquerque, NM); Mattson, Earl D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2001-01-01

149

Materials testing for in situ stabilization treatability study of INEEL mixed wastes soils  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the contaminant-specific materials testing phase of the In Situ Stabilization Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study (TS). The purpose of materials testing is to measure the effectiveness of grouting agents to stabilize Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Acid Pit soils and select a grout material for use in the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Treatability Study within the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Test results will assist the selecting a grout material for the follow-on demonstrations described in Test Plan for the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Phases of the In Situ Stabilization Treatability Study at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

Heiser, J.; Fuhrmann, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1997-09-01

150

Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the handout is to identify the three major types of soils: pedalfer, pedocal, and laterite, and to understand the soil profile. This is accomplished with brief descriptions of the soil horizons and the designation of common elements to pedalfers, pedocals, and laterite soils. The handout is concluded with a discussion of soil erosion. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Pamela Gore

1995-08-29

151

Laboratory and field testing for utilization of an excavated soil as landfill liner material.  

PubMed

This study investigates the feasibility of using a silty soil excavated in highway construction as landfill liner material. The tests were conducted both at laboratory and in situ scales, and the soil was tested in pure and lime treated forms. Different levels of compaction energy were used. For the field study, a test pad was constructed and in situ hydraulic conductivity experiments were conducted by sealed double ring infiltrometers (SDRI). Laboratory testing revealed that while lime treatment improved the shear strength, it resulted in higher hydraulic conductivity values compared to pure soil. It was observed that leachate permeation did not change the hydraulic conductivity of the pure and lime treated samples. Laboratory hydraulic conductivities were on the order of 10(-9) m/s and met the 1.0E-08 m/s criterion in the Turkish regulations, which is one order of magnitude higher than the value allowed in most developed countries. SDRI testing, which lasted for 6 mo, indicated that lime treatment increased the hydraulic conductivity of pure soil significantly in the field scale tests. In situ hydraulic conductivities were on the order of 1E-08 and 1E-07 m/s, and exceeded the allowable value in the Turkish regulations. Undisturbed samples collected from the test pad were not representative of field hydraulic conductivities. Contrary to laboratory findings, higher compaction efforts did not result in lower hydraulic conductivities in field scales. The study verified the importance of in situ hydraulic conductivity testing in compacted liners. PMID:16376067

Bozbey, Ilknur; Guler, Erol

2006-01-01

152

Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to carbonaceous materials in a river floodplain soil.  

PubMed

We report on sorption isotherm of phenanthrene (Phe) for river floodplain soil associated with carbonaceous materials, with particular attention being devoted to the natural loading of Phe. Our sorption experiments with original soil samples, size, and density sub-fractions showed that the light fraction had the highest sorption capacity comparable to low rank coals. In addition, the light fraction contributed most for the sorption of Phe in total soil samples. K(oc) values for all fractions were in the same range, thus indicating that coal and coal-derived particles in all samples are responsible for the enhanced sorption for Phe. Sorption was strongly nonlinear and the combined partitioning and pore-filling model gave a better fit than the Freundlich sorption model. In addition, the spiked PAHs did not show the same behavior as the naturally aged ones, therefore the accessibility of indigenous background organic contaminants was reduced when coal and coal-derived particles are associated with the soils. PMID:18406026

Yang, Yi; Hofmann, Thilo; Pies, Carmen; Grathwohl, Peter

2008-12-01

153

Mineralogical evidence for a local volcanic origin of the parent material of Bermuda Quaternary paleosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alternation of carbonate deposits and paleosols compose the emerged part of the Bermuda archipelago. The pedological units present a complex and diversified mineralogy. Former studies demonstrated that the paleosols are not primarily a product of the unique dissolution of the surrounding carbonates, but contain a massive input of allochthonous non-carbonate detrital material. Researchers during more than the past three decades have attributed this flux of insoluble residues (IR) to Saharan dusts. We carried out systematic field and mineralogical analyses on the Quaternary paleosols from the Bermuda archipelago. Their mineralogical assemblage predominantly includes carbonates, clay minerals (kaolinite, chlorite and chlorite/vermiculite), phosphates, and aluminium and iron oxides/hydroxides. This assemblage is strikingly close to the mineralogy of the weathered volcanic substrate of Bermuda, but noticeably different from the mineralogy of Saharan dust. Moreover, we found volcanic lithoclasts in numerous paleosol profiles all over the archipelago and in all the recorded time intervals. We thus consider the volcanic seamount underlying Bermuda as the main source of non-carbonate minerals detected in the paleosols. This hypothesis further resolves the anomalous maturity of Bermudan paleosols compared to their southern counterparts in the Bahamas and Barbados.

Prognon, François; Cojan, Isabelle; Kindler, Pascal; Thiry, Médard; Demange, Michel

2011-01-01

154

Mass Transport within Soils  

SciTech Connect

Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated zone with three major horizons, the saturated zone can be further divided into other zones based on hydraulic and geologic conditions. Wetland soils are a special and important class in which near-saturation conditions exist most of the time. When a contaminant is added to or formed in a soil column, there are several mechanisms by which it can be dispersed, transported out of the soil column to other parts of the environment, destroyed, or transformed into some other species. Thus, to evaluate or manage any contaminant introduced to the soil column, one must determine whether and how that substance will (1) remain or accumulate within the soil column, (2) be transported by dispersion or advection within the soil column, (3) be physically, chemically, or biologically transformed within the soil (i.e., by hydrolysis, oxidation, etc.), or (4) be transported out of the soil column to another part of the environment through a cross-media transfer (i.e., volatilization, runoff, ground water infiltration, etc.). These competing processes impact the fate of physical, chemical, or biological contaminants found in soils. In order to capture these mechanisms in mass transfer models, we must develop mass-transfer coefficients (MTCs) specific to soil layers. That is the goal of this chapter. The reader is referred to other chapters in this Handbook that address related transport processes, namely Chapter 13 on bioturbation, Chapter 15 on transport in near-surface geological formations, and Chapter 17 on soil resuspention. This chapter addresses the following issues: the nature of soil pollution, composition of soil, transport processes and transport parameters in soil, transformation processes in soil, mass-balance models, and MTCs in soils. We show that to address vertical heterogeneity in soils in is necessary to define a characteristic scaling depth and use this to establish process-based expressions for soil MTCs. The scaling depth in soil and the corresponding MTCs depend strongly on (1) the composition of the soil and physical state of the soil, (2) the chemical and physic

McKone, Thomas E.

2009-03-01

155

The Effectiveness of Audiovisual Self-Instructional Materials in Teaching ChildCare Skills to Parents with Intellectual Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children of parents with intellectual disabilities are at risk for neglectful care due to parenting skill deficiencies. Previous studies have shown that parents with intellectual disabilities can improve child-care skills with intensive behavioral training, but self-instruction has not been explored. We evaluated the efficacy of self-instructional pictorial child-care manuals with and without accompanying audiotaped instruction using a multielement design with

Maurice A. Feldman; Laurie Case

1997-01-01

156

Particle size analysis of sediments, soils and related particulate materials for forensic purposes using laser granulometry.  

PubMed

Particle size is a fundamental property of any sediment, soil or dust deposit which can provide important clues to nature and provenance. For forensic work, the particle size distribution of sometimes very small samples requires precise determination using a rapid and reliable method with a high resolution. The Coulter trade mark LS230 laser granulometer offers rapid and accurate sizing of particles in the range 0.04-2000 microm for a variety of sample types, including soils, unconsolidated sediments, dusts, powders and other particulate materials. Reliable results are possible for sample weights of just 50 mg. Discrimination between samples is performed on the basis of the shape of the particle size curves and statistical measures of the size distributions. In routine forensic work laser granulometry data can rarely be used in isolation and should be considered in combination with results from other techniques to reach an overall conclusion. PMID:15240017

Pye, Kenneth; Blott, Simon J

2004-08-11

157

Diffusion of Iodine and Rhenium in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e. sorption or precipitation). This understanding will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. A set of diffusion experiments using carbonated and non-carbonated concrete-soil half cells was conducted under unsaturated conditions (4% and 7% by wt moisture content). Spiked concrete half-cell specimens were prepared with and without colloidal metallic iron addition and were carbonated using supercritical carbon dioxide. Spikes of I and Re were added to achieve measurable diffusion profile in the soil part of the half-cell. In addition, properties of concrete materials likely to influence radionuclide migration such as carbonation were evaluated in an effort to correlate these properties with the release of iodine and rhenium.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Wood, Marcus I.

2006-12-15

158

Development of construction materials like concrete from lunar soils without water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of construction materials such as concrete from lunar soils without the use of water requires a different methodology than that used for conventional terrestrial concrete. A unique approach is attempted that utilizes factors such as initial vacuum and then cyclic loading to enhance the mechanical properties of dry materials similar to those available on the moon. The application of such factors is expected to allow reorientation, and coming together, of particles of the materials toward the maximum theoretical density. If such a density can provide deformation and strength properties for even a limited type of construction, the approach can have significant application potential, although other factors such as heat and chemicals may be needed for specific construction objectives.

Desai, Chandra S.; Saadatmanesh, H.; Frantziskonis, G.

159

Development of construction materials like concrete from lunar soils without water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of construction materials such as concrete from lunar soils without the use of water requires a different methodology than that used for conventional terrestrial concrete. A unique approach is attempted that utilizes factors such as initial vacuum and then cyclic loading to enhance the mechanical properties of dry materials similar to those available on the moon. The application of such factors is expected to allow reorientation, and coming together, of particles of the materials toward the maximum theoretical density. If such a density can provide deformation and strength properties for even a limited type of construction, the approach can have significant application potential, although other factors such as heat and chemicals may be needed for specific construction objectives.

Desai, Chandra S.; Saadatmanesh, H.; Frantziskonis, G.

1989-01-01

160

Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

161

THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC SOIL MATERIALS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINED LAND SITES  

SciTech Connect

Abandoned mine sites associated with coal and metal mining across the western United States have been left as unproductive wastelands. The availability of soil materials or other materials to support the restoration of the vegetative cover and enhance the recovery of such areas is limited. The restoration of these areas often requires the use of available amendments such as organic waste products or to help stabilize the soil. Many of the organic waste products, including sewage sludge, clarifier sludge, fly ash sludge, and other by-products from the agricultural industries such as compost can be employed for beneficial uses. This study looked at the feasibility of applying organic waste products to a mine soil in Montana to increase soil fertility and enhance plant productivity. Waste rock samples were tested for acid forming potential via acid base accounting. Samples cores were constructed and leached with simulated rainwater to determine amendment affect on metal leaching. A greenhouse study was completed to determine the most suitable amendment(s) for the field mine land site. Results from the acid base accounting indicate that acid formed from the waste rock would be neutralized with the alkalinity in the system. Results also show that metals in solution are easily held by organics from the amendments and not allowed to leach in to the surrounding water system. Data from the greenhouse study indicated that the amendment of sewage sludge was most promising. Application of 2% sewage sludge along with 1% sewage sludge plus 1% clarifier sludge, 2% compost, and no treatment were used for mine land application. Initial results were encouraging and it appears that sewage sludge may be a good reclamation option for mine lands.

Song Jin

2006-03-01

162

Microscale investigation into the geochemistry of arsenic, selenium, and iron in soil developed  

E-print Network

in pyritic shale materials Daniel Strawn a,*, Harvey Doner b , Mavrik Zavarin c , Scott McHugo d a University) were also determined. The soil used in this study was formed from pyritic shale parent materials.elsevier.com/locate/geoderma Geoderma 108 (2002) 237­257 #12;native soil. Information on the weathering and geochemistry of the pyritic

163

Parent material which produces saline outcrops as a factor in differential distribution of perennial plants in the northern Mojave Desert  

SciTech Connect

An area of 0.46 km/sup 2/ divided into six zones in the northern Mojave Desert transitional with the Great Basin Desert has been studied. Diversity is high among the perennial plant species within the 0.46 km/sup 2/ area. Common species for the two deserts that are present in the area studied are Atriplex confertifolia (Torr. and Frem.) S. Wats., Ceratoides lanata (Pursh) J.T. Howell, Grayia spinosa (Hook.) Moq., Ephedra nevadensis S. Wats. Some other species present include Lycium andersonii A. Gray, Lycium pallidum Miers, Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) Payne., Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC) Cov., Acamptopappus shockleyi A. Gray, and Krameria parvifolia, Benth. Some of the species are relatively salt tolerant and some are relatively salt sensitive. A total of 4282 individual plants were measured. There was considerable variation in distribution of the 10 dominant species present, apparently due to zonal variations of salinity dispersed within the study area. Correlation coefficients among pairs of the species for different zones illustrate interrelationships among the salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive species. Observations on an adjacent hillside with rock outcroppings indicate that the saline differences in this area are partly due to outcroppings of parent volcanic rock materials that yield Na salts upon weathering.

Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.; Wood, R.A.; El-Ghonemy, A.A.; Bamberg, S.A.

1980-01-01

164

Reflectance and Mossbauer spectroscopy of ferrihydrite-montmorillonite assemblages as Mars soil analog materials.  

PubMed

Spectroscopic analyses show that Fe(3+)-doped smectites prepared in the laboratory exhibit important similarities to the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite has been identified as the interlayer ferric component in Fe(3+)-doped smectites by a low quadrupole splitting and magnetic field strength of approximately 48 tesla in Mossbauer spectra measured at 4.2 K, as well as a crystal field transition at 0.92 micrometer. Ferrihydrite in these smectites explains features in the visible-near infrared region that resemble the energies and band strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. Clay silicates have met resistance in the past as Mars soil analogs because terrestrial clay silicates exhibit prominent hydrous spectral features at 1.4, 1.9, and 2.2 micrometers; and these are observed weakly, if at all, in reflectance spectra of Mars. However, several mechanisms can weaken or compress these features, including desiccation under low-humidity conditions. The hydration properties of the interlayer cations also effect band strengths, such that a ferrihydrite-bearing smectite in the Martian environment would exhibit a 1.9 micrometers H2O absorption that is even weaker than the 2.2 micrometers structural OH absorption. Mixing experiments demonstrate that infrared spectral features of clays can be significantly suppressed and that the reflectance can be significantly darkened by mixing with only a few percent of a strongly absorbing opaque material. Therefore, the absolute reflectance of a soil on Mars may be disproportionately sensitive to a minor component. For this reason, the shape and position of spectral features and the chemical composition of potential analogs are of utmost importance in assessing the composition of the soil on Mars. Given the remarkable similarity between visible-infrared reflectance spectra of soils in bright regions on Mars and Fe(3+)-doped montmorillonites, coupled with recent observations of smectites in SNC meteorites and a weak 2.2 micrometers absorption in some Mars soils, ferrihydrite-bearing smectites warrant serious consideration as a Mars soil analog. PMID:11539454

Bishop, J L; Pieters, C M; Burns, R G

1993-01-01

165

Soils, time, and primate paleoenvironments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils are the skin of the earth. From both poles to the equator, wherever rocks or sediment are exposed at the surface, soils are forming through the physical and chemical action of climate and living organisms. The physical attributes (color, texture, thickness) and chemical makeup of soils vary considerably, depending on the composition of the parent material and other variables: temperature, rainfall and soil moisture, vegetation, soil fauna, and the length of time that soil-forming processes have been at work. United States soil scientists1 have classified modern soils into ten major groups and numerous subgroups, each reflecting the composition and architecture of the soils and, to some extent, the processes that led to their formation. The physical and chemical processes of soil formation have been active throughout geologic time; the organic processes have been active at least since the Ordovician.2 Consequently, nearly all sedimentary rocks that were deposited in nonmarine settings and exposed to the elements contain a record of ancient, buried soils or paleosols. A sequence of these rocks, such as most ancient fluvial (stream) deposits, provides a record of soil paleoenvironments through time. Paleosols are also repositories of the fossils of organisms (body fossils) and the traces of those organisms burrowing, food-seeking, and dwelling activities (ichnofossils). Indeed, most fossil primates are found in paleosols. Careful study of ancient soils gives new, valuable insights into the correct temporal reconstruction of the primate fossil record and the nature of primate paleoenvironments. ?? 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

1993-01-01

166

Schoolwide Programs: Parents' Guide & Capacity-Building Materials = Programas Schoolwide: Una Guia para Padres y Materias de Capacitacion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reauthorization of Title I (Improving America's Schools Act--IASA) made the Schoolwide Program (Schoolwide) a major strategy for schools with high poverty rates and stressed the importance of parent involvement. This guide was developed to provide professional development and parent education on Schoolwide implementation in California. The…

WestEd, San Francisco, CA.

167

Effect of Ground Rubber vs. ZnSO4 on Spinach Accumulation of Cd from Cd-Mineralized California Soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Certain soils derived from marine shale in Salinas Valley, CA, USA, contain significant levels of natural Cd but normal levels of Zn, all derived from the soil parent materials. Crops grown on these soils contain high levels of Cd, and because of the high Cd:Zn, this Cd is highly bioavailable and a...

168

Leaching experiments on the release of heavy metals and PAH from soil and waste materials.  

PubMed

Leaching tests are fundamental tools for the assessment of long-term impact of contaminated waste materials on the soil-groundwater pathway. Experiments were carried out in the framework of standardization and validation of column percolation and batch test procedures, in particular concerning the stipulation of the experimental setup. The colloid release of column and batch experiments was compared and the influence of different column filling heights (12.5-50 cm) on the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from soil was studied, as well as the effect of varying contact times (2.5-16 h) on the release of chromium from construction and demolition (C&D) waste and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash. The results indicate that filtration of the eluate, which is required for batch tests, does not always allow the simulation of the actual colloid amount in soil pore water. Medium column heights four times the inner diameter of the column seemed to provide reasonable equilibrium adjustment conditions and avoid major biodegradation. The release of chromium was only marginally affected by the contact time, varied between 0.115 and 0.150 mg/kg for demolition waste eluate at a liquid-to-solid ratio of approximately 5L/kg. PMID:21377270

Krüger, O; Kalbe, U; Berger, W; Simon, F G; Meza, S López

2012-03-15

169

Soil Textural Contrast as a Geofactor in Soil Formation, Bogowonto Watershed, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological aspect is considered crucial among the other factors in soil formation. Weathered rock as a geofactor will contribute much in forming the soil. Weathered rock is able to affect the basic characteristics of soil. One of the basic soil characteristics that would be intensively discussed here is soil texture. The presence of textural contrast in a soil profile implicates that there is a weathering activity. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyze the function of different rocks (lithology) related to soil textural contrast as a geofactor in soil formation. Jebol sub-catchment is one of water dividing in Bogowonto watershed. It is strongly influenced by 6 geological formations. They are old-andesitic formation, andesitic intrusion, halang formation, old Sumbing volcano formation, young Sumbing volcano formation, and alluvium. Different geological formation results different weathered rock. The focus in this research was on old-Sumbing volcano formation (Qsmo). Volcanic activities produced pyroclastic deposit. Multi-layer of old volcano materials provided specific parent material for soils. The methods applied in this research are fieldwork and laboratory analysis. All of the analysis was based on the common traditional concept of vertical texture contrast (VTC) in pedology. Direct assessment of soil texture was conducted during the field. Laboratory analysis, then, was considered to verify the field results. Five soil samples were taken for investigating. Each soil sample was expected as a representative of each rock. They were developed from volcanic air fall deposition (ash & lapilli), laharic sediment, and andesitic intrusion. The results showed that: (1) the soil profile was strongly provided by typical parent material from weathered rock. In multiple layers of parent material, the most-upper deposition would become parent material for soil; (2) volcanic air fall deposition was dominated by silty soil; (3) laharic sediment formed sandy soil; (4) intrusion rock resulted loamy and clay soil; (5) the soil texture variability in a profile is mostly emphasized by operating downwards of water percolation. The relative texture contrast in various horizons of the profile increased with clay illuviation process.

Pulungan, Nur Ainun Harlin Jennie; Geitner, Clemens; Stötter, Johann; Sartohadi, Junun

2014-05-01

170

Release of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Dissolved Organic Carbon, and Suspended Matter from Disturbed NAPL-Contaminated Gravelly Soil Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is known to depend on the release and redistribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particles. We studied the release of PAH, DOC, and particles up to a size of 200 mm with column outflow experiments using gravelly soil material. The material was collected at an abandoned industrial tar-oil contaminated site. To detect

Kai Uwe Totsche; Steffen Jann; Ingrid Kögel-Knabner

2006-01-01

171

Evaluation of lunar rocks and soils for resource utilization: Detailed image analysis of raw materials and beneficiated products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rocks and soils of the Moon will be the raw materials for fuels and construction needs at a lunar base. This includes sources of materials for the generation of hydrogen, oxygen, metals, and other potential construction materials. For most of the bulk material needs, the regolith, and its less than 1 cm fraction, the soil, will suffice. But for specific mineral resources, it may be necessary to concentrate minerals from rocks or soils, and it is not always obvious which is the more appropriate feedstock. Besides an appreciation of site geology, the mineralogy and petrography of local rocks and soils is important for consideration of the resources which can provide feedstocks of ilmenite, glass, agglutinates, anorthite, etc. In such studies, it is very time-consuming and practically impossible to correlate particle counts (the traditional method of characterizing lunar soil petrography) with accurate modal analyses and with mineral associations in multi-mineralic grains. But x ray digital imaging, using x rays characteristic of each element, makes all this possible and much more (e.g., size and shape analysis). An application of beneficiation image analysis, in use in our lab (Oxford Instr. EDS and Cameca SX-50 EMP), was demonstrated to study mineral liberation from lunar rocks and soils. Results of x ray image analysis are presented.

Taylor, Lawrence A.; Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Jerde, Eric A.; Mckay, David S.; Graf, John; Oder, Robin R.

1993-01-01

172

Low-temperature and low atmospheric pressure infrared reflectance spectroscopy of Mars soil analog materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared reflectance spectra of carefully selected Mars soil analog materials have been measured under low atmospheric pressures and temperatures. Chemically altered montmorillonites containing ferrihydrite and hydrated ferric sulfate complexes are examined, as well as synthetic ferrihydrite and a palagonitic soil from Haleakala, Maui. Reflectance spectra of these analog materials exhibit subtle visible to near-infrared features, which are indicative of nanophase ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides and are similar to features observed in the spectra of the bright regions of Mars. Infrared reflectance spectra of these analogs include hydration features due to structural OH, bound H2O, and adsorbed H2O. The spectral character of these hydration features is highly dependent on the sample environment and on the nature of the H2O/OH in the analogs. The behavior of the hydration features near 1.9 micron, 2.2 micron, 2.7 micron, 3 micron, and 6 microns are reported here in spectra measured under a Marslike atmospheric environment. In spectra of these analogs measured under dry Earth atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micron band depth is 8-17%; this band is much stronger under moist conditions. Under Marslike atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micron feature is broad and barely discernible (1-3% band depth) in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil samples. In comparable spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonite the 1.9-micron feature is also broad, but stronger (6% band depth). In the low atmospheric pressure and temperature spectra of the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite this feature is sharper than the other analogs and relatively stronger (6% band depth). Although the intensity of the 3-micron band is weaker in spectra of each of the analogs when measured under Marslike conditions, the 3-micron band remains a dominant feature and is especially broad in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil. The structural OH features observed in these materials at 2.2-2.3 micron and 2.75 microns remain largely unaffected by the environmental conditions. A shift in the Christiansen feature towards shorter wavelengths has also been observed with decreasing atmospheric pressure and temperature in the midinfrared spectra of these samples.

Bishop, Janice L.; Pieters, Carle M.

1995-01-01

173

Low-temperature and low atmospheric pressure infrared reflectance spectroscopy of Mars soil analog materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared reflectance spectra of carefully selected Mars soil analog materials have been measured under low atmospheric pressures and temperatures. Chemically altered montmorillonites containing ferrihydrite and hydrated ferric sulfate complexes are examined, as well as synthetic ferrihydrate and a palagonitic soil from Haleakala, Maui. Reflectance spectra of these analog materials exhibit subtle visible to near-infrared features, which are indicative of nanophase ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides and are similar to features observed in the spectra of the bright regions of Mars. Infrared reflectance spectra of these analogs include hydration features due to structural OH, bound H2O and adsorbed H2O. The spectal character of these hydration features is highly dependent on the sample environment and on the nature of the H2O/OH in the analogs. The behavior of the hydration features near 1.9 micrometers, 2.2 micrometers, 2.7 micrometers, 3 micrometers, and 6 micrometers are reported here in spetra measured under Marslike atmospheric environment. In spectra of these analogs measured under dry Earth atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micrometer band depth is 8-17%; this band is much stonger under moist conditions. Under Marslike atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micrometer feature is broad and barely discernible (1-3% band depth) in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil samples. In comparable spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonite the 1.9-micrometer feature is also broad, but stronger (6% band depth). In the low atmospheric pressure and temperature spectra of the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite this feature is sharper than the other analogs and relatively stronger (6% band depth). Although the intensity of the 3- micrometer band is weaker in spectra of each of the analogs when measured under Marslike conditions, the 3-micromter band remains a dominant feature and is especially broad in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil. The structural OH features observed in these materials at 2.2-2.3 micrometers and 2.27 micrometers remain largely unaffected by the environmental conditions. A shift in the Christiansen feature towards shorter wavelengths has also been observed with decreasing atmospheric pressure and temperature in the midinfrared spectra of these samples.

Bishop, Janice L.; Pieters, Carle M.

1995-01-01

174

Long Term Effects of Fluidized Bed Material Applied at Disposal Levels on Soil Metals and Nutrient Concentrations as Related to Soil Depth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to assess the movement of macro and micro elements in an old apple [Malus domestica Borkh.] orchard that received a one time application of 36 kg m-2 of fluidized bed combustion material (FBC) 23 years earlier. Soil samples were taken in an area where 15 trees were planted ...

175

Assessment of soil organic carbon distribution in Europe scale by spatio-temporal data and geostatistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accuracy in assessing the distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important issue because SOC is an important soil component that plays key roles in the functions of both natural ecosystems and agricultural systems. The SOC content varies from place to place and it is strongly related with climate variables (temperature and rainfall), terrain features, soil texture, parent material, vegetation, land-use types, and human management (management and degradation) at different spatial scales. Geostatistical techniques allow for the prediction of soil properties using soil information and environmental covariates. In this study, assessment of SOC distribution has been predicted using combination of LUCAS soil samples with local soil data and ten spatio-temporal predictors (slope, aspect, elevation, CTI, CORINE land-cover classification, parent material, texture, WRB soil classification, average temperature and precipitation) with Regression-Kriging method in Europe scale. Significant correlation between the covariates and the organic carbon dependent variable was found.

Aksoy, Ece; Panagos, Panos; Montanarella, Luca

2013-04-01

176

Apollo 17 materials viewed from 2 to 4 mm soil particles: Pre-serenitatis highlands components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Among the highland lithologies of 2-4 mm rock fragments in North Massif soil 76503, we have found a compositional group, low in incompatible element concentrations, that we interpret as representing the pre-Serenitatis surface. A component of these materials is an igneous-textured lithology that we believe formed in large impact melts. These are compositionally similar to, and possibly precursors of, many of the granulitic breccias that appear to be mixtures of ferroan and magnesian-suite rocks. The polymict, or old, upper-crustal breccias, along with granulitic breccias and the endogenous igneous lithologies found particularly at the North Massif stations, constitute the poorly consolidated portions of North Massif. Highland samples from the South Massif, on the other hand, are enriched in materials of the competent, impact-melt breccias formed by the Serenitatis impact. The competent melt-breccias contain clasts of most of the pre-existing surface materials, but they also contain components not found in the rocks of the poorly consolidated massif materials.

Jolliff, Bradley L.; Bishop, Kaylynn M.

1993-01-01

177

Plant material as bioaccumulator of arsenic in soils affected by mining activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metal contamination is an important environmental problem, since the metals are harmful to humans, animals and tend to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to determine the total concentration of As, As (III) and As(V) in soil samples, leaves and roots of plant material, growing in a mining area in Spain (Murcia). Ditichia viscosa was used as the plant of reference. The concentrations of bioavailable As in plant samples were calculated by different soil chemical extraction methods; deionized water, 0.5N NaHCO3 (Olsen extraction), oxidizable medium, 0.5 HCl, 0.05M (NH4)2SO4, 0.005M DTPA and Mehra-Jackson extraction. For this study, fourteen samples were collected in the surrounding area of Sierra Minera and Portman Bay (Murcia, SE Spain). Samples were air dried and sieved to < 2mm for general analytical determinations. To determine the As content, soil samples were first ground to a fine powder using an agate ball mill. Fresh vegetable samples were separated into root and aboveground biomass and then lyophilized. Arsenic levels were obtained by using atomic fluorescence spectrometry with an automated continuous flow hydride generation (HG-AFS) spectrometer. Samples showed pH average values close to neutrality. Most samples showed a very low organic matter percentage. Electrical conductivity and calcium carbonate content were considerably low in most samples. The mineralogical analysis showed that the main minerals were quartz, muscovite, kaolinite and illite, while the minority minerals were alteration products derived of mining activities (iron oxides and hydroxides, siderite, jarosite and gypsum), calcite and feldspars. Although the plants do not absorb arsenic in the same proportion, the results suggest that a good relationship exists between the total content of As in soil and the total content in plant. The results showed that the arsenic content in roots was positively correlated with the oxidizable-organic matter and sulfides fraction (oxidaizable medium extraction procedure). Arsenic concentration in leaves was positively correlated with the arsenic extracted by HCl, with the oxidizable-organic matter and sulfides fraction and with the arsenic extracted by Mehra-Jackson extraction. According to our results, As is accumulated in the leaves of the plants and is linked with iron oxides of these soils affected by mining activities.

Martínez-López, Salvadora; Martínez-Sánchez, Maria Jose; García-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen

2010-05-01

178

Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

Horner, John R.

179

Quantities and associations of lead, zinc, cadmium, manganese, chromium, nickel, vanadium, and copper in fresh Mississippi delta alluvium and New Orleans alluvial soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of this study is the effect of anthropogenic metals on the geochemical quality of urban soils. This is accomplished by comparing the metal contents and associations between two alluvial soils of the lower Mississippi River Delta, freshly deposited alluvial parent materials and alluvial soils collected from a nearby urban environment. Fresh alluvium samples (n=97) were collected from the

H. W. Mielke; C. R. Gonzales; M. K. Smith; P. W. Mielke

2000-01-01

180

PII S0016-7037(01)00575-0 Accretion of Asian dust to Hawaiian soils: Isotopic, elemental, and mineral mass balances  

E-print Network

of parent material plus atmospheric inputs, including sea salt aerosols and Asian dust. We use soil of soil Si leaching rates we argue that chemical weathering is the dominant loss mechanism for dust from these soils. Dust has a profound effect on the budgets of elements that are susceptible to leaching losses

Derry, Louis A.

181

Reclamation with Recovery of Radionuclides and Toxic Metals from Contaminated Materials, Soils, and Wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites. In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded, and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (polyuranate) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

Francis, A. J.; Dodge, C. J.

1993-01-01

182

Removal and recovery of radionuclides and toxic metals from wastes, soils and materials  

SciTech Connect

A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites (Figure 1). In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (uranium trioxide) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

Francis, A.J.

1993-07-01

183

Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes with a Chitin-Urea Soil Amendment and Other Materials.  

PubMed

Field trials were conducted with a chitin-urea soil amendment and several other nematicides on four crop-nematode combinations: tomato-Meloidogyne incognita; potato-Meloidogyne chitwoodi; walnut-Pratylenchus vulnus; and brussels sprouts-Heterodera schachtii. Significant (P soil amendment in the trims on potato and walnut. In the trials on brussels sprouts and on tomato, phytotoxicity occurred at rates of 1,868 and 1,093 kg/ha, respectively. Significant (P materials did not provide significant nematode control under the conditions of the particular experiments: metham sodium, oxamyl, and Yucca extract on tomato; and dazomet granules on brussels sprouts. PMID:19283044

Westerdahl, B B; Carlson, H L; Grant, J; Radewald, J D; Welch, N; Anderson, C A; Darso, J; Kirby, D; Shibuya, F

1992-12-01

184

Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes with a Chitin-Urea Soil Amendment and Other Materials  

PubMed Central

Field trials were conducted with a chitin-urea soil amendment and several other nematicides on four crop-nematode combinations: tomato-Meloidogyne incognita; potato-Meloidogyne chitwoodi; walnut-Pratylenchus vulnus; and brussels sprouts-Heterodera schachtii. Significant (P ? 0.10) nematode population reductions were obtained with the chitin-urea soil amendment in the trims on potato and walnut. In the trials on brussels sprouts and on tomato, phytotoxicity occurred at rates of 1,868 and 1,093 kg/ha, respectively. Significant (P ? 0.10) nematode reductions were also obtained with metham sodium on potato; with 1,3-D on tomato and brussels sprouts; and with sodium tetrathiocarbonate, XRM 5053, fenamiphos, ethoprop, LX1075-05, LX1075-07, and SN 109106 on tomato. The following materials did not provide significant nematode control under the conditions of the particular experiments: metham sodium, oxamyl, and Yucca extract on tomato; and dazomet granules on brussels sprouts. PMID:19283044

Westerdahl, B. B.; Carlson, H. L.; Grant, J.; Radewald, J. D.; Welch, N.; Anderson, C. A.; Darso, J.; Kirby, D.; Shibuya, F.

1992-01-01

185

A framework for assessing ecological risks of petroleum-derived materials in soil  

SciTech Connect

Ecological risk assessment estimates the nature and likelihood of effects of human actions on nonhuman organisms, populations, and ecosystems. It is intended to be clearer and more rigorous in its approach to estimation of effects and uncertainties than previously employed methods of ecological assessment. Ecological risk assessment is characterized by a standard paradigm that includes problem formulation, analysis of exposure and effects, risk characterization, and communication with a risk manager. This report provides a framework that applies the paradigm to the specific problem of assessing the ecological risks of petroleum in soil. This type of approach requires that assessments be performed in phases: (1) a scoping assessment to determine whether there is a potential route of exposure for potentially significant ecological receptors; (2) a screening assessment to determine whether exposures could potentially reach toxic levels; and (3) a definitive assessment to estimate the nature, magnitude, and extent of risks. The principal technical issue addressed is the chemically complex nature of petroleum--a complexity that may be dealt with by assessing risks on the basis of properties of the whole material, properties of individual chemicals that are representative of chemical classes, distributions of properties of the constituents of chemical classes, properties of chemicals detected in the soil, and properties of indicator chemicals. The advantages and feasibility of these alternatives are discussed. The report concludes with research recommendations for improving each stage in the assessment process.

Suter, G.W. II

1997-05-01

186

Effect of Soil Solid-Phase Material Migration on Soil Properties within a Small Watershed Detected Using the Magnetic Tracer Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed detailed studies of the lateral migration of the solid soil material and the soil cover within a small catchment area (Russia, Tula region, Lokna river basin). The main goal of this work is to characterize the migration and accumulation features of the soil solid-phase material within a small watershed and to analyze the effect of the lateral mass transfer on the crucial soil fertility-related properties in the catchment basin under study. The total area of the catchment and the ravine network elements is 96 ha. The catchment basin is drop-shaped; it slightly curves and is latitudinally oriented. The catchment basin's slopes are of southern, eastern, northern, and intermediate exposures with average inclination of 1,5-5 degrees. The magnetic tracer method was used to assess the volumes and rates of the lateral migration of the solid-phase soil material on the selected territory. This method is based on the investigation of the spherical magnetic particles (SMPs), which fall onto the soil cover from the atmosphere, where they arrive at the burning of coals and some other fuels, mostly in steam locomotives. The period of the most intensive emission of SMPs into the soil in the territory of Russia corresponds to the last 100-150 years [1]. The reserve of SMPs in the 0- to 25-cm layer is estimated to be 3.8 g/m2on the least eroded sub-horizontal surface. The zones with the concentration of SMPs lower than their average content on the least eroded surface were characterized as dispersion zones. The zones of the basin with significant exceeding the value of 3.8 g/m2 were marked as accumulation zones of the soil solid-phase material. Dispersion zones are found in the middle part of the ridge in the north-eastern area, in the middle part of a longslope in the south-western area of the catchment basin, and other [2]. Accumulation zones are observed in a cup-shaped depression on the plowed slope adjacent to the ravine's head, on steep unplowed slopes of the ravine adjacent to its bottom, on the ravine's bottom, and other [2]. The genesis of these zones is result of the summary effect of the exposure, the inclination, and the slope's length, the spatial interference of the zones, the variability of the carrying capacity of the water flow, etc. The total area of the revealed dispersion zones makes up 35% of the catchment basin; the accumulation zones occupy 26% of the catchment area. The transit-buffer area occupies 39% of the catchment basin. The area proportions of the different functional zones characterize the specific migration structure of the small watershed. [1] Olson K., Gennadiyev A., Zhidkin A., Markelov M., Golosov V., and Lang J. Use of magnetic tracer and radio-cesium methods to determine past cropland soil erosion amounts and rates. Catena 104 (2013), 103-110. [2] Gennadiev A., Koshovskii T., Zhidkin A., and Kovach R. Lateral migration of soil solid-phase material within a landscape-geochemical arena detected using the magnetic tracer method. Eurasian Soil Science 46, 10 (2013), 983-993.

Koshovskii, Timur; Gennadiev, Alexander; Zhidkin, Andrei

2014-05-01

187

Parent Soup  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Parent Soup is an online community for parents. It dubs itself the "neighborhood's favorite kitchen table" where parents can exchange views in discussion groups or talk with one another in the chat room. The concept of a virtual community can be seen in the Parents' Pick area where parents share their opinions on books, baby products, toys, computers, web sites and movies. Parent Soup members can find other Parent Soupers who share their interests, hobbies and concerns through personal profiles posted on "cyberfridges." The site also features a parenting library with information in sixteen major topics and a Baby Name Finder with information on more than 5,000 names.

188

Diffusion of iodine and Technetium-99 through waste encasement concrete and unsaturated soil fill material  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of long-term performance of low level waste-enclosing cement grouts requires diffusivity data for radionuclide species such as, 129I and 99Tc. The diffusivity of radionuclides in soil and concrete media was collected by conducting soil-soil and concrete-soil half-cell experiments. The soil diffusivity coefficients for iodide were 7.03 x 10-8 cm2/s and 2.42 x 10-7 cm2/s for soils at 4% and 7% moisture contents, respectively. Iodide diffusivity in soil is a function of moisture content and is about an order of magnitude slower at lower moisture content. The soil diffusivity coefficients for 99Tc were 5.89 {+-} 0.80 x 10-8 cm2/s (4% moisture content) and 2.04 {+-} 0.57 x 10-7 cm2/s (7% moisture content), respectively. The soil diffusivity of iodide and 99Tc were similar in magnitude at both water contents, indicating that these ions have similar diffusion mechanisms in unsaturated coarse-textured Hanford soil. The diffusivity of iodide in concrete ranged from 2.07 x 10-14 cm2/s (4% soil moisture content) to 1.31 x 10-12 cm2/s (7% soil moisture content), indicating that under unsaturated soil moisture conditions, iodide diffusivity is highly sensitive to changing soil moisture conditions. Depending on the soil moisture content, the diffusivity of 99Tc in concrete ranged from 4.54 x 10-13 cm2/s to 8.02 x 10-12 cm2/s. At 4% soil moisture content, iodide diffused about 20 times more slowly than 99Tc, and at 7% soil moisture content, iodide in concrete diffused about 6 times slower than 99Tc.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Wood, Marcus I.; John M. Hanchar, Simcha Stores-Gascoyne, Lauren Browning

2004-10-30

189

Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements (i.e., As, B, and Se), i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation, and\\/or rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material is applied to soil. Three FGD materials collected from two power plants were used. Our results show Hg released into

Chin-Min Cheng; Yung-Nan Chang; Karamat R. Sistani; Yen-Wen Wang; Wen-Chieh Lu; Chia-Wei Lin; Jing-Hong Dong; Chih-Chung Hu; Wei-Ping Pan

2012-01-01

190

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 041402 (2011) Ice-lens formation and geometrical supercooling in soils and other colloidal materials  

E-print Network

and other colloidal materials Robert W. Style* and Stephen S. L. Peppin Oxford Centre for Collaborative lenses. Importantly for systems with no frozen fringe, ice-lens formation and frost heave can. The theory is generalizable to complex natural-soil scenarios and should therefore be useful

Wettlaufer, John S.

2011-01-01

191

Some physical and chemical factors contributing to fragipan strength in Kentucky soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen pedons developed in various parent materials in Kentucky were studied in order to quantify fragipan strength and expression. The contribution to soil strength by clay, bulk density and amorphous or poorly crystalline chemical constituents in the soil fraction were also examined. The triple beam balance apparatus was successfully used to calculate strength of undisturbed, moist clods. Most argillic horizons

M. L. Norfleet; A. D. Karathanasis

1996-01-01

192

Quantitative Relationships Between Net Volume Change and Fabric Properties During Soil Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of soil evolution can be charted by net long-term volume and elemental mass changes for individual horizons compared with parent material. Volume collapse or dilation depends on relative elemental mass fluxes associated with losses form or additions to soil horizons.

Chadwick, O. A.; Nettleton, W. D.

1993-01-01

193

Tillage and crop rotation effects on soil quality in two Iowa fields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil quality is affected by inherent (parent material, climate, and topography) and anthropogenic (tillage and crop rotation) factors. We evaluated effects of five tillage treatments on 23 potential soil quality indicators after 31 years in a corn (Zea mays L.)/soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotat...

194

Acidification of forest soil in Russia: From 1893 to present A. G. Lapenis,1  

E-print Network

Acidification of forest soil in Russia: From 1893 to present A. G. Lapenis,1 G. B. Lawrence,2 A. A developed on carbonate parent material are well buffered from possible acidification. There are no data of forest-soil acidification in the taiga and forest steppe regions. Land-use history, increases

Lapenas, Andrei G.

195

Pedo-hydrological and sediment responses to simulated rainfall on soils of the Konya uplands (Turkey)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microplot experiments using a portable rainfall simulator were carried out in April 1992 on 15 Turkish soils with textures ranging from clay loam to loamy clay and slopes from 3° to 12°. In order to determine the effects of a change in land use on infiltration and erosion, pairs of sites with soils developed on identical parent material were chosen.

P. Böhm; G. Gerold

1995-01-01

196

Oxygen Isotopes Unravel the Role of Microorganisms in Phosphate Cycling in Soils  

E-print Network

Oxygen Isotopes Unravel the Role of Microorganisms in Phosphate Cycling in Soils Federica Tamburini analyzed the isotopic composition of oxygen in phosphate (18 O-Pi) from the parent material, soil for the temperature- dependent equilibrium between phosphate and water. In addition, the isotopic signature

Gilli, Adrian

197

Fundamental considerations of water repellancy in soil, and related effects on other natural and man-made materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will concern the understanding of soil water repellancy and wettability at a fundamental level, and the difficulties of relating the very small, micron scale at which the repellancy and wettability characteristics are produced to the much larger, field scale at which they are normally observed. The presentation will not be a review of past work, but rather will concentrate on recent publications, publications in press, and speculative considerations which may lead to future work in this area. There are three fundamental components of water repellancy - the nature of the soil surfaces themselves, the effect of organic matter and microbiologically produced substances, and the topology of the resultant surfaces. The effects of hydrophobic surfaces will be illustrated by a consideration of the wettability of substances such as commercially produced talc grades. The faces of these platey mineral particles are hydrophobic, whereas their edges are hydrophilic, and the combination not only causes water repellency in itself, but also causes unusual adsorption effects from aqueous solution. The effect of organic matter on soil wettability has been widely studied, often by core-scale wettability experiments. It will be shown how a consideration of micro-wetting effects has led to a more robust data analysis method for such studies (Matthews, G. P. et al, European J.Soil Sci., 2008). Traditionally wetting fronts are assumed to advance in proportion to the square root of time (as predicted by the Washburn equation), but micro-modelling shows that, once inertial effects are taken into account, low-volume fingers of wetting fluid track through porous substances in advance of the observed Washburn wetting front (Bodurtha, P. et al, J.Colloid Interface Sci., 2005). The effects of micro-topology are also well known (Ridgway, C. J. et al, J.Colloid Interface Sci., 2001), but need to be integrated and upscaled, as described below. Soil water repellency is not only dependant on the soil mineral characteristics, surface topology and organic matter content, but is also influenced by microbiological activity. The production of hydrophobic microbial biomass and exudates alter the hydrological characteristics of soil (Chan, K. Y., Soil Sci.Soc.Am.J., 1992) and strengthen the bonds between soil particles. Amongst these are extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which are produced as a result of microbial activity and increase during periods of substrate utilisation and microbial growth (Hallett, P. D. et al, European J.Soil Sci., 1999). They form part of a wide spectrum of soil organic species, many produced by the soil's bacterial and fungal biomass. EPS provides a living protective membrane between changing hydrological conditions and the micro-organisms. It comprises polysaccharides and smaller amounts of protein, lipids and humic substances, with masses ranging from 103 to 108 kDaltons (Allison, D. G. et al, Fems Microbiology Letters, 1998). The small amounts of EPS in soil have a disproportionately large effect on soil hydraulic properties, and the response of EPS to major perturbations, such as wetting and drying cycles, has recently been well characterised (Or, D. et al, Vadose Zone J, 2007). Therefore, as will be described, the use of EPS as an analogue to the wider range of organic species can lead to an understanding of climatic effects on soil wettability. The upscaling of the effects from micron to field scale requires a highly detailed modelling approach, using a dual -porous void structure model (a modification of the previous ‘Pore-Cor' model) which takes into account both the soil micro-matrix and the macroscopic percolation and wetting pathways (Laudone, G. M. et al, European J.Soil Sci., submitted). Super-hydrophobicity in natural materials (the ‘lotus' effect) and man-made materials (micro-structured arrays) will also be explained and illustrated, and the condition under which super-hydrophobicity can flip to super-wettability. Super-hydrophobicity gives an unusual insight into the less extreme examples

Matthews, G. Peter

2010-05-01

198

Soil magnetic susceptibility reflects soil moisture regimes and the adaptability of tree species to these regimes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flooded, saturated or poorly drained soils are frequently anaerobic, leading to dissolution of the strongly magnetic minerals, magnetite and maghemite, and a corresponding decrease in soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). In this study of five temperate deciduous forests in east-central Illinois, USA, mean surface soil MS was significantly higher adjacent to upland tree species (31 ?? 10-5 SI) than adjacent to floodplain or lowland tree species (17 ?? 10-5 SI), when comparing regional soils with similar parent material of loessal silt. Although the sites differ in average soil MS for each tree species, the relative order of soil MS means for associated tree species at different locations is similar. Lowland tree species, Celtis occidentalis L., Ulmus americana L., Acer saccharinum L., Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. were associated with the lowest measured soil MS mean values overall and at each site. Tree species' flood tolerance rankings increased significantly, as soil MS values declined, the published rankings having significant correlations with soil MS values for the same species groups. The three published classifications of tree species' flood tolerance were significantly correlated with associated soil MS values at all sites, but most strongly at Allerton Park, the site with the widest range of soil drainage classes and MS values. Using soil MS measurements in forests with soil parent material containing similar initial levels of strongly magnetic minerals can provide a simple, rapid and quantitative method to classify soils according to hydric regimes, including dry conditions, and associated plant composition. Soil MS values thus have the capacity to quantify the continuum of hydric tolerances of tree species and guide tree species selection for reforestation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang, J.-S.; Grimley, D.A.; Xu, C.; Dawson, J.O.

2008-01-01

199

The Stress Corrosion Resistance and the Cryogenic Temperature Mechanical Behavior of 18-3 Mn (Nitronic 33) Stainless Steel Parent and Welded Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ambient and cryogenic temperature mechanical properties and the ambient temperature stress corrosion results of 18-3 Mn (Nitronic 33)stainless steel, longitudinal and transverse, as received and as welded (TIG) material specimens manufactured from 0.063 inch thick sheet material, were described. The tensile test results indicate an increase in ultimate tensile and yield strengths with decreasing temperature. The elongation remained fairly constant to -200 F, but below that temperature the elongation decreased to less than 6.0% at liquid hydrogen temperature. The notched tensile strength (NTS) for the parent metal increased with decreasing temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature. Below -320 F the NTS decreased rapidly. The notched/unnotched (N/U) tensile ratio of the parent material specimens remained above 0.9 from ambient to -200 F, and decreased to approximately 0.65 and 0.62, respectively, for the longitudinal and transverse directions at liquid hydrogen temperature. After 180 days of testing, only those specimens exposed to the salt spray indicated pitting and some degradation of mechanical properties.

Montano, J. W.

1976-01-01

200

Continental-scale patterns in soil geochemistry and mineralogy: results from two transects across the United States and Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) initiated a pilot study that involved collection of more than 1500 soil samples from 221 sites along two continental transects across Canada and the United States. The pilot study was designed to test and refine protocols for a soil geochemical survey of North America. The two transects crossed a wide array of soil parent materials, soil ages, climatic conditions, landforms, land covers and land uses. Sample sites were selected randomly at approximately 40-km intervals from a population defined as all soils of the continent. At each site, soils representing 0 to 5 cm depth, and the O, A, and C horizons, if present, were collected and analyzed for their near-total content of over 40 major and trace elements. Soils from 0–5 cm depth were also collected for analysis of organic compounds. Results from the transects confirm that soil samples collected at a 40-km spacing reveal coherent, continental- to subcontinental-scale geochemical and mineralogical patterns that can be correlated to aspects of underlying soil parent material, soil age and climate influence. The geochemical data also demonstrate that at the continental-scale the dominance of any of these major factors that control soil geochemistry can change across the landscape. Along both transects, soil mineralogy and geochemistry change abruptly with changes in soil parent materials. However, the chemical influence of a soil’s parent material can be obscured by changing climatic conditions. For the transects, increasing precipitation from west to east and increasing temperature from north to south affect both soil mineralogy and geochemistry because of climate effects on soil weathering and leaching, and plant productivity. Regional anomalous metal concentrations can be linked to natural variations in soil parent materials, such as high Ni and Cr in soils developed on ultramafic rocks in California or high P in soils formed on weathered Ordovician limestones in central Kentucky. On local scales, anomalous metal concentrations recognized in soil profiles, such as high P in soils from animal confinement sites, are consistent with local anthropogenic disturbances. At a larger scale, the distribution of Hg across the west to east transect demonstrates that it can be difficult to distinguish between natural or anthropogenic contributions and that many factors can contribute to an element’s spatial distribution. Only three samples in a subset of seventy-three 0–5 cm depth soil samples from the north to south transect had organochlorine pesticides values above the method detection limit, apparently related to historic usage of the pesticides DDT and dieldrin.

Woodruff, L.G.; Cannon, W.F.; Eberl, D.D.; Smith, D.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Horton, J.D.; Garrett, R.G.; Klassen, R.A.

2009-01-01

201

Parent Power!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents should admit and articulate their negative feelings about parenting, share feelings of suffering with other parents, and nurture each other. On the basis of a new shared understanding, parents can then organize and work to redefine the nurturing role and humanize society and its institutions so that they better meet human needs. Soell's…

Jones, Sandy

202

Compassionate Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that parents' response to their children is essentially emotional and keyed almost exclusively to inferences about their children's emotions, this program for parents teaches compassionate parenting, an approach that provides a secure emotional base from which children explore and interact with their environment as parents develop the…

Stosny, Steven

203

Soil Mineralogical Control of Aggregate-Protected Carbon in a Mature Secondary Conifer Forest in Northern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest systems have the potential to act as sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide, as shown by the role of secondary forest growth in the North American C sink. We investigated the role of soil mineralogy as a key parameter in controlling long-term soil C storage and aggregate-protection of C in secondary growth forests of California. Soil pedons were sampled to a depth of one meter on granitic and andesitic parent materials in 80 year old ponderosa pine forests. Soil samples were characterized for total C and N, pH, clay content and clay mineralogy. The latter were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selective dissolution (SD) techniques. The andesitic soils contain 50% more C than the granitic soils (19.6 vs 12.8 kg m-2) mainly due to significant differences in surface horizon C content. No significant difference was observed in subsurface C concentration between parent materials. XRD data indicates only slight differences in clay species between parent materials. In both soils, clay crystallinity increases with depth, with an increased dominance of kaolinite and gibbsite, while amorphous material decreases with depth. The main soil mineralogy difference between the parent materials is greater crystalline (38.7 vs 22.8 g kg-1) and short range order (1.0 vs 0.5 g kg-1) iron oxide content in the andesite derived soils. Chemical and physical indices of C differed significantly between parent materials. Both soils had similar amounts of Na-pyrophosphate (pH 10) extractable C (Cp), but significantly more Cp in the andesite soil was stabilized in Al and Fe organo-metal complexes ([Alp+Fep]/Cp; 1.0 vs 0.7). In addition, a greater portion of the total C was contained in aggregate fractions in the andesitic soils (17.8 vs 9.4 gC kg soil-1). Radiocarbon analyses will be carried out on three C fractions separated by density and ultrasonic dispersion techniques to isolate inter-aggregate, intra-aggregate and organo-mineral pools for modeling C dynamics. Preliminary data suggest a longer mean residence time of C in andesite than granite derived soils. We hypothesize that the enhanced aggregate C storage and slower turnover time of C in andesitic soils is a function of iron oxides acting to stabilize soil aggregates and of short range order aluminosilicates providing greater reactive surface area to bind organic compounds. These results suggest that the potential for natural soil C storage and sequestration management in secondary growth forests may be sensitive to parent material and soil development.

Rasmussen, C.; Torn, M. S.

2003-12-01

204

Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western U.S.A. III. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plant uptake of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from mine soils was assessed using alfalfa Medicago sativa, sainfoin Onobrychis viciaefolia, smooth brome Bromus inermis, crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum, slender wheatgrass A. trachycaulum and intermediate wheatgrass A. intermedium; mine soil (cover-soil and spoil material) samples were collected from rehabilitated areas of 11 western US surface-coal mines in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Correlations between metals in plants and DTPA-extractable metals from mine soils were generally not statistically significant and showed no consistent patterns for a single metal or for a single plant species. Metal uptake by plants, relative to amounts in DTPA extracts of mine soil, was positively related to mine soil organic matter content or negatively related to mine soil pH. DTPA-extractable metal levels were significantly correlated with mine soil pH and organic-matter content.-from Authors

Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

1984-01-01

205

Sulfate Induced Heave: Addressing Ettringite Behavior in Lime Treated Soils and in Cementitious Materials  

E-print Network

without cure, and (b) mixes subjected to accelerated cure for 7-days ......................................................................... 92 5-2 XRD data of lime treated soils after 2 day soak in sulfate solution ........... 95... ........................................................................................................ 99 5-5 XRD data of sulfate bearing soils after DI water soak (a) Control sample (b) Mix RS (c) Mix RC (d) Mix RA........................................................... 101 5-6 Comparison of soil suction measurements in lime...

Kochyil Sasidharan Nair, Syam Kumar

2012-02-14

206

Heavy Metals and Benzo[a]pyrene in Soils from Construction and Demolition Rubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rubble is an important component in urban soils worldwide, especially in Europe. In Berlin, Germany, rubble composed soils cover about 17% of the total city area and 60% of the inner city. This study assesses the contamination status of rubble soil, particularly for heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The results of 164 soil surveys from Berlin, including more than 2000 analyzed soil samples of topsoils, rubble subsoils, and parent material have been analyzed for typical contamination patterns. The concentrations of all contaminants range over several orders of magnitude and follow negatively skewed log-normal distribution functions. For rubble containing subsoils a proportion of 34, 71, 67, 68, 74, and 61% of the analyzed samples exceed precautionary values of the German Soil Conservation Act, regarding Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg and B[a]P respectively. Similar results were found for topsoils. A minor part of the soils is contaminated with Cd, while Pb and Hg are the most typical contaminants of rubble material. In contrast to topsoils and rubble containing subsoils, the majority of the parent subsoil material is not contaminated. Only low to moderate positive correlations were found between the contaminants. Compared to parent soil material, rubble containing soils show clearly elevated concentrations of heavy metals and B[a]P. As the most characteristic contaminants for rubble are Pb and Hg, these heavy metals should first be analyzed as proxy contaminants.

Abel, Stefan; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd

2014-05-01

207

Parental attributions and parental involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the existing relation between parental attributions of their child’s achievement, their belief in getting\\u000a involved in the child’s educational process and their actual behavior regarding this involvement. The participating parents\\u000a (N = 313) were asked to complete the Parental Attributions Scale and the Parental Involvement Scale. They were also asked to\\u000a state to what degree they believed that parents

Stelios N. Georgiou; Anna Tourva

2007-01-01

208

Approaches toward soil mapping of urban territories with the city of perm as an example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of urban soils and technogenic surface formations (TSFs) in the city of Perm is predetermined by the diverse lithologic and geomorphic conditions; different types of land use (residential areas with low-rise and multistory buildings, industrial zones, and agricultural zones) further enhance it. The soil cover of Perm has a mosaic pattern with contrasting changes in the morphology and genesis of its components. The areas of separate soils and TSFs cannot be delineated upon medium- and even large-scale mapping of the territory. We suggest that urban pedocomplexes—combinations of soils and TSFs developing within a given functional zone of the city from the same parent materials—should be shown on the map. Urban pedocomplexes differ from one another in the character of the predominant soils and TSFs. They inherit some features from the natural soils and parent materials and are transformed under the impact of the major type of land use.

Shestakov, I. E.; Eremchenko, O. Z.; Fil'kin, T. G.

2013-12-01

209

Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China*  

PubMed Central

Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth. PMID:17048298

Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen

2006-01-01

210

Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the New Brunswick Site, Middlesex County, New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the New Brunswick Site, located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides of concern and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the New Brunswick Site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. The guidelines derived in this report are intended to apply to the remediation of these remaining residual radioactive materials at the site. The primary radionuclides of concern in these remaining materials are expected to be radium-226 and, to a lesser extent, natural uranium and thorium. The DOE has established generic cleanup guidelines for radium and thorium in soil; however, cleanup guidelines for other radionuclides must be derived on a site-specific basis.

Dunning, D.; Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

1996-02-01

211

Soil formation under two moss species in sandy materials of central British Columbia (Canada)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosses can influence soil formation because of its role in the transfer of energy, water and chemical compounds. This study was conducted (1) to compare the morphological, chemical and mineralogical properties of soils under two species of mosses (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Ptilium crista-castrensis (Hedw.)), and (2) to determine the chemical composition of the moss carpets associated with these

D. W. Carter; J. M. Arocena

2000-01-01

212

Impact of organic material incorporation with soil in relation to their shear strength and water properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r a c t. A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the quantitative effects of incorporating groundnut haulms, cow dung and chicken dung on hydraulic properties of compacted sandy loam, clay loam and clay soils. The consistency limits, shear strength, water retention and hydraulic conductivity of the three soil textures were measured. Groundnut haulms, cow dung

J. O. Ohu; E. Mamman; A. A. Mustapha

213

Particle size distribution of eroded material from semi-arid soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The particle size distribution (PSD) of eroded sediments can be used to deduce potential nutrient losses, pollution hazards and the redistribution of soil components over the landscape. We studied eroded sediments from three semi-arid soils, with different clay contents, that were wetted at a slow (...

214

Ice-lens formation and geometrical supercooling in soils and other colloidal materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a physically intuitive model of ice-lens formation and growth during the freezing of soils and other dense, particulate suspensions. Motivated by experimental evidence, we consider the growth of an ice-filled crack in a freezing soil. At low temperatures, ice in the crack exerts large pressures on the crack walls that will eventually cause the crack to split open.

Robert W. Style; Stephen S. L. Peppin; Alan C. F. Cocks; J. S. Wettlaufer

2011-01-01

215

Comparison of the results of soil profiles' diagnostics performed in three classification systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three soil classification systems—the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), Soil Taxonomy, and the recent Russian system—were used for the identification of 17 soil profiles in southwestern Poland; all the systems put emphasis on the soil properties as diagnostic criteria. Different soils developed on glaciofluvial plains, loessic uplands, and in the Sudetes Mountains were classified. The best correlation between the classification decisions in the different systems was obtained for the most widespread soils owing to the similarity of the diagnostic criteria, which were essentially close although not coinciding. The most prominent divergence between the systems in both the names and the taxonomic categories of the soils was found for the polygenetic soils and for the soils developing from the lithologically discontinuous parent materials. It was also found that the diagnostic elements differ in terms of their taxonomic importance among the classification systems.

Gerasimova, M. I.; Khitrov, N. B.

2012-12-01

216

Genesis of marine terrace soils, Barbados, West Indies: evidence from mineralogy and geochemistry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Well-developed, clay-rich soils dominated by interstratified kaolinite-smectite are found on the uplifted coral reef terraces on the island of Barbados. The reef limestone is unlikely to have been the soil parent material however, because it is 98% CaCO 3 and geomorphic evidence argues against the 20 m of reef solution required to produce the soils by this process. The mineralogy of the sand, silt, and clay fractions of the soils, and trace element geochemistry, suggest that aeolian materials carried on the trade winds from Africa, volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent, and quartz from Tertiary bedrock on the island itself are the parent materials for the soils. -Authors

Muhs, D.R.; Crittenden, R.C.; Rosholt, J.N.; Bush, C.A.; Stewart, K.C.

1987-01-01

217

Production of methyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide from soil-incorporated plant materials and implications for controlling soilborne pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil-incorporated plant materials have been associated with reduction in soilborne pathogens and diseases. Mechanisms of the\\u000a biocidal actions are complex and not well understood. A glasshouse experiment, a non replicated field demonstration, and a\\u000a field experiment were conducted to determine volatile compounds after incorporation of various plant species and their effect\\u000a on pest control. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea), canola (Brassica rapa),

D. Wang; C. Rosen; L. Kinkel; A. Cao; N. Tharayil; J. Gerik

2009-01-01

218

Dynamic properties and liquefaction resistance of two soil materials in an earthfill dam—Laboratory test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of laboratory resonant column and cyclic triaxial tests on specimens of two compacted soils (a sandy–silty clay and a sand–gravel mixture), planned to be used in the core and the shells, respectively, of a proposed earthfill dam. The values of low-amplitude shear modulus of the clayey material were found to increase with increasing confining pressure and decreasing

V. C. Xenaki; G. A. Athanasopoulos

2008-01-01

219

Selection of permeable reactive barrier materials for treating acidic groundwater in acid sulphate soil terrains based on laboratory column tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shoalhaven region of NSW experiences environmental acidification due to acid sulphate soils (ASS). In order to trial an\\u000a environmental engineering solution to groundwater remediation involving a permeable reactive barrier (PRB), comprehensive\\u000a site characterisation and laboratory-based batch and column tests of reactive materials were conducted. The PRB is designed\\u000a to perform in situ remediation of the acidic groundwater (pH 3)

Alexandra N. Golab; Mark A. Peterson; Buddhima Indraratna

2009-01-01

220

[Desorption characteristics of phosphorus in tea tree rhizosphere soil].  

PubMed

In order to explore the phosphorus (P) release process and its supply mechanism in tea tree rhizosphere soil, an exogenous P adsorption and culture experiment was conducted to study the P desorption process and characters in the tea tree rhizosphere soils having been cultivated for different years and derived from different parent materials. The least squares method was used to fit the isotherms of P desorption kinetics. There was an obvious difference in the P desorption process between the rhizosphere soils and non-rhizosphere soils. The P desorption ability of the rhizosphere soils was significantly higher than that of the non-rhizosphere soils. As compared with non-rhizosphere soils, rhizosphere soils had higher available P content, P desorption rate, and beta value (desorbed P of per unit adsorbed P), with the average increment being 5.49 mg x kg(-1), 1.7%, and 24.4%, respectively. The P desorption ability of the rhizosphere soils derived from different parent materials was in the order of granite > quaternary red clay > slate. The average available P content and P desorption ability of the rhizosphere soils increased with increasing cultivation years. PMID:24175512

Yang, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Jun; Bao, Chun-Hong; Miao, Xiao-Lin; Hu, Wen-Min

2013-07-01

221

Saline soils spectral library as a tool for digital soil mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil information is needed at regional to global scales for proper land management. Soil scientist has been historically interested in mapping soil classes and properties to represent and explore the spatial distribution of soil characteristics. Fortunately, soil mapping came into the digital era decades ago, enabling the dissemination of computationally intensive techniques (e.g., geostatistics). Digital soil mapping is moving forward in recent decades. Digital soil mapping has evolved from "traditional" studies that employed a set of soils to build soil maps, to more recent approaches that exploit the increasing computing facilities to combine soil databases with ancillary data such as digital elevation models, remote sensing imagery and proximal sensing datasets. The inclusion of VNIR spectroscopy in digital soil mapping approaches is an outstanding research field. VNIR spectroscopy has largely been employed to quantify soil properties with proximal sensor and remote sensor (i.e., imaging spectroscopy). One of the traditional problems in soil mapping is the time needed to compile a soil database large enough to allow for mapping with robustness. Therefore there is a growing interest in using the less time consuming, immutability of the sample and increasing accuracy of soil spectroscopy to obtain accurate enough soil maps but with lower data requirements. This research trend is particularly interesting for the study of highly dynamic soil processes for which is necessary to know the spatial and temporal changes of certain properties for a correct soil assessment. The objective of this work was the study of soil salinity which is a dynamic property responding to seasonal (i.e., vertical upwelling) and inter-annual (i.e., salinization) changes. Soil salinity is a major constraint for agriculture by limiting or excluding certain crops. Thus, a continuous monitoring of soil salinity is needed to select the most suitable crops and to prevent future salinization. Large arid and semiarid Mediterranean areas are affected by severe salinization processes by converging salinity problems due to parent material salinity, water scarcity and poor quality of irrigation water. A soils database in the South-East of Spain (semiarid Mediterranean environments) is being developed, by sampling and analyzing soils properties but especially salinity, besides recording their VNIR spectral signatures in field conditions. Also a spectral library related to soil type and salinity in these environments was determined in laboratory and it is a promising tool to monitor soil spectral signature changes. Positive relations between salinity, spectral data and soil type have been found using this technique. Soil spectra could be employed for quantitative spectroscopic analyses of soil properties, as ancillary data for digital soil mapping and for spectral calibration of remotely sensed imagery.

Bas, María Victoria; Meléndez-Pastor, Ignacio; Navarro-Pedreño, José; Gómez, Ignacio; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Hernández, Encarni

2013-04-01

222

A comparison of plant and microbial biomarkers in grassland soils from the Prairie Ecozone of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free and bound lipids and CuO oxidation products from four grassland soils that developed from similar parent materials, vegetation, relief, and time but under different climatic conditions were analyzed using solvent extraction, chemolysis and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) to assess the stage of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. In general, the more northern soils (Black Chernozems) yielded less free and

Angelika Otto; Chubashini Shunthirasingham; Myrna J. Simpson

2005-01-01

223

Effect of land degradation on soil microbial biomass in a hilly area of south Sumatra, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the impact of land-use changes on the soil biomass at several soil sites in Indonesia under different types of land-use (primary forest, secondary forest, coffee plantation, traditional orchard, and deforested area), located within a small geographical area with similar parent material and climatic conditions. Various parameters of soil microbial biomass (biomass C, biomass N, content of anthrone-reactive carbohydrate

Oguz Can Turgay; Jamalam Lumbanraja; Sri Yusnaini; Masanori Nonaka

2002-01-01

224

Parent Involvement  

E-print Network

To be successful, a 4-H program must have parent involvement. Although 4-H leaders and Extension agents may interest young people in becoming members, they need the parents' goodwill and support to keep them interested, enthusiastic and active. Here...

Howard, Jeff W.

2005-05-10

225

Reflectance spectroscopy of ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites as Mars soil analog materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectroscopic analyses have shown that smectites enhanced in the laboratory with additional ferric species exhibit important similarities to those of the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite in these chemically treated smectites has features in the visible to near-infrared region that resemble the energies and band strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. New samples have been prepared with sulfate as well, because S was found by Viking to be a major component in the surface material on Mars. A suite of ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites, prepared with variable Fe3+ and S concentrations and variable pH conditions, has been analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy in the visible and infrared regions, Mossbauer spectroscopy at room temperature and 4 K, differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. These analyses support the formation of ferrihydrite of variable crystallinity in the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonites and a combination of schwertmannite and ferrihydrite in the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites. Small quantities of poorly crystalline or nanophase forms of other ferric materials may also be present in these samples. The chemical formation conditions of the ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites influence the character of the low temperature Mossbauer sextets and the visible reflectance spectra. An absorption minimum is observed at 0.88-0.89 micrometers in spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing samples, and at 0.89-0.92 micrometers in spectra of the ferrihydrate-bearing montmorillonites. Mossbauer spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites indicate variable concentrations of ferrihydrite and schwertmannite in the interlaminar spaces and along grain surfaces. Dehydration under reduced atmospheric pressure conditions induces a greater effect on the adsorbed and interlayer water in ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite than on the water in ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonite. Reflectance spectra of ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonite include a strong 3-micrometers band that is more resistant to dry atmospheric conditions than the 3-micrometers band in spectra of similarly prepared ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonites.

Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.; Edwards, J. O.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Froschl, H.

1995-01-01

226

Ice-lens formation and geometrical supercooling in soils and other colloidal materials  

E-print Network

We present a new, physically-intuitive model of ice-lens formation and growth during the freezing of soils and other dense, particulate suspensions. Motivated by experimental evidence, we consider the growth of an ice-filled crack in a freezing soil. At low temperatures, ice in the crack exerts large pressures on the crack walls that will eventually cause the crack to split open. We show that the crack will then propagate across the soil to form a new lens. The process is controlled by two factors: the cohesion of the soil, and the geometrical supercooling of the water in the soil; a new concept introduced to measure the energy available to form a new ice lens. When the supercooling exceeds a critical amount (proportional to the cohesive strength of the soil) a new ice lens forms. This condition for ice-lens formation and growth does not appeal to any ad hoc, empirical assumptions, and explains how periodic ice lenses can form with or without the presence of a frozen fringe. The proposed mechanism is in good agreement with experiments, in particular explaining ice-lens pattern formation, and surges in heave rate associated with the growth of new lenses. Importantly for systems with no frozen fringe, ice-lens formation and frost heave can be predicted given only the unfrozen properties of the soil. We use our theory to estimate ice-lens growth temperatures obtaining quantitative agreement with the limited experimental data that is currently available. Finally we suggest experiments that might be performed in order to verify this theory in more detail. The theory is generalizable to complex natural-soil scenarios, and should therefore be useful in the prediction of macroscopic frost heave rates.

Robert W. Style; Stephen S. L. Peppin; Alan C. F. Cocks; John S. Wettlaufer

2011-09-09

227

Sampling Soil for Characterization and Site Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sampling scheme for soil characterization within the GLOBE program is uniquely different from the sampling methods of the other protocols. The strategy is based on an understanding of the 5 soil forming factors (parent material, climate, biota, topography, and time) at each study site, and how each of these interact to produce a soil profile with unique characteristics and unique input and control into the atmospheric, biological, and hydrological systems. Soil profile characteristics, as opposed to soil moisture and temperature, vegetative growth, and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions, change very slowly, depending on the parameter being measured, ranging from seasonally to many thousands of years. Thus, soil information, including profile description and lab analysis, is collected only one time for each profile at a site. These data serve two purposes: 1) to supplement existing spatial information about soil profile characteristics across the landscape at local, regional, and global scales, and 2) to provide specific information within a given area about the basic substrate to which elements within the other protocols are linked. Because of the intimate link between soil properties and these other environmental elements, the static soil properties at a given site are needed to accurately interpret and understand the continually changing dynamics of soil moisture and temperature, vegetation growth and phenology, atmospheric conditions, and chemistry and turbidity in surface waters. Both the spatial and specific soil information can be used for modeling purposes to assess and make predictions about global change.

Levine, Elissa

1999-01-01

228

Immobilization of Cu, Pb and Zn in mine-contaminated soils using reactive materials.  

PubMed

Immobilization processes were used to chemically stabilize soil contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn from mine tailings and industrial impoundments. We examined the effectiveness of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), phosphoric acid and MgO at immobilizing Cu, Pb and Zn in soil contaminated by either mine tailings or industrial and mine wastes. The effectiveness was evaluated using column leaching experiments and geochemical modelling, in which we assessed possible mechanisms for metal immobilization using PHREEQC and Medusa numerical codes. Experimental results showed that Cu was mobilized in all the experiments, whereas Pb immobilization with H(3)PO(4) may have been related to the precipitation of chloropyromorphite. Thus, the Pb concentrations of leachates of pure mining and industrial contaminated soils (32-410 ?g/l and 430-1000 ?g/l, respectively) were reduced to 1-60 and 3-360 ?g/l, respectively, in the phosphoric acid experiment. The mobilization of Pb at high alkaline conditions, when Pb(OH)(4)(-) is the most stable species, may be the main obstacle to the use of OPC and MgO in the immobilization of this metal. In the mining- and industry-contaminated soil, Zn was retained by OPC but removed by MgO. The experiments with OPC showed the Zn decrease in the leachates of mining soil from 226-1960 ?g/l to 92-121 ?g/l. In the industrial contaminated soil, the Zn decrease in the leachates was most elevated, showing >2500 ?g/l in the leachates of contaminated soil and 76-173 ?g/l in the OPC experiment. Finally, when H(3)PO(4) was added, Zn was mobilized. PMID:21190796

Navarro, Andrés; Cardellach, Esteve; Corbella, Mercé

2011-02-28

229

Soil Organic Carbon Mapping by Geostatistics in Europe Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accuracy in assessing the distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important issue because SOC is an important soil component that plays key roles in the functions of both natural ecosystems and agricultural systems. The SOC content varies from place to place and it is strongly related with climate variables (temperature and rainfall), terrain features, soil texture, parent material, vegetation, land-use types, and human management (management and degradation) at different spatial scales. Geostatistical techniques allow for the prediction of soil properties using soil information and environmental covariates. In this study, assessment of SOC distribution has been predicted with Regression-Kriging method in Europe scale. In this prediction, combination of the soil samples which were collected from the LUCAS (European Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) & BioSoil Projects, with local soil data which were collected from six different CZOs in Europe and ten spatial predictors (slope, aspect, elevation, CTI, CORINE land-cover classification, parent material, texture, WRB soil classification, annual average temperature and precipitation) were used. Significant correlation between the covariates and the organic carbon dependent variable was found. Moreover, investigating the contribution of local dataset in watershed scale into regional dataset in European scale was an important challenge.

Aksoy, E.; Panagos, P.; Montanarella, L.

2013-12-01

230

Virtual Soils - Assessment of the Effects of Soil Structure on the Hydraulic Behavior of Cultivated Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydraulic behavior of soil is determined by the spatial heterogeneity of its hydraulic properties. The interplay between parent material, pedogenesis and tillage leads to characteristic structures in cultivated soils: sealed or loosened soil surface, compacted plow pan and traffic lanes. These structures overlay with natural features such as biopores and boundaries between soil horizons. To assess the individual or combined impact of such structural components on soil hydrology, the heterogeneity of the soil must be known at a scale of several meters and at a resolution in the range of centimeters. This, however, cannot be achieved in experimental setups. An alternative solution is the generation of synthetic but realistic structures together with their hydraulic properties as a basis for modeling the hydraulic behavior in response to different boundary conditions. This approach is extendable to an arbitrary number of structural components. With such 'virtual soils' at hand, comparative studies are possible, that help quantifying the relation between soil architecture and soil function. Further, the existence of effective soil hydraulic properties, which are capable to predict the average water dynamics at the field scale, can be tested by inverse modeling. The evaluation of different "measured" data sets in terms of information content and usefulness for identifying suitable effective models and effective model parameters can be analyzed. We introduce a structure generator and present comparative simulations between soils with increasing complexity for a period of several weeks with precipitation and evaporation. The simulations demonstrate, that the structure and the hydraulic properties close to the soil surface clearly govern evaporation, while the impact of heterogeneity on groundwater recharge is more complex.

Vogel, H.; Schlüter, S.; Ippisch, O.; Roth, K.; Schelle, H.; Durner, W.; Kasteel, R.; Vanderborght, J.

2011-12-01

231

The disposal of a lime water treatment residue on soil and spoil material from a coalmine: a glasshouse investigation.  

PubMed

Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), Cenchrus ciliaris L., and Digitaria eriantha Steud. were grown in a soil (Psammentic Haplustalf) and spoil material from a coalmine both treated with a lime water treatment residue (WTR) at rates of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 g kg(-1). The yield of the grasses, from the sum of the three harvests, and concentrations of B, Ca, Cu, K, Fe, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, and Zn in foliage from the second harvest were determined. The yield of grasses grown in the soil decreased exponentially as WTR application increased. The yields of C. ciliaris, D. eriantha, and E. tef (in the 400 g kg(-1) WTR treated soil) decreased by 74.4, 78.7, and 59.8%, respectively, when compared with the control treatments. In the spoil, the yield of E. tef and D. eriantha decreased by 13.6% and and D. eriantha by 23.9%, while an increase was observed for C. ciliaris (45.4%), at the highest WTR application rate. No relationship existed between yield of E. tef and WTR application rate when grown in the spoil, while a weak negative linear relationship (p < 0.05) was found for D. eriantha and a positive linear relationship existed for C. ciliaris. Magnesium concentrations of the grasses were positively correlated to WTR application rate. Grasses grown in the soil had higher Na concentrations, while those grown in the spoil typically had higher B, N, and Zn concentrations. The decreases in yield were attributed to nutrient deficiencies (notably Zn), induced by high WTR application rates that led to high substrate pH. Disposal of high rates of WTR on the mine materials was not recommended. PMID:17332261

Titshall, L W; Hughes, J C; Morris, C D; Zacharias, P J K

2007-01-01

232

[Parenting styles].  

PubMed

Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices. PMID:18206067

Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes

2008-02-01

233

Determination of the dynamic material properties of soils from the results of static shear tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The applicability of several recently developed elasto-plastic and endo-chronic constitutive theories for predicting dynamic soil behavior with parameters determined from static shear tests is reviewed. A simple procedure for predicting equivalent linear shear modulus and the fraction of critical damping from the results of triaxial compression tests with an unload-reload cycle is developed. The applicability of this procedure is demonstrated on two different soils: Crystal Silica sand and San Francisco Bay mud. Results show the procedure may be useful for preliminary analysis and in situations where more sophisticated testing apparatus are not available.

Kavazanjian, E., Jr.; Hadj-Hamou, T.

1980-06-01

234

Determination of optical parameters for light penetration in particulate materials and soils with diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The results of our investigations of particulate materials (aluminium oxide, quartz sand) and "real world" soils (a brown sand and a dark brown soil) using diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy are presented. The findings are discussed within the framework of Kubelka-Munk (KM) theory as a simplified description of light propagation in highly turbid media. The relation between the KM and the Lambert-Beer (LB) treatment is outlined. The KM parameters determined were the scattering and absorption coefficients (S and K, respectively), and the light penetration depths, dp(KM). It was found that in the UV/VIS spectral range the scattering coefficients of the materials investigated vary by ca. one order of magnitude (S = 6-> 100 cm-1), whereas the absorption coefficients change by more than three orders of magnitude (K = < 1-> 1500 cm-1). The different absorption and scattering properties of the materials lead to strong variations in light penetration depths from the micron into the mm regime [dp(KM) = < 20-> 3500 microns]. PMID:11296756

Schober, L; Löhmannsröben, H G

2000-12-01

235

Plant Uptake and Leaching of Applied and Indigenous Potassium in Dothan Soils' D. L. Sparks, D. C.Martens, and L.W. Zelazny2  

E-print Network

Plant Uptake and Leaching of Applied and Indigenous Potassium in Dothan Soils' D. L. Sparks, D. C that parent material, rather than leaching of applied K,was the main origin of K in these horizons. Decreases the exchangeable K in the A2 and B21t hori- zons of the two soils. These increases were ascribed to leaching of K

Sparks, Donald L.

236

Suppression of Boride Formation in Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Pairings of Parent Superalloy Materials with Different Compositions and Grain Structures and Resulting Mechanical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Ni-based superalloys, columnar grained Alloy 247 and single-crystal PWA1483, are joined by transient liquid phase bonding using an amorphous brazing foil containing boron as a melting point depressant. At lower brazing temperatures, two different morphologies of borides develop in both base materials: plate-like and globular ones. Their ratio to each other is temperature dependent. With very high brazing temperatures, the deleterious boride formation in Alloy 247 can be totally avoided, probably because the three-phase-field moves to higher alloying element contents. For the superalloy PWA1483, the formation of borides cannot be completely avoided at high brazing temperatures as incipient melting occurs. During subsequent solidification of these areas, Chinese-script-like borides precipitate. The mechanical properties (tensile tests at room and elevated temperatures and short-term creep rupture tests at elevated temperatures) for brazed samples without boride precipitation are very promising. Tensile strengths and creep times to 1 pct strain are comparable, respectively, higher than the ones of the weaker parent material for all tested temperatures and creep conditions (from 90 to 100 pct rsp. 175 to 250 pct).

Steuer, Susanne; Singer, Robert F.

2014-07-01

237

Testing of Ristech Material for Management of Brackish Groundwater for Soil Reclamation and Crop Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economy of Pakistan is mainly based on agriculture. Freshwater resources however, are depleting to meet the crop water requirements to sustain irrigated agriculture, compelling the farmers to use brackish groundwater. This situation has further aggravated the existing problem of soil salinity\\/sodicity. In order to control this problem, it is highly desirable to evolve cost effective technologies for safe use

S. Ahmed; J. Mohyuddin; R. A. Mughal; M. N. Bhutta

238

System for high throughput water extraction from soil material for stable isotope analysis of water  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A major limitation in the use of stable isotope of water in ecological studies is the time that is required to extract water from soil and plant samples. Using vacuum distillation the extraction time can be less than one hour per sample. Therefore, assembling a distillation system that can process m...

239

Soil Science Society of America Journal Supplemental Material is available online.  

E-print Network

(maize crop, Acre, Israel) irrigated with the examined RW or with freshwater (FW) and a chemical. However, there was a shift in P compound classes from the RW to the RW-irrigated soil; although the water and crop inputs. Abbreviations: DOC, dissolved organic C; EC, electrical conductivity; FW, freshwater; MRP

Paytan, Adina

240

Methods using earthworms for the evaluation of potentially toxic materials in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using earthworms to indicate effects of potentially toxic wastes when such wastes are intentionally or accidentally added to soils. Initial work with metals has shown that earthworms exhibit specific growth and reproductive responses. These responses are related to the concentration and solubility of the metal. Of the metals tested,

E. F. Neuhauser; R. C. Loehr; M. R. Malecki

1982-01-01

241

Soil Investigations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the basics about soil, including its formation through the cycling of the Earth's materials, as well as its characteristics and importance. They are also introduced to soil profiles and how engineers conduct site investigations to learn about soil quality for development, contamination transport, and assessing the general environmental health of an area.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

242

Teen Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... pregnancy—one in six, at last count. Parents of the parent-to-be play an important role in ensuring the unborn child’s well-being. Keep an eye out for signs of tobacco use, drinking, taking drugs and reckless sexual ...

243

Valuing Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, a young faculty member commented that e-mail and inexpensive long distance rates were hampering her first-year students' development by making it too easy for them to stay in touch with their parents. Similarly, Judith Shapiro, president of Barnard College, argued in her August 22, 2002, New York Times op-ed piece, "Keeping Parents Off…

Gerdes, Eugenia Proctor

2004-01-01

244

Correlations Between Chemical Weathering and Soil Production in Soil-Mantled, Upland Landscapes, Central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying and understanding the coupling between chemical and mechanical weathering in soil-mantled, upland hillslope development is an area of active research. Recent work on hillslope development from soil-mantled, upland landscapes has observed that maximal soil production from bedrock occurs within a narrow range of soil depths. Here we present initial results from an extensive field and laboratory investigation seeking to quantitatively link the degree of chemical weathering in bedrock-derived soils and underlying saprolite to the rate of soil production from the same saprolite. We dug twenty-three soil pits of varying depths into a convex hillslope near Mount Vision, Point Reyes National Seashore, California. Pits were dug manually to refusal or to the saprolite-soil interfaces. We sampled soil at regular intervals for short-lived isotope analyses and saprolite from just below the soil-saprolite interface. The saprolite samples underwent analyses for trace metals and labile oxides by inductively coupled plasma-optical emissions spectrometry and x-ray diffraction. A high-resolution topographic survey and previous work quantifying soil production rates with cosmogenic nuclides allows us to connect transport processes with chemical weathering rates. Saprolite bulk density and other field parameters were measured for volumetric strain analysis. We used the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) (Kirkwood and Nesbitt, 1992) to quantify the degree of chemical weathering in both unweathering bedrock and weathered saprolite. Initial results indicate relative enrichment of resistant trace metals such as zircon at shallow sample depths. We find that zirconium at the soil-saprolite boundary is on average 35% less weathered than the saprolite in the 150 cm. beneath the boundary. Weathering at the soil-saprolite boundary as defined by the CIA is 50% more weathered than the parent material. CIA values for unweathered and weathered material agree well with previous published material and indicate a tentative method of quantifying the coupling between chemical and mechanical weathering.

Burke, B. C.

2002-12-01

245

Does the feedstock origin of pyrolyzed materials influence the leaching quality and quantity of dissolved organic carbon from soils?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils play a major role in the global C cycle and can be both a source of C emissions to the atmosphere and also a C sink. In order to sequester vast quantities of C and increase soil C stocks, which may be used to partly offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the future, new technologies are needed. Recently, there has been an abundance of interest in the use of pyrolyzed biomass C, termed biochar, as an amendment to terrestrial ecosystems to provide a large and long term sink of C. However, the stability and permanence of this black C source in soil is still relatively unknown and the uncertainty surrounding its turnover time may have implications for both C sequestration and the fate and transport of dissolved organic C leached to nearby water resources. Biochar can be derived from a multitude of feed stocks (e.g. walnut shells, wood chippings, poultry litter) and under a variety of pyrolysis conditions (e.g. high temperature or low temperatures); each process and feed stock can yield very different materials that has many different physical (e.g. surface area) and chemical (e.g. CEC, C and N content) properties. Each feed stock and pyrolysis condition may consequently contribute to a distinct recalcitrance in soil. Therefore, we undertook a pot trial to evaluate the chemical characteristics of leachate from soils incubated with biochars derived from 15 different feed stocks. Using optical property parameters such as SUVA, chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) slope parameter and fluorescence characteristics, we were able to determine the C leaching potential of each feedstock. Preliminary data suggests that there are distinct variations in optical properties with feed stock origin, for example an algae digestate showed a lower absorbance at 350 nm (a350) (25.7 m-1) and a steeper spectral slope at 290-350 nm (S290-350 x10-3) (17.7 nm-1) indicative of the presence of lower molecular weight compounds compared to control treatment with a signature typical of SOC (a350 = 29.2 m-1; S290-350 = 16.8 nm-1). The ramifications for the transport of both the quantity and quality of C to aquatic systems will be discussed, especially in light of the popularity of "designer" biochars that could be used as a soil amendment in the future

Suddick, E.; Spencer, R. G.; Pereira, E. I.; Six, J. W.

2011-12-01

246

Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the Colonie Site, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Colonie site located in Colonie, New York. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The site became contaminated with radioactive material as a result of operations conducted by National Lead (NL) Industries from 1958 to 1984; these activities included brass foundry operations, electroplating of metal products, machining of various components using depleted uranium, and limited work with small amounts of enriched uranium and thorium. The Colonie site comprises the former NL Industries property, now designated the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS), and 56 vicinity properties contaminated by fallout from airborne emissions; 53 of the vicinity properties were previously remediated between 1984 and 1988. In 1984, DOE accepted ownership of the CISS property from NL Industries. Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines.

Dunning, D.

1996-05-01

247

The Toxicological Geochemistry of Dusts, Soils, and Other Earth Materials: Insights From In Vitro Physiologically-based Geochemical Leach Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to mineral dusts, soils, and other earth materials results in chemical reactions between the materials and different body fluids that include, depending upon the exposure route, lung fluids, gastrointestinal fluids, and perspiration. In vitro physiologically-based geochemical leach tests provide useful insights into these chemical reactions and their potential toxicological implications. We have conducted such leach tests on a variety of earth materials, including asbestos, volcanic ash, dusts from dry lake beds, mine wastes, wastes left from the roasting of mercury ores, mineral processing wastes, coal dusts and coal fly ash, various soils, and complex dusts generated by the World Trade Center collapse. Size-fractionated samples of earth materials that have been well-characterized mineralogically and chemically are reacted at body temperature (37 C) for periods from 2 hours up to multiple days with various proportions of simulated lung, gastric, intestinal, and/or plasma-based fluids. Results indicate that different earth materials may have quite different solubility and dissolution behavior in vivo, depending upon a) the mineralogic makeup of the material, and b) the exposure route. For example, biodurable minerals such as asbestos and volcanic ash particles, whose health effects result because they dissolve very slowly in vivo, bleed off low levels of trace metals into the simulated lung fluids; these include metals such as Fe and Cr that are suspected by health scientists of contributing to the generation of reactive oxygen species and resulting DNA damage in vivo. In contrast, dry lake bed dusts and concrete-rich dusts are highly alkaline and bioreactive, and cause substantial pH increases and other chemical changes in the simulated body fluids. Many of the earth materials tested contain a variety of metals that can be quite soluble (bioaccessible), depending upon the material and the simulated body fluid composition. For example, due to their acidic pH and high chloride concentrations, simulated gastric fluids are most efficient at solubilizing metals such as Hg, Pb, Zn, and others that form strong chloride complexes; although these metals tend to partially reprecipitate in the near-neutral simulated intestinal fluids, complexes with organic ligands (i.e., amino and carboxylic acids) enhance their solubility. These metals are also quite soluble in near-neutral, protein-rich plasma-based fluids because they form strong complexes with the proteins. In contrast, metalloids that form oxyanion species (such as As, Cr, Mo, W) are commonly more soluble in near-neutral pH simulated lung fluids than in simulated gastric fluids.

Plumlee, G. S.; Ziegler, T. L.; Lamothe, P.; Meeker, G. P.; Sutley, S.

2003-12-01

248

Map Scale in the Context of Progress in Soil Geography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation, we review historical soil maps from a geographical perspective, in contrast to the more traditional temporal perspective. Our geographical perspective is operationalized by comparing soil maps based on their scale and classification system. To analyze the connection between scale in historical soil maps and their associated classification systems, we place soil maps into three categories of cartographic scale. We then examine how categories of cartographic scale correspond to the selection of environmental soil predictors used to initially create the maps, as reflected by the maps' legend. Previous analyses of soil mapping from the temporal perspective have concluded that soil classification systems have co-evolved with gains in soil knowledge. We conclude that paradigm shifts in soil mapping and classification can be better explained by their correlation to historical improvements in scientific understanding, differences in purpose for mapping, and advancement in geographic technologies. We observe that, throughout history, small cartographic scale maps have tended to emphasize climate-vegetation zonation. Medium cartographic scale maps have put more emphasis on parent material as a variable to explain soil distributions. And finally, soil maps at large cartographic scales have relied more on topography as a predictive factor. Importantly, a key characteristic of modern soil classification systems is their multi-scale approach, which incorporates these phenomena scales within their classification hierarchies. Although most modern soil classification systems are based on soil properties, the soil map remains a model, the purpose of which is to predict the spatial distributions of those properties. Hence, multi-scale classification systems still tend to be organized, at least in part, by this observed spatial hierarchy. Although the hierarchy observed in this study is generally known in pedology today, it also represents a new view on the evolution of soil science. Increased recognition of this hierarchy may also help to more holistically combine soil formation factors with soil geography and pattern, particularly in the context of digital soil mapping.

Miller, Bradley; Schaetzl, Randall

2014-05-01

249

Differences in soil solution chemistry between soils amended with nanosized CuO or Cu reference materials: implications for nanotoxicity tests.  

PubMed

Soil toxicity tests for metal oxide nanoparticles often include micrometer-sized oxide and metal salt treatments to distinguish between toxicity from nanometer-sized particles, non-nanometer-sized particles, and dissolved ions. Test result will be confounded if each chemical form has different effects on soil solution chemistry. We report on changes in soil solution chemistry over 56 days-the duration of some standard soil toxicity tests-in three soils amended with 500 mg/kg Cu as nanometer-sized CuO (nano), micrometer-sized CuO (micrometer), or Cu(NO3)2 (salt). In the CuO-amended soils, the log Cu2+ activity was initially low (minimum -9.48) and increased with time (maximum -5.20), whereas in the salt-amended soils it was initially high (maximum -4.80) and decreased with time (minimum -6.10). The Cu2+ activity in the nano-amended soils was higher than in the micrometer-amended soils for at least the first 11 days, and lower than in the salt-amended soils for at least 28 d. The pH, and dissolved Ca and Mg concentrations in the CuO-amended soils were similar, but the salt-amended soils had lower pH for at least 14 d, and higher Ca and Mg concentrations throughout the test. Soil pretreatments such as leaching and aging prior to toxicity tests are suggested. PMID:24992481

McShane, Heather V A; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Whalen, Joann K; Hendershot, William H

2014-07-15

250

Method for recovery of hydrocarbons form contaminated soil or refuse materials  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for separating an inert solid substantially inorganic fraction comprising sand or soil from a tarry or oily organic matter in a feedstock. The feedstock may be contaminated soil or tarry waste. The feedstock is combined with pulverized coal and water. The ratio (oil or tar to dry weight of coal) of about 1.0:10 to about 4.0:10 at a temperature in the range of 60.degree.-95.degree. C. The mixture is agitated, the coarse particles are removed, and up to about 0.10% by weight (based on weight of coal) of a frothing agent is added. The mixture is then subjected to flotation, and the froth is removed from the mixture.

Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (407 Saddleback Road, #203, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (10967 34 A Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Guerra, Carlos R. (6050 Boulevard E., West New York, NJ 07093); Zwillenberg, Melvin L. (475 Richmond Ave., Maplewood, NJ 07040)

1991-01-01

251

Methods using earthworms for the evaluation of potentially toxic materials in soils  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using earthworms to indicate effects of potentially toxic wastes when such wastes are intentionally or accidentally added to soils. Initial work with metals has shown that earthworms exhibit specific growth and reproductive responses. These responses are related to the concentration and solubility of the metal. Of the metals tested, cadmium was found to be the most toxic, followed by nickel, copper, zinc, and lead. The metal concentration in earthworm tissue and the background manure-metal mixture was measured, permitting the concentration factor to be computed. The concentration factor is the ratio of the metal in the worm tissue to that in the surrounding manure-metal mixture. These and other studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that the methods described in this paper may be used to predict the effect of land-applied or atmospherically deposited residues on the soil biota.

Neuhauser, E.F.; Loehr, R.C.; Malecki, M.R.

1982-01-01

252

Determination of the dynamic material properties of soils from the results of static shear tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of several recently developed elasto-plastic and endo-chronic constitutive theories for predicting dynamic soil behavior with parameters determined from static shear tests is reviewed. A simple procedure for predicting equivalent linear shear modulus and the fraction of critical damping from the results of triaxial compression tests with an unload-reload cycle is developed. The applicability of this procedure is demonstrated

E. Kavazanjian Jr.; T. Hadj-Hamou

1980-01-01

253

Soil experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil experiment with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil experiment without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.

Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim

1987-01-01

254

Physiochemical, site, and bidirectional reflectance factor characteristics of uniformly moist soils. [Brazil, Spain and the United States of America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The bidirectional reflectance factor (0.5 micron to 2.3 micron wavelength interval) and physiochemical properties of over 500 soils from 39 states, Brazil and Spain were measured. Site characteristics of soil temperature regime and moisture zone were used as selection criteria. Parent material and internal drainage were noted for each soil. At least five general types of soil reflectance curves were identified based primarily on the presence or absence of ferric iron absorption bands, organic matter content, and soil drainage characteristics. Reflectance in 10 bands across the spectrum was found to be negatively correlated with the natural log of organic matter content.

Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

255

How Readable Are Parenting Books?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author's style of writing has implications for the ease with which the written material can be read. Using the Flesch Reading Ease Formula, the mean readability score, the standard deviation, and range are given for 50 parenting books. Discussion suggests how the list might be used by parent educators. (Author)

Abram, Marie J.; Dowling, William D.

1979-01-01

256

Aggregating available soil water holding capacity data for crop yield models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.

Seubert, C. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Holt, D. A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

1984-01-01

257

Land Application of Carbonatic Lake-Dredged Materials: Effects on Soil Quality and Forage Productivity1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to reuse carbonatic lake-dredged materials (CLDM) for agricultural purposes is important because it reduces offshore disposal and provides an alternative to disposal of the materials in landfills that are already overtaxed. A four-year (2001 to 2005) study on land ap- plication of CLDM as an option for disposal was conducted on a beef cattle pasture in south central

Gilbert C. Sigua; Samuel W. Coleman; Mike L. Holtkamp

258

Analysis of remotely sensed data for detecting soil limitations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During 1971 and 1972 a detailed study was conducted on a fallow field in the proposed Oahe Irrigation Project to determine the relationship between the tonal variation observed on aerial photographs and the properties of eroded soil. Correlation and regression analysis of digitized, multiemulsion, color infrared film (2443) data and detailed field data revealed a highly significant correlation between film transmittance and several soil properties indicative of the erosion limitation. Computer classification of the multiemulsion film data resulted in maps portraying the eroded soil and the normal soil. Both correlation and computer classification results were best using the reflectance data from the red spectral band. The results showed film transmittance was actually measuring the reflectivity of the soil surface which was increased by the incorporation of the light colored, calcareous parent material exposed by erosion or tillage on soils with thin surface horizons.

Benson, L. A.; Frazee, C. J.; Waltz, F. A.

1973-01-01

259

Parents FamiliesGuide PARENT & FAMILY RESOURCES  

E-print Network

Parents FamiliesGuide #12;11 Contents: PARENT & FAMILY RESOURCES Welcome from Vice Presidents ---------- 2 Parents Program Welcome --------------- 3 Parents & Families Weekend Information ---------------------- 5 Partnering with Penn State ------------- 6 The Role of the Student ------------------- 6 Penn

Thompson, Anne

260

Effect of wetting and drying on deep soil CO2 production and fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efflux of CO2 from the soil surface depends on the production of CO2 across the whole soil profile and spatial organization of the soil matrix. There remain significant gaps in our understanding of how several important climatic variables regulate CO2 production and flux in deep soil layers, including how changing moisture regimes during drying and wetting cycles affect CO2 dynamics. Here, we present results from a field study where we monitored the concentration of CO2 at five soil depths during a wetting and drying experiment. The field experiment was setup on Reiff very fine sandy loam soil derived from non-marine alluvial parent material, with three replicated plots. In each plot, changes in soil temperature, air pressure, moisture and CO2 concentrations were monitored at depths of 15, 30, 50, 70 and 90 cm in the soil profile. At each of the plots, soil surface CO2 efflux was also measured hourly. Sensitivity of soil CO2 production to changes in soil moisture and temperature during both wetting up and drying down phases were determined by computing slopes from least-squares linear regression fits of soil CO2 concentration against soil temperature and moisture over each phase. Our results showed that temperature and moisture sensitivity of deep soil CO2 production across the soil profile was significantly different during wetting and drying phases. Soil CO2 production across the soil profile was more sensitive to changes in soil moisture during the drying than wetting phases, especially in the top 30 cm of soil. On the contrary, soil CO2 production across the soil profile was more sensitive to changes in soil temperature during wetting than drying phase. Deep soil CO2 production was significantly more sensitive to changes in temperature during the wetting phase, compared to SOM in topsoil layers.

Berhe, A. A.; Khoi, C. M.; Asperen, H. V.; Gillabel, J.; Six, J. W.

2009-12-01

261

Survey and evaluation of contaminants in earthworms and in soils derived from dredged material at confined disposal facilities in the Great Lakes region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils derived from dredged material were collected, together with earthworms from nine confined disposal facilities located in the Great Lakes Region. These samples were analyzed for 18 elements, 11 organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The concentrations detected in earthworms were evaluated in terms of their potential hazard to wildlife, which for the sake of the evaluation were assumed to prey entirely either on earthworms or on other soil invertebrates having similar concentrations. The soil concentrations (dry wt.) of the contaminants of greatest concern were < 1.9 to 32 ppm Cd, < 0.053 to 0.94 ppm Hg, 4.6 to 550 ppm Pb, and < 0.1 to 1.0 ppm PCBs. The concentrations in earthworms (dry wt., ingested soil included) were as high as 91 ppm Cd, 1.6 ppm Hg, 200 ppm Pb, and 1.8 ppm PCBs. Based on laboratory toxicity studies of relatively sensitive species, and on concentration factors calculated from the earthworm and soil data, we estimated that lethal or serious sublethal effects on wildlife might be expected at concentrations of 10 ppm Cd, 3 ppm Hg, 670 ppm Pb, and 1.7 ppm PCBs in alkaline surface soils derived from dredged material. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in earthworms were well below those in soil.

Beyer, W.N.; Stafford, C.

1993-01-01

262

Formation of free acid in soil materials exposed by excavation for highways in East Texas  

E-print Network

of the Al-theory 1n the United States became widespread due to the work of N. T. Coleman in the early 1950's, and P, F. Low 1n 1955 (22). Soil acidity is controlled mainly by ion exchange and other adsorptive reactions (8). Layer s1licates, oxide...C1 (8). In 1904, Veitch (48) showed that exchangeable acidity is due primarily to Al and minor quantities of Fe, Mn, and Zn, His findings were substantiated in later work by Harward and Coleman (16), Low (28), and many others. Further work by Lin...

Miller, Wesley Leroy

1969-01-01

263

Efficiency of a multi-soil-layering system on wastewater treatment using environment-friendly filter materials.  

PubMed

The multi-soil-layering (MSL) system primarily comprises two parts, specifically, the soil mixture layer (SML) and the permeable layer (PL). In Japan, zeolite is typically used as the permeable layer material. In the present study, zeolite was substituted with comparatively cheaper and more environmentally friendly materials, such as expanded clay aggregates, oyster shells, and already-used granular activated carbon collected from water purification plants. A series of indoor tests indicated that the suspended solid (SS) removal efficiency of granular activated carbon was between 76.2% and 94.6%; zeolite and expanded clay aggregates achieved similar efficiencies that were between 53.7% and 87.4%, and oyster shells presented the lowest efficiency that was between 29.8% and 61.8%. Further results show that the oyster shell system required an increase of wastewater retention time by 2 to 4 times that of the zeolite system to maintain similar chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency. Among the four MSL samples, the zeolite system and granular activated carbon system demonstrated a stable NH3-N removal performance at 92.3%-99.8%. The expanded clay aggregate system present lower removal performance because of its low adsorption capacity and excessively large pores, causing NO3--N to be leached away under high hydraulic loading rate conditions. The total phosphorous (TP) removal efficiency of the MSL systems demonstrated no direct correlation with the permeable layer material. Therefore, all MSL samples achieved a TP efficiency of between 92.1% and 99.2%. PMID:25809517

Ho, Chia-Chun; Wang, Pei-Hao

2015-01-01

264

Soil magnetic susceptibility: A quantitative proxy of soil drainage for use in ecological restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flooded, saturated, or poorly drained soils are commonly anaerobic, leading to microbially induced magnetite/maghemite dissolution and decreased soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). Thus, MS is considerably higher in well-drained soils (MS typically 40-80 ?? 10-5 standard international [SI]) compared to poorly drained soils (MS typically 10-25 ?? 10-5 SI) in Illinois, other soil-forming factors being equal. Following calibration to standard soil probings, MS values can be used to rapidly and precisely delineate hydric from nonhydric soils in areas with relatively uniform parent material. Furthermore, soil MS has a moderate to strong association with individual tree species' distribution across soil moisture regimes, correlating inversely with independently reported rankings of a tree species' flood tolerance. Soil MS mapping can thus provide a simple, rapid, and quantitative means for precisely guiding reforestation with respect to plant species' adaptations to soil drainage classes. For instance, in native woodlands of east-central Illinois, Quercus alba , Prunus serotina, and Liriodendron tulipifera predominantly occur in moderately well-drained soils (MS 40-60 ?? 10-5 SI), whereas Acer saccharinum, Carya laciniosa, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica predominantly occur in poorly drained soils (MS <20 ?? 10-5 SI). Using a similar method, an MS contour map was used to guide restoration of mesic, wet mesic, and wet prairie species to pre-settlement distributions at Meadowbrook Park (Urbana, IL, U.S.A.). Through use of soil MS maps calibrated to soil drainage class and native vegetation occurrence, restoration efforts can be conducted more successfully and species distributions more accurately reconstructed at the microecosystem level. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

Grimley, D.A.; Wang, J.-S.; Liebert, D.A.; Dawson, J.O.

2008-01-01

265

Parenting Conflicts  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders are Treated Teen Parents Healthy Children Radio: Teaching Children Civility (Audio) Healthy Children Radio: Making Childhood Transitions Easier (Audio) Medical Home Offers Benefits for Children without Special Needs Healthy ...

266

Parenting Multiples  

MedlinePLUS

... the birth of a child. So parents of twins or higher-order multiples (triplets or more) can ... the chances of having multiples. The incidence of twin and higher-order multiple births has climbed rapidly ...

267

Soil nutrient status across soil denudation gradients, Southern Alps, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In humid climates, progressive chemical weathering of rock releases nutrients to the soil and into the biogeochemical cycle. On non-eroding landforms the input of parent material-derived nutrients to soils decreases over time because the advance of the weathering front slows as soils age. Deep soils with little ecosystem-accessible nutrients develop. However, in eroding landscapes sustained lowering of the weathering front is assumed to replenish the soil nutrient pool by advection of parent material. However, field data that directly relate soil denudation rates and nutrient status are lacking. If sustained denudation replenishes soil nutrients, then soil nutrient concentrations should approach that of bedrock with increasing denudation rates. Here we present soil nutrient data from soils with previously measured soil production rates located in three high-rainfall catchments of the western side of the rapidly uplifting Southern Alps of New Zealand. Soil production rates quantified with in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be range from 0.11×0.01 to 2.47×0.51 mm y-1. Two of three catchments show an exponential decline in soil production rates as soil depth increases (Abstract EP41D-0823, AGU 2012). We quantified the concentrations of the nutrients P, Ca, K and Mg using XRF on subsets of the same soil bulk samples used for 10Be analysis. We present data for 1) soil nutrient concentrations and 2) chemical mass balance using the conservative element Zr. We used regression analysis to explore the relationship between denudation rates and soil nutrients. We found no statistically significant relationships between nutrient concentrations and total soil denudation rates (D), chemical denudation rates (W) or physical denudation rates (E). Similarly, there are no significant relationships between D, W, or E and the mass balance of the nutrients. Consequently, our relative nutrient data are also not significantly correlated with soil residence times or soil thicknesses. The results imply a declining loss of nutrients with increasing soil residence time/soil depth. In fact, modelling predicts that the denudation rate is directly proportional to the weathering rate. This finding counters the first order kinetics, and can be either explained by a zonation of the weathering intensity in the soil (i.e. high weathering rates in the topsoil that dissipate rapidly with depth) and/or the chemical forms of the nutrients that rapidly change towards more recalcitrant forms as soil residence time increases. We conclude that increasing denudation rates do not increase soil nutrient concentrations across our denudation gradients. Instead, with declining denudation rates (higher residence times) the absolute amounts of soil nutrients increase because the soil thickens. To determine the biogeochemical implications of these patterns (e.g. the bio-availability of these nutrients across denudation gradients) more research is needed, which should focus on the chemical fractionation of nutrients in response to soil residence time and soil depth changes.

Eger, A.; Almond, P. C.; Larsen, I. J.

2013-12-01

268

Soil organic radiocarbon and mineralogy at two coastal California sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration rises it becomes increasingly important to understand the mechanisms that control carbon sequestration in carbon pools such as soils and ocean sediments. Mineralogy and soil grain size have both been hypothesized to regulate soil carbon storage. On volcanic soils, carbon storage correlates best with a mineralogical property, amorphous mineral content. However, volcanic soils are relatively uncommon and weather to unusually high concentrations of amorphous minerals. Two chronosequences of soil terraces occurring along the coast of California provide the opportunity to study the relationship between a range of mineral types, soil carbon content, soil radiocarbon age, and grain size on more common Alfisol soils. One site is located close to the mouth of the Mattole River, near Eureka, CA, and the second site is located close to Santa Cruz, CA. Both series of chronosequences formed on similar parent material, although the Mattole site receives approximately twice the rainfall of the Santa Cruz site. Through analysis of relationships between soil mineralogical properties, organic matter content, and soil radiocarbon age, we examine potential controls on soil carbon turnover.

Masiello, C. A.; Chadwick, O. A.; Harden, J. W.; Torn, M. S.; Southon, J.

2001-12-01

269

MOLECULAR SIZE EXCLUSION BY SOIL ORGANIC MATERIALS ESTIMATED FROM THEIR SWELLING IN ORGANIC SOLVENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A published method previously developed to measure the swelling characteristics of powdered coal samples has been adapted for swelling measurements on various peat, pollen, chitin, and cellulose samples. he swelling of these macromolecular materials is the volumetric manifestatio...

270

MOELCULAR SIZE EXCLUSION BY SOIL ORGANIC MATERIALS ESTIMATED FROM THEIR SWELLING IN ORGANIC SOLVENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A published method previously developed to measure the swelling characteristics of pow dered coal samples has been adapted for swelling measurements on various peat, pollen, chain, and cellulose samples The swelling of these macromolecular materials is the volumetric manifestatio...

271

Temperature response of litter and soil organic matter decomposition is determined by chemical composition of organic material.  

PubMed

The global soil carbon pool is approximately three times larger than the contemporary atmospheric pool, therefore even minor changes to its integrity may have major implications for atmospheric CO2 concentrations. While theory predicts that the chemical composition of organic matter should constitute a master control on the temperature response of its decomposition, this relationship has not yet been fully demonstrated. We used laboratory incubations of forest soil organic matter (SOM) and fresh litter material together with NMR spectroscopy to make this connection between organic chemical composition and temperature sensitivity of decomposition. Temperature response of decomposition in both fresh litter and SOM was directly related to the chemical composition of the constituent organic matter, explaining 90% and 70% of the variance in Q10 in litter and SOM, respectively. The Q10 of litter decreased with increasing proportions of aromatic and O-aromatic compounds, and increased with increased contents of alkyl- and O-alkyl carbons. In contrast, in SOM, decomposition was affected only by carbonyl compounds. To reveal why a certain group of organic chemical compounds affected the temperature sensitivity of organic matter decomposition in litter and SOM, a more detailed characterization of the (13) C aromatic region using Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence (HSQC) was conducted. The results revealed considerable differences in the aromatic region between litter and SOM. This suggests that the correlation between chemical composition of organic matter and the temperature response of decomposition differed between litter and SOM. The temperature response of soil decomposition processes can thus be described by the chemical composition of its constituent organic matter, this paves the way for improved ecosystem modeling of biosphere feedbacks under a changing climate. PMID:23907960

Erhagen, Björn; Öquist, Mats; Sparrman, Tobias; Haei, Mahsa; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Hedenström, Mattias; Schleucher, Jürgen; Nilsson, Mats B

2013-12-01

272

Body for Parents (Girls)  

MedlinePLUS

... Illness & disability Drugs, alcohol & smoking Your feelings Relationships Bullying Safety Your future Environmental health Skip section navigation ( ... parents Girls' feelings for parents Relationships for parents Bullying for parents Safety for parents The future for ...

273

Development of a standard reference material for Cr(vi) in contaminated soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the last several decades, considerable contamination by hexavalent chromium has resulted from the land disposal of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR). COPR contains a number of hexavalent chromium-bearing compounds that were produced in high temperature industrial processes. Concern over the carcinogenic potential of this chromium species, and its environmental mobility, has resulted in efforts to remediate these waste sites. To provide support to analytical measurements of hexavalent chromium, a candidate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material?? (SRM 2701), having a hexavalent chromium content of approximately 500 mg kg -1, has been developed using material collected from a waste site in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. The collection, processing, preparation and preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the material are discussed. A two-phase multi-laboratory testing study was carried out to provide data on material homogeneity and to assess the stability of the material over the duration of the study. The study was designed to incorporate several United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) determinative methods for hexavalent chromium, including Method 6800 which is based on speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), an approach which can account for chromium species inter-conversion during the extraction and measurement sequence. This journal is ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.

Nagourney, S.J.; Wilson, S.A.; Buckley, B.; Kingston, H.M.S.; Yang, S.-Y.; Long, S.E.

2008-01-01

274

Bioremediating herbicide-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Combinations of landfarming and biostimulation were evaluated for remediating pesticide wastes. Various amounts of soil contaminated with alachlor and trifluralin (> or = 100 mg/kg each) and metolachlor and atrazine (> or = 20 mg/kg each) were applied to field plots, and sewage sludge or corn meal was incorporated into designated plots. Plots were also treated with fresh spray mixtures in amounts similar to those applied as contaminated soil. Soil bioactivity and dissipation of parent herbicides were monitored after the treatments. During 100 d, soil dehydrogenase activities were highest in organic-material-amended plots. During the same period, the levels of alachlor had declined by 85-95% in amended, contaminated soil-treated plots and by 75-85% in corresponding unamended plots. In freshly sprayed plots, 95-100% of the initial doses of alachlor had dissipated in amended plots, and 85-95% was lost in corresponding unamended plots. The levels of trifluralin had declined by 70-80% in corn-meal-amended plots and by 60-75% in unamended plots. There were no significant differences between dissipation of trifluralin applied as contaminated soil or fresh sprays. PMID:8323266

Dzantor, E K; Felsot, A S; Beck, M J

1993-01-01

275

Cr(VI) adsorption/desorption on untreated and mussel shell-treated soil materials: fractionation and effects of pH and chromium concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used batch-type experiments to study Cr(VI) adsorption/desorption on granitic material, forest soil, pyritic material, mussel shell, and on forest soil and granitic material amended with 12 t ha-1 shell, considering the effects of varying Cr(VI) concentration and pH. Sequential extractions were carried out to fractionate adsorbed Cr(VI) and to determine the stability of Cr(VI) retention. The pyritic material had the highest Cr(VI) retention capacity, whereas the granitic material showed the lowest retention potential. When high Cr concentrations were added, some saturation of the adsorbent surfaces became apparent, but Cr release remained low. The highest Cr retention was achieved at very acid pH value, with release progressively increasing as a function of increasing pH. The amendment with 12 t ha-1 mussel shell did not cause marked changes in Cr(VI) retention. Adsorption data were satisfactory adjusted to the Freundlich model. Regarding Cr(VI) fractionation, the soluble fraction (weakly bound) was the dominant in mussel shell and in the un-amended and amended granitic material, whereas more stable fractions dominated in the pyritic material (residual fraction) and in the forest soil (oxidizable fraction). In conclusion, the pyritic material presented the highest Cr(VI) retention capacity, while the retention was low and weak on the granitic material; mussel shell was characterized by not marked Cr(VI) retention potential, and it did not cause remarkable increase in Cr(VI) retention when used to amend the granitic material or the forest soil.

Otero, M.; Cutillas-Barreiro, L.; Nóvoa-Muñoz, J. C.; Arias-Estévez, M.; Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J.; Álvarez-Rodríguez, E.; Núñez-Delgado, A.

2014-12-01

276

Soil contamination in plant samples and in botanical reference materials: Signature, quantification and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual samples of several sets of plants (lichens, tobacco, spruce needles, grass, botanical reference materials) show highly significant correlations of Al, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Th, Ti and V with Sc. These correlations result from the terrigenous part of aerosols deposited on and measured together with the plants. The composition of this contamination is almost uniform among the different plant

A. Wyttenbach; L. Tobler

2002-01-01

277

Soil Chemistry Still Affected 23 Years After Large Application of Fluidized Bed Material  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to assess the movement of arsenic, aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury and zinc in an old apple (Malus domestica Borkh) orchard that received a one time application of 36 kg/ m2 of fluidized bed combustion material (FBCM) 23 years earlier. S...

278

Keep your soil covered  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn residue is being considered as a possible feedstock for biofuels production. The long-term impacts on soil health of removing this residue are not well understood. Plant material is one of the soil’s main sources of organic materials. Organic matter is a very important component of soil. It su...

279

Earthworms and soil fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Earthworms redistribute organic materials within the soil, increase soil penetrability and, und certain conditions, influence ion transport in soils. Root distribution may be modified and microbial activity increased by their burrowing and feeding activities. Earthworms influence the supply of nutrients in several ways. Not only is earthworm tissue and cast material enriched in certain nutrients, relative to the soil

J. K. Syers; J. A. Springett

1984-01-01

280

Titanium Mass-balance Analysis of Paso Robles Soils: Elemental Gains and Losses as Affected by Acid Alteration Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Columbia Hills soils have been exposed to aqueous alteration in alkaline [1] as well as acid conditions [2,3]. The Paso Robles class soils are bright soils that possess the highest S concentration of any soil measured on Mars [2]. Ferric-sulfate detection by Moessbauer analysis indicated that acid solutions were involved in forming these soils [4]. These soils are proposed to have formed by alteration of nearby rock by volcanic hydrothermal or fumarolic activity. The Paso Robles soils consist of the original Paso Robles-disturbed-Pasadena (PR-dist), Paso Robles- PasoLight (PR-PL), Arad-Samra, Arad-Hula, Tyrone- Berker Island1 and Tyrone-MountDarwin [2 ,3. ]Chemical characteristics indicate that the PR-dist and PR-PL soils could be derived from acid weathering of local Wishstone rocks while the Samra and Hula soils are likely derived from local Algonquin-Iroquet rock [3]. The Paso Robles soils were exposed to acidic sulfur bearing fluids; however, little else is known about the chemistry of the alteration fluid and its effects on the alteration of the proposed parent materials. The objectives of this work are to conduct titanium normalized mass-balance analysis to1) assess elemental gains and losses from the parent materials in the formation of the Paso Robles soils and 2) utilize this information to indicate the chemical nature of the alteration fluids.

Sutter, Brad; Ming, Douglas W.

2010-01-01

281

Soils under beech forest in an experimental catchment area near Nelson, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils of four contiguous small forested experimental catchments, covering 40 ha in hill country formed in Moutere Gravel in NW South Island, New Zealand, were studied. The indigenous vegetation of the area was Nothofagus forest; the rainfall averages 1,550 mm per annum; the topography is a dissected pattern of narrow ridges and small valleys; and the parent materials are Late

I. B. Campbell; G. Mew

1986-01-01

282

A quantitative comparison of Soil Development in four climatic regimes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new quantitative Soil Development Index based on field data has been applied to chronosequences formed under different climatic regimes. The four soil chronosequences, developed primarily on sandy deposits, have some numeric age control and are located in xeric-inland (Merced, Calif.), xeric-coastal (Ventura, Calif.), aridic (Las Cruces, N. Mex.), and udic (Susquehanna Valley, Pa.) soil-moisture regimes. To quantify field properties, points are assigned for developmental increases in soil properties in comparison to the parent material. Currently ten soil-field properties are quantified and normalized for each horizon in a given chronosequence, including two new properties for carbonate-rich soils in addition to the eight properties previously defined. When individual properties or the combined indexes are plotted as a function of numeric age, rates of soil development can be compared in different climates. The results demonstrate that (1) the Soil Development Index can be applied to very different soil types, (2) many field properties develop systematically in different climatic regimes, (3) certain properties appear to have similar rates of development in different climates, and (4) the Profile Index that combines different field properties increases significantly with age and appears to develop at similar rates in different climates. The Soil Development Index can serve as a preliminary guide to soil age where other age control is lacking and can be used to correlate deposits of different geographical and climatic regions. ?? 1983.

Harden, J.W.; Taylor, E.M.

1983-01-01

283

A quantitative comparison of Soil Development in four climatic regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new quantitative Soil Development Index based on field data has been applied to chronosequences formed under different climatic regimes. The four soil chronosequences, developed primarily on sandy deposits, have some numeric age control and are located in xeric-inland (Merced, Calif.), xeric-coastal (Ventura, Calif.), aridic (Las Cruces, N. Mex.), and udic (Susquehanna Valley, Pa.) soil-moisture regimes. To quantify field properties, points are assigned for developmental increases in soil properties in comparison to the parent material. Currently ten soil-field properties are quantified and normalized for each horizon in a given chronosequence, including two new properties for carbonate-rich soils in addition to the eight properties previously defined. When individual properties or the combined indexes are plotted as a function of numeric age, rates of soil development can be compared in different climates. The results demonstrate that (1) the Soil Development Index can be applied to very different soil types, (2) many field properties develop systematically in different climatic regimes, (3) certain properties appear to have similar rates of development in different climates, and (4) the Profile Index that combines different field properties increases significantly with age and appears to develop at similar rates in different climates. The Soil Development Index can serve as a preliminary guide to soil age where other age control is lacking and can be used to correlate deposits of different geographical and climatic regions.

Harden, Jennifer W.; Taylor, Emily M.

1983-11-01

284

Synthesis and Characterization of the Hybrid Clay- Based Material Montmorillonite-Melanoidin: A Potential Soil Model  

SciTech Connect

The study of the interactions among metals, minerals, and humic substances is essential in understanding the migration of inorganic pollutants in the geosphere. A considerable amount of organic matter in the environment is associated with clay minerals. To understand the role of organic matter in the environment and its association with clay minerals, a hybrid clay-based material (HCM), montmorillonite (STx-1)-melanoidin, was prepared from L-tyrosine and L-glutamic acid by the Maillard reaction. The HCM was characterized by elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), and thermal analysis. The presence of organic materials on the surface was confirmed by XPS and STXM. The STXM results showed the presence of organic spots on the surface of the STx-1 and the characterization of the functional groups present in those spots. Thermal analysis confirmed the existence of organic materials in the montmorillonite interlayer, indicating the formation of a composite of melanoidin and montmorillonite. The melanoidin appeared to be located partially between the layers of montmorillonite and partially at the surface, forming a structure that resembles the way a cork sits on the top of a champagne bottle.

V Vilas; B Matthiasch; J Huth; J Kratz; S Rubert de la Rosa; P Michel; T Schäfer

2011-12-31

285

Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance - Part II: Development of an accelerate aging method for roofing materials  

SciTech Connect

Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products?single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles?and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. This accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

Sleiman, Mohamad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Berdahl, Paul; Gilbert, Haley; Quelen, Sarah; Marlot, Lea; Preble, Chelsea; Chen, Sharon; Montalbano, Amadine; Rosseler, Olivier; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Destaillats, Hugo

2013-11-18

286

Estimating cumulative soil accumulation rates with in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclide depth profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model relating spatially averaged rates of cumulative soil accumulation and hillslope erosion to cosmogenic nuclide distribution in depth profiles is presented. Model predictions are compared with cosmogenic 21Ne and AMS radiocarbon data from soils of the Pajarito Plateau, New Mexico. Rates of soil accumulation and hillslope erosion estimated by cosmogenic 21Ne are significantly lower than rates indicated by radiocarbon and regional soil-geomorphic studies. The low apparent cosmogenic erosion rates are artifacts of high nuclide inheritance in cumulative soil parent material produced from erosion of old soils on hillslopes. In addition, 21Ne profiles produced under conditions of rapid accumulation (>0.1 cm/a) are difficult to distinguish from bioturbated soil profiles. Modeling indicates that while 10Be profiles will share this problem, both bioturbation and anomalous inheritance can be identified with measurement of in situ-produced 14C.

Phillips, William M.

2000-10-01

287

Survey and evaluation of contaminants in earthworms and in soils derived from dredged material at confined disposal facilities in the Great Lakes Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils derived from dredged material were collected, together with earthworms from nine confined disposal facilities located in the Great Lakes Region. These samples were analyzed for 18 elements, 11 organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The concentrations detected in earthworms were evaluated in terms of their potential hazard to wildlife, which for the sake of the evaluation were

W. Nelson Beyer; Charles Stafford

1993-01-01

288

Perceived Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contingent self-esteem (i.e., the degree to which one's self-esteem is dependent on meeting particular conditions) has been shown to predict a wide range of psychosocial and academic problems. This study extends previous research on contingent self-esteem by examining the predictive role of perceived parenting dimensions in a sample of early…

Wouters, Sofie; Doumen, Sarah; Germeijs, Veerle; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine

2013-01-01

289

Parental Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescence is a developmental period during which many youth experiment with risk practices. This paper examined the association of parental monitoring with a range of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use behaviors among high-risk youth, while controlling for other demographic and environmental variables previously found to be associated with AOD…

Shillington, Audrey M.; Lehman, Stephanie; Clapp, John; Hovell, Melbourne; Sipan, Carol; Blumberg, Elaine

2005-01-01

290

Total Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins…

Smith, Richard

2010-01-01

291

Constructive Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book turns important research and theory into essential, easy-to-follow guidelines for new parents and child care providers to help them focus on the critical first 3 years of life to build a strong foundation for the future. All the key areas of child development are covered, including self-esteem, and cognitive, motor and social…

Goldberg, Sally

292

Knowledge translation of the HELPinKIDS clinical practice guideline for managing childhood vaccination pain: usability and knowledge uptake of educational materials directed to new parents  

PubMed Central

Background Although numerous evidence-based and feasible interventions are available to treat pain from childhood vaccine injections, evidence indicates that children are not benefitting from this knowledge. Unrelieved vaccination pain puts children at risk for significant long-term harms including the development of needle fears and subsequent health care avoidance behaviours. Parents report that while they want to mitigate vaccination pain in their children, they lack knowledge about how to do so. An evidence-based clinical practice guideline for managing vaccination pain was recently developed in order to address this knowledge-to-care gap. Educational tools (pamphlet and video) for parents were included to facilitate knowledge transfer at the point of care. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usability and effectiveness in terms of knowledge acquisition from the pamphlet and video in parents of newly born infants. Methods Mixed methods design. Following heuristic usability evaluation of the pamphlet and video, parents of newborn infants reviewed revised versions of both tools and participated in individual and group interviews and individual knowledge testing. The knowledge test comprised of 10 true/false questions about the effectiveness of various pain management interventions, and was administered at three time points: at baseline, after review of the pamphlet, and after review of the video. Results Three overarching themes were identified from the interviews regarding usability of these educational tools: receptivity to learning, accessibility to information, and validity of information. Parents’ performance on the knowledge test improved (p?0.001) from the baseline phase to after review of the pamphlet, and again from the pamphlet review phase to after review of the video. Conclusions Using a robust testing process, we demonstrated usability and conceptual knowledge acquisition from a parent-directed educational pamphlet and video about management of vaccination pain. Future studies are planned to determine the impact of these educational tools when introduced in clinical settings on parent behaviors during infant vaccinations. PMID:23394070

2013-01-01

293

ANALYSIS OF SULFUR IN SOIL, PLANT AND SEDIMENT MATERIALS: SAMPLE HANDLING AND USE OF AN AUTOMATED ANALYZER  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods for analyzing soil, vegetation and sediment samples for total S and handling soil samples for analysis of S constituents were examined. ECO automated total S anelyzer (SC-132) was used for the analysis of vegetation, sediments and soil samples. esults from the LECO analyz...

294

Reconstructing Past Climates From Thin Loess-Paleosol Sequences - Results From Modern Loessic Soils From the Midwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic susceptibility records of loess-paleosol sequences from the Chinese loess plateau and elsewhere have been used successfully to quantify variations in past rainfall by comparing the magnetic properties of magnetically enhanced soil horizons and their respective parent materials. Such an approach may work for thick loess profiles with well separated paleosols, but our experience from modern loessic soils in the Midwestern United States has shown that a straightforward comparison between the magnetic properties (magnetic susceptibility, IRM, ARM etc.) of modern soils and their (assumed) parent material yields unreliable paleoclimate proxies. Such a simple approach works well for well developed, simple soil profiles but breaks down for more complicated soil profiles that may contain recent loess additions, welded paleosols, or redoximorphic features relatively high up in the C-horizon. Our recent rock-magnetic analyses of modern soils from North America (and older studies of Chinese loess) show that the pedogenic magnetic component of these sites is characterized by a narrow range of magnetic properties. This makes it possible to directly estimate the abundance of pedogenically produced magnetite using, for example, magnetic coercivity distributions, ARM/IRM ratios or, in some cases, hysteresis loops. Analysis of over sixty modern loessic soil profiles shows that such estimates can yield reliable climate proxies even if no unaltered parent material is available for comparison.

Geiss, C. E.

2007-12-01

295

About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area, which landscape is characterized by till and limestone plains with thin Quaternary cover, the soil cover is more heterogeneous than in previous area. Kuusiku soil cover is more variegated by the soil texture and as well as by the genesis of soils. In addition to Cambisols, Leptosols, Gleysols and Luvisols may be found here as well. The dominating soils in Olustvere research area, which is situated on wavy upland plateau, are Albeluvisols.

Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

2013-04-01

296

Diffusion and Leaching Behavior of Radionuclides in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material – Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed, and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Some of the mobilization scenarios include (1) potential leaching of waste form before permanent closure cover is installed; (2) after the cover installation, long-term diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste form into surrounding fill material; (3) diffusion of radionuclides from contaminated soils into adjoining concrete encasement and clean fill material. Additionally, the rate of diffusion of radionuclides may be affected by the formation of structural cracks in concrete, the carbonation of the buried waste form, and any potential effect of metallic iron (in the form of rebars) on the mobility of radionuclides. The radionuclides iodine-129 ({sup 129}I), technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), and uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) are identified as long-term dose contributors in Category 3 waste (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, and carbonate-complexed {sup 238}U may readily leach into the subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989, 1992a, b, 1993, and 1995). The leachability and/or diffusion of radionuclide species must be measured to assess the long-term performance of waste grouts when contacted with vadose-zone pore water or groundwater. Although significant research has been conducted on the design and performance of cementitious waste forms, the current protocol conducted to assess radionuclide stability within these waste forms has been limited to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Method 1311 Federal Registry (EPA 1992) and ANSI/ANS-16.1 leach test (ANSI 1986). These tests evaluate the performance under water-saturated conditions and do not evaluate the performance of cementitious waste forms within the context of waste repositories which are located within water-deficient vadose zones. Moreover, these tests assess only the diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste forms and neglect evaluating the mechanisms of retention, stability of the waste form, and formation of secondary phases during weathering, which may serve as long-term secondary hosts for immobilization of radionuclides. The results of recent investigations conducted under arid and semi-arid conditions (Al-Khayat et al. 2002; Garrabrants et al. 2002; Garrabrants and Kosson 2003; Garrabrants et al. 2004; Gervais et al. 2004; Sanchez et al. 2002; Sanchez et al. 2003) provide valuable information suggesting structural and chemical changes to concrete waste forms which may affect contaminant containm

Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-08-31

297

A Brief History of Soil Mapping and Classification in the USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil maps show the distribution of soils across an area but also depict soil science theory and ideas on soil formation and classification at the time the maps were created. The national soil mapping program in the USA was established in 1899. The first nation-wide soil map was published by M. Whitney in 1909 and showed soil provinces that were largely based on geology. In 1912, G.N. Coffey published the first country-wide map based on soil properties. The map showed 5 broad soil units that used parent material, color and drainage as diagnostic criteria. The 1913 national map was produced by C.F. Marbut, H.H. Bennett, J.E. Lapham, and M.H. Lapham and showed broad physiographic units that were further subdivided into soil series, soil classes and soil types. In 1935, Marbut drafted a series of maps based on soil properties, but these maps were replaced as official U.S. soil maps in 1938 with the work of M. Baldwin, C.E. Kellogg, and J. Thorp. A series of soil maps similar to modern USA maps appeared in the 1960s with the 7th Approximation followed by revisions with the 1975 and 1999 editions of Soil Taxonomy. This review has shown that soil maps in the United States produced since the early 1900s moved initially from a geologic-based concept to a pedologic concept of soils. Later changes were from property-based systems to process-based, and then back to property-based. The information in this presentation is based on Brevik and Hartemink (2013). Brevik, E.C., and A.E. Hartemink. 2013. Soil Maps of the United States of America. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77:1117-1132. doi:10.2136/sssaj2012.0390.

Brevik, Eric C.; Hartemink, Alfred E.

2014-05-01

298

Parental stress, parenting behavior and observed parent-child interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between parental stress, social support, and directly observed parenting behavior and dyadic interaction in a non-clinical sample of 26 parent-child dyads, in which the child was age five or younger. This study also explored the differential impact of various types of stress on parenting behavior and dyadic interaction, including life stress as measured by the

Katrina L Adams

2006-01-01

299

A new model for humic materials and their interactions with hydrophobic organic chemicals in soil-water or sediment-water systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A generalized model of humic materials in soils and sediments, which is consistent with their observed properties, is presented. This model provides a means of understanding the interaction of hydrophobic pollutants with humic materials. In this model, it is proposed that the humic materials in soils and sediments consist of a number of different oligomers and simple compounds which result from the partial degradation of plant remains. These degradation products are stabilized by incorporation into humic aggregates bound together by weak bonding mechanisms, such as hydrogen bonding, pi bonding, and hydrophobic interactions. The resulting structures are similar to micelles or membranes, in which the interiors of the structures are hydrophobic and the exteriors are hydrophilic. Hydrophobic compounds will partition into the hydrophobic interiors of the humic micelles or "membrane-like" structures. ?? 1986.

Wershaw, R.L.

1986-01-01

300

Single Parent Families  

MedlinePLUS

... Families > Single Parent Families Family Life Listen Single Parent Families Article Body Single parenthood can be one ... in the United States live with only one parent. Most single-parent situations result from divorce, but ...

301

For Parents and Kids  

MedlinePLUS

... Size: A A A Listen En Español For Parents & Kids Diabetes is a disease that affects the ... right balance between caring and hovering. Explore: For Parents & Kids Parent's Perspective Parents of children with diabetes ...

302

Parent Discussion Manual: Parent/Child Home Stimulation. The Marshalltown Project. Revised July 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for parents, the manual is for a 12 week parent education course on the mental stimulation of young handicapped children. Major objectives of the course are helping the child feel positively about himself and helping the child develop his intellectual abilities. Material reinforcements are offered parents who meet criteria for attendance,…

Marshall-Poweshiek Joint County School System, Marshalltown, IA. Dept. of Special Education.

303

Successful Parenting for School-Age Parents. Teacher's Resource Guide. Student Reference Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher's guide and student reference book presented here were developed as resources to facilitate school-age parenting education. The materials were organized around the nine essential elements for the Parenting Education for School-Age Parents course in Texas. The teacher's guide contains teaching strategies, teaching aids, paper-and-pencil…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

304

Is the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program Acceptable to Parents from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioural parenting programs are an effective intervention for behavioural and emotional problems in children, however these programs have low utilisation rates by culturally diverse parents. We examined the cultural acceptability of program materials, preferences for delivery methods, and barriers to use of the Triple P-Positive Parenting

Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew; Goadby, Elizabeth; Headley, Clea; Hodge, Lauren; McAuliffe, Christine; Pope, Sue; Anderson, Emily

2011-01-01

305

Analysis and assessment on heavy metal sources in the coastal soils developed from alluvial deposits using multivariate statistical methods.  

PubMed

An investigation on heavy metal sources, i.e., Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cd in the coastal soils of Shanghai, China, was conducted using multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis, clustering analysis, and correlation analysis). All the results of the multivariate analysis showed that: (i) Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd had anthropogenic sources (e.g., overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, industrial and municipal discharges, animal wastes, sewage irrigation, etc.); (ii) Zn and Cr were associated with parent materials and therefore had natural sources (e.g., the weathering process of parent materials and subsequent pedo-genesis due to the alluvial deposits). The effect of heavy metals in the soils was greatly affected by soil formation, atmospheric deposition, and human activities. These findings provided essential information on the possible sources of heavy metals, which would contribute to the monitoring and assessment process of agricultural soils in worldwide regions. PMID:18976857

Li, Jinling; He, Ming; Han, Wei; Gu, Yifan

2009-05-30

306

Acidification of forest soil in Russia: From 1893 to present  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is commonly believed that fine-textured soils developed on carbonate parent material are well buffered from possible acidification. There are no data, however, that document resistance of such soils to acidic deposition exposure on a timescale longer than 30-40 years. In this paper, we report on directly testing the long-term buffering capacity of nineteenth century forest soils developed on calcareous silt loam. In a chemical analysis comparing archived soils with modern soils collected from the same locations ???100 years later, we found varying degrees of forest-soil acidification in the taiga and forest steppe regions. Land-use history, increases in precipitation, and acidic deposition were contributing factors in acidification. The acidification of forest soil was documented through decreases in soil pH and changes in concentrations of exchangeable calcium and aluminum, which corresponded with changes in communities of soil microfauna. Although acidification was found at all three analyzed locations, the trends in soil chemistry were most pronounced where the highest loading of acidic deposition had taken place. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

Lapenis, A.G.; Lawrence, G.B.; Andreev, A.A.; Bobrov, A.A.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

2004-01-01

307

Acidification of forest soil in Russia: From 1893 to present  

SciTech Connect

It is commonly believed that fine-textured soils developed on carbonate parent material are well buffered from possible acidification. There are no data, however, that document resistance of such soils to acidic deposition exposure on a timescale longer than 30-40 years. In this paper, we report on directly testing the long-term buffering capacity of nineteenth century forest soils developed on calcareous silt loam. In a chemical analysis comparing archived soils with modern soils collected from the same locations similar to 100 years later, we found varying degrees of forest-soil acidification in the taiga and forest steppe regions. Land-use history, increases in precipitation, and acidic deposition were contributing factors in acidification. The acidification of forest soil was documented through decreases in soil pH and changes in concentrations of exchangeable calcium and aluminum, which corresponded with changes in communities of soil microfauna. Although acidification was found at all three analyzed locations, the trends in soil chemistry were most pronounced where the highest loading of acidic deposition had taken place.

Lapenis, A.G.; Lawrence, G.B.; Andreev, A.A.; Bobrov, A.A.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

2003-01-02

308

Contaminant-induced changes to soil properties: From general overview to study of metal oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A contemporary metapedogenetic process in which anthropogenic contaminants become an additional soil-forming factor is presented. Several examples that link contamination and modification of soil properties from the existing literature are reviewed. Also, recent experimental results that show possible soil property modifications as a result of application of metal oxide nanoparticles to natural soils are shown. Research results published in literature on chemical contaminant-soil interactions show that in some cases, irreversible changes to the soil matrix and properties may occur. In such cases, a pristine soil may become the parent material for a newly-formed soil. In contrast to natural processes over geological time scales, contaminant-induced soil modification occurs over much shorter time scales. In recent years, the effects of soil on the behavior and properties of nanoparticles released to the environment have been studied extensively. The behavior, transport and mobility of nanoparticles were shown to be strongly dependent on environmental conditions. However, little is known about the possible effects of nanoparticles on soil properties. In this study, two types of metal oxide nanoparticles, CuO and Fe3O4 were mixed with two types of soil and the effects of the nanoparticles on various soil properties were assessed. Metal oxide nanoparticles were previously shown to catalyze the oxidation of organic pollutants in aqueous suspensions, and they were therefore expected to induce changes in the organic material in the soil, especially upon addition of an oxidant. It was found that the nanoparticles did not change the total amount of organic materials in the soil or the total organic carbon in the soil extract; however, three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated changes in humic substances.

Ben Moshe, T.; Dror, I.; Yaron, B.; Berkowitz, B.

2011-12-01

309

Geochemistry of the Paleocene-Eocene and Miocene-Pliocene clayey materials of the eastern part of the Wouri River (Douala sub-basin, Cameroon): Influence of parent rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major and trace element concentrations of clay deposits of the Missole II and Bomkoul respectively from the Paleocene-Eocene N'Kapa Formation and the Miocene-Pliocene-Matanda-Wouri Formation in the eastern part of the Wouri River in the Douala sub-basin of Cameroon have been investigated to identify the parent rocks. To carry out this study, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP/AES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) were performed to determine respectively the mineralogical and chemical data of Missole II and Bomkoul clayey materials. Clay sediments are essentially kaolinitic and illitic, and kaolinitic and smectitic respectively in both sites. They are generally siliceous, aluminous with small iron and bases (MgO, CaO, Na2O, and K2O) contents. Samples of Missole II profiles are more siliceous than those from the Bomkoul grey and dark grey clayey materials. Clayey materials have high Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA = 80-99.34) which suggests that they are strongly weathered under humid tropical climate before and after their deposition in the coastal plain. The value of Eu/Eu* (0.48-0.61), La/Sc (2.15-20.50), Th/Sc (0.74-2.25), Th/Co (1.08-8.33), and Cr/Th (5.24-13.55) ratios support essentially a silicic or felsic parent rocks. Total REE concentrations reflect the variations in their grain-size fractions. Chondrite-normalised REE patterns with LREE enrichment, flat HREE, and negative Eu anomaly are attributed essentially to silicic or felsic parent rocks like those from weathered materials developed from the gneisses around the coastal plain in the littoral part of Cameroon (Noa Tang et al., 2012), main characteristic of Paleocene-Eocene and Miocene-Pliocene clay sediments of Missole II and Bomkoul areas.

Ngon Ngon, G. F.; Mbog, M. B.; Etame, J.; Ntamak-Nida, M. J.; Logmo, E. O.; Gerard, M.; Yongue-Fouateu, R.; Bilong, P.

2014-03-01

310

Soil morphology of canopy and intercanopy sites in a pinon-Juniper woodland  

SciTech Connect

Pinon-juniper woodlands in the semiarid western USA have expanded as much as fivefold during the last 150 yr, often accompanied by losses of understory vegetation and increasing soil erosion. We conducted this study to determine the differences in soil morphology between canopy and intercanopy locations within a pinon (Pinus edulis Engelm.)-juniper [Juniperus monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg.] woodland with uniform parent material, topography, and climate. The woodland studied, located near Los Alamos, NM, has a mean tree age of 135 yr. We examined soil morphology by augering 135 profiles in a square grid pattern and comparing soils under pinon and juniper canopies with intercanopy soils. Only two of the 17 morphological properties compared showed significant differences. The B horizons make up a slightly greater proportion of total profile thickness in intercanopy soils, and there are higher percentages of coarse fragments in the lower portions of canopy soil profiles. Canopy soils have lower mean pH and higher mean organic C than intercanopy soils. Regression analysis showed that most soil properties did not closely correspond with tree size, but total soil thickness and B horizon thickness are significantly greater under the largest pinon trees, and soil reaction is lower under the largest juniper trees. Our findings suggest that during the period in which pinon-juniper woodlands have been expanding, the trees have had only minor effects on soil morphology. 36 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Davenport, D.W.; Wilcox, B.P.; Breshear, D.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-11-01

311

GEMAS - Soil geochemistry and health implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GEMAS Project resulted in a large coherent data set displaying baseline levels of elements in agricultural and grazing land soil, which has a wide variety of applications. Medical geology is an emerging new discipline providing a link between geoscience and medicine by interpreting natural geological factors in relation to human and animal health and their geographical distribution. Medical geology shows not only problems related to harmful health effects of natural geological materials and processes, but also deals with their beneficial aspects. Since the GEMAS project demonstrates the importance of geological factors in geochemical patterns in European soil, this data set can be used in improving our understanding of how the geological processes may affect human health in Europe. The main potential health problems are related to deficiency of nutrients in soil and toxic effects of potentially harmful elements. Deficiency in macro- (e.g., K, Fe, Mg, P) and micro-nutrients (e.g., Se, Zn, Cl) can be responsible for a reduction in crop productivity and certain health issues for livestock and humans. On the other hand, bioavailability of crucial elements depends on soil parameters, e.g., pH; namely, low pH in soil (in northern Europe) makes more micronutrients bioavailable, with the exception of Mo, P and Ca. Rocks underlying the soil layer have a major impact on soil composition, and soil parent material can be a main source of toxic metals, for instance, soil developed on black shale (e.g., Oslo region) shows potentially toxic levels of metals, such as As, Cd, U, Zn and Pb. High content of organic matter is another factor amplifying the toxic levels of metals in soil. Several important topics with health implications can be then addressed using the GEMAS data set, namely, soil properties and element bioavailability, arsenic toxicity, selenium deficiency, potential health effects of liming, uranium in European soil, influence of recent and historical volcanic activity on soil composition and its health consequences. References Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part A: Methodology and interpretation of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 528 pp. Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part B: General background information and further analysis of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 352 pp.

Ernstsen, Vibeke; Ladenberger, Anna; Wragg, Joanna; Gulan, Aleksandra

2014-05-01

312

Organic carbon stocks and sequestration rates of forest soils in Germany.  

PubMed

The National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) provides the Greenhouse Gas Reporting in Germany with a quantitative assessment of organic carbon (C) stocks and changes in forest soils. Carbon stocks of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil (30 cm) were estimated on the basis of ca. 1.800 plots sampled from 1987 to 1992 and resampled from 2006 to 2008 on a nationwide grid of 8 × 8 km. Organic layer C stock estimates were attributed to surveyed forest stands and CORINE land cover data. Mineral soil C stock estimates were linked with the distribution of dominant soil types according to the Soil Map of Germany (1 : 1 000 000) and subsequently related to the forest area. It appears that the C pool of the organic layer was largely depending on tree species and parent material, whereas the C pool of the mineral soil varied among soil groups. We identified the organic layer C pool as stable although C was significantly sequestered under coniferous forest at lowland sites. The mineral soils, however, sequestered 0.41 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) . Carbon pool changes were supposed to depend on stand age and forest transformation as well as an enhanced biomass input. Carbon stock changes were clearly attributed to parent material and soil groups as sandy soils sequestered higher amounts of C, whereas clayey and calcareous soils showed small gains and in some cases even losses of soil C. We further showed that the largest part of the overall sample variance was not explained by fine-earth stock variances, rather by the C concentrations variance. The applied uncertainty analyses in this study link the variability of strata with measurement errors. In accordance to other studies for Central Europe, the results showed that the applied method enabled a reliable nationwide quantification of the soil C pool development for a certain period. PMID:24616061

Grüneberg, Erik; Ziche, Daniel; Wellbrock, Nicole

2014-08-01

313

Organic carbon stocks and sequestration rates of forest soils in Germany  

PubMed Central

The National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) provides the Greenhouse Gas Reporting in Germany with a quantitative assessment of organic carbon (C) stocks and changes in forest soils. Carbon stocks of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil (30 cm) were estimated on the basis of ca. 1.800 plots sampled from 1987 to 1992 and resampled from 2006 to 2008 on a nationwide grid of 8 × 8 km. Organic layer C stock estimates were attributed to surveyed forest stands and CORINE land cover data. Mineral soil C stock estimates were linked with the distribution of dominant soil types according to the Soil Map of Germany (1 : 1 000 000) and subsequently related to the forest area. It appears that the C pool of the organic layer was largely depending on tree species and parent material, whereas the C pool of the mineral soil varied among soil groups. We identified the organic layer C pool as stable although C was significantly sequestered under coniferous forest at lowland sites. The mineral soils, however, sequestered 0.41 Mg C ha?1 yr?1. Carbon pool changes were supposed to depend on stand age and forest transformation as well as an enhanced biomass input. Carbon stock changes were clearly attributed to parent material and soil groups as sandy soils sequestered higher amounts of C, whereas clayey and calcareous soils showed small gains and in some cases even losses of soil C. We further showed that the largest part of the overall sample variance was not explained by fine-earth stock variances, rather by the C concentrations variance. The applied uncertainty analyses in this study link the variability of strata with measurement errors. In accordance to other studies for Central Europe, the results showed that the applied method enabled a reliable nationwide quantification of the soil C pool development for a certain period. PMID:24616061

Grüneberg, Erik; Ziche, Daniel; Wellbrock, Nicole

2014-01-01

314

Soil Response to Global Change: Soil Process Domains and Pedogenic Thresholds (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacity of soil to withstand perturbations, whether driven by climate, land use change, or spread of invasive species, depends on its chemical composition and physical state. The dynamic interplay between stable, well buffered soil process domains and thresholds in soil state and function is a strong determinant of soil response to forcing from global change. In terrestrial ecosystems, edaphic responses are often mediated by availability of water and its flux into and through soils. Water influences soil processes in several ways: it supports biological production, hence proton-donor, electron-donor and complexing-ligand production; it determines the advective removal of dissolution products, and it can promote anoxia that leads microorganisms to utilize alternative electron acceptors. As a consequence climate patterns strongly influence global distribution of soil, although within region variability is governed by other factors such as landscape age, parent material and human land use. By contrast, soil properties can vary greatly among climate regions, variation which is guided by the functioning of a suite of chemical processes that tend to maintain chemical status quo. This soil 'buffering' involves acid-base reactions as minerals weather and oxidation-reduction reactions that are driven by microbial respiration. At the planetary scale, soil pH provides a reasonable indicator of process domains and varies from about 3.5 to10, globally, although most soils lie between about 4.5 and 8.5. Those that are above 7.5 are strongly buffered by the carbonate system, those that are characterized by neutral pH (7.5-6) are buffered by release of non-hydrolyzing cations from primary minerals and colloid surfaces, and those that are <6 are buffered by hydrolytic aluminum on colloidal surfaces. Alkali and alkaline (with the exception of limestone parent material) soils are usually associated with arid and semiarid conditions, neutral pH soils with young soils in both dry and wet environments and acid soils with wet environments. Furthermore acid soils often have lost much of their easily weatherable primary minerals and their soluble (plant nutrient) ions, and thus much of their ability to buffer against acidity introduced by biological respiration and its products. Acid soils are closer to thermodynamic equilibrium with their near-surface environment and are less vulnerable to change compared with soils that contain a substantial supply of weatherable minerals (young soils) or carbonate minerals (dry soils). The impact of changing seasonal and annual rainfall and evapotranspiration patterns associated with climate change depends on how current pedogenic thresholds manifest across the landscape. We expect that humid soils subjected to drying should undergo less change than arid or semi-arid soils subjected to wetter seasonal conditions. Land-use changes can drive differential responses depending on changing chemistry and porosity. Collectively these factors provide the framework from which to predict and map soil sensivity to global change and climate change in particular.

Chadwick, O.; Kramer, M. G.; Chorover, J.

2013-12-01

315

Parents' Guide The purpose of the Parents'  

E-print Network

Parents' Guide #12;The purpose of the Parents' Guide is to help you provide support to your student out of their time at Western. Parents' Guide DIDYOU KNOW? In October of 2012, Western received sessions, there is a concurrent Parent/Guest Orientation Program where you can have your questions answered

Lennard, William N.

316

The application of pH(stat) leaching tests to assess the pH-dependent release of trace metals from soils, sediments and waste materials.  

PubMed

pH is one of the key parameters that determines heavy metal mobility in soils, sediments and waste materials. In many respects leaching behaviour as reflected by the pH(stat) leaching tests provide a better means of assessing environmental impact than analysis of total elemental composition. This paper discusses the use of pH(stat) leaching tests as a tool to assess the potential mobilisation of trace metals from soils, sediments and waste materials. The possibilities of pH(stat) leaching tests are illustrated by means of different examples. The mathematical fitting of metal leaching behaviour from soils and sediments enabled a distinction between 5 groups of elements with a different leaching behaviour, which could be related to 'pools' with different reactivity. Contrary to single and sequential extractions, where pH is difficult to control, the reactivity and mobility of metals at a user-defined pH can be investigated. Moreover, the potential buffering capacity of the sample and its sensitivity to pH changes as a result of external stresses (e.g. soil acidification, liming) can be estimated. A multidisciplinary approach combining mineralogical analysis (X-ray diffraction) with chemical analysis, pH(stat) leaching tests and geochemical modelling (MINTEQA2) can provide information on the solid-phase speciation and reactivity of heavy metals in soils, sediments and waste materials. Besides the influence of pH on heavy metal leaching behaviour, additional information on heavy metal leachability and retention by the solid matrix was obtained from the kinetics of metal release during a pH(stat) test. PMID:18313214

Cappuyns, Valérie; Swennen, Rudy

2008-10-01

317

"Lou soil", a fertile anthropogenic soil with thousands of years of cultivating history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese farmers have a very long history of using manures in their fields. Owing to the long-term addition of manures, an anthropogenic layer was formed on the top of original soil profile (drab soil) in Guanzhong Plains on the south edge of the Loess Plateau, North China. This soil is named the Manural Loessial soil (or Lou soil, "Lou" means the different stories of a building in Chinese). The depth of anthropogenic layer is in range of about 30 to 100 cm depth, which has a close relationship with the soil productivity. This fertile agricultural soil has sustained the agriculture in the region for millenniums. We had determined the organic carbon (SOC) in 7 soil profiles, and found that the depths of anthropogenic layer of were in range of 40 to 71 cm (averaging 59 cm). And the anthropogenic layer became shallower as the profile was far from the village due to less manure application. The organic C stocks in this layer accounted for 69% of organic C stocks in 0-100 cm soil profiles. Organic C stocks in Lou soil was higher than that in the newly cultivated soil developed from loess parent materials. Our 30-day incubation experiment found that addition of synthetic N fertilizer significantly increased the decomposition of SOC in the soils. However, The decomposition rate of SOC in the soil added with manure and inorganic fertilizers for 18-yr (MNPK soil) was significantly lower than in the soils added without fertilizer or inorganic fertilizers (NF soil, and NPK soils). The half-life of the organic C in MNPK soils was also slower than the NF soil, and NPK soil. It indicates that long-term combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers improves the stabilization of soil organic C. Long-term cultivation has not only increased organic C stocks, but also stabilization of organic C in soil profile. It provides us a unique sample to study the mechanism of accumulation and stabilization of organic C in soil to balance agricultural production and C sequestration in a warming earth. Our micro-plot experiment with 15N-labeled fertilizer in the long-term fertilizer trial found that the use efficiency of N fertilizer (NUE) in MNPK soil was higher than the NPK soil and NF soil in both wheat-summer fallow and winter wheat and summer corn rotation system. However, the N fertilizer losses in MNPK soil was lower than the NPK soil and NF soil in the two systems. We concluded that the long-term combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers improves N synchrony between the supply and crop demand, and reduces its loss. Since the 1980s, however, the application of manure to arable fields has declined in Guanzhong Plain, and in other parts of China, due to the increasing use of inorganic fertilizers, and labor costs to apply manure. The nutrient input of the arable fields are heavily dependent on inorganic fertilizers. It changes the biogeochemical cycling of the ecosystem, and results in a series of problems, including eutrophication, greenhouse gas emission, and nitrate leaching. Therefore, we need to find the alternatives to solve the problems, to conserve this old anthropogenic soil while producing enough food to feed the growing population.

Zhou, J.; Liang, B.; Yan, J.; Zhao, W.

2012-12-01

318

Novel approach for quantitatively estimating element retention and material balances in soil profiles of recharge basins used for wastewater reclamation.  

PubMed

We investigated changes in element content and distribution in soil profiles in a study designed to monitor the geochemical changes accruing in soil due to long-term secondary effluent recharge, and its impact on the sustainability of the Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) system. Since the initial elemental contents of the soils at the studied site were not available, we reconstructed them using scandium (Sc) as a conservative tracer. By using this approach, we were able to produce a mass-balance for 18 elements and evaluate the geochemical changes resulting from 19 years of effluent recharge. This approach also provides a better understanding of the role of soils as an adsorption filter for the heavy metals contained in the effluent. The soil mass balance suggests 19 years of effluent recharge cause for a significant enrichment in Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mg, K, Na, S and P contents in the upper 4m of the soil profile. Combining the elements lode record during the 19 years suggest that Cr, Ni, and P inputs may not reach the groundwater (20 m deep), whereas the other elements may. Conversely, we found that 58, 60, and 30% of the initial content of Mn, Ca and Co respectively leached from the upper 2-m of the soil profile. These high percentages of Mn and Ca depletion from the basin soils may reduce the soil's ability to buffer decreases in redox potential pe and pH, respectively, which could initiate a reduction in the soil's holding capacity for heavy metals. PMID:25300016

Eshel, Gil; Lin, Chunye; Banin, Amos

2015-01-01

319

A Practical Energy Balance for Soil Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All systems, including dynamic and open systems like soil, move towards energetic equilibrium. The effects of formative factors on a soil system are controlled by thermodynamics. Accounting for energy transformations and translocations is essential for a confident understanding of pedogenic processes. Classical open system energy balances used by chemical engineers are founded on the conservation of energy. For application to pedogenesis, an accounting of many variables over long time intervals makes these balances difficult to apply. Equilibrium and reaction models that utilize principles of physical chemistry also model thermodynamic processes. Soil solution chemistry and temperature range widely through time over climatic cycles in addition to daily, yearly and random variation. The projection of chemical idealizations over pedogenic timeframes is not appropriate, thus a practical quantitative system of thermodynamics for pedogenic analysis has not previously been developed. The mass balance method of Brimhall and Dietrich (1987) qualitatively accounts for additions, losses, transfers and transformations of mass in a soil by separating changes in concentration due to transformation of the mineral parent material (e.g. primary mineral dissolution leading to clay formation with concomitant losses of soluble constituents) from other changes such as fluxes of exotic mineral material (e.g. atmospheric dust) into and out of the soil. The system of equations uses concentrations of immobile elements as indices of volumetric change in representative elemental volumes of parent material. We generalize this mass balance approach to an energy balance, which allows a selective accounting of quantifiable forms of both energy and mass. In doing so, we expand the balance system, introducing several quantitative terms, new to soil science, including pedogenic work, power, and intensity. These measurable descriptors of soil processes allow us to quantify the energetics of development of individual horizons as well as complete soil profiles, or even, theoretically, hillslope or other soil sequences. The definition of these variables enables quantitative comparison among different soils and soil processes at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. This practical system is only reliant upon available thermodynamic data for soil constituents and established field and laboratory methods to generate intercomparable quantitative data about soil energetics that are worthy of necessary analytical investments. In an application of the energy balance to an Aridisol in New Mexico, the development of a K horizon is quantified in terms of the mechanical and chemical work done on parent material by eolian dust. A comparison of the intensity of mechanical and chemical processes at different depths quantifies the power of eolian influence deep within the soil profile. Brimhall, G.H. and Dietrich, W.E., 1987. Constitutive mass balance relations between chemical composition, volume, density, porosity, and strain in metasomatic hydrochemical systems: results on weathering and pedogenesis, Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta, 51: 567-587.

Ketchum, B.; Busacca, A. J.

2002-12-01

320

New elements in teaching soil-landscape relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A landscape is an area whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors. Landscapes are fundamental spatial units for soil scientists working in the fields of soil survey and soil geography. For these scientists but also for those who use their products (e.g. maps), interrelations between geology, geomorphology, soil formation and derived soil patterns in relation to land use are keys to the understanding of landscape functions. Many of these relations have been documented in aging soil survey reports but these are often difficult to access. As a result, important and unique soil-landscape phenomena remain hidden for other environmental scientists or the general public. In the Netherlands, efforts have been undertaken to aggregate information from soil survey reports and recent scientific insights into a new book with the aim to teach students the basic elements in soil-landscape research and to provide insights into valuable earth phenomena that are in need of preservation and/or careful management. New elements include amongst others: - State-of-the-art graphics to show how basic soil forming factors such as climate (change), parent material and time are interrelated. - Detailed catenas for specific soil-landscape systems, showing the relations between geomorphology and soil genesis. - Combining traditional soil maps with high-resolution DEM data to make soil-landscape relations more explicit. - Indicating the extent and impacts of land use change using maps of land use history. With this approach, current insights into natural patterns of geodiversity and pedodiversity are documented and available as a resource for education but also for policy makers working in the fields of geoheritage.

Sonneveld, M. P. W.

2012-04-01

321

Mechanics of lunar soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic areas of the mechanics of lunar soils may be stated as: a study of the effect of low-level gravitational accelerations and high vacuum on the properties of mineral grains of various soils; a selection of soils and materials on the earth which may serve as analogs of the lunar soils and investigation of their properties and uses on

I. Io Cherkasov; V. V. Mikheev; V. P. Petrukhin; V. V. Shvarev

1970-01-01

322

Influence of perennial plants on chemical properties of arid calcareous soils in Iran  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted a study in Bajgah to determine the influence of perennial plants on some selected properties of soils formed on the highly calcareous parent material. The major plant genera were determined to be Agropyron, Artemisia, Astragalus, Dianthus, Eryngium, Peganum, Polygonum, Stipa, and Thymus. Tops of plants genera were found to be significantly different in ash, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Zn, and Cu; the concentration of Fe was not significantly different. The authors found the plants to differ significantly in their influence on soil properties. Peganum caused an accumulation of organic matter (OM) as high as 7% in the soil, in an environment where the soils typically contain less than 1% OM. Soil concentrations of P, K, Mn, Zn, and Cu were also found to vary significantly beneath different plant genera. They suggest these differences in OM accumulation were caused by plant litter. Concentration of Fe in the soils formed beneath different plant genera was statistically unchanged.

Karimian, N.; Razmi, K. (Shiraz Univ. (Iran))

1990-10-01

323

Spatial variability characteristics of soil available N, P, and K and their influencing factors at the county scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial variability, a major feature of soils, was generally influenced by various factors, relative studies on which laid solid foundations for precision agriculture. In this investigation, method of geostatistics combined with GIS was used to analyze the spatial variability characteristics of soil available nitrogen (SAN), soil available phosphorus (SAP) and soil available potassium (SAK) and their influencing factors in Shuangliu county Sichuan province, China. The results showed that, SAP and SAK were normally distributed through naturally logarithmic transformation. Semivariogram analysis revealed that SAN and SAK were highly spatial correlated, while SAP moderately spatial correlated, and the spatially dependent ranges of SAN, SAK and SAP contents were 21590m, 76903m and 23300m, respectively. Through ordinary Kriging interpolation, SAN, SAP and SAK presented different varying tendencies in the study area. SSR test indicated that SAN was significantly different depending on different soil types; SAP was significantly different depending on terrain conditions and soil parental materials; SAK was strongly affected by soil parental materials. The fertilizer application rate at the regions with high soil available N, P and K contents was obviously higher than that with low soil available nutrient contents.

Pang, Su; Li, Tinxuan; Wang, Yongdong; Yu, Haiying

2009-06-01

324

Relationships among parental, event-, parenting, and life-stresses, parental behavior, and parent-child interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships among parental event-, parenting-, and life- stress, parental behavior, and parent-child interaction, in a non-clinical sample of 26 parent-child dyads with children 11 to 53 months, building upon a prior study (Adams, 2006), by investigating the relevance of additional parent- and parent-child dyadic behaviors. Hypotheses were: Greater event stress would be positively associated with improved

Steven E Zimmerman

2009-01-01

325

Proceedings of The South Afiican Sugar Technologists ' Associafion-March 1965 SOILS AND LANDFORMS  

E-print Network

This study presents some rather neglected aspects of soil-landform interrelationships and in doing so draws from the author's fieldwork not only in Natal but also from various parts of the world. Bearing in mind that the subject belongs to a relatively new sphere of research, some of the conclusions put forward are admissibly tentative. Past Research Before the scientific era in agriculture, farmers must have been aware that changes in topography were associated with corresponding soil differences. Unfortunately, although early soil scientists did much to show that pedogenesis was directly related to climate and parent material, they paid scant attention to its influence by topography until the..nineteen

G. W. A. Sparrow

326

Preliminary investigation of Large Format Camera photography utility in soil mapping and related agricultural applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of Space Shuttle Large Format Camera (LFC) color, IR/color, and B&W images in large-scale soil mapping is discussed and illustrated with sample photographs from STS 41-6 (October 1984). Consideration is given to the characteristics of the film types used; the photographic scales available; geometric and stereoscopic factors; and image interpretation and classification for soil-type mapping (detecting both sharp and gradual boundaries), soil parent material topographic and hydrologic assessment, natural-resources inventory, crop-type identification, and stress analysis. It is suggested that LFC photography can play an important role, filling the gap between aerial and satellite remote sensing.

Pelletier, R. E.; Hudnall, W. H.

1987-01-01

327

National Soil Information System in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land consolidation (LC) represents complexity if management, legal, economic and technical procedures realized in order to adjust the land structure according to actual human preferences and needs. It includes changes in ownership rights to land and other real estate property, exchange of parcels among owners, changes in parcel borders, parcel size and shape, joining and dividing of parcels, changes in land use, construction works as roads, bridges, water changes etc.. Since the subject of LC is agricultural lands, the quality of consolidation depends on the quality of soil data. General Directorate of Agrarian Reform (GDAR) is the responsible institution on land consolidation whole of Turkey. Under GDAR, National Soil Information System (NSIS) has been build up with base soil data in relevant scale (1:5000). NSIS contain detailed information on soil chemical and physical properties, current land use, parent material, land capability class, Storie Index Values. SI were used on land consolidation, land use planning and farm development services. LCC was used for land distribution, rental land; define of village settlement, consolidation, expropriation, reconstruction, reclamation, non-agricultural usage. LCC were also specified to subclasses in four different limited factors as i) flow and erosion risk ii) requirement of drainage and soil moisture iii) Limits of soil tillage and root (shallow soils, low water retention capacity, stony, salty .etc) iv) climatic limits. In this study, digital soil survey and mapping project located in Yumurtalik, Adana is presented as an example of NSIS data structure. The project cover an area of 45709 ha that include crop lands as an area of 28528 ha and other land use (urban, roads..etc) as an area of 17181 ha. Soil profiles were described in 45 different points and totally 1279 soil samples were collected in field study and the check bore hole were made in 3170 points.

Emrah Erdogan, Hakki; Sahin, Mehmet; Sahin, Yuksel

2013-04-01

328

Phosphate retention by New Zealand soils and its relationship to free sesquioxides, organic matter, and other soil properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate retention from KH2PO4 solution at pH 4.6 was measured in some New Zealand soil profiles, arranged in sequences of increasing weathering and leaching, from sedimentary and volcanic parent materials. P retention from KH2PO4 solution correlated closely with Pretention measured by adding solid Ca(H2PO4)2H2O to moist soil and subsequently measuring water-soluble P.P retention by topsoils correlated closely with organic carbon,

W. M. H. Saunders

1965-01-01

329

A garden mulch is any material spread on the soil surface to modify the environment where the plant is growing. The materials used can be natural or synthetic and can be used in any number of combinations  

E-print Network

Toll free Info Line 1-877-398-4769 M-F 9 AM - 2 PM #12;Paper After plants have begun to grow, lay down, as this increases the risk of disease. The soil should also be weed-free and moist. Pebbles, stone chips, gravel if the clear plastic is later cov- ered with hay, straw, newspaper, grass clippings or other organic materials

New Hampshire, University of

330

Development of a New Semiselective Medium for Isolating Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis from Plant Material and Soil.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT An effective control for bacterial blight of cassava (Manihot esculenta), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis, requires the use of non-contaminated cuttings and seeds. Using classical agar plating techniques for screening planting material for contamination has not been very successful because of the lack of a reliable semiselective agar medium. The pathogen grows slowly on general plating media and is easily overgrown by saprophytic bacteria during isolation from diseased plants. In an effort to develop a semiselective medium, the utilization of several carbon and nitrogen sources was studied. Results of these tests provided information used to design a basal medium allowing good growth of the target organism while suppressing growth of several common saprophytes. Additional selectivity was achieved by incorporating three antibiotics into the basal medium. The new semiselective agar medium, designated cefazolin trehalose agar (CTA) medium, contained (per liter) 3.0 g of K(2)HPO(4), 1.0 g of NaH(2)PO(4), 0.3 g of MgSO(4).7H(2)O, 1.0 g of NH(4)Cl, 9.0 g of D(+)-trehalose, 1.0 D(+)-glucose, 1.0 g of yeast extract, 0.025 g of cefazolin, 0.0012 g of lincomycin, 0.0025 g of phosphomycin, 0.25 g of cycloheximide, and 14.0 g of agar. In comparison to a starch-based semiselective medium (SXM), plating efficiencies using pure cultures of 10 strains of X. campestris pv. manihotis were significantly higher on CTA, with an average of 85 and 50%, respectively. Likewise, isolation and recovery of X. campestris pv. manihotis from infected cassava leaves and contaminated soil were much higher on CTA than on SXM agar. When X. campestris pv. manihotis occurs in high concentrations in diseased tissue, the standard yeast trehalose glucose agar medium supplemented with 250 mug of cycloheximide per ml appears to be satisfactory. The newly developed CTA medium should prove useful for control strategies to identify and remove infected planting material of cassava, as well as for basic ecological studies of the pathogen. PMID:18944695

Fessehaie, A; Wydra, K; Rudolph, K

1999-07-01

331

Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

2006-01-01

332

Fine-resolution multiscale mapping of clay minerals in Australian soils measured with near infrared spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clay minerals are the most reactive inorganic components of soils. They help to determine soil properties and largely govern their behaviors and functions. Clay minerals also play important roles in biogeochemical cycling and interact with the environment to affect geomorphic processes such as weathering, erosion and deposition. This paper provides new spatially explicit clay mineralogy information for Australia that will help to improve our understanding of soils and their role in the functioning of landscapes and ecosystems. I measured the abundances of kaolinite, illite and smectite in Australian soils using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Using a model-tree algorithm, I built rule-based models for each mineral at two depths (0-20 cm, 60-80 cm) as a function of predictors that represent the soil-forming factors (climate, parent material, relief, vegetation and time), their processes and the scales at which they vary. The results show that climate, parent material and soil type exert the largest influence on the abundance and spatial distribution of the clay minerals; relief and vegetation have more local effects. I digitally mapped each mineral on a 3 arc-second grid. The maps show the relative abundances and distributions of kaolinite, illite and smectite in Australian soils. Kaolinite occurs in a range of climates but dominates in deeply weathered soils, in soils of higher landscapes and in regions with more rain. Illite is present in varied landscapes and may be representative of colder, more arid climates, but may also be present in warmer and wetter soil environments. Smectite is often an authigenic mineral, formed from the weathering of basalt, but it also occurs on sediments and calcareous substrates. It occurs predominantly in drier climates and in landscapes with low relief. These new clay mineral maps fill a significant gap in the availability of soil mineralogical information. They provide data to for example, assist with research into soil fertility and food production, carbon sequestration, land degradation, dust and climate modeling and paleoclimatic change.

Viscarra Rossel, R. A.

2011-12-01

333

Spatial variability of available soil microelements in an ecological functional zone of Beijing.  

PubMed

Understanding the spatial variability of soil microelements and its influencing factors is of importance for a number of applications such as scientifically formulated fertilizer and environmental protection. This study used descriptive statistics and geostatistics to investigate the spatial variability of available soil Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn contents in agricultural topsoil (0-20 cm) in an ecological functional zone located at Yanqing County, Beijing, China. Kriging method was applied to map the spatial patterns of available soil Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn contents. Results showed that the available soil Cu had a widest spatial correlation distance (e.g., 9.6 km), which for available soil Fe, Mn, and Zn were only 1.29, 2.58, and 0.99 km, respectively. The values of C 0/sill for available soil Fe and Zn were 0.12 and 0.11, respectively, demonstrating that the spatial heterogeneity was mainly due to structural factors. The available soil Mn and Cu had the larger values of C 0/sill (i.e., 0.50 and 0.44 for Mn and Cu, respectively), which showed a medium spatial correlation. Mapping of the spatial patterns of the four microelements showed that the decrease trend of available soil Fe and Mn were from northeast to southwest across the study area. The highest amount of available soil Cu was distributed in the middle of the study area surrounding urban region which presented as a "single island". The highest amount of available soil Zn was mainly distributed in the north and south of the study area. One-way analysis of variance for the influencing factors showed that the lithology of parental materials, soil organic matter, and pH were important factors affecting spatial variability of the available microelements. The topography only had a significant influence on the spatial variability of available soil Fe and Mn contents, parental materials, and the land use types had little influence on the spatial variability. PMID:25619696

Ye, Huichun; Shen, Chongyang; Huang, Yuanfang; Huang, Wenjiang; Zhang, Shiwen; Jia, Xiaohong

2015-02-01

334

Focus on Teenage Parents: Using Children's Literature to Strengthen Teenage Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Focus on Teenage Parents, a project with an integrated approach that incorporates material on child development, personal identity, and parenting issues to immerse high school students, many of them parents, in children's literature and process writing. (SR)

Johnson, Helen L.; And Others

1996-01-01

335

Discipline: Parents' and  

E-print Network

Parenting Styles and Discipline: Parents' and Children's Perspectives SUMMARY REPORT The National Children's Strategy Research Series #12;#12;Parenting Styles and Discipline: Parents' Perspectives SUMMARY Data analysis 4 KEY FINDINGS 4 Parental discipline responses 4 Non-aggressive discipline strategies 4

O'Mahony, Donal E.

336

Parent-Offspring Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

synopsis. When parent-offspring relations in sexually reproducing species are viewed from the standpoint of the offspring as well as the parent, conflict is seen to be an expected feature of such relations. In particular, parent and offspring are expected to disagree over how long the period of parental investment should last, over the amount of parental investment that should be

ROBERT L. TRIVERS

1974-01-01

337

Information Titan Parents  

E-print Network

for Parents of Commuter Students 3 Titan Parents Profile & State Relations & Advocacy 4 College Parenting 101 Titan Parents Connection President Gordon's Farewell Cal State Fullerton President Milton A. Gordon President #12;Welcome Titan Parents! On behalf of California State University, Fullerton, welcome

de Lijser, Peter

338

INSIDE THIS Titan Parents  

E-print Network

INSIDE THIS ISSUE: Titan Parents: New Initiatives 1 Homecoming 2010: Parents Show Parent Connection A P R I L 2 0 1 0V O L U M E 1 , I S S U E 2 Titan Parents: New Initiatives for a New Year Over the past year, California State University, Fullerton has championed efforts to make parent

de Lijser, Peter

339

Parent Support Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Parent Services Project in the San Francisco area is described. A brief history is given along with a brief look at project activities. Parent support activities are examined. Elements of a successful parent support project, including social activities, family entertainment, parental decision making, and parental control of resources, are…

Pope, Judy

1985-01-01

340

Working with Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to give special education teachers ideas and techniques for working effectively with parents of elementary school students, the document presents guidelines for parent-teacher interaction. Sections cover the following topics: techniques for parent involvement, building rapport, informal parent-teacher contacts, parent-teacher conferences,…

Florida Learning Resources System/CROWN, Jacksonville.

341

Prison Parenting Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates indicate that parents make up a large segment of the prison population in the United States. Parental incarceration affects the whole family. For children of incarcerated parents, separation is painful and can be detrimental to their development. Effective parenting programs in prisons can be beneficial to the incarcerated parents, their children, and society. This study surveyed 745 state prisons

Margaret J. Hughes; Jenée Harrison-Thompson

2002-01-01

342

Soil mineral surfaces of paddy soils are accessible for organic carbon accumulation after decalcification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied organic carbon (OC) accumulation due to organo-mineral associations during soil development on calcareous parent material. Two chronosequences in Zhejiang Province, PR China, were investigated; one under paddy cultivation with a maximum soil age of 2000 years, and the other under upland crops where the oldest soil was 700 years old. Bulk soils and soil fractions of the uppermost A horizons were analyzed for OC concentrations and radio carbon contents. Total pedogenic iron (Fed) concentration was determined by dithionite extraction and the proportion of oxalate extractable iron (Feox) was extracted by using the method of Schwertmann (1964). The specific surface area (SSA) of soil minerals was measured by the BET-N2 method (Brunauer et al., 1938) under four conditions: untreated, after organic matter removal, after iron removal and after removal of both. Within 700/2000 years of pedogenesis, we observed no change in clay mineral composition and no additional formation of the SSA of soil minerals. But the soils differed in the degree of decalcification, OC accumulation and in the formation of iron. Paddy soil management led to an enhanced decalcification and larger OC accumulation. Management-induced redox cycles caused larger proportions of Feox in paddy soils. Their large SSA, added to the surface area of clay minerals, provided additional options for OC covering. Unexpectedly, there was no evidence of formation of secondary minerals during soil development, which could provide new surfaces for OC accumulation. However, the study revealed higher OC coverings of mineral surfaces after decalcification in paddy soils. As carbonate and Ca2+ ions seemed to interconnect clay minerals, making their surface accessible to OC, the faster dissolution of carbonate and leaching of Ca2+ ions in paddy soils made additional clay mineral surfaces available to OC. In contrast, the surface area of minerals in non-paddy soils, in which decalcification was much lower, seemed to be partly inaccessible for OC covering due to strong microaggregation by cementation with carbonate and Ca2+-bridging. The smaller accumulation of mineral-associated SOM in non-paddy soils was additionally confirmed by the retarded replacement of the inherited carbon. The accelerated decalcification of paddy soils led to enhanced accessibility of mineral surfaces for OC covering, which intensified OC accumulation from the early stages of soil formation onward. References Brunauer, S., Emmett, P.H., Teller, E., (1938). Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 60 (2), 309-319. Schwertmann, U., 1964. Differenzierung der Eisenoxide des Bodens durch Extraktion mit Ammoniumoxalat-Lösung. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung, Düngung, Bodenkunde 105 (3), 194-202.

Wissing, Livia

2013-04-01

343

Mercury content of Illinois soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For a survey of Illinois soils, 101 cores had been collected and analyzed to determine the current and background elemental compositions of Illinois soils. Mercury and other elements were determined in six samples per core, including a surface sample from each core. The mean mercury content in the surface samples was 33 ?? 20 ??g/kg soil, and the background content was 20 ?? 9 ??g/kg. The most probable sources of mercury in these soils were the parent material, and wet and dry deposition of Hg0 and Hg2+ derived from coal-burning power plants, other industrial plants, and medical and municipal waste incinerators. Mercury-bearing sewage sludge or other fertilizers applied to agricultural fields could have been the local sources of mercury. Although the mercury content correlated with organic carbon content or clay content in individual cores, when all the data were considered, there was no strong correlation between mercury and either the organic carbon or the clay-size content.

Dreher, G.B.; Follmer, L.R.

2004-01-01

344

The Soil Is Alive!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities which demonstrate the abundance of organisms living underground. Provides outlined directions, lists of materials, and a soil ecosystem transparency for delving into the properties of soil. (RT)

Science and Children, 1989

1989-01-01

345

Soil moisture: Some fundamentals. [agriculture - soil mechanics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief tutorial on soil moisture, as it applies to agriculture, is presented. Information was taken from books and papers considered freshman college level material, and is an attempt to briefly present the basic concept of soil moisture and a minimal understanding of how water interacts with soil.

Milstead, B. W.

1975-01-01

346

Origin of nitrogen in reforested lignite-rich mine soils revealed by stable isotope analysis  

SciTech Connect

Restoration of the nitrogen cycle is an important step in the recovery of an ecosystem after open-cast mining. Carbon and nitrogen in rehabilitated lignite containing mine soils can be derived from plant material as well as from lignite inherent to the parent substrate. We assessed the use elemental and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements to trace the origin of soil nitrogen and applied these techniques to elucidate the origin of mineral N in the soil and the soil solution. The conceptual approach of this study included physical fractionation in addition to sampling of vegetation and soil from a lignite-containing mine site in Lusatia rehabilitated in 1985 with Pinus Nigra. We studied the elemental and isotopic composition of bulk samples as well as isolated fractions and soil solution. Our data indicate that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of the soil samples are the result of mixing between plant material and substrate inherent lignite. {delta}{sup 15}N isotopes may be used as indicators of nitrogen contribution from plants to solid samples as well as soil solution. N-isotope composition of ammonia shows low spatial and interannual variability, despite strong concentration changes. Plant-derived nitrogen contributes in higher amounts to the soil solution compared to the bulk mineral soil. 45 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Abad Chabbi; Mathieu Sebilo; Cornelia Rumpel; Wolfgang Schaaf; Andre Mariotti [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Department of Soil Protection and Recultivation

2008-04-15

347

Major element composition of glasses in three Apollo 15 soils.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 180 glasses in each of three Apollo 15 soils have been analyzed for nine elements. Cluster analysis techniques allow the recognition of preferred glass compositions that are equated with parent rock compositions. Green glass rich in Fe and Mg, poor in Al and Ti may be derived from deep-seated pyroxenitic material now present at the Apennine Front. Fra Mauro basalt (KREEP) is most abundant in the LM soil and is tentatively identified as ray material from the Aristillus-Autolycus area. Highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro), believed to be derived from the lunar highlands, has the same composition as at other landing sites, but is less abundant. The Apennine Front is probably not true highland material but may contain a substantial amount of material with the composition of Fra Mauro basalt, but lacking the high-K content.

Reid, A. M.; Warner, J.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.

1972-01-01

348

Can Low Water/Rock Hydrothermal Alteration of Impact Materials Explain the Rock Component of the Martian Soil?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The martian regolith is a globally homogenized product of chemical and aeolian weathering processes. The soil is thought to consist of a rock component, with lesser amounts of mobile elements (Ca, Na, and K) than a presumed protolith, and a salt or mobile element component enriched in sulfur and chlorine. In this study we consider the contributions of hydrothermal processes to the origin of the rock component of the martian soil.

Nelson, M. J.; Newsom, H. E.

2003-01-01

349

Distribution and characterization of soils and landform relationships in Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the spatial distribution of soils from the northern part of Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, which is the largest ice-free area of the South Shetlands archipelago, Maritime Antarctica. Physical and chemical characteristics are presented for 23 soil profiles. Soil parent materials vary from marine sedimentary to volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks, intruded by igneous bodies. To assess soil-landscape relationships, twenty-three soil profiles were described and sampled. Soil samples of selected horizons were submitted to chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses. Soil mapping was based on the soil profiles, integrated with the existent topographic map (1:25.000 scale), a digital elevation model, the geological map and a satellite image. Twenty different soil units were identified and mapped. According to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) system, soils were classified as Fluvisols, Regosols, Leptosols or Cryosols, which correspond mostly to Fluvents, Orthents/Psamments, Inceptsols and Gelisols, respectively, according to the Soil Taxonomy. Soils from northern Byers Peninsula are generally shallow and coarse textured, with low organic matter content. Three soils from the rocky platforms of the northern coastal region possess ornithogenic character, with lower pH, higher P, Al3 + and organic C values when compared to soils not influenced by sea birds. In non-ornithogenic soils, the presence of easily weatherable minerals in the clay fraction indicates that physical weathering occurs with limited chemical alteration of primary minerals. The influence of penguin and other birds on coastal soils alters clay mineralogy, with formation of poorly crystalline P-rich phases. A better understanding of the depth of the permafrost table and the spatial distribution of permafrost is necessary for a more conclusive classification of Cryosols or Gelisols.

Moura, Pedro Adnet; Francelino, Marcio R.; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Simas, Felipe N. B.; de Mendonça, Bruno A. F.

2012-06-01

350

Questions about Biological Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... About Biological Parents Family Life Listen Questions About Biological Parents Article Body As you raise your adopted ... to her life—the fact that she has biological parents elsewhere—that may make it necessary for ...

351

When Parents Argue  

MedlinePLUS

... when your parents fight with each other? When Parents Disagree All couples argue from time to time. ... they don't really mean. It's OK for Parents to Argue Sometimes It's natural for people to ...

352

Sexual Orientation (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... than those who hadn't. Back Continue How Parents Might Feel Adolescence is a time of transition not just for teens, but for their parents too. Many parents face their adolescent's emerging sexuality ...

353

The Parent Care Pavilion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes operation of the Parent Care Pavilion of the J. W. Riley Children's Hospital in Indianapolis, which encourages active parent involvement in care of hospitalized children on a 24-hour basis. Benefits to children, parents and staff are described. (BF)

Green, Morris; Green, Janice G.

1977-01-01

354

Parenting while Being Homeless  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

2014-01-01

355

PARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families  

E-print Network

PARENT'S GUIDE ARROYO VISTA Tips for Parents & Families Seeing your child leave for college a niche early usually have a more positive and productive undergraduate experience. Therefore, encourage government, athletic events, recreation, arts performances, volunteer service, campus employment, the First

Rose, Michael R.

356

PARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families  

E-print Network

PARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families Seeing your child leave for college, whether" environments. Students who find a niche early usually have a more positive and productive undergraduate- clubs, lectures, student government, athletic events, recreation, arts performances, volunteer service

Rose, Michael R.

357

PARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families  

E-print Network

PARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families Seeing your child leave for college, whether a niche early usually have a more positive and productive undergraduate experience. Therefore, encourage government, athletic events, recreation, arts performances, volunteer service, campus employment, the First

Rose, Michael R.

358

Effects of aqueous extract of soil-like substrate made from three different materials on seed germination and seedling growth of rice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biologically processing rice and wheat straws into soil-like substrate (SLS) and then reusing them in plant cultivation system to achieve waste recycle is very crucially important in Bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). However, rice is a plant with strong allelopathic potential. It is not clear yet that what kinds of raw materials can be processed into proper SLS to grow rice in BLSS. Therefore, in this study, the aqueous extract of SLS made from three different materials including rice straw, wheat straw and rice-wheat straw mixture was utilized to investigate its effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of rice. The gradients of the extract concentrations (soil:water) were 1:3, 1:5, 1:9, and 1:15 with deionized water used as control. The effects of different types of SLS on seed germination and seedling vitality of rice were confirmed by analyzing the germination rate, seedling length, root length, the fresh weight and other indicants. In addition, based on the analysis towards pH, organic matter composition and other factors of the SLS as well as the chlorophyll, hormone content of rice, and the mechanism of the inhibition was speculated in order to explore the preventive methods of the phenomenon. Finally, the feasibility of cultivating rice on SLSs made from the raw materials mentioned above was evaluated and wheat raw was determined as the most appropriate material for growing rice.

Shao, Lingzhi; Fu, Yuming; Fu, Wenting; Yan, Min; Li, Leyuan; Liu, Hong

2014-03-01

359

A simple method to determine mineralization of (14) C-labeled compounds in soil.  

PubMed

Degradation of organic compounds in soil is often determined by measuring the decrease of the parent compound and analyzing the occurrence of its metabolites. However, determining carbon species as end products of parent compound dissipation requires using labeled materials that allow more accurate determination of the environmental fate of the compound of interest. The current conventional closed system widely used to monitor degradation of (14) C-labeled compounds in soil is complex and expensive and requires a specialized apparatus and facility. In the present study, the authors describe a simple system that facilitates measurement of mineralization of (14) C-labeled compounds applied to soil samples. In the system, soda lime pellets to trap mineralized (14) C-carbon species, including carbon dioxide, were placed in a cup, which was then inserted above the treated soil sample in a tube. Mineralization of [(14) C]2,4-D applied to soil samples in the simple system was compared with that in the conventional system. The simple system provided an equivalent detection of (14) C-carbon species mineralized from the parent compound. The results demonstrate that this cost- and space-effective simple system is suitable for examining degradation and mineralization of (14) C-labeled compounds in soil and could potentially be used to investigate their mineralization in other biological matrices. PMID:24677225

Myung, Kyung; Madary, Michael W; Satchivi, Norbert M

2014-06-01

360

Preparation for Parenting. Teacher's Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional guide for a one-half-credit technical laboratory course for grades 10-12 teaches parental responsibilities; child guidance techniques; positive role modeling and parenting practices that promote child development, health, safety, and well-being. Introductory materials consist of a course description; overview of course design;…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

361

Non-Traditional Soil Additives: Can They Improve Crop Production?  

E-print Network

Non-traditional soil additives include soil conditioners such as organic materials and minerals, soil activators that claim to stimulate soil microbes or inoculate soil with new beneficial organisms, and wetting agents that may be marketed...

McFarland, Mark L.; Stichler, Charles; Lemon, Robert G.

2002-06-26

362

Biological control of beech and hornbeam affects species richness via changes in the organic layer, pH and soil moisture characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. ?Litter quality is an important ecosystem factor, which may affect undergrowth species richness via decomposition and organic layers directly, but also via longer-term changes in soil pH and moisture. The impact of beech trees with low-degradable and hornbeam trees with high-degradable litter on biodiversity and soil characteristics was studied in ancient forests on decalcified marl, a parent material sensitive

A. M. Kooijman; E. Cammeraat

2010-01-01

363

The Urban Environment and Children's Health: Soils as an Integrator of Lead, Zinc, and Cadmium in New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils are evaluated as a diagnostic tool of environmental conditions that influence health. The samples for this study are urban topsoil (0–2.5 cm depth) samples (n=4026) analyzed for Pb, Zn, and Cd by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The parent materials for New Orleans soils are derived from the Mississippi River, and alluvium from the Bonnet Carré Spillway (n=31)

H. W. Mielke; C. R. Gonzales; M. K. Smith; P. W. Mielke

1999-01-01

364

Response of Organic Carbon Fractions in Tropical Soils to Land Use Changes: Evidence from 13-C Natural Abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical soils store about one third of the global soil organic carbon. Quantitative knowledge of stabilization and decomposition processes is necessary to understand, assess and predict effects of land use changes on storage and stability of soil organic carbon (SOC). We analyzed the effects of land use (natural forest, pasture, secondary forest) on carbon storage in different organic matter fractions of topsoils developed on different parent material (marine Tertiary sediments and volcanic ashes) in the humid tropics of northwest Ecuador. Soil density fractionation was combined with 13-C analysis to determine the origin and stability of SOC under pasture and secondary forest. Stocks of mineral-associated carbon and particulate, light organic carbon were greater in volcanic ash soils than in sedimentary soils. Conversion of forest to pasture reduced total SOC stocks and it decreased the relative contribution of the light fraction to total SOC storage in both parent materials. Relative changes in SOC stocks were more pronounced in the light fraction than in the total soil carbon. The 13-C abundance in soil carbon fractions revealed that recently incorporated pasture-derived carbon was less stabilized in the volcanic ash soils than in the sedimentary soils. Most of the pasture-derived SOC which accumulated during about 20 years of pasture use was rapidly mineralized under secondary forest in sedimentary soils. The mineral-associated, pasture-derived C was the fraction with the highest stability. In the volcanic ash soils decomposition of pasture-derived SOC was even faster. It was completely lost after 10 to 20 years of secondary forest growth. The results show that the stabilization of recently incorporated SOC depends on the soil type and on the associated mineralogy. They also indicate that recently accumulated SOC stocks in the analyzed topsoils represent rather labile SOC pools.

Flessa, H.; Paul, S.; Veldkamp, E.

2008-12-01

365

Soil development as limiting factor for shrub expansion in southwestern Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern Greenland currently experiences an increase in summer temperatures and a prolonged growing season (Masson-Delmotte et al. 2012), resulting in an increased shrub cover at the boreal - tundra border ecotone (Normand et al. 2013). These findings suggest the beginning of a greener Greenland in which tundra vegetation is transformed to a boreal woody flora. However, vegetation at borderline ecotones is influenced by further ecologic factors than just temperature. In this study, the ecologic conditions at a selection of sites along an elevation gradient near Igaliku in southern Greenland were examined to identify potential factors limiting the expansion of woody vegetation apart from temperature. The sites differ in elevation, topography, shrub density and soil parent material. The three study sites comprise i) well established birch shrubs growing between 50 and 180 m a.s.l., where the parent material origins from the Julianehab granite (Brooks 2012); ii) extended shrub patches at about 250 m a.s.l., where the parent material consists of Gardar Sandstones and Lavas (Brooks 2012) and iii) restricted shrub patches at an elevation of 250 m a.s.l., where the soil parent material originates from the Gardar intrusions (Brooks 2012). The extent of the shrub areas, topography and soil moisture were mapped, additionally soil samples were analyzed for C-and N-content, texture including coarse fraction and pH and used as soil development indicators. Our results show that the topographic setting regulates the existence or absence of soil while the soil parent material is an important limiting factor for soil moisture. According to these findings, we suggest that a high proportion of areas where temperature increase would allow the increase of shrub cover is not suitable for a woody flora. Brooks, Kent. 2012. "A Tale of Two Intrusions—where Familiar Rock Names No Longer Suffice." Geology Today 28 (1): 13-19. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2451.2012.00815.x. Masson-Delmotte, V., D. Swingedouw, A. Landais, M. S. Seidenkrantz, E. Gauthier, V. Bichet, C. Massa, B. Perren, V. Jomelli, and G. Adalgeirsdottir. 2012. "Greenland Climate Change: From the Past to the Future." Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/wcc.186/full. Normand, Signe, Christophe Randin, Ralf Ohlemüller, Christian Bay, Toke T. Høye, Erik D. Kjær, Christian Körner, et al. 2013. "A Greener Greenland? Climatic Potential and Long-Term Constraints on Future Expansions of Trees and Shrubs." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 368 (1624) (August 19): 20120479. doi:10.1098/rstb.2012.0479.

Caviezel, Chatrina; Hunziker, Matthias; Zoller, Oliver; Wüthrich, Christoph; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

2014-05-01

366

Teenage Parents: A Global Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional packet consists of an essay, a wall poster, and a teacher's guide that provide information and statistics about teenage parents throughout the world. The purpose of these materials is to give junior high and high school students an overview of the health, social, psychological, economic, and demographic effects of teenage…

Crews, Kimberly A.

367

Paddy soil — A suitable target for monitoring heavy metal pollution by magnetic proxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary magnetic study around Meishan steel mill in Nanjing (SE China) was carried out combining geochemical analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to prove that paddy soil can be a suitable target for environmental study on heavy metal pollution. Magnetic background investigation showed a strong variation in this area due to different land uses and soil types. Magnetic susceptibilities (MS) measured on forest soils are much higher than in paddy fields, and values below 20 cm of the soil surface in forest with parent material of Xiashu loess are several times higher than in paddy soil with parent material of fluvisol. Measurements on vertical profiles show that paddy soil has a very low and stable magnetic background with mass-specific MS around 15 × 10 - 8 m 3 kg - 1 . A strong enhancement of MS values is found in the upper ~ 20 cm of paddy soil predominated by multidomain and pseudo single domain magnetite. However, relatively low S-ratios (0.57 to 0.85) reveal a significant contribution of imperfect anti-ferromagnetic minerals. Detailed research on a paddy soil core at site C719 near the steel mill indicates strong correlation between magnetic mineral concentration-related parameters (?, ARM, SIRM) and heavy metal concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn. In addition, typical anthropogenic Fe-spherules are detected in top paddy soil by means of SEM, which indicates that the increase of susceptibility in upper soil is mainly caused by steel mill emission. Mapping of MS in paddy fields across the steel mill area shows a decrease of MS with the distance to the major emission zone. Positive correlation between ? and Zn is found by measuring surface soil samples around the steel mill. Because of low background and high homogeneity of the ~ 20 cm uppermost mixing layer paddy fields are especially suitable for magnetic surface mapping of heavy metal pollution.

Yan, H. T.; Hu, S. Y.; Blaha, U.; Rösler, W.; Duan, X. M.; Appel, E.

2011-10-01

368

A survey of pasture composition in relation to soils and topography on a hill country farm in the southern Ruahine Range, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a pasture survey conducted on the Grasslands Division, DSIR, hilI country property in the sou!hern Ruahine Range are presented. Relationships between pasture species frequency and soils, parent material, topography, aspect, and slope are discussed. In general the pastures were dominated by Agrostis tenuis and Anthoxanthum odoratum, with moderate frequencies of Trifolium repens, flatweeds, Cynosurus cristatus, Holcus lanatus, and

D. A. Grant; J. L. Brock

1974-01-01

369

Pedological and geological relationships with soil lichen and moss distribution in the eastern Mojave Desert, CA, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are ubiquitous in drylands globally. Lichens and mosses are essential biocrust components and provide a variety of ecosystem services, making their conservation and management of interest. Accordingly, understanding what factors are correlated with their distribution is important to land managers. We hypothesized that cover would be related to geologic and pedologic factors. We sampled 32 sites throughout the eastern Mojave Desert, stratifying by parent material and the age of the geomorphic surfaces. The cover of lichens and mosses on ‘available ground’ (L + Mav; available ground excludes ground covered by rocks or plant stems) was higher on limestone and quartzite-derived soils than granite-derived soils. Cover was also higher on moderately younger-aged geomorphic surfaces (Qya2, Qya3, Qya4) and cutbanks than on very young (Qya1), older-aged surfaces (Qia1, Qia2), or soils associated with coppice mounds or animal burrowing under Larrea tridentata. When all sites and parent materials were combined, soil texture was the most important factor predicting the occurrence of L + Mav, with cover positively associated with higher silt, very fine sand, and fine sand fractions and negatively associated with the very coarse sand fraction. When parent materials were examined separately, nutrients such as available potassium, iron, and calcium became the most important predictors of L + Mav cover.

Belnap, Jayne; Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.; Phillips, Susan L.

2014-01-01

370

Amount of organic matter required to induce sulfate reduction in sulfuric material after re-flooding is affected by soil nitrate concentration.  

PubMed

Acid sulfate soils (ASS) with sulfuric material can be remediated through microbial sulfate reduction stimulated by adding organic matter (OM) and increasing the soil pH to >4.5, but the effectiveness of this treatment is influenced by soil properties. Two experiments were conducted using ASS with sulfuric material. In the first experiment with four ASS, OM (finely ground mature wheat straw) was added at 2-6% (w/w) and the pH adjusted to 5.5. After 36 weeks under flooded conditions, the concentration of reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) and pore water pH were greater in all treatments with added OM than in the control without OM addition. The RIS concentration increased with OM addition rate. The increase in RIS concentration between 4% and 6% OM was significant but smaller than that between 2% and 4%, suggesting other factors limited sulfate reduction. In the second experiment, the effect of nitrate addition on sulfate reduction at different OM addition rates was investigated in one ASS. Organic matter was added at 2 and 4% and nitrate at 0, 100, and 200 mg nitrate-N kg(-1). After 2 weeks under flooded conditions, soil pH and the concentration of FeS measured as acid volatile sulfur (AVS) were lower with nitrate added at both OM addition rates. At a given nitrate addition rate, pH and AVS concentration were higher at 4% OM than at 2%. It can be concluded that sulfate reduction in ASS at pH 5.5 can be limited by low OM availability and high nitrate concentrations. Further, the inhibitory effect of nitrate can be overcome by high OM addition rates. PMID:25600239

Yuan, Chaolei; Mosley, Luke M; Fitzpatrick, Rob; Marschner, Petra

2015-03-15

371

Employment of a novel magnetically multifunctional purifying material for determination of toxic highly chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls at trace levels in soil samples.  

PubMed

In this study, we developed a magnetically multifunctional purifying material for efficient removal of matrix interferences, especially certain organochlorine pesticide (DDT, DDE, and DDD), during the determination of toxic highly chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at trace levels in soil samples. The multifunctional adsorbent (CMCD-NH2-MNPs) was prepared by grafting carboxymethyl-?-cyclodextrin on the surface of amino-functionalized magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. CMCD-NH2-MNPs has stronger host-guest complexation with DDT, DDE, and DDD, but the same adsorbent shows weaker adsorption ability toward highly chlorinated PCBs (from tetra- to octa-chlorinated PCBs) owing to their steric hindrance effect. Based on this principle, a simple and rapid gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for six indicator PCBs (PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB138, PCB153, and PCB180) in soil. Comparative studies were conducted to determine the clean-up efficiency of the following three techniques: (i) Oasis-HLB, (ii) multi-layer silica column, and (iii) dSPE employing CMCD-NH2-MNPs. The results indicate that CMCD-NH2-MNPs as the purification material can easily and effectively remove DDT, DDE, and DDD in soil samples within a short duration of time. The recoveries for highly chlorinated PCBs were in the range of 85.4-102.2%, with RSDs varying between 1.0 and 6.5%. The proposed method was verified as one of the most effective clean-up procedures for the analysis of highly chlorinated PCBs in real soil samples. PMID:25240650

Zhang, Jiabin; Pan, Muyun; Gan, Ning; Cao, Yuting; Wu, Dazhen

2014-10-17

372

Rock and Soil Types at Pathfinder Landing Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Type areas of rocks and soils. (A) Dark rock type and bright soil type: Shown is the dark rock Barnacle Bill. Reflectance spectra typical of fresh basalt and APXS spectra indicating more silica-rich basaltic andesite compositions characterize this type. These rocks are typically the small boulders and intermediate-sized cobbles at the Pathfinder site. The bright soil type is very common and in this case comprises Barnacle Bill's wind tail and much of the surround soil area. This soil has a high reflectance and a strongly reddened spectrum indicative of oxidized ferric minerals. (B) Bright rock type: Shown is the bright rock Wedge. Reflectance spectra typical of weathered basalt and APXS spectra indicating basaltic compositions characterize this type. These rocks are typically larger than 1 meter in diameter and many display morphologies indicating flood deposition. (C) Pink rock type: Shown is the pink rock Scooby Doo. APXS and reflectance spectra indicate a composition and optical characteristics similar to the drift soil. However, the morphology of the pink rock type indicates a cemented or rocklike structure. This material may be a chemically cemented hardpan that underlies much of the Pathfinder site. (D) Dark soil type: The dark soil type is typically found on the windward sides of rocks or in rock-free areas like Photometry Flats (shown here) where the bright soil has been striped away by aeolian action or in open areas. Other locations include the Mermaid Dune. (E) Disturbed soil type: The darkening of disturbed soil relative to its parent material, bright soil, as a result of changes in soil texture and compaction caused by movement of the rover and retraction of the lander airbag. (F) Lamb-like soil type: This soil type shows reflectance and spectral characteristics intermediate between the bright and dark soils. Its distinguishing feature is a weak spectral absorption near 900 nanometers not seen in either the bright or dark soils.

NOTE: original caption as published in Science Magazine

Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

1997-01-01

373

Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western USA. I. Chemical characteristics of spoil and replaced cover-soil.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A range of at least one order of magnitude was observed for DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and organic matter content of samples of spoil and cover-soil from eleven western USA surface-coal mines. The observed pH of these samples ranged from 3.9 to 8.9; however, most samples were near-neutral to alkaline in reaction. Most constituent levels were found to be below proposed guidelines for maximum permissible levels in mine soil. -from Authors

Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

1983-01-01

374

Games in an Introductory Soil Science Course: A Novel Approach for Increasing Student Involvement with Course Material  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes an optional recitation course that was developed to supplement a traditionally taught lecture-plus-laboratory course in soil science. Popular, competitive games that would be familiar to students were revised to be "soils-based" and were employed in the recitation class. These games were seen as a potential means to use knowledge in an atypical fashion while at the same time generating enthusiasm for the subject. Evaluation of two terms of games implementation showed that these activities increased both student enthusiasm and, potentially, course performance.

Elizabeth Sulzman

375

Social Variations in Perceived Parenting Styles among Norwegian Adolescents.  

PubMed

Previous research has documented the associations between parenting and parenting styles and child and adolescent outcomes. Little is known, however, about the social structuring of parenting in contemporary Nordic welfare states. A possible hypothesis is that socioeconomic variations in parenting styles in present-day Norway will be small because of material affluence, limited income inequality, and an active welfare state. This study examines social variations in parenting as perceived by Norwegian adolescents (N?=?1362), with a focus on four parenting style dimensions: responsiveness, demandingness, neglecting, and intrusive. Responsiveness seems to capture major divisions in parenting. Adolescents in families with fewer economic resources experienced their parents as somewhat less responsive, but responsiveness was not related to parents' education. Low parental education was on the other hand associated with perceptions of parents as neglecting and intrusive. Viewing parents as demanding did neither vary with parental education nor with family economy. Substantial variations in parenting styles persist in present-day Norway, and these variations correspond moderately with the families' placement in the social structure. Indicators of parenting and parenting styles may be useful indicators of some aspects of child and adolescent well-being. PMID:25132873

Elstad, Jon Ivar; Stefansen, Kari

2014-01-01

376

Exploring the multiplicity of soil-human interactions: organic carbon content, agro-forest landscapes and the Italian local communities.  

PubMed

Topsoil organic carbon (TOC) and soil organic carbon (SOC) are fundamental in the carbon cycle influencing soil functions and attributes. Many factors have effects on soil carbon content such as climate, parent material, land topography and the human action including agriculture, which sometimes caused a severe loss in soil carbon content. This has resulted in a significant differentiation in TOC or SOC at the continental scale due to the different territorial and socioeconomic conditions. The present study proposes an exploratory data analysis assessing the relationship between the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon and selected socioeconomic attributes at the local scale in Italy with the aim to provide differentiated responses for a more sustainable use of land. A strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis contributed to understand the effectiveness of local communities responses for an adequate comprehension of the role of soil as carbon sink. PMID:25903408

Salvati, Luca; Barone, Pier Matteo; Ferrara, Carlotta

2015-05-01

377

A history of Soil Survey in England and Wales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early soil mapping in Britain was dominated, as in the USA, by soil texture with maps dating back to the early 1900's identifying surface texture and parent rock materials. Only in the 1920's did Dokuchaev's work in Russia involving soil morphology and the development of the soil profile start to gain popularity, drawing in the influence of climate and topography on pedogenesis. Intentions to create a formal body at this time responsible for soil survey were not implemented and progress remained slow. However, in 1939 definite steps were taken to address this and the soil survey was created. In 1947, its activities were transferred from Bangor to the research branch of the Rothamsted experimental station in Hertfordshire under Professor G.W. Robinson. Soon after, a number of regional offices were also established to act as a link with the National Agricultural Advisory Service. At this time a Pedology Department was established at Rothamsted, focussing on petrological, X-ray, spectrographic and chemical analyses. Although not a Rothamsted Department itself, the Survey did fall under the 'Lawes Agricultural Trust'. A Soil Survey Research Advisory Board was also formed to act as a liaison with the Agricultural Field Council. In Scotland by contrast, soil survey activities became centred on the Macaulay Institute in Aberdeen. Developments in the survey of British soils were accompanied in parallel by the development of soil classification systems. In 1930 a Soils Correlation Committee had been formed to ensure consistency in methods and naming of soil series and to ensure the classification was applied uniformly. In England and Wales the zonal system adopted was similar to that used in the USA, where soil series were named after the location where they were first described. American soil scientists such as Veitch and Lee provided stimulus to the development of mapping methods. In Scotland a differing classification was adopted, being similar to that used in Canada, recognising the importance of the soil drainage characteristics within areas of similar parent material. This led to the adoption of the soil catena approach and the usage of soil 'associations'. With Britain entering the Second World War in 1939, there followed the almost complete cessation of survey activities and it was only in the aftermath of that war that recruitment of surveyors could re-commence. The first Soil Survey Field Handbook was published in 1940. Systematic and formal national soil survey activities across both England and Wales can be dated back to 1947 when work commenced to provide a complete picture of the soil resources of the two countries. Mapping at 1:25,000 scale, almost half the land was covered when, in 1979, the survey received instructions, together with the Scottish survey, to complete respective national maps at 1:250,000, which were published in the early 1980s. Attention then turned again to mapping lowland areas in more detail as well as specialised and thematic maps. However, in 1987 systematic survey was terminated and staff of the Soil Survey of England and Wales disbanded to form the Soil Survey and Land Research Centre (SSLRC) at what became Cranfield University - where its successor, the National Soil Resources Institute (NSRI) operates currently.

Hallett, S.; Deeks, L.

2012-04-01

378

Certification of a reference material for determination of total cyanide in soil to support implementation of the International Standard ISO 11262:2011.  

PubMed

Cyanides are among the most important inorganic pollutants to be tested and monitored in environmental compartments. They can be distinguished and determined as free cyanide, weak acid dissociable cyanide or as total cyanide. However, in any case obtained, measurement results are operationally defined referring to the applied analytical method. In 2011, the International Standard ISO 11262 has been published which specifies a normative analytical method for the determination of total cyanide in soil. The objective of the project described in this paper was to provide the first soil reference material (CRM) certified for its mass fraction of total cyanide on the basis of this standard. A total of 12 German laboratories with proven experience in the determination of cyanides in environmental samples participated in the certification study. Measurement results were evaluated in full compliance with the requirements of ISO Guide 35. Taking into account the results of the inter-laboratory comparison as well as the outcome of the homogeneity and stability studies, a certified mass fraction of total cyanide of 21.1 mg/kg and an expanded uncertainty (k?=?2) of 1.3 mg/kg were assigned to the material. The reference material has been issued as CRM BAM-U114. PMID:25213217

Scharf, Holger; Bremser, Wolfram

2015-04-01

379

The Occurrence, Sources and Spatial Characteristics of Soil Salt and Assessment of Soil Salinization Risk in Yanqi Basin, Northwest China  

PubMed Central

In order to evaluate the soil salinization risk of the oases in arid land of northwest China, we chose a typical oasis-the Yanqi basin as the research area. Then, we collected soil samples from the area and made comprehensive assessment for soil salinization risk in this area. The result showed that: (1) In all soil samples, high variation was found for the amount of Ca2+ and K+, while the other soil salt properties had moderate levels of variation. (2) The land use types and the soil parent material had a significant influence on the amount of salt ions within the soil. (3) Principle component (PC) analysis determined that all the salt ion values, potential of hydrogen (pHs) and ECs fell into four PCs. Among them, PC1 (C1-, Na+, SO42-, EC, and pH) and PC2 (Ca2+, K+, Mg2+and total amount of salts) are considered to be mainly influenced by artificial sources, while PC3 and PC4 (CO3- and HCO32-) are mainly influenced by natural sources. (4) From a geo-statistical point of view, it was ascertained that the pH and soil salt ions, such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3-, had a strong spatial dependency. Meanwhile, Na+ and Cl- had only a weak spatial dependency in the soil. (5) Soil salinization indicators suggested that the entire area had a low risk of soil salinization, where the risk was mainly due to anthropogenic activities and climate variation. This study can be considered an early warning of soil salinization and alkalization in the Yanqi basin. It can also provide a reference for environmental protection policies and rational utilization of land resources in the arid region of Xinjiang, northwest China, as well as for other oases of arid regions in the world. PMID:25211240

Zhaoyong, Zhang; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Yimit, Hamid

2014-01-01

380

Preliminary results of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project, northeast United States and Maritime Provinces of Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of a soil geochemical survey of the Canadian Maritime provinces and the northeast states of the United States are described. The data presented are for the <2-mm fraction of the surface layer (0-5 cm depth) and C horizons of the soil. Elemental determinations were made by ICP-MS following two digestions, aqua regia (partial dissolution) and a strong 4-acid mixture (near-total dissolution). The preliminary results show that Hg and Pb exhibit elevated abundances in the surface layer, while As and Ni exhibit abundances that can be attributed to the geological provenance of the soil parent materials.

Grunsky, Eric C.; Smith, David B.; Friske, Peter W.B.; Woodruff, Laurel G.

2009-01-01

381

The origin of lead in the organic horizon of tundra soils: atmospheric deposition, plant translocation from the mineral soil or soil mineral mixing?  

PubMed

Knowledge of the anthropogenic contribution to lead (Pb) concentrations in surface soils in high latitude ecosystems is central to our understanding of the extent of atmospheric Pb contamination. In this study, we reconstructed fallout of Pb at a remote sub-arctic region by using two ombrotrophic peat cores and assessed the extent to which this airborne Pb is able to explain the isotopic composition ((206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio) in the O-horizon of tundra soils. In the peat cores, long-range atmospheric fallout appeared to be the main source of Pb as indicated by temporal trends that followed the known European pollution history, i.e. accelerated fallout at the onset of industrialization and peak fallout around the 1960s-70s. The Pb isotopic composition of the O-horizon of podzolic tundra soil ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.170 ± 0.002; mean ± SD) overlapped with that of the peat ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.16 ± 0.01) representing a proxy for atmospheric aerosols, but was clearly different from that of the parent soil material ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.22-1.30). This finding indicated that long-range fallout of atmospheric Pb is the main driver of Pb accumulation in podzolic tundra soil. In O-horizons of tundra soil weakly affected by cryoturbation (cryosols) however, the input of Pb from the underlying mineral soil increased as indicated by (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios of up to 1.20, a value closer to that of local soil minerals. Nevertheless, atmospheric Pb appeared to be the dominant source in this soil compartment. We conclude that Pb concentrations in the O-horizon of studied tundra soils - despite being much lower than in boreal soils and representative for one of the least exposed sites to atmospheric Pb contaminants in Europe - are mainly controlled by atmospheric inputs from distant anthropogenic sources. PMID:21820157

Klaminder, Jonatan; Farmer, John G; MacKenzie, Angus B

2011-09-15

382

Quantifying soil and critical zone variability in a forested catchment through digital soil mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying catchment-scale soil property variation yields insights into critical zone evolution and function. The objective of this study was to quantify and predict the spatial distribution of soil properties within a high-elevation forested catchment in southern Arizona, USA, using a combined set of digital soil mapping (DSM) and sampling design techniques to quantify catchment-scale soil spatial variability that would inform interpretation of soil-forming processes. The study focused on a 6 ha catchment on granitic parent materials under mixed-conifer forest, with a mean elevation of 2400 m a.s.l, mean annual temperature of 10 °C, and mean annual precipitation of ~ 85 cm yr-1. The sample design was developed using a unique combination of iterative principal component analysis (iPCA) of environmental covariates derived from remotely sensed imagery and topography, and a conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS) scheme. Samples were collected by genetic horizon from 24 soil profiles excavated to the depth of refusal and characterized for soil mineral assemblage, geochemical composition, and general soil physical and chemical properties. Soil properties were extrapolated across the entire catchment using a combination of least-squares linear regression between soil properties and selected environmental covariates, and spatial interpolation or regression residual using inverse distance weighting (IDW). Model results indicated that convergent portions of the landscape contained deeper soils, higher clay and carbon content, and greater Na mass loss relative to adjacent slopes and divergent ridgelines. The results of this study indicated that (i) the coupled application of iPCA and cLHS produced a sampling scheme that captured the greater part of catchment-scale soil variability; (ii) application of relatively simple regression models and IDW interpolation of residuals described well the variance in measured soil properties and predicted spatial correlation of soil properties to landscape structure; and (iii) at this scale of observation, 6 ha catchment, topographic covariates explained more variation in soil properties than vegetation covariates. The DSM techniques applied here provide a framework for interpreting catchment-scale variation in critical zone process and evolution. Future work will focus on coupling results from this coupled empirical-statistical approach to output from mechanistic, process-based numerical models of critical zone process and evolution.

Holleran, M.; Levi, M.; Rasmussen, C.

2015-01-01

383

Relevant magnetic and soil parameters as potential indicators of soil conservation status of Mediterranean agroecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main sources of magnetic minerals in soils unaffected by anthropogenic pollution are iron oxides and hydroxides derived from parent materials through soil formation processes. Soil magnetic minerals can be used as indicators of environmental factors including soil forming processes, degree of pedogenesis, weathering processes and biological activities. In this study measurements of magnetic susceptibility are used to detect the presence and the concentration of soil magnetic minerals in topsoil and bulk samples in a small cultivated field, which forms a hydrological unit that can be considered to be representative of the rainfed agroecosystems of Mediterranean mountain environments. Additional magnetic studies such as isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and thermomagnetic measurements are used to identify and characterize the magnetic mineralogy of soil minerals. The objectives were to analyse the spatial variability of the magnetic parameters to assess whether topographic factors, soil redistribution processes, and soil properties such as soil texture, organic matter and carbonate contents analysed in this study, are related to the spatial distribution pattern of magnetic properties. The medians of mass specific magnetic susceptibility at low frequency (?lf) were 36.0 and 31.1 × 10-8 m3 kg-1 in bulk and topsoil samples respectively. High correlation coefficients were found between the ?lf in topsoil and bulk core samples (r = 0.951, p < 0.01). In addition, volumetric magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ in the field (?is) and values varied from 13.3 to 64.0 × 10-5 SI. High correlation coefficients were found between ?lf in topsoil measured in the laboratory and volumetric magnetic susceptibility field measurements (r = 0.894, p < 0.01). The results obtained from magnetic studies such as IRM, ARM and thermomagnetic measurements show the presence of magnetite, which is the predominant magnetic carrier, and hematite. The predominance of superparamagnetic minerals in upper soil layers suggests enrichment in pedogenic minerals. The finer soil particles, the organic matter content and the magnetic susceptibility values are statistically correlated and their spatial variability is related to similar physical processes. Runoff redistributes soil components including magnetic minerals and exports fine particles out the field. This research contributed to further knowledge on the application of soil magnetic properties to derive useful information on soil processes in Mediterranean cultivated soils.

Quijano, Laura; Chaparro, Marcos A. E.; Marié, Débora C.; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

2014-09-01

384

Genetic features of soils in the basin of Lake Kotokel, the Transbaikal region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of the soils and the specific features of the pedogenesis in the basin of Lake Kotokel have been studied. The specificity of the pedogenesis and soil cover patterns in the lake basin are controlled by the altitudinal zonation, the diversity of parent materials, and the influence of air masses from Lake Baikal. Gray metamorphic soils and raw-humus burozems developed under taiga vegetation in the mountains predominate in the basin of Lake Kotokel. The coastal landscapes and river valleys are occupied by swampy and meadow alluvial soils. The genetic features of the major soils have been characterized on the basis of field descriptions, laboratory data, and special macro- and micromorphological studies.

Balsanova, L. D.; Gyninova, V. B.; Tsybikdorzhiev, Ts. Ts.; Gonchikov, B.-M. N.; Shakhmatova, E. Yu.

2014-07-01

385

Parental Bonding Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The view that those with obsessive compulsive disorder or obsessional personality have been exposed to overcontrolling and overcritical parenting is examined. Two measures of obsessionality (the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory and the Leyton Obsessionality Inventory) were completed by 344 nonclinical subjects. They also scored their parents on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), a measure assessing perceived levels of parental care and

L. C. Cavedo; G. Parker

1994-01-01

386

Parental Involvement. IDRA Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter contains seven articles about meaningful participation by parents, particularly Hispanic and other minority parents, in the education of their children. "Parents Reclaiming Their Schools: New Initiative Brings Parents Together for Better Schools" (Aurelio M. Montemayor) describes objectives and activities of a Texas-based coalition…

IDRA Newsletter, 1994

1994-01-01

387

School Parent Involvement Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This school parent involvement policy is divided into three sections: (1) Development and Adoption of the Parent Involvement Policy; (2) Contents of the Parent Involvement Policy; and (3) Distributing and Revising the School's Parent Involvement Policy. This paper presents the provision of the Section 1118 of Title I of the No Child Left Behind…

Center for Law and Education (NJ3), 2005

2005-01-01

388

Involving Latino Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes barriers to Latino parent involvement in educational activities, factors to consider when involving Latino parents, and two examples of Latino involvement programs in California: Family Literacy Workshop at James Monroe Elementary School, Madera Unified School District, and Parents Take P.A.R.T. (Parent Assisted Reading Training) at…

Quezada, Reyes L.; Diaz, Delia M.; Sanchez, Maria

2003-01-01

389

Children of Incarcerated Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The arrest and imprisonment of a parent is significant trauma for children, and children of incarcerated parents are at high risk for juvenile delinquency. This book for social workers, psychologists, and others who work with children whose parents are incarcerated examines parental incarceration, its impact on children, care and placement of…

Gabel, Katherine, Ed.; Johnston, Denise, Ed.

390

Parents and the media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we analysed the effects of parental social background and family composition on various types of parental media socialization. We employed the Family Survey Dutch Population 1998, 2000 and 2003 (N=2608), and analysed respondents’ reports of socialization practices in their parental home. Respondents from high-status families report more extensive parental media socialization in all highbrow and guidance activities.

Natascha Notten; Gerbert Kraaykamp

2009-01-01

391

Categories of Parent Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing interest in effective parent involvement has produced several ways to classify or describe ways parents are or should be involved. This article reviews and evaluates Ira Gordon's systems approach, the California-based System Development Corporation's categories, Eugenia H. Berger's parental role categories, Chavkin and Williams' parent

Bauch, Jerold P.

1994-01-01

392

Parent Hearing Aid Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

2012-01-01

393

A Chance to Parent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While parents with disabilities may face big challenges, with appropriate supports, many can be great parents. Just like other parents, they do not have to be responsible for every part of childrearing all by themselves. All parents rely on supports to help raise their children, such as day care, carpools, schools, babysitting co-ops, or advice…

Yuan, Susan; Brillhart, Lindsay; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

394

Living with a Single Parent  

MedlinePLUS

... Body Works Main Page Living With a Single Parent KidsHealth > Kids > Feelings > My Home & Family > Living With ... parents can be a great idea, too. Single Parents and Work Single parents are often working parents ...

395

Soil processes and functions across an international network of Critical Zone Observatories: Introduction to experimental methods and initial results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth in human population and demand for wealth creates ever-increasing pressure on global soils, leading to soil losses and degradation worldwide. Critical Zone science studies the impact linkages between these pressures, the resulting environmental state of soils, and potential interventions to protect soil and reverse degradation. New research on soil processes is being driven by the scientific hypothesis that soil processes can be described along a life cycle of soil development. This begins with formation of new soil from parent material, development of the soil profile, and potential loss of the developed soil functions and the soil itself under overly intensive anthropogenic land use, thus closing the cycle. Four Critical Zone Observatories in Europe have been selected focusing research at sites that represent key stages along the hypothetical soil life cycle; incipient soil formation, productive use of soil for farming and forestry, and decline of soil due to longstanding intensive agriculture. Initial results from the research show that soil develops important biogeochemical properties on the time scale of decades and that soil carbon and the development of favourable soil structure takes place over similar time scales. A new mathematical model of soil aggregate formation and degradation predicts that set-aside land at the most degraded site studied can develop substantially improved soil structure with the accumulation of soil carbon over a period of several years. Further results demonstrate the rapid dynamics of soil carbon; how quickly it can be lost, and also demonstrate how data from the CZOs can be used to determine parameter values for models at catchment scale. A structure for a new integrated Critical Zone model is proposed that combines process descriptions of carbon and nutrient flows, a simplified description of the soil food web, and reactive transport; all coupled with a dynamic model for soil structure and soil aggregation. This approach is proposed as a methodology to analyse data along the soil life cycle and test how soil processes and rates vary within, and between, the CZOs representing different life cycle stages. In addition, frameworks are discussed that will help to communicate the results of this science into a more policy relevant format using ecosystem service approaches.

Banwart, Steven; Menon, Manoj; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Bloem, Jaap; Blum, Winfried E. H.; Souza, Danielle Maia de; Davidsdotir, Brynhildur; Duffy, Christopher; Lair, Georg J.; Kram, Pavel; Lamacova, Anna; Lundin, Lars; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.; Novak, Martin; Panagos, Panos; Ragnarsdottir, Kristin Vala; Reynolds, Brian; Robinson, David; Rousseva, Svetla; de Ruiter, Peter; van Gaans, Pauline; Weng, Liping; White, Tim; Zhang, Bin

2012-11-01

396

The Influence of Dentist and Nondentist Parents on Dental Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study supported three hypotheses, that students with dentist parents: (1) receive greater reinforcement of their education; (2) interact more with their parents on dentally related material; and (3) perceive greater well-being during their dental school years. A fourth hypothesis, that students with dentist parents earn better grades, was not…

Romberg, Elaine; And Others

1983-01-01

397

Cultural Approaches to Parenting  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting. PMID:22962544

Bornstein, Marc H.

2012-01-01

398

Reconceptualizing Parent Involvement: Parent as Accomplice or Parent as Partner?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policy statements of the last two decades have directed schools to enter into partnerships with parents to enhance the social, emotional, and academic growth of their children. However, in practice and scholarship, parental involvement has been constructed as attendance to school-based activities and needs. This article draws on data from an…

Stitt, Nichole M.; Brooks, Nancy J.

2014-01-01

399

Oxygen isotopes unravel the role of microorganisms in phosphate cycling in soils.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) is considered the ultimate limiting nutrient for plants in most natural systems and changes in the distribution of inorganic and organic P forms during soil development have been well documented. In particular, microbial activity has been shown to be an important control on P cycling but its contribution in building up the pool of plant-available P during soil development is still poorly quantified. To determine the importance of different biological processes on P cycling, we analyzed the isotopic composition of oxygen in phosphate (?(18)O-Pi) from the parent material, soil microorganisms, the available P pool, and from the vegetation along a 150-year soil chronosequence of a glacier forefield. Our results show that at all sites, ?(18)O-Pi of microbial Pi is within the range expected for the temperature-dependent equilibrium between phosphate and water. In addition, the isotopic signature of available Pi is close to the signature of microbial Pi, independently of the contribution of parent material Pi, vegetation Pi or Pi released from organic matter mineralization. Thus, we show that phosphate is cycled through soil microorganisms before being released to the available pool. This isotopic approach demonstrates for the first time in the field and over long time scales, and not only through controlled experiments, the role of the microbial activity in cycling of P in soils. PMID:22545923

Tamburini, Federica; Pfahler, Verena; Bünemann, Else K; Guelland, Kathi; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Frossard, Emmanuel

2012-06-01

400

Direct estimates of pedogenic magnetite as a tool to reconstruct past climates from buried soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in magnetic properties of buried soils can be used to reconstruct past climatic conditions during paleosol formation. Most methods, however, are based on comparisons between the magnetically enriched upper soil horizons and the magnetically unaltered parent material. In thin loess-paleosol sequences such a comparison can be problematic because all horizons, soil and underlying loess, may be affected to varying degrees by pedogenesis. We propose two direct estimates of pedogenic magnetite based on the analysis of anhysteretic remanent magnetization ratios (?ARM/isothermal remanent magnetization) and coercivity distributions. These estimates are independent of any information regarding the parent material and are possible if pedogenic minerals have similar magnetic properties throughout the study region. This condition seems to be met throughout the Midwestern United States and a few loessic soils elsewhere. The remanence-carrying part of pedogenic magnetite is composed of single-domain particles with consistent, well-constrained magnetic properties. These particles are extremely well dispersed in the soil matrix as indicated by the absence of noticeable magnetostatic interaction effects. Our analyses of over 70 modern loessic soil profiles demonstrate that the abundance of pedogenic magnetite correlates well with modern climate and that the method is suited for reconstruction of past climates from paleosols.

Geiss, Christoph E.; Egli, Ramon; Zanner, C. William

2008-11-01

401

Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions and Parenting Practices  

PubMed Central

A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the Five-Factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the five personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process. PMID:21443335

Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

2011-01-01

402

Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

2006-01-01

403

The distribution of organic material and its contribution to the micro-topography of particles from wettable and water repellent soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic coatings on mineral particles will mask the physic-chemical properties of the underlying mineral surface. Surface images and force measurements obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM) provide information about the nature of and variability in surfaces properties at the micro- to nano-scale. As AFM technology and data processing advance it is anticipated that a significant amount of information will be obtained simultaneously from individual contacts made at high frequency in non-contact or tapping mode operation. For present purposes the surfaces of model materials (smooth glass surfaces and acid-washed sand (AWS)) provide an indication of the dependency of the so-called AFM phase image on the topographic image (which is obtained synoptically). Pixel wise correlation of these images reveals how the modulation of an AFM probe is affected when topographic features are encountered. Adsorption of soil-derived humic acid (HA) or lecithin (LE), used here as an example for natural organic material, on these surfaces provides a soft and compliant, albeit partial, covering on the mineral which modifies the topography and the response of an AFM tip as it partially indents the soft regions (which contributes depth to the phase image). This produces a broadening on the data domain in the topographic/phase scatter diagram. Two dimensional classifications of these data, together with those obtained from sand particles drawn from water repellent and wettable soils, suggest that these large adsorbate molecules appear to have little preference to attach to particular topographic features or elevations. It appears that they may effectively remain on the surface at the point of initial contact. If organic adsorbates present a hydrophobic outer surface, then it seems possible that elevated features will not be immune from this and provide scope for a local, albeit, small contribution to the expression of super-hydrophobicity. It is therefore speculated here that the water repellency of a soil is the result of not only of particle surface chemistry and soil pore space geometry, but also of the micro-topography generated by organic material adsorbed on particle surfaces.

Bryant, Rob; Cheng, Shuying; Doerr, Stefan H.; Wright, Chris J.; Bayer, Julia V.; Williams, Rhodri P.

2010-05-01

404

Magnetic properties of agricultural soil in the Pearl River Delta, South China - Spatial distribution and influencing factor analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental magnetism has been widely applied to soil science due to its speediness, non-destructiveness and cost-effectiveness. However, the magnetic investigation of agricultural soil, so closely related to human activity, is limited, most probably because of its complexity. Here we present a magnetic investigation of 301 agricultural soil samples collected from the Pearl River Delta (PRD, 112°E-115°E and 22°N-24°N), China. The results showed that both low and high coercivity magnetic minerals coexist in agricultural soil. The values of concentration-dependent parameters, low-field susceptibility (?lf), anhysteretic remanence magnetization susceptibility (?ARM), and saturation isothermal remanence magnetization (SIRM) were much higher in the PRD plain than in the surrounding areas. The S-ratio (S- 300) showed a similar spatial pattern to the