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Relationship of soil properties to parent material and landscape position in eastern Madre de Dios, Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of soils in the eastern part of Madre de Dios, Peru, were characterized and related to landscape position and parent material texture. Level uplands, dissected side slopes and recent flood plains dominate the topography in this region. Soil textures vary from clayey to sandy, depending on the texture of sedimentary materials from which each pedon formed. Parent material textural

L. J Osher; S. W Buol



Climatic controls on soil hydraulic properties along soil chronosequences on volcanic parent material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil development is influenced by physical and chemical weathering processes and accumulation of eolian sediment. These weathering processes have often been examined using chronosequences that take advantage of deposited lava flows ranging in age. These studies typically characterize the physical and sometimes chemical properties, but rarely have these studies examined how hydraulic properties change with time. In addition, many of these studies occur in tropical climates where weathering occurs rapidly; relatively little is known about weathering processes in cool dry climates. This is important not only to understand how water and energy move in these water limited systems, but also to understand how they might change as climate patterns shift. The objectives of this research were to 1) measure and model the soil water retention, ?(h), and hydraulic conductivity, K(h), functions across a chronosequence of cinder cone sites in a cold desert region, 2) compare soil hydraulic properties across soil ages to examine how soil development in semi-arid climates moderates soil hydraulic processes, and 3) compare soil hydraulic characteristics in a dryland environment to those of a wet tropical climate across similarly aged lava flows. We contrast 2.1, 6.9 and 13.9 ka cinder cones soils at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument, Idaho, USA. Soil development at COTM is sparse and is concentrated in joints and crevices of the basalt. The soils contrast slightly in texture with age. The young (2.1 ka) soils are coarser grained with at least 20% greater sand content than the older (6.9, 13.9 ka) soils. Preliminary hydraulic modeling suggests that older soils have lower ? values than younger soils. This is likely due to a higher bulk density values from higher accumulations of secondary minerals in the old soils from loess input. The models show that the air entry points (?) occur at lower tensions in the young soils, likely caused by a greater pore size distribution. We observe that ? decreases with age, and ? occurs at higher tensions. Soil horizons are developed dominantly on the cinder cones. These model estimates appear to match well with preliminary field measurements. Tropical climates enhance the weathering of basaltic parent material. The mean annual precipitation in the Hawaiian site is 2500 mm, and 310 mm at COTM. Accumulation of rainfall increases the weathering rate of the parent material. Using previous work characterizing the physical characteristics of soil across the Hawaii chronosequence to model the contrasting soils, we found that the 0.3 and 20 ka Hawaii soils had similar hydraulic properties; ? values were approximately 0.45 cm3/cm3 and Ks values were 6 cm/hr. However, these Hawaiian soils contrasted and were quantitatively lower than the entire COTM chronosequence. At the 2.1 ka COTM soil, Ks was 17 cm/hr and ? was 0.52-0.65 cm3/cm3 whereas at the 13.9 ka soil, Ks was 12 cm/hr and ? was 0.52 cm3/cm3. The 0.3 ka Hawaiian soil had a 20-30% higher silt content than the 2.1 ka COTM soil. Our models help quantify rates of soil development and hydraulic properties developed through time on volcanic parent materials.

Beal, L. K.; Lohse, K. A.; Godsey, S.; Huber, D. P.



Composition of organic solutes and respiration in soils derived from alkaline and non-alkaline parent materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parent material greatly influences pedogenesis and soil nutrient availability and consequently we hypothesized that it would significantly affect the amount of organic solutes in soil, many of which have been implicated in rhizosphere processes linked to plant nutrient uptake. Consequently, we investigated the influence of two contrasting parent materials in which calcite was present or absent (alkaline and non-alkaline soils)

K. Nambu; P. A. W. van Hees; D. L. Jones; S. Vinogradoff



Landscape formation and soil genesis in volcanic parent materials in humid tropical lowlands of Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of volcanism on landscape genesis, and formation of soils on volcanic parent material was studied in the Atlantic lowland of Costs Rica. This lowland is a subduction basin of tectonic origin, in which thick alluvial and marine sediments are accumulated. At its southwestern side it is bordered by active volcanoes. The climate of the area is hot and

A. Nieuwenhuyse



Relationship between the parent material and the soil, in plain and mountainous areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important tasks of the soil is the nutrition of plants. This function is determinated by those parts of the geological media on what is the soil situated and from what the soil was formed (those two can be different). Soil can be formed definitely just from sediment, so it is more proper to speak about parent material than parent rock. Soil forming sediment is defined as the loose sediment on the surface, which is the upper layer of near-surface rocks in flat and hilly regions, and it is the upper layer of the sediment-ensemble situated on the undisturbed bedrock in mountainous areas. Considering its origin, these sediments could be autochthon or allochton. Soil forming is determinated, besides other factors (climate, elevation, vegetation, etc.), by the parent material, which has a crucial influence on the type, quality and fertility of soils through its mineral composition, physical and chemical characteristics. Agrogeological processes happen in the superficial loose sediments in mountainous areas, but the underlying solid rock (where on the surface or close to it, there is solid rock), has an effect on them. The plain and hilly regions covered by thick loose sediment and the areas build up by solid rock and covered with thinner loose sediment in mountainous areas should be searched separately. In plain areas the near-surface formations have to be studied as a whole down to the saturated zone, but at least to 10 m. In regions of mountain and mountain fronts, the thickness, the composition and genetics of the young unconsolidated sediments situated above the older solid rocks have a vital importance, and also the relations among the soils, soil forming sediments and the base rocks have to be understood.

Kerek, Barbara; Kuti, Laszlo; Dobos, Timea; Vatai, Jozsef; Szentpetery, Ildiko



Vertical distribution and pools of microbial residues in tropical forest soils formed from distinct parent materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of soil microbial residues to stable carbon pools may be of particular importance in the tropics where carbon\\u000a residence times are short and any available carbon is rapidly utilized. In this study we investigated the vertical distribution\\u000a of microbially-derived amino sugars in two tropical forests on contrasting meta-sedimentary and serpentinite parent materials\\u000a in the lowlands of Mt. Kinabalu,

Lindsey K. Moritz; Chao Liang; Rota Wagai; Kanehiro Kitayama; Teri C. Balser



Shrubby Reed-Mustard Habitat: Parent Material, Soil, and Landscape Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrubby reed-mustard (Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, a.k.a. Schoenocrambe suffrutescens, Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, or Hesperidanthus suffrutescens) is an endangered perennial shrub endemic to the southern Uinta Basin in northeast Utah. Only seven populations of shrubby reed-mustard have been identified. The arid area where the plant grows is rich in natural gas and oil deposits, as well as oil shale. Oil wells already dot the landscape, and there is significant concern that further development of these resources will threaten the continued existence of shrubby reed-mustard. Determination of the parent material, soil and landscape characteristics associated with shrubby reed-mustard habitat is imperative to facilitate conservation management. Shrubby reed-mustard grows where little else does and, based on field observations and remotely sensed spectral data, appears to occur in a particular type of strata. Our objective is to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of shrubby reed-mustard's environment. Site characteristics such as parent material and associated vegetation have been identified and documented. Soil properties such as water-soluble and total leachable elements, particle-size distribution, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus and potassium are being determined. During the course of this investigation, soils within four shrubby reed-mustard habitat areas were sampled. Soils from non-shrubby reed-mustard areas adjacent to the four shrubby reed-mustard populations were also sampled. Soil samples were collected from a total of twenty-five shrubby reed-mustard soil pits and twenty-four non-shrubby reed-mustard soil pits. The soil horizons of each pedon were delineated, and samples were collected from each horizon. Field data indicate that shrubby reed-mustard occurs exclusively in shale-derived, shallow soils on bedrock-controlled uplands. Although there is some overlap of plant species on both types of soils, soils that do not support shrubby reed-mustard are dominated by black sage, a species not found in shrubby reed-mustard habitat. To date, statistical analyses to compare shrubby reed-mustard sites and non-shrubby reed-mustard sites have included Mann-Whitney rank sum tests and t-tests. Statistical results to date show that chemical properties differ between shrubby reed-mustard and non-shrubby reed-mustard sites. Concentrations of several soluble and total metals were significantly higher in shrubby reed-mustard soils compared to adjacent soils, including copper, lead, nickel, and lithium. Soluble, total, and available phosphorus were significantly lower in shrubby reed-mustard soils than in non-shrubby reed-mustard soils. Elevated metals may be indicative of shrubby reed-mustard tolerance of these elements, while low phosphorus concentrations in shrubby reed-mustard soils may indicate that this plant can tolerate low-nutrient status soils. Additional laboratory analyses are underway to further characterize the habitat of shrubby reed-mustard. Descriptive analysis is continuing. Statistical analyses will be finalized upon completion of all laboratory tests. Based on these determinations, shrubby reed-mustard habitat will be better defined and understood, which will assist with the preservation of this endangered species in the face of further resource development.

Kelly, L. S.; Boettinger, J. L.



The chemistry and parent material of urban soils in Bristol (UK): implications for contaminated land assessment.  


An earlier survey of topsoil from parks and allotment in the city of Bristol (UK) revealed the presence of relatively high levels of "pseudo-total" Cd, As, Cu, Pb and Zn, with Cd and As exceeding present UK soil guidelines. This follow-up work aimed at (1) estimating geochemical thresholds for these elements based on "near-total" soil, bedrock and sediment heavy metals and (2) determining the genetic relationship between soil and bedrock using rare earth elements (REEs or lanthanides) as tracers. "Near-total" concentration of 34 elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Zn, Y and the rare earth elements Ce, Dy, Er, Eu, Gd, Ho, La, Lu, Nd, Pr, Sm, Tb, Yb) were obtained by ICP-MS and ICP-OES. The results show that the soil composition is largely controlled by the soil parent material, though extreme outliers are indicative of contamination at a few sites of parkland and allotments. Cumulative frequency plots show the presence of different data sets for which separate "background" values should be determined. The REE data provide evidence that weathering of the underlying sandstone was a determinant factor leading to the relatively high heavy metal enrichment found in soil samples and sediments. Reference to UK soil guidelines to decide on possible remediation measures could be very misleading due to the natural high background levels of some elements in the underlying bedrock. Before defining land as "contaminated", a thorough geochemical investigation is required at local scale in order to produce a more realistic and correct environmental assessment. PMID:22740127

Giusti, L



Impact of terrain attributes, parent material and soil types on gully erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gully erosion is a worldwide matter of concern because of the irreversible losses of fertile land, which often have severe environmental, economic and social consequences. While most of the studies on the gullying process have investigated the involved mechanisms (either overland flow incision, seepage or piping erosion), only few have been conducted on the controlling factors of gully wall retreat, an important, if not the dominant, land degradation process and sediment source in river systems. In a representative 4.4 km2 degraded area of the Drakensberg foothills (South Africa) the main objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the rate of gully bank retreat (GBR) and parent material, soil types and selected terrain attributes (elevation, specific drainage area, mean slope gradient, slope length factor, stream power index, compound topographic index and slope curvatures). The survey of gully bank retreat was performed during an entire hydrological year, from September 2007 to September 2008, using a network of pins (n = 440 from 110 pits). Both the gully contours and pin coordinates were determined, using a GPS with a 0.5 m horizontal accuracy (n = 20,120). The information on the parent material and the soil types was obtained from field observations complemented by laboratory analysis, while terrain attributes were extracted from a 20 m DEM generated from 5 m interval contour lines. The average GBR value for the 6512 m of gully banks found in the area was 0.049 ± 0.0013 m y- 1, which, considering bank height and soil bulk density, corresponded to an erosion rate of 2.30 ton ha- 1 y- 1. There was no significant difference in GBR between sandstone and dolerite and between Acrisols and Luvisols. Despite a weak one-to-one correlation with the selected terrain attributes (r < 0.2), a principal component analysis (PCA), the first two axes of which explained 68% of the data variability, pointed out that GBR was the highest at hillslope inflexion points (profile and plan slope curvatures close to zero), in the vicinity of the head cuts and for drainage areas up to 500 m2, as both situations experience a high removal rate of the soil material produced from the gully bank collapse and protecting gullies from laterally retreating. These results could be used to digitally map the more active gully banks for the improved implementation of preventive measures of gully growth, if high resolution DEMs are available. There remained, however, a certain amount of unexplained variability in the data, that further research studies on the mechanisms and associated factors of control of GBR could help to address.

Chaplot, Vincent



Multiscale analysis of nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms in soils developed over sandstone and basic parent materials with contrasting texture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mono- and multifractal analysis of soil nitrogen adsorption isotherms (NAI) have been proven to be useful, allowing a better characterization of soil surface properties and soil porous system. Multiscale analysis of nitrogen desorption isotherms (NDI), which was less frequently performed, can also provide very valuable information. The multifractal theory was used to analyse both soil adsorption and desorption isotherms from soils developed over contrasting parent material and with different texture. We sampled 32 soil horizons from 6 soil profiles in neighbouring sites from São Paulo State, Brazil. Three of the profiles, developed over sandstone, were sandy loam or loamy, whereas the other three profiles, developed over weathered sediments or basic parent material, were clayey textured. Soil specific surface area (SSA) varied, from about 3.0 to 46 m2 g-1. Surface parameters showed a strong correlation with clay content, but they were not correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC). The scaling properties of both nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms from all the studied soil horizons could be fitted reasonably well with multifractal models. Multifractal parameters from NAIs and NDIs showed great differences. The singularity spectra, f(?) of the desorption isotherms had an asymmetrically long left part and its asymmetry was in general higher compared with adsorption isotherms. Moreover, adsorption isotherms behaved like more clustered measures, showing lower entropy dimension, D1, smaller correlation dimension, D2, and higher heterogeneity than desorption isotherms. Differences in multifractal behaviour of NAIs and NDIs had been proven to be mainly related to the characteristics of the hysteretic loop measured at high relative pressures. Several multifractal parameters extracted from NAIs and NDIs also distinguished between sandy-loam and loam soils and clayey soils. Multifractal parameters calculated from NAIs and NDIs provide new insight to assess soil surface properties.

Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Marinho, Mara de A.; de Abreu, Cleide A.



Climate and Parent Material Influence on Development and Characteristics of Soils on Non-Calcareous Loess in Croatia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three profiles of the representative climax soils formed on non-calcareous loess (two Stagnic Cutanic Albeluvisols and one Luvic Stagnosol) were studied along the mean annual precipitation (MAP) gradient in the Pannonian region of Croatia. The purpose of the study was to compare the soil profiles' characteristics and to determine the main processes of their formation, in order to test the concept of soil climosequence on non-calcareous loess in this part of the Pannonian Basin. Each soil profile was opened on level plateau terrain and under well developed forest vegetation (Epimedio-carpinetum betuli community). The results pointed to several soil characteristics as consistent with the precipitation gradient. At the same time, given the merely partial uniformity of loess parent materials across the investigated transect, clay content and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil profiles studied did not correspond to the MAP gradient. Although all three soil profiles developed from pre-cycled and post-depositionally modified loess parent materials of same provenance, the uneven environmental conditions of eolian depositions caused variations in loess characteristics, i.e. formation of brown loess at the site of one analyzed profile and loess derivates at the sites of two remaining profiles. Therefore, climosequences sensu stricto could not have formed on non-calcareous loess in the Pannonian region of Croatia. Nevertheless, the effects of acidification and pseudogleization were found to be least expressed at the site with the lowest MAP, and most expressed at the site with the highest MAP. At the other hand, rate of lessivage, as the third major pedogenic process identified, did not increase along with the increase of MAP, i.e. it depended more on soil pH and clay mineralogy, than on the amount of precipitation. Keywords: Stagnosols; Albeluvisols; Loess derivates; Brown loess; Climosequence.

Rubinic, Vedran; Durn, Goran; Husnjak, Stjepan; Tadej, Neven



Classification of Moscow soils and parent materials and its possible inclusion in the classification system of Russian soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Law on Urban Soils was adopted by the Moscow Government in 2007. In the course of working out by-laws for its implementation, the systematization of Moscow soils was developed aimed at providing scientific grounds for the urban soils' inventory, mapping, and evaluation. The classification of Moscow soils comprises a description of the diagnostic horizons and soil types with the subtype subdivision fitting the principles of the new All-Russia soil classification. The authors hope that the developed system may trigger new discussions about the place of anthropogenically transformed soils and soil-like bodies in the Classification and Diagnostics of the Soils of Russia.

Prokofyeva, T. V.; Martynenko, I. A.; Ivannikov, F. A.



Soil production rates on silicate parent material in high-mountains: different approaches - different results?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-mountain soils develop in particularly sensitive environments. Consequently, deciphering and predicting what drives the rates of soil formation in such environments is a major challenge. In terms of soil production from chemical weathering, the predominating perception for high-mountain soils and cold environments often is that the chemical weathering 'portion' of soil development is temperature-inhibited, often to the point of non-occurrence. Several concepts exist to determine long-term rates of soil formation and development. We present three different approaches: (1) quantification of soil formation from minimally eroded soils of known age using chronosequences (known surface age and soil thickness - SAST), (2) determination of soil residence times (SRT) and production rates through chemical weathering using (un)stable isotopes (e.g. 230Th / 234U activity ratios), and (3) a steady state approach using cosmogenic isotopes (e.g. 10Be). Data form different climate zones, and particularly from high-mountains (alpine environment), were compared. The SAST and steady state approach gave quite similar results for alpine environments (European Alps and the Wind River Range (Rocky Mountains USA)). Soil formation rates in mountain areas (but having a temperate climate) using the SRT approach, did not differ greatly from the SAST and Steady State approaches. Independent of the chosen approach, the results seem moderately comparable. Soil formation rates in high-mountain areas (alpine climate) ranged from very low to extremely high values and showed a clear decreasing tendency with time. Very young soils have up to 3 - 4 orders of magnitude higher rates of development than old soils (105 to 106 years). This is due to the fact that weathering is kinetically limited in regions having young surfaces and supply limited on old surfaces. Soil production rates cannot be infinitely high. Consequently, a speed limit must exist. In the literature, this limit has been set at about 320 to 450 t km-2 yr-1. Our results show, however, that in alpine areas soil formation easily reaches rates of up to 1000 - 3000 t km-2 yr-1 using the SAST approach. These data are consistent with previous studies in mountain regions demonstrating that soils continue to develop with time, even under continuous seasonal snowpack and, thus, that the concept of 'temperature-controlled' soil development (soil-forming intervals) is spurious.

Egli, Markus; Dahms, Dennis; Norton, Kevin



Applying a new procedure to assess the controls on aggregate stability - including soil parent material and soil organic carbon concentrations - at the landscape scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aggregate stability is an important physical indicator of soil quality and influences the potential for erosive losses from the landscape, so methods are required to measure it rapidly and cost-effectively. Previously we demonstrated a novel method for quantifying the stability of soil aggregates using a laser granulometer (Rawlins et al., 2012). We have developed our method further to mimic field conditions more closely by incorporating a procedure for pre-wetting aggregates (for 30 minutes on a filter paper) prior to applying the test. The first measurement of particle-size distribution is made on the water stable aggregates after these have been added to circulating water (aggregate size range 1000 to 2000 µm). The second measurement is made on the disaggregated material after the circulating aggregates have been disrupted with ultrasound (sonication). We then compute the difference between the mean weight diameters (MWD) of these two size distributions; we refer to this value as the disaggregation reduction (DR; µm). Soils with more stable aggregates, which are resistant to both slaking and mechanical breakdown by the hydrodynamic forces during circulation, have larger values of DR. We made repeated analyses of DR using an aggregate reference material (RM; a paleosol with well-characterised disaggregation properties) and used this throughout our analyses to demonstrate our approach was reproducible. We applied our modified technique - and also the previous technique in which dry aggregates were used - to a set of 60 topsoil samples (depth 0-15 cm) from cultivated land across a large region (10 000 km2) of eastern England. We wished to investigate: (i) any differences in aggregate stability (DR measurements) using dry or pre-wet aggregates, and (ii) the dominant controls on the stability of aggregates in water using wet aggregates, including variations in mineralogy and soil organic carbon (SOC) content, and any interaction between them. The sixty soil sampling locations were selected based on the quantities of SOC from previous analysis (on samples collected at sites across the entire region). We chose the samples to encompass a wide range of SOC concentrations (1.2-7%) within each of six strongly contrasting soil parent material (PM) groups (sandstone, mudstone, clay, chalk, limestone and marine alluvium). The DR values (calculated using re-scaled size distributions for particle diameters < 500 µm) ranged from 17 to 151 µm. The co-efficient of variation for DR analyses using fourteen aliquots of the RM was reasonably small (21 %). The PM groups accounted for a larger proportion of the variation in DR than SOC concentrations; together they accounted for around 50% of the variation in DR values. There was no evidence to include an interaction term between PM and SOC concentration. The proportion of clay-sized particles in the material after sonication was not a statistically significant predictor of DR. Pre-wetting the aggregates typically resulted in substantially smaller values of DR by comparison to using air-dried aggregates in our test. We suggest that the effects of differential clay swelling as a disruptive force during the wetting stage are greater than those associated with slaking (fragmentation due to trapped air). We believe this rapid (duration after the wetting procedure is 10 minutes), reproducible test could could be an effective means to monitor changes in this important soil property and improve predictions of soil erosion. Reference: Rawlins, B. G., Wragg, J. & Lark, R. M. 2012. Application of a novel method for soil aggregate stability measurement by laser granulometry with sonication. European Journal of Soil Science, 64, 92-103.

Turner, Gren; Rawlins, Barry; Wragg, Joanna; Lark, Murray



Soils as Construction Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This geotechnical project will introduce you with the concept of using soils as construction materials.This project involves characterizing soils using various laboratory analyses and applying the Unified Soil Classification System in naming the soil. Keywords: Geotechnical, Mass Wetness, Grain Size Analysis, Atterberg Limits

Kowalewski, Douglas


Using Soil Surveys to Map Quaternary Parent Materials and Landforms across the Des Moines Lobe of Iowa and Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of soil survey maps with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) allows for an almost infi nite level of collaboration across disciplines that use information related to soil databases. The ability to link databases with geospatial delineations and to store unique information for individual delineations creates the opportunity for this information to serve many other areas of study. This study

Bradley A. Miller; C. Lee Burras; William G. Crumpton



The impact of parent material, climate, soil type and vegetation on Venetian forest humus forms: a direct gradient approach  

E-print Network

of litter horizons along a gradient of soil stoniness. Biological reasons for the observed environmental to the light of knowledge on annelid (earthworm and enchytraeid) ecology. Humus forms can be easily identified

Boyer, Edmond



E-print Network

IMPORTED SOIL OR SOIL-FORMING MATERIALS PLACEMENT BPG NOTE 5 Best Practice Guidance for Land Regeneration Introduction Many sites in the UK have been left with little or no soil cover suitable of heavy industry. Soil material initially present on a site may have been removed or stored in bunds


Rhizomes and fronds of Athyrium filix-femina as possible bioindicators of chemical elements from soils over different parent materials in southwest Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were measured in rhizomes and fronds of the fern Athyrium filix-femina in relation to the concentrations of the same elements in soils developed on various parent rocks in the Góry Kaczawskie mountains (southwest Poland). This species was sampled from sites on greenstone,

Aleksandra Samecka-Cymerman; Krzysztof Kolon; Andrzej Stankiewicz; Joanna Kaszewska; Lucyna Mróz; Alexander J. Kempers



Soil stabilization materials and methods  

SciTech Connect

For soil stabilization, a liquid applied to the surface of the soil rapidly polymerizes to form an elastomeric resin which bonds the soil particles together to form a tough composite structure within a time span of a few seconds to an hour, depending upon the composition of the soil stabilizer. The stabilizing materials are mixtures of dimer diisocyanate and dimer diamine, which react rapidly, and mixtures of dimer diisocyanate and a derivative of dimer diamine wherein the amine groups have been reacted with a ketone to form ketimine groups. The latter mixture, which reacts more slowly, may be premixed before application to soil surface. 5 claims.

Reed, R. Jr.; Moore, K.L.; Meyers, G.W.



Decomposition of different organic materials in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate organic C mineralization of various organic materials added to soils. A soil sample was mixed with organic material to approximate a field application of 9 g organic C kg-1 soil (0.9% or 50 Mg ha-1). The organic materials used were four crop residues [corn (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), sorghum (Sorghum

H. A. Ajwa; M. A. Tabatabai




EPA Science Inventory

The performance of a compacted soil liner is partly a function of the porosity, where the transport of materials through the liner occurs via the pore space. The project studies the pore spaces of compacted soil materials to estimate the effective porosity, which is the portion o...


Determination of Effective Porosity of Soil Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance of a compacted soil liner is partly a function of the porosity, where the transport of materials through the liner occurs via the pore space. The project studies the pore spaces of compacted soil materials to estimate the effective porosit...

R. Horton, M. L. Thompson, J. F. McBride



EPR-based material modelling of soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past few decades, as a result of the rapid developments in computational software and hardware, alternative computer aided pattern recognition approaches have been introduced to modelling many engineering problems, including constitutive modelling of materials. The main idea behind pattern recognition systems is that they learn adaptively from experience and extract various discriminants, each appropriate for its purpose. In this work an approach is presented for developing material models for soils based on evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR). EPR is a recently developed hybrid data mining technique that searches for structured mathematical equations (representing the behaviour of a system) using genetic algorithm and the least squares method. Stress-strain data from triaxial tests are used to train and develop EPR-based material models for soil. The developed models are compared with some of the well-known conventional material models and it is shown that EPR-based models can provide a better prediction for the behaviour of soils. The main benefits of using EPR-based material models are that it provides a unified approach to constitutive modelling of all materials (i.e., all aspects of material behaviour can be implemented within a unified environment of an EPR model); it does not require any arbitrary choice of constitutive (mathematical) models. In EPR-based material models there are no material parameters to be identified. As the model is trained directly from experimental data therefore, EPR-based material models are the shortest route from experimental research (data) to numerical modelling. Another advantage of EPR-based constitutive model is that as more experimental data become available, the quality of the EPR prediction can be improved by learning from the additional data, and therefore, the EPR model can become more effective and robust. The developed EPR-based material models can be incorporated in finite element (FE) analysis.

Faramarzi, Asaad; Alani, Amir M.



Response of plant species to coal-mine soil materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-year experiment was conducted on the Black Mesa Coal Mine near Kayenta, Arizona to investigate the growth and establishment of seven plant species in unmined soil (undisturbed soil) and coal-mine soil (spoils). Natural rainfall (20 cm\\/yr) and natural rainfull plus sprinkler irrigation (50 cm\\/yr) were the irrigation treatments applied to each soil material.

A. D. Day; T. C. Tucker; J. L. Thamest



Evaluation of an alternative bituminous material as a soil stabilizer  

E-print Network

granular base materials, the PRB material coated soil or aggregate particles and decreased the volume of voids, which can be thought as potential water flow channels. Consequently, the PRB material is expected to reduce permeability....

Kim, Yong-Rak



Content and distribution of lithium in La Pampa soils (Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extractable li with ammonium acetate was determined by flamephotometry, in normal soils, alkaline soils and saline soils in the Province of La Pampa (Argentina).The soils were originated from differents parent material, with various rainfalls (arid to subhumid climate) and management.The higher contents were found in saline soils. In the other soils the extractable lithium content depends on the parent material,

R. S. Lavado; J. A. González Quintana; G. G. Hevia



Soil Quality: Science and Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

parent materials, topographies, and biota, all acting over geologic time (Jenny, 1941). Inherent differences are The term soil quality (SQ) encompasses both a soil's productive well reflected by the soil series description of the U.S.

Michelle M. Wander; Gerald L. Walter; Todd M. Nissen; German A. Bollero; Susan S. Andrews; Deborah A. Cavanaugh-Grant




... plenty of suggestions on how to raise your child. From experts to other parents, people are always ... a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and listening to your child ...


Fly-Ash-Stabilized Gypsiferous Soil as an Embankment Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highway expansion project was proposed at the boundary of Texas and New Mexico State, where gypsum deposits are overlaid\\u000a almost the entire construction area. In order to use the local gypsiferous soil as a suitable embankment material, soil stabilization\\u000a using fly ash as an admixture was proposed. Even though the application of fly ash as a soil stabilizer started

Jie Zhang; Ruben Solis


Contrasting environmental memories by ancient soils on different parent rocks in the South-western Italian Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient soils (pre-Holocenic paleosols and vetusols) are uncommon on the Alps, because of the extensive Pleistocenic glaciations which erased most of the previously existing soils, the slope steepness and climatic conditions favoring soil erosion. However, in few sites, particularly in the outermost sections of the Alpine range, Pleistocene glaciers covered only small and scattered surfaces because of the low altitude reached in the basins, and ancient soils could be preserved for long periods of time on particularly stable surfaces. We described and sampled soils on 11 stable surfaces in the Upper Tanaro valley, Ligurian Alps (Southwestern Piemonte, Italy). The sampling sites were characterized by low steepness and elevation between 600 to 1600 m, under present day lower montane Castanea sativa/Ostrya carpinifolia forests, montane Fagus sylvatica and Pinus uncinata forests or montane heath/grazed grassland, on different substrata. In particular, we sampled soils developed on dolomite, limestone, quartzite, gneiss and shales. The soils were always well representative of the pedogenic trends active on the respective parent materials, i.e. the skeletal fraction in each soil was always composed of just one rock type, despite the proximity of lithological boundaries and the small dimensions of the different outcrops, often coexisting on the same stable surface. All the considered profiles showed signs of extremely long pedogenesis and/or different phases of intense pedogenesis interrupted by the deposition of periglacial cover beds in the steepest sites. Up to four phases of intense pedogenesis were recognized where cover beds were developed, presumably during cold Pleistocene phases, as present-day climate is not cold enough to create such periglacial morphologies. In such cases, each cover bed underwent similar pedogenesis, strongly dependent on the parent material: on quartzite, podzols with thick E horizons and well developed placic ones were formed in all phases except the most superficial one (i.e., Holocene phase), where non cemented spodic horizons or weakly cemented ortstein were formed; placic horizons were never found in Holocene soils. On limestone, each cover bed separated soils with extremely hard petrocalcic horizons overlaid by argillic ones. Where no cover beds were observed, podzols with extremely thick E horizons (up to more than 2 m thick) and a very hard, very thick ortstein were formed on quartzite. Red Nitisols-like or reddish brown Luvisols were formed on limestone and dolomite, while red, extremely acidic Alisols, with or without fragipan horizons were formed on shales. Very large stone circles and other large patterned ground features, which can be interpreted as evidence of past permafrost conditions, were preserved on coarse quartzitic conglomerate. These soils represent excellent pedo-signatures of different specific past climatic or environmental conditions, as a response of different lithologies to specific soil-forming environments, which range from warm and humid climates typical of red Luvisols and Nitisols, to cool and wet climates leading to the formation of Podzols with placic or ortstein horizons, to extremely cold and dry ones characterizing permafrost sites and often associated with fragipan formation, to warm and dry leading to the cementation of petrocalcic horizons. The precise dating and interpretation of these soils are intriguing.

D'Amico, Michele; Catoni, Marcella; Bonifacio, Eleonora; Zanini, Ermanno



Soil solid materials affect the kinetics of extracellular enzymatic reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION Soil solid materials affect the degradation processes of many organic compounds by decreasing the bioavailability of substrates and by interacting with degraders. The magnitude of this effect in the environment is shown by the fact that xenobiotics which are readily metabolized in aquatic environments can have long residence times in soil. Extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of cellobiose (enzyme: beta-glucosidase from

C. Lammirato; A. Miltner; M. Kästner



The susceptibility of parental and hybrid willows to plant enemies under contrasting soil nutrient conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted an experimental study of the effects of nutrient addition on the susceptibility of two species of willows (Salix \\u000a eriocephala and S. sericea) and their hybrid to a pathogen and several herbivores. We hypothesized that the relative susceptibility of parental and\\u000a hybrid willows would depend upon soil nutrient availability and vary among plant enemies. Using potted plants in a

C. M. Orians; T. Floyd



Artificial soil formation and stabilization of material cycles in closed ecological systems for Mars habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists are increasingly pressured to investigate novel ways in which to feed astronauts for the first mission to Mars in the 2030s. It is the aim of this thesis to conduct a preliminary investigation for soil formation of NASA JSC Mars-1A Regolith Simulant in an environmentally closed ecosystem to simulate plant growth within these initial habitats, and the prospect of soil formation from a Mars parent material for agricultural purposes. The rhizosphere and plant stress will be the main regions of research focus. It is hypothesized rhizosphere activity will determine the rate of stable soil formation adequate to support the agricultural needs of Mars's first human inhabitants. A Brassica rapa (Wisconsin FastPlant(TM)) was grown on several different substrates, and evaluated for plant stress, elemental analysis, soil fertility, and mineralogical analysis to identify the biogeochemical factors related to areas inside and outside of the rhizosphere, which affect soil formation. In addition, multiple plant generations were grown to investigate bioavailability of nutrients within the system, and lay down preliminary approaches for mathematical model development in order to predict & evaluate future conditions and applications under reduced resource availability situations. Overall, the story of early soil formation from a Mars regolith simulant is further defined to aid in the success of our first human adventurers to the red planet.

Borchardt, Joshua D.


Bibliotherapy for Children with Anxiety Disorders Using Written Materials for Parents: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current trial examined the value of modifying empirically validated treatment for childhood anxiety for application via written materials for parents of anxious children. Two hundred sixty-seven clinically anxious children ages 6-12 years and their parents were randomly allocated to standard group treatment, wait list, or a bibliotherapy…

Rapee, Ronald M.; Abbott, Maree J.; Lyneham, Heidi J.



The influence of carbonates in parent rocks on the biological properties of mountain soils of the Northwest Caucasus region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biological activity of different subtypes of soddy-calcareous soils (rendzinas) of the Northwest Caucasus region was studied. In the Novorossiisk-Abrau-Dyurso region (dry subtropics), typical soddy-calcareous soils with the high content of carbonates predominate; in the more humid conditions of the Lagonaki Plateau (Republic of Adygeya), leached soddy-calcareous soils carbonate-free down to the parent rock are spread. The number of microarthropods, the populations of fungi and bacteria, and the enzyme activity (catalase, dehydrogenase, and invertase) testify that the biological activity of these soils significantly differs. In the typical soddy-calcareous soils of the dry subtropics, the content of carbonates does not affect the characteristics mentioned; in the more humid conditions of the West Caucasus region, the presence of carbonates in the parent rocks intensifies the biological activity of the soddy-calcareous soils.

Kazeev, K. Sh.; Kutrovskii, M. A.; Dadenko, E. V.; Vezdeneeva, L. S.; Kolesnikov, S. I.; Val'kov, V. F.



On identifying parent plutonic rocks from lunar breccia and soil fragments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Breccia fragments expected from a well-studied boulder of Stillwater anorthosite have been modeled to test the ability to identify parental rock types from examination of breccia and soil fragments. Depending on their size, the boulder fragments give distributions that suggest mixtures of rock types, including monominerallic anorthosite with subordinant amounts of more gabbroic anorthosite, anorthosite, and gabbro for small fragments. The distribution of FeO in samples of lunar ferroan anorthosite (FAN) indicates that FAN has a heterogeneous distribution of mafic minerals like the boulder.

Haskin, Larry A.; Lindstrom, David J.



Study on quantitative retrieval of soil nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil spectral reflectance is affected by soil physicochemical characteristics and the physical basis of the soil remote sensing. Generally, the impact factors of the soil spectral features include water content, organic matter content, iron oxides content, physical composition and the parent material. In this study, a portable ASD FieldSpec Pro FR was used to collect the spectra of soil samples.

Heng Dong; Chao Chen; Jinliang Wang; Qiming Qin; Hongbo Jiang; Ning Zhang; Mingchao Liu



Soil solarization with biodegradable materials and its impact on soil microbial communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of soil solarization (SS), one of the most promising techniques for the control of soilborne pathogens, is seriously limited by the drawback regarding the disposal of the used plastic materials. A possible solution to this problem is the use of biodegradable plastics. The aim of this study was to make comparisons between the impact of SS performed with

Giuliano Bonanomi; Mario Chiurazzi; Silvia Caporaso; Giovanni Del Sorbo; Giancarlo Moschetti; Scala Felice



Determination of chemical warfare agents in soil and material samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas Chromatographic method for the determination of phenylarsenic compounds (sternutators) and their metabolites in soil\\u000a and material samples is described. The chemical warfare agents (CWA), but not their hydrolysis and oxidation products, can\\u000a be detected with GC\\/ECD. After derivatization with thiols or dithiols, the sum of diphenylarsenic and phenylarsenic compounds\\u000a can be determined with GC\\/ECD.\\u000a \\u000a The comparison of the

Rainer Haas; Alfred Krippendorf



Gender and Material Transfers between Older Parents and Children in Ismailia, Egypt  

PubMed Central

In Egypt, kin relations have been governed by a patriarchal contract, which defines expectations for intergenerational support along gendered lines. Social changes may be disrupting these customs and bringing attention to the ways gender may influence intergenerational support in rapidly changing contexts. Using data from 4,465 parent–child dyads in Ismailia, Egypt, we examined whether intergenerational material transfers favored women over men and whether gaps in needs and endowments accounted for gender differences in transfers. Fathers gave children money and goods more often than did mothers; mothers received material transfers from children more often than did fathers. Compared to sons, daughters made transfers to parents less often and received transfers from parents more often. We found residual advantages to mothers and daughters, even adjusting for differential needs and endowments. Findings corroborate persistent norms of gender complementarity, patrilocal endogamy, and reciprocation for women’s caregiving, despite changes that have threatened patriarchal rules of exchange. PMID:22448075

Yount, Kathryn M.; Cunningham, Solveig A.; Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily M.



Airborne particulate soiling of terrestrial photovoltaic modules and cover materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented for the first phase of a photovoltaic-module soiling study that was carried out with NASA participation to investigate the problem of the electrical performance degradation of flat-plate photovoltaic modules exposed at outdoor sites that is due to the accumulation of airborne particulates on sensitive optical surfaces. The results were obtained in both field and laboratory soiling experiments, as well as in materials field experiments using candidate encapsulants and top covers. It is concluded that: (1) the electrical performance degradation shows a significant time and site dependence, ranging from 2% to 60% power loss; (2) the rate of particulate accumulation appears to be largely material independent when natural removal processes do not dominate; (3) the effectiveness of natural removal processes, especially rain, is strongly material dependent; (4) top-cover materials of glass and plexiglass retain fewer particles than silicone rubber; and (5) high module voltages relative to ground do not appear to affect the rate of dirt accumulation on modules.

Hoffman, A. R.; Maag, C. R.



Microbiological destruction of composite polymeric materials in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Representatives of the same species of microscopic fungi developed on composite materials with similar polymeric matrices independently from the type of soils, in which the incubation was performed. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Clonostachys solani were isolated from the samples of polyurethane. Fusarium solani, Clonostachys rosea, and Trichoderma harzianum predominated on the surface of ultrathene samples. Ulocladium botrytis, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Fusarium solani predominated in the variants with polyamide. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus ochraceus, and Acremonium strictum were isolated from Lentex-based composite materials. Mucor circinelloides, Trichoderma harzianum, and Penicillium auranthiogriseum were isolated from composite materials based on polyvinyl alcohol. Electron microscopy demonstrated changes in the structure of polymer surface (loosening and an increase in porosity) under the impact of fungi. The physicochemical properties of polymers, including their strength, also changed. The following substances were identified as primary products of the destruction of composite materials: stearic acid for polyurethane-based materials; imide of dithiocarbonic acid and 1-nonadecen in variants with ultrathene; and tetraaminopyrimidine and isocyanatodecan in variants with polyamide. N,N-dimethyldodecan amide, 2-methyloximundecanon and 2-nonacosane were identified for composites on the base of Lentex A4-1. Allyl methyl sulfide and imide of dithiocarbonic acid were found in variants with the samples of composites based on polyvinyl alcohol. The identified primary products of the destruction of composite materials belong to nontoxic compounds.

Legonkova, O. A.; Selitskaya, O. V.



Adaptive transgenerational plasticity in an annual plant: grandparental and parental drought stress enhance performance of seedlings in dry soil.  


Stressful parental (usually maternal) environments can dramatically influence expression of traits in offspring, in some cases resulting in phenotypes that are adaptive to the inducing stress. The ecological and evolutionary impact of such transgenerational plasticity depends on both its persistence across generations and its adaptive value. Few studies have examined both aspects of transgenerational plasticity within a given system. Here we report the results of a growth-chamber study of adaptive transgenerational plasticity across two generations, using the widespread annual plant Polygonum persicaria as a naturally evolved model system. We grew five inbred Polygonum genetic lines in controlled dry vs. moist soil environments for two generations in a fully factorial design, producing replicate individuals of each genetic line with all permutations of grandparental and parental environment. We then measured the effects of these two-generational stress histories on traits critical for functioning in dry soil, in a third (grandchild) generation of seedling offspring raised in the dry treatment. Both grandparental and parental moisture environment significantly influenced seedling development: seedlings of drought-stressed grandparents or parents produced longer root systems that extended deeper and faster into dry soil compared with seedlings of the same genetic lines whose grandparents and/or parents had been amply watered. Offspring of stressed individuals also grew to a greater biomass than offspring of nonstressed parents and grandparents. Importantly, the effects of drought were cumulative over the course of two generations: when both grandparents and parents were drought-stressed, offspring had the greatest provisioning, germinated earliest, and developed into the largest seedlings with the most extensive root systems. Along with these functionally appropriate developmental effects, seedlings produced after two previous drought-stressed generations had significantly greater survivorship in very dry soil than did seedlings with no history of drought. These findings show that plastic responses to naturalistic resource stresses experienced by grandparents and parents can "preadapt" offspring for functioning under the same stresses in ways that measurably influence realized fitness. Possible implications of these environmentally-induced, inherited adaptations are discussed with respect to ecological distribution, persistence under novel stresses, and evolution in natural populations. PMID:22523124

Herman, Jacob J; Sultan, Sonia E; Horgan-Kobelski, Tim; Riggs, Charlotte



Processing lunar soils for oxygen and other materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two types of lunar materials are excellent candidates for lunar oxygen production: ilmenite and silicates such as anorthite. Both are lunar surface minable, occurring in soils, breccias, and basalts. Because silicates are considerably more abundant than ilmenite, they may be preferred as source materials. Depending on the processing method chosen for oxygen production and the feedstock material, various useful metals and bulk materials can be produced as byproducts. Available processing techniques include hydrogen reduction of ilmenite and electrochemical and chemical reductions of silicates. Processes in these categories are generally in preliminary development stages and need significant research and development support to carry them to practical deployment, particularly as a lunar-based operation. The goal of beginning lunar processing operations by 2010 requires that planning and research and development emphasize the simplest processing schemes. However, more complex schemes that now appear to present difficult technical challenges may offer more valuable metal byproducts later. While they require more time and effort to perfect, the more complex or difficult schemes may provide important processing and product improvements with which to extend and elaborate the initial lunar processing facilities. A balanced R&D program should take this into account. The following topics are discussed: (1) ilmenite--semi-continuous process; (2) ilmenite--continuous fluid-bed reduction; (3) utilization of spent ilmenite to produce bulk materials; (4) silicates--electrochemical reduction; and (5) silicates--chemical reduction.

Knudsen, Christian W.; Gibson, Michael A.



Materials Testing and Quality Control Soils, 3-28. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional package on material testing and quality control of soils has been adapted from military curriculum materials for use in technical and vocational education programs. This short course presents basic information on soils as well as exploration, field identification, and laboratory procedures that will enable students completing…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.


Workshop on Parent-Body and Nebular Modification of Chondritic Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics considered include: thermal Metamorphosed Antarctic CM and CI Carbonaceous Chondrites in Japanese Collections, and Transformation Processes of Phyllosilicates; use of Oxygen Isotopes to Constrain the Nebular and Asteroidal Modification of Chondritic Materials; effect of Revised Nebular Water Distribution on Enstatite Chondrite Formation; interstellar Hydroxyls in Meteoritic Chondrules: Implications for the Origin of Water in the Inner Solar System; theoretical Models and Experimental Studies of Gas-Grain Chemistry in the Solar Nebula; chemical Alteration of Chondrules on Parent Bodies; thermal Quenching of Silicate Grains in Protostellar Sources; an Experimental Study of Magnetite Formation in the Solar Nebula; the Kaidun Meteorite: Evidence for Pre- and Postaccretionary Aqueous Alteration; a Transmission Electron Microscope Study of the Matrix Mineralogy of the Leoville CV3 (Reduced-Group) Carbonaceous Chondrite: Nebular and Parent-Body Features; rubidium-Strontium Isotopic Systematic of Chondrules from the Antarctic CV Chondrites Yamato 86751 and Yamato 86009: Additional Evidence for Late Parent-Body Modification; oxygen-Fugacity Indicators in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Parent-Body Alteration or High-Temperature Nebular Oxidation; thermodynamic Modeling of Aqueous Alteration in CV Chondrites; asteroidal Modification of C and O Chondrites: Myths and Models; oxygen Fugacity in the Solar Nebular; and the History of Metal and Sulfides in Chondrites.

Zolensky, M. E. (Editor); Krot, A. N. (Editor); Scott, E. R. D. (Editor)



The Medical Geochemistry of Dusts, Soils, and Other Earth Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Town clenched in suffocating grip of asbestos"USA Today, article on Libby,Montana, February, 2000"Researchers find volcanoes are bad for your health… long after they finish erupting"University of WarwickPress Release, 1999"Toxic soils plague city - arsenic, lead in 5 neighborhoods could imperil 17,000 residents"Denver Post, 2002"Ill winds - dust storms ferry toxic agents between countries and even continents"Science News, 2002A quick scan of newspapers, television, science magazines, or the internet on any given day has a fairly high likelihood of encountering a story (usually accompanied by a creative headline such as those above) regarding human health concerns linked to dusts, soils, or other earth materials. Many such concerns have been recognized and studied for decades, but new concerns arise regularly.Earth scientists have played significant roles in helping the medical community understand some important links between earth materials and human health, such as the role of asbestos mineralogy in disease (Skinner et al., 1988; Ross, 1999; Holland and Smith, 2001), and the role of dusts generated by the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake in an outbreak of Valley Fever ( Jibson et al., 1998; Schneider et al., 1997).Earth science activities tied to health issues are growing (Skinner and Berger, 2003), and are commonly classified under the emerging discipline of medical geology (Finkelman et al., 2001; Selinus and Frank, 2000; Selinus, in press).Medical geochemistry (also referred to as environmental geochemistry and health: Smith and Huyck (1999), Appleton et al. (1996)) can be considered as a diverse subdiscipline of medical geology that deals with human and animal health in the context of the Earth's geochemical cycle ( Figure 1). Many medical geochemistry studies have focused on how chemical elements in rocks, soils, and sediments are transmitted via water or vegetation into the food chain, and how regional geochemical variations can result in disease clusters either through dietary deficiency of essential elements or dietary excess of toxic elements. (28K)Figure 1. Potential human exposure routes within the earth's geochemical cycle can come from a wide variety of both natural and anthropogenic sources. This chapter focuses on a somewhat narrower area of medical geochemistry: the study of mechanisms of uptake of earth materials by humans and animals and their reactions to these materials. In order for earth materials to affect health, they must first interact with the body across key interfaces such as the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and eyes. In some way, all of these interfaces require the earth materials to interact chemically with water-based body fluids such as lung fluids, gastrointestinal fluids, saliva, or blood plasma.The primary goal of this chapter, co-authored by a geochemist and a toxicologist, is to provide both geochemists and scientists from health disciplines with an overview of the potential geochemical mechanisms by which earth materials can influence human health. It is clear that significant opportunities for advancement in this arena will require continued and increased research collaborations between geochemists and their counterparts in the health disciplines.

Plumlee, G. S.; Ziegler, T. L.



Supplemental Material for Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No  

E-print Network

Supplemental Material for Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer Submitted to Geophysical Research Letters November, 2004 #12;- 1 - Ukrainian Soil Moisture Stations The individual soil moisture stations in the Ukraine are shown in Figure 1. The data are averaged into the 25

Robock, Alan



E-print Network

of the child's environment often investigated in a single study. The current study considered the direct influence of access to printed materials in the home, child responsiveness, and parental responsiveness on language development two time points in a sample...

Gould, Sara Rebecca



Measurement and modeling of energetic-material mass transfer to soil-pore water - Project CP-1227 final technical report.  

SciTech Connect

Military test and training ranges operate with live-fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low-order detonations also disperse solid-phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution. This final report documents the results of experimental and simulation model development for evaluating mass transfer processes from solid-phase energetics to soil-pore water.

Stein, Joshua S.; Sallaberry, Cedric M.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Phelan, James M.; Hadgu, Teklu



Long-Term Effects of Fluidized Bed Combustion Material Applied at Disposal Levels on Soil Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to assess changes in soil properties of a soil that received a one-time application (360 Mg ha) of fluidized bed combustion material (FBCM) 23 years earlier. Soil samples were taken at three depths (0–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm). Samples were also collected from an adjacent field with the same soil type for control. Hot nitric acid

Eton E. Codling; Akanksha W. Raja




EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory tests were conducted with three separate pollutants (phenol, arsenic trioxide, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and two soils of widely different characteristics (sand/gravel/silt/clay and organic loam) to evaluate techniques for cleansing soil contaminated with r...


Soils and Fertilizers. Competency Based Teaching Materials in Horticulture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based curriculum unit on soils and fertilizers is one of four developed for classroom use in teaching the turf and lawn services area of horticulture. The four sections are each divided into teaching content (in a question-and-answer format) and student skills that outline taking soil samples, testing samples, preparing soil for…

Legacy, Jim; And Others


Physicochemical properties of earthworm casts and uningested parent soil from selected sites in southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms modify both the physical and chemical properties of soils. In a study on the possible modification of soil properties by earthworms, earthworm casts and uningested A and B soil horizons from three sites in southwestern Nigeria were analysed for selected physical and chemical properties. The casts were derived from the earthworm species Hyperiodrilus africanus. Results were analysed by a

D. J. Oyedele; P. Schjønning; A. A. Amusan



Element concentrations in soils and other surficial materials of Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mean concentrations of 35 elements, ash yields, and pH have been estimated for samples of sils and other unconsolidated surficial materials from 266 collection locations throughout Alaska. These background values can be applied to studies of environmental geochemistry and health, wildlife management, and soil-forming processes in cold climates and to computation of element abundances on a regional or worldwide scale. Limited data for an additoinal eight elements are also presented. Materials were collected using a one-way, three-level, analysis-of-variance samplling design in which collecting procedures were simplified for the convenience of the many volunteer field workers. The sample collectors were asked to avoid locations of known mineral deposits and obvious contamination, to take samples at a depth of about 20 cm where possible, and to take a replicate sample about 100 m distant from the first sample collected. With more than 60 percent of the samples replicated and 14 percent of the samples split for duplicate laboratory analyses, reliable estimates were made of the variability in element concentrations at two geographic scales and of the error associated with sample handling and laboratory procedures. Mean concentrations of most elements in surficial materials from the state of alaska correspond well with those reported in similar materials from the conterminous United STatess. Most element concentrations and ranges in samples of stream and lake sediments from Alaska, however, as reported in the literature, do not correspond well with those found in surficial materials of this study. This lack of correspondence is attributed to (1) a merger of two kinds ofsediments (stream and lake) for calculating means; (2) elimination from the sediment mean calculations of values below the limit of quantitative determination; (3) analytical methods different from those of the surficial materials study; and (4) most importantly, the inherent differences in chemistry of the materials. The distribution of variability in element concentrations o Alaskan surficial-material samples was, for most elements, largely among sampling locations, with only a samll part of the variability occurring between replicate samples at a location. The geochemical uniformity within sampling locations in Alaska is an expression of uniform geochemical cycling processes within small geographic areas. The concentration values for 35 elements in 266 samples were plotted on maps by symbols representing classes of concentration frequency distributions. These plotted symbols form patterns that may or may not be possible to interpret but nevertheless show differences that are observable at several geographical scales. The largest pattern is one generally low concentrations of many elements in materials from arctic and oceanic tundra regions, as contrasted to their often high concentrations in samples from interior and southeastern Alaska. The patttern for sodium isespecially pronounced. Intermediate-sized patterns are shown, for example, by the generally high values for magnesium and low values for silicon in the coastal forest region of southeastern Alaska. Many elements occur at low concentratoins in samples from the Alaskan peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. The degree of confidence in patterns of element abundance is expected to be in direct proportion to the number of samples included in the area. As the patterns become smaller, the probability increases that the patterns are not reproducible.

Gough, L.P.; Severson, R.C.; Shacklette, H.T.



Mobile system for extracting spilled hazardous materials from excavated soils. Final report Dec 76-Apr 82  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were conducted with three separate pollutants (phenol, arsenic trioxide, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and two soils of widely different characteristics (sand/gravel/silt/clay and organic loam) to evaluate techniques for cleansing soil contaminated with released or spilled hazardous materials. The tests show that scrubbing of excavated soil on site is an efficient approach for freeing soils of certain contaminants but that the effectiveness depends on the washing fluid (water + additives) and on the soil composition and particle size distribution. Based on the test results, a full-scale, field-use system was designed, engineered, fabricated, assembled, and briefly tested; the unit is now ready for field demonstrations.

Scholz, R.; Milanowski, J.



All the Children are Above Average: Parents' Perceptions of Education and Materialism as Media Effects on their Own and Other Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research shows parents manifest parental third-person perceptions on behalf of their children; that is, they believe their children are less affected by media sex and violence than other children. This study (N = 171) found parental third-person perceptions for materialism effects of television and parental first-person perceptions for advanced educational effects of public television. Perceptions of materialism effects on one's own

Patrick C. Meirick; Jeanetta D. Sims; Eileen S. Gilchrist; Stephen M. Croucher



Soil: The Living Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil is often defined as the surface layer of the Earth that is exploited by roots. Another definition of it involves referencing\\u000a the factors involved in soil genesis—the parent material, the relief and climate of the area, the organisms involved, and\\u000a time. On the other hand, soil, according to its traditional meaning, is the natural medium for the growth of

Helwig Hohl; Ajit Varma


Building with Local Materials: Stabilized Soil and Industrial Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the chemical stabilization of the soil to produce building units such as bricks, tiles, paving roads and wall plaster. The stabilizers used are Portland cement and industrial wastes with latent hydraulic and pozzolanic properties. Mixes are designed depending on the mineralogical composition of the soil. The durability of the mixes is evaluated through testing the compressive strength

H. Y. Ghorab; A. Anter; H. El Miniawy



Airborne particulate soiling of terrestrial photovoltaic modules and cover materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented for the first phase of a photovoltaic-module soiling study that was carried out with NASA participation to investigate the problem of the electrical performance degradation of flat-plate photovoltaic modules exposed at outdoor sites that is due to the accumulation of airborne particulates on sensitive optical surfaces. The results were obtained in both field and laboratory soiling experiments,

A. R. Hoffman; C. R. Maag



Economic Development Planning for Single Parents. Curriculum Materials for Vocational Teachers of Adolescents and Single Parents. Special Emphasis on Meeting the Needs of the Teen Parent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended for use in school-based intervention programs intended to help single parents (particularly teenagers who are expecting or already have a child) master basic money management and consumer skills. The guide is divided into sections dealing with the following topics: interpersonal relationships, value clarification,…

Simpson, Kawanna J.; And Others


Income Is Not Enough: Incorporating Material Hardship Into Models of Income Associations With Parenting and Child Development  

PubMed Central

Although research has clearly established that low family income has negative impacts on children’s cognitive skills and social – emotional competence, less often is a family’s experience of material hardship considered. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 (N = 21,255), this study examined dual components of family income and material hardship along with parent mediators of stress, positive parenting, and investment as predictors of 6-year-old children’s cognitive skills and social – emotional competence. Support was found for a model that identified unique parent-mediated paths from income to cognitive skills and from income and material hardship to social – emotional competence. The findings have implications for future study of family income and child development and for identification of promising targets for policy intervention. PMID:17328694

Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Aber, J. Lawrence; Raver, C. Cybele; Lennon, Mary Clare



Income is not enough: incorporating material hardship into models of income associations with parenting and child development.  


Although research has clearly established that low family income has negative impacts on children's cognitive skills and social-emotional competence, less often is a family's experience of material hardship considered. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (N=21,255), this study examined dual components of family income and material hardship along with parent mediators of stress, positive parenting, and investment as predictors of 6-year-old children's cognitive skills and social-emotional competence. Support was found for a model that identified unique parent-mediated paths from income to cognitive skills and from income and material hardship to social-emotional competence. The findings have implications for future study of family income and child development and for identification of promising targets for policy intervention. PMID:17328694

Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Aber, J Lawrence; Raver, C Cybele; Lennon, Mary Clare



What Is Soil?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Soil is the solid material on Earth's surface that results from the interaction of weather and biological activities with the underlying geologic formation. Soil is produced from broken down rocks, organic matter (decayed animal and plant life), water, and air. Soil generally loosens from its parent material at a rate of one centimeter every 250 to 2,500 years. This lesson encourages students to think about the differences in soil. The Table of Contents, Preface, and a section that describes how to use this book are included in this free selection.



A combined procedure for recovering phytoliths and starch residues from soils, sedimentary deposits and similar materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented is a combined procedure for recovering phytoliths and starch residues from soils, sedimentary deposits and similar materials. It is designed to be reliable, simple and time efficient, and is outlined in detail and summary as a practical, step-by-step method. It has been carried out successfully on many types of soils and other deposits, including clays, silts and sands; waterlogged,

M. Horrocks




EPA Science Inventory

The Chlorophyta assay, which uses soil as sample material, has been a useful bioassessment technique for screening hazardous waste site problems. n eluate is prepared from a 125-gram soil sample and then diluted into three separate concentrations prior to being tested using Selen...


Detection of tritium sorption on four soil materials Yanguo Teng a,b  

E-print Network

Detection of tritium sorption on four soil materials Yanguo Teng a,b , Rui Zuo a,b,*, Jinsheng Wang and Remediation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875, China c Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, it is important to understand the sorption behavior of tritium on soils. In this study, batch tests were carried

Hu, Qinhong "Max"


Effect of amending materials on growth of radish plant in salinized soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical Na levels in soil which restricted seed germination and growth of radish, and effect of the amending materials on reducing the salinity hazard were determined by performing petri dish and pot experiments. The plants were grown in amended salinized soil in a phytotron for 21 days. Excess accumulation of Na in cells suppressed seed germination and plant growth.

G. Shokohifard; K. Sakagami; R. Hamada; S. Matsumoto



Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Soils Engineering 3-1. Edition 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This individualized, self-paced course for independent study in soils engineering was adapted from military curriculum materials for use in vocational education. The course is designed to acquaint students with various soil types and their characteristics using various procedures, tests, and recording forms. Some of these duties are determining…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.


Bioremediation of soils, sludges, and materials contaminated with toxic metals or radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation stabilizes and reclaims radionuclide or toxic metal-contaminated materials, soils, sediments, or wastes; it then recovers the contaminating radionuclides and metals. Waste materials are stabilized and reduced in volume using anaerobic bacteria; or alternatively, materials are treated with citric acid before bioremediation begins. Photolysis is used after bioremediation to release radionuclides.

Francis, A.J.



Promoting Prenatal and Early Childhood Health: Evaluation of a Statewide Materials-Based Intervention for Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. There is a critical need for effective, large-scale health communi- cation programs to support parents of children aged 0-5 years. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Kit for New Parents, a multimedia health and parenting re- source now distributed annually to 500 000 parents in California. Methods. In this quasi-experimental study, 462 mothers in the intervention group and 1011

Linda Neuhauser; Wendy L. Constantine; Norman A. Constantine; Karen Sokal-Gutierrez; Susan K. Obarski; Lacy Clayton; Mona Desai; Gerald Sumner; S. Leonard Syme



Adolescent Connections: A Guide to Selecting Resource Materials for Parents of Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1989, ParentLink has been devoted to supporting Missouri families and children by working with community teams to promote and support parenting efforts through a variety of means. Noting the widespread problem with high-risk behavior among Missouri adolescents and the importance of communication between parents and their adolescents in…

Sheriff, Christine M.


Trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the relation of trace element concentrations in soil to those in house mice (Mus musculus), common reed (Phragmites australis) and ladybugs (Coccinella septempunctata) at five disposal facilities for dredged material. The sites had a wide range of soil trace element concentrations, acid soils and a depauperate fauna. They were very poor wildlife habitat because they were dominated by the common reed. Bioassay earthworms exposed to surface soils from three of the five sites died, whereas those exposed to four of five soils collected a meter deep survived, presumably because the deeper, unoxidized soil, was not as acid. Concentrations of Ni and Cr in the biota from each of the sites did not seem to be related to the concentrations of the same elements in soil. Although Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in biota were correlated with those in soil, the range of concentrations in the biota was quite small compared to that in soil. The concentrations of Pb detected in mice were about as high as the concentrations previously reported in control mice from other studies. Mice from the most contaminated site (530 ppm Pb in soil) contained only slightly more Pb (8 ppm dry wt) than did mice (2-6 ppm dry wt) from sites containing much less Pb (22-92 ppm in soil). Despite the acid soil conditions, very little Cd was incorporated into food chains. Rather, Cd was leaching from the surface soil. We concluded that even the relatively high concentrations of trace elements in the acid dredged material studied did not cause high, concentrations of trace elements in the biota.

Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.; Simmers, J.W.



Detection of tritium sorption on four soil materials.  


In order to measure groundwater age and design nuclear waste disposal sites, it is important to understand the sorption behavior of tritium on soils. In this study, batch tests were carried out using four soils from China: silty clays from An County and Jiangyou County in Sichuan Province, both of which could be considered candidate sites for Very Low Level Waste disposal; silty sand from Beijing; and loess from Yuci County in Shanxi Province, a typical Chinese loess region. The experimental results indicated that in these soil media, the distribution coefficient of tritium is slightly influenced by adsorption time, water/solid ratio, initial tritium specific activity, pH, and the content of humic and fulvic acids. The average distribution coefficient from all of these influencing factors was about 0.1-0.2 mL/g for the four types of soil samples. This relatively modest sorption of tritium in soils needs to be considered in fate and transport studies of tritium in the environment. PMID:21194813

Teng, Yanguo; Zuo, Rui; Wang, Jinsheng; Hu, Qinhong; Sun, Zongjian; Zeng, Ni



Geotechnical characteristics of residual soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual soils are products of chemical weathering and thus their characteristics are dependent upon environmental factors of climate, parent material, topography and drainage, and age. These conditions are optimized in the tropics where well-drained regions produce reddish lateritic soils rich in iron and aluminum sesquioxides and kaolinitic clays. Conversely, poorly drained areas tend towards montmorillonitic expansive black clays. Andosols develop

Frank C. Townsend



Availability of applied heavy metals as a function of type of soil material and metal source  

SciTech Connect

The authors applied the heavy metals Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn, as sulfate salts and as lime-stabilized, digested Washington, D.C., sewage sludge, to surface and subsurface horizon materials of six Maryland soils in the greenhouse. Rates of metal addition were equivalent to field rates of 224 metric tons (t)/ha of the sludge. Corn (Zea mays L.) was grown for 30 d, 13 mo after treatment application, and the tissue was analyzed for metals. Yields of plant material were generally enhanced by sludge and suppressed by metal salts. Tissue levels of both Cd and Zn were considerably elevated. In general the sludge did not elevate tissue Cu and Ni, whereas metal salts slightly elevated tissue Cu and Ni with some soil materials. An interaction between type of soil material and source of metal on plant tissue metal levels was observed. Essentially inert soil materials tended to produce tissue with the highest metal levels when metal-salt-treated, but with the lowest metal levels when sludged. Conversely, reactive soil materials, tended to produce tissue with relatively lower levels of metals than other materials when metal-salt-treated, but with relatively high levels when sludged.

Korcak, R.F.; Fanning, D.S.



Chemical and vegetative stabilization of soils: Laboratory and field investigations of new materials and methods for soil stabilization and erosion control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted on chemical stabilization of soils, and revegetation methods and materials for erosion control. Results of the study indicate that through chemical and vegetative stabilization of disturbed soils, sediment production can be reduced, fertile top soil preserved, and a more environmentally acceptable condition achieved after construction is completed.

W. R. Morrison; L. R. Simmons



Theoretical Analysis of the Soiling of "Nonstick" Organic Materials  

E-print Network

of the organic "soils", mineral oils are representedbyhexadecane,octane,andp-xylene;essential oils by d-R-pinene (turpentine); triglyceride-based veg- etable oils and animal fats by olive oil and sunflower oil (lard and butter fat have very similar dielectric properties to olive oil); fatty acids by 22-tricosenoic acid

Chan, Derek Y C


The effects of television advertising on materialism, parent–child conflict, and unhappiness: A review of research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we introduce a model on the unintended effects of advertising. This model describes the existing hypotheses about the impact of advertising on (a) materialism, (b) parent–child conflict, and (c) unhappiness. The validity of each of these hypotheses was investigated using a vote-counting analysis. Our analyses yielded a small to moderate effect size for the relation between advertising

Moniek Buijzen; Patti M Valkenburg



Soil Materials and Health: An new experience for teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cationic clays are very extended compounds on the earth surface so they constitute the main component of soils and sedimentary rocks. Due to their presence and special properties that they have, mankind has used them with therapeutic aims from Prehistory, not being rare to find references to this subject in works of classic authors. During the Renaissance and with the appearance of the first Pharmacopeia, its use was regulated to a certain extent. The scientific development reached during the XXth century has allowed to understand and to study the reasons of the useful and peculiar properties of clays, directly related to their colloidal size and crystalline structure. These properties are translated in a high specific surface area, optimal rheological properties and/or excellent sorptive capacity; everything makes cationic clays very useful for a wide range of applications. In the field of health, cationic clays are used in Pharmaceutical Technology and Dermopharmacy as ideal excipients and substances of suitable biological activity due to their chemical inertness and low or null toxicity for the patient (Carretero, 2002; Lopez Galindo et al., 2005; Choy et al., 2007; del Hoyo, 2007). Cationic clays can be used in a wide range of applications in health. However, it must be also considered that the risk exposure to cationic clays may cause several diseases, as it has been seen above. Cationic clays have been used as excipients and active principles in the pharmaceutical industry. The last tendencies are their use in geomedicine, as much to come up as to treat diseases. One stands out his presence in spas and aesthetic medicine. Development of new pharmaceutical formulations is observed, based on cationic clays, for cancer therapy. It has to emphasize the importance in the synthesis of biosensors with cationic clays. Cationic clays can be considered a group of promising materials in the development of new health applications. The study of the use of the cationic clays in the field of the health is a source to develop numerous studies of cases in the teaching of different subjects related to the geoscience and a new opportunity to connect the learning with the reality. References -Carretero, MI 2002. Clay Minerals and Their Beneficial Effects upon Human Health. A review. Appl. Clay Sci. 21, pp. 155-163. -Choy, J.H., Choi, S.J., Oh, J.M., Park, T. 2007. Clay minerals and layered double hydroxides for novel biological applications. Appl. Clay Sci. 36 pp. 122-132. -Del Hoyo, C. 2007. Layered double hydroxides and human health: An overview. Appl. Clay Sci. 36, pp. 103-121. -Lopez-Galindo, A., Viseras Iborra, C. & Cerezo Gonzalez, P. 2005. Arcillas y salud. In: Conferencias de la XIX Reunion de la Sociedad Espanola de Arcillas. Rives, Ed., pp. 15-18.

Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen



Factor analysis of the elemental composition of Pteridium aquilinum from serpentine and granite soils as a tool in the classification of relations between this composition and the type of parent rock in the ?l??a Massif in Lower Silesia, Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of the elements N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Mo, Cd and Pb were measured in serpentine and granite soils and in the fern Pteridium aquilinum sampled from the ?l??a Massif in Lower Silesia, Poland. The serpentine soils were typical for serpentine soils in general with deficiency of K and Ca and excess of Mg, Ni and Cr. The principal component analysis (PCA) ordination based on the matrix of concentrations of elements in plants growing on serpentine and granite soils enabled the identification of the parent material from which ferns in this study were collected. This method indicated that the ferns from granite soils were distinguished by higher concentrations of Mo and Pb, while those from serpentine soils were distinguished by higher concentrations of Mg, Ni, Cr and Co. These differences in bioaccumulation reflect the higher concentrations of total and plant-available forms of Mg, Ni, Cr, Co in serpentinite and the higher concentrations of total Mo and total and plant-available Pb in granites as reported in literature. The different parent material types in the ?l??a Massif on which the investigated soils were developed influence the concentration and type of elements accumulated in P. aquilinum.

Samecka-Cymerman, A.; Garbiec, K.; Kolon, K.; Kempers, A. J.



Correspondence and Least Squares Analyses of Soil and Rock Compositions for the Viking Lander 1 and Pathfinder Sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Correspondence and Least Squares Mixing Analysis techniques are applied to the chemical composition of Viking 1 soils and Pathfinder rocks and soils. Implications for the parent composition of local and global materials are discussed.

Larsen, K. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Clark, B. C.



Recycling contaminated soil as alternative raw material in cement facilities: Life cycle assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcanic soil can be used to remove metals from wastewaters. Once used, it is disposed in landfills. The utilization of this material in the cement industry as an alternative raw material was evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. This possibility has been studied from an environmental point of view in a Chilean cement facility, representative of the current operation

R. Navia; B. Rivela; K. E. Lorber; R. Méndez



The effect of organic materials on the mobility and toxicity of metals in contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic materials such as compost are often proposed as suitable materials for the remediation of contaminated brownfield sites intended for soft end-use. In addition to vitalising the soil, they are also believed to immobilise metals thereby breaking contaminant-receptor pathways and reducing the ecotoxicity of the contaminants. However, some research has demonstrated contradictory effects between composts on metal immobilisation. In the

René van Herwijnen; Tim Laverye; Jane Poole; Mark E. Hodson; Tony R. Hutchings



Lunar surface: identification of the dark mantling material in the Apollo 17 soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence indicates that Apollo 17 sample 74001, a soil consisting of ; very dark spheres, is composed almost entirely of the dark mantling material that ; covers a large region of the southeastern boundary of Mare Serenitatis. Other ; Apollo 17 samples contain only a component of this material. The underlying ; basalt in the Taurus- Littrow valley appears to

C. Pieters; T. B. McCord; M. P. Charette; J. B. Adams



Geobotanical discrimination of ultramafic parent materials An evaluation of remote sensing techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Color and color infrared aerial photography and imagery acquired from a Daedalus DEI-1260 multispectral airborne scanner were employed in an investigation to discriminate ultramafic rock types in a test site in southwest Oregon. An analysis of the relationships between vegetation characteristics and parent materials was performed using a vegetation classification and map developed for the project, lithologic information derived from published geologic maps of the region, and terrain information gathered in the field. Several analytical methods, including visual image analysis, band ratioing, principal components analysis, and contrast enhancement and subsequent color composite generation were used in the investigation. There was a close correspondence between vegetation types and major rock types. These were readily discriminated by the remote sensing techniques. It was found that ultramafic rock types were separable from non-ultramafic rock types and serpentine was distinguishable from non-serpentinized peridotite. Further investigations involving spectroradiometric and digital classification techniques are being performed to further identify rock types and to discriminate chromium and nickel-bearing rock types.

Mouat, D. A.; Morrissey, L. A.; Horn, E. M.



The Use of Soil Forming Factors in the Development of Soil Taxonomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past and present roles of the five soil-forming factors in creating categories in USDA Soil Taxonomy have been analyzed. The factorial and genetic approach is clearly present in Soil Taxonomy, but was not so evident in the 7th Approximation of 1960. Soil climate is the most important factor in Soil Taxonomy. Climate is used at the highest level to define two of the 12 soil orders: Aridisols, the soils of the dry regions, and Gelisols, the permafrost-affected soils and is also used to differentiate suborders in eight of the remaining orders. Parent material is used to fully define two orders: Histosols and Andisols, and partially to define the suborders in the Entisol order (Fluvents, Psamments). Only one group of organisms, the worms (Verm-), is used at the great-group and subgroup levels in several orders. Relief and time are not used in defining taxa in Soil Taxonomy. Three of the eight epipedons are defined on the basis of parent material (folistic, histic, melanic), two on the basis of human activities (anthropic and plaggen), and two from the interaction of climate and vegetation (mollic and umbric). Of the 19 subsurface horizons, 11 originate from the interaction of climate and parent material. This analysis reveals there is an imbalance in the utilization of the soil-forming factors in Soil Taxonomy, with an emphasis on climate and parent material.

Bockheim, JG; Gennadiyev, AN; Hartemink, Alfred E.; Brevik, Eric C.



Soils - Part 1: The Origin and Development of Soil(How Soil Gets a Life and a Name)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, you will gain an understanding of the five soil forming factors and will be able to describe how each influences soil development. You will learn to identify common parent materials, determine the age of a soil, identify the types of native vegetation associated with different soils in Nebraska and define soil horizons.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.


Preparation and characterization of a soil reference material from a mercury contaminated site for comparability studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation and characterization of a soil reference material (SOIL-1) from a site polluted with mercury due to the past mercury mining in Idrija, Slovenia is reported. Homogeneity tests and intercomparison exercises for total (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were performed. In addition, selective sequential extraction was applied for Hg fractionation, and multielemental analyses were performed by k0 standardization neutron activation

David Kocman; Nicolas S. Bloom; Hirokatso Akagi; Kevin Telmer; Lars Hylander; Vesna Fajon; Vesna Jereb; Radojko Ja?imovi?; Borut Smodiš; Justinian R. Ikingura; Milena Horvat



Diverse Chemical Zoning Trends in Acapulco Chromites: How Many Sources for the Parental Materials?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acapulco is considered to be a link between primitive chondritic meteorites and the differentiated achondrites. Its parent body presumably formed by accretion of material of chondritic compositions at an fO2 that lies between that of H- and enstatite chondrites [1]. The accreted chondritic material was subjected 4.557 Gyr ago to peak temperatures close to 1200 degrees C that lead to partial melting and extensive recrystallization [1, 2]. Seven morphologically different types of graphite with large variations in C- and N-isotopic compositions were recently reported from Acapulco [3, 4]. At least four distinct isotopic reservoirs are required to explain the C- and N-isotopic compositions of these graphites [3, 4]. While the silicate minerals in Acapulco have isotopically heavy N (delta^(15)N = + 15 per mil) chromites were found to be isotopically light (delta^(15)N = _ 75 to _ 82 per mil). Chromite occurs in Acapulco in six different assemblages: (1) as inclusions in silicates, (2) in FeNi, (3) in troilite, (4) with FeNi and troilite, (5) with FeNi and silicates, and (6) with troilite and silicates. It is also rarely present as small idiomorphic inclusions in plagioclase. Chromites in contact with silicates display no chemical zoning for Cr, Al, Ti, Fe, Mg, Mn, or Zn to the silicate borders thus indicating high degree of equilibration with the silicate neighbours. The MgO-contents of chromites in metals and troilites (4.74 to 7.2 %) are relatively lower and their compositional ranges are relatively wider than those in contact with silicates (6.1 to 7.69 %). Zoning profiles of MgO and FeO in chromites in all assemblages are quite flat. Chromites in contact with metals and troilite display a variety of zoning patterns of Cr, Al, Ti, and Zn. All these chromite types , however, depict the same MnO zoning trends with low MnO-contents in their cores (0.96 to 2.14 %) than in their rims to metal or troilite (1.7 to 3.1 %). With few exceptions, the zoning behaviour of Cr, Al, and Ti does not follow a substitutional scheme. Chromites with reverse Cr-zoning (61.3 wt. % Cr2O3 in the cores and 63.2 Wt. % Cr2O3 at the rims ) may have either flat Al2O3 - patterns (5.46 - 5.53 wt. %) or normal zoning trends (5.6 wt. % in the core and 4.81 wt. % at the rim). Some grains display prominent complementary Cr2O3- and Al2O3- zoning patterns (62.2 % wt. Cr2O3 and 2.9 wt. % Al2O3 in the Core; 58.9 wt. % Cr2O3 and 5.7 wt. % Al2O3 at the rim). In those grains the zoning profiles of TiO2 and ZnO (Figure 1) are similar to those of Al2O3 (in the core 1.33 wt. % TiO2, 1.63 wt. % ZnO; at the rim 0.67 wt. % TiO2, 1.24 wt. % ZnO). The well developed zoning of Cr, Al, Ti, Mn, and Zn from the cores of chromites to their borders to FeNi and troilite and the variability of the zoning patterns in assemblages containing FeNi and troilite indicate that the encountered zoning types reflect the primordial chemistry of these chromites in the parental material before melting. We have delineated six different types of zoning in Acapulco chromites so far. None of the encountered zoning patterns could have developed by crystallisation from a chondritic melt. The present results support the previous findings [3, 4] that several sources must have had contributed to the parental material of Acapulco. However, genetic correlations between the isotopically different graphite morphologies and the various chromites in Acapulco could not be established so far. References: [1] Zipfel et al. (1995) GCA, in press. [2] G"pel D. et al. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 226. [3] El Goresy A. et al. (1995) Nature, 373, 496-499.[4] El Goresy A. and Zinner E. K. (1995) LPS XXVI, 367-368. [5] Sturgeon G. and Marti K. (1991) Proc. LPS, Vol. 21, 523-525. [6] Kim Y. and Marti K. (1994) LPS XXV, 703-704. Fig.1. Zoning profiles for Cr2O3, Al2O3, MnO, ZnO, and TiO2 in chromite # 1 enclosed in troilite.

El Goresy, A.; Janicke, J.



The Nature of Phosphorus in Calcareous Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

alcareous soils are common in arid and semi-arid climates and occur as inclusions in more humid regions, af- fecting over 1.5 billion acres of soil world- wide and comprising more than 17% of the soils in the U.S. Calcareous soils are identi- fied by the presence of the mineral calcium carbonate (CaCO3 or lime) in the parent material and an

A. B. Leytem; R. L. Mikkelsen


Effect of wetting on the collapsibility and shear strength of tropical residual soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual soils with extensive weathering of parent materials can yield collapsible soil deposits. In Malaysia, residual granite and sedimentary rock soils occur extensively, i.e. cover more than 80\\\\% of the country's land area. These types of soil have a high possibility to collapse when wetted. This paper described a study that had been carried out to examine the effect of

Bujang B. K. Huat; Azlan A. Aziz; Faisal H. Ali; Nor Azwati Azmi



Soil type and land use intensity determine the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to test whether soil types can be characterized by their arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities. To answer this question, a well-defined study area in the temperate climatic zone of Central Europe was chosen with a large spectrum of soils and parent materials. Representative soil samples were taken from three soil types (Cambisol, Fluvisol and

Fritz Oehl; Endre Laczko; Arno Bogenrieder; Karl Stahr; Robert Bösch; Marcel van der Heijden; Ewald Sieverding



Spatial Variability of Soil Total Nutrients in a Tobacco Plantation Field in Central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial variability of soil total nutrient levels, which may be greatly affected by parent material, plays an important role in both agriculture and environment, especially with regard to soil fertility and soil quality. Little research has been done that addresses the spatial characteristics of total nutrients. Soil samples (0–20 cm) were taken from 111 points on an approximately 20-m

Jiang Hou-Long; Liu Guo-Shun; Wang Rui; Shi Hong-Zhi; Hu Hong-Chao



An inventory of carbon storage in forest soil and down woody material of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program conducts an annual forest inventory which includes measurements of down and dead wood and soil characteristics as indicators of forest health. Both indicators are measured on a systematic nationwide array of approximately 7800 plots where each one may represent up to 38,850 ha. Between 10 and 20% of these plots are measured every year. The down woody material indicator includes measurements of coarse and fine downed and deadwood. Carbon (C) storage in these down woody materials is estimated using line intersect biomass estimators and C conversion constants. The soil quality indicator is based on a range of statistically based methods including volumetric sampling of the forest floor and the collection of mineral soil cores representing depth increments of 0-10 and 10-20 cm. Carbon content of the soil samples is determined by dry combustion. We combined indicator measurements collected over 3 years (2001-2003) to estimate the C storage in soil and down wood in forests of the United States. Preliminary results suggest that as much as 80 Mg ha-1 of C may be stored in forest soil and down woody material in some locations. Carbon storage by component is roughly ranked as follows: 0-10 cm mineral soil >10-20 cm mineral soil > the forest floor > coarse wood > fine wood. Preliminary spatial analysis of the C stocks in the North Central region of the United States illustrates the influences of latitude on C storage

Perry, Charles H.; Woodall, Christopher W.; Amacher, Michael C.; O'Neill, Katherine P.


A cement kiln flue-dust evaluated as a soil liming material  

E-print Network

Cement Kiln Flue-duet Evaluated as a Soil Liming Material. (May 1973) Raimund Stacha, B. S. , Texas A&M University Directed by: Dr. Warren B. Anderson During the process of cement production, limestone, iron ore, oyster shells and clay are ground... in the vicinity of the source of the material (10, 12, 56, 57). Whittaker, Erickson, Love, and Carroll (56) determined that three cement kiln flue-dusts in the Maryland area had about the same soil liming qualities as pulverised limestone. Carroll, Erickson...

Stacha, Raimund



Effect of organic materials on the chemical properties of saline soil in the Yellow River Delta of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 180-day incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different organic materials on the chemical properties of coastal soil with high salinity and relatively low pH. Four organic materials (three kinds of plant residues: straw, composted straw, and fresh reed; and one kind of poultry manure: chicken manure) were applied at a ratio of 15 g·kg-1 to samples of costal saline soil from the Yellow River Delta of China. The results showed that the soil pH and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) decreased, whereas soil cation exchangeable capacity (CEC) and macronutrient concentrations increased, regardless of the type of organic material used. All treatments showed a remarkable increase in soil soluble organic carbon (SOC) during the 180-day incubation. The peak values of SOC in descending order were chicken manure, reed, composted straw, straw, and control soil. At the end of incubation, the highest level of SOC occurred in the straw-amended soil, followed by composted straw, reed, and chicken manureamended soils. Soil respiration rate and available nitrogen were significantly influenced by the type of material used. Although reed-amended soil had a relatively high SOC and respiration rate, the ESP was reduced the least. Considering the possible risk of heavy metals caused by chicken manure, it is proposed that straw and composted straw are the more efficient materials to use for reclaiming costal saline soil and improving the availability of macronutrients.

Yu, Yan; Liu, Jie; Liu, Chunmeng; Zong, Shuang; Lu, Zhaohua



Z .Geomorphology 24 1998 101145 The vesicular layer and carbonate collars of desert soils and  

E-print Network

that determines soil bulk chemical composition based Z .on mixing of estimated proportions of externally derived eolian material and parent materials imply that the evolution of the soil bulk composition is strongly horizons more strongly limit the rate and depth of leaching, and soil bulk composition therefore more

Ahmad, Sajjad


Transport and anaerobic biodegradation of propylene glycol in gravel-rich soil materials.  


Continued input of airplane de-icing/anti-icing fluids (ADAF) to runway adjacent soils may result in the depletion of soil-borne terminal electron acceptors. We studied the transport and transformation of propylene glycol (PG), the major constituent of many ADAF, in topsoil and subsoil samples using saturated column experiments at 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C. The export of soil-borne DOC was generally high, non-exhaustive and rate limited. Retardation of added PG was negligible. Rapid PG degradation was observed only in topsoil materials high in organic matter at 20 degrees C. At 4 degrees C, no significant degradation was observed. Thus, under unfavorable, i.e., wet and cold conditions typical for winter de-icing operations, PG and its metabolites will be relocated to deeper soil horizons or even to the groundwater. In subsoil materials, PG degradation was very slow and incomplete. We found that subsoil degradation depended on the import of active microorganisms originating from the organic-rich topsoil material. The degradation efficiency is strongly influenced by the flow velocity, i.e., the residence time of PG in the soil column. Poorly crystalline iron(III) and manganese(IV) (hydr)oxides are used during microbial respiration acting as terminal electron acceptors. This results in the formation and effective relocation of reduced and mobile Fe and Mn species. Long-term application of ADAF to runway adjacent soil as well as the lasting consumption of Fe and Mn will tend to decrease the soil redox potential. Without proper counteractive measures, this will eventually favor the development of methanogenic conditions. PMID:16563561

Jaesche, Philipp; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid



Transport and anaerobic biodegradation of propylene glycol in gravel-rich soil materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continued input of airplane de-icing/anti-icing fluids (ADAF) to runway adjacent soils may result in the depletion of soil-borne terminal electron acceptors. We studied the transport and transformation of propylene glycol (PG), the major constituent of many ADAF, in topsoil and subsoil samples using saturated column experiments at 4 °C and 20 °C. The export of soil-borne DOC was generally high, non-exhaustive and rate limited. Retardation of added PG was negligible. Rapid PG degradation was observed only in topsoil materials high in organic matter at 20 °C. At 4 °C, no significant degradation was observed. Thus, under unfavorable, i.e., wet and cold conditions typical for winter de-icing operations, PG and its metabolites will be relocated to deeper soil horizons or even to the groundwater. In subsoil materials, PG degradation was very slow and incomplete. We found that subsoil degradation depended on the import of active microorganisms originating from the organic-rich topsoil material. The degradation efficiency is strongly influenced by the flow velocity, i.e., the residence time of PG in the soil column. Poorly crystalline iron(III) and manganese(IV) (hydr)oxides are used during microbial respiration acting as terminal electron acceptors. This results in the formation and effective relocation of reduced and mobile Fe and Mn species. Long-term application of ADAF to runway adjacent soil as well as the lasting consumption of Fe and Mn will tend to decrease the soil redox potential. Without proper counteractive measures, this will eventually favor the development of methanogenic conditions.

Jaesche, Philipp; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid



Analyses of exobiological and potential resource materials in the Martian soil.  


Potential Martian soil components relevant to exobiology include water, organic matter, evaporites, clays, and oxides. These materials are also resources for human expeditions to Mars. When found in particular combinations, some of these materials constitute diagnostic paleobiomarker suites, allowing insight to be gained into the probability of life originating on Mars. Critically important to exobiology is the method of data analysis and data interpretation. To that end we are investigating methods of analysis of potential biomarker and paleobiomarker compounds and resource materials in soils and rocks pertinent to Martian geology. Differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromatography is shown to be a highly useful analytical technique for detecting this wide and complex variety of materials. PMID:11538128

Mancinelli, R L; Marshall, J R; White, M R



Variation in 15N natural abundance of soil, humic fractions and plant materials in a disturbed and an undisturbed grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural abundance of ?15N in disturbed and undisturbed pasture soils was examined. From the disturbed soil, the top 10?cm of the profile was examined\\u000a and the soil split into fractions based on particle size. Plant shoot and root material contained similar low enrichments\\u000a in 15N, whereas recently deposited shoot residues were highly enriched. Differences between the soil fractions in

S. J. Kerley; S. C. Jarvis



Silver tolerance and silver accumulation of microorganisms from soil materials of a silver mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver-tolerant microoganisms were isolated from soil materials of a silver mine. The bacterial count decreased approximately linearly with increasing silver concentration. The fungal count, however, remained almost constant in all flasks, up to a concentration of 1 mM silver. At 10 mM Ag+ (about 1 g\\/l) and more, neither bacterial nor fungal growth could be observed.

Thomas Piimpel; Franz Schinner



Advanced Characterisation of Pavement and Soil Engineering Materials Loizos, Scarpas & Al-Qadi (eds)  

E-print Network

1241 Advanced Characterisation of Pavement and Soil Engineering Materials � Loizos, Scarpas & Al and economical alternative for the repair of deteriorated pavements, reflective cracking continues to be major approaches have not provided a direct means for the study of crack initiation and propagation in pavements

Paulino, Glaucio H.


Determination of benzene and toluene in soils and plant material by azeotropic distillation  

SciTech Connect

The suspected dumping of gasoline near a garden resulted in the need for a method that would measure trace amounts of benzene and toluene in both soil and plant samples. In this report the authors show that a method involving methanolic extraction and azeotropic distillation is a highly sensitive technique that eliminated the contamination of the GC column by non-volatile material.

Kozloski, R.P.




EPA Science Inventory

The pollutant travel time through compacted soil material (i.e., when a pollutant introduced at the top first appears at the bottom) cannot be accurately predicted from the permeability (saturated hydraulic conductivity) alone. The travel time is also dependent on the effective p...


Air-surface exchange of mercury with soils amended with ash materials  

SciTech Connect

Air-surface exchange of mercury (Hg) was measured from soil low in Hg amended with four different ash materials: a wood ash containing {approximately} 10% coal ash, amixture of two subbituminous coal fly ashes, a subbituminous coal ash containing {approximately} 10% petroleum coke ash and an ash from incinerated municipal sewage sludge (4.3 mg/kg Hg) using a dynamic flux chamber. Ash was added to soil to simulate agricultural supplements, soil stabilization, and pad layers used in livestock areas. For the agricultural amendment, {approximately} 0.4% ash was well mixed into the soil. To make the stabilized soil that could be used for construction purposes, {approximately} 20% ash was mixed into soil with water. The pad layer consisted of a wetted 1-cm layer of ash material on the soil surface. Diel trends of Hg flux were observed for all of the substrates with significantly higher Hg emissions during the day and negligible flux or deposition of Hg during the night. Hg fluxes, which were measured in the summer months, were best correlated with solar radiation, temperature, and air O{sub 3} concentrations. Mean Hg fluxes measured outdoors for unamended soils ranged from 19 to 140 ng/m{sup 2} day, whereas those for soil amended with ash to simulate an agricultural application ranged from 7.2 to 230 ng/m{sup 2} day. Fluxes for soil stabilized with ash ranged from 77 to 530 ng/m{sup 2} day and for soil with pads constructed of ash ranged from -50 to 90 ng/m{sup 2} day. Simple analytical tests were performed to assess whether algorithms based on these tests could be used to predict Hg fluxes observed outdoors using the flux chamber. Based on this study, no consistent relationships could be developed. More work is needed to assess long-term and seasonal variations in Hg flux from substrates before annual estimates of emissions can be developed. 45 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Jody Ericksen; Mae Sexauer Gustin [University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States). Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences



Air-surface exchange of mercury with soils amended with ash materials.  


Air-surface exchange of mercury (Hg) was measured from soil low in Hg (0.013 mg/kg) amended with four different ash materials: a wood ash containing -10% coal ash (0.070 mg/kg Hg), a mixture of two subbituminous coal fly ashes (0.075 mg/kg Hg), a subbituminous coal ash containing -10% petroleum coke ash (1.2 mg/kg Hg), and an ash from incinerated municipal sewage sludge (4.3 mg/kg Hg) using a dynamic flux chamber. Ash was added to soil to simulate agricultural supplements, soil stabilization, and pad layers used in livestock areas. For the agricultural amendment, -0.4% ash was well mixed into the soil. To make the stabilized soil that could be used for construction purposes, -20% ash was mixed into soil with water. The pad layer consisted of a wetted 1-cm layer of ash material on the soil surface. Diel trends of Hg flux were observed for all of the substrates with significantly higher Hg emissions during the day and negligible flux or deposition of Hg during the night. Hg fluxes, which were measured in the summer months, were best correlated with solar radiation, temperature, and air O3 concentrations. Mean Hg fluxes measured outdoors for unamended soils ranged from 19 to 140 ng/m2 day, whereas those for soil amended with ash to simulate an agricultural application ranged from 7.2 to 230 ng/m2 day. Fluxes for soil stabilized with ash ranged from 77 to 530 ng/m2 day and for soil with pads constructed of ash ranged from -50 to 90 ng/m2 day. Simple analytical tests (i.e., total Hg content, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure, heating, and indoor gas-exchange experiments) were performed to assess whether algorithms based on these tests could be used to predict Hg fluxes observed outdoors using the flux chamber. Based on this study, no consistent relationships could be developed. More work is needed to assess long-term and seasonal variations in Hg flux from (intact and disturbed) substrates before annual estimates of emissions can be developed. PMID:16878589

Ericksen, Jody; Gustin, Mae Sexauer




EPA Science Inventory

Batch equilibrium metal immobilization studies were conducted using seven soil and sediment materials spiked with varying concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The objective was to examine the potential mobility of metals in subsoils of metals-contaminated sites. Soil pH influenc...


Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials  

SciTech Connect

The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available to the landfill operator. Therefore, the methane oxidation capacity of different soils was assessed under simulated landfill conditions. Five sandy potential landfill top cover materials with varying contents of silt and clay were investigated with respect to methane oxidation and corresponding soil gas composition over a period of four months. The soils were compacted to 95% of their specific proctor density, resulting in bulk densities of 1.4-1.7 g cm{sup -3}, reflecting considerably unfavourable conditions for methane oxidation due to reduced air-filled porosity. The soil water content was adjusted to field capacity, resulting in water contents ranging from 16.2 to 48.5 vol.%. The investigated inlet fluxes ranged from 25 to about 100 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, covering the methane load proposed to allow for complete oxidation in landfill covers under Western European climate conditions and hence being suggested as a criterion for release from aftercare. The vertical distribution of gas concentrations, methane flux balances as well as stable carbon isotope studies allowed for clear process identifications. Higher inlet fluxes led to a reduction of the aerated zone, an increase in the absolute methane oxidation rate and a decline of the relative proportion of oxidized methane. For each material, a specific maximum oxidation rate was determined, which varied between 20 and 95 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1} and which was positively correlated to the air-filled porosity of the soil. Methane oxidation efficiencies and gas profile data imply a strong link between oxidation capacity and diffusive ingress of atmospheric air. For one material with elevated levels of fine particles and high organic matter content, methane production impeded the quantification of methane oxidation potentials. Regarding the design of landfill cover layers it was concluded that the magnitude of the expected methane load, the texture and expected compaction of the cover material are key variables that need to be known. Based on these, a column study can serve as an appropriate testing system to determine the methane oxidation capacity of a soil intended as landfill cover material.

Rachor, Ingke, E-mail: [University of Hamburg, Institute of Soil Science, Allende-Platz 2, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Gebert, Julia; Groengroeft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria [University of Hamburg, Institute of Soil Science, Allende-Platz 2, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)



Soil Production and Erosion Rates and Processes in Mountainous Landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We focus here on high-relief, steeply sloped landscapes from the Nepal Himalaya to the San Gabriels of California that are typically thought to be at a critical threshold of soil cover. Observations reveal that, instead, there are significant areas mantled with soil that fit the conceptual framework of a physically mobile layer derived from the underlying parent material with some locally-derived organic content. The extent and persistence of such soils depends on the long-term balance between soil production and erosion despite the perceived discrepancy between high erosion and low soil production rates. We present cosmogenic Be-10-derived soil production and erosion rates that show that soil production increases with catchment-averaged erosion, suggesting a feedback that enhances soil-cover persistence, even in threshold landscapes. Soil production rates do decline systematically with increasing soil thickness, but hint at the potential for separate soil production functions for different erosional regimes. We also show that a process transistion to landslide-dominated erosion results in thinner, patchier soils and rockier topography, but find that there is no sudden transition to bedrock landscapes. Our landslide modeling is combined with a detailed quantification of bedrock exposure for these steep, mountainous landscapes. We also draw an important conclusion connecting the physical processes producing and transporting soil and the chemical processes weathering the parent material by measuring parent material strength across three different field settings. We observe that parent material strength increases with overlying soil thickness and, therefore, the weathered extent of the saprolite. Soil production rates, thus, decrease with increasing parent material competence. These observation highlight the importance of quantifying hillslope hydrologic processes where such multi-facted measurements are made.

Heimsath, A. M.; DiBiase, R. A.; Whipple, K. X.



Thermal analysis of soil treated with biochars from different raw materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal analysis (DTA, DSC, TG and dTG) has been used for decades to characterize carbonaceous materials used as fuels (oil, coal). In the last years, these techniques has been used with soils in order to assess proportions of labile and recalcitrant organic matter and to study the evolution of organic matter in amended soils during laboratory incubations. Indeed, thermogravimetric behaviour of soils can be quantified as the weight loss of samples attributed to different temperature ranges: WL1 from 25 to 150ºC; WL2 from 200 to 350ºC and WL3 from 375 to 600ºC . WL2 and WL3 correspond to weight loss associated to organic matter combustion (Worg=WL2+WL3). It is established that first peak was associated with combustion of less humified organic matter, while the second one was related to the more humified. Also, the WL3/WL2 ratio, named thermostability index, was previously identified as a reliable parameter for evaluating the level of stability of organic matter in composts and other organic wastes that indicated the relative amount of the thermally more stable fraction of organic matter with respect to less stable one. These stability can be related with the soil CO2 emmisions after biochar application. The objective of this presentation is to show the application of thermal analysis to study the stability of soil organic matter in soils treated with different biochars.

Ana, Méndez; Paola, Cely; Gabriel, Gascó



Gender and Material Transfers between Older Parents and Children in Ismailia, Egypt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Egypt, kin relations have been governed by a patriarchal contract, which defines expectations for intergenerational support along gendered lines. Social changes may be disrupting these customs and bringing attention to the ways gender may influence intergenerational support in rapidly changing contexts. Using data from 4,465 parent-child dyads…

Yount, Kathryn M.; Cunningham, Solveig A.; Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily M.



The Soil Series in Soil Classifications of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organized national soil survey began in the United States in 1899, with soil types as the units being mapped. The soil series concept was introduced into the U.S. soil survey in 1903 as a way to relate soils being mapped in one area to the soils of other areas. The original concept of a soil series was all soil types formed in the same parent materials that were of the same geologic age. However, within about 15 years soil series became the primary units being mapped in U.S. soil survey. Soil types became subdivisions of soil series, with the subdivisions based on changes in texture. As the soil series became the primary mapping unit the concept of what a soil series was also changed. Instead of being based on parent materials and geologic age, the soil series of the 1920s was based on the morphology and composition of the soil profile. Another major change in the concept of soil series occurred when U.S. Soil Taxonomy was released in 1975. Under Soil Taxonomy, the soil series subdivisions were based on the uses the soils might be put to, particularly their agricultural uses (Simonson, 1997). While the concept of the soil series has changed over the years, the term soil series has been the longest-lived term in U.S. soil classification. It has appeared in every official classification system used by the U.S. soil survey (Brevik and Hartemink, 2013). The first classification system was put together by Milton Whitney in 1909 and had soil series at its second lowest level, with soil type at the lowest level. The second classification system used by the U.S. soil survey was developed by C.F. Marbut, H.H. Bennett, J.E. Lapham, and M.H. Lapham in 1913. It had soil series at the second highest level, with soil classes and soil types at more detailed levels. This was followed by another system in 1938 developed by M. Baldwin, C.E. Kellogg, and J. Thorp. In this system soil series were again at the second lowest level with soil types at the lowest level. The soil type concept was dropped and replaced by the soil phase in the 1950s in a modification of the 1938 Baldwin et al. classification (Simonson, 1997). When Soil Taxonomy was released in 1975, soil series became the most detailed (lowest) level of the classification system, and the only term maintained throughout all U.S. classifications to date. While the number of recognized soil series have increased steadily throughout the history of U.S. soil survey, there was a rapid increase in the recognition of new soil series following the introduction of Soil Taxonomy (Brevik and Hartemink, 2013). References Brevik, E.C., and A.E. Hartemink. 2013. Soil maps of the United States of America. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77:1117-1132. doi:10.2136/sssaj2012.0390. Simonson, R.W. 1997. Evolution of soil series and type concepts in the United States. Advances in Geoecology 29:79-108.

Indorante, Samuel; Beaudette, Dylan; Brevik, Eric C.



Knowledge, attitudes and practices among parents and teachers about soil-transmitted helminthiasis control programs for school children in Guimaras, Philippines.  


We determined the attitudes toward and practices regarding soil-transmitted helminthes (STH) control among parents and school teachers to identify reasons behind attitudes and practices that do not promote STH control. Written knowledge, attitudes and practices surveys were distributed to parents (N = 531) and teachers (N = 105) of students at 11 elementary schools in Guimaras Province, the Philippines. The survey addressed attitudes about mass drug administration (MDA), knowledge about STH control, hygienic practices, and acceptability of distributing deworming tablets among teachers. More than 90% of parents and teachers held favorable attitudes towards MDA. Sixty-nine percent of parents and 75.5% of teachers believed stool exams were necessary before MDA. Thirty-seven percent of parents stated they would not allow teachers to administer deworming tablets and 91.5% of parents feared teachers would not detect side effects of the medication. Forty-eight percent of teachers felt they could safely give deworming tablets and 81.4% of teachers were afraid of managing the side effects of deworming tablets. Forty-seven point eight percent of parents and 42.2% of teachers stated defecation in the open occured in their community. Although attitudes toward STH control were largely favorable, misconceptions about the MDA strategy, lack of support for teachers giving deworming tablets, and the practice of open defecation still exist as barriers to STH control efforts. The next step to achieve effective STH control will be to clarify misconceptions in education campaigns, to train teachers about medication administration, campaign to improve sanitation and hygiene and begin targeted mass treatment in Guimaras, the Philippines. PMID:24437309

Parikh, Divya Sinha; Totañes, Francis I G; Tuliao, Alex H; Ciro, Raezelle N T; Macatangay, Bernard J C; Belizario, Vicente Y



Overview of recent magnetic studies of high T{sub c} cuprate parent compounds and related materials  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of the magnetic properties of several high superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) cuprate parent compounds and related materials will be reviewed. The observations of a Heisenberg to XY-like crossover upon cooling below {approximately}300K towards the Neel temperature T{sub N} = 257 K and a subsequent magnetic field-induced XY-like to Ising-like crossover near TN in single crystals of the K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4} type spin 1/2 model compound Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} will be described.

Johnston, D.C.; Ami, T.; Borsa, F. [and others



Premining evaluation of forage grass growth on mine soil materials from an east-central Texas lignite site: 2. soil profile horizons  

SciTech Connect

Several warm-season forage grasses and a cool-season pasture mix of oats plus clover were grown in a greenhouse on mixtures of soil profile horizon materials from an unmined lignite site in east-central Texas and then evaluated as to the suitability of the various soil materials for selective placement over regraded lignite mine spoil during land reclamation. Mixtures of the clayey subsoil horizon materials with the sandy loam topsoil (A horizon) produced soils that had sandy clay loam textures. Whereas the topsoil had a pH of 6.3 and an electrical conductivity of 0.2 millimhos per centimeter, the pH of the soil mixtures ranged from 5.1 to 6.0, and the conductivities from 0.3 to 1.7 mmho/cm. Dry matter production was greater on the topsoil during early stages of plant growth, especially where no fertilizer was added. Differences among soils declined with fertilizer application and degree of plant establishment through successive harvests. Chemical analysis of plant tissue showed adequate uptake of added nitrogen and phosphorus plus indigenous iron, manganese, and zinc from all soils. There were no indications of physical or chemical properties that would adversely affect forage growth on any of the soils. I concluded that, given an adequate regime of water and nutrient supply, the various mixtures of soil profile horizon materials evaluated had the same potential for forage grass production as the genetic topsoil that occurred on the mine site. Any one or a combination of them could probably be used successfully in selective placement over mine spoil for revegetation. Because short-term greenhouse studies may not account for agronomic problems that might arise due to weathering of previously unexposed subsurface soil profile materials, these conclusions are currently being field tested.

Chichester, F.W.



Comparison of quantification methods to measure fire-derived (black\\/elemental) carbon in soils and sediments using reference materials from soil, water, sediment and the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black carbon (BC), the product of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass (called elemental carbon (EC) in atmospheric sciences), was quantified in 12 different materials by 17 laboratories from different disciplines, using seven different methods. The materials were divided into three classes: (1) potentially interfering materials, (2) laboratory-produced BC-rich materials, and (3) BC-containing environmental matrices (from soil, water, sediment,

Karen Hammes; Michael W. I. Schmidt; Ronald J. Smernik; Lloyd A. Currie; William P. Ball; Thanh H. Nguyen; Patrick Louchouarn; Stephane Houel; Örjan Gustafsson; Marie Elmquist; Gerard Cornelissen; Jan O. Skjemstad; Caroline A. Masiello; Jianzhong Song; Ping'an Peng; Siddhartha Mitra; Joshua C. Dunn; Patrick G. Hatcher; William C. Hockaday; Dwight M. Smith; Christoph Hartkopf-Fröder; Axel Böhmer; Burkhard Lüer; Barry J. Huebert; Wulf Amelung; Sonja Brodowski; Lin Huang; Wendy Zhang; Philip M. Gschwend; D. Xanat Flores-Cervantes; Claude Largeau; Jean-Noël Rouzaud; Cornelia Rumpel; Georg Guggenberger; Klaus Kaiser; Andrei Rodionov; Francisco J. Gonzalez-Vila; José A. Gonzalez-Perez; José M. de la Rosa; David A. C. Manning; Elisa López-Capél; Luyi Ding



Soils and the soil cover of the Valley of Geysers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of field studies of the soil cover within the tourist part of the Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka performed in 2010 and 2011 are discussed. The morphology of soils, their genesis, and their dependence on the degree of hydrothermal impact are characterized; the soil cover patterns developing in the valley are analyzed. On the basis of the materials provided by the Kronotskii Biospheric Reserve and original field data, the soil map of the valley has been developed. The maps of vegetation conditions, soil temperature at the depth of 15 cm, and slopes of the surface have been used for this purpose together with satellite imagery and field descriptions of reference soil profiles. The legend to the soil map includes nine soil units and seven units of parent materials and their textures. Soil names are given according to the classification developed by I.L. Goldfarb (2005) for the soils of hydrothermal fields. The designation of soil horizons follows the new Classification and Diagnostic System of Russian Soils (2004). It is suggested that a new horizon—a thermometamorphic horizon TRM—can be introduced into this system by analogy with other metamorphic (transformed in situ) horizons distinguished in this system. This horizon is typical of the soils partly or completely transformed by hydrothermal impacts.

Kostyuk, D. N.; Gennadiev, A. N.



Electrokinetic removal of charged contaminant species from soil and other media using moderately conductive adsorptive materials  


Method for collecting and concentrating charged species, specifically, contaminant species in a medium, preferably soil. The method utilizes electrokinesis to drive contaminant species into and through a bed adjacent to a drive electrode. The bed comprises a moderately electrically conductive adsorbent material which is porous and is infused with water or other solvent capable of conducting electrical current. The bed material, preferably activated carbon, is easily removed and disposed of. Preferably, where activated carbon is used, after contaminant species are collected and concentrated, the mixture of activated carbon and contaminant species is removed and burned to form a stable and easily disposable waste product.

Lindgren, Eric R. (Albuquerque, NM); Mattson, Earl D. (Idaho Falls, ID)



Excavators are used for the rapid removal of soil and other materials in mines, quarries, and construction sites.  

E-print Network

Abstract Excavators are used for the rapid removal of soil and other materials in mines, quarries- cles. The excavator's software decides where to dig in the soil, where to dump in the truck, and how to landfills, storage areas, or processing plants. As shown in Fig. 1, an excavator sits atop a bench and loads

Stentz, Tony


Chemical trends in a perhumid soil catena on the Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation in chemical composition of soil samples (XRFS data) from a soil catena of 14 soil profiles on the northern slope and foot slope of the andesitic Turrialba volcano (3300 m) has been analysed to test the two hypotheses, which underlie our interpretation that this catena is a weathering sequence. The first hypothesis is that all parent material is

Edward L. Meijer; Peter Buurman



Lithosequence of Soils and Associated Vegetation on Subalpine Range of the Wasatch Plateau, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) in soil and parent material are important in the accumula- tion of nitrogen (N) and organic carbon (Corg) in soils. In an observational study, the role of P and S in soil development was explored on a small knoll in the Wasatch subalpine summer range of central Utah that had been severely eroded during uncontrolled

James O. Klemmedson; Arthur R. Tiedemann


Parenting: The Underdeveloped Skill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This parent education curriculum contains a variety of materials designed to help local Parent Teacher Associations (PTAs) hold meetings for parents on child rearing. The materials help organizers plan meetings on topics such as dating, drugs, and careers. The unit contains a leader's guide, which contains a description of how to plan meetings,…

National PTA, Chicago, IL.


Reflectance and Mossbauer spectroscopy of ferrihydrite-montmorillonite assemblages as Mars soil analog materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectroscopic analyses show that Fe(3+)-doped smectites prepared in the laboratory exhibit important similarities to the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite has been identified as the interlayer ferric component in Fe(3+)-doped smectites by a low quadrupole splitting and magnetic field strength of approximately 48 tesla in Mossbauer spectra measured at 4.2 K, as well as a crystal field transition at 0.92 micrometer. Ferrihydrite in these smectites explains features in the visible-near infrared region that resemble the energies and band strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. Clay silicates have met resistance in the past as Mars soil analogs because terrestrial clay silicates exhibit prominent hydrous spectral features at 1.4, 1.9, and 2.2 micrometers; and these are observed weakly, if at all, in reflectance spectra of Mars. However, several mechanisms can weaken or compress these features, including desiccation under low-humidity conditions. The hydration properties of the interlayer cations also effect band strengths, such that a ferrihydrite-bearing smectite in the Martian environment would exhibit a 1.9 micrometers H2O absorption that is even weaker than the 2.2 micrometers structural OH absorption. Mixing experiments demonstrate that infrared spectral features of clays can be significantly suppressed and that the reflectance can be significantly darkened by mixing with only a few percent of a strongly absorbing opaque material. Therefore, the absolute reflectance of a soil on Mars may be disproportionately sensitive to a minor component. For this reason, the shape and position of spectral features and the chemical composition of potential analogs are of utmost importance in assessing the composition of the soil on Mars. Given the remarkable similarity between visible-infrared reflectance spectra of soils in bright regions on Mars and Fe(3+)-doped montmorillonites, coupled with recent observations of smectites in SNC meteorites and a weak 2.2 micrometers absorption in some Mars soils, ferrihydrite-bearing smectites warrant serious consideration as a Mars soil analog.

Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.; Chang, S. (Principal Investigator)



Soils, time, and primate paleoenvironments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils are the skin of the earth. From both poles to the equator, wherever rocks or sediment are exposed at the surface, soils are forming through the physical and chemical action of climate and living organisms. The physical attributes (color, texture, thickness) and chemical makeup of soils vary considerably, depending on the composition of the parent material and other variables: temperature, rainfall and soil moisture, vegetation, soil fauna, and the length of time that soil-forming processes have been at work. United States soil scientists1 have classified modern soils into ten major groups and numerous subgroups, each reflecting the composition and architecture of the soils and, to some extent, the processes that led to their formation. The physical and chemical processes of soil formation have been active throughout geologic time; the organic processes have been active at least since the Ordovician.2 Consequently, nearly all sedimentary rocks that were deposited in nonmarine settings and exposed to the elements contain a record of ancient, buried soils or paleosols. A sequence of these rocks, such as most ancient fluvial (stream) deposits, provides a record of soil paleoenvironments through time. Paleosols are also repositories of the fossils of organisms (body fossils) and the traces of those organisms burrowing, food-seeking, and dwelling activities (ichnofossils). Indeed, most fossil primates are found in paleosols. Careful study of ancient soils gives new, valuable insights into the correct temporal reconstruction of the primate fossil record and the nature of primate paleoenvironments. ?? 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.



An improved SOIL*EX{trademark} process for the removal of hazardous and radioactive contaminants from soils, sludges and other materials  

SciTech Connect

Rust`s patented SOIL*EX process is designed to remove hazardous and radioactive contaminants from soils, sludges and a matrix of other materials while destroying volatile organic compounds often associated with contaminated soil and debris. The process is comprised of three major process operations. The first operation involves the dissolution of contaminants that are chemically or mechanically bonded to the solid phase. The second process operation involves separation of the solid phase from the dissolution solution (mother liquor), which contains the dissolved contaminants. The final operation concentrates and removes the contaminants from the mother liquor. A pilot-scale SOIL*EX system was constructed at Rust`s Clemson Technical Center for a Proof-of-Process demonstration. The demonstration program included the design, fabrication, and operation of pilot scale and demonstration equipment and systems. The pilot plant, an accurate scaled-down version of a proposed full-scale treatment system, was operated for five months to demonstrate the efficiency of the overall process. The pilot plant test program focused on demonstrating that the SOIL*EX process would remove and concentrate the contaminants and destroy volatile organic compounds. The pilot plant processed nearly 20 tons of soils and sludges, and test results indicated that all contaminants of concern were removed. Additionally, Rust completed numerous bench scale tests to optimize the chemistry. This paper discusses the pilot plant test criteria and results along with the salient design features of the SOIL*EX system and planned improvements.

Bloom, R.R.; Bonnema, B.E.; Navratil, J.D. [Rust Federal Services, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Falconer, K.L.; Van Vliet, J.A. [Lockheed Idaho Technology Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Diel, B.N. [Rust Federal Services, Inc., Anderson, SC (United States)



Sorption/desorption reversibility of phenanthrene in soils and carbonaceous materials  

SciTech Connect

Sorption/desorption of phenanthrene in two soil samples and carbonaceous materials was found to yield co-incident equilibrium isotherms and no significant hysteresis was observed. Additionally, release of native phenanthrene was investigated. Equilibrium sorption and desorption isotherms were determined using pulverized samples of Pahokee peat, lignite, and high-volatile bituminous coal, a mineral soil, and an anthropogenic soil. Instead of the conventional decant-and-refill batch method, sorption/desorption was driven by temperature changes using consistent samples. Sorption started at 77{sup o}C and was increased by reducing the temperature stepwise to 46, 20, and finally 4{sup o}C. For desorption the temperature was increased stepwise again until 77{sup o}C was reached. Besides the co-incident sorption and desorption isotherms at each temperature step, the solubility-normalized sorption/desorption isotherms of all different temperatures collapse to unique overall isotherms. Leaching of native phenanthrene occurred at much lower concentrations but was well predicted by extrapolation of the spiked sorption isotherms indicating that the release of native phenanthrene involves the same sorption/desorption mechanisms as those for newly added phenanthrene. 35 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Guohui Wang; Sybille Kleineidam; Peter Grathwohl [University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany). Center for Applied Geoscience



Low-temperature and low atmospheric pressure infrared reflectance spectroscopy of Mars soil analog materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared reflectance spectra of carefully selected Mars soil analog materials have been measured under low atmospheric pressures and temperatures. Chemically altered montmorillonites containing ferrihydrite and hydrated ferric sulfate complexes are examined, as well as synthetic ferrihydrate and a palagonitic soil from Haleakala, Maui. Reflectance spectra of these analog materials exhibit subtle visible to near-infrared features, which are indicative of nanophase ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides and are similar to features observed in the spectra of the bright regions of Mars. Infrared reflectance spectra of these analogs include hydration features due to structural OH, bound H2O and adsorbed H2O. The spectal character of these hydration features is highly dependent on the sample environment and on the nature of the H2O/OH in the analogs. The behavior of the hydration features near 1.9 micrometers, 2.2 micrometers, 2.7 micrometers, 3 micrometers, and 6 micrometers are reported here in spetra measured under Marslike atmospheric environment. In spectra of these analogs measured under dry Earth atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micrometer band depth is 8-17%; this band is much stonger under moist conditions. Under Marslike atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micrometer feature is broad and barely discernible (1-3% band depth) in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil samples. In comparable spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonite the 1.9-micrometer feature is also broad, but stronger (6% band depth). In the low atmospheric pressure and temperature spectra of the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite this feature is sharper than the other analogs and relatively stronger (6% band depth). Although the intensity of the 3- micrometer band is weaker in spectra of each of the analogs when measured under Marslike conditions, the 3-micromter band remains a dominant feature and is especially broad in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil. The structural OH features observed in these materials at 2.2-2.3 micrometers and 2.27 micrometers remain largely unaffected by the environmental conditions. A shift in the Christiansen feature towards shorter wavelengths has also been observed with decreasing atmospheric pressure and temperature in the midinfrared spectra of these samples.

Bishop, Janice L.; Pieters, Carle M.



Sorption of sulfolane and diisopropanolamine by soils, clays and aquifer materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural gas sweetening chemicals, sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA), are highly water soluble and have leached into the ground water from landfills and spills at some sour gas processing plant sites in western Canada. This paper reports on the results of batch equilibration studies designed to evaluate sulfolane and DIPA sorption parameters, which are of relevance to modeling fate and behavior of these compounds in the saturated zone. The sorbents included aquifer materials from three plant sites, reference montmorillonite and kaolinite, and six soils of various clay and organic matter contents. The DIPA sorption isotherms were curvilinear, the slope decreasing with increasing concentration. DIPA adsorption by montmorillonite decreased as the solution concentration of K 2SO 4 increased, consistent with a cation-exchange reaction. A decrease in pH from 8.3 to 6.8 produced a slight increase in DIPA adsorption by montmorillonite. X-ray analysis of DIPA-saturated montmorillonite showed that DIPA enters the interlayer space of the mineral. The sulfolane sorption isotherms were linear and sulfolane sorption by the aquifer materials was very low ( Kd<1 l/kg), whereas DIPA uptake was somewhat higher ( Kd<4 l/kg). Both compounds were sorbed more by clay minerals than by organic matter and cation exchange capacity was a reasonable predictor of the sorption of sulfolane and DIPA by soils and aquifer materials with low contents of organic C (<1 g/100 g). DIPA desorption from montmorillonite was low relative to adsorption, and some hysteresis was found for some aquifer materials in the desorption of DIPA. Based on estimates of retardation, sulfolane was predicted to move farther than DIPA under the conditions at plant sites.

Luther, Sheila M.; Dudas, Marvin J.; Fedorak, Phillip M.



Becoming Informed Consumers: A National Survey of Parents' Experience with Respite Services. Guide Materials for Respite Care for Families with Members Who Are Disabled. Final Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project sought to determine the content and form of materials that would enable parents of children with disabilities to become informed critical consumers of respite services. Project activities included establishment and utilization of a national advisory panel; an indepth review of the literature on family supports, systems change, and…

Knoll, James A.; Bedford, Sara


Parents' Regulation and Self-Regulation and Performance in Children with Intellectual Disability in Problem-Solving Using Physical Materials or Computers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared mothers and fathers' regulation with respect to 29 children with intellectual disability (ID) and 30 typically developing (TD) children, matched on their mental age (MA), as they solved eight tasks using physical materials and computers. Seven parents' regulatory strategies were coded as they supported their child's…

Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Lefevre, Nathalie



Plant material as bioaccumulator of arsenic in soils affected by mining activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metal contamination is an important environmental problem, since the metals are harmful to humans, animals and tend to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to determine the total concentration of As, As (III) and As(V) in soil samples, leaves and roots of plant material, growing in a mining area in Spain (Murcia). Ditichia viscosa was used as the plant of reference. The concentrations of bioavailable As in plant samples were calculated by different soil chemical extraction methods; deionized water, 0.5N NaHCO3 (Olsen extraction), oxidizable medium, 0.5 HCl, 0.05M (NH4)2SO4, 0.005M DTPA and Mehra-Jackson extraction. For this study, fourteen samples were collected in the surrounding area of Sierra Minera and Portman Bay (Murcia, SE Spain). Samples were air dried and sieved to < 2mm for general analytical determinations. To determine the As content, soil samples were first ground to a fine powder using an agate ball mill. Fresh vegetable samples were separated into root and aboveground biomass and then lyophilized. Arsenic levels were obtained by using atomic fluorescence spectrometry with an automated continuous flow hydride generation (HG-AFS) spectrometer. Samples showed pH average values close to neutrality. Most samples showed a very low organic matter percentage. Electrical conductivity and calcium carbonate content were considerably low in most samples. The mineralogical analysis showed that the main minerals were quartz, muscovite, kaolinite and illite, while the minority minerals were alteration products derived of mining activities (iron oxides and hydroxides, siderite, jarosite and gypsum), calcite and feldspars. Although the plants do not absorb arsenic in the same proportion, the results suggest that a good relationship exists between the total content of As in soil and the total content in plant. The results showed that the arsenic content in roots was positively correlated with the oxidizable-organic matter and sulfides fraction (oxidaizable medium extraction procedure). Arsenic concentration in leaves was positively correlated with the arsenic extracted by HCl, with the oxidizable-organic matter and sulfides fraction and with the arsenic extracted by Mehra-Jackson extraction. According to our results, As is accumulated in the leaves of the plants and is linked with iron oxides of these soils affected by mining activities.

Martínez-López, Salvadora; Martínez-Sánchez, Maria Jose; García-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen



An attempt to prepare and characterize a soil reference material for Cr(VI) and Cr(III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference materials for the speciation and quantification of chromium in contaminated soils were prepared by impregnating diatomaceous earth with BaCrO4 and Cr2O3. The chronium concentrations of these materials were confirmed to be 200 mg\\/kg both by atomic absorption spectrometry and by instrumental neutron activation analysis, but monthly assays over two calendar quarters of the reference material impregnated with BaCrO4 revealed

G. Solano; S. A. Katz; J. Holzbecher; A. Chatt



Assessment of soil organic carbon distribution in Europe scale by spatio-temporal data and geostatistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accuracy in assessing the distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important issue because SOC is an important soil component that plays key roles in the functions of both natural ecosystems and agricultural systems. The SOC content varies from place to place and it is strongly related with climate variables (temperature and rainfall), terrain features, soil texture, parent material, vegetation, land-use types, and human management (management and degradation) at different spatial scales. Geostatistical techniques allow for the prediction of soil properties using soil information and environmental covariates. In this study, assessment of SOC distribution has been predicted using combination of LUCAS soil samples with local soil data and ten spatio-temporal predictors (slope, aspect, elevation, CTI, CORINE land-cover classification, parent material, texture, WRB soil classification, average temperature and precipitation) with Regression-Kriging method in Europe scale. Significant correlation between the covariates and the organic carbon dependent variable was found.

Aksoy, Ece; Panagos, Panos; Montanarella, Luca



The Effectiveness of Audiovisual Self-Instructional Materials in Teaching ChildCare Skills to Parents with Intellectual Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children of parents with intellectual disabilities are at risk for neglectful care due to parenting skill deficiencies. Previous studies have shown that parents with intellectual disabilities can improve child-care skills with intensive behavioral training, but self-instruction has not been explored. We evaluated the efficacy of self-instructional pictorial child-care manuals with and without accompanying audiotaped instruction using a multielement design with

Maurice A. Feldman; Laurie Case




E-print Network

Generally, the parent material determines the levels of chromium in soils, and typical soil chromium concentrations vary widely with elevated contents been associated with anthropogenic contamination. The less toxic, less mobile and naturally abundant trivalent chromium is mainly found bound to organic matter in soils, but chromium compounds in the hexavalent state are toxic, rare and usually associated with industrial pollution. Soil-plant barrier system limits the chromium impact on the food chain, due to the immobility of the soil-chromium, however, at the elevated levels chromium in soils may influence chromium uptake by plants, as well as ingestion by children through touching and eating contaminated soil.

unknown authors


Parent material which produces saline outcrops as a factor in differential distribution of perennial plants in the northern Mojave Desert  

SciTech Connect

An area of 0.46 km/sup 2/ divided into six zones in the northern Mojave Desert transitional with the Great Basin Desert has been studied. Diversity is high among the perennial plant species within the 0.46 km/sup 2/ area. Common species for the two deserts that are present in the area studied are Atriplex confertifolia (Torr. and Frem.) S. Wats., Ceratoides lanata (Pursh) J.T. Howell, Grayia spinosa (Hook.) Moq., Ephedra nevadensis S. Wats. Some other species present include Lycium andersonii A. Gray, Lycium pallidum Miers, Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) Payne., Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC) Cov., Acamptopappus shockleyi A. Gray, and Krameria parvifolia, Benth. Some of the species are relatively salt tolerant and some are relatively salt sensitive. A total of 4282 individual plants were measured. There was considerable variation in distribution of the 10 dominant species present, apparently due to zonal variations of salinity dispersed within the study area. Correlation coefficients among pairs of the species for different zones illustrate interrelationships among the salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive species. Observations on an adjacent hillside with rock outcroppings indicate that the saline differences in this area are partly due to outcroppings of parent volcanic rock materials that yield Na salts upon weathering.

Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.; Wood, R.A.; El-Ghonemy, A.A.; Bamberg, S.A.



Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes with a Chitin-Urea Soil Amendment and Other Materials.  


Field trials were conducted with a chitin-urea soil amendment and several other nematicides on four crop-nematode combinations: tomato-Meloidogyne incognita; potato-Meloidogyne chitwoodi; walnut-Pratylenchus vulnus; and brussels sprouts-Heterodera schachtii. Significant (P soil amendment in the trims on potato and walnut. In the trials on brussels sprouts and on tomato, phytotoxicity occurred at rates of 1,868 and 1,093 kg/ha, respectively. Significant (P materials did not provide significant nematode control under the conditions of the particular experiments: metham sodium, oxamyl, and Yucca extract on tomato; and dazomet granules on brussels sprouts. PMID:19283044

Westerdahl, B B; Carlson, H L; Grant, J; Radewald, J D; Welch, N; Anderson, C A; Darso, J; Kirby, D; Shibuya, F



A framework for assessing ecological risks of petroleum-derived materials in soil  

SciTech Connect

Ecological risk assessment estimates the nature and likelihood of effects of human actions on nonhuman organisms, populations, and ecosystems. It is intended to be clearer and more rigorous in its approach to estimation of effects and uncertainties than previously employed methods of ecological assessment. Ecological risk assessment is characterized by a standard paradigm that includes problem formulation, analysis of exposure and effects, risk characterization, and communication with a risk manager. This report provides a framework that applies the paradigm to the specific problem of assessing the ecological risks of petroleum in soil. This type of approach requires that assessments be performed in phases: (1) a scoping assessment to determine whether there is a potential route of exposure for potentially significant ecological receptors; (2) a screening assessment to determine whether exposures could potentially reach toxic levels; and (3) a definitive assessment to estimate the nature, magnitude, and extent of risks. The principal technical issue addressed is the chemically complex nature of petroleum--a complexity that may be dealt with by assessing risks on the basis of properties of the whole material, properties of individual chemicals that are representative of chemical classes, distributions of properties of the constituents of chemical classes, properties of chemicals detected in the soil, and properties of indicator chemicals. The advantages and feasibility of these alternatives are discussed. The report concludes with research recommendations for improving each stage in the assessment process.

Suter, G.W. II



Reclamation with Recovery of Radionuclides and Toxic Metals from Contaminated Materials, Soils, and Wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites. In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded, and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (polyuranate) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

Francis, A. J.; Dodge, C. J.



Removal and recovery of radionuclides and toxic metals from wastes, soils and materials  

SciTech Connect

A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites (Figure 1). In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (uranium trioxide) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

Francis, A.J.



Effect of Soil Solid-Phase Material Migration on Soil Properties within a Small Watershed Detected Using the Magnetic Tracer Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed detailed studies of the lateral migration of the solid soil material and the soil cover within a small catchment area (Russia, Tula region, Lokna river basin). The main goal of this work is to characterize the migration and accumulation features of the soil solid-phase material within a small watershed and to analyze the effect of the lateral mass transfer on the crucial soil fertility-related properties in the catchment basin under study. The total area of the catchment and the ravine network elements is 96 ha. The catchment basin is drop-shaped; it slightly curves and is latitudinally oriented. The catchment basin's slopes are of southern, eastern, northern, and intermediate exposures with average inclination of 1,5-5 degrees. The magnetic tracer method was used to assess the volumes and rates of the lateral migration of the solid-phase soil material on the selected territory. This method is based on the investigation of the spherical magnetic particles (SMPs), which fall onto the soil cover from the atmosphere, where they arrive at the burning of coals and some other fuels, mostly in steam locomotives. The period of the most intensive emission of SMPs into the soil in the territory of Russia corresponds to the last 100-150 years [1]. The reserve of SMPs in the 0- to 25-cm layer is estimated to be 3.8 g/m2on the least eroded sub-horizontal surface. The zones with the concentration of SMPs lower than their average content on the least eroded surface were characterized as dispersion zones. The zones of the basin with significant exceeding the value of 3.8 g/m2 were marked as accumulation zones of the soil solid-phase material. Dispersion zones are found in the middle part of the ridge in the north-eastern area, in the middle part of a longslope in the south-western area of the catchment basin, and other [2]. Accumulation zones are observed in a cup-shaped depression on the plowed slope adjacent to the ravine's head, on steep unplowed slopes of the ravine adjacent to its bottom, on the ravine's bottom, and other [2]. The genesis of these zones is result of the summary effect of the exposure, the inclination, and the slope's length, the spatial interference of the zones, the variability of the carrying capacity of the water flow, etc. The total area of the revealed dispersion zones makes up 35% of the catchment basin; the accumulation zones occupy 26% of the catchment area. The transit-buffer area occupies 39% of the catchment basin. The area proportions of the different functional zones characterize the specific migration structure of the small watershed. [1] Olson K., Gennadiyev A., Zhidkin A., Markelov M., Golosov V., and Lang J. Use of magnetic tracer and radio-cesium methods to determine past cropland soil erosion amounts and rates. Catena 104 (2013), 103-110. [2] Gennadiev A., Koshovskii T., Zhidkin A., and Kovach R. Lateral migration of soil solid-phase material within a landscape-geochemical arena detected using the magnetic tracer method. Eurasian Soil Science 46, 10 (2013), 983-993.

Koshovskii, Timur; Gennadiev, Alexander; Zhidkin, Andrei



[Effects of organic material amendment on vegetable soil nitrate content and nitrogenous gases emission under flooding condition].  


Applying large amount of nitrogen fertilizer into vegetable field can induce soil NO(3-)-N accumulation, while rapidly removing the accumulated NO(3-)-N can improve vegetable soil quality and extend its service duration. In this study, a vegetable soil containing 360 mg N x kg(-1) was amended with 0, 2500, 5000, and 7500 kg C x hm(-2) of ryegrass (noted as CK, C2500, C5000, and C7500), respectively, and incubated in a thermostat at 30 degrees C for 240 h under flooding condition, aimed to investigate the effects of organic material amendment on vegetable soil nitrate concentration and nitrogenous gases emission. By the end of the incubation, the soil NO(3-)-N concentration in CK was still up to 310 mg N x kg(-1). Ryegrass amendment could remove the accumulated NO(3-)-N effectively. In treatments C2500, C5000, and C7500, the duration for the soil NO(3-)-N concentration dropped below 10 mg N x kg(-1) was 240 h, 48 h, and 24 h, respectively. After the amendment of ryegrass, soil pH increased significantly, and soil EC decreased, with the increment and decrement increased with increasing amendment amount of ryegrass. The cumulative emissions of soil N2O and N2 in ryegrass amendment treatments amounted to 270-378 mg N x kg(-1), and the N2O/N2 ratio ranged from 0.6 to 1.5. Incorporating with ryegrass under flooding condition could rapidly remove the accumulated NO(3-)-N in vegetable soil, but the high N2O emission during this process should be attached importance to. PMID:22489487

Zhu, Tong-Bin; Zhang, Jin-Bo; Cai, Zu-Cong




EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the formulation, numerical development, and use of a multiphase, multicomponent, biodegradation model designed to simulate physical, chemical, and biological interactions occurring primarily in field scale soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (B...


Diffusion of iodine and Technetium-99 through waste encasement concrete and unsaturated soil fill material  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of long-term performance of low level waste-enclosing cement grouts requires diffusivity data for radionuclide species such as, 129I and 99Tc. The diffusivity of radionuclides in soil and concrete media was collected by conducting soil-soil and concrete-soil half-cell experiments. The soil diffusivity coefficients for iodide were 7.03 x 10-8 cm2/s and 2.42 x 10-7 cm2/s for soils at 4% and 7% moisture contents, respectively. Iodide diffusivity in soil is a function of moisture content and is about an order of magnitude slower at lower moisture content. The soil diffusivity coefficients for 99Tc were 5.89 {+-} 0.80 x 10-8 cm2/s (4% moisture content) and 2.04 {+-} 0.57 x 10-7 cm2/s (7% moisture content), respectively. The soil diffusivity of iodide and 99Tc were similar in magnitude at both water contents, indicating that these ions have similar diffusion mechanisms in unsaturated coarse-textured Hanford soil. The diffusivity of iodide in concrete ranged from 2.07 x 10-14 cm2/s (4% soil moisture content) to 1.31 x 10-12 cm2/s (7% soil moisture content), indicating that under unsaturated soil moisture conditions, iodide diffusivity is highly sensitive to changing soil moisture conditions. Depending on the soil moisture content, the diffusivity of 99Tc in concrete ranged from 4.54 x 10-13 cm2/s to 8.02 x 10-12 cm2/s. At 4% soil moisture content, iodide diffused about 20 times more slowly than 99Tc, and at 7% soil moisture content, iodide in concrete diffused about 6 times slower than 99Tc.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Wood, Marcus I.; John M. Hanchar, Simcha Stores-Gascoyne, Lauren Browning



Sulfate Induced Heave: Addressing Ettringite Behavior in Lime Treated Soils and in Cementitious Materials  

E-print Network

Civil engineers are at times required to stabilize sulfate bearing clay soils with calcium based stabilizers. Deleterious heaving in these stabilized soils may result over time. This dissertation addresses critical questions regarding...

Kochyil Sasidharan Nair, Syam Kumar



Description and selection of soils at two oil shale disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents geologic soil descriptions of two oil shale areas selected for soil sampling. Soil samples are to be collected specifically from areas designated for spent shale disposal. One shale disposal site is the Colorado Rio Blanco lease tract C-a, 84 Mesa. The other area is adjacent to the Clegg Creek Member of the New Albany shale in southeast Indiana. Site descriptions are considered to be fundamental before sampling in order to collect samples that are representative of the major parent material. The dominant parent materials found near Rio Blanco are basalt, sandstone, and marlstone. The dominant parent material in southeast Indiana is glacial till. The soils weathered from these materials have different physical and chemical characteristics. Collected samples will be representative of these characteristics. 6 refs., 3 figs.

McGowan, L.J.



Soil–geomorphology relations in gypsiferous materials of the Tabernas Desert (Almer??a, SE Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed pedological study in an apparently homogeneous badlands area of gypsiferous mudstones in the Tabernas Desert (Almer??a, SE Spain), with an annual precipitation of 200 mm, has been shown to be composed of different soil units belonging to different stages of soil development. Twenty-four soil profiles in four topographic transects within a small instrumented catchment have been described and

Y. Cantón; A. Solé-Benet; R. Lázaro



Fundamental considerations of water repellancy in soil, and related effects on other natural and man-made materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will concern the understanding of soil water repellancy and wettability at a fundamental level, and the difficulties of relating the very small, micron scale at which the repellancy and wettability characteristics are produced to the much larger, field scale at which they are normally observed. The presentation will not be a review of past work, but rather will concentrate on recent publications, publications in press, and speculative considerations which may lead to future work in this area. There are three fundamental components of water repellancy - the nature of the soil surfaces themselves, the effect of organic matter and microbiologically produced substances, and the topology of the resultant surfaces. The effects of hydrophobic surfaces will be illustrated by a consideration of the wettability of substances such as commercially produced talc grades. The faces of these platey mineral particles are hydrophobic, whereas their edges are hydrophilic, and the combination not only causes water repellency in itself, but also causes unusual adsorption effects from aqueous solution. The effect of organic matter on soil wettability has been widely studied, often by core-scale wettability experiments. It will be shown how a consideration of micro-wetting effects has led to a more robust data analysis method for such studies (Matthews, G. P. et al, European J.Soil Sci., 2008). Traditionally wetting fronts are assumed to advance in proportion to the square root of time (as predicted by the Washburn equation), but micro-modelling shows that, once inertial effects are taken into account, low-volume fingers of wetting fluid track through porous substances in advance of the observed Washburn wetting front (Bodurtha, P. et al, J.Colloid Interface Sci., 2005). The effects of micro-topology are also well known (Ridgway, C. J. et al, J.Colloid Interface Sci., 2001), but need to be integrated and upscaled, as described below. Soil water repellency is not only dependant on the soil mineral characteristics, surface topology and organic matter content, but is also influenced by microbiological activity. The production of hydrophobic microbial biomass and exudates alter the hydrological characteristics of soil (Chan, K. Y., Soil Sci.Soc.Am.J., 1992) and strengthen the bonds between soil particles. Amongst these are extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which are produced as a result of microbial activity and increase during periods of substrate utilisation and microbial growth (Hallett, P. D. et al, European J.Soil Sci., 1999). They form part of a wide spectrum of soil organic species, many produced by the soil's bacterial and fungal biomass. EPS provides a living protective membrane between changing hydrological conditions and the micro-organisms. It comprises polysaccharides and smaller amounts of protein, lipids and humic substances, with masses ranging from 103 to 108 kDaltons (Allison, D. G. et al, Fems Microbiology Letters, 1998). The small amounts of EPS in soil have a disproportionately large effect on soil hydraulic properties, and the response of EPS to major perturbations, such as wetting and drying cycles, has recently been well characterised (Or, D. et al, Vadose Zone J, 2007). Therefore, as will be described, the use of EPS as an analogue to the wider range of organic species can lead to an understanding of climatic effects on soil wettability. The upscaling of the effects from micron to field scale requires a highly detailed modelling approach, using a dual -porous void structure model (a modification of the previous ‘Pore-Cor' model) which takes into account both the soil micro-matrix and the macroscopic percolation and wetting pathways (Laudone, G. M. et al, European J.Soil Sci., submitted). Super-hydrophobicity in natural materials (the ‘lotus' effect) and man-made materials (micro-structured arrays) will also be explained and illustrated, and the condition under which super-hydrophobicity can flip to super-wettability. Super-hydrophobicity gives an unusual insight into the less extreme examples

Matthews, G. Peter



ICSE6 Paris -August 27-31, 2012 Herrier, Chevalier, Froumentin, Cuisinier, Bonelli, Fry Lime treated soil as an erosion-resistant material  

E-print Network

in the context of hydraulic structures, where the properties of the materials vs water have to be determined-176 Lime treated soil as an erosion-resistant material for hydraulic earthen structures Gontran HERRIER1 research project, "SOil TREatment for DIkes" undertaken by the Lhoist Group, a lime producer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Effective Parenting  


... parents? There is a whole history to your parent-child relationship that began at the moment your youngster was ... effectively, so they will not interfere with your parent-child relationships. For example, if you are like many parents, ...



E-print Network

step is college itself. Since a very special person in your life is about to leave home and you might to have you as part of the College community as well. Kurt C. Holmes Dean of Students #12;� 2 � PARENTSW PARENTS' GUIDE #12;WELCOME PARENTS Your daughter or son will soon join us as a student

Wilson, Mark A.



E-print Network

step is college itself. Since a very special person in your life is about to leave home and you might to have you as part of the College community as well. Kurt C. Holmes Dean of Students #12;­ 3 ­ CONTENTSW PARENTS' GUIDE #12;WELCOME PARENTS Your daughter or son will soon join us as a student

Wilson, Mark A.


Modeling soil magnetic susceptibility and frequency-dependent susceptibility to aid landmine clearance.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on the electromagnetic properties of soils and their effects on metal detectors is increasingly necessary for effective demining due to limited detector efficacy in highly magnetic soils and the difficulty of detecting minimummetal mines. Magnetic measurements of soils, such as magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility can aid the detection of problem soils, but are not part of standard soil analyses. Consequently, little information about soil magnetism exists within the soil, environmental science and environmental geophysics communities. Lack of empirical data may be compensated through the estimation of soil magnetic characteristics by predictive modeling approaches. Initial modeling of soil types in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) was attempted by expert and analogue approaches, using only coarse scale soil type information, which resulted in the production of national soil maps for low field and frequency-dependent susceptibility. Validation of the maps was achieved by comparison of empirical magnetic data from soil samples in the National Bosnian soil archive in Sarajevo. Discrepancies between the model and empirical data are explained in part by the differences in soil parent material within each soil type, which controls the amount of Fe released into the soil system available for in situ conversion to magnetic Fe oxides. The integration of soil information (type and parent material), expert knowledge and empirical data refines the predictive modeling of soil magnetic characteristics in temperate-Mediterranean environments such as BiH. Further spatial separation of soil types in the landscape can be achieved by digital terrain modeling. Preliminary fine-scale, landscape-soil modeling indicates improved spatial resolution of soil types compared with the original coarsely-mapped soil units, and the potential to synthesize local scale soil magnetic maps.

Hannam, Jacqueline A.; Dearing, John A.



[Profile of soil microbial biomass carbon in different types of subtropical paddy soils].  


The soil microbial biomass carbon (C(mic)), one of the most active components of soil organic carbon (C(org)), is an effective indicator of soil quality. In the present study, five subtropical paddy soils developed from different parent materials were selected, and the distribution of C(mic) through the profiles was studied, as well as the relationship of C(mic) with C(org) and soil nutrients. The results showed that the contents of C(org) and C(mic) decreased markedly with increasing soil depth, ranging from 2.45 g x kg(-1) to 26.19 g x kg(-1) and from 4.55 mg x kg(-1) to 1 691.75 mg x kg(-1), respectively. They mainly concentrated in the surface layer (plough horizon and plough pan). The content of C(mic) varied significantly in paddy soils developed from different parent materials, with the highest one in yellow clayey soil, and the lowest ones in alluvial sandy soil and reddish yellow clayey soil. This was on the contrary to the distribution of C(org) in the surface paddy soils, since the reddish yellow clayey soil and alluvial sandy soil showed higher contents while other types of paddy soils exhibited similar contents of C(org). Notwithstanding, C(mic) was still controlled by the quantity of C(org) and positively correlated with C(org). The ratio of C(mic) to C(org)(C(mic)/C((org)) decreased with increasing soil depth and differed in the plough horizon between different paddy soils, with lower values in alluvial sandy soil (2.11%) and reddish yellow clayey soil (1.37%) but higher value in reddish yellow clayey soil I (8.24%). It indicated that the microbial substrate availability in alluvial sandy soil and reddish yellow clayey soil was lower than those in reddish yellow clayey soils. The content of C(mic) was significantly positively correlated with total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolyzable N and Olsen-P, but was irrelevant to available K. It is implied that the C(mic) was not only controlled by C(org), but also complicatedly interacted with soil nutrients in paddy soils. PMID:23798145

Sheng, Hao; Zhou, Ping; Yuan, Hong; Liao, Chao-Lin; Huang, Yun-Xiang; Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Yang-Zhu



Soil phosphorus status and fertilizer use in select agricutural soils in Nicaragua  

E-print Network

volcanic activity. A chain of 18 active and inactive volcanoes stretches along the Pacific coast. Many highland soils are formed Volcanoes- W Mountains- ~ + Atlantic Region Pacific Region Sebaeo Centnal:Region Figure 1-1. Major agricultural zones... agriculture pmduction zones in this area. The vast majority of the Nicaraguan soils are formed from volcanic parent material weathered by rainfall. From Honduras to Costa Rica, the convergence of the Caribbean and Cocos plates forms a line of 58 volcanoes...

Niemeyer, Patrick G



Quantitative Relationships Between Net Volume Change and Fabric Properties During Soil Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of soil evolution can be charted by net long-term volume and elemental mass changes for individual horizons compared with parent material. Volume collapse or dilation depends on relative elemental mass fluxes associated with losses form or additions to soil horizons.

Chadwick, O. A.; Nettleton, W. D.



Continental-scale patterns in soil geochemistry and mineralogy: results from two transects across the United States and Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) initiated a pilot study that involved collection of more than 1500 soil samples from 221 sites along two continental transects across Canada and the United States. The pilot study was designed to test and refine protocols for a soil geochemical survey of North America. The two transects crossed a wide array of soil parent materials, soil ages, climatic conditions, landforms, land covers and land uses. Sample sites were selected randomly at approximately 40-km intervals from a population defined as all soils of the continent. At each site, soils representing 0 to 5 cm depth, and the O, A, and C horizons, if present, were collected and analyzed for their near-total content of over 40 major and trace elements. Soils from 0–5 cm depth were also collected for analysis of organic compounds. Results from the transects confirm that soil samples collected at a 40-km spacing reveal coherent, continental- to subcontinental-scale geochemical and mineralogical patterns that can be correlated to aspects of underlying soil parent material, soil age and climate influence. The geochemical data also demonstrate that at the continental-scale the dominance of any of these major factors that control soil geochemistry can change across the landscape. Along both transects, soil mineralogy and geochemistry change abruptly with changes in soil parent materials. However, the chemical influence of a soil’s parent material can be obscured by changing climatic conditions. For the transects, increasing precipitation from west to east and increasing temperature from north to south affect both soil mineralogy and geochemistry because of climate effects on soil weathering and leaching, and plant productivity. Regional anomalous metal concentrations can be linked to natural variations in soil parent materials, such as high Ni and Cr in soils developed on ultramafic rocks in California or high P in soils formed on weathered Ordovician limestones in central Kentucky. On local scales, anomalous metal concentrations recognized in soil profiles, such as high P in soils from animal confinement sites, are consistent with local anthropogenic disturbances. At a larger scale, the distribution of Hg across the west to east transect demonstrates that it can be difficult to distinguish between natural or anthropogenic contributions and that many factors can contribute to an element’s spatial distribution. Only three samples in a subset of seventy-three 0–5 cm depth soil samples from the north to south transect had organochlorine pesticides values above the method detection limit, apparently related to historic usage of the pesticides DDT and dieldrin.

Woodruff, L. G.; Cannon, W. F.; Eberl, D. D.; Smith, D. B.; Kilburn, J. E.; Horton, J. D.; Garrett, R. G.; Klassen, R. A.



Soil nitrogen relationships in spoil material generated by the surface mining of lignite coal  

SciTech Connect

Three acid, surface-mined soils and an adjacent undisturbed soil were evaluated for nitrification potentials and nonexchangeable NH/sub 4//sup +/-N retention to better understand N mechanisms and improve the reclamation efficiency of these soils. The mined soils nitrified a maximum of only 7% of an added 100 ppM NH/sub 4//sup +/-N, although the undisturbed soil nitrified 93% of the applied N. Total N digestion showed one mined soil to have a nonexchangeable NH/sub 4//sup +/-N accounted for 73% of the total retention. Another procedure utilizing differences in exchangeable NHy+-N retention capacity of 6.2 meq/100g. Organically retained NH/sub 4//sup +/-N accounted for 73% of the total retention. Another procedure utilizing differences in exchangeable NH/sub 4//sup +/-N between moist and dried samples as estimates of nonexchangeable NH/sub 4//sup +/-N retention, showed retentive capacities of the mined soils ranging from 4.1 to 7.8 meq NH/sub 4//sup +/-N/100g. Lignite exhibited a retentive capacity of 46.0 meq NH/sub 4//sup +/-N/100g. Nonexchangeable retention was significantly correlated with the residual lignite content of the soil. Low nitrification potentials and large nonexchangeable NH/sub 4//sup +/-N retention capacities suggested that applied NH/sub 4//sup +/-N fertilizers might be inefficient in the mined soils.

Hons, F.M.; Hossner, L.R.



Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China*  

PubMed Central

Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth. PMID:17048298

Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen



Biodegradation of ? and ? Endosulfan in Soil as Influenced by Application of Different Organic Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of amending soil with four different sources of organic matter on the degradation rate of ? and ? endosulfan isomers. Poultry by-product meal, poultry manure, dairy manure, and municipal solid waste compost were cured, dried, ground (<1 mm) and thoroughly mixed with a calcareous soil at a rate of 2% and

Raghed M. Al-Hassan; Isam I. Bashour; Nasri S. Kawar



Soil formation under two moss species in sandy materials of central British Columbia (Canada)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosses can influence soil formation because of its role in the transfer of energy, water and chemical compounds. This study was conducted (1) to compare the morphological, chemical and mineralogical properties of soils under two species of mosses (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Ptilium crista-castrensis (Hedw.)), and (2) to determine the chemical composition of the moss carpets associated with these

D. W. Carter; J. M. Arocena



Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the New Brunswick Site, Middlesex County, New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the New Brunswick Site, located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides of concern and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the New Brunswick Site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. The guidelines derived in this report are intended to apply to the remediation of these remaining residual radioactive materials at the site. The primary radionuclides of concern in these remaining materials are expected to be radium-226 and, to a lesser extent, natural uranium and thorium. The DOE has established generic cleanup guidelines for radium and thorium in soil; however, cleanup guidelines for other radionuclides must be derived on a site-specific basis.

Dunning, D.; Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.



Rock types present in lunar highland soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several investigators have studied soils from the lunar highlands with the objective of recognizing the parent rocks that have contributed significant amounts of material to these soils. Comparing only major element data, and thus avoiding the problems induced by individual classifications, these data appear to converge on a relatively limited number of rock types. The highland soils are derived from a suite of highly feldspathic rocks comprising anorthositic gabbros (or norites), high alumina basalts, troctolites, and less abundant gabbroic (or noritic) anorthosites, anorthosites, and KREEP basalts.

Reid, A. M.



Production of methyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide from soil-incorporated plant materials and implications for controlling soilborne pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil-incorporated plant materials have been associated with reduction in soilborne pathogens and diseases. Mechanisms of the\\u000a biocidal actions are complex and not well understood. A glasshouse experiment, a non replicated field demonstration, and a\\u000a field experiment were conducted to determine volatile compounds after incorporation of various plant species and their effect\\u000a on pest control. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea), canola (Brassica rapa),

D. Wang; C. Rosen; L. Kinkel; A. Cao; N. Tharayil; J. Gerik



Selection of permeable reactive barrier materials for treating acidic groundwater in acid sulphate soil terrains based on laboratory column tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shoalhaven region of NSW experiences environmental acidification due to acid sulphate soils (ASS). In order to trial an\\u000a environmental engineering solution to groundwater remediation involving a permeable reactive barrier (PRB), comprehensive\\u000a site characterisation and laboratory-based batch and column tests of reactive materials were conducted. The PRB is designed\\u000a to perform in situ remediation of the acidic groundwater (pH 3)

Alexandra N. Golab; Mark A. Peterson; Buddhima Indraratna



The non destructive determination of iodine in soils and biological materials by high energy gamma-photon activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non destructive high energy gamma photon activation technique has been developed for the determination of iodine in a wide\\u000a range of natural materials. Results are presented and compared with those obtained by independent analytical techniques. Studies\\u000a of the loss of iodine from soils on heating are also presented. The sensitivity and precision of the technique are discussed\\u000a and its

D. R. Williams; J. S. Hislop



Heavy Metals and Benzo[a]pyrene in Soils from Construction and Demolition Rubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rubble is an important component in urban soils worldwide, especially in Europe. In Berlin, Germany, rubble composed soils cover about 17% of the total city area and 60% of the inner city. This study assesses the contamination status of rubble soil, particularly for heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The results of 164 soil surveys from Berlin, including more than 2000 analyzed soil samples of topsoils, rubble subsoils, and parent material have been analyzed for typical contamination patterns. The concentrations of all contaminants range over several orders of magnitude and follow negatively skewed log-normal distribution functions. For rubble containing subsoils a proportion of 34, 71, 67, 68, 74, and 61% of the analyzed samples exceed precautionary values of the German Soil Conservation Act, regarding Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg and B[a]P respectively. Similar results were found for topsoils. A minor part of the soils is contaminated with Cd, while Pb and Hg are the most typical contaminants of rubble material. In contrast to topsoils and rubble containing subsoils, the majority of the parent subsoil material is not contaminated. Only low to moderate positive correlations were found between the contaminants. Compared to parent soil material, rubble containing soils show clearly elevated concentrations of heavy metals and B[a]P. As the most characteristic contaminants for rubble are Pb and Hg, these heavy metals should first be analyzed as proxy contaminants.

Abel, Stefan; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd



Comparison of the results of soil profiles' diagnostics performed in three classification systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three soil classification systems—the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), Soil Taxonomy, and the recent Russian system—were used for the identification of 17 soil profiles in southwestern Poland; all the systems put emphasis on the soil properties as diagnostic criteria. Different soils developed on glaciofluvial plains, loessic uplands, and in the Sudetes Mountains were classified. The best correlation between the classification decisions in the different systems was obtained for the most widespread soils owing to the similarity of the diagnostic criteria, which were essentially close although not coinciding. The most prominent divergence between the systems in both the names and the taxonomic categories of the soils was found for the polygenetic soils and for the soils developing from the lithologically discontinuous parent materials. It was also found that the diagnostic elements differ in terms of their taxonomic importance among the classification systems.

Gerasimova, M. I.; Khitrov, N. B.



Distribution and variation of arsenic in Wisconsin surface soils, with data on other trace elements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils with sandy glacial outwash as a parent material have a lower median arsenic concentration (1.0 mg/kg) than soils forming in other parent materials (1.5 to 3.0 mg/kg). Soil texture and drainage category also influence median arsenic concentration. Finer grained soils have a higher observed range of concentrations. For loamy and loess-dominated soil groups, drainage category influences the median arsenic concentration and observed range of values, but a consistent relationship within the data is not apparent. Statistical analysis of the 16 other elements are presented in this report, but the relationships of concentrations to soil properties or geographic areas were not examined.

Stensvold, Krista A.



Approaches toward soil mapping of urban territories with the city of perm as an example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of urban soils and technogenic surface formations (TSFs) in the city of Perm is predetermined by the diverse lithologic and geomorphic conditions; different types of land use (residential areas with low-rise and multistory buildings, industrial zones, and agricultural zones) further enhance it. The soil cover of Perm has a mosaic pattern with contrasting changes in the morphology and genesis of its components. The areas of separate soils and TSFs cannot be delineated upon medium- and even large-scale mapping of the territory. We suggest that urban pedocomplexes—combinations of soils and TSFs developing within a given functional zone of the city from the same parent materials—should be shown on the map. Urban pedocomplexes differ from one another in the character of the predominant soils and TSFs. They inherit some features from the natural soils and parent materials and are transformed under the impact of the major type of land use.

Shestakov, I. E.; Eremchenko, O. Z.; Fil'kin, T. G.



Canopy-tree influences along a soil parent material gradient in Pinus ponderosa-Quercus gambelii forests, northern Arizona  

E-print Network

C3 species like Poa fendleriana also occurred below trees. The forbs Thalictrum fendleri centranthera, positive plant interactions, single-tree influences, Thalictrum fendleri, understory. Canopy conducted an experimental planting with T. fendleri that was consistent with these correlational results

Abella, Scott R.


Composition and Color of Martian Soil from Oxidation of Meteoritic Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aqueous weathering is not necessary for formation of the martian soils. The chemical composition and oxidation state of the surface fines can be attributed to meteoritic influx. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Yen, A. S.



Carmen, P. C. (1937). Trans., Institute of Chemical Engineers (London), 15, 150. den Adel, H. (1987). "Cyclic permeability of granular material." Delft SoilMechanics  

E-print Network

Carmen, P. C. (1937). Trans., Institute of Chemical Engineers (London), 15, 150. den Adel, H. (1987). "Cyclic permeability of granular material." Delft SoilMechanics Report No. CO-272550135, Delft Soil. Hall, K. R. (1987). "A study of the stability of rubblemound breakwaters," PhD thesis, University

Kirby, James T.


Ice-lens formation and geometrical supercooling in soils and other colloidal materials  

E-print Network

We present a new, physically-intuitive model of ice-lens formation and growth during the freezing of soils and other dense, particulate suspensions. Motivated by experimental evidence, we consider the growth of an ice-filled crack in a freezing soil. At low temperatures, ice in the crack exerts large pressures on the crack walls that will eventually cause the crack to split open. We show that the crack will then propagate across the soil to form a new lens. The process is controlled by two factors: the cohesion of the soil, and the geometrical supercooling of the water in the soil; a new concept introduced to measure the energy available to form a new ice lens. When the supercooling exceeds a critical amount (proportional to the cohesive strength of the soil) a new ice lens forms. This condition for ice-lens formation and growth does not appeal to any ad hoc, empirical assumptions, and explains how periodic ice lenses can form with or without the presence of a frozen fringe. The proposed mechanism is in good agreement with experiments, in particular explaining ice-lens pattern formation, and surges in heave rate associated with the growth of new lenses. Importantly for systems with no frozen fringe, ice-lens formation and frost heave can be predicted given only the unfrozen properties of the soil. We use our theory to estimate ice-lens growth temperatures obtaining quantitative agreement with the limited experimental data that is currently available. Finally we suggest experiments that might be performed in order to verify this theory in more detail. The theory is generalizable to complex natural-soil scenarios, and should therefore be useful in the prediction of macroscopic frost heave rates.

Robert W. Style; Stephen S. L. Peppin; Alan C. F. Cocks; John S. Wettlaufer



Oxidoreductase enzymes liberated by plant roots and their effects on soil humic material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymes exuded by roots of 12 terrestrial plant species into sterile and unsterile soils were identified by spectrophotometry and gel electrophoretic methods. Aqueous extracts of planted unsterile soils contained up to 10 % of the high activities of peroxidases (EC, laccases (EC, monophenol monooxygenases (EC, and fluorescein diacetate hydrolyzing proteinase, esterase, and lipase enzymes which were found

G. Gramss; K.-D. Voigt; B. Kirsche



Ice-lens formation and geometrical supercooling in soils and other colloidal materials.  


We present a physically intuitive model of ice-lens formation and growth during the freezing of soils and other dense, particulate suspensions. Motivated by experimental evidence, we consider the growth of an ice-filled crack in a freezing soil. At low temperatures, ice in the crack exerts large pressures on the crack walls that will eventually cause the crack to split open. We show that the crack will then propagate across the soil to form a new lens. The process is controlled by two factors: the cohesion of the soil and the geometrical supercooling of the water in the soil, a new concept introduced to measure the energy available to form a new ice lens. When the supercooling exceeds a critical amount (proportional to the cohesive strength of the soil) a new ice lens forms. This condition for ice-lens formation and growth does not appeal to any ad hoc, empirical assumptions, and explains how periodic ice lenses can form with or without the presence of a frozen fringe. The proposed mechanism is in good agreement with experiments, in particular explaining ice-lens pattern formation and surges in heave rate associated with the growth of new lenses. Importantly for systems with no frozen fringe, ice-lens formation and frost heave can be predicted given only the unfrozen properties of the soil. We use our theory to estimate ice-lens growth temperatures obtaining quantitative agreement with the limited experimental data that are currently available. Finally we suggest experiments that might be performed in order to verify this theory in more detail. The theory is generalizable to complex natural-soil scenarios and should therefore be useful in the prediction of macroscopic frost-heave rates. PMID:22181141

Style, Robert W; Peppin, Stephen S L; Cocks, Alan C F; Wettlaufer, J S



Sampling Soil for Characterization and Site Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sampling scheme for soil characterization within the GLOBE program is uniquely different from the sampling methods of the other protocols. The strategy is based on an understanding of the 5 soil forming factors (parent material, climate, biota, topography, and time) at each study site, and how each of these interact to produce a soil profile with unique characteristics and unique input and control into the atmospheric, biological, and hydrological systems. Soil profile characteristics, as opposed to soil moisture and temperature, vegetative growth, and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions, change very slowly, depending on the parameter being measured, ranging from seasonally to many thousands of years. Thus, soil information, including profile description and lab analysis, is collected only one time for each profile at a site. These data serve two purposes: 1) to supplement existing spatial information about soil profile characteristics across the landscape at local, regional, and global scales, and 2) to provide specific information within a given area about the basic substrate to which elements within the other protocols are linked. Because of the intimate link between soil properties and these other environmental elements, the static soil properties at a given site are needed to accurately interpret and understand the continually changing dynamics of soil moisture and temperature, vegetation growth and phenology, atmospheric conditions, and chemistry and turbidity in surface waters. Both the spatial and specific soil information can be used for modeling purposes to assess and make predictions about global change.

Levine, Elissa



Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials from Simulated Composition of Lunar and Martian Soils: Selected Properties and Potential Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In-situ resource processing and utilization on planetary bodies is an important and integral part of NASA's space exploration program. Within this scope and context, our general effort is primarily aimed at developing glass and glass-ceramic type materials using lunar and martian soils, and exploring various applications of these materials for planetary surface operations. Our preliminary work to date have demonstrated that glasses can be successfully prepared from melts of the simulated composition of both lunar and martian soils, and the melts have a viscosity-temperature window appropriate for drawing continuous glass fibers. The glasses are shown to have the potential for immobilizing certain types of nuclear wastes without deteriorating their chemical durability and thermal stability. This has a direct impact on successfully and economically disposing nuclear waste generated from a nuclear power plant on a planetary surface. In addition, these materials display characteristics that can be manipulated using appropriate processing protocols to develop glassy or glass-ceramic magnets. Also discussed in this presentation are other potential applications along with a few selected thermal, chemical, and structural properties as evaluated up to this time for these materials.

Ray, C. S.; Sen, S.; Reis, S. T.; Kim, C. W.



Geotechnical characteristics of residual soils  

SciTech Connect

Residual soils are products of chemical weathering and thus their characteristics are dependent upon environmental factors of climate, parent material, topography and drainage, and age. These conditions are optimized in the tropics where well-drained regions produce reddish lateritic soils rich in iron and aluminum sesquioxides and kaolinitic clays. Conversely, poorly drained areas tend towards montmorillonitic expansive black clays. Andosols develop over volcanic ash and rock regions and are rich in allophane (amorphous silica) and metastable halloysite. The geological origins greatly affect the resulting engineering characteristics. Both lateritic soils and andosols are susceptible to property changes upon drying, and exhibit compaction and strength properties not indicative of their classification limits. Both soils have been used successfully in earth dam construction, but attention must be given to seepage control through the weathered rock. Conversely, black soils are unpopular for embankments. Lateritic soils respond to cement stabilization and, in some cases, lime stabilization. Andosols should also respond to lime treatment and cement treatments if proper mixing can be achieved. Black expansive residual soils respond to lime treatment by demonstrating strength gains and decreased expansiveness. Rainfall induced landslides are typical of residual soil deposits.

Townsend, F.C.



Gay parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper formulates some propositions about gay parents (mostly lesbians) as taken from research studies and personal accounts. To many people, the idea of a person being both homosexual and a parent is inherently inconsistent. The exact numbers are unknown, but a large percentage of homosexuals do have children. More lesbian parents than gay male parents have legal custody. The

Anne Hopkins Fishel



Water extraction times for plant and soil materials used in stable isotope analysis.  


Stable isotopic analysis of water for many ecological applications commonly requires extractions of water from dozens to hundreds of plant and soil samples. With recent advances in mass spectrometry, water extraction, rather than the isotopic analysis itself, is the bottleneck in sample processing. Using cryogenic vacuum distillation, we have created extraction timing curves to determine how much time (T(min)) is required to extract an unfractionated water sample. Our results indicated that T(min) values are 60 to 75 min for stems, 40 min for clay soils, 30 min for sandy soils and 20 to 30 min for leaves. While the extraction times reported here may allow for some reductions relative to times reported in the literature, the extraction process will continue to be a rate-limiting step in plant water analyses. Ultimately, technological advances eliminating the need for extraction are required to greatly increase throughput rates in water isotope analysis for ecological research. PMID:16555369

West, Adam G; Patrickson, Shela J; Ehleringer, James R



Breaking Bad News to Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the difficulty of breaking bad news to parents, whether the news pertains to center policy or a child's behavior. Provides strategies for presenting news and for helping parents to overcome difficult situations, including gathering facts in advance, arranging an appropriate time, and having resource materials available for parents. (MOK)

Miller, Susan A.



Soil Organic Carbon Mapping by Geostatistics in Europe Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accuracy in assessing the distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important issue because SOC is an important soil component that plays key roles in the functions of both natural ecosystems and agricultural systems. The SOC content varies from place to place and it is strongly related with climate variables (temperature and rainfall), terrain features, soil texture, parent material, vegetation, land-use types, and human management (management and degradation) at different spatial scales. Geostatistical techniques allow for the prediction of soil properties using soil information and environmental covariates. In this study, assessment of SOC distribution has been predicted with Regression-Kriging method in Europe scale. In this prediction, combination of the soil samples which were collected from the LUCAS (European Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) & BioSoil Projects, with local soil data which were collected from six different CZOs in Europe and ten spatial predictors (slope, aspect, elevation, CTI, CORINE land-cover classification, parent material, texture, WRB soil classification, annual average temperature and precipitation) were used. Significant correlation between the covariates and the organic carbon dependent variable was found. Moreover, investigating the contribution of local dataset in watershed scale into regional dataset in European scale was an important challenge.

Aksoy, E.; Panagos, P.; Montanarella, L.




Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory testing was conducted to determine the feasibility of using surfactants to enhance soil performance with regard to animal waste management at feedlot and dairy sites. Three surfactants, one anionic (sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate) and two cationic (polyoxypropylene methyl diethyl ammonium chloride and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide), were tested on a sandy loam. The best surfactants are those capable of

B. Allred; G. O. Brown; L. A. Brandvold


Determination of chemical warfare agents in soil and material samples: Gas chromatographic analysis of phenylarsenic compounds (sternutators) (1st communication).  


A gas Chromatographic method for the determination of phenylarsenic compounds (sternutators) and their metabolites in soil and material samples is described. The chemical warfare agents (CWA), but not their hydrolysis and oxidation products, can be detected with GC/ECD. After derivatization with thiols or dithiols, the sum of diphenylarsenic and phenylarsenic compounds can be determined with GC/ECD. The comparison of the analytical results with and without derivatization shows that the sternutators in the investigated samples are metabolized in part. PMID:19002393

Haas, R; Krippendorf, A



Soil experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil experiment with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil experiment without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.

Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim



Installation of supply/exhaust ventilation as a remedial action against radon from soil and/or building materials.  


Installation of supply/exhaust ventilation systems is a possible remedial action against excessive concentration of radon. Installations in some 15 one-family houses in Sweden have been evaluated regarding effectiveness, costs and impact on energy demand. This remedial action is most suitable when exhalation from the structure itself is the major source of radon. The resulting decrease in concentration of radon can be estimated from dilution in the increased flow of air through the building. The exhalation from the building materials is constant and unaffected by ventilation rate. When the radon originates from the soil subjacent to the building the inflow of radon is a function of untightness and pressure difference between soil and indoor air. The result of retrofitting a ventilation system will then be the combined effect of dilution and a possible change in pressure difference. The defects in these buildings are normally remedied by more cost-effective action based on sealing the route of entry or depressurising/ventilating the subjacent soil. If a ventilation system is installed, it should preferentially be a balanced supply/exhaust system in order to give a minimal negative pressure indoors. PMID:4081752

Ericson, S O; Schmied, H



Differences in soil solution chemistry between soils amended with nanosized CuO or Cu reference materials: implications for nanotoxicity tests.  


Soil toxicity tests for metal oxide nanoparticles often include micrometer-sized oxide and metal salt treatments to distinguish between toxicity from nanometer-sized particles, non-nanometer-sized particles, and dissolved ions. Test result will be confounded if each chemical form has different effects on soil solution chemistry. We report on changes in soil solution chemistry over 56 days-the duration of some standard soil toxicity tests-in three soils amended with 500 mg/kg Cu as nanometer-sized CuO (nano), micrometer-sized CuO (micrometer), or Cu(NO3)2 (salt). In the CuO-amended soils, the log Cu2+ activity was initially low (minimum -9.48) and increased with time (maximum -5.20), whereas in the salt-amended soils it was initially high (maximum -4.80) and decreased with time (minimum -6.10). The Cu2+ activity in the nano-amended soils was higher than in the micrometer-amended soils for at least the first 11 days, and lower than in the salt-amended soils for at least 28 d. The pH, and dissolved Ca and Mg concentrations in the CuO-amended soils were similar, but the salt-amended soils had lower pH for at least 14 d, and higher Ca and Mg concentrations throughout the test. Soil pretreatments such as leaching and aging prior to toxicity tests are suggested. PMID:24992481

McShane, Heather V A; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Whalen, Joann K; Hendershot, William H



Does the feedstock origin of pyrolyzed materials influence the leaching quality and quantity of dissolved organic carbon from soils?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils play a major role in the global C cycle and can be both a source of C emissions to the atmosphere and also a C sink. In order to sequester vast quantities of C and increase soil C stocks, which may be used to partly offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the future, new technologies are needed. Recently, there has been an abundance of interest in the use of pyrolyzed biomass C, termed biochar, as an amendment to terrestrial ecosystems to provide a large and long term sink of C. However, the stability and permanence of this black C source in soil is still relatively unknown and the uncertainty surrounding its turnover time may have implications for both C sequestration and the fate and transport of dissolved organic C leached to nearby water resources. Biochar can be derived from a multitude of feed stocks (e.g. walnut shells, wood chippings, poultry litter) and under a variety of pyrolysis conditions (e.g. high temperature or low temperatures); each process and feed stock can yield very different materials that has many different physical (e.g. surface area) and chemical (e.g. CEC, C and N content) properties. Each feed stock and pyrolysis condition may consequently contribute to a distinct recalcitrance in soil. Therefore, we undertook a pot trial to evaluate the chemical characteristics of leachate from soils incubated with biochars derived from 15 different feed stocks. Using optical property parameters such as SUVA, chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) slope parameter and fluorescence characteristics, we were able to determine the C leaching potential of each feedstock. Preliminary data suggests that there are distinct variations in optical properties with feed stock origin, for example an algae digestate showed a lower absorbance at 350 nm (a350) (25.7 m-1) and a steeper spectral slope at 290-350 nm (S290-350 x10-3) (17.7 nm-1) indicative of the presence of lower molecular weight compounds compared to control treatment with a signature typical of SOC (a350 = 29.2 m-1; S290-350 = 16.8 nm-1). The ramifications for the transport of both the quantity and quality of C to aquatic systems will be discussed, especially in light of the popularity of "designer" biochars that could be used as a soil amendment in the future

Suddick, E.; Spencer, R. G.; Pereira, E. I.; Six, J. W.



The Toxicological Geochemistry of Dusts, Soils, and Other Earth Materials: Insights From In Vitro Physiologically-based Geochemical Leach Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to mineral dusts, soils, and other earth materials results in chemical reactions between the materials and different body fluids that include, depending upon the exposure route, lung fluids, gastrointestinal fluids, and perspiration. In vitro physiologically-based geochemical leach tests provide useful insights into these chemical reactions and their potential toxicological implications. We have conducted such leach tests on a variety of earth materials, including asbestos, volcanic ash, dusts from dry lake beds, mine wastes, wastes left from the roasting of mercury ores, mineral processing wastes, coal dusts and coal fly ash, various soils, and complex dusts generated by the World Trade Center collapse. Size-fractionated samples of earth materials that have been well-characterized mineralogically and chemically are reacted at body temperature (37 C) for periods from 2 hours up to multiple days with various proportions of simulated lung, gastric, intestinal, and/or plasma-based fluids. Results indicate that different earth materials may have quite different solubility and dissolution behavior in vivo, depending upon a) the mineralogic makeup of the material, and b) the exposure route. For example, biodurable minerals such as asbestos and volcanic ash particles, whose health effects result because they dissolve very slowly in vivo, bleed off low levels of trace metals into the simulated lung fluids; these include metals such as Fe and Cr that are suspected by health scientists of contributing to the generation of reactive oxygen species and resulting DNA damage in vivo. In contrast, dry lake bed dusts and concrete-rich dusts are highly alkaline and bioreactive, and cause substantial pH increases and other chemical changes in the simulated body fluids. Many of the earth materials tested contain a variety of metals that can be quite soluble (bioaccessible), depending upon the material and the simulated body fluid composition. For example, due to their acidic pH and high chloride concentrations, simulated gastric fluids are most efficient at solubilizing metals such as Hg, Pb, Zn, and others that form strong chloride complexes; although these metals tend to partially reprecipitate in the near-neutral simulated intestinal fluids, complexes with organic ligands (i.e., amino and carboxylic acids) enhance their solubility. These metals are also quite soluble in near-neutral, protein-rich plasma-based fluids because they form strong complexes with the proteins. In contrast, metalloids that form oxyanion species (such as As, Cr, Mo, W) are commonly more soluble in near-neutral pH simulated lung fluids than in simulated gastric fluids.

Plumlee, G. S.; Ziegler, T. L.; Lamothe, P.; Meeker, G. P.; Sutley, S.



Biodegradation of alpha and beta endosulfan in soil as influenced by application of different organic materials.  


A laboratory pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of amending soil with four different sources of organic matter on the degradation rate of alpha and beta endosulfan isomers. Poultry by-product meal, poultry manure, dairy manure, and municipal solid waste compost were cured, dried, ground (<1 mm) and thoroughly mixed with a calcareous soil at a rate of 2% and placed in plastic pots. Endosulfan was added at the rate of 20 mg kg(-1). The moisture level was kept near field capacity and the pots were kept at room temperature. Soil sub-samples, 100 g each, were collected from every pot at days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, and 57 for the measurement of endosulfan isomers. Endosulfan residues were extracted from the soil samples with acetone. The supernatant was filtered through anhydrous sodium sulphate, 5 mL aliquot was diluted to 25 mL with hexane, mixed well, and then two sub-samples from the filtrates were analyzed for alpha and beta endosulfan isomers by gas chromatography. The results indicated that the half-life (T(1/2)) of alpha-endosulfan in the poultry by-product meal treatment was 15 days compared to about 22 days in the other treatments. The T(1/2) of beta-endosulfan was 22 days in the poultry by-product meal treatment and followed a bi-phasic pattern, 57 days in the municipal solid waste compost treatment and the extrapolated T(1/2) was about 115 days for the other three treatments. PMID:15620084

Al-Hassan, Raghed M; Bashour, Isam I; Kawar, Nasri S



Sample pre-treatment and the determination of some chemical properties of acid sulfate soil materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a systematic analysis of the effect of common acid sulfate soil (ASS) sample pre-treatments (namely freezing, oven drying, and grinding) on chromium-reducible sulfur (SCR) and water-soluble sulfate determinations. The results show that oven drying and hand grinding of the samples prior to analysis resulted in a decrease in SCR (i.e. up to 20% compared to those of

Crystal A. Maher; Leigh A. Sullivan; Nicholas J. Ward



Reflectance and Moessbauer spectroscopy of ferrihydrite-montmorillonite assemblages as Mars soil analog materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectroscopic analyses show that Fe(3+)-doped smectites prepared in the laboratory exhibit important similarities to the soils on Mars. Smectite clays readily incorporate water-soluble ions and chemical complexes, such as aqueous Fe(III), into their interlaminar regions and are able to serve as a template for chemical reactions in the interlayer regions (MacEwan and Wilson, 1980). Clay silicates are therefore highly sensitive

Janice L. Bishop; Carle M. Pieters; Roger G. Burns



Report: Potential environmental impact of exempt site materials - a case study of bituminous road planings and waste soils.  


The use of waste materials for ecological benefit, agricultural improvement or as part of construction works are often exempt from waste management control in order to maximize the reuse of material that would otherwise be disposed of to landfill. It is important, however, to determine whether there is potential for such waste to cause environmental harm in the context of the basis for granting exemptions under the relevant framework objective to ensure that waste is recovered or disposed of without risk to water, air, soil, plants or animals. The potential for environmental harm was investigated by leaching studies on two wastes commonly found at exempt sites: bituminous road planings and waste soils. For bituminous road planings, the organic components of the waste were identified by their solubility in organic solvents but these components would have low environmental impact in terms of bioavailability. Leaching studies of the heavy metals copper, lead and zinc, into the environment, under specific conditions and particularly those modelling acid rain and landfill leachate conditions showed that, except for copper, the amounts leached fell within Waste Acceptance Criteria compliance limits for defining waste as inert waste. The fact that the amount of copper leached was greater than the Waste Acceptance Criteria level suggests that either additional testing of wastes regarded as exempt should be carried out to ensure that they are in analytical compliance or that legislation should allow for the potential benefits of reuse to supersede deviations from analytical compliance. PMID:19423579

Bark, Marjorie; Bland, Michael; Grimes, Sue



Parent Involvement  

E-print Network

To be successful, a 4-H program must have parent involvement. Although 4-H leaders and Extension agents may interest young people in becoming members, they need the parents' goodwill and support to keep them interested, enthusiastic and active. Here...

Howard, Jeff W.



Soil water conservation and yield of winter sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) as influenced by tillage, organic materials and nitrogen fertilizer in semi-arid tropical India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil water and nutrients play an important role in increasing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) yields in the Vertisols of semi-arid tropics during post-rainy season. The effects of tillage practices, organic materials and nitrogen fertilizer on soil properties, water conservation and yield of sorghum were evaluated during winter seasons of 1994–1995 and 1995–1996 on deep Vertisols at Bijapur in the

S. L. Patil; M. N. Sheelavantar



Effect of termite mound material on the physical properties of sandy soil and on the growth characteristics of tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) in semi-arid Niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation assessed the effects of termite mound material (TMM) on the physical properties of sandy soil and on tomato\\u000a (Solanum lycopersicum L.) growth characteristics and water use efficiency. TMM combined with organic manure, TMM combined with rice straw mulching\\u000a and organic manure, organic manure alone (OM) and unamended (T0) were the treatments used. Results showed that soil treated\\u000a with

Maman Garba; Wim M. Cornelis; Kathy Steppe



Formation of free acid in soil materials exposed by excavation for highways in East Texas  

E-print Network

of the backslope. The car- bonaceous sediments in the lower middle portion of the backslope had very high amounts of soil acidity. Therefore, the ac1d-forming processes relate to certain types of geologic sediments characterist1c of a paludal env1ronment... sediments exposed on the face of a backslope along U. S. High- way 69, 20 miles south of Tyler, Texas 50 56 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Location of the study area and extent of surface outcrops of certain geologic forma- tions in East Texas (adapted...

Miller, Wesley Leroy



Survey and evaluation of contaminants in earthworms and in soils derived from dredged material at confined disposal facilities in the Great Lakes region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils derived from dredged material were collected, together with earthworms from nine confined disposal facilities located in the Great Lakes Region. These samples were analyzed for 18 elements, 11 organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The concentrations detected in earthworms were evaluated in terms of their potential hazard to wildlife, which for the sake of the evaluation were assumed to prey entirely either on earthworms or on other soil invertebrates having similar concentrations. The soil concentrations (dry wt.) of the contaminants of greatest concern were < 1.9 to 32 ppm Cd, < 0.053 to 0.94 ppm Hg, 4.6 to 550 ppm Pb, and < 0.1 to 1.0 ppm PCBs. The concentrations in earthworms (dry wt., ingested soil included) were as high as 91 ppm Cd, 1.6 ppm Hg, 200 ppm Pb, and 1.8 ppm PCBs. Based on laboratory toxicity studies of relatively sensitive species, and on concentration factors calculated from the earthworm and soil data, we estimated that lethal or serious sublethal effects on wildlife might be expected at concentrations of 10 ppm Cd, 3 ppm Hg, 670 ppm Pb, and 1.7 ppm PCBs in alkaline surface soils derived from dredged material. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in earthworms were well below those in soil.

Beyer, W.N.; Stafford, C.



Major soil element (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Al, Fe) distribution along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tibetan Plateau (TP), which has been called the third polar region, is the highest plateau in the world. There are a series of special soils present in the TP, which are extremely important in soil sciences for their particularities. Soil chemical composition is one of the necessary indices of soil characteristics. The major element content of the soil, such as Ca, Mg, K, Na, not only can affect the soil pH value and soil fertility but also are the main drivers of soil geochemical processes. It is helpful to understand the TP environmental characteristics, to study the major soil element content.The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) is the highest-elevation and the longest highland railway on earth. There are nearly all types of TP soil along the QTR. Most of the areas along the QTR are in fairly pristine condition. This offers a good platform to study the natural environmental characteristics of the soil. This study selected 240 soil samples from 28 sample areas along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, and the aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium content in the soil were measured with ICP-AES. The results indicated: (1) Compared with the national soil background values, the Ca content in soil was higher along the QTR and Al was lower; but the Fe, Mg, K and Na contents were similar. (2) Along the whole QTR, the soil Al, Fe and Mg content showed a decreasing trend from Xining to Lhasa, the changes in K and Na values were relatively complex, and the distribution of Ca could be divided three sections. (3) The soil element contents varied with different soil types and parent materials. Most of the six elements content was minimum in soil, which derived from debris materials for ice and water, and the elements content was maximum in soil, which evolved from debris for flood, and the content of soil Ca developed from debris for lake was maximum. The amount of each element present in the Hapli-Cryic Aridosols and Calci-Cryic Aridosols was relatively higher than that in other type soil. The element content of the Matti-Gelic Cambosols was relatively lower, except for K. (4) The differences in parent materials and soil types may be the reasons for the spatial distribution of major soil elements observed. Key words: Tibetan Plateau, Qinghai-Tibet Railway, soil element, spatial distribution Foundation: National Basic Research Program of China, No. 2005CB422006 and 2010CB951704; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 90202012 and 40801042.

Wang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Ding, M.; Lin, X.



Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the former Baker Brothers, Inc., Site, Toledo, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the former Baker Brothers, Inc., site in Toledo, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that following remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three scenarios were considered; each assumed that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The three scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food and water consumed. The evaluation indicates that the dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of total combined uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) at the former Baker Brothers site did not exceed 710 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker, current use) or 210 pCi/g for Scenario B (resident - municipal water supply, a likely future use). The dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded at the site if the total uranium concentration of the soil did not exceed 500 pCi/g for Scenario C (subsistence farmer - on-site well water, a plausible but unlikely future use).

Nimmagadda, M.; Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.



Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the B&T Metals Company site, Columbus, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil were derived for the B&T Metals Company site in Columbus, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that following remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 n-mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three scenarios were considered; each assumed that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The three scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food and water consumed. The evaluations indicate that the dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of total uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) at the B&T Metals site did not exceed 1, I 00 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker, current use) or 300 pCi/g for Scenario B (resident with municipal water supply, a likely future use). The dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded at the site if the total uranium concentration of the soil did not exceed 880 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident with an on-site water well, a plausible but unlikely future use).

Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, Mm.; Yu, C



FLY ASH AMENDED SOILS AS HIGHWAY BASE MATERIALS Ahmet H. Aydilek., Member, ASCE1, Sunil Arora, Member, ASCE 2  

E-print Network

-cement or soil-lime as base layers in highways. A battery of tests was conducted on soil-fly ash mixtures while modifying the engineering properties of the soil. One way of handling waste fly ash is to use this objective, a battery of tests was conducted on soil-fly ash mixtures prepared with cement and lime

Aydilek, Ahmet


Suppression of Boride Formation in Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Pairings of Parent Superalloy Materials with Different Compositions and Grain Structures and Resulting Mechanical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Ni-based superalloys, columnar grained Alloy 247 and single-crystal PWA1483, are joined by transient liquid phase bonding using an amorphous brazing foil containing boron as a melting point depressant. At lower brazing temperatures, two different morphologies of borides develop in both base materials: plate-like and globular ones. Their ratio to each other is temperature dependent. With very high brazing temperatures, the deleterious boride formation in Alloy 247 can be totally avoided, probably because the three-phase-field moves to higher alloying element contents. For the superalloy PWA1483, the formation of borides cannot be completely avoided at high brazing temperatures as incipient melting occurs. During subsequent solidification of these areas, Chinese-script-like borides precipitate. The mechanical properties (tensile tests at room and elevated temperatures and short-term creep rupture tests at elevated temperatures) for brazed samples without boride precipitation are very promising. Tensile strengths and creep times to 1 pct strain are comparable, respectively, higher than the ones of the weaker parent material for all tested temperatures and creep conditions (from 90 to 100 pct rsp. 175 to 250 pct).

Steuer, Susanne; Singer, Robert F.



Nebula Formation of the H, L, and LL Parent Bodies from a Single Batch of Chondritic Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: Studies of ordinary chondrites have established that a) components in H chondrites are chemically and isotopically indistinguishable from those in L and LL chondrites; b) the chondrules show similar but larger variations than the chondrite groups; and c) mean chondrule sizes increase from H through L to LL. Correlations between chondrule size and oxygen isotopes [1], FeO [2], and metal spherule size in CR chondrites [3] suggest that size sorting of chondritic ingredients from a single reservoir could be responsible for all of the differences between H, L, and LL. Oxygen isotopes: Clayton et al. [1] found that the smallest chondrules in Dhajala (H3.8) and Weston (H4) plot closer to the terrestrial fractionation line than the large chondrules. Since H-chondrites have smaller chondrules and oxygen isotope ratios closer to the terrestrial fractionation line, size sorting of a single population of chondrules could produce the observed variation through the equilibrated ordinary chondrites. Differences in FeO: Two populations of chondrules with distinctly different metal and FeO contents have been identified among the chondrules in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites: type I and type II [2,4] with type I being more reduced than type II chondrules. Type I and type II chondrules found in H chondrites are vitually identical in mineral composition to type I and II chondrules in LL chondrites [5,6]. The differences in FeO between equilibrated H, L, and LL chondrites can be explained solely in terms of different proportions of type I and II if the type I/type II ratio is higher in H than in LL chondrites. We have studied Semarkona (LL3.0) and Roosevelt County 075, which has been classified as H3.2 [5]. We find that: a) type I chondrules are smaller than type II chondrules b) type I chondrules are relatively more abundant in RC075. Size sorting of chondrules is therefore consistent with our observations and tends to make H chondrites more reduced than L and LL chondrites. Metal: Metal is more abundant in H than L and LL. This is partly due to a higher proportion of metal-rich type I chondrules but is also due to a higher abundance of individual metal particles and spherules in H-chondrites. Because the aerodynamic processes must have operated on the metal spherules as well this would imply that the mean size of metal spherules in the source region was much smaller than the mean size of the silicate chondrules. Since metal spherules are probably ejected from chondrules, this is consistent with expectations. Conclusions: We find that size sorting of chondrules from a common source region can explain the major differences between ordinary chondrites. This would require the chondritic components found in the ordinary chondrites to have formed in the same region of the nebula, during a limited period of time. Aerodynamic sorting of the chondrules seems to be the most viable mechanism to produce size-sorting of chondrules. Since small chondrules take longer to spiral inwards through the nebula we would predict that the H parent body was farthest from the Sun, contrary to [6]. References: [1] Clayton R. N. et al. (1991) GCA, 55, 2317-2337. [2] Scott E. R. D and Taylor G. J. (1983) JGR, 88, B275-B286. [3] Skinner W. R. and Leenhouts J. M. (1993) LPS XXIV, 1315-1316. [4] McSween H. Y (1985) Meteoritics, 20, 523-540. [5] McCoy T. J. et al (1993) Meteoritics (submitted). [6] Jones R. H. (1990) GCA, 54, 1785-1802. [7] Wasson J. T. (1985) Meteorites, 267, Freeman.

Haack, H.; Scott, E. R. D.



Acceptance of Soil from Off Site Sources In order to guard against receiving contaminated soils to used as fill material on campus,  

E-print Network

enforces laws pertaining to groundwater, surface water and stormwater runoff as well as underground storage tank remediation encompassing any contaminated soil found during the remedial activities including

de Lijser, Peter


Earthworms and soil fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Earthworms redistribute organic materials within the soil, increase soil penetrability and, und certain conditions, influence ion transport in soils. Root distribution may be modified and microbial activity increased by their burrowing and feeding activities. Earthworms influence the supply of nutrients in several ways. Not only is earthworm tissue and cast material enriched in certain nutrients, relative to the soil

J. K. Syers; J. A. Springett



Summary of hydrologic and physical properties of rock and soil materials, as analyzed by the hydrologic laboratory of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1948-60  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Hydrologic Laboratory was established in 1948 to serve as the central testing laboratory for the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since then, thousands of samples of rock and soil materials have been analyzed in the laboratory. Analytical data on samples from 42 States and for the period 1948-60 are summarized in this report. The data are presented in a form that allows easy comparison of the physical and hydrologic properties of many sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rock and soil materials. Sedimentary rocks--the principal water-bearing rocks analyzed--are discussed in detail.

Morris, D.A.; Johnson, A.I.



Development of a standard reference material for Cr(vi) in contaminated soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the last several decades, considerable contamination by hexavalent chromium has resulted from the land disposal of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR). COPR contains a number of hexavalent chromium-bearing compounds that were produced in high temperature industrial processes. Concern over the carcinogenic potential of this chromium species, and its environmental mobility, has resulted in efforts to remediate these waste sites. To provide support to analytical measurements of hexavalent chromium, a candidate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material?? (SRM 2701), having a hexavalent chromium content of approximately 500 mg kg -1, has been developed using material collected from a waste site in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. The collection, processing, preparation and preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the material are discussed. A two-phase multi-laboratory testing study was carried out to provide data on material homogeneity and to assess the stability of the material over the duration of the study. The study was designed to incorporate several United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) determinative methods for hexavalent chromium, including Method 6800 which is based on speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), an approach which can account for chromium species inter-conversion during the extraction and measurement sequence. This journal is ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.

Nagourney, S. J.; Wilson, S. A.; Buckley, B.; Kingston, H. M. S.; Yang, S. -Y.; Long, S. E.



Bioremediating herbicide-contaminated soils.  


Combinations of landfarming and biostimulation were evaluated for remediating pesticide wastes. Various amounts of soil contaminated with alachlor and trifluralin (> or = 100 mg/kg each) and metolachlor and atrazine (> or = 20 mg/kg each) were applied to field plots, and sewage sludge or corn meal was incorporated into designated plots. Plots were also treated with fresh spray mixtures in amounts similar to those applied as contaminated soil. Soil bioactivity and dissipation of parent herbicides were monitored after the treatments. During 100 d, soil dehydrogenase activities were highest in organic-material-amended plots. During the same period, the levels of alachlor had declined by 85-95% in amended, contaminated soil-treated plots and by 75-85% in corresponding unamended plots. In freshly sprayed plots, 95-100% of the initial doses of alachlor had dissipated in amended plots, and 85-95% was lost in corresponding unamended plots. The levels of trifluralin had declined by 70-80% in corn-meal-amended plots and by 60-75% in unamended plots. There were no significant differences between dissipation of trifluralin applied as contaminated soil or fresh sprays. PMID:8323266

Dzantor, E K; Felsot, A S; Beck, M J



Parenting in 1976: A Listing from PMIC.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography lists materials, programs and resources which appear to be relevant to the needs of parents and those working with parents. The bibliography is a project of the Parenting Materials Information Center (PMIC) being developed by the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. PMIC collects, analyzes and disseminates information…

Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.



EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...


Abundance of Microbes Involved in Nitrogen Transformation in the Rhizosphere of Leucanthemopsis alpina (L.) Heywood Grown in Soils from Different Sites of the Damma Glacier Forefield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glacier forefields are an ideal playground to investigate the role of development stages of soils on the formation of plant–microbe\\u000a interactions as within the last decades, many alpine glaciers retreated, whereby releasing and exposing parent material for\\u000a soil development. Especially the status of macronutrients like nitrogen differs between soils of different development stages\\u000a in these environments and may influence plant

Stefanie Töwe; Andreas Albert; Kristina Kleineidam; Robert Brankatschk; Alexander Dümig; Gerhard Welzl; Jean Charles Munch; Josef Zeyer; Michael Schloter



Soils and the 'sponge effect' - what to expect from reforestation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the many salutary effects ascribed to reforestation is the 'sponge effect', the improvement of a soil's macroporosity thanks to replacing whatever land cover with forest. The purported benefits of this improvement include less overland flow and hence less erosion and less variability in stream flow. This view tacitly assumes that some soil traits, such as macroporosity, can only be acquired from the prevailing land cover when, in fact, they can also be inherited from the parent material from which soils form; they can also derive from long-term soil development. In view of this dual aspect of hydrologically relevant soil properties - acquired versus inherited, the notion of a 'sponge effect' that is uniformly beneficial across all soilscapes appears untenable. The 'intermediate-peak hypothesis' for the sponge effect postulates that there exist a set of circumstances under which the 'sponge effect', and hence the effect of reforestation, is optimal, because parent material and soil genesis are less influential than forest cover. Away from this intermediate peak, the former swamp the latter, and the 'sponge effect' is minimal or nonexistent, either because the inherited macroporosity is too large to be significantly affected by land cover, or because inherited soil traits severely limit the effect of land cover. I illustrate this hypothesis with examples from diverse ecoregions and present a simple metric for the 'sponge effect'.

Elsenbeer, H.



Synthesis and Characterization of the Hybrid Clay- Based Material Montmorillonite-Melanoidin: A Potential Soil Model  

SciTech Connect

The study of the interactions among metals, minerals, and humic substances is essential in understanding the migration of inorganic pollutants in the geosphere. A considerable amount of organic matter in the environment is associated with clay minerals. To understand the role of organic matter in the environment and its association with clay minerals, a hybrid clay-based material (HCM), montmorillonite (STx-1)-melanoidin, was prepared from L-tyrosine and L-glutamic acid by the Maillard reaction. The HCM was characterized by elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), and thermal analysis. The presence of organic materials on the surface was confirmed by XPS and STXM. The STXM results showed the presence of organic spots on the surface of the STx-1 and the characterization of the functional groups present in those spots. Thermal analysis confirmed the existence of organic materials in the montmorillonite interlayer, indicating the formation of a composite of melanoidin and montmorillonite. The melanoidin appeared to be located partially between the layers of montmorillonite and partially at the surface, forming a structure that resembles the way a cork sits on the top of a champagne bottle.

V Vilas; B Matthiasch; J Huth; J Kratz; S Rubert de la Rosa; P Michel; T Schäfer



A quantitative comparison of Soil Development in four climatic regimes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new quantitative Soil Development Index based on field data has been applied to chronosequences formed under different climatic regimes. The four soil chronosequences, developed primarily on sandy deposits, have some numeric age control and are located in xeric-inland (Merced, Calif.), xeric-coastal (Ventura, Calif.), aridic (Las Cruces, N. Mex.), and udic (Susquehanna Valley, Pa.) soil-moisture regimes. To quantify field properties, points are assigned for developmental increases in soil properties in comparison to the parent material. Currently ten soil-field properties are quantified and normalized for each horizon in a given chronosequence, including two new properties for carbonate-rich soils in addition to the eight properties previously defined. When individual properties or the combined indexes are plotted as a function of numeric age, rates of soil development can be compared in different climates. The results demonstrate that (1) the Soil Development Index can be applied to very different soil types, (2) many field properties develop systematically in different climatic regimes, (3) certain properties appear to have similar rates of development in different climates, and (4) the Profile Index that combines different field properties increases significantly with age and appears to develop at similar rates in different climates. The Soil Development Index can serve as a preliminary guide to soil age where other age control is lacking and can be used to correlate deposits of different geographical and climatic regions. ?? 1983.

Harden, J.W.; Taylor, E.M.



Perspectives on Parenting  

E-print Network

Parents' Perspectives on Parenting Styles and Disciplining Children The National Children's Strategy Research Series #12;#12;Parents' Perspectives on Parenting Styles and Disciplining Children 2010 Intergenerational transmission of discipline strategies 3 Parenting styles 3 Parental attitudes to physical

O'Mahony, Donal E.


Perspectives on Parenting Styles  

E-print Network

Children's Perspectives on Parenting Styles and Discipline: A Developmental Approach The National Children's Strategy Research Series #12;#12;Children's Perspectives on Parenting Styles and Discipline's development 12 Parental responsiveness 12 Parental control 12 Parenting styles 13 Parental discipline 14

O'Mahony, Donal E.


Parent Express.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by parents of infants and toddlers, this series of 27 8-page month-by-month newsletters provides research-based information on infant and child development and care from 0 to 36 months. Topics in the series for infants include: becoming a parent; getting ready for child birth; the newborn child; and characteristics of the child at…

Kazanjian, Elise, Ed.



Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance - Part II: Development of an accelerate aging method for roofing materials  

SciTech Connect

Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products?single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles?and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. This accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

Sleiman, Mohamad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Berdahl, Paul; Gilbert, Haley; Quelen, Sarah; Marlot, Lea; Preble, Chelsea; Chen, Sharon; Montalbano, Amadine; Rosseler, Olivier; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Destaillats, Hugo



A simple method for determination of ammonium in semimicro?Kjeldahl analysis of soils and plant materials using a block digester  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for determination of ammonium in semimicro?Kjeldahl analysis of soils and plant materials using a Tecator or Technicon 40?tube block digester is described. It involves use of an inexpensive steam distillation apparatus that permits direct distillation of ammonium from the tubes used for Kjeldahl digestion in 40?tube block digesters. The method is rapid and precise, and it gives

J. M. Bremner; G. A. Breitenbeck




EPA Science Inventory

Methods for analyzing soil, vegetation and sediment samples for total S and handling soil samples for analysis of S constituents were examined. ECO automated total S anelyzer (SC-132) was used for the analysis of vegetation, sediments and soil samples. esults from the LECO analyz...


Vegetation Influences on Long-Term Carbon Stabilization in Soils: a Coast Redwood-Prairie Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex interactions and feedbacks among soil, biota, climate, and parent material determine the long-term pathways and mechanisms of carbon persistence in soils. While it is well known that litter chemistry influences litter decay on annual-decadal timescales, its impact on long-term SOM storage is still under debate. We tested the role of the substrate available to decomposers in determining decomposition and

S. Mambelli; S. D. Burton; K. J. McFarlane; M. S. Torn; T. E. Dawson



Quantifying uptake rate of potassium from soil in a long-term grass rotation experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil-plant potassium (K) dynamics were studied using a long-term field experiment in order to evaluate the plant performance\\u000a and K delivering capacity of the soil parent material. Rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) based rotations on a loamy sand derived from granitic bedrock were studied over 30 years with two K-fertilisation regimes,\\u000a nil (K0) and 65 kg K ha?1?yr?1. Mineralogical and chemical methods were

Ingrid Öborn; Anthony C. Edwards; Stephen Hillier



Soil chemical and microbial effects of simulated acid rain on clover and soft chess  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of simulated acid rain, comprised of HNO3 and H2SO4 in the mole ratio of 3:1, at pH 5.6, 4.5, 4.0 and 3.0, were tested on the grass, soft chess (Bromus mollis L.) and on clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. var. Woogenellup) in a sandy soil of granodiorite parent material. Soft chess was grown in unfertilized soil, whereas clover was grown

John G. McColl; Mary K. Firestone



[Contents of different soil fluorine forms in North Anhui and their affecting factors].  


By the method of consecutive extraction, this paper studied the contents and vertical distribution of soil fluorine (F) forms in North Anhui, with their relations to the soil physical and chemical properties analyzed. The results showed that the soil total F (T-F) content in North Anhui was ranged from 265.8 mg . kg(-1) to 612.8 mg . kg(-1), with an average of 423.7 mg . kg(-1), and decreased in the sequence of vegetable soil > fluvo-aquic soil > paddy soil > shajiang black soil > yellow brown soil. Among the T-F, residual F (Res-F) was the main form, occupying > 95% of total F, followed by water soluble F (Ws-F), being about 1.5% of the total, and organic-F (Or-F), Fe and Mn oxide-F (Fe/Mn-F) and exchangeable-F (Ex-F) only had very small amount. The Ws-F content in test soils ranged from 1.35 mg . kg(-1) to 17.98 mg . kg(-1), with a mean value of 6.62 mg . kg(-1). Vegetable soil, fluvo-aquic soil and shajiang black soil had a relatively higher content of Ws-F, while yellow brown soil was in adverse. Soil pH and the contents of soil organic matter, total and available phosphorus, and physical clay were the main factors affecting the contents of various F forms. Soil Ws-F was significantly positively correlated with soil pH and soil total and available phosphorus, soil Ex-F was significantly positively correlated with soil clay ( < 0.01 mm and <0.001 mm), soil Fe/Mn-F was significantly positively correlated with soil total phosphorus, and soil Or-F had a significant positive correlation with soil organic matter. Soil Ws-F content also had a close connection to the parent material. The soil developed from shallow lacustrine and marsh sediments usually had the highest Ws-F content, followed by those developed from Huang River alluvial deposit, Q3 loess, Huaihe River alluvial deposit, and light-texture yellow brown soil, with the mean Ws-F content being 9.05, 8.12, 2.97, 2.05 and 1.91 mg . kg(-1), respectively. The contents of soil Or-F and Fe/Mn-F decreased with increasing soil depth, and those of T-F and Ws-F in vegetable soil were higher in upper than in deeper soil layers. PMID:17763739

Yu, Qun-ying; Ci, En; Yang, Lin-zhang



[Analysis of XRD spectral characteristics of soil clay mineral in two typical cultivated soils].  


The present paper took black soil and chernozem, the typical cultivated soil in major grain producing area of Northeast, as the study object, and determinated the soil particle composition characteristics of two cultivated soils under the same climate and location. Then XRD was used to study the composition and difference of clay mineral in two kinds of soil and the evolutionary mechanism was explored. The results showed that the two kinds of soil particles were composed mainly of the sand, followed by clay and silt. When the particle accumulation rate reached 50%, the central particle size was in the 15-130 microm interval. Except for black soil profile of Shengli Xiang, the content of clay showed converse sequence to the central particle in two soils. Clay accumulated under upper layer (18.82%) in black soil profile while under caliche layer (17.41%) in chernozem profile. Clay content was the least in parent material horizon except in black profile of Quanyanling. Analysis of clay XRD atlas showed that the difference lied in not only the strength of diffraction peak, but also in the mineral composition. The main contents of black soil and chernozem were both 2 : 1 clay, the composition of black soil was smectite/illite mixed layer-illite-vermiculite and that of chernozem was S/I mixture-illite-montmorillonite, and both of them contained little kaolinite, chlorite, quartz and other primary mineral. This paper used XRD to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two kinds of typical cultivated soil comparatively, and it was a new perspective of soil minerals study. PMID:25269317

Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Luo, Xiang-Li; Jiang, Hai-Chao; Li, Qiao; Shen, Cong-Ying; Liu, Hang; Zhou, Ya-Juan; Zhao, Lan-Po; Wang, Ji-Hong



A garden mulch is any material spread on the soil surface to modify the environment where the plant is growing. The materials used can be natural or synthetic and can be used in any number of combinations  

E-print Network

companies manufacture recycled paper into mulch, sold in rolls and installed much like black plastic. Other organic mulching materials include crushed corn cobs, peanut hulls, buckwheat hulls, bark and wood chips Black plastic Excellent for conserving moisture and nutrients, warming the soil and providing weed

New Hampshire, University of


About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area, which landscape is characterized by till and limestone plains with thin Quaternary cover, the soil cover is more heterogeneous than in previous area. Kuusiku soil cover is more variegated by the soil texture and as well as by the genesis of soils. In addition to Cambisols, Leptosols, Gleysols and Luvisols may be found here as well. The dominating soils in Olustvere research area, which is situated on wavy upland plateau, are Albeluvisols.

Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia



The macromolecular organic composition of plant and microbial residues as inputs to soil organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant litter and the microbial biomass are the major parent materials for soil organic matter (SOM) formation. Plant litter is composed of complex mixtures of organic components, mainly polysaccharides and lignin, but also aliphatic biopolymers and tannins. The composition and relative abundance of these components vary widely among plant species and tissue type. Whereas some components, such as lignin, are

Ingrid Kögel-Knabner



Effects of land use and geological factors on the spatial variability of soil carbon and nitrogen in the Konya Basin, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The landscape-scale (10s-100s km2) spatial variability of soil properties such as carbon and nitrogen stocks is poorly known in many regions worldwide, especially in semi-arid landscapes with millenial histories of intense land use activities. Characterizing patterns and understanding processes that affect such variability is important for basic research on land use impacts for soils and ecosystems, such as modeling regional-scale ecosystem biogeochemical balances and greenhouse gas emissions, as well as applied research for precision agriculture, soil erosion control, water conservation and carbon accounting. Here, we use geostatistical analyses to study patterns of spatial variability in total carbon (TC), organic carbon (SOC), and total nitrogen (TN) stocks in soils (0-25 cm) of the Konya Basin, Turkey. We hypothesized that land use will have a stronger effect on SOC variability, which will be more tightly linked with vegetation and human management, while parent material will be a more important predictor of TC variability in these arid soils with high carbonate content. We collected a total of 560 samples from 35 sites distributed across three soil parent materials and three classes of land use (agriculture, grazing lands and orchards), using multi-temporal analyses of Landsat data to map land cover and geographic information systems (GIS) to aid selection of field sites. Building on previous research that found parent materials strongly control TC, TN and SOC, we tested whether soil parent materials or land-use practices more strongly explain patterns of spatial variability of soil properties at nested scales, including within field-site (within 35 1-ha field sites) and landscape scales (across 35 sites). Initial results show that spatial patterns of total carbon (TC) are strongly affected by soil parent materials and field sites at landscape scales. Forthcoming analyses will analyze patterns in TN and SOC. Our analyses, which test effects of geological factors and human activities on the spatial variability of soil properties, can inform development of landscape-scale soil sampling schemes for soil carbon and nitrogen accounting so that they are representative of soils at landscape scales in dryland environments. They suggest that in drylands, land management strategies to increase carbon stocks in soils differ based on soil type. Further, they will contribute understanding to what processes varying across spatial scales may be driving soil heterogeneity.

Mayes, M. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Ozdogan, M.; Clayton, M.



Contaminant-induced changes to soil properties: From general overview to study of metal oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A contemporary metapedogenetic process in which anthropogenic contaminants become an additional soil-forming factor is presented. Several examples that link contamination and modification of soil properties from the existing literature are reviewed. Also, recent experimental results that show possible soil property modifications as a result of application of metal oxide nanoparticles to natural soils are shown. Research results published in literature on chemical contaminant-soil interactions show that in some cases, irreversible changes to the soil matrix and properties may occur. In such cases, a pristine soil may become the parent material for a newly-formed soil. In contrast to natural processes over geological time scales, contaminant-induced soil modification occurs over much shorter time scales. In recent years, the effects of soil on the behavior and properties of nanoparticles released to the environment have been studied extensively. The behavior, transport and mobility of nanoparticles were shown to be strongly dependent on environmental conditions. However, little is known about the possible effects of nanoparticles on soil properties. In this study, two types of metal oxide nanoparticles, CuO and Fe3O4 were mixed with two types of soil and the effects of the nanoparticles on various soil properties were assessed. Metal oxide nanoparticles were previously shown to catalyze the oxidation of organic pollutants in aqueous suspensions, and they were therefore expected to induce changes in the organic material in the soil, especially upon addition of an oxidant. It was found that the nanoparticles did not change the total amount of organic materials in the soil or the total organic carbon in the soil extract; however, three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated changes in humic substances.

Ben Moshe, T.; Dror, I.; Yaron, B.; Berkowitz, B.



Bioremediation of Distillery Sludge into Soil-Enriching Material Through Vermicomposting with the Help of Eisenia fetida.  


The aim of the present study was bioremediation of distillery sludge into a soil-enriching material. It was mixed with a complementary waste, cattle dung, and subjected to vermicomposting with (V) and without (T, control) Eisenia fetida in the ratio of 0:100 % (V1, T1), 10:90 (V2, T2), 25:75 (V3, T3), 50:50 (V4, T4), 75:25 (V5, T5) and 100:0 % (V6, T6), respectively. Survival rate, growth rate, onset of maturity, cocoon production and population build-up increased with increasing ratio of cattle dung. Maximum mortality of earthworm was observed in V6 mixture. On the basis of response surface design, the concentration of sludge giving highest number of worms, cocoons and hatchlings came out to be 21.11, 24.51 and 17.19 %, respectively. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium and pH increased during vermicomposting but decreased in the products without earthworm and there was increase in the contents of transition metals in the products of both the techniques. However, organic carbon, electrical conductivity and potassium showed an opposite trend. PMID:25113550

Singh, Jaswinder; Kaur, Arvinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal




EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...


GEMAS - Soil geochemistry and health implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GEMAS Project resulted in a large coherent data set displaying baseline levels of elements in agricultural and grazing land soil, which has a wide variety of applications. Medical geology is an emerging new discipline providing a link between geoscience and medicine by interpreting natural geological factors in relation to human and animal health and their geographical distribution. Medical geology shows not only problems related to harmful health effects of natural geological materials and processes, but also deals with their beneficial aspects. Since the GEMAS project demonstrates the importance of geological factors in geochemical patterns in European soil, this data set can be used in improving our understanding of how the geological processes may affect human health in Europe. The main potential health problems are related to deficiency of nutrients in soil and toxic effects of potentially harmful elements. Deficiency in macro- (e.g., K, Fe, Mg, P) and micro-nutrients (e.g., Se, Zn, Cl) can be responsible for a reduction in crop productivity and certain health issues for livestock and humans. On the other hand, bioavailability of crucial elements depends on soil parameters, e.g., pH; namely, low pH in soil (in northern Europe) makes more micronutrients bioavailable, with the exception of Mo, P and Ca. Rocks underlying the soil layer have a major impact on soil composition, and soil parent material can be a main source of toxic metals, for instance, soil developed on black shale (e.g., Oslo region) shows potentially toxic levels of metals, such as As, Cd, U, Zn and Pb. High content of organic matter is another factor amplifying the toxic levels of metals in soil. Several important topics with health implications can be then addressed using the GEMAS data set, namely, soil properties and element bioavailability, arsenic toxicity, selenium deficiency, potential health effects of liming, uranium in European soil, influence of recent and historical volcanic activity on soil composition and its health consequences. References Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part A: Methodology and interpretation of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 528 pp. Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part B: General background information and further analysis of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 352 pp.

Ernstsen, Vibeke; Ladenberger, Anna; Wragg, Joanna; Gulan, Aleksandra



Lunar Soil Particle Separator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) beneficiates soil prior to in situ resource utilization (ISRU). It can improve ISRU oxygen yield by boosting the concentration of ilmenite, or other iron-oxide-bearing materials found in lunar soils, which can substantially reduce hydrogen reduction reactor size, as well as drastically decreasing the power input required for soil heating

Berggren, Mark



Body for Parents (Girls)  


... Illness & disability Drugs, alcohol & smoking Your feelings Relationships Bullying Safety Your future Environmental health Skip section navigation ( ... parents Girls' feelings for parents Relationships for parents Bullying for parents Safety for parents The future for ...


Frequency-dependent susceptibility of rocks, soils and environmental materials: multi-frequency model relationship to magnetic granulometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In palaeoclimatology and environmental science, the frequency-dependent susceptibility of rocks, soils and environmental materials is traditionally interpreted as resulting from interplay between superparamagnetic (SP) and stable single domain (SSD) or even multidomain (MD) magnetic particles even though some other phenomena, such as eddy currents, may also play a role mainly at high operating frequencies. The models to investigate the frequency-dependent susceptibility, which were originally developed by Eyre (1997, GJI) and Worm (1998, GJI) for two operating frequencies (470 Hz and 4700 Hz possessed by the Bartington susceptibility meter), were extended to multiple operating frequencies (976 Hz, 3904 Hz, and 15616 Hz possessed by the KLY1-FA Kappabridge and 100000 Hz and 250000 Hz). The Xfd parameter, quantitatively characterizing the frequency-dependent susceptibility, is the higher the larger is the difference between the logarithms of the operating frequencies used in its determination. From the measuring point of view, it would be best to use very different frequencies. In this case, one can infer whether the SP grains are present or not, but nothing can be said of their size distribution. For this reason, it is better to work at more frequencies than two, because this enables us to decide whether the presumed log-normal distribution of magnetic grains is narrow or wide. The Xfd parameter measured on the whole rock (soil) may be much lower than that of the ferromagnetic fraction with frequency dependent susceptibility due to the effect of the fractions with frequency-independent susceptibility ( typically diamagnetic and paramagnetic fractions). Then, the low value of the Xfd parameter does not necessarily indicate low amount of the SP particles within the ferromagnetic fraction. A new Xr parameter is introduced that is not affected by fractions with frequency-independent susceptibility and indicates only the ferromagnetic fraction with frequency-dependent susceptibility; for determining it an instrument working at three operating frequencies is necessary. It can trace grain volume changes during progressive processes. Our modelling provides us at least with theoretical basis for comparing the data by the MFK1-FA Kappabridge and the Bartington MS2 instrument and, moreover, it enables us to investigate whether multiple frequencies have at least theoretical advantages compared to two frequencies approach used till now and helps us to answer the question whether spending energy in developing high frequency instruments is reasonable.

Hrouda, Frantisek



"Lou soil", a fertile anthropogenic soil with thousands of years of cultivating history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese farmers have a very long history of using manures in their fields. Owing to the long-term addition of manures, an anthropogenic layer was formed on the top of original soil profile (drab soil) in Guanzhong Plains on the south edge of the Loess Plateau, North China. This soil is named the Manural Loessial soil (or Lou soil, "Lou" means the different stories of a building in Chinese). The depth of anthropogenic layer is in range of about 30 to 100 cm depth, which has a close relationship with the soil productivity. This fertile agricultural soil has sustained the agriculture in the region for millenniums. We had determined the organic carbon (SOC) in 7 soil profiles, and found that the depths of anthropogenic layer of were in range of 40 to 71 cm (averaging 59 cm). And the anthropogenic layer became shallower as the profile was far from the village due to less manure application. The organic C stocks in this layer accounted for 69% of organic C stocks in 0-100 cm soil profiles. Organic C stocks in Lou soil was higher than that in the newly cultivated soil developed from loess parent materials. Our 30-day incubation experiment found that addition of synthetic N fertilizer significantly increased the decomposition of SOC in the soils. However, The decomposition rate of SOC in the soil added with manure and inorganic fertilizers for 18-yr (MNPK soil) was significantly lower than in the soils added without fertilizer or inorganic fertilizers (NF soil, and NPK soils). The half-life of the organic C in MNPK soils was also slower than the NF soil, and NPK soil. It indicates that long-term combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers improves the stabilization of soil organic C. Long-term cultivation has not only increased organic C stocks, but also stabilization of organic C in soil profile. It provides us a unique sample to study the mechanism of accumulation and stabilization of organic C in soil to balance agricultural production and C sequestration in a warming earth. Our micro-plot experiment with 15N-labeled fertilizer in the long-term fertilizer trial found that the use efficiency of N fertilizer (NUE) in MNPK soil was higher than the NPK soil and NF soil in both wheat-summer fallow and winter wheat and summer corn rotation system. However, the N fertilizer losses in MNPK soil was lower than the NPK soil and NF soil in the two systems. We concluded that the long-term combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers improves N synchrony between the supply and crop demand, and reduces its loss. Since the 1980s, however, the application of manure to arable fields has declined in Guanzhong Plain, and in other parts of China, due to the increasing use of inorganic fertilizers, and labor costs to apply manure. The nutrient input of the arable fields are heavily dependent on inorganic fertilizers. It changes the biogeochemical cycling of the ecosystem, and results in a series of problems, including eutrophication, greenhouse gas emission, and nitrate leaching. Therefore, we need to find the alternatives to solve the problems, to conserve this old anthropogenic soil while producing enough food to feed the growing population.

Zhou, J.; Liang, B.; Yan, J.; Zhao, W.




E-print Network

This edition of MaterialEASE focuses on materials selection in general while paying particular attention to the increasing use of the computer in the selection process. Many of the commercial products associated with computer-aided materials selection are evaluated along with an analysis of the development trends. MaterialEASE is also available at AMPTIAC’s Web stie …

unknown authors


The Effects of Athlete Retirement on Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often parents who introduce their children to competitive sports and parents who then provide remarkable emotional and material support across their children's athletic careers (Bloom, 1985; Côté, 1999). Considerable research documents athletes’ retirement experiences (Baillie, 1993; Baillie & Danish, 1992; Svoboda & Vanek, 1982; Werthner & Orlick, 1982), yet none explores the effects of retirement on parents. The

Patricia Lally; Gretchen Kerr



Sourcebook on Parenting and Child Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as a guide to parenting materials for parents and professionals who work with parents, this sourcebook and annotated bibliography of 940 entries is divided into five parts. Topical chapters in each part list and describe books and journals categorized as popular titles, professional titles, and directories. Chapters in part 1 list and…

Carpenter, Kathryn Hammell


The application of pH(stat) leaching tests to assess the pH-dependent release of trace metals from soils, sediments and waste materials.  


pH is one of the key parameters that determines heavy metal mobility in soils, sediments and waste materials. In many respects leaching behaviour as reflected by the pH(stat) leaching tests provide a better means of assessing environmental impact than analysis of total elemental composition. This paper discusses the use of pH(stat) leaching tests as a tool to assess the potential mobilisation of trace metals from soils, sediments and waste materials. The possibilities of pH(stat) leaching tests are illustrated by means of different examples. The mathematical fitting of metal leaching behaviour from soils and sediments enabled a distinction between 5 groups of elements with a different leaching behaviour, which could be related to 'pools' with different reactivity. Contrary to single and sequential extractions, where pH is difficult to control, the reactivity and mobility of metals at a user-defined pH can be investigated. Moreover, the potential buffering capacity of the sample and its sensitivity to pH changes as a result of external stresses (e.g. soil acidification, liming) can be estimated. A multidisciplinary approach combining mineralogical analysis (X-ray diffraction) with chemical analysis, pH(stat) leaching tests and geochemical modelling (MINTEQA2) can provide information on the solid-phase speciation and reactivity of heavy metals in soils, sediments and waste materials. Besides the influence of pH on heavy metal leaching behaviour, additional information on heavy metal leachability and retention by the solid matrix was obtained from the kinetics of metal release during a pH(stat) test. PMID:18313214

Cappuyns, Valérie; Swennen, Rudy



Games in an Introductory Soil Science Course: A Novel Approach for Increasing Student Involvement with Course Material  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An optional 1-credit recitation course was developed to supplement a traditionally taught 4-credit lecture-plus-laboratory course in soil science at Oregon State University. Popular, competitive games that would be familiar to students were revised to be "soils-based" and were employed in the recitation class. These games were seen as a potential…

Sulzman, Elizabeth W.



New elements in teaching soil-landscape relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A landscape is an area whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors. Landscapes are fundamental spatial units for soil scientists working in the fields of soil survey and soil geography. For these scientists but also for those who use their products (e.g. maps), interrelations between geology, geomorphology, soil formation and derived soil patterns in relation to land use are keys to the understanding of landscape functions. Many of these relations have been documented in aging soil survey reports but these are often difficult to access. As a result, important and unique soil-landscape phenomena remain hidden for other environmental scientists or the general public. In the Netherlands, efforts have been undertaken to aggregate information from soil survey reports and recent scientific insights into a new book with the aim to teach students the basic elements in soil-landscape research and to provide insights into valuable earth phenomena that are in need of preservation and/or careful management. New elements include amongst others: - State-of-the-art graphics to show how basic soil forming factors such as climate (change), parent material and time are interrelated. - Detailed catenas for specific soil-landscape systems, showing the relations between geomorphology and soil genesis. - Combining traditional soil maps with high-resolution DEM data to make soil-landscape relations more explicit. - Indicating the extent and impacts of land use change using maps of land use history. With this approach, current insights into natural patterns of geodiversity and pedodiversity are documented and available as a resource for education but also for policy makers working in the fields of geoheritage.

Sonneveld, M. P. W.



Magnetic Pattern of Luvisol Sequences From Mexico and Russia: An Alternative Analysis of Soil Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, soil has been consolidated like a worthy and complementary source of information to environmental and paleo-climatic reconstruction research. The study of magnetic mineralogy present in soil horizons play an important role to understand a lot of complex process which to allow obtain information about environment condition present during genesis and evolution of soil. The main aim of this study is to compare soils with different parent material, as well as to obtain a magnetic sign from soils profile which could be used to determinate the responsible of pedogenic process of their magnetic behavior of each horizon, and their possible relationship with environmental condition. Study carried out of two complete profiles of buried interglacial Luvisols, one formed in loess in Russia (Alexandrovsky quarry, AQ) and the other in volcaniclastics in Mexico (Barranca Tlalpan, BT). In the AQ, the magnetic susceptibility is enhanced in the paleosol compared to parent material. In the BT sequence, susceptibility enhancement is absent in the soil profile. Increase of fine-grained magnetic components in the soil is attributed to neoformed minerals. However, this process cannot compensate for the loss of lithogenic magnetic minerals in any of the genetic horizons, and the resulting trend is susceptibility depletion in the whole soil profile. The pedogenic environment of eluvial horizons in both Luvisols is destructive to all magnetic components, both primary and secondary. Higher concentrations of antiferromagnetic components (hematite and goethite) found in E horizons are related to redoximorphic processes.

Rivas Ortiz, J. F.; Ortega Guerrero, B.; Solleiro Rebolledo, E.; Sedov, S.




Microsoft Academic Search

Materials play an important role in manufactured goods. Materials must possess both acceptable properties for their intended\\u000a applications and a suitable ability to be manufactured. These criteria hold true for micromanufacturing, in which parts have\\u000a overall dimensions of less than 1 mm. This chapter begins by reviewing materials usage in Asian and European research in micromanufacturing,\\u000a categorized by manufacturing process.

David Bourell; Kamlakar Rajurkar


Data analysis of the 1984 and 1986 soil sampling programs at Materials Disposal Area T in the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

An environmental surveillance program for Materials Disposal Area T (MDA-T) at Los Alamos, New Mexico is described. The waste-use history of this disposal site is described, followed by a description of the materials and methods used to analyze data from two surface soil radionuclide sampling programs performed at this disposal site. The disposal site`s physical features are related to the spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration contours in an attempt to evaluate radionuclide migration mechanisms in and around the site. The usefulness of the data analysis efforts is evaluated and recommendations are made for future studies.

Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.



Soil Taxonomy and Soil Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 16 papers in this report deal with the following areas: soil taxonomy; an overview; diagnostic soil horizons in soil taxonomy; soil moisture and temperature regimes in soil taxonomy; particle size and mineralogy in soil taxonomy; soil series and soil ...



Soil moisture: Some fundamentals. [agriculture - soil mechanics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief tutorial on soil moisture, as it applies to agriculture, is presented. Information was taken from books and papers considered freshman college level material, and is an attempt to briefly present the basic concept of soil moisture and a minimal understanding of how water interacts with soil.

Milstead, B. W.



Soils developed from alluvial and proluvial deposits in the Gröndalselva River valley in West Spitsbergen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genetic characterization of soils developed from alluvial and proluvial deposits in the Gröndalselva River valley (West Spitsbergen) is presented. These soils are compared with analogous soils formed on marine terraces along the coasts of Isfjord and Grönfjord. Gray-humus (soddy) soils with an O-AY-C profile have been described on parent materials of different origins, including alluvial and proluvial sediments. The texture of the soils in the Gröndalselva River valley varies from medium to heavy loam and differs from the texture of the soils on other geomorphic positions in the higher content of fine particles. The soils developed from the alluvial deposits are characterized by their richer mineralogical and chemical composition in comparison with the soils developed from proluvial deposits, marine deposits, and bedrocks. All the deposits are impoverished in CaO. No differentiation of the chemical composition of the soils along the soil profiles has been found in the soils of the coastal areas and the river valley. Some accumulation of oxalate-soluble Al and Fe compounds takes place in the uppermost mineral horizon. The soils of all the geomorphic positions have a high humus content and a high exchange capacity.

Pereverzev, V. N.; Litvinova, T. I.



Confidence in Parenting: Is Parent Education Working?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined parents' feelings of confidence in their parenting ability among 56 individuals enrolled in 5 parent education programs in Mississippi, hypothesizing that there would be significant correlations between personal authority in the family system and a parent's confidence in performing the various roles of parenting. Based on…

Stanberry, J. Phillip; Stanberry, Anne M.


Constructive Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book turns important research and theory into essential, easy-to-follow guidelines for new parents and child care providers to help them focus on the critical first 3 years of life to build a strong foundation for the future. All the key areas of child development are covered, including self-esteem, and cognitive, motor and social…

Goldberg, Sally


Parent Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains information for parents whose children are enrolled in the Child Development Laboratory (CDL), a university-based preschool and child care program operated by the Department of Human and Community Development on the campus of the University of Illinois. The program provides half-day preschool for 2- to 4-year-old children and…

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Child Development Lab.


Perceived Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contingent self-esteem (i.e., the degree to which one's self-esteem is dependent on meeting particular conditions) has been shown to predict a wide range of psychosocial and academic problems. This study extends previous research on contingent self-esteem by examining the predictive role of perceived parenting dimensions in a sample of early…

Wouters, Sofie; Doumen, Sarah; Germeijs, Veerle; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine



Total Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins…

Smith, Richard



Soil stabilization 1982  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven papers cover the following areas: design, construction and performance of lime, fly ash, and slag pavement; evaluation of heavily loaded cement stabilized bases; coal refuse and fly ash compositions; potential highway base course materials; lime soil mixture design considerations for soils of southeastern United States; short term active soil property changes caused by injection of lime and fly ash; soil cement for use in stream channel grade stabilization structures; and reaction products of lime treated southeastern soils.

Barenberg, E. J.; Thompson, M. R.; Tayabji, S. D.; Nussbaum, P. J.; Ciolko, A. T.


Mercury content of Illinois soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For a survey of Illinois soils, 101 cores had been collected and analyzed to determine the current and background elemental compositions of Illinois soils. Mercury and other elements were determined in six samples per core, including a surface sample from each core. The mean mercury content in the surface samples was 33 ?? 20 ??g/kg soil, and the background content was 20 ?? 9 ??g/kg. The most probable sources of mercury in these soils were the parent material, and wet and dry deposition of Hg0 and Hg2+ derived from coal-burning power plants, other industrial plants, and medical and municipal waste incinerators. Mercury-bearing sewage sludge or other fertilizers applied to agricultural fields could have been the local sources of mercury. Although the mercury content correlated with organic carbon content or clay content in individual cores, when all the data were considered, there was no strong correlation between mercury and either the organic carbon or the clay-size content.

Dreher, G.B.; Follmer, L.R.



Non-Traditional Soil Additives: Can They Improve Crop Production?  

E-print Network

Non-traditional soil additives include soil conditioners such as organic materials and minerals, soil activators that claim to stimulate soil microbes or inoculate soil with new beneficial organisms, and wetting agents that may be marketed...

McFarland, Mark L.; Stichler, Charles; Lemon, Robert G.



Distribution and characterization of soils and landform relationships in Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the spatial distribution of soils from the northern part of Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, which is the largest ice-free area of the South Shetlands archipelago, Maritime Antarctica. Physical and chemical characteristics are presented for 23 soil profiles. Soil parent materials vary from marine sedimentary to volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks, intruded by igneous bodies. To assess soil-landscape relationships, twenty-three soil profiles were described and sampled. Soil samples of selected horizons were submitted to chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses. Soil mapping was based on the soil profiles, integrated with the existent topographic map (1:25.000 scale), a digital elevation model, the geological map and a satellite image. Twenty different soil units were identified and mapped. According to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) system, soils were classified as Fluvisols, Regosols, Leptosols or Cryosols, which correspond mostly to Fluvents, Orthents/Psamments, Inceptsols and Gelisols, respectively, according to the Soil Taxonomy. Soils from northern Byers Peninsula are generally shallow and coarse textured, with low organic matter content. Three soils from the rocky platforms of the northern coastal region possess ornithogenic character, with lower pH, higher P, Al3 + and organic C values when compared to soils not influenced by sea birds. In non-ornithogenic soils, the presence of easily weatherable minerals in the clay fraction indicates that physical weathering occurs with limited chemical alteration of primary minerals. The influence of penguin and other birds on coastal soils alters clay mineralogy, with formation of poorly crystalline P-rich phases. A better understanding of the depth of the permafrost table and the spatial distribution of permafrost is necessary for a more conclusive classification of Cryosols or Gelisols.

Moura, Pedro Adnet; Francelino, Marcio R.; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Simas, Felipe N. B.; de Mendonça, Bruno A. F.



Parents in Reading: Parents' Booklet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for parents, this booklet offers advice and suggestions for developing a child's self-expression and providing a supportive environment for reading experiences at home. Various sections of the book discuss the following: (1) giving love and warmth to your child, (2) reading with your child, (3) listening to your child, (4) talking with…

Truby, Roy


Becoming Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-six lesbian adoptive parents were part of a cross-sectional study to explore their adoption experiences, specifically focusing on their sources of consultation\\/information and possible bias, adoption timeframes and costs, and their satisfaction with the adoption experience. Questions within each of these domains were tested for significant differences across international, private domestic and child welfare adoption venues. While their overall experiences

Scott Ryan; Courtney Whitlock



Successful Parenting for School-Age Parents. Teacher's Resource Guide. Student Reference Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher's guide and student reference book presented here were developed as resources to facilitate school-age parenting education. The materials were organized around the nine essential elements for the Parenting Education for School-Age Parents course in Texas. The teacher's guide contains teaching strategies, teaching aids, paper-and-pencil…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.


The Working Parents' Curriculum: Class Designs To Meet the Needs of Expectant and New Working Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet needs of expectant and new working parents, these curriculum materials provide guidelines for instructors and discussions of six parent education topics. The curriculum begins by examining the qualifications an instructor should have before attempting to teach expectant or working parents. Subsequently described are specific ways…

O'Brien, Mary Parys


Major element composition of glasses in three Apollo 15 soils.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 180 glasses in each of three Apollo 15 soils have been analyzed for nine elements. Cluster analysis techniques allow the recognition of preferred glass compositions that are equated with parent rock compositions. Green glass rich in Fe and Mg, poor in Al and Ti may be derived from deep-seated pyroxenitic material now present at the Apennine Front. Fra Mauro basalt (KREEP) is most abundant in the LM soil and is tentatively identified as ray material from the Aristillus-Autolycus area. Highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro), believed to be derived from the lunar highlands, has the same composition as at other landing sites, but is less abundant. The Apennine Front is probably not true highland material but may contain a substantial amount of material with the composition of Fra Mauro basalt, but lacking the high-K content.

Reid, A. M.; Warner, J.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.



Evaluation of meat and bone meal combustion residue as lead immobilizing material for in situ remediation of polluted aqueous solutions and soils: "chemical and ecotoxicological studies".  


As a result of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, meat and bone meal (MBM) production can no longer be used to feed cattle and must be safely disposed of or transformed. MBM specific incineration remains an alternative that could offer the opportunity to achieve both thermal valorization and solid waste recovery as ashes are calcium phosphate-rich material. The aim of this work is to evaluate ashes efficiency for in situ remediation of lead-contaminated aqueous solutions and soils, and to assess the bioavailability of lead using two biological models, amphibian Xenopus laevis larvae and Nicotiana tabaccum tobacco plant. With the amphibian model, no toxic or genotoxic effects of ashes are observed with concentrations from 0.1 to 5 g of ashes/L. If toxic and genotoxic effects of lead appear at concentration higher than 1 mg Pb/L (1 ppm), addition of only 100 mg of ashes/L neutralizes lead toxicity even with lead concentration up to 10 ppm. Chemical investigations (kinetics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis) reveals that lead is quickly immobilized as pyromorphite [Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2] and lead carbonate dihydrate [PbCO(3).2H2O]. Tobacco experiments are realized on contaminated soils with 50, 100, 2000 and 10000 ppm of lead with and without ashes amendment (35.3g ashes/kg of soil). Tobacco measurements show that plant elongation is bigger in an ashes-amended soil contaminated with 10000 ppm of lead than on the reference soil alone. Tobacco model points out that ashes present two beneficial actions as they do not only neutralize lead toxicity but also act as a fertilizer. PMID:17240054

Deydier, E; Guilet, R; Cren, S; Pereas, V; Mouchet, F; Gauthier, L



Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil at the Former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company Site, Fairfield, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company site in Fairfield, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that, after remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed (1) 30 mrem/yr for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or (2) 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material (RESRAD) computer code, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

Faillace, E.R.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.



Employment of a novel magnetically multifunctional purifying material for determination of toxic highly chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls at trace levels in soil samples.  


In this study, we developed a magnetically multifunctional purifying material for efficient removal of matrix interferences, especially certain organochlorine pesticide (DDT, DDE, and DDD), during the determination of toxic highly chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at trace levels in soil samples. The multifunctional adsorbent (CMCD-NH2-MNPs) was prepared by grafting carboxymethyl-?-cyclodextrin on the surface of amino-functionalized magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. CMCD-NH2-MNPs has stronger host-guest complexation with DDT, DDE, and DDD, but the same adsorbent shows weaker adsorption ability toward highly chlorinated PCBs (from tetra- to octa-chlorinated PCBs) owing to their steric hindrance effect. Based on this principle, a simple and rapid gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for six indicator PCBs (PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB138, PCB153, and PCB180) in soil. Comparative studies were conducted to determine the clean-up efficiency of the following three techniques: (i) Oasis-HLB, (ii) multi-layer silica column, and (iii) dSPE employing CMCD-NH2-MNPs. The results indicate that CMCD-NH2-MNPs as the purification material can easily and effectively remove DDT, DDE, and DDD in soil samples within a short duration of time. The recoveries for highly chlorinated PCBs were in the range of 85.4-102.2%, with RSDs varying between1.0 and 6.5%. The proposed method was verified as one of the most effective clean-up procedures for the analysis of highly chlorinated PCBs in real soil samples. PMID:25240650

Zhang, Jiabin; Pan, Muyun; Gan, Ning; Cao, Yuting; Wu, Dazhen



Becoming Lesbian Adoptive Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legal, public policy, and social biases make the process of becoming a family difficult for lesbian and gay parents. Currently Massachusetts prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation against individuals who apply to become adoptive parents, and allows second parent adoptions enabling adults to adopt a partner's child. We surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents

Lynn M. Shelley-Sireci; Claudia Ciano-Boyce



Rock and Soil Types at Pathfinder Landing Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Type areas of rocks and soils. (A) Dark rock type and bright soil type: Shown is the dark rock Barnacle Bill. Reflectance spectra typical of fresh basalt and APXS spectra indicating more silica-rich basaltic andesite compositions characterize this type. These rocks are typically the small boulders and intermediate-sized cobbles at the Pathfinder site. The bright soil type is very common and in this case comprises Barnacle Bill's wind tail and much of the surround soil area. This soil has a high reflectance and a strongly reddened spectrum indicative of oxidized ferric minerals. (B) Bright rock type: Shown is the bright rock Wedge. Reflectance spectra typical of weathered basalt and APXS spectra indicating basaltic compositions characterize this type. These rocks are typically larger than 1 meter in diameter and many display morphologies indicating flood deposition. (C) Pink rock type: Shown is the pink rock Scooby Doo. APXS and reflectance spectra indicate a composition and optical characteristics similar to the drift soil. However, the morphology of the pink rock type indicates a cemented or rocklike structure. This material may be a chemically cemented hardpan that underlies much of the Pathfinder site. (D) Dark soil type: The dark soil type is typically found on the windward sides of rocks or in rock-free areas like Photometry Flats (shown here) where the bright soil has been striped away by aeolian action or in open areas. Other locations include the Mermaid Dune. (E) Disturbed soil type: The darkening of disturbed soil relative to its parent material, bright soil, as a result of changes in soil texture and compaction caused by movement of the rover and retraction of the lander airbag. (F) Lamb-like soil type: This soil type shows reflectance and spectral characteristics intermediate between the bright and dark soils. Its distinguishing feature is a weak spectral absorption near 900 nanometers not seen in either the bright or dark soils.

NOTE: original caption as published in Science Magazine

Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).



Games in an Introductory Soil Science Course: A Novel Approach for Increasing Student Involvement with Course Material  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes an optional recitation course that was developed to supplement a traditionally taught lecture-plus-laboratory course in soil science. Popular, competitive games that would be familiar to students were revised to be "soils-based" and were employed in the recitation class. These games were seen as a potential means to use knowledge in an atypical fashion while at the same time generating enthusiasm for the subject. Evaluation of two terms of games implementation showed that these activities increased both student enthusiasm and, potentially, course performance.

Sulzman, Elizabeth


A simple method to determine mineralization of (14) C-labeled compounds in soil.  


Degradation of organic compounds in soil is often determined by measuring the decrease of the parent compound and analyzing the occurrence of its metabolites. However, determining carbon species as end products of parent compound dissipation requires using labeled materials that allow more accurate determination of the environmental fate of the compound of interest. The current conventional closed system widely used to monitor degradation of (14) C-labeled compounds in soil is complex and expensive and requires a specialized apparatus and facility. In the present study, the authors describe a simple system that facilitates measurement of mineralization of (14) C-labeled compounds applied to soil samples. In the system, soda lime pellets to trap mineralized (14) C-carbon species, including carbon dioxide, were placed in a cup, which was then inserted above the treated soil sample in a tube. Mineralization of [(14) C]2,4-D applied to soil samples in the simple system was compared with that in the conventional system. The simple system provided an equivalent detection of (14) C-carbon species mineralized from the parent compound. The results demonstrate that this cost- and space-effective simple system is suitable for examining degradation and mineralization of (14) C-labeled compounds in soil and could potentially be used to investigate their mineralization in other biological matrices. PMID:24677225

Myung, Kyung; Madary, Michael W; Satchivi, Norbert M



A history of Soil Survey in England and Wales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early soil mapping in Britain was dominated, as in the USA, by soil texture with maps dating back to the early 1900's identifying surface texture and parent rock materials. Only in the 1920's did Dokuchaev's work in Russia involving soil morphology and the development of the soil profile start to gain popularity, drawing in the influence of climate and topography on pedogenesis. Intentions to create a formal body at this time responsible for soil survey were not implemented and progress remained slow. However, in 1939 definite steps were taken to address this and the soil survey was created. In 1947, its activities were transferred from Bangor to the research branch of the Rothamsted experimental station in Hertfordshire under Professor G.W. Robinson. Soon after, a number of regional offices were also established to act as a link with the National Agricultural Advisory Service. At this time a Pedology Department was established at Rothamsted, focussing on petrological, X-ray, spectrographic and chemical analyses. Although not a Rothamsted Department itself, the Survey did fall under the 'Lawes Agricultural Trust'. A Soil Survey Research Advisory Board was also formed to act as a liaison with the Agricultural Field Council. In Scotland by contrast, soil survey activities became centred on the Macaulay Institute in Aberdeen. Developments in the survey of British soils were accompanied in parallel by the development of soil classification systems. In 1930 a Soils Correlation Committee had been formed to ensure consistency in methods and naming of soil series and to ensure the classification was applied uniformly. In England and Wales the zonal system adopted was similar to that used in the USA, where soil series were named after the location where they were first described. American soil scientists such as Veitch and Lee provided stimulus to the development of mapping methods. In Scotland a differing classification was adopted, being similar to that used in Canada, recognising the importance of the soil drainage characteristics within areas of similar parent material. This led to the adoption of the soil catena approach and the usage of soil 'associations'. With Britain entering the Second World War in 1939, there followed the almost complete cessation of survey activities and it was only in the aftermath of that war that recruitment of surveyors could re-commence. The first Soil Survey Field Handbook was published in 1940. Systematic and formal national soil survey activities across both England and Wales can be dated back to 1947 when work commenced to provide a complete picture of the soil resources of the two countries. Mapping at 1:25,000 scale, almost half the land was covered when, in 1979, the survey received instructions, together with the Scottish survey, to complete respective national maps at 1:250,000, which were published in the early 1980s. Attention then turned again to mapping lowland areas in more detail as well as specialised and thematic maps. However, in 1987 systematic survey was terminated and staff of the Soil Survey of England and Wales disbanded to form the Soil Survey and Land Research Centre (SSLRC) at what became Cranfield University - where its successor, the National Soil Resources Institute (NSRI) operates currently.

Hallett, S.; Deeks, L.



Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting

Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom


Biological control of beech and hornbeam affects species richness via changes in the organic layer, pH and soil moisture characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. ?Litter quality is an important ecosystem factor, which may affect undergrowth species richness via decomposition and organic layers directly, but also via longer-term changes in soil pH and moisture. The impact of beech trees with low-degradable and hornbeam trees with high-degradable litter on biodiversity and soil characteristics was studied in ancient forests on decalcified marl, a parent material sensitive

A. M. Kooijman; E. Cammeraat



The Occurrence, Sources and Spatial Characteristics of Soil Salt and Assessment of Soil Salinization Risk in Yanqi Basin, Northwest China  

PubMed Central

In order to evaluate the soil salinization risk of the oases in arid land of northwest China, we chose a typical oasis-the Yanqi basin as the research area. Then, we collected soil samples from the area and made comprehensive assessment for soil salinization risk in this area. The result showed that: (1) In all soil samples, high variation was found for the amount of Ca2+ and K+, while the other soil salt properties had moderate levels of variation. (2) The land use types and the soil parent material had a significant influence on the amount of salt ions within the soil. (3) Principle component (PC) analysis determined that all the salt ion values, potential of hydrogen (pHs) and ECs fell into four PCs. Among them, PC1 (C1-, Na+, SO42-, EC, and pH) and PC2 (Ca2+, K+, Mg2+and total amount of salts) are considered to be mainly influenced by artificial sources, while PC3 and PC4 (CO3- and HCO32-) are mainly influenced by natural sources. (4) From a geo-statistical point of view, it was ascertained that the pH and soil salt ions, such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3-, had a strong spatial dependency. Meanwhile, Na+ and Cl- had only a weak spatial dependency in the soil. (5) Soil salinization indicators suggested that the entire area had a low risk of soil salinization, where the risk was mainly due to anthropogenic activities and climate variation. This study can be considered an early warning of soil salinization and alkalization in the Yanqi basin. It can also provide a reference for environmental protection policies and rational utilization of land resources in the arid region of Xinjiang, northwest China, as well as for other oases of arid regions in the world. PMID:25211240

Zhaoyong, Zhang; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Yimit, Hamid



Relevant magnetic and soil parameters as potential indicators of soil conservation status of Mediterranean agroecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main sources of magnetic minerals in soils unaffected by anthropogenic pollution are iron oxides and hydroxides derived from parent materials through soil formation processes. Soil magnetic minerals can be used as indicators of environmental factors including soil forming processes, degree of pedogenesis, weathering processes and biological activities. In this study measurements of magnetic susceptibility are used to detect the presence and the concentration of soil magnetic minerals in topsoil and bulk samples in a small cultivated field, which forms a hydrological unit that can be considered to be representative of the rainfed agroecosystems of Mediterranean mountain environments. Additional magnetic studies such as isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and thermomagnetic measurements are used to identify and characterize the magnetic mineralogy of soil minerals. The objectives were to analyse the spatial variability of the magnetic parameters to assess whether topographic factors, soil redistribution processes, and soil properties such as soil texture, organic matter and carbonate contents analysed in this study, are related to the spatial distribution pattern of magnetic properties. The medians of mass specific magnetic susceptibility at low frequency (?lf) were 36.0 and 31.1 × 10-8 m3 kg-1 in bulk and topsoil samples respectively. High correlation coefficients were found between the ?lf in topsoil and bulk core samples (r = 0.951, p < 0.01). In addition, volumetric magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ in the field (?is) and values varied from 13.3 to 64.0 × 10-5 SI. High correlation coefficients were found between ?lf in topsoil measured in the laboratory and volumetric magnetic susceptibility field measurements (r = 0.894, p < 0.01). The results obtained from magnetic studies such as IRM, ARM and thermomagnetic measurements show the presence of magnetite, which is the predominant magnetic carrier, and hematite. The predominance of superparamagnetic minerals in upper soil layers suggests enrichment in pedogenic minerals. The finer soil particles, the organic matter content and the magnetic susceptibility values are statistically correlated and their spatial variability is related to similar physical processes. Runoff redistributes soil components including magnetic minerals and exports fine particles out the field. This research contributed to further knowledge on the application of soil magnetic properties to derive useful information on soil processes in Mediterranean cultivated soils.

Quijano, Laura; Chaparro, Marcos A. E.; Marié, Débora C.; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana



Sequential Selective Extraction Procedures for the Study of Heavy Metals in Soils, Sediments, and Waste Materials—a Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review selected protocols of sequential selective extraction procedure that are used to characterize the geochemical distribution of heavy metals in soils, wastes, and sediments. They discuss the development of earlier protocols, their modifications, and the extent to which a given protocol pertains to different conditions. Emphasis is given to the considerations that led to a choice of reagents

Amir Hass; Pinchas Fine



The effect of addition of different amounts and types of organic materials on soil physical properties and yield of wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted to investigate the influences of 0, 5, 10, 15 Mg ha-1 of wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw, composted sugarcane bagasse residue and farmyard manure on soil physical properties and yield of winter wheat. The experimental design was a split plot with four replicates. The considered physical properties, 1 year after organic matter addition, included aggregate stability,

A. R. Barzegar; A. Yousefi; A. Daryashenas



Soil processes and functions across an international network of Critical Zone Observatories: Introduction to experimental methods and initial results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth in human population and demand for wealth creates ever-increasing pressure on global soils, leading to soil losses and degradation worldwide. Critical Zone science studies the impact linkages between these pressures, the resulting environmental state of soils, and potential interventions to protect soil and reverse degradation. New research on soil processes is being driven by the scientific hypothesis that soil processes can be described along a life cycle of soil development. This begins with formation of new soil from parent material, development of the soil profile, and potential loss of the developed soil functions and the soil itself under overly intensive anthropogenic land use, thus closing the cycle. Four Critical Zone Observatories in Europe have been selected focusing research at sites that represent key stages along the hypothetical soil life cycle; incipient soil formation, productive use of soil for farming and forestry, and decline of soil due to longstanding intensive agriculture. Initial results from the research show that soil develops important biogeochemical properties on the time scale of decades and that soil carbon and the development of favourable soil structure takes place over similar time scales. A new mathematical model of soil aggregate formation and degradation predicts that set-aside land at the most degraded site studied can develop substantially improved soil structure with the accumulation of soil carbon over a period of several years. Further results demonstrate the rapid dynamics of soil carbon; how quickly it can be lost, and also demonstrate how data from the CZOs can be used to determine parameter values for models at catchment scale. A structure for a new integrated Critical Zone model is proposed that combines process descriptions of carbon and nutrient flows, a simplified description of the soil food web, and reactive transport; all coupled with a dynamic model for soil structure and soil aggregation. This approach is proposed as a methodology to analyse data along the soil life cycle and test how soil processes and rates vary within, and between, the CZOs representing different life cycle stages. In addition, frameworks are discussed that will help to communicate the results of this science into a more policy relevant format using ecosystem service approaches.

Banwart, Steven; Menon, Manoj; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Bloem, Jaap; Blum, Winfried E. H.; Souza, Danielle Maia de; Davidsdotir, Brynhildur; Duffy, Christopher; Lair, Georg J.; Kram, Pavel; Lamacova, Anna; Lundin, Lars; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.; Novak, Martin; Panagos, Panos; Ragnarsdottir, Kristin Vala; Reynolds, Brian; Robinson, David; Rousseva, Svetla; de Ruiter, Peter; van Gaans, Pauline; Weng, Liping; White, Tim; Zhang, Bin



A survey of pasture composition in relation to soils and topography on a hill country farm in the southern Ruahine Range, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a pasture survey conducted on the Grasslands Division, DSIR, hilI country property in the sou!hern Ruahine Range are presented. Relationships between pasture species frequency and soils, parent material, topography, aspect, and slope are discussed. In general the pastures were dominated by Agrostis tenuis and Anthoxanthum odoratum, with moderate frequencies of Trifolium repens, flatweeds, Cynosurus cristatus, Holcus lanatus, and

D. A. Grant; J. L. Brock



Volatile element depletion and K-39/K-41 fractionation in lunar soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence for selective loss and isotopic fractionation (in the case of K) of volatile elements during formation of agglutinates by micrometeoritic bombardment of lunar soils is presented. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of volatile elements (K, Rb, Pb) and nonvolatile elements (U, Th, Ba, Sr, rare earths) in separates taken from soils 14163, 14259, 15041, 68501, and 71500 are examined. Rayleigh fractionation calculations applied to K-39/K-41 isotopic data indicate ten-fold recycling of bulk soil, to account for observed isotopic anomalies. The lunar soil fines fraction seems to be a site of deposition for volatile or labile Pb produced during agglutination. Local fines (below 75 microns) are viewed as representative of the parent material for agglutinates formed in situ by micrometeoritic impact. Magnetic separation of agglutinates from soil 68501 revealed a bimodal population, with one class comprising welded blocky magnetic glasses.

Church, S. E.; Tilton, G. R.; Wright, J. E.; Lee-Hu, C.-N.



The Influence of Soil Biodiversity on Hydrological Pathways and the Transfer of Materials between Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The boundaries between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, known as critical transition zones (CTZ), are dynamic interfaces\\u000a for fluxes of water, sediment, solutes, and gases. Moreover, they often support unique or diverse biotas. Soils, especially\\u000a those of riparian zones, have not been recognized as CTZ even though they play a critical role in regulating the hydrologic\\u000a pathways of infiltration and leaching,

R. D. Bardgett; J. M. Anderson; V. Behan-Pelletier; L. Brussaard; D. C. Coleman; C. Ettema; A. Moldenke; J. P. Schimel; D. H. Wall



Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.



Recognition and analysis of fossil soils developed on alluvium: a Late Ordovician example  

SciTech Connect

A series of fossil soils in alluvial red beds from the upper Juniata Formation, near Potters Mills, Pennsylvania, provide evidence of soil forming processes during the late Ordovician. Paleogeographic and facies considerations indicate that the fossil soils formed floodplains west of the Taconic uplift. Most studies of paleosols of this age or older have considered soils developed on metamorphic or igneous basement rock. Alluvial fossil soils provide evidence of conditions during shorter intervals of weathering without problems of overprinting by successive and different weathering regimes. They can be recognized by the presence of trace fossils and development of soil horizonation and structure. Problems associated with such fossil soils include establishing the nature of the parent material and distinguishing clay formation in the soil from originally deposited fining upwards cycles. These difficulties can be overcome by comparing paleosols of different development, as indicated by degree of ferruginization, density of trace fossils, amount of clay, and abundance and size of caliche nodules. In modern soils, caliche forms in alkaline conditions under which TiO/sub 2/ is stable. Gains and losses of oxides in gm/cc relative to TiO/sub 2/ in a strongly developed paleosol were compared with those of a weakly developed paleosol, taken to approximate the compositional range of the parent material. Anomalous enrichment in K/sub 2/O has been documented in other ancient fossil soils. Both XRD studies and a strong correlation between K/sub 2/O and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ are evidence that most of the potassium is contained in illite.

Feakes, C.R.; Retallack, G.J.



ReproducedfromVadoseZoneJournal.PublishedbySoilScienceSocietyofAmerica.Allcopyrightsreserved. Analysis of Temperature Effects on Tension Infiltrometry of Low Permeability Materials  

E-print Network

).ment of the near-saturated hydraulic conductivity as a function of the soil water pressure head. Unfortunately, fluctuating ambient tempera- As water infiltrates across the soil surface, an equal vol- turesReproducedfromVadoseZoneJournal.PublishedbySoil

Mohanty, Binayak P.


Influence of geochemical properties and land-use types on the microbial reduction of Fe(III) in subtropical soils.  


Microbial Fe(III) reduction significantly impacts the geochemical processes and the composition of most subsurface soils. However, up to now, the factors influencing the efficiency of Fe(III) reduction in soils have not been fully described. In this study, soil Fe(III) reduction processes related to geochemical properties and land-use types were systematically investigated using iron-rich soils. The results showed that microbial Fe(III) reduction processes were efficient and their rates varied significantly in different types of soils. Fe(III) reduction rates were 1.1-5.6 times as much in soils with glucose added as in those without glucose. Furthermore, Fe(III) reduction rates were similar in soils from the same parent materials, while they were highest in soils developed from sediments, with a mean rate of 1.87 mM per day when supplemented with glucose. In addition, the Fe(III) reduction rates, reaching 0.99 and 0.59 mM per day on average with and without glucose added, respectively, were higher in the paddy soils affected heavily by human activities than those in the forest soils (average rates of 0.38 and 0.15 mM per day when with and without glucose, respectively). All the soil weathering indices correlated linearly with Fe(III) reduction rates, even though the reduction of iron in soils with higher weathering degrees was partly inhibited by a higher soil protonation trend and fewer available iron reduction sites in the soils, which gives lower reduction rates. These results clearly illustrate that soil Fe(III) reduction rates are greatly dependent on soil geochemical properties and land-use types and help define which soil types exhibit similar degrees of Fe(III) reduction under field conditions. PMID:24931535

Liu, Chengshuai; Wang, Yongkui; Li, Fangbai; Chen, Manjia; Zhai, Guangshu; Tao, Liang; Liu, Chuanping



Quality soil management or soil quality management : performance versus semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 200 years, soil science has used reductionist research to develop agricultural technologies that have unlocked the hidden potential of earth's natural systems to feed, clothe, and provide raw materials to the human population of over six billion. The soil quality paradigm seeks to change that scientific approach, the nomenclature of soil science, and institutional priorities for soil

R. E Sojka; D. R Upchurch; N. E Borlaug



Discipline: Parents' and  

E-print Network

Parenting Styles and Discipline: Parents' and Children's Perspectives SUMMARY REPORT The National Children's Strategy Research Series #12;#12;Parenting Styles and Discipline: Parents' Perspectives SUMMARY national survey of parenting styles and discipline in Ireland. A large body of research literature

O'Mahony, Donal E.


Involving Divorced Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In divorced families, the noncustodial parent is usually as important to the child as the residential parent. Schools should avoid actions that cause parental conflict, place one parent in a sole decision-making role, or deny a parent's access to information or involvement. School responsibilities governing routine correspondence, cyclical and…

Tarriff, Harold M.; Levine, Valerie



Magnetic properties of agricultural soil in the Pearl River Delta, South China - Spatial distribution and influencing factor analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental magnetism has been widely applied to soil science due to its speediness, non-destructiveness and cost-effectiveness. However, the magnetic investigation of agricultural soil, so closely related to human activity, is limited, most probably because of its complexity. Here we present a magnetic investigation of 301 agricultural soil samples collected from the Pearl River Delta (PRD, 112°E-115°E and 22°N-24°N), China. The results showed that both low and high coercivity magnetic minerals coexist in agricultural soil. The values of concentration-dependent parameters, low-field susceptibility (?lf), anhysteretic remanence magnetization susceptibility (?ARM), and saturation isothermal remanence magnetization (SIRM) were much higher in the PRD plain than in the surrounding areas. The S-ratio (S- 300) showed a similar spatial pattern to the aforementioned parameters. By contrast, frequency-dependent susceptibility (?fd%) and ?ARM/SIRM were higher in the surrounding hilly and mountainous areas than in the PRD plain. Natural and anthropogenic factors such as parent material, soil type and cultivation methods play important roles in determining agricultural soil magnetic properties. Magnetic minerals were coarser grained and overall indicated higher concentrations in soils from river alluvium and deposited materials. Soils which had suffered long-term water submergence have the lowest magnetic mineral concentration, a result consistent with previous studies. The magnetic properties of agricultural soils are strongly influenced by cultivation methods. Other human activities, such as industrial development and concomitant emitted pollutants, might have had an additional impact on the magnetic properties of agricultural soil.

Bian, Yong; Ouyang, Tingping; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Huang, Ningsheng; Wan, Hongfu; Li, Mingkun



Microbial Indicators of Soil Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soil microbial processes are an integral part of soil quality. Soil organisms contribute to the maintenance of soil quality in that they control the decomposition of plant and animal materials, biogeochemical cycling of elements such as C, N, P, S, etc.; ...

R. F. Turco, A. C. Kennedy, M. D. Jawson



Soil: The Great Decomposer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to understand that soil, under different environmental conditions, plays a role in the decomposition of organic materials. Students use bottle experiments to observe changes in the decomposition of vegetable scraps. Students vary temperature, moisture, and light conditions to determine the conditions that best facilitate the decomposition of organic material in soil.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)



Quantification of functional soil organic carbon pools for different soil units and land uses in southeast Germany (Bavaria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic carbon (SOC) can be divided in different functional pools according to their degree of stabilization and corresponding turnover times. A quantification of these functional SOC pools for different soil types and land uses would allow an estimation of future SOC stocks and potential SOC sources/sinks under changing land uses and climactic conditions. In this study, functional SOC pools were determined for all relevant soil units and major land uses within the state of Bavaria in southeast Germany. For each of the 33 major soil units within Bavaria, representative soil profiles under the main land uses cropland, grassland and forest were selected to fully cover the range of environmental conditions that control SOC storage. Each soil horizon down to the parent material at the 99 locations was fractionated according to the method of Zimmermann et al. (2007). This approach isolates five SOC fractions (particulate organic matter, dissolved organic carbon, sand- and aggregate-associated SOC, silt- and clay-associated SOC and a chemically resistant SOC fraction) using a combined physical and chemical fractionation. These fractions are related to three functional SOC pools with specific turnover rates (labile, intermediate, stable). With this approach, the amount of active, intermediate and passive SOC for both top- and subsoils was determined for important soil units and land uses in Bavaria that can further be used for regionalization and modelling.

Wiesmeier, Martin; von Lützow, Margit; Spörlein, Peter; Geuß, Uwe; Hangen, Edzard; Reischl, Arthur; Schilling, Bernd; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid



The Parent Care Pavilion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes operation of the Parent Care Pavilion of the J. W. Riley Children's Hospital in Indianapolis, which encourages active parent involvement in care of hospitalized children on a 24-hour basis. Benefits to children, parents and staff are described. (BF)

Green, Morris; Green, Janice G.



Parenting while Being Homeless  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn



Questions about Biological Parents  


... About Biological Parents Family Life Listen Questions About Biological Parents Article Body As you raise your adopted ... to her life—the fact that she has biological parents elsewhere—that may make it necessary for ...



Microsoft Academic Search

Erosion changes soil properties, especially physical properties, mainly because it removes surface soil rich in organic materials and exposes lower soil layers. In 1988, a study was established to determine the effects of soil erosion and long-term manure applications on selected soil phys­ ical properties and corn (Zea mays L.) production. After 10 years of an­ nual manure applications, soil

Francisco J. Arriaga; Birl Lowery



A Reexamination of Amino Acids in Lunar Soils: Implications for the Survival of Exogenous Organic Material During Impact Delivery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography technique, we have analyzed both the hot water extract and the acid hydrolyzed hot water extract of lunar soil collected during the Apollo 17 mission. Both free amino acids and those derived from acid labile precursors are present at a level of roughly 15 ppb. Based on the D/L amino acid ratios, the free alanine and aspartic acid observed in the hot water extract can be entirely attributed to terrestrial biogenic contamination. However, in the acid labile fraction, precursors which yield amino acids are apparently present in the lunar soil. The amino acid distribution suggests that the precursor is probably solar wind implanted HCN. We have evaluated our results with regard to the meteoritic input of intact organic compounds to the moon based on an upper limit of less than or equal to 0.3 ppb for alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, a non-protein amino acid which does not generally occur in terrestrial organisms and which is not a major amino acid produced from HCN, but which is a predominant amino acid in many carbonaceous chondrites. We find that the survival of exogenous organic compounds during lunar impact is less than or equal to 0.8%. This result represents an example of minimum organic impact survivability. This is an important first step toward a better understanding of similar processes on Earth and on Mars, and their possible contribution to the budget of prebiotic organic compounds on the primitive Earth.

Brinton, Karen L. F.; Bada, Jeffrey L.



Soil sampling and isolation of extracellular DNA from large amount of starting material suitable for metabarcoding studies.  


DNA metabarcoding refers to the DNA-based identification of multiple species from a single complex and degraded environmental sample. We developed new sampling and extraction protocols suitable for DNA metabarcoding analyses targeting soil extracellular DNA. The proposed sampling protocol has been designed to reduce, as much as possible, the influence of local heterogeneity by processing a large amount of soil resulting from the mixing of many different cores. The DNA extraction is based on the use of saturated phosphate buffer. The sampling and extraction protocols were validated first by analysing plant DNA from a set of 12 plots corresponding to four plant communities in alpine meadows, and, second, by conducting pilot experiments on fungi and earthworms. The results of the validation experiments clearly demonstrated that sound biological information can be retrieved when following these sampling and extraction procedures. Such a protocol can be implemented at any time of the year without any preliminary knowledge of specific types of organisms during the sampling. It offers the opportunity to analyse all groups of organisms using a single sampling/extraction procedure and opens the possibility to fully standardize biodiversity surveys. PMID:22300434

Taberlet, Pierre; Prud'Homme, Sophie M; Campione, Etienne; Roy, Julien; Miquel, Christian; Shehzad, Wasim; Gielly, Ludovic; Rioux, Delphine; Choler, Philippe; Clément, Jean-Christophe; Melodelima, Christelle; Pompanon, François; Coissac, Eric



Punitive parenting practices of contemporary young parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To describe the punitive parenting practices of a cohort of young (<25 years) New Zealand parents and to examine the life course risk factors that placed these parents at increased risk of severe child physical punishment\\/abuse. Methods The data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study. At age 25, all respondents who had become a

Lianne J Woodward; David M Fergusson; Anna Chesney; L John Horwood


Parenting Workshops on Child Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The parent education materials in this packet are intended for use by professionals, and some paraprofessionals, who work with children from birth through 5 years of age and with their families. Included are guidelines for choosing playthings for children of any age, and lists of suggested toys for children of various ages, and, in particular,…

Warren-Newport Public Library, Gurnee, IL.


Variable Charge Soils: Mineralogy and Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

Soils rich in particles with amphoteric surface properties in the Oxisols, Ultisols, Alfisols, Spodosols and Andisols orders (1) are considered variable charge soils (2). The term “variable charge” is used to describe organic and inorganic soil constituents with reactive surface groups whose charge varies with pH, ionic concentration and composition of the soil solution. Such groups are the surface carboxyl, phenolic and amino functional groups of organic materials in soils, and surface hydroxyl groups of Fe and Al oxides, allophane and imogolite. The hydroxyl surface groups are also present on edges of some phyllosilicate minerals such as kaolinite, mica, and hydroxyl-interlayered vermiculite. The variable charge is developed on the surface groups as a result of adsorption or desorption of ions that are constituents of the solid phase, i.e., H+, and the adsorption or desorption of solid-unlike ions that are not constituents of the solid. Highly weathered soils usually undergo isoeletric weathering and reach a “zero net charge” stage during their development. They have a slightly acidic to acidic soil solution pH, which is close to either point of zero net charge (PZNC) (3) or point of zero salt effect (PZSE) (3). They are characterized by high abundances of minerals with a point of zero net proton charge (PZNPC) (3) at neutral and slightly basic pHs; the most important being Fe and Al oxides and allophane. Under acidic conditions, the surfaces of these minerals are net positively charged. In contrast, the surfaces of permanent charge phyllosilicates are negatively charged regardless of ambient conditions. Variable charge soils therefore, are heterogeneous charge systems. The coexistence and interactions of oppositely charged surfaces or particles confers a different pattern of physical and chemical behavior on the soil, relatively to a homogeneously charged system of temperate regions. In some variable charge soils (Oxisols and some Ultisols developed on ferromagnesian-rich parent materials) the surfaces of phyllosilicates are coated to a lesser or greater extent by amorphous or crystalline, oppositely charged nanoparticles of Fe and Al oxides. These coatings exhibit a high reactive surface area and help cementing larger particles with one another. As a result of these electrostatic interactions, stable microaggregates that are difficult to disperse are formed in variable charge soils. Most of highly weathered soils have reached the “advanced stage” of Jackson-Sherman weathering sequence that is characterized by the removal of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe(II), the presence of Fe and Al polymers, and very dilute soil solutions with an ionic strength (IS) of less than 1 mmol L-1. The inter-penetration or overlapping of the diffuse double layers on oppositely charged surfaces may occur in these dilute systems. These diffuse layer interactions may affect the magnitude of the effective charge, i.e., the counter-ion charge (4). In addition, salt adsorption, which is defined as the simultaneous adsorption in equivalent amounts of the cation and anion of an electrolyte with no net release of other ions into the soil solution, appears to be a common phenomenon in these soils. They act as cation- and anion-exchangers and as salt-sorbers. The magnitude of salt adsorption depends strongly on initial IS in the soil solution and the presence in appreciable amounts of oppositely charged surfaces. Among the authors that have made illustrious contributions towards a better understanding of these fascinating soil systems are S. Matson, R.K. Schofield, van Olphen, M.E. Sumner, G.W. Thomas, G.P. Gillman, G. Uehara, B.K.G. Theng, K. Wada, N.J. Barrow, J.W. Bowden, R.J. Hunter and G. Sposito. This entry is mainly based on publications by these authors.

Qafoku, Nik; Van Ranst, Eric; Noble, Andrew; Baert, Geert



The causes of soil alkalinization in the Songnen Plain of Northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causes of soil alkalinization in the Songnen Plain of Northeast China were mainly analyzed from two aspects, natural and\\u000a anthropogenic. Natural factors of alkalinization are parent materials, topographic positions, freeze-thaw action, wind conveyance,\\u000a water properties and semi-arid\\/sub-humid climate. Some of them were always being neglected, such as freeze-thaw action and\\u000a wind conveyance. Anthropogenic causes are mainly population pressure, overgrazing

Li Wang; Katsutoshi Seki; T. Miyazaki; Y. Ishihama



Seasonal variation of microbial ecology in hemlock soil of Tatachia Mountain, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: Forest soil microorganisms and fauna decompose the organic materials, and thus strongly influence the nutrient cycling of the ecosystem. Soil microorganisms also contribute to soil structure and soil fertility. In Taiwan, the microbial distributions of soils have only been determined in acidic soil, inorganic acidic soil, upland soil, alkaline soil and power plant areas. There are few

Shang-Shyng Yang; Shu-Hsien Tsai; Hsiao-Yun Fan; Chiun-Kai Yang; Wei-Lan Hung; Shine-Tsern Cho



Lead in vegetation, forest floor material, and soils of the spruce-fir zone, Great Smoky Mountains National Park  

SciTech Connect

Based on a survey during 1982, lead concentrations in vegetation, litter and soils of the spruce-fir zone of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park are generally less than values reported for similar sites in the northeastern United States and western Europe. As expected, lead concentrations increased with increasing age of spruce and fir foliage, and with increasing degree of decomposition of litter. Fir bole wood was higher in lead than spruce bole wood, but both species were far below acutely phytotoxic levels. Although the results of this study indicated no immediate cause for concern, periodic monitoring of lead and other metals in the spruce-fir zone should be continued to provide early detection of significant changes. 32 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Bogle, M.A.; Turner, R.R.



Surface material, temperature, and soil effects on the survival of selected foodborne pathogens in the presence of condensate.  


The effects of surface type (stainless steel, acetal resin, and fiberglass reinforced plastic wall paneling [FRP]), soil, and temperature on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Yersinia enterocolitica, in the presence of condensate were evaluated. Surface coupons--half soiled with sterile porcine serum--were exposed to cell suspensions made from individual five-strain cocktails composed of organisms from the same genus (10(7) CFU/ml) in Butterfield's phosphate buffer and incubated for 2 h at 25 degrees C allowing attachment of cells to coupon surfaces. Coupons were rinsed to remove unattached cells, incubated at either 4 or 10 degrees C under condensate-forming conditions, and sampled at six time intervals over a 15-day period. For enumeration, cells were removed from the coupons by vigorous shaking in 100 ml of Butterfield's phosphate buffer with 3 g of glass beads and plated on tryptic soy agar with 0.6% yeast extract. Stainless steel did not support the survival of Listeria as well as acetal resin or FRP. Acetal resin and stainless steel were less supportive of Salmonella than FRP. All surfaces supported the survival of Yersinia over the 15-day trial equally. Temperature had little effect on survival of all organisms across all surfaces with one exception. However, Yersinia displayed growth on FRP at 10 degrees C. but death at 4 degrees C. Serum had a protective effect on L. monocytogenes on all surfaces, with populations sustained at significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher numbers over time than unsoiled coupons. Serum didnot effect survival of Salmonella or Yersinia on stainless steel, acetal resin, or FRP. PMID:15633669

Allan, J T; Yan, Z; Kornacki, J L



U.S. Geological Survey Field Leach Test for Assessing Water Reactivity and Leaching Potential of Mine Wastes, Soils, and Other Geologic and Environmental Materials  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a fast (5-minute), effective, simple, and cost-effective leach test that can be used to simulate the reactions that occur when materials are leached by water. The USGS Field Leach Test has been used to predict, assess, and characterize the geochemical interactions between water and a broad variety of geologic and environmental matrices. Examples of some of the samples leached include metal mine wastes, various types of dusts, biosolids (processed sewage sludge), flood and wetland sediments, volcanic ash, forest-fire burned soils, and many other diverse matrices. The Field Leach Test has been an integral part of these investigations and has demonstrated its value as a geochemical characterization tool. It has enabled investigators to identify which constituents are water reactive, soluble, mobilized, and made bioaccessible because of leaching by water, and to understand potential impacts of these interactions on the surrounding environment.

Hageman, Philip L.



Parent Conferences. Beginnings Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents six workshop sessions on parent conferences: (1) "Parents' Perspectives on Conferencing" (R. Duffy); (2) "Three Way Conferences" (G. Zeller); (3) "Conferencing with Parents of Infants" (K. Albrecht); (4) "Conferencing with Parents of School-Agers" (L. G. Miller); (5) "Cross Cultural Conferences" (J. Gonzalez-Mena); and (6) "Working with…

Duffy, Roslyn; And Others



Parents, Kids and TV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three articles offer parents suggestions on how to make television a positive experience for their children. An editorial introduces the following themes basic to all the articles: type and amount of television viewing should be regulated by parents, parents should discuss television with their children, and parents must become aware of the…

Gaffney, Maureen, Ed.



Parents and the media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we analysed the effects of parental social background and family composition on various types of parental media socialization. We employed the Family Survey Dutch Population 1998, 2000 and 2003 (N=2608), and analysed respondents’ reports of socialization practices in their parental home. Respondents from high-status families report more extensive parental media socialization in all highbrow and guidance activities.

Natascha Notten; Gerbert Kraaykamp



Parent Hearing Aid Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard



Customizing Parenting Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors of this article discuss customizing parent education which requires customized assessment. At Auburn University, Kreg Edgmon and Wally Goddard developed a parent assessment based on the National Extension Parent Education Model (NEPEM) (Smith, Cudaback, Goddard, & Myers-Walls, 1994). All items in the parent assessment were tested with…

Goddard, H. Wallace; Dennis, Steven A.



Single Parent Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet attempts to reassure single parents that they can raise healthy, happy children and provides some suggestions for parents' specific questions and concerns. The first section discusses the emotional stages children pass through when they lose a parent, ways to explain to children the loss of a parent, and ways to handle children's…

Ryan, Patricia


Gay and Lesbian Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anonymous survey of 23 gay and lesbian parents and 16 heterosexual single parents was conducted in order to see whether the parents' homosexuality created special problems or benefits or both, for their children. Both sets of parents reported relatively few serious problems and generally positive relationships with their children, with only a minority encouraging sex-types toys, activities, and playmates.

Mary B. Harris; Pauline H. Turner



Children of Incarcerated Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The arrest and imprisonment of a parent is significant trauma for children, and children of incarcerated parents are at high risk for juvenile delinquency. This book for social workers, psychologists, and others who work with children whose parents are incarcerated examines parental incarceration, its impact on children, care and placement of…

Gabel, Katherine, Ed.; Johnston, Denise, Ed.


II. Mobilizing the Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools can increase their outreach to get parents involved. Once parents are involved, the schools must be careful that students don't use education to escape the community and their parents, and that education does not result in making children ashamed of their parents. (Author/IRT)

Haskins, Kenneth



A Chance to Parent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While parents with disabilities may face big challenges, with appropriate supports, many can be great parents. Just like other parents, they do not have to be responsible for every part of childrearing all by themselves. All parents rely on supports to help raise their children, such as day care, carpools, schools, babysitting co-ops, or advice…

Yuan, Susan; Brillhart, Lindsay; Lightfoot, Elizabeth



Partners: Parents & Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors of this collection of essays make the major points that parental participation influences student performance, and that time spent with parents by school personnel results in better learning. Ira J. Gordon explains four models of parent-school-community relationships and cites research evidence of long-term effects of parent

Brandt, Ronald S., Ed.


Parents' Conceptions of Giftedness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study of a parent with an intellectually gifted child illustrates the five categories of influence on parents' conceptions of giftedness: the parents' value systems, their roles as parents, their involvement with the school system, their families of origin, and their understanding of their own giftedness. (Contains references.) (CR)

Solow, Razel



Codependency and Parenting Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between the parent-child relationship (as perceived by late adolescent-early adult children) and the adolescent's codependency. College students 17through 22 years of age (N = 175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father (via ratings of perceived parental support and coercive control) and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style

Judith L. Fischer; Duane W. Crawford



Parental Rights in Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parental rights in schooling, which protect parents' entitlement to provide for the education of their children, are discussed in this chapter. The courts and legislatures are being forced to deal with these rights. Further, churches, schools, and parents are pressed to define and better protect parental rights, because of the following…

Ball, William Bentley


Soil stratigraphy and plant soil interactions on a Late Glacial Holocene fluvial terrace sequence, Sierra Nevada National Park, northern Venezuelan Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of a flight of alluvial terraces in the Sierra Nevada National Park near Pico Mucuñuque in the Eastern Mérida Andes has yielded information on geomorphic, pedogenic, and vegetational changes from Late Glacial time to the present. The terraces formed in large part due to stream incision/migration triggered by neotectonic uplift (>7000 yr BP) of a Late Glacial/Early Holocene glaciolacustrine lithosequence and, with the exception of the oldest/highest terrace, exhibit near-uniform lithology/parent materials. Soils developed in the terrace materials range from thin, weakly developed profiles (O/C/Cu horizons) to Entisols with O/Ah/Cox/Cu horizons and similar buried counterparts representing former short periods of floodplain stability or slow aggradation. The buried soils provide organic-rich material that yields radiocarbon ages, which provide time constraints on individual pedons and the geomorphic development of the site. Iron and aluminum extracts of soil matrix material provide information on the formation and accumulation of goethite and hematite, the relative accumulation of ferrihydrite (gain/loss), and the downward translocation of organically complexed Al as a function of soil development and age. SEM analysis of heavy mineral grains indicates varying material sources and degrees of weathering in the soil chronosequence. A qualitative study of plant functional types across the terrace sequence shows that older surfaces support greater plant diversity. The study also suggests ways in which the plant communities influence soil development at the site through varying organic matter inputs and varying soil moisture use by specific species (e.g., ferns on the oldest terrace), which may explain the absence of B horizons in the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene soils.

Mahaney, William C.; Dirszowsky, Randy W.; Milner, Michael W.; Harmsen, Rudolf; Finkelstein, Sarah A.; Kalm, Volli; Bezada, Maximilano; Hancock, R. G. V.



Mineralization of Carbon and Nitrogen from Freeze-and Oven-Dried Plant Material Added to Soil  

E-print Network

. At 90 d, SOand 41% of the plant C had evolved as CO2 for the freeze- and oven-dried plant material, as measured by CO2 evolution and NO3-N accumulation. Water hy- acinths have been used extensively to treat and Hortenstine, 1976) and as feedstock for anaerobic digestion (Shir- alipour and Smith, 1984

Florida, University of


In-situ vitrification of soil  


A method of vitrifying soil at or below a soil surface location. Two or more conductive electrodes are inserted into the soil for heating of the soil mass between them to a temperature above its melting temperature. Materials in the soil, such as buried waste, can thereby be effectively immobilized.

Brouns, Richard A. (Kennewick, WA); Buelt, James L. (Richland, WA); Bonner, William F. (Richland, WA)



Parenting asthmatic children: identification of parenting challenges.  


Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood, affecting up to 14% of children. Poor asthma management and non-adherence to treatment regimens are a pervasive problem in this population and are related to exacerbation of symptoms. Effective management of pediatric asthma involves a complex set of interactions between the parent and child, yet there is a paucity of literature examining these interactions. The main purpose of this study was to identify the child behavior and asthma management tasks parents experience difficulty with. It was hypothesized that the more asthma behavior problems reported, the more problems parents experience in asthma management tasks. Participants in this study were 255 parents of 2-to 10-year-old asthmatic children, recruited via an advertisement placed in school newsletters throughout Australia. Results indicated that the most problematic child asthma behaviors were oppositional behavior, hyperactivity, and aggression, and anxiety was also identified by parents as a concern. The main problematic asthma parenting tasks were entrusting the school, entrusting caregivers, identifying unique symptoms, and identifying and avoiding triggers. More problem asthma behaviors were associated with higher levels of parenting difficulty and more general levels of behavior problems. Parents who reported more dysfunctional parenting styles reported more difficulties with their child's asthma behavior. Based on the results it is suggested that an appropriate parenting intervention program would target basic behavioral management skills, in addition to applying these behavior management principles to asthma management. PMID:18612898

Morawska, Alina; Stelzer, Jennifer; Burgess, Scott



Mapping soil magnetic properties in Bosnia and Herzegovina for landmine clearance operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic properties of soils have negative impacts on metal detector performance during landmine clearance operations. In particular, topsoils with high concentrations of pedogenic viscous superparamagnetic minerals (magnetite/maghemite) as shown by high values of magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility limit the detector capability of identifying buried landmines. Thus a priori knowledge of the spatial extent of soils that may be problematic for landmine detection would aid strategic planning of clearance operations and ensure appropriate equipment is deployed. Here, we compare two approaches for estimating the broad magnetic properties of soils in Bosnia and Herzegovina: 1) an analogue approach, using data for magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility available for soil types from other temperate and Mediterranean regions; 2) magnetic measurements of a stratified sample of soil samples taken from the Bosnian National Soil Archive. The national soil magnetic maps produced estimate that the area of land inferred as problematic for metal detectors is 4% and 30% according to the analogue and measurement methods respectively. Combining soil type with soil parent material and climate explains the spatial variability of soil magnetic properties in terms of mechanisms of secondary ferrimagnetic mineral production and accumulation. The resulting maps indicate that the magnetic properties of dominant soils in northern Bosnia tend to be unproblematic for detectors, while in central Bosnia there is likely to be moderate detector interference. However, there is a high likelihood of dominant soils affecting detectors in southern and western Bosnia and Herzegovina, equivalent to ~ 30% of the total land area. The mapped outputs of susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility provide demining end-users with an indication of the likelihood of encountering problem soils in areas selected for clearance operations.

Hannam, J. A.; Dearing, J. A.



Zonal, provincial, lithological, and geomorphic features of soil salinization in the Southern federal okrug of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between soil salinization and the zonal and provincial bioclimatic conditions, the lithological composition of the sediments, and the geomorphic features of the territory have been analyzed for the Southern federal okrug of Russia. It is shown that the lithological and geomorphic conditions (relief, salinity of parent materials, degree of drainage, and the depth of saline groundwater) play an important role in the distribution of salt-affected soils against the background of the more general regularities specified by the climate. The participation of salt-affected soils in the soil cover of the Southern federal okrug increases in the eastward direction from the forest-steppe zone to the semidesert zone in agreement with an increase in the aridity and continentality of the climate. The chemical composition of soil salts also changes: the sulfate and soda-sulfate types predominate in the forest-steppe zone; the sulfate type or the sulfate type with the participation of soda, in the steppe zone; the sulfate-chloride type, in the dry steppe zone; and the chloride type, in the semidesert zone. The lithological and geomorphic conditions within the particular zones and provinces affect the distribution pattern of the salt-affected soils and the degree and chemistry of the soil salinization. The areas of salt-affected soils were calculated with the use of a digital version of the Map of Salt-Affected Soils of Russia (1: 2.5 M scale) with due account for the participation of these soils in the soil cover of the particular delineations and the data on the depth of the upper boundary of the salt-bearing horizons, the degree and chemistry of the soil salinization, and the area of solonetzes and solonetzic soils.

Novikova, A. F.; Pankova, E. I.; Kontoboitseva, A. A.



Background assessment and distribution of as in soil of Jiangxi Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To clarify the distribution and estimate the background concentration of arsenic (As) is significant to the prevention and control of soil As contamination. Taking Jiangxi as study area, demonstrating the distribution of As in cultivation and parent materials layers, and estimating the soil background concentrations of As by five approaches, which are Geometric mean and geometric standard (GM+2GSD), Iterative 2-? technique, Upper confidence limit (UCL0.95), Accumulative frequency method and Deep layer soil element method. The results indicate that the content of As in cultivation layer is 15.2 mg kg-1, and the spatial variation of As in cultivation layer higher than the parent materials layer. The result of Iterative 2-? technique is highest among the five methods, which is 23.0 mg kg-1, and other four methods' results are highly consistent. The estimation results of GM+2GSD is accepted as the soil background concentration of As in study area. This method is easy calculation and can be applied to estimating the regional soil background concentrations of trace elements.

Han, Miaojie; Wang, Dengfeng; Wei, Zhiyuan; Tang, Shumei; Qi, Zhiping


Cultural Approaches to Parenting  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting. PMID:22962544

Bornstein, Marc H.



Pedogenic Magnetic Minerals in Soils: Some Tests of Current Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic enhancement of soils is increasingly used as a proxy for continental climate, since it is related to the formation of pedogenic iron minerals under warm, humid conditions. Ultrafine magnetite is believed to be the major responsible of the magnetic enhancement, however, very little is known on the detailed formation mechanism, ant its relation to the soil iron cycle. Furthermore, the 'textbook' case of the Chinese Loess Plateau is not well replicated around the World: Loessic soils from the Midwestern US are systematically less enhanced than their Chinese counterpart under similar climatic conditions, and many loessic soils in Argentina are not enhanced at all. In trying to find a rationale behind these differences, I will address three main questions that need to be answered in a bottom-up approach to the problem. The first question is whether susceptibility is indeed controlled by fine magnetite, excluding any significant role of other minerals such as ferrihydrite, goethite, and hematite. This is a rock magnetic problem addressing the interpretation of magnetic measurements: is susceptibility an adequate proxy for the concentration of magnetic minerals in soils? Answering this question allows us to think directly in terms of abundance specific magnetic minerals, which is fundamental for any subsequent interpretation. The second question is directed to understanding the role of magnetic minerals in the soil iron cycle and how they are formed. This brings us to a discussion of the transfer function linking magnetic enhancement with climate. Is indeed rainfall the only parameter controlling pedogenesis? Why is rainfall apparently related with the logarithm of susceptibility in enhanced soils? Can we test current pedogenetic models against this empirical transfer function? The third question points to the role of parent material and later dust inputs. Midwestern US and Argentinian loesses are different from Chinese loess. Is this a reason for the differences observed in the magnetic enhancement of the respective soils? Enough material is now available to test current models and hypotheses with respect to the first two questions.

Egli, R.



Reconceptualizing Parent Involvement: Parent as Accomplice or Parent as Partner?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policy statements of the last two decades have directed schools to enter into partnerships with parents to enhance the social, emotional, and academic growth of their children. However, in practice and scholarship, parental involvement has been constructed as attendance to school-based activities and needs. This article draws on data from an…

Stitt, Nichole M.; Brooks, Nancy J.



[Spatial variability of soil nutrients and salinity in coastal saline-alkali land based on belt transect method].  


A north-south transect was established in the saline-alkali land of Yellow River old course at Diaokou of northern Yellow River Delta, Shandong Province of East China to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics of soil nutrients and salinity and related affecting factors by using geostatistics method. In the study area, the nugget/still of soil organic matter, total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK) contents and soil salinity were 0.38, 0.40, 0.50, 0.32, and 0.34, respectively, which demonstrated that these five parameters were moderately spatial dependence. The soil organic matter and TN contents in this transect had a similar distribution pattern, soil AK content was highly correlated to soil salinity, while soil AP content presented a fluctuated distribution. According to the comprehensive analysis of soil organic matter content and salinity, this transect was classified into three types, i.e., high salinity and low fertility, high salinity and high fertility, and low salinity and high fertility. The spatial distribution pattern of the five soil parameters was closed related to the soil parental material, land use pattern, distance to sea, and road block. PMID:22937640

Wang, Na-Na; Qi, Wei; Wang, Dan; Qin, Tian-Tian; Lu, Chao



Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions and Parenting Practices  

PubMed Central

A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the Five-Factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the five personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process. PMID:21443335

Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice



Teaching with Moodle in Soil Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil is a 3-dimensional body with properties that reflect the impact of climate, vegetation, fauna, man and topography on the soil's parent material over a variable time span. Therefore, soil is integral to many ecological and social systems and it holds potential solutions for many of the world's economic and scientific problems as climate change or scarcity of food and water. The teaching of Soil Science, as a natural science in its own right, requires principles that reflect the unique features and behaviour of soil and the practices of soil scientists. It could be argued that a unique set of teaching practices applies to Soil Science; however specific teaching practices are scarce in literature. The present work was triggered by the need to develop new techniques of teaching to speed up the learning process and to experiment with new methods of teaching. For such, it is necessary to adopt virtual learning environment to new learning requirements regarding Soil Science. This paper proposes a set of e-teaching techniques (as questionnaires, chats as well as forums) introduced in Moodle virtual learning Environment in order to increase student motivation and interest in Soil Science. Such technologies can be used to: a)Increase the amount of time a teacher allots for student reflection after asking a question and before a student responds (wait-time). This practice increases the quantity and quality of students' answers. The students give longer responses, students give more evidence for their ideas and conclusions, students speculate and hypothesize more and more students participated in responding. Furthermore, students ask more questions and talk more to other students. b)Improve active learning, an essential paradigm in education. In contrast to learning-before-doing, we propose to focus on learning-in-doing, a model where learners are increasingly involved in the authentic practices of communities through learning conversations and activities involving expert practitioners, educators and peers. c)Introduce the specific specialised technical language (jargon) gradually. The excessive use of Soil Science jargon confuses students and frequently put obstacles in the way of learning. d)Encourage the students to take responsibility for their learning, continuous assessment with direct error correction and content feedback and peer review with comments sent to forum. The student interest to learn using e-project is clearly strong.

Roca, Núria



Phosphomonoesterase production and persistence and composition of bacterial communities during plant material decomposition in soils with different pH values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study the synthesis and persistence of acid and alkaline phosphomonoesterases in three soils with different pH values amended with ryegrass residues. The organic input increased soil respiration, as estimated by CO2–C evolution in all soils. The ATP content of the three soils showed a 3–7-fold increase between 7 and 10d in the different

G. Renella; L. Landi; J. Ascher; M. T. Ceccherini; G. Pietramellara; P. Nannipieri



Improved soil carbonate determination by FT-IR and X-ray analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In forest soils on calcareous parent material, carbonate is a key component which influences both chemical and physical soil properties and thus fertility and productivity. At low organic carbon contents it is difficult to distinguish between organic and inorganic carbon (carbonate) in soils. The common gas-volumetric method to determine carbonate has a number of disadvantages. We hypothesize that a combination of two spectroscopic methods, which account for different forms of carbonate, can be used to model soil carbonate in our study region. Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-MIR) was combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) to develop a model based on partial least squares regression (PLSR). Results of the gas-volumetric Scheibler method were corrected for the calcite/dolomite ratio. The best model performance was achieved when we combined the two analytical methods using four principal components. The root mean squared error of prediction decreased from 13.07 to 11.57, while full cross-validation explained 94.5% of the variance of the carbonate content. This is the first time that a combination of the proposed methods has been used to predict carbonate in forest soils, offering a simple and cheap method to precisely estimate soil carbonate contents while increasing accuracy in comparison to spectroscopic approaches proposed earlier. This approach has the potential to complement or substitute gas-volumetric methods, specifically in study areas with low soil heterogeneity and similar parent material or in long-term monitoring by consecutive sampling. Reference: Bruckman, V. and K. Wriessnig, Improved soil carbonate determination by FT-IR and X-ray analysis. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 2012: p. 1-6. [DOI:DOI 10.1007/s10311-012-0380-4

Bruckman, Viktor; Wriessnig, Karin



Morphology and genesis of carbonate soils on the Kyle Canyon fan, Nevada, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The physical and chemical properties of soils formed in an arid climate on calcareous alluvium of the Kyle Canyon alluvial fan, southern Nevada, were studied in order to infer the rates and relative importance of various soil-forming processes. These studies included field and microscopic observations and analyses of thin sections, major oxides, extractable iron, and clay minerals. The results are interpreted to reflect five major pedogenic processes: (1) The calcic horizons and calcretes of Kyle Canyon soils form by precipitation of CaCO3, derived from eolian dust and alluvium, as clast coats, matrix cement, and massive layers. (2) The A and uppermost B horizons are essentially dust-derived, for they contain large amounts of detrital material not present in the alluvial parent material, and their major-oxide content is similar to that of modern dust. (3) Clay particles are translocated from A into B horizons. (4) Iron-bearing minerals in the near-surface B horizons are slowly oxidized. (5) Carbonate and aluminosilicate grains are both displaced and replaced by pedogenic CaCO3; the silica released by replacement of aluminosilicates may be locally precipitated as amorphous or opaline silica and (or) incorporated into newly formed palygorskite and sepiolite. Rates of soil development at Kyle Canyon are approximate due to uncertainties in age estimates. Some soil field properties change at rates that are similar to rates for soils formed in rhyolitic parent material near Mercury, Nevada. The rate of accumulation of CaCO3 (3-5 g m-2 yr-1) at Kyle Canyon is an order of magnitude faster than that near Mercury, but is comparable to rates calculated for soils in southern New Mexico and Utah. ?? 1992.

Reheis, M.C.; Sowers, J.M.; Taylor, E.M.; McFadden, L.D.; Harden, J.W.



Biogeochemical C and N cycles in urban soils.  


The percentage of urban population is projected to increase drastically. In 2030, 50.7 to 86.7% of the total population in Africa and Northern America may live in urban areas, respectively. The effects of the attendant increases in urban land uses on biogeochemical C and N cycles are, however, largely unknown. Biogeochemical cycles in urban ecosystems are altered directly and indirectly by human activities. Direct effects include changes in the biological, chemical and physical soil properties and processes in urban soils. Indirect effects of urban environments on biogeochemical cycles may be attributed to the introductions of exotic plant and animal species and atmospheric deposition of pollutants. Urbanization may also affect the regional and global atmospheric climate by the urban heat island and pollution island effect. On the other hand, urban soils have the potential to store large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC) and, thus, contribute to mitigating increases in atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. However, the amount of SOC stored in urban soils is highly variable in space and time, and depends among others on soil parent material and land use. The SOC pool in 0.3-m depth may range between 16 and 232 Mg ha(-1), and between 15 and 285 Mg ha(-1) in 1-m depth. Thus, depending on the soil replaced or disturbed, urban soils may have higher or lower SOC pools, but very little is known. This review provides an overview of the biogeochemical cycling of C and N in urban soils, with a focus on the effects of urban land use and management on soil organic matter (SOM). In view of the increase in atmospheric CO(2) and reactive N concentrations as a result of urbanization, urban land use planning must also include strategies to sequester C in soil, and also enhance the N sink in urban soils and vegetation. This will strengthen soil ecological functions such as retention of nutrients, hazardous compounds and water, and also improve urban ecosystem services by promoting soil fertility. PMID:18597848

Lorenz, Klaus; Lal, Rattan



Changes in soil properties and soil cover structure due to intensive erosion and accumulation processes in loess soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive water and tillage erosion and consequent accumulation are the most important processes affecting the agroecosystems in loess regions and changing soil properties, e.g. organic carbon content, carbonate content or structure stability, and general distribution of soil units in the landscape. South Moravian loess belt, formerly covered mostly by Haplic Chernozem, is now formed by a highly diversified soil mosaic. At a morphologically heterogenous study plot (6 ha), a study on relationship between soil properties and terrain characteristics was held. DTM analysis, detailed terrain survey and laboratory analysis were the main methods adopted in the study. Three main soil units were identified: Haplic Chernozem, calcareous Regosol and Colluvial soil. The distribution of each soil unit correlates with different terrain attributes. Regosols are significatly connected to the steep slope, while their correlation with the curvature or hydrological indexes is lower. On the contrary, the Colluvial soils distribution depends mainly on values of curvature and topographical wetness index and is independent on the slope. Chernozem is related to a specific terrain position more than to any of the terrain attributes. Soil depth and humus horizon thickness vary extremelly - from 0.2 m at the erosionally exposed slopes to more than 2.5 m at the concave parts and the toeslope. Soil depth is significantly correlated with all of the tested terrain attributes except of the slope - the strongest correlation was proved in case of mean curvature, topographical wetness index and catchment area. Different degree of changes in particular soil properties results from the specificity of both erosion process and parent material character. Organic carbon content in the topsoil varies significantly. Humus is practically absent in the steepest parts of the slope where the loess is exposed. High amounts of Corg were identified in the undisturbed A horizons of the Chernozem unit. In the concave parts of the slope and at the toeslope, the Corg content in the plough layer is lower due to an admixture of non-humus material transported from the steep parts of the plot. Nevertheless, the deeper (0.7 - 2 m), buried parts of the colluvial profiles are very rich in organic carbon (up to 4 %). These horizons may represent fossil chernic horizons of former Chernozems, buried by intensive sedimentation of humic material. Similar variability was found in carbonate content values, always due to amount of loess admixture in the plough horizon. While the soil structure stability, depending strongly on humus content, was the highest in the Chernozem unit, in the eroded parts it was highly unstable. Changes in the cation exchange capacity and pH are less distinctive. CEC slightly increases in humus-rich soils and pH is higher in the eroded parts of the plot due to the loess exposition. Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (grant No. GA CR 526/08/0434) and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (grant No. MSM 6046070901).

Zadorova, Tereza; Penizek, Vit; Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka; Jirku, Veronika; Fer, Miroslav



Arsenic fractions in soils: A case study in the Amblés valley (Castilla-León, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic (As) is a trace element whose distribution and toxicology in the environment is a serious issue. In Spain, presence of As has been mainly related with mining activities because oxidation of sulphur minerals releases As into the environment. As has been detected in aquifers and soils in southern areas of the Spanish Autonomous Castilla-León Community (central Spain). Risk of human contact with As has increased substantially in the last two decades as residential areas continue to expand into former agricultural land. As distribution in topsoil horizons in the high Adaja river basin in the Amblés Valley, Ávila (Autonomous Castilla-León Community) were studied. In this area, the principal soil use is conventional farming. Three As-soil fractions: total content, extractable with EDTA and water-soluble, were determined. The origin and the causes that might favour their higher or lower concentrations were investigated. Geochemical baseline concentrations were established, and the relationships between the concentration of the different As fractions and soil properties were investigated. Iron-aluminium oxides, clay content, soil organic matter, and soil pH were the main controlling factors for As soil concentrations. Total As content in soils was related with parent material, whereas anthropogenic activities affected its solubility.

Joaquin Ramos-Miras, Jose; Díaz-Fernández, Pedro; Sanjosé Wery, Ana; Rodríguez-Martín, Jose Antonio; Boluda, Rafael; Bech, Jaume; Gil, Carlos



The role of microorganisms and plants at different stages of ecosystem development for soil formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil formation is the result of a complex network of biological as well as chemical and physical processes. Mainly the role of soil microbes is of high interest in this respect, as they are responsible for most transformations and drive the development of stable and labile carbon and nutrient pools in soil, which facilitate the basis for the subsequent establishment of plant communities. Glacier forefields, which provide a chronosequence of soils of different age due to the continuous retreat of the ice layer as a consequence of the increasing annual temperature since the last centuries, are a nice play ground to study the interaction of bacteria, fungi and archaea with their abiotic environment at different stages of soil formation. In this review we give insights into the role of microbes for soil development on the basis of investigations which have been performed at the Damma glacier in Switzerland in the frame of two international network projects Big Link ( and DFG SFB/TRR 38 ( The review focusses on the microbiology of three major steps of soil formation including weathering of the parental material, the development of basic nutrient cycles, the formation of soil crusts and biofilms as initial microbial network structures and the occurrence of plants respectively the setup of plant communities.

Schulz, S.; Brankatschk, R.; Dümig, A.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Schloter, M.; Zeyer, J.



A new framework for predicting how roots and microbes influence soil organic matter dynamics in forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While it is well-established that tree species modify soil organic matter (SOM) through differences in leaf litter chemistry, far less is known about the role of roots and their microbial associates in influencing SOM dynamics. We investigated the extent to which temperate hardwood trees which associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi differ in their effects on SOM turnover from those associating with ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi using 1) root and fungal ingrowth cores, 2) experimental tree girdling and 3) fertilization additions. We conducted our research in the central hardwood forests of southern Indiana where a rich assemblage of AM (e.g. maples, ashes, tulip poplar, black cherry) and EM (e.g. oaks, hickories, beech, pine) tree species co-occur on soils developed from similar parent materials. Our results indicate that EM trees likely play a greater role in contributing to SOM turnover than AM trees as rhizosphere enzyme activities were greater in EM soils than AM soils, and both girdling and fertilization reduced enzyme activities in EM soils but not in AM soils. Although girdling and fertilization had little effect on enzyme activities in AM soils, soil respiration decreased suggesting that much of the carbon (C) allocated belowground was likely derived from roots rather than from mycorrhizal fungi. Collectively our results suggest AM and EM trees influence SOM dynamics in fundamentally unique ways, and that categorizing forests based on the relative abundance of AM and EM trees may provide a useful framework for predicting complex biogeochemical interactions between roots, microbes and SOM.

Phillips, R.; Midgley, M.; Brzostek, E. R.



Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions, and Parenting Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play)…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice



Parenting Curriculum for Language Minority Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum consists of a workbook for language minority parents learning English as a Second Language and parenting skills, and a teaching activities guide for instructors. The guide, developed for both literate and non-literate adults, serves three purposes: (1) as a visual aid for the classroom, with pictures introducing English in…

Holt, Grace D.


Microenvironments of soil microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural studies of soil micro-organisms and the microenvironments surrounding them are reviewed. Soil microfauna, and bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, fixed and embedded in situ, were examined by electron microscopy (both transmission and scanning). In some cases ultrastructural histochemistry was used to detect and identify the organic matter with which microorganisms were associated and to examine the polymeric microbial materials (enzymes,

R. C. Foster



Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Water Erosion  

E-print Network

Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Water Erosion USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service May 2001 Rangeland Sheet 9 What is water erosion? Water erosion is the detachment and removal of soil material by water. The process may be natural or accelerated by human activity. The rate


Soil investigation in cities of West Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The antropogene effects have an influence on the environment since the flow of materials and energy is continuous and mutual. In order to investigate the soil properly we have collected samples from sample spots in three West Hungarian cities (Sopron, Szombathely and Székesfehévár). The soil samples were taken from 0-10 and 10-20 cms depth in each city within a standard network and also at industrial territories. The number of the sampling spots were between 104 and 144, depending on the size of the city and the problematic places in town. We have noted the GPS-coordinates of the point, the elevation over sea level, the date of collecting, the type of the urban area, the information about land usage, vegetation, grass covering, the type of cover and the origin of soil. We described the following characters of soil: the borderline between two layers, the amount of humus, the structure, the compactness, the root system, the skeletal percent, the color, the physical assortment, the separated element and the soil defect. We measured the soil samples in laboratory according to the following parameters: acidity (pHH2O, pHKCl), lime content, hidrolitical and exchange acidity, amount of exchangeable cation, the humus content, the total nitrogen content, the ammonium-lactat-acetous acid (AL) solvent potassium and phosphorus content, the KCl solvent magnesium and calcium content, the strength of ethylene-diamin-tetra-acetous (EDTA) and diethylene-triamin-penta-acetous (DTPA) measurements of manganese, copper, zinc and iron element, as well as the particle size distribution. The results of field and laboratory investigation are represented in a GIS system. We attempted to draw a conclusion in connection with the condition, contamination and history of contamination of soil. The results showed that there is close connection between the soil parameters and geological conditions. However, this connection shows a decrease in the centre of the city. The acidity and calcic soils are determined fundamentally by the parent material, but in the city center the acidity of soils were alkaline (by the greatest number of point). The cause of this is the calcareous deposited debris. The particle size distribution of soils showed various appearances, but there was not possible to discover the tendencies. In most cases there was a high value of organic substance in the downtown area, partly due to frequent grass fertilisation and soil spreading. We detected the amount of easily solvent nutrients and we established, that the value of nutriment element did not show significant differences in connection with usage. Our work will be continued and we are currently measuring heavy metal content of soil, and searching for the connection between the urban area and condition of soils. These investigations have been carried out with the sponsorships of TÁMOP-4.2.1.B-09/1/KONV-2010-0006 and TÁMOP-4.2.2.B-10/1-2010-0018.

Bidló, A.; Sz?cs, P.; Horváth, A.; Kámán, O.; Németh, E.



Understanding Depression (For Parents)  


... changes in mood from depression to mania. Continue Causes of Depression Depression usually isn't caused by one event ... on with their kids, but parents don't cause depression. However, it is true that parental separation, illness, ...


Parent Outreach Success  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through the Massachusetts Parent Involvement Project (MassPIP), teams of community businesses, service organizations, school personnel, parents, and children joined together and planned and conducted science, mathematics, and technology related activities

Nitzberg, Joel; Sparrow, Judith



Tips for Divorcing Parents  


... Continue Getting Help Figure out how to reduce stress in your life to help your family. Support from friends, relatives, church and religious groups, and organizations such as Parents Without Partners can help parents ...


Night Terrors (For Parents)  


... Free Health Lessons Social Media: Connect With Us Night Terrors KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Sleep Disorders > Night Terrors ... Night Terrors? Coping With Night Terrors What Are Night Terrors? Most parents have comforted their child after the ...


Multidimensionality of parental monitoring  

E-print Network

This study explored the construct of parental monitoring and its relation to antisocial behavior in children. The factor structure of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire Poor Monitoring/Supervision Scale (Frick, 1991) was examined to determine...

Secrest, Laura A



Soil bioturbation. A commentary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organisms such as trees, ants, earthworms, termites are important components of the earth systems that have dominantly been thought of as abiotic. Despite an early focus on soil bioturbation by heavy-weights such as Charles Darwin and Nathanial Shaler in the late 19th century, sporadic attention to this theme has subsequently followed. Recent compilations demonstrate that soil bioturbation by fauna and flora is widespread across Earths terrestrial surface, and operates at geologically rapid rates that warrant further attention. Such biotic activity contributes to soil creep, soil carbon dynamics, and is critical in engineering the medium through which ecosystems draw their abiotic requirements. Soil and its biota are fundamental components of the Earth System. However, soil scientist focussed on the dominant paradigm of landscape evolution, and bioturbation was relegated. In fact, bioturbation is still not widely appreciated within the soil and earth system research community. Nevertheless, within the last decade a review of the impact of bioturbation was launched by authors such as Geoff S. Humphreys. Bioturbation is a complex process as new soil is formed, mounds are developed, soil is buried and a downslope transport of material is done. Bioturbation modify the soil texture and porosity, increase the nutrients and encourage the soil creep flux. A review of the State-of-the-Art of Bioturbation will be presented.

Cerdà, Artemi; Wilkinson, Marshall



Incarcerated mothers and parenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes as a primary prevention strategy, a parent-education program aimed at enhancing the parenting skills and knowledge of incarcerated women (the majority of whom were mothers). Data are presented which describe changes in program participants' self-evaluations, parenting attitudes, and expectations of children. Upon completing of the parenting program, few differences were observed for the various pre- and post-test

Dorothy C. Howze Browne



Parenting by Lying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present set of studies identifies the phenomenon of "parenting by lying", in which parents lie to their children as a means of influencing their emotional states and behaviour. In Study 1, undergraduates (n = 127) reported that their parents had lied to them while maintaining a concurrent emphasis on the importance of honesty. In Study 2 (n =…

Heyman, Gail D.; Luu, Diem H.; Lee, Kang



The Parent Loan Trap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the cost of college has spiraled ever upward and median family income has fallen, the loan program, called Parent PLUS, has become indispensable for increasing numbers of parents desperate to make their children's college plans work. Last year the government disbursed $10.6-billion in Parent PLUS loans to just under a million families. Even…

Wang, Marian; Supiano, Beckie; Fuller, Andrea



NYS Foster Parent Manual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed for use in foster parents' day-to-day life with the children in their care. It gives them practical information on topics like medical care, payments, and the role of the court, and also provides guidance on areas like welcoming a child, discipline, and parent visits. The manual emphasizes the role of foster parents in…

McBride, Rebecca



Opening Doors to Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supporting parental-involvement research findings, Congress in 1995 appropriated $10 million to fund 28 parent information and resource centers in 27 states and Washington, D.C. In 1999, 58 more were funded. Centers communicate personably with parents via newsletters, referral networks, websites, cable TV, and toll-free numbers. (MLH)

Black, Susan



From a Parent's Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The series of articles on parenting compiled in this book bridges the gap between educational theory and the everyday problems parents must deal with. The book's perspective encourages parents to be gentle, flexible, observant, and not too attached to expectations. The first chapter, "Surviving Parenthood," discusses topics such as managing…

Gonzalez-Mena, Janet


Parenting after Infertility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

Olshansky, Ellen




E-print Network

as an activity of NCR-103 Committee on Nontraditional Soil Amendments and Growth Stimulants** By committee definition, a nonconventional additive is 1) any non-fertilizer material applied to soil or plants claimingOctober 2004* NONCONVENTIONAL SOIL ADDITIVES: PRODUCTS, COMPANIES, INGREDIENTS, AND CLAIMS Prepared

Balser, Teri C.


Soils Around the World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Soils are created through the interaction of climate, vegetation, organisms, topography, and time on the organic and mineral material found on Earth's surface. Because different locations around the world have different climates and topographies and support different kinds of organisms, soil types vary from place to place. Each type possesses certain defining characteristics, including color, texture, and mineral composition. This interactive feature introduces viewers to soil types found around the world. Clicking on the soil's name accesses a brief description for each type, and an interactive map of the world shows its distribution.


Arsenic extractability in soils in the areas of former arsenic mining and smelting, SW Poland.  


Arsenic (As) concentrations in soils and waste material in two areas of former As mining and processing: Z?oty Stok (Z?ote Mts.) and Zele?niak (Kaczawskie Mts.), SW Poland, were measured to assess levels and environmental risk associated with possible increases in arsenic mobility under changing pH and redox conditions. Twenty six soil samples were collected from 12 sites, and represented a broad spectrum of soil properties and parent material origin, including natural soils, mine spoils, slags and tailings. Arsenic species were examined using a sequential extraction technique. The changes in As solubility were determined from extraction test solutions adjusted to solution pH values varying from 2 to 8. The effects of reducing conditions on As mobility were examined in incubation tests. Most of soils demonstrated extremely high concentrations of As, both of natural and anthropogenic origin. Total As concentrations in all samples were in the range 100-43,500 mg/kg. Sequential extraction techniques suggested that the main species of As in all soils were those bound to iron (Fe) oxides, in particular amorphous ones, whereas the contributions of mobile and specifically sorbed As forms were relatively low. In tailings and tailings-affected alluvial soils, As occurred mainly in residual forms, however these soils also had considerable amounts of mobile As. In all other soils, mobile As forms were very low. Arsenic mobilization could be possible at extremely low or high pH conditions (pH<2 or pH>8), and this may be of particular practical importance in the case of tailings, which are highly alkaline. High pH promotes solubilization of As forms in reducing conditions, whereas in neutral and acidic soils the risk of As release under reducing conditions is limited. PMID:17187844

Krysiak, Agnieszka; Karczewska, Anna



The available-water capacities of North Auckland soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available-water capacities of the principal groups of soils of high clay content in North Auckland have been determined. Within each main soil group they are markedly uniform.Among the soils on sedimentary parent rocks podzolisation is accompanied by larger available-water capacities in the A horizons and smaller ones in some B horizons than are found for unpodzolised soils. Of the soils

M. W. Gradwell



Personality and Parenting Style in Parents of Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian,…

Huver, Rose M. E.; Otten, Roy; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.



Parenting Beliefs, Parental Stress, and Social Support Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…

Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee



Soils affected by heavy metals due to old mining on perudic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to assess the actual status of the soils of a natural environment surrounding an abandoned mine (exploited since the Roman Age) where Pb, Zn, Fe and Cu were obtained. The study has been carried out in the Aitzondo valley (Guipuzkoa, North of Iberian Peninsula), which cross the exploited mountainous area with middle temperatures and perudic soil moisture regime Soils in the valley are polygenic, acids, very washed and sometimes show redoximorphic features and have undergone a great mobilization of trace metals due to these physical-chemical characteristics that enhance the heavy metals solubility and mobility. The analysis of soil surface samples shows a punctual and intense pollution at Meazuri area (where the mine is located) and another more dispersal and wide pollution due to the parent material (Palaeozoic shales). The main soil type of the area has been characterized by means of the performance of a soil and six surface samples have been collected along an altitudinal transect, which goes down from 460 to 75 meters. Both profile and surface samples have been analysed for suitable parameters due to their repercussion in mobility and fixation of some heavy metals (organic matter, clay content…). Total (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Cd, Cr) and extractable fraction (using NH4Ac-EDTA pH=4.65, as extracting agent, have been analysed. Trace elements Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn have been measured. On summary, the soils studied are characterized by high levels of trace metals inherited from the parent material whose composition shows a great metallic richness. Hence, values of trace metals are very high even in remote areas where there has not been anthropic influence. Besides, the physical-chemical properties (acidity, base saturation, organic matter) have enhanced the mobility of trace metals. The anthropogenic activity (mining activity) has caused an increase in values of several metals, reaching, in some cases, concentrations above the levels established by legislation.

Garrigo, Jordi; Elustondo, David; Laheras, Ester; Oiarzabal, Maite; Jaume, Bech



Multidisciplinary characterisation of raw materials used for 'ghiara  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with new data on the raw materials used for the production of typical ghiara mortars, widely employed in historical buildings of Catania downtown (Eastern Sicily, Southern Italy). Ghiara aggregates are interpreted as the product of thermal transformation of soils rich in organic matter as a consequence of heating induced by the flowing lavas of Mt. Etna volcano on them. This process changes the original brown colour of the soil to reddish nuances. Aim of this study is a multidisciplinary investigation of such raw materials by comparing various ghiara samples from different ancient quarries located in areas covered by historic lava flows (both in the historic centre and the periphery of Catania) with a still-preserved, unburied and unburnt, volcanic soil profile presumably correlated with those affected by transformation. Relevant information about the compositional, physical, petrographic and mineralogical features is provided, mainly on the weathering degree, the patterns that affect the primary components and the newly-formed phases. This allows the acquisition of new elements on the ghiara genesis and its physical-chemical formation conditions. Several analytical techniques were used to characterise both the ghiara and soil samples from the same profile. Major and trace element patterns of ghiara and soil samples are very similar, supporting the hypothesis that the studied soil really represents the parent material of ghiara unaffected by the lava flow-induced transformation. Plagioclase, pyroxene and quartz grains of ghiara samples exhibit important corrosion features, often coupled with Si-Al and Si amorphous phases as well as Fe-oxides/hydroxides. Conversely, primary minerals are fairly fresh within the soil. The clay mineralogy of soil horizons consists of illite and kaolinite phyllosilicates (along with halloysite-7Å in one sample), whereas ghiara includes illite and hematite and/or goethite. Organic matter occurs in significant amounts within the soil, ranging between 1.6 and 5 wt%, whereas it is absent in ghiara samples. All these data support the idea that ghiara materials derive from the burning of soils at temperatures estimated in the range of about 550-900 ° C, since illite is preserved whereas kaolinite collapses from soil to ghiara specimens. Such temperatures are also able to promote a fast and complete loss of soil organic matter, severe corrosion of all the primary minerals (quartz included) and re-precipitation of amorphous phases, widespread oxidation of iron forms. These features suggest a paramount role of circulating fluids, presumably enriched in CO2 released from organic matter heating and degradation.

Barca, Donatella; Belfiore, Cristina M.; La Russa, Mauro F.; Pelle, Teresa; Pezzino, Antonio; Scarciglia, Fabio; Viccaro, Marco



Diffusion and Leaching of Selected Radionuclides (Iodine-129, Technetium-99, and Uranium) Through Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of long-term performance of Category 3 waste-enclosing cement grouts requires data about the leachability/diffusion of radionuclide species (iodine-129, technetium-99, and uranium) when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. Leachability data were collected by conducting dynamic (ANS-16.1) and static leach tests on radionuclide-containing cement specimens. The diffusivity of radionuclides in soil and concrete media was collected by conducting soil-soil and concrete-soil half-cell experiments.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Martin, P. F.; Schwab, Kristen E.; Wood, Marcus I.



Parenting and Children's Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the differences in parenting between the parents of gifted children and the parents of non-gifted children in the context of some parenting dimensions, such as parents' educational values, parent-child interaction, parents' efficacy for their children, independence training, health maintenance, expectation and socialization. An 88-item questionnaire concerning the above parenting dimensions and a corresponding 88-item questionnaire concerning children's

Jing He; Jiannong Shi; Bin Luo



Soil property effects on wind erosion of organic soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Histosols (also known as organic soils, mucks, or peats) are soils that are dominated by organic matter (OM > 20%) in half or more of the upper 80 cm. Forty two states have a total of 21 million ha of Histosols in the United States. These soils, when intensively cropped, are subject to wind erosion resulting in loss of crop productivity and degradation of soil, air, and water quality. Estimating wind erosion on Histosols has been determined by USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as a critical need for the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) model. WEPS has been developed to simulate wind erosion on agricultural land in the US, including soils with organic soil material surfaces. However, additional field measurements are needed to understand how soil properties vary among organic soils and to calibrate and validate estimates of wind erosion of organic soils using WEPS. Soil properties and sediment flux were measured in six soils with high organic contents located in Michigan and Florida, USA. Soil properties observed included organic matter content, particle density, dry mechanical stability, dry clod stability, wind erodible material, and geometric mean diameter of the surface aggregate distribution. A field portable wind tunnel was used to generate suspended sediment and dust from agricultural surfaces for soils ranging from 17% to 67% organic matter. The soils were tilled and rolled to provide a consolidated, friable surface. Dust emissions and saltation were measured using an isokinetic vertical slot sampler aspirated by a regulated suction source. Suspended dust was sampled using a Grimm optical particle size analyzer. Particle density of the saltation-sized material (>106 ?m) was inversely related to OM content and varied from 2.41 g cm-3 for the soil with the lowest OM content to 1.61 g cm-3 for the soil with highest OM content. Wind erodible material and the geometric mean diameter of the surface soil were inversely related to dry clod stability. The effect of soil properties on sediment flux varied among flux types. Saltation flux was adequately predicted with simple linear regression models. Dry mechanical stability was the best single soil property linearly related to saltation flux. Simple linear models with soil properties as independent variables were not well correlated with PM10E values (mass flux). A second order polynomial equation with OM as the independent variable was found to be most highly correlated with PM10E values. These results demonstrate that variations in sediment and dust emissions can be linked to soil properties using simple models based on one or more soil properties to estimate saltation mass flux and PM10E values from organic and organic-rich soils.

Zobeck, Ted M.; Baddock, Matthew; Scott Van Pelt, R.; Tatarko, John; Acosta-Martinez, Veronica



Soil moisture under contrasted atmospheric conditions in Eastern Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture plays a key role on the recently abandoned agriculture land where determine the recovery and the erosion rates (Cerdà, 1995), on the soil water repellency degree (Bodí et al., 2011) and on the hydrological cycle (Cerdà, 1999), the plant development (García Fayos et al., 2000) and the seasonality of the geomorphological processes (Cerdà, 2002). Moreover, Soil moisture is a key factor on the semiarid land (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013), on the productivity of the land (Qadir et al., 2013) and soils treated with amendments (Johnston et al., 2013) and on soil reclamation on drained saline-sodic soils (Ghafoor et al., 2012). In previous study (Azorin-Molina et al., 2013) we investigated the intraannual evolution of soil moisture in soils under different land managements in the Valencia region, Eastern Spain, and concluded that soil moisture recharges are much controlled by few heavy precipitation events; 23 recharge episodes during 2012. Most of the soil moisture recharge events occurred during the autumn season under Back-Door cold front situations. Additionally, sea breeze front episodes brought isolated precipitation and moisture to mountainous areas within summer (Azorin-Molina et al., 2009). We also evidenced that the intraanual evolution of soil moisture changes are positively and significatively correlated (at p<0.01) with the amount of measured precipitation. In this study we analyze the role of other crucial atmospheric parameters (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, global solar radiation, and wind speed and wind direction) in the intraanual evolution of soil moisture; focussing our analyses on the soil moisture discharge episodes. Here we present 1-year of soil moisture measurements at two experimental sites in the Valencia region, one representing rainfed orchard typical from the Mediterranean mountains (El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera), and a second site corresponding to an irrigated orange crop (Alcoleja). Key Words: Soil Moisture Discharges, Intraannual changes, Atmospheric parameters, Eastern Spain Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References: Azorin-Molina, C., Connell, B.H., Baena-Calatrava, R. 2009. Sea-breeze convergence zones from AVHRR over the Iberian Mediterranean Area and the Isle of Mallorca, Spain. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 48 (10), 2069-2085. Azorin-Molina, C., Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Cerdà, A. 2013. Soil moisture changes in two experimental sites in Eastern Spain. Irrigation versus rainfed orchards under organic farming. EGU, Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU2013-13286. Bodí, M.B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S.H. & Cerdà, A. 2011. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. 10.1016/j.geoderma.2010.11.009 Cerdà, A. 1995. Soil moisture regime under simulated rainfall in a three years abandoned field in Southeast Spain. Physics and Chemistry of The Earth, 20 (3-4), 271-279. Cerdà, A. 1999. Seasonal and spatial variations in infiltration rates in badland surfaces under Mediterranean climatic conditions. Water Resources Research, 35 (1) 319-328. Cerdà, A. 2002. The effect of season and parent material on water erosion on highly eroded soils in eastern Spain. Journal of Arid Environments, 52, 319-337. García-Fayos, P. García-Ventoso, B. Cerdà, A. 2000. Limitations to Plant establishment on eroded slopes in Southeastern Spain. Journal of Vegetation Science, 11- 77- 86. Ghafoor, A., Murtaza, G., Rehman, M. Z., Saifullah Sabir, M. 2012. Reclamation and salt leaching efficiency for tile drained saline-sodic soil using marginal quality water for irrigating rice and wheat crops. Land Degradation & Development, 23: 1 -9. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1033 Johnston, C. R., Vance, G. F., Ganjegunte, G. K. 2013. Soil properties changes following irrigation with coalbed natural gas water: role of water treatments, soil amendments and land suitability.

Azorin-Molina, César; Cerdà, Artemi; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.



Running Head: PARENTING PRACTICES, PARENTAL PRESENCE AND1 The influence of parenting practices and parental presence on children's and4  

E-print Network

of Reims, France12 13 Key words: parenting practice, parental pressure, tennis, basket, stress14 15 level perceived higher levels of13 parental pressure than most other participants. Canonical correlation1 Running Head: PARENTING PRACTICES, PARENTAL PRESENCE AND1 ANXIETY2 3 The influence of parenting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions, and Parenting Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the 5-factor model

Marc H. Bornstein; Chun-Shin Hahn; O. Maurice Haynes



World Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Now in it's third edition of World Soils provides a concise account of the soils of the world. It has been completely revised to include developments in the last decade in pedology and soil science. The introduction provides a definition of soils and outlines the author's approach. Successive chapters examine the composition, factors and processes behind the formation of soils.

E. M. Bridges



Effect of aeration and material composition in soil mixture block on the removal of colored substances and chemical oxygen demand in livestock wastewater using multi-soil-layering systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the efficiency of multi-soil-layering (MSL) systems on the removal of colored substances and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from livestock wastewater, four MSL systems with different soil mixture block (SMB) compositions were constructed in four 50 cm × 10 cm × 68 cm acrylic boxes. Livestock wastewater (diluted 10-fold) with an absorbance of 0.9215 at a wavelength of 406 nm and a COD concentration of approximately 3,000 mg L

Xin Chen; Kuniaki Sato; Toshiyuki Wakatsuki; Tsugiyuki Masunaga



Soils and Environment Soil fertility and soil processes  

E-print Network

field in eastern Washington with a serious erosion problem. #12; In soil science, soil is definedChapter 17 Soils and Environment #12; Soils Soil fertility and soil processes Soil classification Soil properties Land use and soils Sediment pollution Soil resources Learning Objectives

Pan, Feifei


Chemical forms and stability of selenium in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical forms of selenium (Se) in soils derived from different parent rocks, and the stability of Se species in soils were investigated. Around 40% of the total Se occurred as organic Se on the average. Total selenite content was higher than that of total selenate. The content of organic Se decreased with heating of the soils at high temperatures,

Hidekazu Yamada; Yumei Kang; Tomonori Aso; Hiroshi Uesugi; Tomokazu Fujimura; Koyo Yonebayashi



Parenting by lying  

PubMed Central

The present set of studies identifies the phenomenon of `parenting by lying', in which parents lie to their children as a means of influencing their emotional states and behaviour. In Study 1, undergraduates (n = 127) reported that their parents had lied to them while maintaining a concurrent emphasis on the importance of honesty. In Study 2 (n = 127), parents reported lying to their children and considered doing so to be acceptable under some circumstances, even though they also reported teaching their children that lying is unacceptable. As compared to European American parents, Asian American parents tended to hold a more favourable view of lying to children for the purpose of promoting behavioural compliance. PMID:20930948

Heyman, Gail D.; Luu, Diem H.; Lee, Kang



Magnetic viscosity of tropical soils: classification and prediction as an aid for landmine detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic induction (EMI)-based metal detectors are the most widely used sensing techniques in landmine clearance operations; however, they are negatively influenced by frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility. A total of 466 rock and soil samples collected from across the tropics are investigated in this study. The data show that frequency-dependent susceptibility depends on the parent material as well as on the degree of weathering. Ultramafic and mafic rocks and their derivatives have higher susceptibility and absolute frequency dependence than material originating from intermediate, felsic and sedimentary rocks. Within each parent material group, absolute frequency dependence increases steadily with increasing alteration from unweathered rock to topsoil. This effect is likely due to either the residual enrichment of weathering resistant ferrimagnetic minerals including superparamagnetic (SP) grains, the comminution of larger ferrimagnetic minerals or the neoformation of SP minerals during soil formation. Relative frequency dependence is generally lower than 15 per cent for the investigated samples with a few exceptions. It increases with alteration for igneous rocks but remains at the initially high level for sediments. This finding indicates that the relative concentration of SP minerals changes with respect to the total magnetic fraction for igneous rocks but remains constant for sediments. Soils derived from ultramafic, mafic and intermediate rocks show low relative frequency dependence, and their magnetic susceptibility is mainly the result of multidomain lithogenic minerals. In contrast, soils derived from felsic rocks and sediments show the highest values, and their susceptibility is due to SP minerals that are either formed during pedogenesis or residually enriched. The average and extreme values of the absolute frequency dependence within each subgroup, based on parent material and alteration grade, are used to design a prognosis system for assessing the impact of the subsurface on EMI sensors for landmine detection. In general, intermediate, felsic and sedimentary rocks have no influence on the detectors and only a weak influence in the most extreme cases. Soils derived from these rocks typically have no influence; however, they can have a very severe influence in a few cases. In contrast, ultramafic and mafic rocks typically have a moderate influence and a very severe influence in extreme cases, with the associated soils resulting in a severe influence in general. The deduced prognosis system can be used by demining organizations to help them predict metal detector performance in tropical regions on the basis of geologic and/or soil maps, which do not supply information on electromagnetic properties. In this way, such a system may eventually help with the planning of demining campaigns and selection of appropriate sensors.

Igel, J.; Preetz, H.; Altfelder, S.



Parent Abuse: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse).\\u000a This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears\\u000a to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily focused on prevalence rates and

Nicola Kennair; David Mellor



Parents Come to Class  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you challenged to involve parents in your school's science curriculum? Ridgecrest Elementary School in Hyattsville, Maryland, tackled that issue and found a successful solution in an exciting program called "Playtime Is Science" (Sprung, Froschl, and Colon 1997). This program trains parent volunteers as "coteachers" to help classroom teachers facilitate learning in specific science units and also encourages parental participation in the school at all levels.

Gooden, Kelly



Soil Composition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Soil is essential for life on Earth. It is needed for food, air, clothing and so much more. Discussion topics include the terms 'soil', 'dirt', and 'sediment', factors affecting the formation of soils, soil horizons, and the twelve orders of soils. In a hands-on activity, students will collect soil samples from three different locations, use online resources to determine texture and particle makeup, and record their observations.

Fox, Chris; Pratte, John


Impact of hydrochar application on soil nutrient dynamics and plant availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate potentials for the use of HTC-products (hydrochar) in agriculture, the influence of soil application of different hydrochars on soil nutrient dynamics as well as on plant growth and plant nutrient uptake was determined. Hydrochars were produced from sugar beet pulps and brewer's grains by carbonization at 190°C for 4 respectively 12 hours each. Incubation experiments with two soil types showed an increase of soil pH by 0.5 to 2.5 pH units, depending on the amount of hydrochar added and the process conditions (i.e. addition of calcium carbonate during production). The application of HTC to soil decreased the plant available nitrogen to almost zero in the first week after HTC-addition, followed by a slow re-release of nitrate in the following weeks. A similar immobilization of soluble phosphate was observed for one soil type, although to a lower extent. The plant availability of phosphorus in hydrochars and biochars is subject of current trials. Furthermore it is actually investigated to what extend the N immobilization is related to soil microbial activity. Germination tests with barley showed toxic effects of hydrochar application on germination, both by direct contact of grains with HTC as well as by release of gaseous compounds from HTC. Effects differ significantly for different parent materials and pretreatments (washing, drying, storage). The influence of HTC-addition to soil on plant growth and nutrient uptake was investigated in pot experiments with various crop species (barley, phaseolus bean, leek), comparing HTC from different parent materials and process parameters such as carbonization time. With increasing addition of HTC, the N availability was decreased and N contents in the plant were significantly lower compared with the untreated control. The plant growth response was different for each tested crop. On barley, leaf tip necroses were observed, but not on phaseolus. Biomass yield of barley and beans was generally increased by HTC application. In contrast, leek biomass production was reduced. Our experiences show that HTC-materials should be incorporated into soils several weeks before planting/sowing, similar as it is widely recommended for straw incorporation. Alternatively, HTC can be pretreated by composting or fermentation with fresh organic material to destroy toxic compounds microbially.

Bargmann, I.; Greef, J. M.; Kücke, M.



Discrete Element Method (DEM) Soil simulations --liquefaction  

E-print Network

Discrete Element Method (DEM) Soil simulations -- liquefaction Granular materials: Are they simple? Discrete Element Modeling of Soils as Granular Materials Matthew R. Kuhn Donald P. Shiley School http:// / kuhn / papers / DEM_Corvallis.pdf #12;Discrete Element Method (DEM) Soil

Kuhn, Matthew R.


Parenting and plasticity.  


As any new parent knows, having a baby provides opportunities for enrichment, learning and stress - experiences known to change the adult brain. Yet surprisingly little is known about the effects of maternal experience, and even less about the effects of paternal experience, on neural circuitry not directly involved in parenting. Here we discuss how caregiving and the accompanying experiential and hormonal changes influence the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, brain regions involved in cognition and mood regulation. A better understanding of how parenting impacts the brain is likely to help in devising strategies for treating parental depression, a condition that can have serious cognitive and mental health consequences for children. PMID:20832872

Leuner, Benedetta; Glasper, Erica R; Gould, Elizabeth



The influence of time on the magnetic properties of late Quaternary periglacial and alluvial surface and buried soils along the Delaware River, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic susceptibility of soils has been used as a proxy for rainfall, but other factors can contribute to magnetic enhancement in soils. Here we explore influence of century- to millennial-scale duration of soil formation on periglacial and alluvial soil magnetic properties by assessing three terraces with surface and buried soils ranging in exposure ages from <0.01 to ~16 kyrs along the Delaware River in northeastern USA. The A and B soil horizons have higher Xlf, Ms, and S-ratios compared to parent material, and these values increase in a non-linear fashion with increasing duration of soil formation. Magnetic remanence measurements show a mixed low- and high-coercivity mineral assemblage likely consisting of goethite, hematite and maghemite that contributes to the magnetic enhancement of the soil. Room-temperature and low-temperature field-cooled and zero field-cooled remanence curves confirm the presence of goethite and magnetite and show an increase in magnetization with increasing soil age. These data suggest that as the Delaware alluvial soils weather, the concentration of secondary ferrimagnetic minerals increase in the A and B soil horizons. We then compared the time-dependent Xlf from several age-constrained buried alluvial soils with known climate data for the region during the Quaternary. Contradictory to most studies that suggest a link between increases in magnetic susceptibility and high moisture, increased magnetic enhancement of Delaware alluvial soils coincides with dry climate intervals. Early Holocene enhanced soil Xlf (9.5 – 8.5 ka) corresponds with a well-documented cool-dry climate episode. This relationship is probably related to less frequent flooding during dry intervals allowing more time for low-coercive pedogenic magnetic minerals to form and accumulate, which resulted in increased Xlf. Middle Holocene enhanced Xlf (6.1 – 4.3 ka) corresponds with a transitional wet/dry phase and a previously documented incision event.......

Stinchcomb, Gary; Peppe, Daniel



Parent bed spaces in the PICU: effect on parental stress.  


The purpose of this comparative descriptive study was to identify the impact of providing a parent bed space in the PICU, allowing for continual parental presence, on stress of the parents of critically ill children. Data were collected from parents (n = 86) at two children's hospitals 3 months prior to the opening of new PICUs with parent bed spaces. Following a transition period, data were collected from a sample of parents (n = 92) who had used the parent bed to stay overnight with their child. Parental stress was measured with the Parental Stressor Scale: Pediatric Intensive Care (PSS: PICU). Stress scores were significantly lower (p = .02) for parents who utilized the parent beds in the new PICUs. New PICU environments that facilitate continual parental presence may reduce parental stress related to a child's hospitalization. PMID:17708180

Smith, Andrea B; Hefley, Glenda C; Anand, K J S



Styles of parenting among parents of young gifted children  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been little research on styles of parenting among parents of young gifted children. This lack of information about parenting styles makes it difficult to develop an effective parent component for preschool progress for the gifted. This study compared the attitudes, values, and behavior of 39 parents of young gifted and nongifted children. The results indicated that while there

Merle B. Karnes; Allan M. Shwedel; Deborah Steinberg



The Role of Parental Personality Traits in Differential Parenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant relationships have been demonstrated between parental personality and parenting toward individual children, but there is little research exploring the relationship between parental personality and differential parenting (DP). The present study examined the relationship between the Big Five personality dimensions and differential positivity and negativity in parenting (observed and self-report measures). The analyses are based on a sample of 867

Dillon T. Browne; Jean Christophe Meunier; Thomas G. OConnor; Jennifer M. Jenkins



Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Parents' Perceptions of Untreated Siblings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates parents' perception of the generalization of treatment effects to untreated siblings following parent-child interaction therapy with oppositional preschoolers and their parents. Partiipants were 30 referred families randomly assigned to an immediate treatment or waitlist control group who completed parent rating scale measures of disruptive behavior at intake and 16 weeks later. Improvements in the parents' report of

Elizabeth V. Brestan; Sheila M. Eyberg; Steven R. Boggs; James Algina



Why Do Parents Homeschool? A Systematic Examination of Parental Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although homeschooling is growing in popularity in the United States, little systematic research has focused on this population. Grounded in the parental involvement literature, this study examines why parents decide to home-school. Parents of 136 homeschooled elementary children completed questionnaires assessing constructs derived from the parental involvement literature and personal beliefs identified in the homeschooling literature as important to parents

Christa L. Green; Kathleen V. Hoover-Dempsey



Handbook of Parenting. Volume 2: Biology and Ecology of Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned with social settings and correlates of parenting, this volume, the second of four volumes on parenting deals specifically with the biology and the ecology of parenting. The volume consists of 12 chapters as follows: (1) "Hormonal Basis of Parenting in Mammals" (Jay S. Rosenblatt); (2) "Parenting in Primates" (Kim A. Bard); (3)…

Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.


INTRODUCTION Parental care demands an investment of parental resources, and  

E-print Network

of behavioral diversification, including several independent transitions in parental care strategy (Goodwin et3269 INTRODUCTION Parental care demands an investment of parental resources, and represents a trade of parental care but, despite this, males and females frequently differ in the amount and nature of parental

Renn, Susan C.P.


Handbook of Parenting. Volume 1: Children and Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned with different types of parents and the forces that shape parenting, this volume, the first of four volumes on parenting deals specifically with parent-child relationships throughout the lifespan and the parenting of children of different physical, behavioral, and intellectual needs. The volume consists of 12 chapters as follows: (1)…

Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.


Handbook of Parenting. Volume 1: Children and Parenting. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned with different types of parents and the forces that shape parenting, this volume, the first of five volumes on parenting, deals specifically with parent-child relationships throughout the lifespan and the parenting of children of different physical, behavioral, and intellectual needs. The volume consists of the following 14 chapters: (1)…

Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.


Parental facilitation: parent-offspring relations in communally breeding birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A view of parent-offspring relations is developed that stresses an increased role for mutualism and tolerance rather than conflict in evolutionary trends toward sociality. For example, in Aphelocoma jays, parental tolerance of offspring increases from asocial to social species, contrary to what parental manipulation or parent-offspring conflict models have suggested. A simple model is presented in which parents can leave

J. L. Brown; E. R. Brown



A Proposed Parenting Plan for Never Married Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes the establishment of legally oriented parent education programs for never married parents. The paper describes a multifaceted program designed to provide information to never married parents on the legal system, personal and parental responsibility and its associated impact on children. Co-parenting issues, resolving conflicts…

Manville, David L.


Shrublands and Soil Erosion. An State-of-the-Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrublands and Soil Erosion. An State-of-the-Art Arid and semiarid regions occupy two-fifth of the continents (Reynolds et al., 2007). These regions are characterized by dry climatic conditions, recurrent droughts and a scant rainfall pattern with a marked seasonality and a high inter-annual variability which makes water to be a scant resource and vegetation to follow a high variability spatial distribution pattern (Breshears et al., 1998; Cecchi et al., 2006; Dunkerley, 2008). These conditions make these areas more sensitive to climate change (Rowell, 2005) and to land use change as a consequence of land abandonment (Poyatos et al., 2003; Delgado et al., 2010; García-Ruiz, 2010), increasing the risk of desertification (Puigdefábregas and Mendizabal, 1998; Geeson et al., 2002), in such a way that 65-70% of arid and semiarid areas are vulnerable to this degradation process (UNEP, 1991). Soil Erosion and Land Degradation are closely related to the changes in the vegetation cover (Zhao et al., 2013). Although other factors such as rainfall intensity or slope (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013) the plant cover is the main factor that controls the soil erosion, controlling the infiltration and runoff generation (Cerdà, 1998a; Kargar Chigani et al., 2012; Haregeweyn, 2013). Soil erosion show non-sustainable rates under these regions, such as under Mediterranean conditions (Cerdà et al., 2010) and on agriculture land (Cerdà et al; 2007; 2009) due to climatic conditions, to parent material and to the roughed terrain (Romero Díaz et al., 2010). The traditional impact of grazing, of extremely intense fires, of ploughing and the widespread use of herbicides on agriculture, the increase of the road and railway embankments and the agricultural land abandonment cause vegetation removal. Canopy cover partitions rainfall reducing the amount of water reaching the soil and the kinetic energy of rainfall drops, protecting the soil against the impact of rainfall drops. Vegetation distribution controls the exposure of soils to rainfall drops affecting soil erosion (Cerdà, 1997a; Cammeraat et al., 2010; Kakembo et al., 2012). The lost of vegetation can trigger Desertification (Izzo et al., 2013) because soil erosion is highly dependent on the effective rainfall striking soil particles (Cerdà and Lasanta, 2005; Haile and Fetene; 2012; Miao et al., 2012, Prokop and Por?ba, 2012). Shrubs are the most characteristic vegetation type in semiarid and arid ecosystems all over the world (Tomaselli, 1981; Kummerrow, 1989), typical of intermediate stages of most vegetation succession series, being the first in terms of dominant vegetation coverage, occupying 24% of drylands, followed by crop vegetation with 20% (Reynolds et al., 2007). Moreover, shrub vegetation covers the soil permanently, being able to adapt to very unfavourable conditions like droughts, frosts, non-fertile soils,… improving the soil quality due to their capacity to activate organic matter cycles supplying greater amounts of litter (Alegre et al., 2004). Shrubs have complex root systems, inducing changes in soil properties and increasing soil macroporosity (indirect effects) that increase infiltration reducing runoff and the soil loss (Garcia-Estringana et al., 2010). Shrubs improve the infiltration capacity of soils (Cerdà, 1997), even in the most difficult conditions (Marques et al., 2005), the water retention capacity (Ruiz Sinoga et al., 2010) and the runoff and sediment redistribution. Shrub vegetation has been seen as a key vegetation cover in semiarid lands to control the soil and water losses (Francis and Thornes, 1990; Barea et al., 1996; Romero Díaz, 2003; Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). But the majority of revegetation programmes in arid and semiarid regions still ignores the great potential of this type of vegetation. Romero Díaz et al. (2010) indicated that 99% of revegetation programmes carried out by public authorities in Spain used fast growing tree vegetation (Pinus sp. and Eucalyptus sp.) that grow faster in non-fertile soils resisting to isolation. But the introduction

García Estríngana, Pablo; Dunkerley, David; Cerdà, Artemi



Critical shear stress for erosion of cohesive soils subjected to temperatures typical of wildfires  

USGS Publications Warehouse

[1] Increased erosion is a well-known response after wildfire. To predict and to model erosion on a landscape scale requires knowledge of the critical shear stress for the initiation of motion of soil particles. As this soil property is temperature-dependent, a quantitative relation between critical shear stress and the temperatures to which the soils have been subjected during a wildfire is required. In this study the critical shear stress was measured in a recirculating flume using samples of forest soil exposed to different temperatures (40??-550??C) for 1 hour. Results were obtained for four replicates of soils derived from three different types of parent material (granitic bedrock, sandstone, and volcanic tuffs). In general, the relation between critical shear stress and temperature can be separated into three different temperature ranges (275??C), which are similar to those for water repellency and temperature. The critical shear stress was most variable (1.0-2.0 N m-2) for temperatures 2.0 N m-2) between 175?? and 275??C, and was essentially constant (0.5-0.8 N m-2) for temperatures >275??C. The changes in critical shear stress with temperature were found to be essentially independent of soil type and suggest that erosion processes in burned watersheds can be modeled more simply than erosion processes in unburned watersheds. Wildfire reduces the spatial variability of soil erodibility associated with unburned watersheds by eliminating the complex effects of vegetation in protecting soils and by reducing the range of cohesion associated with different types of unburned soils. Our results indicate that modeling the erosional response after a wildfire depends primarily on determining the spatial distribution of the maximum soil temperatures that were reached during the wildfire. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

Moody, J. A.; Dungan, Smith, J.; Ragan, B. W.



Critical shear stress for erosion of cohesive soils subjected to temperatures typical of wildfires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased erosion is a well-known response after wildfire. To predict and to model erosion on a landscape scale requires knowledge of the critical shear stress for the initiation of motion of soil particles. As this soil property is temperature-dependent, a quantitative relation between critical shear stress and the temperatures to which the soils have been subjected during a wildfire is required. In this study the critical shear stress was measured in a recirculating flume using samples of forest soil exposed to different temperatures (40°-550°C) for 1 hour. Results were obtained for four replicates of soils derived from three different types of parent material (granitic bedrock, sandstone, and volcanic tuffs). In general, the relation between critical shear stress and temperature can be separated into three different temperature ranges (<175°C 175°C-275°C; >275°C), which are similar to those for water repellency and temperature. The critical shear stress was most variable (1.0-2.0 N m-2) for temperatures <175°C, was a maximum (>2.0 N m-2) between 175° and 275°C, and was essentially constant (0.5-0.8 N m-2) for temperatures >275°C. The changes in critical shear stress with temperature were found to be essentially independent of soil type and suggest that erosion processes in burned watersheds can be modeled more simply than erosion processes in unburned watersheds. Wildfire reduces the spatial variability of soil erodibility associated with unburned watersheds by eliminating the complex effects of vegetation in protecting soils and by reducing the range of cohesion associated with different types of unburned soils. Our results indicate that modeling the erosional response after a wildfire depends primarily on determining the spatial distribution of the maximum soil temperatures that were reached during the wildfire.

Moody, John A.; Smith, J. Dungan; Ragan, B. W.



Interactions of aluminum with forest soils and vegetation: Implications for acid deposition  

SciTech Connect

Recent evidence suggests that an important ecological consequence of acidic deposition is increased aluminum mobilization. There is concern that increased aluminum activity may produce toxic effects in forested ecosystems. My studies were concerned with the behavior of pedogenic and added aluminum in soils derived from chemically different parent material. Soil aluminum was related to the aluminum content of the vegetation found growing in the soils. In addition, aluminum levels of forest litter was compared to levels determined 40 years ago. Field, greenhouse, and laboratory investigations were conducted in which the effects of aluminum concentration on germination and early growth was determined. Soils were then used in greenhouse and laboratory studies to establish patterns of soil and plant aluminum behavior with implications to acid deposition. Results show that the amount of aluminum extracted was related to the pH value of the extracting solution and to the chemical characteristics of the soil. Some acid rain solutions extracted measurable amounts of aluminum from selected primary minerals. Germination and early growth of Pinus radiata was controlled by levels of aluminum in the soil or in solution. Field studies indicated that most forest species were sensitive to rising levels of aluminum in the soil. In general, ferns and fern allies were less sensitive to very high levels of aluminum in the soil, continuing to grow when more advanced dicots have disappeared. Aluminum tissue levels of all species were related to the concentration of aluminum in the soil as was the reappearance of species. Aluminum levels in leaf litter have risen at least 50% in the last 40 years. These values were consistent over 3 years. The implications to acid deposition were discussed.

Maynard, A.A.



Study of the Behavior and Micromechanical Modelling of Granular Soil. Volume 1. A Constitutive Relation for Granular Materials Based on the Contact Law Between Two Spheres.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive research effort was conducted on constitutive and micromechanical modelling of granular soil. This includes: (1) the development of a new constitutive relation for granular media based on the contact law between two spheres; (2) an experim...

E. Petrakis, R. Dobry



A strategy for the survey of urban garden soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In France and all over the world, there is no systematic data available on the quality (fertility and contamination) of garden soils. Nevertheless, there is a growing need for a typology and for a method dedicated to national and international garden soil survey. This inventory is much needed in the context of environmental risk assessment, to predict the potential impact on human health of the direct contact with garden soils and of the consumption of vegetables from gardens. The state of the art on the international knowledge on garden soils, gardening practices and food production, shows that gardens remain poorly known and very complex ecological, economical and social systems. Their global quality is the result of a wide number of factors including environment, history, specific characteristics of the gardens, gardeners and their practices, plant and/or animal productions and socio-economic context. The aim is then to better know the determinism of the agronomic, environmental and sanitary properties of gardens as a function of gardening practices and their impact on the quality of soils and plants. We propose a definition of "garden" and more generally of all the field "garden". The system "garden" is represented by attributes (soil and plant characteristics) and factors with various impacts (e.g. environment > soil parent material > former land uses > age and sex of gardener > gardening practices > socio-professional group > type and proportion of productions > climate > age of the garden > size of the garden > education, information > cultural origin > functions of the garden > regulations). A typology of gardens including 7 selected factors and associated categories and a method for describing, sampling and characterizing a population of gardens representative (for a country) are proposed. Based on the statistical analysis on regional databases, we have determined and proposed an optimum size for the collected population of garden soils. The discussion of the results highlights the main indicators of soil quality and the method for a survey of garden soils is proposed. These results and the resulting approach might be validated and used on a worldwide scale to collect garden soil samples with the objective of agronomic, environmental and sanitary studies adapted to this type of urban agriculture.

Schwartz, C.; Chenot, E. D.; Cortet, J.; Douay, F.; Dumat, C.; Pernin, C.; Pourrut, B.



On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Soil Particle Analysis Procedure  

E-print Network

the soil holds the wastewater long enough for microbes to remove contaminants. Aerobic microbes need air to survive. The amount of air in soil depends on the size of soil particles. Soil particle analysis determines the size of soil particles and can... microbes. Inorganic materials Most soils in Texas are dominated by inorganic or mineral materials such as clays, sands and silts. Silicon, oxygen and aluminum are the main elements in the ?aluminosilicate? minerals that make up most of the inorganic...

Lesikar, Bruce J.



Soil Quality Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to materials on the assessment of soil quality for agricultural and conservation purposes. A brief overview introduces users to the concept of using indicators (physical, chemical, biological, etc.) as an indirect means of assessment. Links are provided to a set of guides, including guidelines for assessing soil quality in the conservation planning process; a guide to on-farm tests, an interpretive section for each test, data recording sheets, and a section on how to build a test kit; how to make and use soil quality cards; and a how-to section on using the Soil Conditioning Index (SCI), a Windows based model that can predict the consequences of cropping systems and tillage practices on the status of soil organic matter in a field.


A Biblical philosophy of parenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parenting is taken for granted too often. There are rarely classes on parenting available. It is assumed that because a person has experienced being a child that one will naturally know how to parent. The biological aspect of becoming a parent takes little skill, however, training a child correctly requires effort. This thesis seeks to provide a philosophy of parenting

James D. Folsom



Getting Parents Involved.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a parental involvement program in reading, writing, and human education. The project consists of caring for Clifford, a stuffed toy dog, on a rotated basis by first grade students. Books and pet care items accompany Clifford and provide an opportunity for parent and child to work together. (ML)

Butts, Vickie; Finch, Patty A.



Parenting for Independence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to William Sears's article: "Attachment Parenting: A Style That Works" (PS 523 690). Claims that there are alternatives to "attachment parenting" based on the Montessori philosophy, pointing out that Sears's suggestion of sleeping with the baby and carrying the baby in a sling may easily become obstacles in the path of natural development…

Matthews, Mary G.



Parenting for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to influence parents to play an important role in their child's education, this guide is an educational how-to book written in simple, easy-to-understand language, showing parents how to engage in activities with their children at home that will upgrade academic performance at school. The book covers 77 concepts, each presented as a…

Owens, Vivian W.


Parents Leading the Way.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue of the Family Resource Coalition Report presents personal experiences and reflections regarding parent involvement and leadership in family support. Articles in this issue are: (1) "The Vaughn Family Center: It's My Story" (Jorge Lara and Matt Oppenheim); (2) "Asking the Right Questions is Key to Developing Parent Advocacy" (Luz…

Wolf, Kathy Goetz



Parents as Writing Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents know that writing is essential to their children's success, and they're eager to help their children become good writers. But often, they're at a loss about how to help. Instead of leaving them in the dark, schools can make parents into valuable writing partners by giving them a toolkit of guidelines for coaching writers.…

Ehrenworth, Mary



GESA...for Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide outlines a 5-day program for parents called GESA (Gender/Ethnic Expectations and Student Achievement) that teaches supportive behaviors that develop student self-esteem and school success, and that serves to offset biases that students may encounter. Goals are the following: (1) to address the ways in which parents' expectations and…

Miller, Pamela R.; Grayson, Dolores A.


Parents as Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family involvement is a key ingredient of improving underperforming schools, but families are often unaware of how to get involved. To engage families in schools, an urban school district offers Parent University to teach family members how to become leaders in schools and advocates for their children. Parent University is one of Boston Public…

Brooks, Michele P.



Adolescent to Parent Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the extent of violence toward parents by adolescent children in relation to: (1) sex and age of the child; (2) the likelihood that mothers, more than fathers, are victims of children's violence; (3) social factors that may influence child to parent violence; and (4) stress as a factor in family violence. (Author/MJL)

Cornell, Claire Pedrick; Gelles, Richard J.



Parent Resources Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource inventory is for the use of parent groups and others who are concerned with parent education and support services. The inventory contains the titles of articles, copies of which are available through the Alberta Education Response Centre. The articles and publications listed cover a wide range of topics related to child development…

Alberta Education Response Centre, Edmonton.


Parent Resources Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource inventory is for the use of parent groups and others who are concerned with the provision of parent education and suppport services. There are two parts to the inventory. Section 1 contains the titles of articles and standard bibliographic information, as well as annotations of contents. Copies of the articles are available through…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Early Childhood Services.


Parenting: An Ecological Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines various aspects of parenting and influences on parents, including such key contexts affecting child development as school, neighborhood, and culture. After a forward by Urie Bronfenbrenner and a preface by Tom Luster and Lynn Okagaki, which together help to introduce the topics to be discussed, the book is divided into nine…

Luster, Tom, Ed.; Okagaki, Lynn, Ed.


Parents as Partners Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In September 1990, three programs (Family Study Institute, Saturday School Programs, and Evening Programs) to strengthen and improve parent-school partnerships and enhance communication were instituted in a racially integrated school district in Cook County, Illinois. Evaluation findings showed that parental involvement significantly enhanced…

Ryan, Thomas E.



Parents Teachers Partners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shaped by a survey that reached between 40,000 and 50,000 parents and teachers in Australia, this book identifies the main features of elementary schooling about which parents seek information and explains what is happening in Australia's classrooms at the present time. The book is presented as a resource and a stimulus for fostering the essential…

Dwyer, Barry


Parenting, Pressures and Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 1990s, parenting became a difficult effort to balance work demands with children's needs. However, Canadian and U.S. government policies have not met changing family needs for child care, other services, paid parental leave, and work flexibility. Canada's long-awaited National Children's Agenda has the potential to modernize family policy…

Chance, Graham W.



Power to the Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a recent Wisconsin "school choice" initiative, under which parents may choose public, private, nonsectarian, or religious schools for their children and have state funding directed to the appropriate institutions. Argues that school choice programs empower parents to provide the best education available to their children. (MAB)

Norquist, John O.



Parents, The Real Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this pamphlet, advice is provided for Pacific Asian American parents about how they can work to help their children to develop positive self-images and to deal with racism and other social problems. The importance of parent-child communication, strong ethnic identity, education, and a sense of self-worth as methods of preventing drug abuse and…

Multicultural Drug Abuse Prevention Resource Center, Arlington, VA.


Sexual Orientation (For Parents)  


... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC A Parent's Guide to Surviving the Teen Years Understanding Early Sexual Development STDs Questions and Answers About Sex Teaching Your Child Tolerance Transgender People Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Transgender People Love and Romance Sexual Attraction and ...


Parenting Education - Discipline Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of discipline as a positive learning experience that sets limits for behavior of children by guiding them to and through adulthood is presented in the fourth booklet of a series on parenting education for American Indians. Five major areas parents can teach children by their own behavior are tasks, curiosity and interest in learning,…

National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.


Single parent women  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there has been considerable interest in the problems of single parent families, no study has yet determined if the problems are due to increased risk of specific psychiatric disorders in single parents as compared to their married counterparts. Data collected as part of the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Project are presented to compare the

Myrna M. Weissman; Philip J. Leaf; Martha Livingston B