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1

Examining soil parent material influence over Douglas-fir stem ...  

Treesearch

Estimating effects of fertilizers and soil parent materials on Douglas-fir growth ... in time and space introduce latent variables that drive between-site variation. ... First, we employed a mixed model approach to test the primary hypothesis of soil  ...

2

Soil erosion model predictions using parent material/soil texture ...  

Treesearch

The first step was to determine site-specific erosion parameters using rainfall ... Lake Tahoe was chosen for the study because it had parent materials similar to ... Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

3

Soil parent material is a key determinant of the bacterial community structure in arable soils.  

PubMed

The bacterial community composition in soil and rhizosphere taken from arable field sites, differing in soil parent material and soil texture, was analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes. Nine sandy to silty soils from North-East Germany could clearly be distinguished from each other, with a relatively low heterogeneity in the community structure within the field replicates. There was a relationship between the soil parent material, i.e. different glacial and aeolian sediments, and the clustering of the profiles from different sites. A site-specific grouping of T-RFLP profiles was also found for the rhizosphere samples of the same field sites that were planted with potatoes. The branching of the rhizosphere profiles corresponded partly with the soil parent material, whereas the effect of the plant genotype was negligible. Selected terminal restriction fragments differing in their relative abundance within the nine soils were analyzed based on the cloning of the 16S rRNA genes of one soil sample. A high phylogenetic diversity observed to include Acidobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Gemmatimonadetes. The assignment of three out of the seven selected terminal restriction fragments to members of Acidobacteria suggested that this group seems to participate frequently in the shifting of community structures that result from soil property changes. PMID:16689875

Ulrich, Andreas; Becker, Regina

2006-06-01

4

Hydro-physical properties of soils developed from different parent materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to compare some selected hydro-physical properties of soils developed from different parent material under the same climate type, similar topography and vegetation cover and to present significant differences in the soil characteristics with numerical values. For this purpose, five different sites with similar topography, vegetation cover, the same climate type, and different parent materials

Ferhat Gökbulak; Mehmet Özcan

2008-01-01

5

The contribution of nutrients from parent material in three deeply weathered soils of Peninsular Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three deeply weathered soil profiles developed over basalt, granite and schist were studied. The isovolumetric calculation was carried out to determine the intensity of elements depleted during weathering. The rain and stream waters near the respective areas were sampled and analysed. Despite the differences in their parent materials, the physico-chemical properties of the soil proper were quite similar. The study

J. Hamdan; C. P. Bumham

1996-01-01

6

Assessment of soil parent material formation in periglacial environments through medium scale landscape evolution modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil parental materials represent the weathering product of any surficial geological substrates comprising in-situ fragmented and dissolved rocks, unconsolidated sediments of various types and origins, or even paleosoils. Weathering, erosion, transport and accumulation processes of geological materials governing the formation of soil parent materials display a highly complex non-linear behaviour at larger spatial scales over smaller geological time periods (< 50.000 years) in lithologically complex settings. This is particularly evident in periglacial environments where regional allochthonous sediment supply contributes to soil parent material formation. We propose a GIS implementation of a landscape evolution model (LEM) for the spatiotemporal investigation of soil parent material evolution following a lithologically differentiated approach. The well-established LEM tool GOLEM has been adapted and realized as a module for the open-source GIS SAGA to operate in a spatially distributed framework, taking advantage of the highly developed capabilities of SAGA for morphometric digital terrain analysis. The LEM is driven by high-resolution paleo-climatic data (temperature, precipitation) representative for periglacial areas in Northern Germany over the last 50.000 years. The initial conditions of the LEM are determined for a test site by a digital terrain model and a geological model. The geological model was parameterized through geological field data derived from rock mass rating procedures and soft sediment analyses to account for a lithologically differentiated LEM set up with respect to first-order mechanical properties of both rock-type and unconsolidated lithologies. Weathering, erosion and transport functions of the LEM are calibrated using the extrinsic (climatic) and intrinsic (lithology) parameter data. First results indicate that our differentiated LEM-based approach displays some evidence for the spatiotemporal prediction of important soil parental material properties (e.g., thickness, structure, texture, and composition). However, the results have to be validated against field data, and the influence of discrete events (landslides, floods) has to be evaluated.

Bock, M.; Günther, A.; Ringeler, A.; Baritz, R.; Böhner, J.

2012-04-01

7

The influence of alkaline and non-alkaline parent material on soil chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gneiss bedrock of Alnö Island, situated at the eastern coastline of central Sweden (62°24?N, 17°30?E), has alkaline intrusions interspersed in narrow dikes. This gives the opportunity to create experimental designs, where the impact of different parent material on the soil solution chemistry can be exclusively investigated.In this study, three alkaline sites and three non-alkaline sites were mineralogically identified within

Jenny L. K. Vestin; Kei Nambu; Patrick A. W. van Hees; Dan Bylund; Ulla S. Lundström

2006-01-01

8

Unexpected dominance of parent-material strontium in a tropical forest on highly weathered soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Controls over nutrient supply are key to understanding the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Conceptual models once held that in situ mineral weathering was the primary long-term control over the availability of many plant nutrients, including the base cations calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K). Recent evidence has shown that atmospheric sources of these "rock-derived" nutrients can dominate actively cycling ecosystem pools, especially in systems on highly weathered soils. Such studies have relied heavily on the use of strontium isotopes as a proxy for base-cation cycling. Here we show that vegetation and soil-exchangeable pools of strontium in a tropical rainforest on highly weathered soils are still dominated by local rock sources. This pattern exists despite substantial atmospheric inputs of Sr, Ca, K, and Mg, and despite nearly 100% depletion of these elements from the top 1 m of soil. We present a model demonstrating that modest weathering inputs, resulting from tectonically driven erosion, could maintain parent-material dominance of actively cycling Sr. The majority of tropical forests are on highly weathered soils, but our results suggest that these forests may still show considerable variation in their primary sources of essential nutrients. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

Bern, C. R.; Townsend, A. R.; Farmer, G. L.

2005-01-01

9

Digital Soil Mapping at a National Scale: A Knowledge and GIS Based Approach to Improving Parent Material and Property Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fundamental parameters in the soil formation equation is that relating to the parent material from which the soils have been derived. Such in- formation is typically derived from geological surveys and paper maps. However, an increasing propensity to directly produce digital geological maps and associated data bases means that a far greater range of information can be

R. Lawley; B. Smith

10

The chemistry and parent material of urban soils in Bristol (UK): implications for contaminated land assessment.  

PubMed

An earlier survey of topsoil from parks and allotment in the city of Bristol (UK) revealed the presence of relatively high levels of "pseudo-total" Cd, As, Cu, Pb and Zn, with Cd and As exceeding present UK soil guidelines. This follow-up work aimed at (1) estimating geochemical thresholds for these elements based on "near-total" soil, bedrock and sediment heavy metals and (2) determining the genetic relationship between soil and bedrock using rare earth elements (REEs or lanthanides) as tracers. "Near-total" concentration of 34 elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Zn, Y and the rare earth elements Ce, Dy, Er, Eu, Gd, Ho, La, Lu, Nd, Pr, Sm, Tb, Yb) were obtained by ICP-MS and ICP-OES. The results show that the soil composition is largely controlled by the soil parent material, though extreme outliers are indicative of contamination at a few sites of parkland and allotments. Cumulative frequency plots show the presence of different data sets for which separate "background" values should be determined. The REE data provide evidence that weathering of the underlying sandstone was a determinant factor leading to the relatively high heavy metal enrichment found in soil samples and sediments. Reference to UK soil guidelines to decide on possible remediation measures could be very misleading due to the natural high background levels of some elements in the underlying bedrock. Before defining land as "contaminated", a thorough geochemical investigation is required at local scale in order to produce a more realistic and correct environmental assessment. PMID:22740127

Giusti, L

2012-06-28

11

Regional mapping of soil parent material by machine learning based on point data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A machine learning system (MART) has been used to predict soil parent material (SPM) at the regional scale with a 50-m resolution. The use of point-specific soil observations as training data was tested as a replacement for the soil maps introduced in previous studies, with the aim of generating a more even distribution of training data over the study area and reducing information uncertainty. The 27,020-km2 study area (Brittany, northwestern France) contains mainly metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary substrates. However, superficial deposits (aeolian loam, colluvial and alluvial deposits) very often represent the actual SPM and are typically under-represented in existing geological maps. In order to calibrate the predictive model, a total of 4920 point soil descriptions were used as training data along with 17 environmental predictors (terrain attributes derived from a 50-m DEM, as well as emissions of K, Th and U obtained by means of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry, geological variables at the 1:250,000 scale and land use maps obtained by remote sensing). Model predictions were then compared: i) during SPM model creation to point data not used in model calibration (internal validation), ii) to the entire point dataset (point validation), and iii) to existing detailed soil maps (external validation). The internal, point and external validation accuracy rates were 56%, 81% and 54%, respectively. Aeolian loam was one of the three most closely predicted substrates. Poor prediction results were associated with uncommon materials and areas with high geological complexity, i.e. areas where existing maps used for external validation were also imprecise. The resultant predictive map turned out to be more accurate than existing geological maps and moreover indicated surface deposits whose spatial coverage is consistent with actual knowledge of the area. This method proves quite useful in predicting SPM within areas where conventional mapping techniques might be too costly or lengthy or where soil maps are insufficient for use as training data. In addition, this method allows producing repeatable and interpretable results, whose accuracy can be assessed objectively.

Lacoste, Marine; Lemercier, Blandine; Walter, Christian

2011-10-01

12

Comparison of Three Digestion Methods for Total Soil Potassium Estimation in Soils of Papua New Guinea Derived from Varying Parent Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimate of total potassium (K) contents of soils is required to assess the difficultly available fractions of soil potassium. Three digestion procedures were evaluated in terms of recovery of elemental K, precision, and simplicity in combination with analysis of K contents by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) in soils derived from contrasting parent materials. A hydrofluoric acid–perchloric acid

B. K. Rajashekhar Rao; John Bailey; Robin Walter Wingwafi

2011-01-01

13

The importance of parent material information derived from globally available small scale legacy data for soil mapping at medium scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Up to now, harmonized global soil information is solely available from the FAO-Unesco Soil map of the world at 1:5M scale (FAO-Unesco 1974-1981). However, for monitoring global environmental changes and sustainable land resource management, higher resolution soil maps are urgently needed. At the global scale, the soil forming factors climate, soil parent material (SPM) and topography can be considered the most important parameters for spatial prediction of soil associations and their properties. While topographic and climatic information is available at high spatial resolutions, SPM information can only be derived from small-scale geological maps or soil maps. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of commonly available SPM data derived from small scale soil and geological maps for soil mapping at the 1:250k scale. The study was conducted for a test site in Southern Saxony, Germany, 140*85 km wide, representing diverse soil landscapes. Additionally, SPM maps were derived from a reclassification of the geological overview map of Germany at 1:1M scale, and the European Soil database. The proposed SPM classification, developed in the framework of the EU-FP7 eSOTER project, is based on the degree of SPM consolidation, its geochemical character, and the major bedrock types. In addition, SPM-related surface processes are characterized since SPM is defined here as the original lithological material before the onset of weathering and soil formation processes. To assess the potential of SPM data for the spatial delineation of soil associations, random forest-based predictions of soils and its properties were carried out using relief attributes from digital elevation model data. Model runs were performed (i) with and (ii) without spatial information on SPM properties. The outputs were compared with independent soil information of model validation areas. Training and validation point data was selected from a comprehensive dataset representing more than 14.000 samples. The data mainly includes information on soil types and their substrates. For more than 800 sample sites, additional soil data on texture, pH, exchangeable cations, nutrients, and efficient cation exchange capacity are available. Our study demonstrates the extend SPM information derived from legacy data is capable to enhance the spatial prediction of soil associations and their properties as e.g. texture or cation exchange capacity. We conclude discussing potentials and limitations of SPM information derived from small-scale geological and soil maps.

Schuler, U.; Bock, M.; Günther, A.; Willer, J.; Pickert, E.; Asch, K.; Baritz, R.

2012-04-01

14

[Effects of fertilization on microbial biomass C and N in paddy soils derived from different parent materials].  

PubMed

Based on the monitoring of soil fertility, this paper studied the characteristics of microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) in paddy soils derived from different parent materials in Hunan Province. The results showed different fertilization systems had different effects on soil MBC and MBN. After 18 years fertilization, the MBC and MBN in different paddy soils had similar variation trend, with the sequence of paddy soil derived from lake sediment > from river alluvium and quaternary red earth > from limestone > from shale. Soil MBC content ranged from 259.5 to 864.4 mg x kg(-1), while MBN ranged from 8.7 to 70.7 mg x kg(-1). Fertilization could increase soil MBC and MBN markedly. Organic fertilizer was the main element for the promotion of soil MBC and MBN, and combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers could obtain the greatest effect. The increment of soil MBC and MBN after applying inorganic fertilizer and its combination with organic fertilizer was 407.6 and 59.2 mg x kg(-1), in maximum, and the maximum increasing rate was 102.8% and 514.8%, respectively, compared with no fertilization. PMID:17650855

Zhou, Wei-jun; Zeng, Xi-bai; Zhnag, Yang-zhu; Zhou, Qing; Guo, Hai-yan; Yan, Xiong; Chen, Jian-guo

2007-05-01

15

Climate and parent material controls on organic matter storage in surface soils: A three-pool, density-separation approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physically- and biochemically-distinct fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) can be separated by density to yield: (i) low-density plant detritus fraction easily separable from soil minerals (f-LF), (ii) low-density materials strongly associated with minerals (m-LF), and (iii) high-density fraction (HF) rich in microbially-processed organic matter strongly associated with minerals. The factors controlling the pool size and chemistry in these fractions,

Rota Wagai; Lawrence M. Mayer; Kanehiro Kitayama; Heike Knicker

2008-01-01

16

[Vertical distribution patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in Chinese pine forest soils developed from different parent materials in sOngshan Mountain Nature Reserve, Beijing of China].  

PubMed

Taking the soils developed from two kinds of parent materials (granite and limestone) under Pinus tabulaeformis forest at the same altitude in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve of Beijing as test objects, this paper studied the vertical distribution patterns of soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium. The soil developed from granite had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1.61-2. 35 g kg-1, 5. 84-10.74 mg kg- 1, and 39.33-93.66 mg kg-1, while that developed from limestone had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1. 69 -2. 36 g kg-1, 4.45-8.57 mg . kg-1, and 60.66-124.00 mg kg-1, respectively. The total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents in the two soils were the highest in 0-10 cm layer, decreased with increasing depth, and had significant differences between different layers, showing that the soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium had a strong tendency to accumulate in surface layer. Such a tendency was more obvious for the soil developed from limestone. The paired t-test for the two soils indicated that the total nitrogen content in different layers had no significant difference, whereas the available phosphorus content in 0-10 cm layer and the available potassium content in 10-20 cm layer differed significantly. PMID:23898652

Gou, Li-hui; Sun, Zhao-di; Nie, Li-shui; Luo, Pan-pan; Wu, Ji-Gui; Xu, Wu-de

2013-04-01

17

The interaction between parent material, climate and volcanism as the major soil forming factor in the Ecuadorian high Andes region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high Andes region of Ecuador and Colombia (>3500m a.s.l.) is covered by the so-called páramo ecosystem, characterised by a cold climate, a typical grass or small shrub vegetation and volcanic soils. Soil profiles of the paramo in the Austro Ecuatoriano, South Ecuador, were studied in order to reveal genetic relationships with geology, volcanic ash deposits, climate and land use. A gradual diminuation of Andic properties was found, related to the distance of the pedon to the active volcanoes of the Northern Volcanic Zone of the Andes. Pedons in the north of the region, closer to these volcanoes (Sangay, Tungurahua) are classified as non-allophanic Histic Andosols. The influence of the vicinity of the volcanoes leads to a higher oxalate extractable aluminium and iron. The genesis of the Andosols seems to be strongly related to the presence and thickness of volcanic ash depositions. The limit of these depositions is situated south of the city of Cuenca. Pedons further to the south are classified as Histosols. However, they also have clear Andic properties. Several differences in chemical properties between the Western and Eastern cordilleras where found, that are most probable related with a difference in mother material, and maybe also a different climatic regime. Correlation of the chemical properties with land use reveals that no chemical differences can be found that are invoked by occupying natural Andosols for agricultural purposes, within the first five years of cultivation. At last, the conclusions were used to revisit the World Reference Base for Soil Resources in order to sharpen up differenciation between Andosols and Histosols.

Buytaert, W.; Duyck, H.; Dercon, G.; Deckers, J.; Wyseure, G.

2003-04-01

18

The background concentrations of 13 soil trace elements and their relationships to parent materials and vegetation in Xizang (Tibet), China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background concentrations of 13 soil trace elements, copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), cobalt (Co), vanadium (V), manganese (Mn), and fluorine (F), from approximately 205 pedons in Tibet, China are reported here for the first time. The 13 trace element concentrations follow an approximately log–normal distribution. While

Xiaoping P Zhang; Wei Deng; Xueming M Yang

2002-01-01

19

Focus on Parents: The Parenting Materials Information Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To bridge the gap between producers of parenting materials and potential users, the National Institute of Education funded the Southwest Educational Laboratory to design, develop, and research the effectiveness of a model Parenting Materials Information Center. During the last 2 years this model has been developed to include more than 1400…

Espinoza, Renato

20

An initial study to assess the use of geological parent materials to predict the Se concentration in overlying soils and in five staple foodstuffs produced on them in Scotland.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that dietary-intakes of the essential element selenium have fallen in Scotland in recent years, due to changing sources of bread-making wheat. The Scottish environment is thought to be Se-poor due to the geology and climate. This initial study assessed whether geological parent-materials could be used to predict relatively high and low soil-Se areas in Scotland and whether differences in soil-Se were reflected in foodstuff-Se produced on them. Samples (n=8 per farm) of wheat, calabrese (broccoli), potato, beef-steak, milk, cattle pasture (grass) and soil were collected from pairs of farms (one in each high/low predicted Se area (PSA)). Potatoes and soils were collected from a further 34 farms in high/low PSAs to assess a greater geographical zone. Total soil-Se ranged from 0.115 to 0.877mgkg(-1) but most samples (90%) could be classed as Se-deficient (<0.6mgkg(-1)), irrespective of PSA. Total soil-Se was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the high than in the low PSAs as expected; however, the difference between the two was small (mean 0.48 and 0.37mgkg(-1), respectively). Water-soluble soil-Se (6.69 to 26.78?gkg(-1)) concentrations were not significantly different between the two PSAs (p=0.71). Soil loss-on-ignition (indicating organic matter content) correlated significantly with total and water-soluble soil-Se (p<0.001) and exerted a greater control than parent-material on soil-Se. Significant differences between the PSAs for beef-Se (p<0.001), wheat-Se (p<0.001), calabrese-Se (p<0.01) and beef-farm grass-Se (p<0.05) indicated partial success of the parent-material soil-Se prediction. However, only wheat-Se (p<0.001) and potato-Se (p<0.001) correlated significantly with total soil-Se. The results suggest that soil-Se concentrations in the main agricultural areas of Scotland are generally low. Given the low Se concentrations also reported in the food commodities; further investigations may be warranted to fully characterise the Se-status of Scottish produce and dietary-Se intakes in Scotland. PMID:20813394

Fordyce, F M; Brereton, N; Hughes, J; Luo, W; Lewis, J

2010-09-01

21

National-scale estimation of potentially harmful element ambient background concentrations in topsoil using parent material classified soil:stream–sediment relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory authorities require estimates of ambient background concentrations (ABCs) of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in topsoil; such data are currently not available in many countries. High resolution soil geochemical data exist for only part of England and Wales, whilst stream sediment data cover the entire landscape. A novel methodology is presented for estimating soil equivalent ABCs for PHEs from high-resolution

J. D. Appleton; B. G. Rawlins; I. Thornton

2008-01-01

22

Spatial distribution of metals in soils in Baltimore, Maryland: Role of native parent material, proximity to major roads, housing age and screening guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the spatial distribution of heavy metal above-background (anthropic) contents of Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn in Baltimore City surface soils and related these levels to potential contaminating sources. Composite soil samples (0–10cm depth) were digested using a nitric and hydrochloric extraction technique. Slightly more than 10% of plots exceeded United States

I. D. Yesilonis; R. V. Pouyat; N. K. Neerchal

2008-01-01

23

DETERMINATION OF EFFECTIVE POROSITY OF SOIL MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of a compacted soil liner is partly a function of the porosity, where the transport of materials through the liner occurs via the pore space. The project studies the pore spaces of compacted soil materials to estimate the effective porosity, which is the portion o...

24

Infrared optical properties of Mars soil analog materials: Palagonites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The globally distributed bright soils on Mars represent products of chemical alteration of primary igneous materials. As such, understanding the chemistry and mineralogy of these soils provides clues about the nature of the parent materials and the type, duration, and extent of the chemical weathering environments on Mars. Such clues are key in developing an understanding of the interior and surficial processes that have operated throughout Mars' history to yield the surface as it is currently observed. The generally homogeneous nature of these soils is illustrated by a variety of observational data. These data include (1) direct determination of elemental abundances by the X-ray fluorescence instruments on both Viking Landers, (2) Earth-based telescopic observations, and (3) space-based observations. Based on their spectral properties in the visible and near-infrared, terrestrial palagonitic soils have been suggested as analogs for the bright regions on Mars. Palagonites represent the weathering products of basaltic glass and as such are composed of a variety of minerals/materials. In order to gain an understanding regarding the chemical, mineralogical, and spectral properties of a broad suite of palagonites, several samples were collected from the eastern and central regions of the island of Hawaii.

Roush, Ted L.

1993-09-01

25

Children's Health Status: Examining the Associations among Income Poverty, Material Hardship, and Parental Factors  

PubMed Central

Background We examined a model of multiple mediating pathways of income poverty, material hardship, parenting factors, and child health status to understand how material hardship and parental factors mediate the effects of poverty on child health. We hypothesized that: (a) poverty will be directly associated with material hardship, parental depression, and health status, and indirectly with parenting behaviors through its effects on parental depression and material hardship; (b) material hardship will be associated with parental depression, parenting behaviors, and health status; and (c) parental depression will be correlated with parenting behaviors, and that both parental depression and parenting behaviors will predict child health. Methods and Results We used data from the 2002 National Survey of American Families for a sample of 9,645 6-to-11 year-olds to examine a 4-step structural equation model. The baseline model included covariates and income poverty. In the hardship model, food insufficiency and medical need were added to the baseline model. The parental model included parental depression and parenting behavior and baseline model. In the full model, all the constructs were included. First, income poverty had a direct effect on health status, and an indirect effect through its association with material hardship, parental depressive affect, and parenting behaviors. Medical need and food insufficiency had negative effects on child health, and indirect effects on health through their association with parental depression and parenting behaviors. Finally, parental depression and parenting behaviors were associated with child health, and part of the effect of parental depression on health was explained by its association with parenting behaviors. Conclusions Poverty has an independent effect on health, however, its effects are partially explained by material hardship, parental depression and parental behaviors. To improve children's health would require a multi-pronged approach involving income transfers, health insurance coverage, food and nutrition assistance, and parenting interventions.

Ashiabi, Godwin S.; O'Neal, Keri K.

2007-01-01

26

Microscale investigation into the geochemistry of arsenic, selenium, and iron in soil developed in pyritic shale materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we report on the distribution and mineralogy of micron-sized mineral aggregates formed in the top horizon of an acid sulfate soil. The distribution and oxidation state of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) were also determined. The soil used in this study was formed from pyritic shale parent materials on the east side of the California Coast Range.

Daniel Strawn; Harvey Doner; Mavrik Zavarin; Scott McHugo

2002-01-01

27

Response of plant species to coal-mine soil materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-year experiment was conducted on the Black Mesa Coal Mine near Kayenta, Arizona to investigate the growth and establishment of seven plant species in unmined soil (undisturbed soil) and coal-mine soil (spoils). Natural rainfall (20 cm\\/yr) and natural rainfull plus sprinkler irrigation (50 cm\\/yr) were the irrigation treatments applied to each soil material.

A. D. Day; T. C. Tucker; J. L. Thamest

1983-01-01

28

Effect of Bituminous materials on soil aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil physical degradation is a progressive problem in most semiarid Mediterranean soils. The use of organic amendments is one of the most widely used remedial practices. Asphaltic emulsions are used to take advantage of their binding properties and hydrophobic nature. Two soils, similar with regard to their degree of physical degradation, were studied. Soil F was considered as a standard

A. Fortún; R. Tomás; C. Fortún

1996-01-01

29

SOIL AMENDMENT WITH ORGANIC MATERIALS FOR IMPROVED SOIL QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmentally sound and productive crop and soil management practices are essential to promote elevated soil organic matter, use crop rotation and reduced tillage, and reduce pesticide inputs. Surveys have verified the relationship between on-farm practices that promoted soil organic matter accumu...

30

Interactions and Survival of Enteric Viruses in Soil Materials  

PubMed Central

There were marked differences in the abilities of eight different soil materials to remove and retain viruses from settled sewage, but for each soil material the behavior of two different viruses, poliovirus type 1 and reovirus type 3, was often similar. Virus adsorption to soil materials was rapid, the majority occurring within 15 min. Clayey materials efficiently adsorbed both viruses from wastewater over a range of pH and total dissolved solids levels. Sands and organic soil materials were comparatively poor adsorbents, but in some cases their ability to adsorb viruses increased at low pH and with the addition of total dissolved solids or divalent cations. Viruses in suspensions of soil material in settled sewage survived for considerable time periods, despite microbial activity. In some cases virus survival was prolonged in suspensions of soil materials compared to soil-free controls. Although sandy and organic soil materials were poor virus adsorbents when suspended in wastewater, they gave ?95% virus removal from intermittently applied wastewater as unsaturated, 10-cm-deep columns. However, considerable quantities of the retained viruses were washed from the columns by simulated rainfall. Under the same conditions, clayey soil material removed ?99.9995% of the viruses from applied wastewater, and none were washed from the columns by simulated rainfall.

Sobsey, Mark D.; Dean, Cheryl H.; Knuckles, Maurice E.; Wagner, Ray A.

1980-01-01

31

Soil Quality: Science and Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

parent materials, topographies, and biota, all acting over geologic time (Jenny, 1941). Inherent differences are The term soil quality (SQ) encompasses both a soil's productive well reflected by the soil series description of the U.S.

Michelle M. Wander; Gerald L. Walter; Todd M. Nissen; German A. Bollero; Susan S. Andrews; Deborah A. Cavanaugh-Grant

32

Bibliotherapy for Children With Anxiety Disorders Using Written Materials for Parents: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current trial examined the value of modifying empirically validated treatment for childhood anxiety for application via written materials for parents of anxious children. Two hundred sixty-seven clinically anxious children ages 6–12 years and their parents were randomly allocated to standard group treatment, waitlist, or a bibliotherapy version of treatment for childhood anxiety. In general, parent bibliotherapy demonstrated benefit for

Ronald M. Rapee; Maree J. Abbott; Heidi J. Lyneham

2006-01-01

33

Decomposition of 13C-labelled standard plant material in a latitudinal transect of European coniferous forests: Differential impact of climate on the decomposition of soil organic matter compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

13C labelled plant material was incubated in situ over 2 to 3 years in 8 conifer forest soils located on acid and limestone parent material along a north-south climatic transect from boreal to dry Mediterranean regions in western Europe. The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the effects of climate and the soil environment on decomposition and soil organic

Marie-Madeleine Coûteaux; Pierre Bottner; Jonathan M. Anderson; Björn Berg; Thomas Bolger; Pere Casals; Joan Romanyà; Jean M. Thiéry; V. Ramon Vallejo

2001-01-01

34

Lithological factors affecting magnetic susceptibility of subtropical soils, Zhejiang Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic susceptibility (?) was measured on subtropical soils formed on a range of parent materials in Zhejiang Province, China, to demonstrate the influence of parent material lithologies on the amount and vertical distribution of ? in the soils. We found that the ? values of soils vary by up to two orders of magnitude with their parent material lithologies. Soils

Lu Shenggao

2000-01-01

35

Fly-Ash-Stabilized Gypsiferous Soil as an Embankment Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highway expansion project was proposed at the boundary of Texas and New Mexico State, where gypsum deposits are overlaid\\u000a almost the entire construction area. In order to use the local gypsiferous soil as a suitable embankment material, soil stabilization\\u000a using fly ash as an admixture was proposed. Even though the application of fly ash as a soil stabilizer started

Jie Zhang; Ruben Solis

36

Hygrothermal Simulations of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties  

SciTech Connect

Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. The computational approach for heat transfer via the ground is well defined (EN-ISO-13370:, 2007) together with simplified methods (Staszczuk, Radon, & Holm). Though the soil moisture transfer is generally ignored, it is proven not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, & Hens, 2004). Even though reliable material properties of soils are required to perform realistic hygrothermal calculations of soils coupled to buildings, such material properties have not been well defined in hygrothermal calculations tools. Typical building constructions which are greatly influenced by soils are basements, crawl spaces and slab on grade and reliable hygrothermal performance of such construction are highly requested; as it is ranked within the top 10 Building America Enclosure Research Ideas according to Enclosures STC - Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting, February 29, 2012 Austin, TX. There exists an extensive amount of measurements on soil properties in Soil Science though this information must be gathered as well as adapted to be applicable in Building Science and for hygrothermal simulation purposes. Soil properties are important when analyzing and designing both new building constructions and retrofitting measures, where the outer boundary of the buildings enclosure consists of soil materials. Concerning basement energy retrofits, interior solutions of improving the energy demand has to cooperate with the existing soil properties and must therefore be designed thereafter. In concerns of exterior retrofits, the soil material can be replaced, if needed, with a more suitable filling material, though this approach applies only for basement walls. The soil material beneath the basement floor can naturally not be replaced hence the soil properties of this part of the buildings enclosure still must be taken into consideration. This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from soil science. The obtained information must be applicable for Building Science related tasks and validated in hygrothermal calculation tools hence the second part of this study will focus on validation of the implemented soil properties. Basic changes in the software code may be requested as well. Different basement constructions will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI, from which simulations will be compared with existing or on-going measurements. The final outcome of the study is to enable an evaluation of several soil types in several climate zones combined with a number of basement assemblies. The study will define which type of soil together with a certain building construction which is considered most and least reliable in concerns of energy consumption and moisture safety. Further, what influences different soils will have on the total energy loss via the ground and if the performance of a different soils can be measured by a comparison of soil properties solely.

Pallin, Simon B [ORNL; Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL

2013-01-01

37

Bibliotherapy for Children with Anxiety Disorders Using Written Materials for Parents: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current trial examined the value of modifying empirically validated treatment for childhood anxiety for application via written materials for parents of anxious children. Two hundred sixty-seven clinically anxious children ages 6-12 years and their parents were randomly allocated to standard group treatment, wait list, or a bibliotherapy…

Rapee, Ronald M.; Abbott, Maree J.; Lyneham, Heidi J.

2006-01-01

38

Bibliotherapy for Children with Anxiety Disorders Using Written Materials for Parents: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current trial examined the value of modifying empirically validated treatment for childhood anxiety for application via written materials for parents of anxious children. Two hundred sixty-seven clinically anxious children ages 6-12 years and their parents were randomly allocated to standard group treatment, wait list, or a bibliotherapy…

Rapee, Ronald M.; Abbott, Maree J.; Lyneham, Heidi J.

2006-01-01

39

Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The newsletter of the California Association for the Gifted includes the following brief articles on parenting: "Your Challenge, Their Lives" (Barry Ziff); "Courage to Be Who I Am, Unafraid" (Elizabeth Meckstroth); "Attribution: A Key to Encouraging More Responsible Behavior in the Gifted" (Saundra Sparling); "A Parent's Perspective" (Carolyn…

Ziff, Barry, Ed.; Hostettler, Karen, Ed.

1989-01-01

40

Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

1986-01-01

41

Hygrothermal Simulation of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties  

SciTech Connect

The hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well defined (EN ISO 13370:2007, 2007), and simplified methods have been developed (Staszczuk, Radon, and Holm 2010). However, these approaches generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, and Hens 2004). This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from Soil Science. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in Building Science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools. Future parts of this study will focus on the validation aspect of the soil properties to be implemented. Basic changes in the software code may be requested at this time. Different types of basement construction will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI. Simulations from WUFI will be compared with existing or ongoing measurements. The intentions of the first part of this study have been fulfilled. The soil properties of interest in Building Science have been defined for 12 different soil textures. These properties will serve as input parameters when performing hygrothermal calculations of building constructions coupled to soil materials. The reliability of the soil parameters will be further evaluated with measurements in Part 2.

Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

2012-10-01

42

The influence of carbonates in parent rocks on the biological properties of mountain soils of the Northwest Caucasus region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biological activity of different subtypes of soddy-calcareous soils (rendzinas) of the Northwest Caucasus region was studied. In the Novorossiisk-Abrau-Dyurso region (dry subtropics), typical soddy-calcareous soils with the high content of carbonates predominate; in the more humid conditions of the Lagonaki Plateau (Republic of Adygeya), leached soddy-calcareous soils carbonate-free down to the parent rock are spread. The number of microarthropods, the populations of fungi and bacteria, and the enzyme activity (catalase, dehydrogenase, and invertase) testify that the biological activity of these soils significantly differs. In the typical soddy-calcareous soils of the dry subtropics, the content of carbonates does not affect the characteristics mentioned; in the more humid conditions of the West Caucasus region, the presence of carbonates in the parent rocks intensifies the biological activity of the soddy-calcareous soils.

Kazeev, K. Sh.; Kutrovskii, M. A.; Dadenko, E. V.; Vezdeneeva, L. S.; Kolesnikov, S. I.; Val'kov, V. F.

2012-03-01

43

Bottom-up effects of geologic parent material through ecological interaction webs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Community ecologists study the interactions between species to understand what controls the distribution and abundance of different populations. Communities are thus portrayed as "interaction webs", in which different species exert reciprocal pressures on each other. In the case of one population being a resource for which another population is the consumer (i.e. food-web), reciprocal pressures are commonly referred to as "bottom-up" vs. "top-down" effects. The starting point for studying bottom-up effects is usually the vegetation (primary producers), and its end-point the decomposer community responsible for breaking down detrital matter from each trophic level. In my presentation, I will present results from three former graduate students, to argue that the starting point for studying bottom-up effects should be the geologic parent material (GPM), whose importance has often been overlooked by community ecologists. For example, our data show that GPM had a stronger effect on forest floor nutrient budgets than the identity or successional stage of the vegetation. Likewise, GPM had a strong effect on the structure of forest floor microbial communities, as well as their resistance to, and resilience from, disturbance. GPM also had a significant effect on the richness and diversity of understory plant communities from similar forest stands. Finally, we present evidence that soil fertility controls the resistance and tolerance of certain plant species to selective browsing, thereby affecting the composition of the dominant plant cover and the feeding patterns of large herbivores.

Bradley, R.

2012-04-01

44

Multi-Media Instructional Materials for Child Development/Parent Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multi-media materials were used in a federally funded project, Facilitative Environment Encouraging Development (FEED), to teach child development and parenting skills to junior high students. Six criteria were used in material selection: (1) Content reflects a developmental approach; (2) Learning is characterized by an active, doing approach; (3)…

Bjorklund, Gail; Briggs, Anne

45

Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various aspects of child-rearing are covered in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Authors of current popular books on parenting are interviewed. Benjamin Spock discusses changes (including sex role revisions) in his "Baby and Child Care" since the 1946 first edition. Eda…

Spock, Benjamin; And Others

46

Method for simultaneous measurement of total and radioactive carbon in soils, soil extracts and plant materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid procedure is proposed for simultaneous measurement of total and radioactive carbon in soils, soil extracts and plant materials. The procedure involves dry or wet combustion of the sample, total carbon determination with an automatic analyser and C14O2 absorbtion in a liquid for scintillation measurement. The use of methyl-cellosolve plus mono-ethanolamine as a CO2 absorber allows measurements of weakly

P. Bottner; F. R. Warembourg

1976-01-01

47

Development of Soil-Based Controlled Low-Strength Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study reports research on the use of soil-based controlled low-strength material (CLSM) as an economical approach to conventional backfilling at new navigation lock chambers and other large construction activities. The case study was a proposed lock ...

B. H. Green

1999-01-01

48

EFFECTS OF DRYING TREATMENTS ON POROSITY OF SOIL MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of three drying techniques on total porosity and pore size distribution of three soil materials were studied by Hg intrusion porosimetry. Some samples were dried in an oven at 40 C for 7 d; some samples were quick frozen in liquid N and lyophilized; some samples were ...

49

Evaluation of soils for use as liner materials: a soil chemistry approach.  

PubMed

Movement of NH(4)(+) below animal waste lagoons is generally a function of the whole-lagoon seepage rate, soil mineralogy, cations in the lagoon liquor, and selectivity for NH(4)(+) on the soil-exchange sites. Binary exchange reactions (Ca(2+)-K(+), Ca(2+)-NH(4)(+), and K(+)-NH(4)(+)) were conducted on two soils from the Great Plains and with combinations of these soils with bentonite or zeolite added. Binary exchanges were used to predict ternary exchanges Ca(2+)-K(+)-NH(4)(+) following the Rothmund-Kornfeld approach and Gaines-Thomas convention. Potassium and NH(4)(+) were preferred over Ca(2+), and K(+) was preferred over NH(4)(+) in all soils and soils with amendments. Generally, the addition of bentonite did not change cation selectivity over the native soils, whereas the addition of zeolite did. The Rothmund-Kornfeld approach worked well for predicting equivalent fractions of cations on the exchanger phase when only ternary-solution phase compositions were known. Actual swine- and cattle-lagoon solution compositions and the Rothmund-Kornfeld approach were used to project that native soils are predicted to retain 53 and 23%, respectively, of the downward-moving NH(4)(+) on their exchange sites. Additions of bentonite or zeolite to soils under swine lagoons may only slightly improve the equivalent fraction of NH(4)(+) on the exchange sites. Although additions of bentonite or zeolite may not help increase the NH(4)(+) selectivity of a liner material, increases in the overall cation exchange capacity (CEC) of a soil will ultimately decrease the amount of soil needed to adsorb downward-moving NH(4)(+). PMID:15843659

DeSutter, Tom M; Pierzynski, Gary M

2005-04-20

50

Evaluation of coal combustion byproducts as soil liming materials: their influence on soil pH and enzyme activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable interest in the use of coal combustion byproducts as soil liming materials in agricultural production, but there is concern that such use may be detrimental to the quality of agricultural soils. To evaluate these byproducts as liming materials and address issues related to soil quality, we compared the influence of different amounts of four combustion byproducts [fly

R. Siddaramappa; R. J. Wright; E. E. Codling; G. Gao; Gregory W. McCarty

1994-01-01

51

Estimation of Relative Bioavailability of Lead in Soil and Soil-Like Materials Using Young Swine  

PubMed Central

In this article we summarize the results of a series of studies that measured the relative bioavailability (RBA) of lead in a variety of soil and soil-like test materials. Reference material (Pb acetate) or Pb-contaminated soils were administered orally to juvenile swine twice a day for 15 days. Blood samples were collected from each animal at multiple times during the course of the study, and samples of liver, kidney, and bone were collected at sacrifice. All samples were analyzed for Pb. We estimated the RBA of a test material by fitting mathematical models to the dose–response curves for each measurement end point and finding the ratio of doses that gave equal responses. The final RBA for a test material is the simple average of the four end point–specific RBA values. Results from 19 different test materials reveal a wide range of RBA values across different exposure materials, ranging from 6 to 105%. This variability in RBA between different samples highlights the importance of reliable RBA data to help improve risk assessments for Pb in soil. Although the RBA value for a sample depends on the relative amounts of the different chemical and physical forms of Pb present, data are not yet adequate to allow reliable quantitative predictions of RBA from chemical speciation data alone.

Casteel, Stan W.; Weis, Christopher P.; Henningsen, Gerry M.; Brattin, William J.

2006-01-01

52

EPR-based material modelling of soils considering volume changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper an approach is presented for developing material models for soils based on evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR), taking into account its volumetric behaviour. EPR is a recently developed hybrid data mining technique that searches for structured mathematical equations (representing the behaviour of a system) using genetic algorithm and the least squares method. Stress-strain data from triaxial test are used to train and develop EPR-based material models for soil. The developed models are compared with some of the well known conventional material models. In particular, the capability of the developed EPR models in predicting volume change behaviour of soils is illustrated. It is also shown that the developed EPR-based material models can be incorporated in finite element (FE) analysis. Two geotechnical examples are presented to verify the developed EPR-based FE model (EPR-FEM). The results of the EPR-FEM are compared with those of a standard FEM where conventional constitutive models are used to describe the material behaviour. The results show that EPR-FEM can be successfully employed to analyse geotechnical engineering problems. The advantages of the proposed EPR models are highlighted.

Faramarzi, Asaad; Javadi, Akbar A.; Alani, Amir M.

2012-11-01

53

Determination of the Coefficient of Friction of Materials during Contact with Soil (Opredelenie Koeffitsenta Treniya Materialov pri Kontakte s Pochvoi).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The coefficient of soil-metal, soil-soil, and soil-material friction was determined with a specially designed apparatus. Increases in absolute soil moisture, normal pressure and sliding speed influenced the coefficients. (Author)

P. N. Burchenko P. T. Khumarov B. A. Kashaev

1972-01-01

54

Effect of substrate concentration, soil moisture, and organic materials on urease activity of soil contaminated with lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of substrate concentration, soil moisture, and type of organic materials on urease activity of soils containing variable lead (Pb) contents. Various Pb levels ranging from 52.1 – 589.9 mg kg were created by mixing uncontaminated (containing 52.1 mg Pb kg soil) and contaminated (containing 589.9 mg Pb kg soil) soils in different proportions.

R. S. Antil; M. K. Mahata; R. P. Narwal

2006-01-01

55

Differentiating pedogenesis from diagenesis in early terrestrial paleoweathering surfaces formed on granitic composition parent materials  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unconformable surfaces separating Precambrian crystalline basement and overlying Proterozoic to Cambrian sedimentary rocks provide an exceptional opportunity to examine the role of primitive soil ecosystems in weathering and resultant formation of saprolite (weathered rock retaining rock structure) and regolith (weathered rock without rock structure), but many appear to have been affected by burial diagenesis and hydrothermal fluid flow, leading some researchers to discount their suitability for such studies. We examine one modern weathering profile (Cecil series), four Cambrian paleoweathering profiles from the North American craton (Squaw Creek, Franklin Mountains, Core SQ-8, and Core 4), one Neoproterozoic profile (Sheigra), and one late Paleoproterozoic profile (Baraboo), to test the hypothesis that these paleoweathering profiles do provide evidence of primitive terrestrial weathering despite their diagenetic and hydrothermal overprinting, especially additions of potassium. We employ an integrated approach using (1) detailed thin-section investigations to identify characteristic pedogenic features associated with saprolitization and formation of well-drained regoliths, (2) electron microprobe analysis to identify specific weathered and new mineral phases, and (3) geochemical mass balance techniques to characterize volume changes during weathering and elemental gains and losses of major and minor elements relative to the inferred parent materials. There is strong pedogenic evidence of paleoweathering, such as clay illuviation, sepic-plasmic fabrics, redoximorphic features, and dissolution and alteration of feldspars and mafic minerals to kaolinite, gibbsite, and Fe oxides, as well as geochemical evidence, such as whole-rock losses of Na, Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, Fe, and Mn greater than in modern profiles. Evidence of diagenesis includes net additions of K, Ba, and Rb determined through geochemical mass balance, K-feldspar overgrowths in overlying sandstone sections, and K-feldspars with reaction rims in weathered basement. The sub-Cambrian paleoweathering profiles formed on granite are remarkably similar to modern weathering profiles formed on granite, in spite of overprinting by potassium diagenesis. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

Driese, S. G.; Medaris, Jr. , L. G.; Ren, M.; Runkel, A. C.; Langford, R. P.

2007-01-01

56

Synergetic toxic effect of an explosive material mixture in soil.  

PubMed

Explosives materials are stable in soil and recalcitrant to biodegradation. Different authors report that TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) and HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) are toxic, but most investigations have been performed in artificial soil with individual substances. The aim of the presented research was to assess the toxicity of forest soil contaminated with these substances both individually as well in combinations of these substances. TNT was the most toxic substance. Although RDX and HMX did not have adverse effects on plants, these compounds did cause earthworm mortality, which has not been reported in earlier research. Synergistic effects of explosives mixture were observed. PMID:24005241

Panz, Katarzyna; Miksch, Korneliusz; Sójka, Tadeusz

2013-09-05

57

Gender and Material Transfers between Older Parents and Children in Ismailia, Egypt.  

PubMed

In Egypt, kin relations have been governed by a patriarchal contract, which defines expectations for intergenerational support along gendered lines. Social changes may be disrupting these customs and bringing attention to the ways gender may influence intergenerational support in rapidly changing contexts. Using data from 4,465 parent-child dyads in Ismailia, Egypt, we examined whether intergenerational material transfers favored women over men and whether gaps in needs and endowments accounted for gender differences in transfers. Fathers gave children money and goods more often than did mothers; mothers received material transfers from children more often than did fathers. Compared to sons, daughters made transfers to parents less often and received transfers from parents more often. We found residual advantages to mothers and daughters, even adjusting for differential needs and endowments. Findings corroborate persistent norms of gender complementarity, patrilocal endogamy, and reciprocation for women's caregiving, despite changes that have threatened patriarchal rules of exchange. PMID:22448075

Yount, Kathryn M; Cunningham, Solveig A; Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily M

2012-02-01

58

Soil solarization with biodegradable materials and its impact on soil microbial communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of soil solarization (SS), one of the most promising techniques for the control of soilborne pathogens, is seriously limited by the drawback regarding the disposal of the used plastic materials. A possible solution to this problem is the use of biodegradable plastics. The aim of this study was to make comparisons between the impact of SS performed with

Giuliano Bonanomi; Mario Chiurazzi; Silvia Caporaso; Giovanni Del Sorbo; Giancarlo Moschetti; Scala Felice

2008-01-01

59

Challenging Ideological Exclusion of Curriculum Material: Rights of Students and Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that, as a matter of constitutional law, public school boards of education do not possess unrestricted authority to exclude material from the curriculum on the basis of ideological content, and explores the rights of students and parents to challenge such exclusions. Available from Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, Harvard…

Stern, Nat

1979-01-01

60

Materials for Sex Equality Education for Use by Teachers, Parents, and Young People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These materials were compiled to help provide a better education for all children by increasing parents' and teachers' awareness of sexism and by providing new ideas and programs for helping people to overcome sex-role stereotyping in the schools. Included in the packet are: (1) a questionnaire designed to provoke thought before the beginning of…

National Organization for Women, Champaign, IL. Greater Champaign Area Chapter.

61

Determination of chemical warfare agents in soil and material samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas Chromatographic method for the determination of phenylarsenic compounds (sternutators) and their metabolites in soil\\u000a and material samples is described. The chemical warfare agents (CWA), but not their hydrolysis and oxidation products, can\\u000a be detected with GC\\/ECD. After derivatization with thiols or dithiols, the sum of diphenylarsenic and phenylarsenic compounds\\u000a can be determined with GC\\/ECD.\\u000a \\u000a The comparison of the

Rainer Haas; Alfred Krippendorf

1997-01-01

62

Effects of Soil Reinforcing Materials on the Surface Hardness, Soil Bulk Density, and Water Content of a Sand Root Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

increased surface hardness on two of the 11 rating dates. When the rate was increased to 7.5 g kg 1 , significant This study was conducted to determine the effect of various types increases in surface hardness were reported on eight of and rates of soil reinforcing materials on soil bulk density, soil water the 11 rating dates. During dry

A. S. McNitt; P. J. Landschoot

2003-01-01

63

Fluorine in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorine content of 30 profiles, 137 samples in all, of representative soils of varied texture, parent material, and geographic distribution are given. This fluorine content varies from a trace to 7,070 ppm in an unusual Tennessee soil containing phosphate rock. The average for surface soils is 292 ppm. In general, the fluorine content increases with the depth of the

W. O. Robinson; GLEN EDGINGTON

1946-01-01

64

Soil organic phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction and resin fractionation procedures for determination of amounts and kinds of soil organic phosphorus (Pt IV of this series) were applied to a sequence of four soils having common parent material and vegetation but varying in altitude, rainfall, and temperature. Three different zonal soil groups were represented in the sequence: the brown-grey earths, yellow-grey earths, and high country

J. K. Martin

1970-01-01

65

Soil solid materials affect the kinetics of extracellular enzymatic reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTRODUCTION Soil solid materials affect the degradation processes of many organic compounds by decreasing the bioavailability of substrates and by interacting with degraders. The magnitude of this effect in the environment is shown by the fact that xenobiotics which are readily metabolized in aquatic environments can have long residence times in soil. Extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of cellobiose (enzyme: beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger) was chosen as model degradation process since it is easier to control and more reproducible than a whole cell processes. Furthermore extracellular enzymes play an important role in the environment since they are responsible for the first steps in the degradation of organic macromolecules; beta-glucosidase is key enzyme in the degradation of cellulose and therefore it is fundamental in the carbon cycle and for soil in general. The aims of the project are: 1) quantification of solid material effect on degradation, 2) separation of the effects of minerals on enzyme (adsorption ?change in activity) and substrate (adsorption ?change in bioavailability). Our hypothesis is that a rate reduction in the enzymatic reaction in the presence of a solid phase results from the sum of decreased bioavailability of the substrate and decreased activity of enzyme molecules. The relative contribution of the two terms to the overall effect can vary widely depending on the chemical nature of the substrate, the properties of the enzyme and on the surface properties of the solid materials. Furthermore we hypothesize that by immobilizing the enzyme in an appropriate carrier the adsorption of enzymes to soil materials can be eliminated and that therefore immobilization can increase the overall reaction rate (activity loss caused by immobilization < activity loss caused by adsorption to soil minerals). MATERIALS AND METHODS Enzymatic kinetic experiments are carried out in homogeneous liquid systems and in heterogeneous systems where solid materials (bentonite, kaolinite, goethite, activated charcoal) are suspended in a mixed liquid (standard experimental conditions: 66 mM phosphate buffer, pH 5, 25°C, 20 mg solid/ml buffer). The enzyme in an immobilized form (covalent bonding to oxirane groups on the surfaces of macroporous Eupergit® C particles) is used to exclude a direct effect of soil solid materials on the enzyme without excluding their effect on the availability of the substrate.The progress of the reactions is determined by measuring the accumulation of the product (i.e. glucose) in the systems at different times (after destroying enzymatic activity by boiling the samples) with a coupled enzymatic assay and an automatic microplate spectrophotometer. A regression analysis on the data points is performed to calculate the initial reaction rates, which is the parameter that allows to compare the different systems. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results show that, under the standard experimental conditions, cellobiose is not adsorbed by the clay minerals bentonite and kaolinite and by the iron oxyhydroxide goethite. In the case of activated charcoal a rapid adsorption phase in the first 20' is followed by a much slower process; after 4h 30' approximately 98% of cellobiose was adsorbed. The results from the adsorption experiments of beta-glucosidase to bentonite, kaolinite, goethite and activated charcoal show that, under the standard experimental conditions, the adsorption process is rapid in all cases (more than 80% of the adsorption takes place in the first 20 minutes). After 1h 20min the following fractions of enzyme were adsorbed: 30 % to bentonite, 60% to kaolinite, 67% to goethite, 100% to activated charcoal. The effect of kaolinite on the reaction rate was quantified: under the standard experimental conditions the initial reaction rate in presence of the mineral was 22% less then in the control. The fraction of enzyme molecules which are adsorbed to kaolinite (60%) loses 37% of its activity. CONCLUSIONS The results from the adsorption experiments lead to the conclusion that, among the sol

Lammirato, C.; Miltner, A.; Kästner, M.

2009-04-01

66

QUANTITATIVE MAPPING OF SOIL ORGANIC MATERIAL USING FIELD SPECTROMETER AND HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mapping and dating soil organic material is of great importance in soil use and evaluation. Yet the most common mapping method of these features is based on visual, qualitative interpretation of air-photos. In this study we examine the feasibility of mapping soil organic material content by using airborne hyperspectral reflective remote sensing methodology. This technique was tested in Henshan County

Zhuo Luo; Liu Yaolin; Wu Jian; Wang Jing

67

A simple technique for determining mineralization of carbon during incubation of soils treated with organic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A simple technique is described for determining the rate of mineralization of carbon (carbon dioxide release) during incubation of soils treated with organic materials. The moistened mixture of soil and organic material is contained in a closed test tube and a small vial containing barium peroxide and water rests on the soil. This mixture absorbs carbon dioxide and releases

A. H. Cornfield

1961-01-01

68

Measurement and modeling of energetic material mass transfer to soil pore water : Project CP-1227 : FY04 annual technical report.  

SciTech Connect

Military test and training ranges operate with live fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low order detonations also disperse solid phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution impacts. This report documents interim results of a mass transfer model evaluating mass transfer processes from solid phase energetics to soil pore water based on experimental work obtained earlier in this project. This mass transfer numerical model has been incorporated into the porous media simulation code T2TNT. Next year, the energetic material mass transfer model will be developed further using additional experimental data.

Stein, Joshua S.; Webb, Stephen Walter

2005-01-01

69

Fate of anilide and aniline herbicides in plant-materials-amended soils.  

PubMed

The fate of herbicides trifluralin, pendimethalin, alachlor and metolachlor in paddy field soils amended with plant materials was investigated. The plant materials were purple sesbania, vegetable soybean and rice straw. The investigation was performed at two temperatures (25 and 40 degrees C) and two soil water moistures (60 and 90% water-holding capacity). The results showed linear and Freudlich equations described the adsorption of amide compound to soil. Adsorption coefficient (K(d)) fit to linear equation were in general greater in plant material-amended soils than in non-amended soil, especially in soil amending with rice straw. Increasing temperature and soil water moisture content shortened the half-lives of compounds in various treated soils. The movement of compounds in the soil columns showed the maximum distribution of aniline type compound, trifluralin and pendimethalin, appeared at the upper top of 0 to 5 and 0 to 10 cm of soil column, respectively, and of anilide type, alachlor and metolachlor, were distributed at 0 to 25 cm of the soil column. The mobility of chemicals in the different treated soils was simulated by the behavior assessment model (BAM). There was no significant difference among different plant material incubated soils on dissipation and mobility of compounds in soils. PMID:18576218

Yen, Jui-Hung; Tsai, Pi-Wen; Chen, Wen-Ching; Wang, Yei-Shung

2008-06-01

70

Laboratory evaluation of frozen soil target materials with a fused interface.  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the performance of artificial frozen soil materials with a fused interface, split tension (or 'Brazilian') tests and unconfined uniaxial compression tests were carried out in a low temperature environmental chamber. Intact and fused specimens were fabricated from four different soil mixtures (962: clay-rich soil with bentonite; DNA1: clay-poor soil; DNA2: clay-poor soil with vermiculite; and DNA3: clay-poor soil with perlite). Based on the 'Brazilian' test results and density measurements, the DNA3 mixture was selected to closely represent the mechanical properties of the Alaskan frozen soil. The healed-interface by the same soil layer sandwiched between two blocks of the same material yielded the highest 'Brazilian' tensile strength of the interface. Based on unconfined uniaxial compression tests, the frictional strength of the fused DNA3 specimens with the same soil appears to exceed the shear strength of the intact specimen.

Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul

2004-10-01

71

The Medical Geochemistry of Dusts, Soils, and Other Earth Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Town clenched in suffocating grip of asbestos"USA Today, article on Libby,Montana, February, 2000"Researchers find volcanoes are bad for your health… long after they finish erupting"University of WarwickPress Release, 1999"Toxic soils plague city - arsenic, lead in 5 neighborhoods could imperil 17,000 residents"Denver Post, 2002"Ill winds - dust storms ferry toxic agents between countries and even continents"Science News, 2002A quick scan of newspapers, television, science magazines, or the internet on any given day has a fairly high likelihood of encountering a story (usually accompanied by a creative headline such as those above) regarding human health concerns linked to dusts, soils, or other earth materials. Many such concerns have been recognized and studied for decades, but new concerns arise regularly.Earth scientists have played significant roles in helping the medical community understand some important links between earth materials and human health, such as the role of asbestos mineralogy in disease (Skinner et al., 1988; Ross, 1999; Holland and Smith, 2001), and the role of dusts generated by the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake in an outbreak of Valley Fever ( Jibson et al., 1998; Schneider et al., 1997).Earth science activities tied to health issues are growing (Skinner and Berger, 2003), and are commonly classified under the emerging discipline of medical geology (Finkelman et al., 2001; Selinus and Frank, 2000; Selinus, in press).Medical geochemistry (also referred to as environmental geochemistry and health: Smith and Huyck (1999), Appleton et al. (1996)) can be considered as a diverse subdiscipline of medical geology that deals with human and animal health in the context of the Earth's geochemical cycle ( Figure 1). Many medical geochemistry studies have focused on how chemical elements in rocks, soils, and sediments are transmitted via water or vegetation into the food chain, and how regional geochemical variations can result in disease clusters either through dietary deficiency of essential elements or dietary excess of toxic elements. (28K)Figure 1. Potential human exposure routes within the earth's geochemical cycle can come from a wide variety of both natural and anthropogenic sources. This chapter focuses on a somewhat narrower area of medical geochemistry: the study of mechanisms of uptake of earth materials by humans and animals and their reactions to these materials. In order for earth materials to affect health, they must first interact with the body across key interfaces such as the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and eyes. In some way, all of these interfaces require the earth materials to interact chemically with water-based body fluids such as lung fluids, gastrointestinal fluids, saliva, or blood plasma.The primary goal of this chapter, co-authored by a geochemist and a toxicologist, is to provide both geochemists and scientists from health disciplines with an overview of the potential geochemical mechanisms by which earth materials can influence human health. It is clear that significant opportunities for advancement in this arena will require continued and increased research collaborations between geochemists and their counterparts in the health disciplines.

Plumlee, G. S.; Ziegler, T. L.

2003-12-01

72

Testing Soil Encasing Materials for Measuring Hydraulic Conductivity of a Sandy-Loam Soil by the Cube Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cube Method (CM) and the Modifi ed Cube Method (MCM) were developed for measur- ing vertical (Kv) and horizontal (Kh) saturated hydraulic conductivity of a single soil sample. By these methods, a cube of soil is carved out in situ and a suitable material is applied to enclose the cube in a tightly fi tting casing before moving the

V. Bagarello; A. Sgroi

2008-01-01

73

Role of Soil Management in Sequestering Soil Carbon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soils are an important component of the global carbon cycle and serve as a large reservoir of terrestrial carbon. The amount of carbon in any soil is a function of the soil forming factors including: climate, relief, organisms, parent material and time. I...

M. G. Johnson

1993-01-01

74

Natural radioactivity in Jordanian soil and building materials and the associated radiation hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural radioactivity in soil and building materials was determined using gamma spectrometry. Samples were collected from the populated areas of Jordan. 232Th, 226Ra and 40K activities were determined. Soil samples collected from the Jordan valley showed high 40K concentrations which were due to the presence of a potash factory in the valley. One soil sample from southern sector showed very

N. Ahmad Matiullah; A. J. A. Hussein

1998-01-01

75

EFFECT OF SOIL MOISTURE, SOIL DENSITY, AND CONE PENETROMETER MATERIAL ON FINITE ELEMENT PREDICTION OF SOIL HARDPAN DEPTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An accurate soil hardpan determination is important for maximum precision tillage performance. Soil cone penetrometer data are often analyzed to predict soil hardpan depths. The prediction in layered soils may be limited due to the complexity of soil reaction to cone penetration. An axisymmetric fin...

76

MOBILE SYSTEM FOR EXTRACTING SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS FROM EXCAVATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory tests were conducted with three separate pollutants (phenol, arsenic trioxide, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and two soils of widely different characteristics (sand/gravel/silt/clay and organic loam) to evaluate techniques for cleansing soil contaminated with r...

77

Impact of carbonaceous materials in soil on the transport of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events.  

PubMed

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) transported from contaminated soils by surface runoff pose significant risk for aquatic ecosystems. Based on a rainfall-runoff simulation experiment, this study investigated the impact of carbonaceous materials (CMs) in soil, identified by organic petrology analysis, on the transport of soil-bound PAHs under rainfall conditions. The hypothesis that composition of soil organic matter significantly impacts the enrichment and transport of PAHs was proved. CMs in soil, varying significantly in content, mobility and adsorption capacity, act differently on the transport of PAHs. Anthropogenic CMs like black carbon (BC) largely control the transport, as PAHs may be preferentially attached to them. Eventually, this study led to a rethink of the traditional enrichment theory. An important implication is that CMs in soil have to be explicitly considered to appropriately model the nonpoint source pollution of PAHs (possibly other hydrophobic chemicals as well) and assess its environmental risk. PMID:23938446

Luo, Xiaolin; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Bin; Lin, Zhongrong; Han, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

2013-08-09

78

Net microbial amino sugar accumulation process in soil as influenced by different plant material inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the impact of plant material inputs on soil amino sugar synthesis may advance our knowledge of microbial transformation\\u000a processes in soils. In a 12-week laboratory microcosm incubation, 1, 2, 4, and 6% (w\\/w) soybean leaf or maize stalk were initially\\u000a added to soil, respectively, whereas soil without plant addition was used as a control. The results showed that adding

Chao Liang; Xudong Zhang; Teri C. Balser

2007-01-01

79

Long-Term Effects of Fluidized Bed Combustion Material Applied at Disposal Levels on Soil Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to assess changes in soil properties of a soil that received a one-time application (360 Mg ha) of fluidized bed combustion material (FBCM) 23 years earlier. Soil samples were taken at three depths (0–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm). Samples were also collected from an adjacent field with the same soil type for control. Hot nitric acid

Eton E. Codling; Akanksha W. Raja

2012-01-01

80

Shear strength of soils containing amorphous clay-size materials in a slow-moving landslide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shear behavior of soils rich in amorphous clay-size materials was not well reported in the literature. This study analyzed the direct shear and ring shear test data of soil samples containing 55–74% amorphous materials in the clay fraction from a slow-moving landslide in eastern Honolulu, HI. The direct shear test results showed that the undisturbed soil samples when not

Yongshan Wan; James Kwong

2002-01-01

81

Classification of Coal Surface Mine Soil Material for Vegetation Management and Soil Water Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An Alabama minesoil classification system was developed based on soil texture, soil color value and soil pH. Only five different soil classes were found in this study. However, the classification scheme allows for the inclusion of any minesoil that occurs...

E. S. Lyle P. A. Wood B. F. Hajek

1979-01-01

82

The determination of boron in soil extracts, plant materials, composts, manures, water and nutrient solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid colorimetric method for the determination of boron in soil extracts, plant materials, composts, manures, water and nutrient solution is proposed. The method is rapid, reliable and carried out in aqueous solution. A marked advantage is that boron can be determined in the same soil extract or plant material digest used for determination of other elements.

Benjamin Wolf

1971-01-01

83

Mapping of the thermal regime of soils and earth materials in the Angara region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative assessment of the cryosolic-thermal regime of soils and earth materials in the Angara region was made to identify its type, and several subtypes. The processes of seasonal freezing and thawing were used as the classification attribute of the type. Procedural techniques are suggested for analyzing the structure of the time series of temperature of soils and earth materials,

I. E. Trofimova

2008-01-01

84

Growth of barley exposed to solvent refined coal (SRC) materials added to soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of barley plants (Hordeum vulgare) grown in Ritzville silt loam soil, treated with solvent refined coal material, SRC solid (SRC I) and SRC liquid (SRC II) was examined. Although the SRC materials will not be introduced to soil or surface waters in normal uses, they could be spilled during transportation. Such spills could contaminate surface waters and agricultural,

J. F. Cline; W. H. Rickard; M. E. Thiede

1980-01-01

85

Low-temperature and low atmospheric pressure infrared reflectance spectroscopy of Mars soil analog materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared reflectance spectra of carefully selected Mars soil analog materials have been measured under low atmospheric pressures and temperatures. Chemically altered montmorillonites containing ferrihydrite and hydrated ferric sulfate complexes are examined, as well as synthetic ferrihydrite and a palagonitic soil from Haleakala, Maui. Reflectance spectra of these analog materials exhibit subtle visible to near-infrared features, which are indicative of nanophase

Janice L. Bishop; Carlé M. Pieters

1995-01-01

86

Low-temperature and low atmospheric pressure infrared reflectance spectroscopy of Mars soil analog materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared reflectance spectra of carefully selected Mars soil analog materials have been measured under low atmospheric pressures and temperatures. Chemically altered montmorillonites containing ferrihydrite and hydrated ferric sulfate complexes are examined, as well as synthetic ferrihydrate and a palagonitic soil from Haleakala, Maui. Reflectance spectra of these analog materials exhibit subtle visible to near-infrared features, which are indicative of nanophase

Janice L. Bishop; Carle M. Pieters

1995-01-01

87

On the nature of fresh volcanic ashes as parent material ejected from the Sakurajima and Aso volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few pedological studies in Japan of fresh volcanic ash. Fundamental information of the material from which Japanese volcanic-ash soils have developed, is of importance to obtain a better understanding of pedogenesis of such soils. The present paper deals with the mechanical. mmeralogical, and chemical characteristics of fresh ash ejected from the Sakurajima and Aso volcanoes which are among

Ichiro Kanno; Masao Nagai; Shizuoki Arimura

1955-01-01

88

Income Is Not Enough: Incorporating Material Hardship Into Models of Income Associations With Parenting and Child Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has clearly established that low family income has negative impacts on children's cognitive skills and social - emotional competence, less often is a family's experience of material hardship considered. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998 - 1999 (N 5 21,255), this study examined dual components of family income and material hardship along with parent

Elizabeth T. Gershoff; J. Lawrence Aber; C. Cybele Raver; Mary Clare Lennon

2007-01-01

89

Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Blue Mountain Soils in Northeast Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soil properties of 57 forested locations were characterized and categorized by parent materials and vegetation. Properties were compared and interrelated, and their management implications were discussed.

J. M. Geist G. S. Strickler

1978-01-01

90

Economic Development Planning for Single Parents. Curriculum Materials for Vocational Teachers of Adolescents and Single Parents. Special Emphasis on Meeting the Needs of the Teen Parent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is intended for use in school-based intervention programs intended to help single parents (particularly teenagers who are expecting or already have a child) master basic money management and consumer skills. The guide is divided into sections dealing with the following topics: interpersonal relationships, value clarification,…

Simpson, Kawanna J.; And Others

91

All the Children are Above Average: Parents' Perceptions of Education and Materialism as Media Effects on their Own and Other Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research shows parents manifest parental third-person perceptions on behalf of their children; that is, they believe their children are less affected by media sex and violence than other children. This study (N = 171) found parental third-person perceptions for materialism effects of television and parental first-person perceptions for advanced educational effects of public television. Perceptions of materialism effects on one's own

Patrick C. Meirick; Jeanetta D. Sims; Eileen S. Gilchrist; Stephen M. Croucher

2009-01-01

92

Mineral Control of Soil Carbon Dynamics in Forest Soils: A Lithosequence Under Ponderosa Pine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of soil organic carbon in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentration has spurred interest in both quantifying existing soil C stocks and modeling the behavior of soil C under climate change scenarios. Soil parent material exerts direct control over soil organic carbon content through its influence on soil pH and mineral composition. Soil acidity and mineral composition also influence soil microbial community composition and activity, thereby controlling soil respiration rates and microbial biomass size. We sampled a lithosequence of four parent materials (rhyolite, granite, basalt, limestone) under Pinus ponderosa to examine the effects of soil mineralogy and acidity on soil organic carbon content and soil microbial community. Three soil profiles were examined on each parent material and analyzed by X-ray diffraction, pH, selective dissolution, C and N content, and 13C signature. Soils from each of the four parent materials were incubated for 40 days, and microbial communities were compared on the basis of community composition (as determined through T-RFLP analysis), specific metabolic activity, biomass, ?13C of respired CO2, and cumulative amount of C mineralized over the course of the incubation. Soil C content varied significantly among soils of different parent material, and was strongly and positively associated with the abundance of Al-humus complexes r2 = 0.71; P < 0.0001, Fe-humus complexes r2 = 0.74; P = 0.0003, and crystalline Fe-oxide content r2 = 0.63; P = 0.0023. Microbial community composition varied significantly among soils and showed strong associations with soil pH 1:1 in KCl; r2 = 0.87; P < 0.0001, concentration of exchangeable Al r2 = 0.81; P < 0.0001, amorphous Fe oxide content r2 = 0.59; P < 0.004, and Al-humus content r2 = 0.35; P < 0.04. Mineralization rates, biomass and ?13C of respired CO2 differed among parent materials, and also varied with incubation time as substrate quality and N availability changed. The results demonstrate that within a specific ecosystem type, soil parent material exerts significant control over the lability and bioavailability of soil C and soil microbial community composition. We suggest that soil parent material and mineralogy are critical parameters for predicting soil C dynamics and recalcitrance of soil C stocks.

Heckman, K. A.; Welty-Bernard, A.; Rasmussen, C.; Schwartz, E.; Chorover, J.

2008-12-01

93

Income Is Not Enough: Incorporating Material Hardship Into Models of Income Associations With Parenting and Child Development  

PubMed Central

Although research has clearly established that low family income has negative impacts on children’s cognitive skills and social – emotional competence, less often is a family’s experience of material hardship considered. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 (N = 21,255), this study examined dual components of family income and material hardship along with parent mediators of stress, positive parenting, and investment as predictors of 6-year-old children’s cognitive skills and social – emotional competence. Support was found for a model that identified unique parent-mediated paths from income to cognitive skills and from income and material hardship to social – emotional competence. The findings have implications for future study of family income and child development and for identification of promising targets for policy intervention.

Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Aber, J. Lawrence; Raver, C. Cybele; Lennon, Mary Clare

2010-01-01

94

Growth of barley exposed to solvent refined coal (SRC) materials added to soil  

SciTech Connect

The growth of barley plants (Hordeum vulgare) grown in Ritzville silt loam soil, treated with solvent refined coal material, SRC solid (SRC I) and SRC liquid (SRC II) was examined. Although the SRC materials will not be introduced to soil or surface waters in normal uses, they could be spilled during transportation. Such spills could contaminate surface waters and agricultural, rangeland and forest soils, possibly causing acute or chronic damage to plants and also provide a way for certain inorganic and organic materials to enter food chains.

Cline, J.F.; Rickard, W.H.; Thiede, M.E.

1980-01-01

95

Measurement and modeling of energetic material mass transfer to soil pore water :project CP-1227 FY03 annual technical report.  

SciTech Connect

Military test and training ranges operate with live fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low order detonations also disperse solid phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution impacts. This report documents interim results of experimental work evaluating mass transfer processes from solid phase energetics to soil pore water. The experimental work is used as a basis to formulate a mass transfer numerical model, which has been incorporated into the porous media simulation code T2TNT. This report documents the results of the Phase III experimental effort, which evaluated the impacts of surface deposits versus buried deposits, energetic material particle size, and low order detonation debris. Next year, the energetic material mass transfer model will be refined and a 2-d screening model will be developed for initial site-specific applications. A technology development roadmap was created to show how specific R&D efforts are linked to technology and products for key customers.

Phelan, James M.; Barnett, James L.; Kerr, Dayle R.

2004-01-01

96

Moegellukt fran Jordkontaminerat Byggnadsvirke (Bad Odor from Soil-Contaminated Building Material).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pieces of sapwood of pine were buried in soil outdoors for two weeks. Thereafter, the samples were incubated at a high relative humidity for four weeks. The aim of the study was to show the microbiological consequences of soil-contaminated building materi...

P. Johansson

1999-01-01

97

Unit The World of the Soil, First Trial Materials, Inspection Set, [Australian Science Education Project].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Australian Science Education project is producing materials designed for use in grades 7 - 10 of Australian schools. This is the first trial version of a unit expected to take about 20 40-minute periods to complete. Included are a teacher's guide to the unit, four pupil booklets ("Looking at Soils,""Things to do With Soils,""What is it…

Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

98

FRESHWATER ASSAY USING SOIL ELUATES AS SAMPLE MATERIAL (SINGLE LABORATORY EVALUATION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Chlorophyta assay, which uses soil as sample material, has been a useful bioassessment technique for screening hazardous waste site problems. n eluate is prepared from a 125-gram soil sample and then diluted into three separate concentrations prior to being tested using Selen...

99

Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Soils Engineering 3-1. Edition 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This individualized, self-paced course for independent study in soils engineering was adapted from military curriculum materials for use in vocational education. The course is designed to acquaint students with various soil types and their characteristics using various procedures, tests, and recording forms. Some of these duties are determining…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

100

Unit The World of the Soil, First Trial Materials, Inspection Set, [Australian Science Education Project].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Australian Science Education project is producing materials designed for use in grades 7 - 10 of Australian schools. This is the first trial version of a unit expected to take about 20 40-minute periods to complete. Included are a teacher's guide to the unit, four pupil booklets ("Looking at Soils,""Things to do With Soils,""What is it…

Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

101

Factors Influencing the Development of Lateritic and Laterite Soils in the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE PARENT MATERIALS of the soil of the Hawaiian Islands have weathered under climatic conditions which are favorable for the develop­ ment of lateritic and laterite soils. Cline (i n press ) , in his classification of Hawaiian soils, has recognized the following four groups of lateritic and la terite soils: ( a ) low humic latosols-a group of soils

G. DONALD SHERMAN

102

Bioremediation of soils, sludges, and materials contaminated with toxic metals or radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation stabilizes and reclaims radionuclide or toxic metal-contaminated materials, soils, sediments, or wastes; it then recovers the contaminating radionuclides and metals. Waste materials are stabilized and reduced in volume using anaerobic bacteria; or alternatively, materials are treated with citric acid before bioremediation begins. Photolysis is used after bioremediation to release radionuclides.

Francis, A.J.

1993-04-01

103

Trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the relation of trace element concentrations in soil to those in house mice (Mus musculus), common reed (Phragmites australis) and ladybugs (Coccinella septempunctata) at five disposal facilities for dredged material. The sites had a wide range of soil trace element concentrations, acid soils and a depauperate fauna. They were very poor wildlife habitat because they were dominated by the common reed. Bioassay earthworms exposed to surface soils from three of the five sites died, whereas those exposed to four of five soils collected a meter deep survived, presumably because the deeper, unoxidized soil, was not as acid. Concentrations of Ni and Cr in the biota from each of the sites did not seem to be related to the concentrations of the same elements in soil. Although Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in biota were correlated with those in soil, the range of concentrations in the biota was quite small compared to that in soil. The concentrations of Pb detected in mice were about as high as the concentrations previously reported in control mice from other studies. Mice from the most contaminated site (530 ppm Pb in soil) contained only slightly more Pb (8 ppm dry wt) than did mice (2-6 ppm dry wt) from sites containing much less Pb (22-92 ppm in soil). Despite the acid soil conditions, very little Cd was incorporated into food chains. Rather, Cd was leaching from the surface soil. We concluded that even the relatively high concentrations of trace elements in the acid dredged material studied did not cause high, concentrations of trace elements in the biota.

Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.; Simmers, J.W.

1990-01-01

104

The effects of television advertising on materialism, parent–child conflict, and unhappiness: A review of research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we introduce a model on the unintended effects of advertising. This model describes the existing hypotheses about the impact of advertising on (a) materialism, (b) parent–child conflict, and (c) unhappiness. The validity of each of these hypotheses was investigated using a vote-counting analysis. Our analyses yielded a small to moderate effect size for the relation between advertising

Moniek Buijzen; Patti M Valkenburg

2003-01-01

105

Mechanical Characteristics of Light-Weighted Soils Using Dredged Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the mechanical characteristics of light-weighted soils (LWS) consisting of expanded polystyrene (EPS), dredged clays, and cement through both unconfined and triaxial compression tests. The mechanical characteristics of the compressive strength of LWS are analyzed with varying initial water contents of dredged clays, EPS ratio, cement ratio, and curing pressure. In the triaxial compression test, it is found

Gil-Lim Yoonz; Sang-Soo Jeon; Byung-Tak Kim

2004-01-01

106

Evaluation of lunar rocks and soils for resource utilization: Detailed image analysis of raw materials and beneficiated products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rocks and soils of the Moon will be the raw materials for fuels and construction needs at a lunar base. This includes sources of materials for the generation of hydrogen, oxygen, metals, and other potential construction materials. For most of the bulk material needs, the regolith, and its less than 1 cm fraction, the soil, will suffice. But for

Lawrence A. Taylor; John G. Chambers; Allan Patchen; Eric A. Jerde; David S. McKay; John Graf; Robin R. Oder

1993-01-01

107

External gamma dose responses from residual radioactive materials in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

External gamma dose responses from radioactive soils have previously been calculated as air-absorbed doses in a point receptor above the ground. Such responses, however, are not accurate measures for estimating the effective dose equivalent (H{sub E}) for assessing radiological risks to humans, as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The ambient dose equivalent H*(10), as defined by

S. Y. Chen; Y. C. Yuan

1989-01-01

108

Diverse Chemical Zoning Trends in Acapulco Chromites: How Many Sources for the Parental Materials?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acapulco is considered to be a link between primitive chondritic meteorites and the differentiated achondrites. Its parent body presumably formed by accretion of material of chondritic compositions at an fO2 that lies between that of H- and enstatite chondrites [1]. The accreted chondritic material was subjected 4.557 Gyr ago to peak temperatures close to 1200 degrees C that lead to partial melting and extensive recrystallization [1, 2]. Seven morphologically different types of graphite with large variations in C- and N-isotopic compositions were recently reported from Acapulco [3, 4]. At least four distinct isotopic reservoirs are required to explain the C- and N-isotopic compositions of these graphites [3, 4]. While the silicate minerals in Acapulco have isotopically heavy N (delta^(15)N = + 15 per mil) chromites were found to be isotopically light (delta^(15)N = _ 75 to _ 82 per mil). Chromite occurs in Acapulco in six different assemblages: (1) as inclusions in silicates, (2) in FeNi, (3) in troilite, (4) with FeNi and troilite, (5) with FeNi and silicates, and (6) with troilite and silicates. It is also rarely present as small idiomorphic inclusions in plagioclase. Chromites in contact with silicates display no chemical zoning for Cr, Al, Ti, Fe, Mg, Mn, or Zn to the silicate borders thus indicating high degree of equilibration with the silicate neighbours. The MgO-contents of chromites in metals and troilites (4.74 to 7.2 %) are relatively lower and their compositional ranges are relatively wider than those in contact with silicates (6.1 to 7.69 %). Zoning profiles of MgO and FeO in chromites in all assemblages are quite flat. Chromites in contact with metals and troilite display a variety of zoning patterns of Cr, Al, Ti, and Zn. All these chromite types , however, depict the same MnO zoning trends with low MnO-contents in their cores (0.96 to 2.14 %) than in their rims to metal or troilite (1.7 to 3.1 %). With few exceptions, the zoning behaviour of Cr, Al, and Ti does not follow a substitutional scheme. Chromites with reverse Cr-zoning (61.3 wt. % Cr2O3 in the cores and 63.2 Wt. % Cr2O3 at the rims ) may have either flat Al2O3 - patterns (5.46 - 5.53 wt. %) or normal zoning trends (5.6 wt. % in the core and 4.81 wt. % at the rim). Some grains display prominent complementary Cr2O3- and Al2O3- zoning patterns (62.2 % wt. Cr2O3 and 2.9 wt. % Al2O3 in the Core; 58.9 wt. % Cr2O3 and 5.7 wt. % Al2O3 at the rim). In those grains the zoning profiles of TiO2 and ZnO (Figure 1) are similar to those of Al2O3 (in the core 1.33 wt. % TiO2, 1.63 wt. % ZnO; at the rim 0.67 wt. % TiO2, 1.24 wt. % ZnO). The well developed zoning of Cr, Al, Ti, Mn, and Zn from the cores of chromites to their borders to FeNi and troilite and the variability of the zoning patterns in assemblages containing FeNi and troilite indicate that the encountered zoning types reflect the primordial chemistry of these chromites in the parental material before melting. We have delineated six different types of zoning in Acapulco chromites so far. None of the encountered zoning patterns could have developed by crystallisation from a chondritic melt. The present results support the previous findings [3, 4] that several sources must have had contributed to the parental material of Acapulco. However, genetic correlations between the isotopically different graphite morphologies and the various chromites in Acapulco could not be established so far. References: [1] Zipfel et al. (1995) GCA, in press. [2] G"pel D. et al. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 226. [3] El Goresy A. et al. (1995) Nature, 373, 496-499.[4] El Goresy A. and Zinner E. K. (1995) LPS XXVI, 367-368. [5] Sturgeon G. and Marti K. (1991) Proc. LPS, Vol. 21, 523-525. [6] Kim Y. and Marti K. (1994) LPS XXV, 703-704. Fig.1. Zoning profiles for Cr2O3, Al2O3, MnO, ZnO, and TiO2 in chromite # 1 enclosed in troilite.

El Goresy, A.; Janicke, J.

1995-09-01

109

Material stiffness, branching pattern and soil matric potential affect the pullout resistance of model root systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Understanding of the detailed mechanisms of how roots anchor in and reinforce soil is complicated by the variability and complexity of both materials. This study controlled material stiffness and architecture of root analogues, by using rubber and wood, and also employed real willow root segments, to investigate the effect on pullout resistance in wet and air-dry sand. The architecture

S. B. MICKOVSKI; A. G. BENGOUGHb; M. F. B RANSBYa; R. S ONNENBERG

110

Effects of mulching materials on nitrogen mineralization, nitrogen availability and poplar growth on degraded agricultural soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) is usually the most limiting nutrient in degraded agricultural soils and affects the growth and ecological function\\u000a of poplar (Populus spp.) plantations. We hypothesized that application of organic mulch would improve soil nitrogen availability and increase\\u000a tree growth, while the quality of mulching materials would alter the supply of essential nutrients. In this study, poplar\\u000a plantations were established

Shengzuo FangBaodong; Baodong Xie; Dong Liu; Jiujun Liu

2011-01-01

111

Reactions between fulvic acid, a soil humic material, and dialkyl phthalates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fulvic acid, a water-soluble soil humic material that occurs widely in soils and waters, can “complex” hydrophobic dialkyl phthalates and make them soluble in water. The extent of the reaction depends on the type of phthalate. Thus, one number-average molecular weight of FA can solubilize four moles of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate but only one mole of dibutyl phthalate, while 2

Keiichiro Matsuda; Morris Schnitzer

1971-01-01

112

Nitrilotriacetate Stimulation of Anaerobic Fe(III) Respiration by Mobilization of Humic Materials in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enrichment culture capable of naphthalene mineralization reduced Fe(III) oxides without direct contact in anaerobic soil microcosms when the Fe(III) was placed in dialysis membranes or entrapped within alginate beads. Both techniques demonstrated that a component in soil, possibly humic materials, facilitated Fe(III) reduction when direct contact between cells and Fe(III) was not possible. The addition of the synthetic Fe(III)

Y. Luu; B. A. Ramsay; J. A. Ramsay

2003-01-01

113

Comparison between properties of debris flow deposits and parent materials in two alpine watersheds. Role of fine components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Debris flow properties are often characterized using samples collected in the deposits. The finest components are often assumed to represent a negligible weight fraction, and few is known about the properties of the triggering zone. This study was driven on two alpine watersheds with crystalline and carbonate rocks respectively. Maps of the watersheds were dressed, and all map units where sampled. The textural properties (from block to clay particles (<2?m) sizes), bulk density and <2mm fraction density and chemical properties of the materials where analysed in each unit. The <2?m fraction was extracted and XRD analysis was performed. Comparisons between the properties of the materials from the triggering zone, along the transport zone and in the deposits where thus allowed. Grain size analysis of the <20mm fraction show that debris flows are composed of finer materials than in the parent map units and the identified triggering zones in this size range. The 0.2mm - 2mm fraction of the deposits contains a higher quartz percentage and less platy materials than the parent materials. The clay fraction of the triggering and transport zones may have much higher smectite content than the deposits. All results agree to show that (i) debris flow deposits have different mechanical and mineralogical properties than the parent materials, (ii) during the flow middle size components (2-200 mm) are crushed and the finer components are leached out and (iii) dispersible clay is specifically leached. Samples collected in the debris flow deposits might thus be unrepresentative of the triggering and flow materials, particularly regarding the weight percentage and mineralogy of the silt and clay fractions. Among others, this might lead to underestimate the role of the clay components for the flow properties of the debris flows.

Boivin, P.; Bardou, E.; Pfeifer, H.; Favre, F.; Haarman, J.; Huet, Y.; Branca, G.

2003-04-01

114

Exposure of Soil and Groundwater to Spills of Hazardous Materials Transported by Rail: A Geographic Information System Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental impact of a hazardous material spill is a complex function of the material’s physical and chemical characteristics and the local environmental conditions in which it is spilled. This study develops a geographical probability distribution for two important environmental parameters affecting this impact: soil type and groundwater depth. The paper assesses the probability of exposure of various soil types

Pooja Anand; Christopher P L Barkan

2006-01-01

115

Lateral migration of soil solid-phase material within a landscape-geochemical arena detected using the magnetic tracer method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thorough studies of the lateral migration of the solid soil material and the large-scale mapping of the soil cover have been performed within a landscape-geochemical arena in the small catchment area of the Lokna River basin (Tula oblast). Podzolized clay-illuvial agrochernozems are the predominant soils in the catchment area. Nine soil types from four orders according to the 2004 soil classification have also been described. The morphological analysis of the soil profile structures revealed their changes related to the lateral migration of the solid-phase products of the pedogenesis. From the estimated reserves of the spherical magnetic particles as tracers of the mass transfer, the accumulation and dispersion zones of the solid-phase material in the soil cover have been separated and conclusions about the genesis of these zones and their place in the migration structure of the catchment basin have been drawn. The soil catenas within the landscape-geochemical arena have been classified in accordance with the migration intensity of the soil solid-phase material, the localization of deposits, and the degree of openness of the soil-geochemical conjugations. The effect of the lateral migration of the soil solid-phase material on the structure of the microarena soil cover and the soil genetic profiles has been revealed.

Gennadiev, A. N.; Koshovskii, T. S.; Zhidkin, A. P.; Kovach, R. G.

2013-10-01

116

Soils - Part 1: The Origin and Development of Soil(How Soil Gets a Life and a Name)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

 In this lesson, you will gain an understanding of the five soil forming factors and will be able to describe how each influences soil development. You will learn to identify common parent materials, determine the age of a soil, identify the types of native vegetation associated with different soils in Nebraska and define soil horizons.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

117

Carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils amended with livestock-derived organic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide gas xchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, as well as the carbon sink strength of various arable land ecosystems, is of primary interest for global change research. Measures for increasing soil C inputs include the preferential use of livestock-derived organic materials (e.g. animal manure and slurries, digestate from biogas production plants and compost). The application of such materials to agricultural soils returns essential nutrients for plant growth and organic matter to maintain long-term fertility. Whether or not such practices ultimately result in sustained C sequestration at the ecosystem level will depend on their mineralization rates. This work presents preliminary results from a laboratory incubation trial to evaluate carbon dioxide fluxes from two agricultural soils (a calcareous silt loam and a silty clay loam) amended with agricultural doses of (i) pig slurry (PSL), (ii) the digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of pig slurries (AAS) and (ii) a compost from the aerobic stabilisation of the digestate (LDC). These subsequent steps of slurry stabilisation resulted in a decrease in the content of labile organic matter which was reflected in a reduction in maximum carbon dioxide emission rates from amended soils. Measurements have shown that peak emissions from soils occur immediately after application of these organic materials (within 5 days) and decrease in the order PSL > AAS > LDC. Moreover, mean cumulative emissions over the first 40 days showed that a higher percentage (about 44%) of the C added with PSL was mineralised respect to C added with AAS (39%) and LDC (25%). Although it was hypothesised that apart from the quantity and stability of the added organic materials, even soil characteristics could influence C mineralisation rates, no significant differences were observed between emission fluxes for similarly treated soils. Mean cumulative emission fluxes after 40 days from treatment were of 114, 103 and 84 g C m-2 for PSL, AAS and LDC respectively. Carbon dioxide emission rates were corroborated with results obtained from the quantification of water-extractable organic C (WEOC) and soil microbial biomass-C (Cmic). The former represents the more labile fraction of soil organic matter and its concentration in the freshly amended soils followed the order LDC > AAS ? PSL. However, whereas WEOC concentrations decrease rapidly for PSL and LDC amended soils, AAS treated soils showed a steady increase during the first 20 days of incubation followed by a decrease thereafter. This was attributed to the release of soluble organic matter from the anaerobically stabilised digestate in the presence of an aerobic soil microbial community. Irrespective of the type of amendment, Cmic values increased with time with respect to the unamended controls, reaching highest values after 20 days from amendment and decreasing thereafter. Even after 40 days of incubation, Cmic values in all amended soils did not return to the background values obtained with unamended controls. These results suggest that the application of stabilised livestock-derived organic materials to soils may play an important role in reducing C emissions associated with agricultural practices and increase soil C stocks, apart from other indirect beneficial effects such as the recovery of energy from combustion of biogas from anaerobic fermentation of these waste materials.

Pezzolla, D.; Said-Pullicino, D.; Gigliotti, G.

2009-04-01

118

Measurement and Modeling of Energetic Material Mass Transfer to Soil Pore Water - Project CP-1227 Annual Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Military test and training ranges operate with live fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low order detonations also disperse solid phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g. weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution impacts. This report documents interim results of experimental work evaluating mass transfer processes from solid phase energetics to soil pore water. The experimental work is used as a basis to formulate a mass transfer numerical model, which has been incorporated into the porous media simulation code T2TNT. Experimental work to date with Composition B explosive has shown that column tests typically produce effluents near the temperature dependent solubility limits for RDX and TNT. The influence of water flow rate, temperature, porous media saturation and mass loading is documented. The mass transfer model formulation uses a mass transfer coefficient and surface area function and shows good agreement with the experimental data. Continued experimental work is necessary to evaluate solid phase particle size and 2-dimensional effects, and actual low order detonation debris. Simulation model improvements will continue leading to a capability to complete screening assessments of the impacts of military range operations on groundwater quality.

PHELAN, JAMES M.; WEBB, STEPHEN W.; ROMERO, JOSEPH V.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; GRIFFIN, FAWN A.

2003-01-01

119

An inventory of carbon storage in forest soil and down woody material of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program conducts an annual forest inventory which includes measurements of down and dead wood and soil characteristics as indicators of forest health. Both indicators are measured on a systematic nationwide array of approximately 7800 plots where each one may represent up to 38,850 ha. Between 10 and 20% of these plots are measured every year. The down woody material indicator includes measurements of coarse and fine downed and deadwood. Carbon (C) storage in these down woody materials is estimated using line intersect biomass estimators and C conversion constants. The soil quality indicator is based on a range of statistically based methods including volumetric sampling of the forest floor and the collection of mineral soil cores representing depth increments of 0-10 and 10-20 cm. Carbon content of the soil samples is determined by dry combustion. We combined indicator measurements collected over 3 years (2001-2003) to estimate the C storage in soil and down wood in forests of the United States. Preliminary results suggest that as much as 80 Mg ha-1 of C may be stored in forest soil and down woody material in some locations. Carbon storage by component is roughly ranked as follows: 0-10 cm mineral soil >10-20 cm mineral soil > the forest floor > coarse wood > fine wood. Preliminary spatial analysis of the C stocks in the North Central region of the United States illustrates the influences of latitude on C storage

Perry, Charles H.; Woodall, Christopher W.; Amacher, Michael C.; O'Neill, Katherine P.

120

Actinomycetes: Sources for Soil Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Soil is the most complicated biomaterial on the planet.It is a natural source for microorganisms and is a natural laboratory\\u000a to do experiments. Soil, which arises from the weathering of parent rock materials, is by definition capable of acting as\\u000a a habitat for microorganisms. Microbially, the most active soil is the upper 16- to 17.2-cm–thick plow layer. As with any

V. Suneetha; Zaved Ahmed Khan

121

CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA FILL MATERIALS AND SOILS 1990  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Foundation Fill Data Base project of the Foundation Fill Materials Specifications Task Area of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). Work included determination of radon concentrations...

122

Biomechanical effects, lithological variations, and local pedodiversity in some forest soils of Arkansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high degree of soil variability over short distances and small areas is common, particularly in forest soils. This variability is sometimes, but not always, related to readily apparent variations in the environmental factors that control soil formation. This study examines the potential role of biomechanical effects of trees and of lithological variations within the parent material in explaining soil

Jonathan D. Phillips; Daniel A. Marion

2004-01-01

123

Spatial Variability of Soil Total Nutrients in a Tobacco Plantation Field in Central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial variability of soil total nutrient levels, which may be greatly affected by parent material, plays an important role in both agriculture and environment, especially with regard to soil fertility and soil quality. Little research has been done that addresses the spatial characteristics of total nutrients. Soil samples (0–20 cm) were taken from 111 points on an approximately 20-m

Jiang Hou-Long; Liu Guo-Shun; Wang Rui; Shi Hong-Zhi; Hu Hong-Chao

2012-01-01

124

Numerical Model for Predicting Two Dimensional Infiltrations and Solute Travel Time in Heterogeneous Layered Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field soils are usually composed of at least two horizons. Different than independent geological layers, soil horizons are spatially dependent on each other as they were formed under pedogenic process acting on the same parent material. Dyck (2008) tested the influence of soil horizon on the hydraulic behavior of the entire soil profile and found that the influence is scale

Y. S. Song; G. Kachanoski; M. F. Dyck

2010-01-01

125

Strontium-doped hematite as a possible humidity sensing material for soil water content determination.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to study the sensing behavior of Sr-doped hematite for soil water content measurement. The material was prepared by solid state reaction from commercial hematite and strontium carbonate heat treated at 900 °C. X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used for microstructural characterization of the synthesized powder. Sensors were then prepared by uniaxially pressing and by screen-printing, on an alumina substrate, the prepared powder and subsequent firing in the 800-1,000 °C range. These sensors were first tested in a laboratory apparatus under humid air and then in an homogenized soil and finally in field. The results evidenced that the screen printed film was able to give a response for a soil matric potential from about 570 kPa, that is to say well below the wilting point in the used soil. PMID:24025555

Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Baroni, Chiara; Zavattaro, Laura; Grignani, Carlo

2013-09-10

126

Soil carbon and material fluxes across the eroding Alaska Beaufort Sea coastline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon, nitrogen, and material fluxes were quantified at 48 sampling locations along the 1957 km coastline of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. Landform characteristics, soil stratigraphy, cryogenic features, and ice contents were determined for each site. Erosion rates for the sites were quantified using satellite images and aerial photos, and the rates averaged across the coastline increased from 0.6 m yr-1 during circa 1950-1980 to 1.2 m yr-1 during circa 1980-2000. Soils were highly cryoturbated, and organic carbon (OC) stores ranged from 13 to 162 kg OC m-2 in banks above sea level and averaged 63 kg OC m-2 over the entire coastline. Long-term (1950-2000) annual lateral fluxes due to erosion were estimated at -153 Gg OC, -7762 Mg total nitrogen, -2106 Tg solids, and -2762 Tg water. Total land area loss along the Alaska Beaufort Sea coastline was estimated at 203 ha yr-1. We found coastal erosion rates, bank heights, soil properties, and material stores and fluxes to be extremely variable among sampling sites. In comparing two classification systems used to classifying coastline types from an oceanographic, coastal morphology perspective and geomorphic units from a terrestrial, soils perspective, we found both systems were effective at differentiating significant differences among classes for most material stores, but the coastline classification did not find significant differences in erosion rates because it lacked differentiation of soil texture.

Ping, Chien-Lu; Michaelson, Gary J.; Guo, Laodong; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Kanevskiy, Mikhail; Shur, Yuri; Dou, Fugen; Liang, Jingjing

2011-06-01

127

Gender and Material Transfers between Older Parents and Children in Ismailia, Egypt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Egypt, kin relations have been governed by a patriarchal contract, which defines expectations for intergenerational support along gendered lines. Social changes may be disrupting these customs and bringing attention to the ways gender may influence intergenerational support in rapidly changing contexts. Using data from 4,465 parent-child dyads…

Yount, Kathryn M.; Cunningham, Solveig A.; Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily M.

2012-01-01

128

Development of Paving Material for Footpath and CAR Park Pavement Using Granite Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is required to develop new paving materials for pavements, such as footpaths, car parks, etc., in parks, having good landscape. Such paving materials have been already developed, but these do not have sufficient strength, abrasion resistance and frost resistance. In this study, a new paving was examined material using cement, sand and granite soil. The mix proportion of this material tested was 2:4:4 of cement, sand and granite soil by mass. The maximum flexural and compressive strength were both obtained at a water content of 14% of the total mass, and the strength were several times larger than that of paving material on the market consisting of 10% of cement and 90% granite soil. The abrasion resistance was tested according to ASTM C 779, and this resistance was about four times greater than that of the paving material on the market. The frost resistance was obtained high value compared with the concrete of 72% in water cement ratio by a new simple resisting test method for freezing and thawing using liquid nitrogen and warm water. It is considered that this new paving material is applicable to pavement for footpath, car park, etc.

Nagamachi, Masaharu; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Kentaro; Kamada, Koichi

129

Transport and anaerobic biodegradation of propylene glycol in gravel-rich soil materials.  

PubMed

Continued input of airplane de-icing/anti-icing fluids (ADAF) to runway adjacent soils may result in the depletion of soil-borne terminal electron acceptors. We studied the transport and transformation of propylene glycol (PG), the major constituent of many ADAF, in topsoil and subsoil samples using saturated column experiments at 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C. The export of soil-borne DOC was generally high, non-exhaustive and rate limited. Retardation of added PG was negligible. Rapid PG degradation was observed only in topsoil materials high in organic matter at 20 degrees C. At 4 degrees C, no significant degradation was observed. Thus, under unfavorable, i.e., wet and cold conditions typical for winter de-icing operations, PG and its metabolites will be relocated to deeper soil horizons or even to the groundwater. In subsoil materials, PG degradation was very slow and incomplete. We found that subsoil degradation depended on the import of active microorganisms originating from the organic-rich topsoil material. The degradation efficiency is strongly influenced by the flow velocity, i.e., the residence time of PG in the soil column. Poorly crystalline iron(III) and manganese(IV) (hydr)oxides are used during microbial respiration acting as terminal electron acceptors. This results in the formation and effective relocation of reduced and mobile Fe and Mn species. Long-term application of ADAF to runway adjacent soil as well as the lasting consumption of Fe and Mn will tend to decrease the soil redox potential. Without proper counteractive measures, this will eventually favor the development of methanogenic conditions. PMID:16563561

Jaesche, Philipp; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

2006-03-24

130

Transport and anaerobic biodegradation of propylene glycol in gravel-rich soil materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continued input of airplane de-icing/anti-icing fluids (ADAF) to runway adjacent soils may result in the depletion of soil-borne terminal electron acceptors. We studied the transport and transformation of propylene glycol (PG), the major constituent of many ADAF, in topsoil and subsoil samples using saturated column experiments at 4 °C and 20 °C. The export of soil-borne DOC was generally high, non-exhaustive and rate limited. Retardation of added PG was negligible. Rapid PG degradation was observed only in topsoil materials high in organic matter at 20 °C. At 4 °C, no significant degradation was observed. Thus, under unfavorable, i.e., wet and cold conditions typical for winter de-icing operations, PG and its metabolites will be relocated to deeper soil horizons or even to the groundwater. In subsoil materials, PG degradation was very slow and incomplete. We found that subsoil degradation depended on the import of active microorganisms originating from the organic-rich topsoil material. The degradation efficiency is strongly influenced by the flow velocity, i.e., the residence time of PG in the soil column. Poorly crystalline iron(III) and manganese(IV) (hydr)oxides are used during microbial respiration acting as terminal electron acceptors. This results in the formation and effective relocation of reduced and mobile Fe and Mn species. Long-term application of ADAF to runway adjacent soil as well as the lasting consumption of Fe and Mn will tend to decrease the soil redox potential. Without proper counteractive measures, this will eventually favor the development of methanogenic conditions.

Jaesche, Philipp; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

2006-05-01

131

Soil Carbon Dioxide Flux in Antarctic Dry Valley Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Antarctic dry valleys of southern Victoria Land are extreme desert environments where abiotic factors, such as temperature gradients, parent material, and soil water dynamics, may have a significant influence on soil carbon dioxide (CO 2) flux. Previous measurements of soil respiration have demonstrated very low rates of CO 2 efflux, barely above detection limits. We employed a modified infrared

Andrew N. Parsons; J. E. Barrett; Diana H. Wall; Ross A. Virginia

2004-01-01

132

Chemistry of arsenic in acid sulphate soils of Northern Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid sulphate soils from central Alberta were analyzed for mineralogical composition, pore water chemistry, and content of arsenic in order to determine the stability and weathering of minerals and the form, distribution, and mechanisms involved in the accumulation of native arsenic within the soil solum and acid shale parent materials. Weathering of pyrite in the soil solum resulted in strong

M. J. Dudas; C. J. Warren; G. A. Spiers

1988-01-01

133

Calibration Experiment on the Detection of Fissioning Material in Soil by Means of Neutron Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mass of a fissioning material and its distribution in soil can be estimated by analyzing the results of the detection of neutron and\\/or ? radiation in wells drilled in a clean zone near the assumed location of the material [1]. The PRIZMA.D program [2] with the BAS library [3] and the MCNP program [4] with the ENDF-BV library, which

N. V. Gorin; V. V. Zakharov; Ya. Z. Kandiev; E. N. Lipilina; A. P. Pokatashkin; G. V. Rukavishnikov; A. I. Ul'yanov; D. V. Shmakov; A. N. Shcherbina

2005-01-01

134

Effect of Organic Residues and Liming Materials on Metal Extraction from a Mining-Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incubation tests were used to assess the effectiveness of three different organic residues and three different liming materials, alone or in combination, in the remediation of a mine contaminated soil. The organic residues tested were sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (SS), compost from the organic fraction of unsorted municipal solid waste (MSWC), and garden waste compost (GWC),

Paula M. L. F. Alvarenga; Ana P. Gonçalves; Rosa M. C. S. C. Fernandes; Amarilis P. A. de Varennes; Elizabeth C. N. F. A. Duarte; Giovanni Vallini; Cristina F. Cunha-Queda

2008-01-01

135

Beneficial effects of plants in the remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with organic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of plants in remediation of soil and unconfined groundwater contaminated with organic materials is appealing for a variety of reasons: (1) plants provide a remediation strategy that utilizes solar energy; (2) vegetation is aesthetically pleasing; (3) plant samples can be harvested and tested as indicators of the level of remediation; (4) plants help contain the region of contamination

J. F. Shimp; J. C. Tracy; L. C. Davis; E. Lee; W. Huang; L. E. Erickson; J. L. Schnoor

1993-01-01

136

Activities of Effective Microorganism (EM) on the Nutrient Dynamics of Different Organic Materials Applied to Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 56 days incubation study was set up to investigate the effects of combined application of effective microorganism (EM) with composted or fresh organic materials on soil nutrient dynamics. Treatments include; Water (W) as Control, EM, Kraal manure (KM) + W, KM + EM, Lawn clippings (LC) +W, LC+EM, Commercial compost (CC) + W and CC + EM. A CO

L. Ncube

137

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION MATERIALS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

During an evaluation of field portable gas chromatographs (GC), site-specific performance evaluation materials (PEM) were prepared and used as quality control samples. lean soils from two contaminated sites were spiked with various volatile organic compounds. he PEM were shipped ...

138

METHOD OF ESTIMATING THE TRAVEL TIME OF NONINTERACTING SOLUTES THROUGH COMPACTED SOIL MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The pollutant travel time through compacted soil material (i.e., when a pollutant introduced at the top first appears at the bottom) cannot be accurately predicted from the permeability (saturated hydraulic conductivity) alone. The travel time is also dependent on the effective p...

139

Air-surface exchange of mercury with soils amended with ash materials  

SciTech Connect

Air-surface exchange of mercury (Hg) was measured from soil low in Hg amended with four different ash materials: a wood ash containing {approximately} 10% coal ash, amixture of two subbituminous coal fly ashes, a subbituminous coal ash containing {approximately} 10% petroleum coke ash and an ash from incinerated municipal sewage sludge (4.3 mg/kg Hg) using a dynamic flux chamber. Ash was added to soil to simulate agricultural supplements, soil stabilization, and pad layers used in livestock areas. For the agricultural amendment, {approximately} 0.4% ash was well mixed into the soil. To make the stabilized soil that could be used for construction purposes, {approximately} 20% ash was mixed into soil with water. The pad layer consisted of a wetted 1-cm layer of ash material on the soil surface. Diel trends of Hg flux were observed for all of the substrates with significantly higher Hg emissions during the day and negligible flux or deposition of Hg during the night. Hg fluxes, which were measured in the summer months, were best correlated with solar radiation, temperature, and air O{sub 3} concentrations. Mean Hg fluxes measured outdoors for unamended soils ranged from 19 to 140 ng/m{sup 2} day, whereas those for soil amended with ash to simulate an agricultural application ranged from 7.2 to 230 ng/m{sup 2} day. Fluxes for soil stabilized with ash ranged from 77 to 530 ng/m{sup 2} day and for soil with pads constructed of ash ranged from -50 to 90 ng/m{sup 2} day. Simple analytical tests were performed to assess whether algorithms based on these tests could be used to predict Hg fluxes observed outdoors using the flux chamber. Based on this study, no consistent relationships could be developed. More work is needed to assess long-term and seasonal variations in Hg flux from substrates before annual estimates of emissions can be developed. 45 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Jody Ericksen; Mae Sexauer Gustin [University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States). Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences

2006-07-15

140

Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials  

SciTech Connect

The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available to the landfill operator. Therefore, the methane oxidation capacity of different soils was assessed under simulated landfill conditions. Five sandy potential landfill top cover materials with varying contents of silt and clay were investigated with respect to methane oxidation and corresponding soil gas composition over a period of four months. The soils were compacted to 95% of their specific proctor density, resulting in bulk densities of 1.4-1.7 g cm{sup -3}, reflecting considerably unfavourable conditions for methane oxidation due to reduced air-filled porosity. The soil water content was adjusted to field capacity, resulting in water contents ranging from 16.2 to 48.5 vol.%. The investigated inlet fluxes ranged from 25 to about 100 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, covering the methane load proposed to allow for complete oxidation in landfill covers under Western European climate conditions and hence being suggested as a criterion for release from aftercare. The vertical distribution of gas concentrations, methane flux balances as well as stable carbon isotope studies allowed for clear process identifications. Higher inlet fluxes led to a reduction of the aerated zone, an increase in the absolute methane oxidation rate and a decline of the relative proportion of oxidized methane. For each material, a specific maximum oxidation rate was determined, which varied between 20 and 95 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1} and which was positively correlated to the air-filled porosity of the soil. Methane oxidation efficiencies and gas profile data imply a strong link between oxidation capacity and diffusive ingress of atmospheric air. For one material with elevated levels of fine particles and high organic matter content, methane production impeded the quantification of methane oxidation potentials. Regarding the design of landfill cover layers it was concluded that the magnitude of the expected methane load, the texture and expected compaction of the cover material are key variables that need to be known. Based on these, a column study can serve as an appropriate testing system to determine the methane oxidation capacity of a soil intended as landfill cover material.

Rachor, Ingke, E-mail: i.rachor@ifb.uni-hamburg.de [University of Hamburg, Institute of Soil Science, Allende-Platz 2, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Gebert, Julia; Groengroeft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria [University of Hamburg, Institute of Soil Science, Allende-Platz 2, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

2011-05-15

141

Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials.  

PubMed

The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available to the landfill operator. Therefore, the methane oxidation capacity of different soils was assessed under simulated landfill conditions. Five sandy potential landfill top cover materials with varying contents of silt and clay were investigated with respect to methane oxidation and corresponding soil gas composition over a period of four months. The soils were compacted to 95% of their specific proctor density, resulting in bulk densities of 1.4-1.7 g cm(-3), reflecting considerably unfavourable conditions for methane oxidation due to reduced air-filled porosity. The soil water content was adjusted to field capacity, resulting in water contents ranging from 16.2 to 48.5 vol.%. The investigated inlet fluxes ranged from 25 to about 100g CH(4)m(-2)d(-1), covering the methane load proposed to allow for complete oxidation in landfill covers under Western European climate conditions and hence being suggested as a criterion for release from aftercare. The vertical distribution of gas concentrations, methane flux balances as well as stable carbon isotope studies allowed for clear process identifications. Higher inlet fluxes led to a reduction of the aerated zone, an increase in the absolute methane oxidation rate and a decline of the relative proportion of oxidized methane. For each material, a specific maximum oxidation rate was determined, which varied between 20 and 95 g CH(4)m(-2)d(-1) and which was positively correlated to the air-filled porosity of the soil. Methane oxidation efficiencies and gas profile data imply a strong link between oxidation capacity and diffusive ingress of atmospheric air. For one material with elevated levels of fine particles and high organic matter content, methane production impeded the quantification of methane oxidation potentials. Regarding the design of landfill cover layers it was concluded that the magnitude of the expected methane load, the texture and expected compaction of the cover material are key variables that need to be known. Based on these, a column study can serve as an appropriate testing system to determine the methane oxidation capacity of a soil intended as landfill cover material. PMID:21067907

Rachor, Ingke; Gebert, Julia; Gröngröft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

2010-11-09

142

Assessment of isotopically exchangeable Al in soil materials using 26Al tracer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of aluminium (Al) in many acidic soils is controlled by complexation reactions with soil organic matter. In such soils, Al solubility is theoretically a function of the pool size of "active" Al, i.e., the total amount of Al that equilibrates with the soil solution within a defined period of time. To date, no reliable measurements of "active" Al in soil materials exist. In this study, we determined the isotopically exchangeable pool of Al ( EAl) as an operationally defined assessment of "active" Al in acidic mineral soils. The suitability of CuCl 2 and pyrophosphate (Na 4P 2O 7) as extractants for "active" Al was also evaluated. Eleven samples, mostly from spodic B horizons, were spiked with carrier-free 26Al and equilibrated for different time periods (1-756 h). The size of the Al pool with which the 26Al tracer exchanged increased with time during the whole experimental period. Thus, contact time between solid and solution phases needs to be defined when assessing the "active" Al pool. Values of EAl obtained after 1 to 5 d of equilibration were equal to the amount of CuCl 2 extractable Al, but considerably smaller than the Na 4P 2O 7-extractable pool. Equilibration times greater than 5 d resulted in CuCl 2 extractable Al concentrations that under-estimated the "active" Al pool. Three of the investigated samples were rich in imogolite-type materials (ITM). In these samples, 30-50 % of the added 26Al rapidly became associated with soil constituents in forms that could not be extracted by Na 4P 2O 7, indicating that a part of ITM may be in a dynamic state.

Kleja, D. Berggren; Standring, W.; Oughton, D. H.; Gustafsson, J.-P.; Fifield, K.; Fraser, A. R.

2005-11-01

143

Naphthalene sorption to organic soil materials studied with continuous stirred flow experiments  

SciTech Connect

Estimation of sorption-desorption kinetics of hydrophobic contaminants in soils and sediments is a prerequisite for assessing the risk of hazardous compounds and for studying the feasibility of bioremediation treatments. Naphthalene sorption studies were carried out with four organic soil materials, using a batch sorption technique and a continuously stirred flow (CSF) cell. Reproducibility of the CSF experiments were tested, and an experiment with different inputs showed that experimental results were independent of input pulse length. Single-particle and multi-particle linear driving force models and bicontinuum models were tested. When the sorption coefficient K{sub om} was fixed at the values obtained from the batch experiments, the RMSE modeling error increased with increasing N{sub 2} surface area, S{sub N2}, of the soil materials. The high RMSE for soil materials with a high N{sub 2} surface area was the result of strong sorption-desorption non-singularity, most probably due to a larger fraction of the applied naphthalene diffusing to slow sorption sites. A dual resistance sorption model was able to accurately describe the data with two free parameters. However, parameter uncertainty resulted from the simultaneous optimization of the rate parameter, {alpha}, and K{sub om}. The combination of batch sorption experiments, input-response experiments, and model exercises give supporting evidence that sorption kinetics of hydrophobic organic compounds to soil OM are controlled by (i) rapid pore diffusion toward S{sub N2} ({alpha} = 0.1 h{sup {minus}1}) and (ii) slow diffusion into the soil organic matter structure ({alpha} = 0.01--0.001 h{sup {minus}1}).

Jonge, H. de [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences, Tjele (Denmark). Dept. of Crop Physiology and Soil Science; Heimovaara, T.J.; Verstraten, J.M. [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Physical Geography and Soil Science

1999-03-01

144

Overview of recent magnetic studies of high T{sub c} cuprate parent compounds and related materials  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of the magnetic properties of several high superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) cuprate parent compounds and related materials will be reviewed. The observations of a Heisenberg to XY-like crossover upon cooling below {approximately}300K towards the Neel temperature T{sub N} = 257 K and a subsequent magnetic field-induced XY-like to Ising-like crossover near TN in single crystals of the K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4} type spin 1/2 model compound Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} will be described.

Johnston, D.C.; Ami, T.; Borsa, F. [and others

1995-12-01

145

Dose-response functions for the soiling of heritage materials due to air pollution exposure.  

PubMed

A set of materials (Portland limestone, white painted steel, white plastic and polycarbonate filter material) was exposed at locations in London, Athens and Krakow. Regular measurements of reflectance were taken over a period of twelve months. Co-located measurements of PM(10) concentrations were available. Based on these results, the relationship between soiling (measured as loss of reflectance) and ambient PM(10) concentrations was quantified leading to the development of dose-response functions for the soiling of materials. The results for limestone revealed too much scatter for a prediction to be made. Implications for air quality management and for the conservation of cultural heritage buildings are considered, including public acceptability and economic factors. PMID:18774161

Watt, John; Jarrett, David; Hamilton, Ron

2008-09-05

146

Method of estimating the travel time of noninteracting solutes through compacted soil material  

SciTech Connect

The pollutant travel time through compacted soil material (i.e., when a pollutant introduced at the top first appears at the bottom) cannot be accurately predicted from the permeability (saturated hydraulic conductivity) alone. The travel time is also dependent on the effective porosity of the material; i.e., the portion of the total porosity that contributes significantly to fluid flow. Pollutant travel time is directly proportional to effective porosity and thickness of a compacted layer and inversely proportional to permeability and hydraulic gradient. The total porosity is calculated from measurements of bulk and particle density. Pore-size distribution information is obtained from the cumulative porosity curve of the sample as measured by mercury-intrusion porosimeter. The paper also compares measured and predicted solute breakthrough times for three compacted soil materials.

Horton, R.; Thompson, M.L.; McBride, J.F.

1987-01-01

147

Premining evaluation of forage grass growth on mine soil materials from an east-central Texas lignite site: 2. soil profile horizons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several warm-season forage grasses and a cool-season pasture mix of oats plus clover were grown in a greenhouse on mixtures of soil profile horizon materials from an unmined lignite site in east-central Texas and then evaluated as to the suitability of the various soil materials for selective placement over regraded lignite mine spoil during land reclamation. Mixtures of the clayey

F. W. CHICHESTER

1983-01-01

148

The parent material as the dominant factor in Holocene pedogenesis in the Uruguay River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Uruguay River basin (South America; 365,000 km²), an episode of pedogenesis occurred during the Climatic Optimum of the Holocene, approximately between 8,500 and 3,500 yr BP. This period of 5,000 years was characterized by a humid and warm climate. In terms of factors of soil formation, an interesting pattern appears. The climate was relatively homogeneous over the whole

Martín Iriondo; Daniela Kröhling

149

Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Soil is an example of a non-living thing. Soil contains nutrients and living organisms, but the soil itself is not alive. Soil is important in plant growth because soil gives plants a place to anchor their roots and it also provides the plant with essential nutrients.

Scott Bauer (USDA-ARS;)

2006-05-23

150

Halloysite versus gibbsite: Silicon cycling as a pedogenetic process in two lowland neotropical rain forest soils of La Selva, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halloysite and gibbsite, although known to require quite different conditions for their formation, commonly occur together in the same horizon in oxisols derived from andesitic parent materials in tropical Costa Rica. We selected two soils of similar parent material, but of different ages and soil moisture regimes to identify possible clues to the coexistence of these two minerals. We employed

Markus Kleber; Luitgard Schwendenmann; Edzo Veldkamp; Jenny Rößner; Reinhold Jahn

2007-01-01

151

Evaluation of common practice empirical procedures for residual friction angle of soils: Hawaiian amorphous material rich colluvial soil case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The residual strength of soils has received considerable attention after Skempton suggested that the stability of reactivated landslides may be governed by residual strength. In this respect, numerous studies have been conducted to determine the factors affecting the residual strength of soils. Specifically, research effort was focused on determining correlations between the residual friction angle of soils and soil indexes

Abidin Kaya; James K. P. Kwong

2007-01-01

152

Calcium content of liming material and its effect on sulphur release in a coniferous forest soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil columns with O + A (Experiment I) or Ohorizons (Experiment II) from a Haplic Podsol wereincubated at 15 °C for 368 and 29 + 106 days,respectively. Three types of liming material differingin Ca2+ content, i.e. calcium carbonate(CaCO3), dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) andmagnesium carbonate (MgCO3), were mixed into theO horizons in equimolar amounts corresponding to 6000kg of CaCO3 per ha. In the

Inger Valeur; Stefan Andersson; S. Ingvar Nilsson

2000-01-01

153

Comparison of NAA methods to determine medium-lived radionuclides in NIST soil standard reference materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the elemental concentrations of three new soil standard reference materials SRMs 2709, 2710 and 2711 from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), a comparative study of different medium-lived neutron activation analysis methods was carefully performed. Three irradiation conditions (1-hour thermal, 1-hour epithermal and 5-minute epithermal) and two counting modes (normal and Compton suppression) have

D. Wu; S. Landsberger

1994-01-01

154

Parents' regulation and self-regulation and performance in children with intellectual disability in problem-solving using physical materials or computers.  

PubMed

This study compared mothers and fathers' regulation with respect to 29 children with intellectual disability (ID) and 30 typically developing (TD) children, matched on their mental age (MA), as they solved eight tasks using physical materials and computers. Seven parents' regulatory strategies were coded as they supported their child's identification of the objective, planning, attention, motivation, joint attention, behaviour regulation and evaluation. Children's performance was scored. Regulation by the parents of the two groups did not differ significantly, regardless of the medium, except that the degree of parental regulation of the child's behaviour was greater in the ID group than in the TD group. In tasks involving the computer, we observed a higher degree of regulation of children's planning and a lower degree of regulation of their evaluation for the two groups. The parents displayed significantly less regulation with respect to the children with the highest MA than towards the children with the lowest MA, in each group. There was a significant interaction effect of medium and children's MA on overall parents' regulation and on their support of identification of objective and of planning. Most parental strategies were negatively linked with ID and TD children's performance in tasks. In both groups, with control for MA, parental support with the identification of the objective, with planning and with attention was negatively linked to the corresponding self-regulatory strategies of the children with each medium; however, parents' joint attention was positively linked with children's joint attention. PMID:22119692

Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Lefèvre, Nathalie

2011-11-24

155

Materials testing for in situ stabilization treatability study of INEEL mixed wastes soils  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the contaminant-specific materials testing phase of the In Situ Stabilization Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study (TS). The purpose of materials testing is to measure the effectiveness of grouting agents to stabilize Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Acid Pit soils and select a grout material for use in the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Treatability Study within the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Test results will assist the selecting a grout material for the follow-on demonstrations described in Test Plan for the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Phases of the In Situ Stabilization Treatability Study at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

Heiser, J.; Fuhrmann, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1997-09-01

156

Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the handout is to identify the three major types of soils: pedalfer, pedocal, and laterite, and to understand the soil profile. This is accomplished with brief descriptions of the soil horizons and the designation of common elements to pedalfers, pedocals, and laterite soils. The handout is concluded with a discussion of soil erosion. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Gore, Pamela

1995-08-29

157

Immobilization of heavy metals in polluted soils by the addition of zeolitic material synthesized from coal fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of zeolitic material synthesized from coal fly ash for the immobilization of pollutants in contaminated soils was investigated in experimental plots in the Guadiamar Valley (SW Spain). This area was affected by a pyrite slurry spill in April 1998. Although reclamation activities were completed in a few months, residual pyrite slurry mixed with soil accounted for relatively high

Xavier Querol; Andrés Alastuey; Natàlia Moreno; Esther Alvarez-Ayuso; Antonio Garc??a-Sánchez; Jordi Cama; Carles Ayora; Mariano Simón

2006-01-01

158

The hydraulic conductivity of low permeability wet soils used as landfill lining and capping material: analysis of pressure infiltrometer measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of pressure infiltrometer measurements on low permeability wet soils used for landfill lining and capping material provided an estimate of values of field saturated hydraulic conductivity. Since the soil was almost saturated, steady-state flow through the ring was obtained soon after the start of a test without a significant initial unsteady absorption period. With the assumption that the

E. G. Youngs; P. B. Leeds-Harrison; D. E. Elrick

1995-01-01

159

Land application of carbonatic lake-dredged materials: effects on soil quality and forage productivity.  

PubMed

The ability to reuse carbonatic lake-dredged materials (CLDM) for agricultural purposes is important because it reduces offshore disposal and provides an alternative to disposal of the materials in landfills that are already overtaxed. A four-year (2001 to 2005) study on land application of CLDM as an option for disposal was conducted on a beef cattle pasture in south central Florida. The objectives of this study were (i) to assess CLDM as a soil amendment to improve quality of sandy soils in most subtropical beef cattle pastures and (ii) to determine the effect of CLDM on productivity and nutritive values of bahiagrass (BG, Paspalum notatum Flügge) in subtropical beef cattle pasture. The five treatment combinations arranged in randomized complete block design were represented by plots with different ratios (R) of natural soil (NS) to CLDM: R1 (1000 g kg(-1):0 g kg(-1)); R2 (750 g kg(-1):250 g kg(-1)); R3 (500 g kg(-1):500 g kg(-1)); R4 (250 g kg(-1):750 g kg(-1)); and R5 (0 g kg(-1):1000 g kg(-1)). Addition of CLDM had significant (p < or = 0.001) effects on soil quality and favorable influence on forage establishment and nutritive values. Compared with the control plots (0 g kg(-1)), the soils in plots amended with CLDM exhibited (i) lower penetration resistance, (ii) an increase in soil pH and exchangeable cations (Ca and Mg), and (iii) decrease in the levels of soil trace metals (Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Si). Results disclosed consistently and significantly (p < or = 0.001) higher BG biomass production (forage yield = -106.3x(2) + 1015.8x - 39.2; R(2) = 0.99**) and crude protein content (CP = 1.24x + 6.48; R(2) = 0.94**) from plots amended with CLDM than those of BG planted on plots with no CLDM treatment. PMID:16899749

Sigua, Gilbert C; Coleman, Samuel W; Holtkamp, Mike L

2006-08-09

160

Laboratory and field testing for utilization of an excavated soil as landfill liner material.  

PubMed

This study investigates the feasibility of using a silty soil excavated in highway construction as landfill liner material. The tests were conducted both at laboratory and in situ scales, and the soil was tested in pure and lime treated forms. Different levels of compaction energy were used. For the field study, a test pad was constructed and in situ hydraulic conductivity experiments were conducted by sealed double ring infiltrometers (SDRI). Laboratory testing revealed that while lime treatment improved the shear strength, it resulted in higher hydraulic conductivity values compared to pure soil. It was observed that leachate permeation did not change the hydraulic conductivity of the pure and lime treated samples. Laboratory hydraulic conductivities were on the order of 10(-9) m/s and met the 1.0E-08 m/s criterion in the Turkish regulations, which is one order of magnitude higher than the value allowed in most developed countries. SDRI testing, which lasted for 6 mo, indicated that lime treatment increased the hydraulic conductivity of pure soil significantly in the field scale tests. In situ hydraulic conductivities were on the order of 1E-08 and 1E-07 m/s, and exceeded the allowable value in the Turkish regulations. Undisturbed samples collected from the test pad were not representative of field hydraulic conductivities. Contrary to laboratory findings, higher compaction efforts did not result in lower hydraulic conductivities in field scales. The study verified the importance of in situ hydraulic conductivity testing in compacted liners. PMID:16376067

Bozbey, Ilknur; Guler, Erol

2005-12-20

161

Evaluation of Lunar Rocks and Soils for Resource Utilization: Detailed Image Analysis of Raw Materials and Beneficiated Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rocks and soils of the Moon will be the raw materials for fuels and construction needs at a lunar base. This includes sources of materials for the generation of hydrogen, oxygen, metals, and other potential construction materials. For most of the bulk...

L. A. Taylor J. G. Chambers A. Patchen E. A. Jerde D. S. Mckay

1993-01-01

162

Digital Soil Mapping - An Introductory Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Real soil-landscapes are complex,consisting of aninextricable mix of patterns and noise varying continuously in the space-time continuum. Soils and parent material show gradual variations in the horizontal and verticalplanes forming 3D bodies that are commonly,anisotropic. There is no real beginning ,and ,end ,point in soil-landscapes because ,environmental ,conditions are dynamically changed through water flow, biogeochemical processes, and human activities.

P. Lagacherie; A. B. McBratney; M. Voltz; S. Grunwald; V. Ramasundaram; N. B. Comerford; C. M. Bliss

163

Use of sodium polytungstate in the granulo-densimetric fractionation of soil material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solution of sodium polytungstate (SPT) is used as a heavy liquid in global soil studies. This reagent has found wide use because it is nontoxic, incombustible, well soluble, environmentally safe, and of low viscosity. There is a relatively simple and accessible method for its regeneration. The reagent contains no carbon compounds, which is important for studying organic matter with the use of carbon isotopes. However, some chemical properties of SPT should be taken into consideration to ensure the obtainment of incoherent and sorbed solid-phase forms of organic matter. A modification of granulodensimetric fractionation is described that allows separating the solid-phase fractions of soils without changes in the content and isotope composition of the organic carbon and organic nitrogen in the separated material.

Morgun, E. G.; Makarov, M. I.

2011-04-01

164

Diffusion of Iodine and Rhenium in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e. sorption or precipitation). This understanding will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. A set of diffusion experiments using carbonated and non-carbonated concrete-soil half cells was conducted under unsaturated conditions (4% and 7% by wt moisture content). Spiked concrete half-cell specimens were prepared with and without colloidal metallic iron addition and were carbonated using supercritical carbon dioxide. Spikes of I and Re were added to achieve measurable diffusion profile in the soil part of the half-cell. In addition, properties of concrete materials likely to influence radionuclide migration such as carbonation were evaluated in an effort to correlate these properties with the release of iodine and rhenium.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Wood, Marcus I.

2006-12-15

165

Physical and hydraulic properties of soils of the Sudano-Sahelian regions of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inadequacy of rainfall and poor soil fertility in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa are responsible for the hunger, misery and desertification in the area. It is therefore important to understand the soils and their properties for effective management strategies. In Nigeria, the soils are formed from aeolian, lacustrine and basement complex parent materials and are classified mostly as

H. O. MADUAKOR

166

Pedogenesis, geochemical forms of heavy metals, and artifact weathering in an urban soil chronosequence, Detroit, Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

An urban soil chronosequence in downtown Detroit, MI was studied to determine the effects of time on pedogenesis and heavy metal sequestration. The soils developed in fill derived from mixed sandy and clayey diamicton parent materials on a level late Pleistocene lakebed plain under grass vegetation in a humid-temperate (mesic) climate. The chronosequence is comprised of soils in vacant lots

Jeffrey L. Howard; Dorota Olszewska

2011-01-01

167

Direct estimates of pedogenic magnetite as a tool to reconstruct past climates from buried soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in magnetic properties of buried soils can be used to reconstruct past climatic conditions during paleosol formation. Most methods, however, are based on comparisons between the magnetically enriched upper soil horizons and the magnetically unaltered parent material. In thin loess-paleosol sequences such a comparison can be problematic because all horizons, soil and underlying loess, may be affected to varying

Christoph E. Geiss; Ramon Egli; C. William Zanner

2008-01-01

168

Leaching experiments on the release of heavy metals and PAH from soil and waste materials.  

PubMed

Leaching tests are fundamental tools for the assessment of long-term impact of contaminated waste materials on the soil-groundwater pathway. Experiments were carried out in the framework of standardization and validation of column percolation and batch test procedures, in particular concerning the stipulation of the experimental setup. The colloid release of column and batch experiments was compared and the influence of different column filling heights (12.5-50 cm) on the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from soil was studied, as well as the effect of varying contact times (2.5-16 h) on the release of chromium from construction and demolition (C&D) waste and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash. The results indicate that filtration of the eluate, which is required for batch tests, does not always allow the simulation of the actual colloid amount in soil pore water. Medium column heights four times the inner diameter of the column seemed to provide reasonable equilibrium adjustment conditions and avoid major biodegradation. The release of chromium was only marginally affected by the contact time, varied between 0.115 and 0.150 mg/kg for demolition waste eluate at a liquid-to-solid ratio of approximately 5L/kg. PMID:21377270

Krüger, O; Kalbe, U; Berger, W; Simon, F G; Meza, S López

2011-02-15

169

Sorption/desorption reversibility of phenanthrene in soils and carbonaceous materials  

SciTech Connect

Sorption/desorption of phenanthrene in two soil samples and carbonaceous materials was found to yield co-incident equilibrium isotherms and no significant hysteresis was observed. Additionally, release of native phenanthrene was investigated. Equilibrium sorption and desorption isotherms were determined using pulverized samples of Pahokee peat, lignite, and high-volatile bituminous coal, a mineral soil, and an anthropogenic soil. Instead of the conventional decant-and-refill batch method, sorption/desorption was driven by temperature changes using consistent samples. Sorption started at 77{sup o}C and was increased by reducing the temperature stepwise to 46, 20, and finally 4{sup o}C. For desorption the temperature was increased stepwise again until 77{sup o}C was reached. Besides the co-incident sorption and desorption isotherms at each temperature step, the solubility-normalized sorption/desorption isotherms of all different temperatures collapse to unique overall isotherms. Leaching of native phenanthrene occurred at much lower concentrations but was well predicted by extrapolation of the spiked sorption isotherms indicating that the release of native phenanthrene involves the same sorption/desorption mechanisms as those for newly added phenanthrene. 35 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Guohui Wang; Sybille Kleineidam; Peter Grathwohl [University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany). Center for Applied Geoscience

2007-02-15

170

Sorption/desorption reversibility of phenanthrene in soils and carbonaceous materials.  

PubMed

Sorption/desorption of phenanthrene in two soil samples and carbonaceous materials was found to yield co-incident equilibrium isotherms and no significant hysteresis was observed. Additionally, release of native phenanthrene was investigated. Equilibrium sorption and desorption isotherms were determined using pulverized samples of Pahokee peat, lignite, and high-volatile bituminous coal, a mineral soil, and an anthropogenic soil. Instead of the conventional decant-and-refill batch method, sorption/desorption was driven by temperature changes using consistent samples. Sorption started at 77 degrees C and was increased by reducing the temperature stepwise to 46, 20, and finally 4 degrees C. For desorption the temperature was increased stepwise again until 77 degrees C was reached. Besides the co-incident sorption and desorption isotherms at each temperature step, the solubility-normalized sorption/desorption isotherms of all different temperatures collapseto unique overall isotherms. Leaching of native phenanthrene occurred at much lower concentrations but was well predicted by extrapolation of the spiked sorption isotherms indicating that the release of native phenanthrene involves the same sorption/desorption mechanisms as those for newly added phenanthrene. PMID:17593717

Wang, Guohui; Kleineidam, Sybille; Grathwohl, Peter

2007-02-15

171

Mineral materials as feasible amendments to stabilize heavy metals in polluted urban soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four minerals, agricultural limestone (AL), rock phosphate (RP), palygorskite (PG), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), were evaluated by means of chemical fractions of heavy metals in soils and concentrations of heavy metals in leachates from columns to determine their ability to stabilize heavy metals in polluted urban soils. Two urban soils (calcareous soil and acidic soil) polluted with cadmium, copper,

Mingkui Zhang; Jincheng Pu

2011-01-01

172

Preparation and characterization of a soil reference material from a mercury contaminated site for comparability studies.  

PubMed

The preparation and characterization of a soil reference material (SOIL-1) from a site polluted with mercury due to the past mercury mining in Idrija, Slovenia is reported. Homogeneity tests and intercomparison exercises for total (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were performed. In addition, selective sequential extraction was applied for Hg fractionation, and multielemental analyses were performed by k(0) standardization neutron activation analysis (k(0)-INAA) and inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for other trace elements. Comparison of different analytical methods, as well as the distribution of data were critically evaluated using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Due to the nugget effect (cinnabar particles representing more than 90% of the mercury), homogeneity for T-Hg determination was difficult to achieve. The intercomparison exercise indicated that in order to obtain comparable results for total mercury (T-Hg) sample decomposition by HF must be performed. These data are then in good agreement with non-destructive methods such as k(0)-INAA. Accepted reference values calculated taking into account the results obtained by six and three laboratories, respectively, were 67.1+/-11.3 mg kg(-1) for T-Hg and 4.0+/-1.3 ng g(-1) for MeHg (95% confidence intervals). However, the results obtained for Hg fractionation displayed significant differences in the organically bound fraction and elemental Hg. Results obtained by two laboratories using totally different analytical protocols for other elements showed excellent agreement for most elements. In summary, the results obtained for the SOIL-1 sample were of sufficient quality to suggest its use for quality control in laboratories dealing with mercury contaminated soils. PMID:16757094

Kocman, David; Bloom, Nicolas S; Akagi, Hirokatso; Telmer, Kevin; Hylander, Lars; Fajon, Vesna; Jereb, Vesna; Ja?imovi?, Radojko; Smodis, Borut; Ikingura, Justinian R; Horvat, Milena

2006-06-06

173

Transport of PCDDs, PCP and PAHs through soils in the presence of codisposed materials  

SciTech Connect

Solubility and sorption experiments were conducted to investigate transport through surface soils of five polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), pentachlorophenol (PCP) and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the presence of codisposed materials. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the solubilities of the PCDDs in methanol and the solubility of penta-CDD (P{sub 5} CDD) in water/methanol. The slopes of the log-linear relationship between water and methanol solubilities, ({sigma}{sub s}) values obtained versus log K{sub ow} (octanol water partition coefficient) were consistent with the trend observed in the literature. Sorption of PCP (pK{sub a} = 4.7) by surface soils from water/methanol mixtures was measured using column and batch techniques. Water-phase linear sorption partition coefficients (K{sub D}) determined were in agreement with reported literature values. The cosolvent theory was found to be applicable to PCP and a {alpha}{sigma}{sub s} value of 2.9 for PCP was consistent with the trend between {alpha}{sub s} and log K{sub ow} observed in the literature. Batch experiments were conducted to determine sorption of PCDDs by soils at fraction solvent (f{sub s}) of 0.90 to complement the available cosolvent data for PCDDs. The results obtained from these experiments were in agreement with the expected trend and new values of {alpha} and {alpha}{sigma}{sub s} determined over a wider f{sub s} range were in agreement with the trend expected versus log K{sub ow} of these PCDDS. Column techniques were utilized to study transport of PCDDs at f{sub s} values of 0.75, 0.90 and 1.00. The results from these experiments indicated the importance of sorption non-equilibrium for PCDDS. Effect of PCP and CB on sorption of PCDDs to soils in the presence of methanol was investigated.

Yousefi, Z.

1989-01-01

174

Heavy metals (copper, lead, nickel, and cadmium) in the organic part of gray forest soils in the Buryat Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The levels of the accumulation of copper, lead, nickel, and cadmium in the parent material-soil-plants-soil organic matter system are given for gray forest soils in the Buryat Republic. The concentrations of copper, lead, and nickel in the parent materials do not exceed the corresponding clarkes, and cadmium is present in trace amounts. The concentrations of copper and nickel in the humus horizon are lower than those in the parent material; an opposite situation is observed for lead. The concentrations of copper, lead, and nickel in the soil organic matter and in the herbaceous plants correspond to their contents in the soil and do not exceed the background (clarke) values. Cadmium was not detected in the aboveground part of the plants, though it was found in the root mass and in the organic soil horizon. In the humus of gray forest soils, these heavy metals are mainly present in the acid filtrate remaining after the precipitation of humic acids.

Chimitdorzhieva, G. D.; Nimbueva, A. Z.; Bodeeva, E. A.

2012-02-01

175

Spatial distribution of metals in soils in Baltimore, Maryland: role of ...  

Treesearch

... in soils in Baltimore, Maryland: role of native parent material, proximity to major ... a principal component analysis, the first component corresponded to Co, Cr, ... Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

176

Corrosion rate of parent and weld materials of F82H and JPCA steels under LBE flow with active oxygen control at 450 and 500 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion behavior of parent and weld materials of F82H and JPCA was studied in the circulating LBE loop under impinging flow. These are candidate materials for Japanese Accelerator Driven System (ADS) beam windows. Maximum temperatures were kept to 450 and 500°C with 100°C constant temperature difference. Main flow velocity was 0.4–0.6m\\/s in every case. Oxygen concentration was controlled to 2–4×10?5mass%

Kenji Kikuchi; Kinya Kamata; Mikinori Ono; Teruaki Kitano; Kenichi Hayashi; Hiroyuki Oigawa

2008-01-01

177

The Effectiveness of Audiovisual Self-Instructional Materials in Teaching ChildCare Skills to Parents with Intellectual Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children of parents with intellectual disabilities are at risk for neglectful care due to parenting skill deficiencies. Previous studies have shown that parents with intellectual disabilities can improve child-care skills with intensive behavioral training, but self-instruction has not been explored. We evaluated the efficacy of self-instructional pictorial child-care manuals with and without accompanying audiotaped instruction using a multielement design with

Maurice A. Feldman; Laurie Case

1997-01-01

178

Effect of climate, soil type and earthworm activity on nitrogen transfer from a nitrogen-15-labelled decomposing material under field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

N transfer from 15N-labelled decomposing material into the microbial biomass and inorganic N forms was studied for more than 2 years at three\\u000a experimental sites differing in climatic conditions and earthworm abundance. The 15N-labelled decomposing material was mixed with low-elevation soil (LES), mid-elevation soil (MES) and high-elevation soil\\u000a (HES). The amended soils were put into two kinds of plastic cylinders

J. Cortez; G. Billes; M. B. Bouché

2000-01-01

179

Soil residence time: A window into landscape morphologic steady state  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a landscape in true morphologic steady state the erosion rate and the average residence time of the debris mantle regolith (including the soils) are everywhere equal. Where other factors influencing soil properties such as climate, organisms and parent material are relatively invariant the degree of weathering and extent of pedological development in the debris mantle regolith should be spatially

P. C. Almond; J. J. Roering

2005-01-01

180

Material properties data and volume estimate of silt loam soil at the NRDWL Reserve, McGee Ranch  

SciTech Connect

A closure and postclosure plan for the Hanford Site Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL) was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and submitted for regulatory agency review in 1990. In the closure plan, construction of a final cover over the NRDWL is proposed. The design specifies a topsoil component consisting of layers of compacted and noncompacted fine-textured soil. The objective of compacting a portion of the topsoil layer is to impede infiltration of soil moisture. The McGee Ranch area on the Hanford Site is proposed as the source area for fine-textured soils to support cover construction. A number of data needs are identified in the closure plan for definitive design of the NRDWL final cover. Specifically, the plan identifies a need to characterize potential borrow areas for fine-textured soil, to ensure that (1) material properties vary within acceptable limits for the application, and (2) sufficient quantities of suitable material are available.

Not Available

1994-02-17

181

Plant material as bioaccumulator of arsenic in soils affected by mining activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metal contamination is an important environmental problem, since the metals are harmful to humans, animals and tend to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to determine the total concentration of As, As (III) and As(V) in soil samples, leaves and roots of plant material, growing in a mining area in Spain (Murcia). Ditichia viscosa was used as the plant of reference. The concentrations of bioavailable As in plant samples were calculated by different soil chemical extraction methods; deionized water, 0.5N NaHCO3 (Olsen extraction), oxidizable medium, 0.5 HCl, 0.05M (NH4)2SO4, 0.005M DTPA and Mehra-Jackson extraction. For this study, fourteen samples were collected in the surrounding area of Sierra Minera and Portman Bay (Murcia, SE Spain). Samples were air dried and sieved to < 2mm for general analytical determinations. To determine the As content, soil samples were first ground to a fine powder using an agate ball mill. Fresh vegetable samples were separated into root and aboveground biomass and then lyophilized. Arsenic levels were obtained by using atomic fluorescence spectrometry with an automated continuous flow hydride generation (HG-AFS) spectrometer. Samples showed pH average values close to neutrality. Most samples showed a very low organic matter percentage. Electrical conductivity and calcium carbonate content were considerably low in most samples. The mineralogical analysis showed that the main minerals were quartz, muscovite, kaolinite and illite, while the minority minerals were alteration products derived of mining activities (iron oxides and hydroxides, siderite, jarosite and gypsum), calcite and feldspars. Although the plants do not absorb arsenic in the same proportion, the results suggest that a good relationship exists between the total content of As in soil and the total content in plant. The results showed that the arsenic content in roots was positively correlated with the oxidizable-organic matter and sulfides fraction (oxidaizable medium extraction procedure). Arsenic concentration in leaves was positively correlated with the arsenic extracted by HCl, with the oxidizable-organic matter and sulfides fraction and with the arsenic extracted by Mehra-Jackson extraction. According to our results, As is accumulated in the leaves of the plants and is linked with iron oxides of these soils affected by mining activities.

Martínez-López, Salvadora; Martínez-Sánchez, Maria Jose; García-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen

2010-05-01

182

Soil microstructure and factors of its formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructural stability of soils of different geneses (steppe soils, tropical soils, and subtropical soils) developed from marine clay, loess, and weathering crusts was studied by the method of successive treatments with chemical reagents destroying the particular clay-aggregating components. The following dispersing agents were used: (1) H2O (pH 5.5), (2) 0.1 N NaCl (pH 6), (3) 0.002% Na2CO3 (pH 8.7), (4) 0.1 N NaOH (pH 11.5), (5) the Tamm reagent (pH 3.2), and (6) 0.1 N NaOH (pH 11.5). The properties of the clay subfractions obtained in the course of these treatments were studied by a set of analytical methods, including X-ray diffractometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. It was shown that soil microaggregates are formed under the impact of a number of physicochemical processes; the content and properties of inorganic components (clay minerals in soils with a high CEC and iron oxides in soils with a low CEC) are the controlling factors. The structure of the parent materials is transformed to different degrees to form the soil structure. For example, autonomous nondifferentiated soils inherit, to some extent, the specific microorganization of the parent material. At the same time, the redistribution of substances in the soil profile and in the landscape may exert a substantial influence on the soil structure and microstructure. This is particularly true for autonomous differentiated soils, turbated soils, accumulative soils, polylithogenic soils, and polygenetic soils. The properties of the obtained subfractions of the clay (the mineralogical composition, the Fe2+/(Fe2+ + Fe3+) ratio, the magnetic susceptibility, and the Cha/Cfa ratio) attest to the spatial heterogeneity of the composition and properties of the mineral and organic aggregated compounds in soils.

Alekseeva, T. V.

2007-06-01

183

Effect of Ground Rubber vs. ZnSO4 on Spinach Accumulation of Cd from Cd-Mineralized California Soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Certain soils derived from marine shale in Salinas Valley, CA, USA, contain significant levels of natural Cd but normal levels of Zn, all derived from the soil parent materials. Crops grown on these soils contain high levels of Cd, and because of the high Cd:Zn, this Cd is highly bioavailable and a...

184

Using farmers' knowledge of soils in making research results more relevant to field practice: Experiences from Rwanda  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the highlands of Rwanda, soils and climatic conditions vary over short distances in response to relief, parent material and altitude. Soil parameters change in a characteristic way from the hilltop\\/upper slope to the lower slope and valley bottom. Variations in soil parameters are reflected in crop yields. On average, the lower slopes yield 20–50% less compared with upper slopes,

K. G Steiner

1998-01-01

185

Premining evaluation of forage grass growth on mine soil materials from an east-central Texas lignite site: 1. Overburden strata  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a greenhouse, several warm-season forage grasses were grown on overburden materials from an unmined lignite site in east-central Texas. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the materials for plant response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and lime additions and to identify any physical or chemical soil factors that might be adverse to plant establishment. Soil materials used were composited

F. W. CHICHESTER

1981-01-01

186

Thermodynamic properties of several soil- and sediment-derived natural organic materials.  

PubMed

Improved understanding of the structure of soil- and sediment-derived organic matter is critical to elucidating the mechanisms that control the reactivity and transport of contaminants in the environment. This work focuses on an experimental investigation of thermodynamic properties that are a function of the macromolecular structure of natural organic matter (NOM). A suite of thermal analysis instruments were employed to quantify glass transition temperatures (Tg), constant-pressure specific heat capacities (Cp), and thermal expansion coefficients (alpha) of several International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) soil-, sediment-, and aquatic-derived NOMs. Thermal mechanical analysis (TMA) of selected NOMs identified Tgs between 36 and 72 degrees C, and alphas ranging from 11 mum/m degrees C below the Tg to 242 mum/m degrees C above the Tg. Standard differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) measurements provided additional evidence of glass transition behavior, including identification of multiple transition behavior in two aquatic samples. TMDSC also provided quantitative measures of Cp at 0 and 25 degrees C, ranging from 1.27 to 1.44 J/g degrees C. Results from TMA, DSC, and TMDSC analyses are consistent with glass transition theories for organic macromolecules, and the glass transition behavior of other NOM materials reported in previous studies. Discussion of the importance of quantifying these thermodynamic properties is presented in terms of improved physical and chemical characterization of NOM structures, and in terms of providing constraints to molecular simulation models of NOM structures. PMID:14581055

DeLapp, Rossane C; LeBoeuf, Eugene J; Bell, Katherine D

2004-01-01

187

MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPORT EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC MATERIALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the formulation, numerical development, and use of a multiphase, multicomponent, biodegradation model designed to simulate physical, chemical, and biological interactions occurring primarily in field scale soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (B...

188

Assessment of soil organic carbon distribution in Europe scale by spatio-temporal data and geostatistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accuracy in assessing the distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important issue because SOC is an important soil component that plays key roles in the functions of both natural ecosystems and agricultural systems. The SOC content varies from place to place and it is strongly related with climate variables (temperature and rainfall), terrain features, soil texture, parent material, vegetation, land-use types, and human management (management and degradation) at different spatial scales. Geostatistical techniques allow for the prediction of soil properties using soil information and environmental covariates. In this study, assessment of SOC distribution has been predicted using combination of LUCAS soil samples with local soil data and ten spatio-temporal predictors (slope, aspect, elevation, CTI, CORINE land-cover classification, parent material, texture, WRB soil classification, average temperature and precipitation) with Regression-Kriging method in Europe scale. Significant correlation between the covariates and the organic carbon dependent variable was found.

Aksoy, Ece; Panagos, Panos; Montanarella, Luca

2013-04-01

189

A New Test Method for Determining Biodegradation of Plastic Material Under Controlled Aerobic Conditions in a Soil-Simulation Solid Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new test method is described for assessing biodegradation of plastic material under simulated soil conditions. An inert substrate can be activated with soil extract and nutrient and used in place of soil in biodegradation tests. The biodegradation level is evaluated by determining the carbon dioxide (CO2) production released by the test reactors. Effects of substrate nature, solution pH, nutrient

Sophie Grima; Véronique Bellon-Maurel; Françoise Silvestre; Pierre Feuilloley

2001-01-01

190

Cementitious encapsulation of waste materials and/or contaminated soils containing heavy metals, to render them immobile  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to the cementitious encapsulation of waste materials and/or contaminated soils containing heavy metals, to render them immobile, and particularly to the immobilization of metals, in regulated amounts, in the wastes. A waste product comprising the metals is provided. A mixture is prepared comprising the wastes and/or contaminated soils containing heavy metals, water, and a cementitious composition. The cementitious composition comprises magnesium oxide and magnesium chloride in proportions effective to produce, with the water, a magnesium oxychloride cement. The cementitious composition is present in an amount which, on setting, is effective to immobilize the metals in the waste and/or contaminated soils. The mixture of waste and/or contaminated soils and cementitious composition is introduced to a disposition site, and allowed to set and harden at the site. The present invention is particularly useful for the remedial treatment of landfill sites. No Drawings

Stark, J.N.

1994-01-04

191

Diffusion of iodine and Technetium-99 through waste encasement concrete and unsaturated soil fill material  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of long-term performance of low level waste-enclosing cement grouts requires diffusivity data for radionuclide species such as, 129I and 99Tc. The diffusivity of radionuclides in soil and concrete media was collected by conducting soil-soil and concrete-soil half-cell experiments. The soil diffusivity coefficients for iodide were 7.03 x 10-8 cm2/s and 2.42 x 10-7 cm2/s for soils at 4% and 7% moisture contents, respectively. Iodide diffusivity in soil is a function of moisture content and is about an order of magnitude slower at lower moisture content. The soil diffusivity coefficients for 99Tc were 5.89 {+-} 0.80 x 10-8 cm2/s (4% moisture content) and 2.04 {+-} 0.57 x 10-7 cm2/s (7% moisture content), respectively. The soil diffusivity of iodide and 99Tc were similar in magnitude at both water contents, indicating that these ions have similar diffusion mechanisms in unsaturated coarse-textured Hanford soil. The diffusivity of iodide in concrete ranged from 2.07 x 10-14 cm2/s (4% soil moisture content) to 1.31 x 10-12 cm2/s (7% soil moisture content), indicating that under unsaturated soil moisture conditions, iodide diffusivity is highly sensitive to changing soil moisture conditions. Depending on the soil moisture content, the diffusivity of 99Tc in concrete ranged from 4.54 x 10-13 cm2/s to 8.02 x 10-12 cm2/s. At 4% soil moisture content, iodide diffused about 20 times more slowly than 99Tc, and at 7% soil moisture content, iodide in concrete diffused about 6 times slower than 99Tc.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Wood, Marcus I.; John M. Hanchar, Simcha Stores-Gascoyne, Lauren Browning

2004-10-30

192

Reflections on the Nature of Soil and Its Biomantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from the engineering approach to soil as movable regolith, most specialists who study soil view it as a plant-linked, land-only, and Earth-only entity whose character and properties are explained by a mix of four environmental factors—climate, organisms, relief, and parent material—that operate over time. These factors function to produce soil, where S=f (cl, o, r, p, t …). This

D. L. Johnson; J. E. J. Domier; D. N. Johnson

2005-01-01

193

Soil organic carbon storage in mountain grasslands of the Pyrenees: effects of climate and topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prediction of soil C stocks across the landscape has been increasingly studied in many areas of the world. Soil organic\\u000a C storage in mountain areas is highly heterogeneous, mainly as a result of local-scale variability in the soil environment\\u000a (topography, stoniness, parent material) and microclimate. The aims of the present study are to estimate soil organic C stocks\\u000a (SOCS)

Jordi Garcia-Pausas; Pere Casals; Lluís Camarero; Carme Huguet; Maria-Teresa Sebastià; Roy Thompson

2007-01-01

194

Role of Ristech Material in the Reclamation of Saline-Sodic Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 ABSTRACT: Five different treatments i.e. Ristech-102 (soil reclamator), Ristech-104 (water conditioner), Gypsum, Pressmud and Sub-soiling were compared for the reclamation of saline-sodic soils. Marginal quality tubewell water was used for irrigation purpose. Wheat-rice crop rotation was practised for the study. The infiltration rate of the soil significantly increased under all the treatments over the control treatment. No significantly positive

M. F. K. Niazi

195

Effects of coarse-grained material on hydraulic properties and shear strength of top soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sidewalk failures associated with top soil of low shear strength are a common problem in urban areas. Mixing top soil with granite chips can be used to increase its permeability and shear strength. The effects of mixing granite chips with top soils on the hydraulic properties and shear strength under saturated and unsaturated conditions were investigated in this study. The

H. Rahardjo; I. G. B. Indrawan; E. C. Leong; W. K. Yong

2008-01-01

196

Production of root-derived material and associated microbial growth in soil at different nutrient levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize plants were grown for 42 days in a sandy soil at two different mineral nutrient levels, in an atmosphere containing 14CO2. The 14C and total carbon contents of shoots, roots, soil and soil microbial biomass were measured 28, 35 and 42 days after germination. Relative growth rates of shoots and roots decreased after 35 days at the lower nutrient

R. Merckx; A. Dijkstra; A. den Hartog; J. A. Veen

1987-01-01

197

Properties of Several Fly Ash Materials in Relation to Use as Soil Amendments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash is comprised primarily of fine sand- and silt- sized particles, therefore if applied at sufficient rates it Fly ash samples from five power stations in Western Australia and can be used to change soil texture to increase soil water- Queensland, and two soils used for horticulture in Western Australia, were evaluated for a series of physical and chemical

S. M. Pathan; L. A. G. Aylmore; T. D. Colmer

2003-01-01

198

Pedogenesis and clay mineralogical investigation of soils formed on gypsiferous and calcareous materials, on a transect, southwestern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined pedogenesis, as well as the clay mineralogy of soil and rock samples obtained from a transect of gypsiferous and calcareous materials. The main objectives of this research were to study the relationship between clay minerals and physiographic units as well as the relative importance of key pedogenic processes in controlling clay mineralogy. Palygorskite, chlorite, illite, smectite, quartz

H. R. Owliaie; A. Abtahi; R. J. Heck

2006-01-01

199

The Experimental Earthwork at Wareham, Dorset after 33 Years: 3. Interaction of Soil Organisms with Buried Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wareham Experimental Earthwork was constructed in 1963 in an area of heathland in the south of England with acidic sandy soils to investigate the processes that occurred early in the establishment of the archaeological record. Amongst its objectives was monitoring the changes to various archaeological materials that were buried in the earthwork. In this paper we present data on

T Lawson; D. W Hopkins; J. A Chudek; R. C Janaway; M. G Bell

2000-01-01

200

Fundamental considerations of water repellancy in soil, and related effects on other natural and man-made materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will concern the understanding of soil water repellancy and wettability at a fundamental level, and the difficulties of relating the very small, micron scale at which the repellancy and wettability characteristics are produced to the much larger, field scale at which they are normally observed. The presentation will not be a review of past work, but rather will concentrate on recent publications, publications in press, and speculative considerations which may lead to future work in this area. There are three fundamental components of water repellancy - the nature of the soil surfaces themselves, the effect of organic matter and microbiologically produced substances, and the topology of the resultant surfaces. The effects of hydrophobic surfaces will be illustrated by a consideration of the wettability of substances such as commercially produced talc grades. The faces of these platey mineral particles are hydrophobic, whereas their edges are hydrophilic, and the combination not only causes water repellency in itself, but also causes unusual adsorption effects from aqueous solution. The effect of organic matter on soil wettability has been widely studied, often by core-scale wettability experiments. It will be shown how a consideration of micro-wetting effects has led to a more robust data analysis method for such studies (Matthews, G. P. et al, European J.Soil Sci., 2008). Traditionally wetting fronts are assumed to advance in proportion to the square root of time (as predicted by the Washburn equation), but micro-modelling shows that, once inertial effects are taken into account, low-volume fingers of wetting fluid track through porous substances in advance of the observed Washburn wetting front (Bodurtha, P. et al, J.Colloid Interface Sci., 2005). The effects of micro-topology are also well known (Ridgway, C. J. et al, J.Colloid Interface Sci., 2001), but need to be integrated and upscaled, as described below. Soil water repellency is not only dependant on the soil mineral characteristics, surface topology and organic matter content, but is also influenced by microbiological activity. The production of hydrophobic microbial biomass and exudates alter the hydrological characteristics of soil (Chan, K. Y., Soil Sci.Soc.Am.J., 1992) and strengthen the bonds between soil particles. Amongst these are extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which are produced as a result of microbial activity and increase during periods of substrate utilisation and microbial growth (Hallett, P. D. et al, European J.Soil Sci., 1999). They form part of a wide spectrum of soil organic species, many produced by the soil's bacterial and fungal biomass. EPS provides a living protective membrane between changing hydrological conditions and the micro-organisms. It comprises polysaccharides and smaller amounts of protein, lipids and humic substances, with masses ranging from 103 to 108 kDaltons (Allison, D. G. et al, Fems Microbiology Letters, 1998). The small amounts of EPS in soil have a disproportionately large effect on soil hydraulic properties, and the response of EPS to major perturbations, such as wetting and drying cycles, has recently been well characterised (Or, D. et al, Vadose Zone J, 2007). Therefore, as will be described, the use of EPS as an analogue to the wider range of organic species can lead to an understanding of climatic effects on soil wettability. The upscaling of the effects from micron to field scale requires a highly detailed modelling approach, using a dual -porous void structure model (a modification of the previous ‘Pore-Cor' model) which takes into account both the soil micro-matrix and the macroscopic percolation and wetting pathways (Laudone, G. M. et al, European J.Soil Sci., submitted). Super-hydrophobicity in natural materials (the ‘lotus' effect) and man-made materials (micro-structured arrays) will also be explained and illustrated, and the condition under which super-hydrophobicity can flip to super-wettability. Super-hydrophobicity gives an unusual insight into the less extreme examples

Matthews, G. Peter

2010-05-01

201

Assessment of radiological hazards due to the natural radioactivity in soil and building material samples collected from six districts of the Punjab province-Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been great concern about the health risks associated with the exposure due to the natural radioactivity present in soil and building materials all over the world. In this context, soil and building material samples were collected from Gujranwala, Gujrat, Hafizabad, Sialkot, Mandibahauddin and Narowal districts of the Punjab province, Pakistan. Ra226, Th232 and K40 concentrations were measured in

Munazza Faheem; S. A. Mujahid

2008-01-01

202

Conceptual model for prediction of magnetic properties in tropical soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years it has become apparent that the performance of detection sensors for land mines and UXO may be seriously hampered by the magnetic behavior of soils. In tropical soils it is common to find large concentrations of iron oxide minerals, which are the predominant cause for soil magnetism. However, a wide range of factors such as parent material, environmental conditions, soil age, and drainage conditions control soil development. In order to predict whether magnetic-type iron oxide minerals are present it is important to understand the controlling factors of soil development. In this paper we present a conceptual model for predicting magnetic soil characteristics as a function of geological and environmental information. Our model is based on field observations and laboratory measurements of soils from Hawaii, Ghana, and Panama. The conceptual model will lead to the development of pedotransfer functions that quantitatively predict the occurrence and nature of magnetism in soils.

van Dam, Remke L.; Hendrickx, Jan M. H.; Harrison, J. Bruce J.; Borchers, Brian

2005-06-01

203

Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

Horner, John R.

204

Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western U.S.A. III. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plant uptake of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from mine soils was assessed using alfalfa Medicago sativa, sainfoin Onobrychis viciaefolia, smooth brome Bromus inermis, crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum, slender wheatgrass A. trachycaulum and intermediate wheatgrass A. intermedium; mine soil (cover-soil and spoil material) samples were collected from rehabilitated areas of 11 western US surface-coal mines in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Correlations between metals in plants and DTPA-extractable metals from mine soils were generally not statistically significant and showed no consistent patterns for a single metal or for a single plant species. Metal uptake by plants, relative to amounts in DTPA extracts of mine soil, was positively related to mine soil organic matter content or negatively related to mine soil pH. DTPA-extractable metal levels were significantly correlated with mine soil pH and organic-matter content.-from Authors

Severson, R. C.; Gough, L. P.

1984-01-01

205

Contribution of technic materials to the mobile fraction of metals in urban soils in Marrakech (Morocco)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  In urban areas, soils are often dramatically altered by anthropogenic activity and these modifications distinguish these soils\\u000a (Anthrosols, Technosols) from those in natural systems. In urban environments, they receive considerable pollution from industry,\\u000a traffic and refuse. Since contaminated soil particles can be easily inhaled or ingested, there is a potential transfer of\\u000a toxic pollutants to humans. Risk

Hicham El Khalil; Christophe Schwartz; Ouafae Elhamiani; Jochen Kubiniok; Jean Louis Morel; Ali Boularbah

2008-01-01

206

Transport and anaerobic biodegradation of propylene glycol in gravel-rich soil materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continued input of airplane de-icing\\/anti-icing fluids (ADAF) to runway adjacent soils may result in the depletion of soil-borne terminal electron acceptors. We studied the transport and transformation of propylene glycol (PG), the major constituent of many ADAF, in topsoil and subsoil samples using saturated column experiments at 4 °C and 20 °C. The export of soil-borne DOC was generally high, non-exhaustive and

Philipp Jaesche; Kai Uwe Totsche; Ingrid Kögel-Knabner

2006-01-01

207

Soil magnetic susceptibility reflects soil moisture regimes and the adaptability of tree species to these regimes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flooded, saturated or poorly drained soils are frequently anaerobic, leading to dissolution of the strongly magnetic minerals, magnetite and maghemite, and a corresponding decrease in soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). In this study of five temperate deciduous forests in east-central Illinois, USA, mean surface soil MS was significantly higher adjacent to upland tree species (31 ?? 10-5 SI) than adjacent to floodplain or lowland tree species (17 ?? 10-5 SI), when comparing regional soils with similar parent material of loessal silt. Although the sites differ in average soil MS for each tree species, the relative order of soil MS means for associated tree species at different locations is similar. Lowland tree species, Celtis occidentalis L., Ulmus americana L., Acer saccharinum L., Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. were associated with the lowest measured soil MS mean values overall and at each site. Tree species' flood tolerance rankings increased significantly, as soil MS values declined, the published rankings having significant correlations with soil MS values for the same species groups. The three published classifications of tree species' flood tolerance were significantly correlated with associated soil MS values at all sites, but most strongly at Allerton Park, the site with the widest range of soil drainage classes and MS values. Using soil MS measurements in forests with soil parent material containing similar initial levels of strongly magnetic minerals can provide a simple, rapid and quantitative method to classify soils according to hydric regimes, including dry conditions, and associated plant composition. Soil MS values thus have the capacity to quantify the continuum of hydric tolerances of tree species and guide tree species selection for reforestation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang, J. -S.; Grimley, D. A.; Xu, C.; Dawson, J. O.

2008-01-01

208

[Profile of soil microbial biomass carbon in different types of subtropical paddy soils].  

PubMed

The soil microbial biomass carbon (C(mic)), one of the most active components of soil organic carbon (C(org)), is an effective indicator of soil quality. In the present study, five subtropical paddy soils developed from different parent materials were selected, and the distribution of C(mic) through the profiles was studied, as well as the relationship of C(mic) with C(org) and soil nutrients. The results showed that the contents of C(org) and C(mic) decreased markedly with increasing soil depth, ranging from 2.45 g x kg(-1) to 26.19 g x kg(-1) and from 4.55 mg x kg(-1) to 1 691.75 mg x kg(-1), respectively. They mainly concentrated in the surface layer (plough horizon and plough pan). The content of C(mic) varied significantly in paddy soils developed from different parent materials, with the highest one in yellow clayey soil, and the lowest ones in alluvial sandy soil and reddish yellow clayey soil. This was on the contrary to the distribution of C(org) in the surface paddy soils, since the reddish yellow clayey soil and alluvial sandy soil showed higher contents while other types of paddy soils exhibited similar contents of C(org). Notwithstanding, C(mic) was still controlled by the quantity of C(org) and positively correlated with C(org). The ratio of C(mic) to C(org)(C(mic)/C((org)) decreased with increasing soil depth and differed in the plough horizon between different paddy soils, with lower values in alluvial sandy soil (2.11%) and reddish yellow clayey soil (1.37%) but higher value in reddish yellow clayey soil I (8.24%). It indicated that the microbial substrate availability in alluvial sandy soil and reddish yellow clayey soil was lower than those in reddish yellow clayey soils. The content of C(mic) was significantly positively correlated with total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolyzable N and Olsen-P, but was irrelevant to available K. It is implied that the C(mic) was not only controlled by C(org), but also complicatedly interacted with soil nutrients in paddy soils. PMID:23798145

Sheng, Hao; Zhou, Ping; Yuan, Hong; Liao, Chao-Lin; Huang, Yun-Xiang; Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Yang-Zhu

2013-04-01

209

Generation and mobility of radon in soil  

SciTech Connect

This research generation and mobility of radon in soil evaluates the extent and nature of uranium and radium depletion and/or enrichment in soil horizons as a function of climate and other factors affecting soil character; evaluates the relation of radon emanation coefficient to soil type, soil properties, soil-forming factors, and radon levels in soil gas; and evaluate the relations of fragipans, soil moisture and soil permeability to radon concentration and radon flux in soil profiles. The approach has been to investigate in detail 13 soil profiles selected to represent distinct differences in parent material (limestone, sandstone, shale, granite), major soil groups (Alfisols, Ultisol, Inceptisol, Mollisol, Spodosol), and moisture regimes (well-drained to somewhat poorly drained with fragipan). The nine profiles investigated in the first 2 years are in Pennsylvania and North Carolina. Four profiles currently being sampled are in New York, Tennessee, Illinois and Pennsylvania. Samples from five profiles in Georgia have also been analyzed in less detail. A combination of pedologic, geochemical and radiometric methods have been applied to understanding radon at these sites (Table 2). An important feature of the project has been the collaboration of a geochemist, a soil scientist and a nuclear engineer as Co-PI's. 4 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

Rose, A.W.

1990-01-01

210

Classification of Chernozems, Phaeozems and Calcisols in Austria according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austria and the occurrence of steppe soils Austria has an area of about 84.000 km2. In the NE-part there are numerous occurrences of steppe soils. There are two reasons for these soil types: calcareous loess (the parent material), and specific climatic conditions, like temperature and rainfall. The consequence is a twice-yearly interruption of soil development (the summer drought and the

NESTROY Othmar

211

Conserving Soil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as enrichment materials for grades six through nine, this program is an interdisciplinary study of soils. As part of the program students: (1) examine soil organisms; (2) research history of local Native Americans to see how they and others have used the land and its soils; (3) investigate how soils are degraded and how they are conserved…

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

212

Comparison of American Society of Testing Materials and Soil Science Society of America Hydrometer Methods for Particle-Size Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Particle-size analysis (PSA) is widely used in both soil science and geo-engineering. Soil classification schemes are built on PSA values while recent developments in pedotransfer functions rely on PSA to estimate soil hydraulic properties. Because PSA is method dependent, the standardization of experimental procedures is important for the comparison of reported results. A study was conducted to compare the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) hydrometer method (D422) for particle-size analysis with the hydrometer method published by the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). Tests on soils ranging in texture from sand to a sandy clay loam were conducted at temperatures ranging from 20 C to 30 C. The main difference between methods is the temperature correction, with the ASTM method relying on an empirical correction and the SSSA method using a blank hydrometer reading. Identical texture estimates for all but one sample was observed between methods. Percent fines, silt, and clay demonstrated relatively consistent values between methods. D50 and D30 showed reasonable agreement between methods, with differences of less than 4 percent and 8 percent. For D10 values, the agreement was less satisfactory, with uncertainties of as much as 10 percent. The results suggest that ASTM and SSSA methods can be used interchangeably for textural analysis.

Keller, Jason M.; Gee, Glendon W.

2006-05-31

213

Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China*  

PubMed Central

Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth.

Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen

2006-01-01

214

Role of apparent cohesion in the stability of Dominician allophane soil slopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of loss of apparent cohesion from rainwater infiltration upon the stability of partly saturated, allophanic soil slopes of Dominica (West Indies). The parent material of the Dominican allophanic soils are the andesitic and dacitic volcanic rocks from ten volcanic centres of mainly Pleistocene age. Although simplifying assumptions are made to assess the depth of wetting

Sudhakar M. Rao

1996-01-01

215

Geochemical investigation of soils developed in different lithologies in Bhutan, Eastern Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within a project studying soil genesis on the southern slopes of the Eastern Himalayas, a comprehensive set of major, trace and rare earth element (REE) contents has been compiled for the first time. Six saprolites and their associated pedons were sampled on metamorphic, migmatitic and leucogranitic parent materials at altitudes ranging from 1520 m to 3770 m.Metamorphic soils are largely illitic, with

Thomas Caspari; Rupert Bäumler; Chencho Norbu; Kado Tshering; Ian Baillie

2006-01-01

216

Burma Soils. A Study of the Effects of Lime and Cement on Paddy and Laterite Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory tests were performed on samples of paddy and laterite soils obtained from the proposed right-of-way of the Rangoon-Mandalay Highway, Burma. These tests were conducted to determine the basic engineering properties of the soils and to evaluate th...

N. B. Schomaker R. E. Aufmuth

1971-01-01

217

Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available

Ingke Rachor; Julia Gebert; Alexander Groengroeft; Eva-Maria Pfeiffer

2011-01-01

218

Continental-scale patterns in soil geochemistry and mineralogy: results from two transects across the United States and Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) initiated a pilot study that involved collection of more than 1500 soil samples from 221 sites along two continental transects across Canada and the United States. The pilot study was designed to test and refine protocols for a soil geochemical survey of North America. The two transects crossed a wide array of soil parent materials, soil ages, climatic conditions, landforms, land covers and land uses. Sample sites were selected randomly at approximately 40-km intervals from a population defined as all soils of the continent. At each site, soils representing 0 to 5 cm depth, and the O, A, and C horizons, if present, were collected and analyzed for their near-total content of over 40 major and trace elements. Soils from 0–5 cm depth were also collected for analysis of organic compounds. Results from the transects confirm that soil samples collected at a 40-km spacing reveal coherent, continental- to subcontinental-scale geochemical and mineralogical patterns that can be correlated to aspects of underlying soil parent material, soil age and climate influence. The geochemical data also demonstrate that at the continental-scale the dominance of any of these major factors that control soil geochemistry can change across the landscape. Along both transects, soil mineralogy and geochemistry change abruptly with changes in soil parent materials. However, the chemical influence of a soil’s parent material can be obscured by changing climatic conditions. For the transects, increasing precipitation from west to east and increasing temperature from north to south affect both soil mineralogy and geochemistry because of climate effects on soil weathering and leaching, and plant productivity. Regional anomalous metal concentrations can be linked to natural variations in soil parent materials, such as high Ni and Cr in soils developed on ultramafic rocks in California or high P in soils formed on weathered Ordovician limestones in central Kentucky. On local scales, anomalous metal concentrations recognized in soil profiles, such as high P in soils from animal confinement sites, are consistent with local anthropogenic disturbances. At a larger scale, the distribution of Hg across the west to east transect demonstrates that it can be difficult to distinguish between natural or anthropogenic contributions and that many factors can contribute to an element’s spatial distribution. Only three samples in a subset of seventy-three 0–5 cm depth soil samples from the north to south transect had organochlorine pesticides values above the method detection limit, apparently related to historic usage of the pesticides DDT and dieldrin.

Woodruff, L. G.; Cannon, W. F.; Eberl, D. D.; Smith, D. B.; Kilburn, J. E.; Horton, J. D.; Garrett, R. G.; Klassen, R. A.

2009-01-01

219

Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the New Brunswick Site, Middlesex County, New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the New Brunswick Site, located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides of concern and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the New Brunswick Site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. The guidelines derived in this report are intended to apply to the remediation of these remaining residual radioactive materials at the site. The primary radionuclides of concern in these remaining materials are expected to be radium-226 and, to a lesser extent, natural uranium and thorium. The DOE has established generic cleanup guidelines for radium and thorium in soil; however, cleanup guidelines for other radionuclides must be derived on a site-specific basis.

Dunning, D.; Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

1996-02-01

220

Interactive influences of silvicultural management and soil chemistry upon soil microbial abundance and nitrogen mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether soil acidification, a widespread, chronic mode of disturbance and forest thinning, a site specific acute disturbance, produced interactive effects capable of producing changes in more general ecosystem properties and processes. Two forested sites in the Daniel Boone National Forest, KY which were similar in history, management, and parent material but which

Sherri Jeakins Morris; R. E. J. Boerner

1998-01-01

221

Selection of permeable reactive barrier materials for treating acidic groundwater in acid sulphate soil terrains based on laboratory column tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shoalhaven region of NSW experiences environmental acidification due to acid sulphate soils (ASS). In order to trial an\\u000a environmental engineering solution to groundwater remediation involving a permeable reactive barrier (PRB), comprehensive\\u000a site characterisation and laboratory-based batch and column tests of reactive materials were conducted. The PRB is designed\\u000a to perform in situ remediation of the acidic groundwater (pH 3)

Alexandra N. Golab; Mark A. Peterson; Buddhima Indraratna

2009-01-01

222

Dealing in Futures: Career Education Materials for Students, Parents, and Educators. A Bibliography Based on the Acquisitions of the Educational Materials Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Educational Materials Center (EMC) annotated bibliography is designed to further the concept and practice of career education programs by providing information about career materials available. There are four sections, each introduced with a description of materials included. The section on current literature describes 33 children's books…

Billings, Mary DeWitt, Comp.; Rubin, Janet S., Comp.

223

Parent Soup  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Parent Soup is an online community for parents. It dubs itself the "neighborhood's favorite kitchen table" where parents can exchange views in discussion groups or talk with one another in the chat room. The concept of a virtual community can be seen in the Parents' Pick area where parents share their opinions on books, baby products, toys, computers, web sites and movies. Parent Soup members can find other Parent Soupers who share their interests, hobbies and concerns through personal profiles posted on "cyberfridges." The site also features a parenting library with information in sixteen major topics and a Baby Name Finder with information on more than 5,000 names.

224

Parent Resources Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This resource guide provides an annotated bibliography of 101 articles and newsletters of interest to parents and teachers of children in preschool through grade 3. The bibliography contains the titles and short descriptions of materials, selected with the assistance of parents and teachers from across Alberta (Canada), on a wide range of topics…

Alberta Education Response Centre, Edmonton.

225

Parent Resources Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide provides an annotated bibliography of 101 articles and newsletters of interest to parents and teachers of children in preschool through grade 3. The bibliography contains the titles and short descriptions of materials, selected with the assistance of parents and teachers from across Alberta (Canada), on a wide range of topics…

Alberta Education Response Centre, Edmonton.

226

Generation and mobility of radon in soil  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses progress from March 1987--June 1990. Objectives of this project are to: evaluate the extent and nature of uranium and radium depletion and/or enrichment in soil horizons as a function of climate and other factors affecting soil character; evaluate the relation of radon emanation coefficient to soil type, soil properties, soil-forming factors, and radon levels in soil gas; and evaluate the relations of fragipans, soil moisture and soil permeability to radon concentration and radon flux in soil profiles. The approach has been to investigate in detail 13 soil profiles selected to represent distinct differences in parent material (limestone, sandstone, shale, granite), major soil groups (Alfisols, Ultisol, Inceptisol, Mollisol, Spodosol), and moisture regimes (well-drained to somewhat poorly drained with fragipan). The 13 profiles investigated in the past 3 years are in Pennsylvania, North Carolina, New York, Tennessee, Illinois, and represent highly varied soil types. Samples from five profiles in Georgia have also been analyzed in less detail. A combination of pedologic, geochemical and radiometric methods have been applied to understanding radon at these sites. 12 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

Rose, A.W.

1990-04-25

227

Parent Drug Use, Parent Personality, and Parenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship of parent drug use and specific parent personality traits with four indicators of the parent-child bond: affection, child-centeredness, involvement, and nonconflictual relations. The participants (N = 71) were young mothers or fathers who have participated in a longitudinal study of 1,000 children and their parents from 1975 to the present. They answered a self-administered questionnaire

Judith S. Brook; Martin Whiteman; Elinor B. Balka; Patricia Cohen

1995-01-01

228

Alternative Materials for the Modification and Stabilization of Unstable Subgrade Soils. Laboratory Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines two lime by-products and two fly ashes for treatment of unstable (CBR<6) subgrade soils. The treatment methods include both modification and stabilization. Modification is temporarily enhancing subgrade stability to improve constructab...

G. Heckel

1997-01-01

229

Saline soils spectral library as a tool for digital soil mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil information is needed at regional to global scales for proper land management. Soil scientist has been historically interested in mapping soil classes and properties to represent and explore the spatial distribution of soil characteristics. Fortunately, soil mapping came into the digital era decades ago, enabling the dissemination of computationally intensive techniques (e.g., geostatistics). Digital soil mapping is moving forward in recent decades. Digital soil mapping has evolved from "traditional" studies that employed a set of soils to build soil maps, to more recent approaches that exploit the increasing computing facilities to combine soil databases with ancillary data such as digital elevation models, remote sensing imagery and proximal sensing datasets. The inclusion of VNIR spectroscopy in digital soil mapping approaches is an outstanding research field. VNIR spectroscopy has largely been employed to quantify soil properties with proximal sensor and remote sensor (i.e., imaging spectroscopy). One of the traditional problems in soil mapping is the time needed to compile a soil database large enough to allow for mapping with robustness. Therefore there is a growing interest in using the less time consuming, immutability of the sample and increasing accuracy of soil spectroscopy to obtain accurate enough soil maps but with lower data requirements. This research trend is particularly interesting for the study of highly dynamic soil processes for which is necessary to know the spatial and temporal changes of certain properties for a correct soil assessment. The objective of this work was the study of soil salinity which is a dynamic property responding to seasonal (i.e., vertical upwelling) and inter-annual (i.e., salinization) changes. Soil salinity is a major constraint for agriculture by limiting or excluding certain crops. Thus, a continuous monitoring of soil salinity is needed to select the most suitable crops and to prevent future salinization. Large arid and semiarid Mediterranean areas are affected by severe salinization processes by converging salinity problems due to parent material salinity, water scarcity and poor quality of irrigation water. A soils database in the South-East of Spain (semiarid Mediterranean environments) is being developed, by sampling and analyzing soils properties but especially salinity, besides recording their VNIR spectral signatures in field conditions. Also a spectral library related to soil type and salinity in these environments was determined in laboratory and it is a promising tool to monitor soil spectral signature changes. Positive relations between salinity, spectral data and soil type have been found using this technique. Soil spectra could be employed for quantitative spectroscopic analyses of soil properties, as ancillary data for digital soil mapping and for spectral calibration of remotely sensed imagery.

Bas, María Victoria; Meléndez-Pastor, Ignacio; Navarro-Pedreño, José; Gómez, Ignacio; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Hernández, Encarni

2013-04-01

230

Transformation of 15 N-labelled leguminous plant material in three contrasting soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two soils from Pakistan (Hafizabad silt loam and Khurrarianwala silt loam) and one from Illinois, USA (Drummer silty clay loam) were incubated with 15N-labelled soybean tops for up to 20 weeks at 30°C. Mineralization of soybean 15N was slightly more rapid in the Pakistani soils, and after 20 weeks of incubation, 50%, 53%, and 56% of the applied 15N was

F. Azam; R. L. Mulvaney; F. J. Stevenson

1989-01-01

231

Use of 13C-labelled plant materials and ergosterol, PLFA and NLFA analyses to investigate organic matter decomposition in Antarctic soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between organic matter decomposition and changes in microbial community structure were investigated in Antarctic soils using 13C-labelled plant materials. Soils with and without labelled Deschampsia antarctica (a native Antarctic grass) were incubated for 42 days and sampled at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days. Changes in microbial community structure were assessed using phospholipid fatty acid analysis

Elaine Malosso; Lorna English; David W. Hopkins; Anthony G. O'Donnell

2004-01-01

232

Anaerobic decomposition of tropical soils and plant material: Implication for the CO 2 and CH 4 budget of the Petit Saut Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical hydroelectric reservoirs contribute significantly to atmospheric CH4 and CO2 emissions. To evaluate the contribution of the mineralization of the flooded soils and biomass to these atmospheric gas emissions, field and laboratory experiments were conducted. Cores were retrieved inform the littoral zone of the Petit Saut Reservoir (French Guiana), flooded 10a prior to sampling, and different soils and plant material

Frédéric Guérin; Gwenaël Abril; Alexis de Junet; Marie-Paule Bonnet

2008-01-01

233

Properties of several fly ash materials in relation to use as soil amendments.  

PubMed

Fly ash samples from five power stations in Western Australia and Queensland, and two soils used for horticulture in Western Australia, were evaluated for a series of physical and chemical properties. Soils were comprised primarily of coarse sand-sized particles, whereas most of the fly ashes were primarily fine sand- and silt-sized particles. Hydraulic conductivities in the fly ashes were 105- to 248-fold slower than in the soils. The water-holding capacities of fly ashes at "field capacity" were three times higher than those of the soils. Extractable P in the fly ashes (except Tarong and Callide) were 20- to 88-fold higher than in the soils. The pH showed considerable variation among the different sources of fly ash, with samples from Muja being the most acidic (pH = 3.8; 1:5 in CaCl2 extract) and from Gladstone the most alkaline (pH = 9.9). The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) values indicate that the potential for release of trace elements from the fly ashes was well below regulatory levels. When applied at sufficient rates (e.g., to achieve 10% w/w in surface layers) to sandy soils, fly ash altered texture and increased water-holding capacity. Depending on the source of fly ash used, such amendments could also provide P and aid nutrient retention by increasing the phosphorus retention index (PRI) and/or cation exchange capacity (CEC). The considerable variability in physical and chemical properties among the fly ash samples evaluated in the present study supports the notion that field trials are essential to the future development of soil amendment strategies making use of any particular source of fly ash. PMID:12708694

Pathan, S M; Aylmore, L A G; Colmer, T D

234

Genesis of marine terrace soils, Barbados, West Indies: evidence from mineralogy and geochemistry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Well-developed, clay-rich soils dominated by interstratified kaolinite-smectite are found on the uplifted coral reef terraces on the island of Barbados. The reef limestone is unlikely to have been the soil parent material however, because it is 98% CaCO 3 and geomorphic evidence argues against the 20 m of reef solution required to produce the soils by this process. The mineralogy of the sand, silt, and clay fractions of the soils, and trace element geochemistry, suggest that aeolian materials carried on the trade winds from Africa, volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent, and quartz from Tertiary bedrock on the island itself are the parent materials for the soils. -Authors

Muhs, D. R.; Crittenden, R. C.; Rosholt, J. N.; Bush, C. A.; Stewart, K. C.

1987-01-01

235

Effect of land degradation on soil microbial biomass in a hilly area of south Sumatra, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the impact of land-use changes on the soil biomass at several soil sites in Indonesia under different types of land-use (primary forest, secondary forest, coffee plantation, traditional orchard, and deforested area), located within a small geographical area with similar parent material and climatic conditions. Various parameters of soil microbial biomass (biomass C, biomass N, content of anthrone-reactive carbohydrate

Oguz Can Turgay; Jamalam Lumbanraja; Sri Yusnaini; Masanori Nonaka

2002-01-01

236

Water extraction times for plant and soil materials used in stable isotope analysis.  

PubMed

Stable isotopic analysis of water for many ecological applications commonly requires extractions of water from dozens to hundreds of plant and soil samples. With recent advances in mass spectrometry, water extraction, rather than the isotopic analysis itself, is the bottleneck in sample processing. Using cryogenic vacuum distillation, we have created extraction timing curves to determine how much time (T(min)) is required to extract an unfractionated water sample. Our results indicated that T(min) values are 60 to 75 min for stems, 40 min for clay soils, 30 min for sandy soils and 20 to 30 min for leaves. While the extraction times reported here may allow for some reductions relative to times reported in the literature, the extraction process will continue to be a rate-limiting step in plant water analyses. Ultimately, technological advances eliminating the need for extraction are required to greatly increase throughput rates in water isotope analysis for ecological research. PMID:16555369

West, Adam G; Patrickson, Shela J; Ehleringer, James R

2006-01-01

237

Humus composition and the structural characteristics of humic substances in soils under different land uses in Leyte, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to describe the effects of land use on humus composition and the structural properties of humic substances (HS) in degraded soil in Leyte, Philippines. Five adjacent land-use types, primary forest (PF), mahogany plantation (MP), rainforestation farming (RF), coffee plantation (CP) and grassland (GR), with comparable geology, parent material, soil type and climate were

Ian A. Navarrete; Kiyoshi Tsutsuki; Rey A. Navarrete

2010-01-01

238

Breaking Bad News to Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the difficulty of breaking bad news to parents, whether the news pertains to center policy or a child's behavior. Provides strategies for presenting news and for helping parents to overcome difficult situations, including gathering facts in advance, arranging an appropriate time, and having resource materials available for parents.…

Miller, Susan A.

1996-01-01

239

Testing of Ristech Material for Management of Brackish Groundwater for Soil Reclamation and Crop Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economy of Pakistan is mainly based on agriculture. Freshwater resources however, are depleting to meet the crop water requirements to sustain irrigated agriculture, compelling the farmers to use brackish groundwater. This situation has further aggravated the existing problem of soil salinity\\/sodicity. In order to control this problem, it is highly desirable to evolve cost effective technologies for safe use

S. Ahmed; J. Mohyuddin; R. A. Mughal; M. N. Bhutta

240

Interaction of acidic leachate with soil materials at Lucky Mc Pathfinder Mill, Gas Hills, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facilities at the Lucky Mc site used for the disposal of tailings include tailings impoundments as well as a large evaporation pond. Evaporation Pond No. 4 was constructed to contain excess leachate from four upgrade disposal areas. The soils beneath the pond have been in contact with acidic leachate for approx. 4 y at an average hydraulic head of 12

R. L. Erikson; D. R. Sherwood

1982-01-01

241

Efficient use of low resistivity material for grounding resistance reduction in high soil resistivity areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power system is generally protected from lightning strokes by surge arresters which are provided with a low earth resistance connection to enable the large currents encountered to be effectively discharged to the general mass of earth. This offers some resistance to the flow of current which depends on electrode arrangements as well as the surrounding soil resistivity. In Saudi Arabia,

Y. Khan; N. H. Malik; A. A. Al-Arainy; M. I. Qureshi; F. R. Pazheri

2010-01-01

242

Methods using earthworms for the evaluation of potentially toxic materials in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using earthworms to indicate effects of potentially toxic wastes when such wastes are intentionally or accidentally added to soils. Initial work with metals has shown that earthworms exhibit specific growth and reproductive responses. These responses are related to the concentration and solubility of the metal. Of the metals tested,

E. F. Neuhauser; R. C. Loehr; M. R. Malecki

1982-01-01

243

Thermodynamic properties of several soil- and sediment-derived natural organic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved understanding of the structure of soil- and sediment-derived organic matter is critical to elucidating the mechanisms that control the reactivity and transport of contaminants in the environment. This work focuses on an experimental investigation of thermodynamic properties that are a function of the macromolecular structure of natural organic matter (NOM). A suite of thermal analysis instruments were employed to

Rossane C. DeLapp; Eugene J. LeBoeuf; Katherine D. Bell

2004-01-01

244

Changes in the Amino Acid Composition of Decomposing Plant Materials in Soil: Species and Depth Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project studied the amino acid composition of samples taken from an experiment of in situ incubation of plant debris, mixed with mineral earth, to identify changes during decomposition. Medicago sativa debris, and Eucalyptus globulus and Pinus halepensis ground litter, were mixed with a OM?poor mineral earth, and buried in the soil at 5, 20, and 40 cm depth, for 2

Pere Rovira; Pilar Fernàndez; V. Ramón Vallejo

2005-01-01

245

Virtual Soils - Assessment of the Effects of Soil Structure on the Hydraulic Behavior of Cultivated Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydraulic behavior of soil is determined by the spatial heterogeneity of its hydraulic properties. The interplay between parent material, pedogenesis and tillage leads to characteristic structures in cultivated soils: sealed or loosened soil surface, compacted plow pan and traffic lanes. These structures overlay with natural features such as biopores and boundaries between soil horizons. To assess the individual or combined impact of such structural components on soil hydrology, the heterogeneity of the soil must be known at a scale of several meters and at a resolution in the range of centimeters. This, however, cannot be achieved in experimental setups. An alternative solution is the generation of synthetic but realistic structures together with their hydraulic properties as a basis for modeling the hydraulic behavior in response to different boundary conditions. This approach is extendable to an arbitrary number of structural components. With such 'virtual soils' at hand, comparative studies are possible, that help quantifying the relation between soil architecture and soil function. Further, the existence of effective soil hydraulic properties, which are capable to predict the average water dynamics at the field scale, can be tested by inverse modeling. The evaluation of different "measured" data sets in terms of information content and usefulness for identifying suitable effective models and effective model parameters can be analyzed. We introduce a structure generator and present comparative simulations between soils with increasing complexity for a period of several weeks with precipitation and evaporation. The simulations demonstrate, that the structure and the hydraulic properties close to the soil surface clearly govern evaporation, while the impact of heterogeneity on groundwater recharge is more complex.

Vogel, H.; Schlüter, S.; Ippisch, O.; Roth, K.; Schelle, H.; Durner, W.; Kasteel, R.; Vanderborght, J.

2011-12-01

246

Some specific features of the biochemical properties of soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil can be perceived as a matric system with certain compartments. The mineral, organic, and organomineral matrices can be distinguished in it. The synthesis of humus in the soil is a continuous process with an abiotic final stage. The synthesis of polymers takes place on mineral and organomineral matrices. The development of humus horizon considerably reduces the migration of organic substances in the soil. Three different types of element associations can be distinguished in the soil: the geochemical association inherited from the parent material, the biochemical association inherited from the remains of living organisms entering the soil, and the biogeochemical (or proper pedogenic) association appearing in the course of interaction between the first two element associations under the given type of the soil water regime. The inhibitors and, probably, stimulators of plant growth also exist in the soil.

Karpachevskii, L. O.; Zubkova, T. A.

2008-12-01

247

Does the feedstock origin of pyrolyzed materials influence the leaching quality and quantity of dissolved organic carbon from soils?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils play a major role in the global C cycle and can be both a source of C emissions to the atmosphere and also a C sink. In order to sequester vast quantities of C and increase soil C stocks, which may be used to partly offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the future, new technologies are needed. Recently, there has been an abundance of interest in the use of pyrolyzed biomass C, termed biochar, as an amendment to terrestrial ecosystems to provide a large and long term sink of C. However, the stability and permanence of this black C source in soil is still relatively unknown and the uncertainty surrounding its turnover time may have implications for both C sequestration and the fate and transport of dissolved organic C leached to nearby water resources. Biochar can be derived from a multitude of feed stocks (e.g. walnut shells, wood chippings, poultry litter) and under a variety of pyrolysis conditions (e.g. high temperature or low temperatures); each process and feed stock can yield very different materials that has many different physical (e.g. surface area) and chemical (e.g. CEC, C and N content) properties. Each feed stock and pyrolysis condition may consequently contribute to a distinct recalcitrance in soil. Therefore, we undertook a pot trial to evaluate the chemical characteristics of leachate from soils incubated with biochars derived from 15 different feed stocks. Using optical property parameters such as SUVA, chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) slope parameter and fluorescence characteristics, we were able to determine the C leaching potential of each feedstock. Preliminary data suggests that there are distinct variations in optical properties with feed stock origin, for example an algae digestate showed a lower absorbance at 350 nm (a350) (25.7 m-1) and a steeper spectral slope at 290-350 nm (S290-350 x10-3) (17.7 nm-1) indicative of the presence of lower molecular weight compounds compared to control treatment with a signature typical of SOC (a350 = 29.2 m-1; S290-350 = 16.8 nm-1). The ramifications for the transport of both the quantity and quality of C to aquatic systems will be discussed, especially in light of the popularity of "designer" biochars that could be used as a soil amendment in the future

Suddick, E.; Spencer, R. G.; Pereira, E. I.; Six, J. W.

2011-12-01

248

Methods using earthworms for the evaluation of potentially toxic materials in soils  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using earthworms to indicate effects of potentially toxic wastes when such wastes are intentionally or accidentally added to soils. Initial work with metals has shown that earthworms exhibit specific growth and reproductive responses. These responses are related to the concentration and solubility of the metal. Of the metals tested, cadmium was found to be the most toxic, followed by nickel, copper, zinc, and lead. The metal concentration in earthworm tissue and the background manure-metal mixture was measured, permitting the concentration factor to be computed. The concentration factor is the ratio of the metal in the worm tissue to that in the surrounding manure-metal mixture. These and other studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that the methods described in this paper may be used to predict the effect of land-applied or atmospherically deposited residues on the soil biota.

Neuhauser, E.F.; Loehr, R.C.; Malecki, M.R.

1982-01-01

249

Influence of surface printing materials on the degradability of biodegradable plastic films in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of surface printing on the biodegradability of plastic films was studied. Biodegradable films (polybutylene-succinate (PBS)) printed with four kinds of gravure inks were placed in soil for 1 year. The inks consisted of carbon black-pigment with four kinds of resins: poly-(?-caprolactone) (PCL), nitrocellulose-polyamide blended resin (NT), polyvinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymer (V), and nitrocellulose (NC). Degradation of film specimens printed

Akira Hoshino; Shinzou Kanao; Kenji Fukushima; Shigeichi Sakai; Makoto Kimura

2003-01-01

250

Parenting Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television advertising offers a preventive tool that can influence behavior in positive directions. This paper reports on the evaluation of a television campaign on parenting designed to foster more positive emotional environments for young children (under 5) and to teach and remind parents of basic child-rearing skills. The results of a limited test-market campaign revealed positive changes in parenting beliefs

William D. Ratcliffe; William P. Wittman

1983-01-01

251

Pyrolysis-mass spectrometry of whole soils, soil particle-size fractions, litter materials and humic substances: statistical evaluation of sample weight, residue, volatilized matter and total ion intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 115 samples with known organic carbon (Corg) concentrations, divided in the sample groups whole soils (n=39), soil particle-size fractions (n=33) and litter materials and humic substances (n=43), was investigated repeatedly (3–6 replicates) by pyrolysis-mass spectrometry using field ionization as a soft ionization mode (Py-FIMS). Statistical evaluation of the results supplied basic information on the reproducibility of Py-FIMS

C. Sorge; R. Müller; P. Leinweber; H.-R. Schulten

1993-01-01

252

Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the Colonie Site, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Colonie site located in Colonie, New York. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The site became contaminated with radioactive material as a result of operations conducted by National Lead (NL) Industries from 1958 to 1984; these activities included brass foundry operations, electroplating of metal products, machining of various components using depleted uranium, and limited work with small amounts of enriched uranium and thorium. The Colonie site comprises the former NL Industries property, now designated the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS), and 56 vicinity properties contaminated by fallout from airborne emissions; 53 of the vicinity properties were previously remediated between 1984 and 1988. In 1984, DOE accepted ownership of the CISS property from NL Industries. Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines.

Dunning, D.

1996-05-01

253

The Toxicological Geochemistry of Dusts, Soils, and Other Earth Materials: Insights From In Vitro Physiologically-based Geochemical Leach Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to mineral dusts, soils, and other earth materials results in chemical reactions between the materials and different body fluids that include, depending upon the exposure route, lung fluids, gastrointestinal fluids, and perspiration. In vitro physiologically-based geochemical leach tests provide useful insights into these chemical reactions and their potential toxicological implications. We have conducted such leach tests on a variety of earth materials, including asbestos, volcanic ash, dusts from dry lake beds, mine wastes, wastes left from the roasting of mercury ores, mineral processing wastes, coal dusts and coal fly ash, various soils, and complex dusts generated by the World Trade Center collapse. Size-fractionated samples of earth materials that have been well-characterized mineralogically and chemically are reacted at body temperature (37 C) for periods from 2 hours up to multiple days with various proportions of simulated lung, gastric, intestinal, and/or plasma-based fluids. Results indicate that different earth materials may have quite different solubility and dissolution behavior in vivo, depending upon a) the mineralogic makeup of the material, and b) the exposure route. For example, biodurable minerals such as asbestos and volcanic ash particles, whose health effects result because they dissolve very slowly in vivo, bleed off low levels of trace metals into the simulated lung fluids; these include metals such as Fe and Cr that are suspected by health scientists of contributing to the generation of reactive oxygen species and resulting DNA damage in vivo. In contrast, dry lake bed dusts and concrete-rich dusts are highly alkaline and bioreactive, and cause substantial pH increases and other chemical changes in the simulated body fluids. Many of the earth materials tested contain a variety of metals that can be quite soluble (bioaccessible), depending upon the material and the simulated body fluid composition. For example, due to their acidic pH and high chloride concentrations, simulated gastric fluids are most efficient at solubilizing metals such as Hg, Pb, Zn, and others that form strong chloride complexes; although these metals tend to partially reprecipitate in the near-neutral simulated intestinal fluids, complexes with organic ligands (i.e., amino and carboxylic acids) enhance their solubility. These metals are also quite soluble in near-neutral, protein-rich plasma-based fluids because they form strong complexes with the proteins. In contrast, metalloids that form oxyanion species (such as As, Cr, Mo, W) are commonly more soluble in near-neutral pH simulated lung fluids than in simulated gastric fluids.

Plumlee, G. S.; Ziegler, T. L.; Lamothe, P.; Meeker, G. P.; Sutley, S.

2003-12-01

254

Carbon isotope geochemistry and nanomorphology of soil black carbon: Black chernozemic soils in central Europe originate from ancient biomass burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common paradigm is that chernozem soils developed in the Holocene under grassland steppes, with their formation largely determined by three factors, parent material, climate and faunal mixing. For European chernozems, however, pollen records show that steppes were rare. Here, using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, micro Raman spectroscopy and radiocarbon dating, we characterized the nanomorphology and

Michael W. I. Schmidt; Jan O. Skjemstad; Cornelia Jager

2002-01-01

255

Stand, Soil and Nutrient Factors Determining the Functioning and Management of Beech Forest Ecosystems: A Synopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The three European beech ecosystems described in this volume differ in their soil chemical properties which are related to\\u000a the differences in their soil parent materials. The ecosystems are located in an undulating landscape primarily formed by\\u000a different geological formations of Triassic limestone (Göttinger Wald) and sandstone (Solling) with locally interspersed tertiary\\u000a volcanic materials (Zierenberg) and loess. The difference in

R. Brumme; P. K. Khanna

256

Helping Parents To Be Informed Advocates for Their Handicapped Children: Planning Materials for Four Meetings To Provide Information and Support. Preschool Transition Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual provides parent educators with guidelines for conducting a series of four 1-hour meetings to help parents of preschool handicapped children fulfill their role as their child's advocate. At the first meeting, information on tests and testing and on the Individualized Education Program process is presented. In the second meeting, parents

Innocenti, Mark S.; And Others

257

Parenting Stress and Parental Bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attachment experiences are thought to be important because of their implications for later development. The authors' aim with the questionnaire-based study was to investigate the differences between recalled parental bonding regarding 4 types of maternal and paternal bonding with respect to experienced parenting stress caused by child characteristics, parent attributes, and life events under the consideration of the child's gender

Ulrike Willinger; Gabriela Diendorfer-Radner; Ruth Willnauer; Gudrun Jörgl; Veronika Hager

2005-01-01

258

Statistical Quality Control: Phase Vi, Soils: Statistical Specification for Pug Mill Mixed Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report of the study discusses the present system of accepting or rejecting pug mill mixed materials and gives the variabilities of the properties of the materials as calculated from samples obtained from 14 plants in Virginia. As a result of this stud...

M. C. Anday

1970-01-01

259

A constitutive model for granular materials with grain crushing and its application to a pyroclastic soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A constitutive model for granular materials is developed within the framework of strain-hardening elastoplasticity, aiming at describing some of the macroscopic effects of the degradation processes associated with grain crushing. The central assumption of the paper is that, upon loading, the frictional properties of the material are modified as a consequence of the changes in grain size distribution.The effects of

Manuela Cecconi; Antonio Desimone; Claudio Tamagnini; Giulia M. B. Viggiani

2002-01-01

260

Use of Biochar from the Pyrolysis of Waste Organic Material as a Soil Amendment. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biochar is a charcoal-like material produced by the thermochemical pyrolysis of biomass materials. It is being considered as a potentially significant means of storing carbon for long periods to mitigate greenhouse gases. Much of the interest comes from s...

2009-01-01

261

Application of GIS and Geostatistics to Characterize Spatial Variation of Soil Fluoride on Hang-Jia-Hu Plain, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial variability of soil fluoride in the plough layer (0–20cm) of paddy soil from Hang-Jia-Hu Plain of Zhejiang Province\\u000a in China was studied using geostatistical analysis and GIS technique. The results of Semivariograms analysis showed that two\\u000a forms of soil fluoride were correlated in a given spatial range, and total fluoride (T-F) was controlled by intrinsic factors\\u000a of parent material,

Zhengmiao Xie; Jing Li; Weihong Wu

2007-01-01

262

Remediation of metal-contaminated soils with the addition of materials--part I: characterization and viability studies for the selection of non-hazardous waste materials and silicates.  

PubMed

Contamination episodes in soils require interventions to attenuate their impact. These actions are often based on the addition of materials to increase contaminant retention in the soil and to dilute the contaminant concentration. Here, non-hazardous wastes (such as sugar foam, fly ash and a material produced by the zeolitization of fly ash) and silicates (including bentonites) were tested and fully characterized in the laboratory to select suitable materials for remediating metal-contaminated soils. Data from X-ray fluorescence (XRF), N(2) adsorption/desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses revealed the chemical composition, specific surface area and the phases appearing in the materials. A pH titration test allowed the calculation of their acid neutralization capacity (ANC). The metal sorption and desorption capacities of the waste materials and silicates were also estimated. Sugar foam, fly ash and the zeolitic material were the best candidate materials. Sugar foam was selected because of its high ANC (17000 meq kg(-1)), and the others were selected because of their larger distribution coefficients and lower sorption reversibilities than those predicted in the contaminated soils. PMID:22018740

González-Núñez, R; Alba, M D; Orta, M M; Vidal, M; Rigol, A

2011-10-22

263

PARENT DEVELOPMENT  

PubMed Central

Today's parents tend to be overwhelmed with advice from many sources. In his role as family counselor, the pediatrician must understand and consider the emotional development of parents in relation to their child's development; otherwise, his advice and counsel do not “take” and he becomes tired and frustrated and angry. Parents progress through definite stages of development: Stage 1: Learning the cues—the struggle of the parents to interpret the infant's needs. Stage 2: Learning to accept growth and development—the parent learning to accept some loss of control of the toddler. Stage 3: Learning to separate—the parent learning to allow the child to develop independently. Stage 4: Learning to accept rejection, without deserting—the struggle of the parents not to intrude and yet to be there when needed. Stage 5: Learning to build a new life having been thoroughly discredited by one's teenager—the parent learning to live independently while the teenager struggles to develop his own identity. The pediatrician who is accepting, sensitive and a good listener and who keeps in mind that parents as well as children have capacities for growth and development, will be a potent factor in promoting good parent-child relationships and many times more effective in dealing with the child in health and disease.

Friedman, David Belais

1957-01-01

264

Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the B&T Metals Company site, Columbus, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil were derived for the B&T Metals Company site in Columbus, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that following remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 n-mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three scenarios were considered; each assumed that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The three scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food and water consumed. The evaluations indicate that the dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of total uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) at the B&T Metals site did not exceed 1, I 00 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker, current use) or 300 pCi/g for Scenario B (resident with municipal water supply, a likely future use). The dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded at the site if the total uranium concentration of the soil did not exceed 880 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident with an on-site water well, a plausible but unlikely future use).

Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, Mm.; Yu, C

1996-01-01

265

Variability of organic material in surface horizons of the hyper-arid Mars-like soils of the Atacama Desert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work was to investigate the variability of surface organic carbon within the hyper-arid Yungay region of the Atacama Desert. The fraction of Labile Organic Carbon (LOC) in these samples varied from 2 to 73 ?g per gram of soil with a bi-modal distribution with average content of 17 ± 9 ?g LOC and 69 ± 3 ?g LOC for "low" and "high" samples, respectively. Interestingly, there was no relation between organic levels and geomorphologic shapes. While organics are deposited and distributed in these soils via eolic processes, it is suggested that fog is the dynamic mechanism that is responsible for the variability and peaks in organic carbon throughout the area, where a "high" LOC content sample could be indicative of a biological process. It was determined that there was no significant difference between topological feature or geographical position within the hyper-arid samples and LOC. This very curious result has implications for the investigation of run-off gullies on the planet Mars as our work suggests a need for careful consideration of the expectation of increases in concentrations of organic materials associated with following aqueous altered topology.

Fletcher, Lauren E.; Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Perez-Montaño, Saul; Condori-Apaza, Renee M.; Conley, Catharine A.; McKay, Christopher P.

2012-01-01

266

Soil magnetic susceptibility: A quantitative proxy of soil drainage for use in ecological restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flooded, saturated, or poorly drained soils are commonly anaerobic, leading to microbially induced magnetite/maghemite dissolution and decreased soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). Thus, MS is considerably higher in well-drained soils (MS typically 40-80 ?? 10-5 standard international [SI]) compared to poorly drained soils (MS typically 10-25 ?? 10-5 SI) in Illinois, other soil-forming factors being equal. Following calibration to standard soil probings, MS values can be used to rapidly and precisely delineate hydric from nonhydric soils in areas with relatively uniform parent material. Furthermore, soil MS has a moderate to strong association with individual tree species' distribution across soil moisture regimes, correlating inversely with independently reported rankings of a tree species' flood tolerance. Soil MS mapping can thus provide a simple, rapid, and quantitative means for precisely guiding reforestation with respect to plant species' adaptations to soil drainage classes. For instance, in native woodlands of east-central Illinois, Quercus alba , Prunus serotina, and Liriodendron tulipifera predominantly occur in moderately well-drained soils (MS 40-60 ?? 10-5 SI), whereas Acer saccharinum, Carya laciniosa, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica predominantly occur in poorly drained soils (MS <20 ?? 10-5 SI). Using a similar method, an MS contour map was used to guide restoration of mesic, wet mesic, and wet prairie species to pre-settlement distributions at Meadowbrook Park (Urbana, IL, U.S.A.). Through use of soil MS maps calibrated to soil drainage class and native vegetation occurrence, restoration efforts can be conducted more successfully and species distributions more accurately reconstructed at the microecosystem level. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

Grimley, D. A.; Wang, J. -S.; Liebert, D. A.; Dawson, J. O.

2008-01-01

267

Introducing soil forming factors with mini campus field trips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students like field work, yet the proportion of time spent in the field during many soil science courses is small. Here we describe an introductory lecture on the soil forming factors based around a mini field trip in which we spend 45 minutes exploring these factors on the Lancaster University campus. In the 'trip' we visit some woodland to consider the effects of organic matter , vegetation and time on soil development and then take in a football pitch to examine the effects of landscape position, parent material and climate. Student responses are overwhelmingly positive and we suggest that more use can be made of our often mundane surroundings to explore soil formation. Soil functions and soil processes.

Quinton, John; Haygarth, Phil

2013-04-01

268

The Background of Soil Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Soil Structure, its Agricultural Value and Methods for its Determination; The Adhesion of Soil Particles; The Crumbling of Soil Material into Structural Units; Rise of Water Stability in a Soil Aggregate; Microbiological Factors in the Formation...

P. V. Vershinin

1971-01-01

269

Trace elements in soils and crops.  

PubMed

To demonstrate the total amounts to be expected in soils, the ranges of contents of some 60 trace elements in ten representative Scottish arable surface soils are compared with ranges in soil-forming rocks and with crustal averages. It is, however, the amounts potentially available to plants rather than the total contents that are biologically significant. In temperate climates, trace element mobilization is greatest when weathering takes place under conditions of impeded pedological drainage, leading to the formation of gleyed soils. Mobilized trace elements occur in arable surface soils largely in adsorbed and chelated forms, which are available to plants to a greater or smaller extent depending on the prevailing soil parameters and on the element in question. Different species take up different amounts of trace elements: the proportions in the various plant parts vary with the element and the stage of growth. Information is required about the mobilization and uptake of many elements about which little is at present known but which may affect the functions of essential elements through inter-element interactions. Systematic soil surveys in which soils are mapped by associations related to parent material, with their series related to genetic soil types, provide a useful countrywide guide to trace element status. PMID:43528

Mitchell, R L; Burridge, J C

1979-12-11

270

A constitutive model for granular materials with grain crushing and its application to a pyroclastic soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A constitutive model for granular materials is developed within the framework of strain-hardening elastoplasticity, aiming at describing some of the macroscopic effects of the degradation processes associated with grain crushing. The central assumption of the paper is that, upon loading, the frictional properties of the material are modified as a consequence of the changes in grain size distribution.The effects of these irreversible microscopic processes are described macroscopically as accumulated plastic strain. Plastic strain drives the evolution of internal variables which model phenomenologically the changes of mechanical properties induced by grain crushing by controlling the geometry of the yield locus and the direction of plastic flow.An application of the model to Pozzolana Nera is presented. The stress-dilatancy relationship observed for this material is used as a guidance for the formulation of hardening laws. One of the salient features of the proposed model is its capability of reproducing the stress-dilatancy behaviour observed in Pozzolana Nera, for which the minimum value of dilatancy always follows the maximum stress ratio experienced by the material.

Cecconi, Manuela; Desimone, Antonio; Tamagnini, Claudio; Viggiani, Giulia M. B.

2002-12-01

271

Soil Chemistry Still Affected 23 Years After Large Application of Fluidized Bed Material  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to assess the movement of arsenic, aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury and zinc in an old apple (Malus domestica Borkh) orchard that received a one time application of 36 kg/ m2 of fluidized bed combustion material (FBCM) 23 years earlier. S...

272

The Importance of Soil Mineralogy to Plant Nutrient Availability in the Northeastern U.S.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the northeastern U.S., acid deposition poses a threat to nutrient availability, via leaching of base cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na). While silicate mineral weathering may be the source of most base cations released from soils over millennia, more easily weathered minerals may provide nutrients necessary to meet short term demand resulting from acid deposition and forest harvesting. Through sequential leaching of soils and their parent materials, we can determine whether easily soluble trace minerals are potentially available to plants. Previous studies have shown that apatite, a calcium phosphate mineral present in trace amounts, may provide a significant source of Ca to vegetation at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. In this study, we explore the regional availability of apatite in soils across the northeastern United States. Soils derived from granitoid and sedimentary rocks were collected from 20 sites across the northeast U.S. and sequentially leached to determine relative availability of base cations. A leach using 1M nitric acid extracted Ca and P from soils developed on crystalline parent materials (0.02 to 0.04 mmol Ca/g soil, 0.01 to 0.03 mmol P/g soil). The Ca:P ratio is 5:3, the stoichiometric ratio of apatite. The presence of apatite in these soils was verified by SEM analysis. The lack of K, Na and Si in this leach suggests that silicate mineral dissolution is not the source of Ca. The Ca and P concentrations indicate that amount of apatite varies in granitoid soil parent materials across the northeastern U.S. Sedimentary rock-derived soils did not contain appreciable amounts of apatite. With the exception of carbonate-derived soils, only small concentrations of Ca (<0.006 mmol/g soil) were leached from sedimentary rocks in 1M nitric acid.

Nezat, C. A.; Blum, J. D.; Yanai, R. D.; Hamburg, S. P.

2004-12-01

273

MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...

274

Parent training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parent training programmes are a very well replicated, effective treatment for conduct problems. The most effective include a strong element of practising skills, combined with understanding the parents' predicament and helping them alter this. However, they don't always improve behaviour in the school setting, which is an important predictor of poor outcomes. The focus therefore is now on also adding

Stephen Scott

2005-01-01

275

Virtual Parentalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents, not Laws, ultimately protect children both online and offline. If legislation places adults at legal risk because of the presence of children in virtual worlds, adults will exit those worlds, and children will be isolated into separate spaces. This will not improve safety for children. Instead, this Article suggests that Congress enact measures that encourage filtering technology and parental

Joshua A. T. Fairfield

2009-01-01

276

Influence of non-cellulose structural carbohydrate composition on plant material decomposition in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The C mineralisation pattern during the early stage of decomposition of plant materials is largely determined by their content\\u000a of different carbohydrates. This study investigated whether detailed plant analysis could provide a better prediction of C\\u000a mineralisation during decomposition than proximate analysis [neutral detergent solution (NDF)\\/acid detergent solution (ADF)].\\u000a The detailed analysis included sugars, fructans, starch, pectin, cellulose, lignin and

Sophie Gunnarsson; Håkan Marstorp; A Sigrun Dahlin; Ernst Witter

2008-01-01

277

Synthesis and Characterization of the Hybrid Clay- Based Material Montmorillonite-Melanoidin: A Potential Soil Model  

SciTech Connect

The study of the interactions among metals, minerals, and humic substances is essential in understanding the migration of inorganic pollutants in the geosphere. A considerable amount of organic matter in the environment is associated with clay minerals. To understand the role of organic matter in the environment and its association with clay minerals, a hybrid clay-based material (HCM), montmorillonite (STx-1)-melanoidin, was prepared from L-tyrosine and L-glutamic acid by the Maillard reaction. The HCM was characterized by elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), and thermal analysis. The presence of organic materials on the surface was confirmed by XPS and STXM. The STXM results showed the presence of organic spots on the surface of the STx-1 and the characterization of the functional groups present in those spots. Thermal analysis confirmed the existence of organic materials in the montmorillonite interlayer, indicating the formation of a composite of melanoidin and montmorillonite. The melanoidin appeared to be located partially between the layers of montmorillonite and partially at the surface, forming a structure that resembles the way a cork sits on the top of a champagne bottle.

V Vilas; B Matthiasch; J Huth; J Kratz; S Rubert de la Rosa; P Michel; T Schäfer

2011-12-31

278

Keep your soil covered  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn residue is being considered as a possible feedstock for biofuels production. The long-term impacts on soil health of removing this residue are not well understood. Plant material is one of the soil’s main sources of organic materials. Organic matter is a very important component of soil. It su...

279

Relationships between reddening and soil magnetic properties as indices for the weathering of tropical soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil magnetic susceptibility is caused by the presence of ferrimagnetic Fe- and Fe-/Ti-Oxides such as magnetite, titanomagnetite and maghemite that are stable in soils and can accumulate due to their resistance to weathering. Macro-sized ferrimagnetic minerals tend to be of lithogenic provenance and weather directly from basic igneous rocks. Ultrafine grained ferrimagnetic minerals are thought to form during pedogenesis and can be identified by their superparamagnetic (SP) behaviour. Quantifying SP behaviour by measuring frequency dependent (FD) magnetic susceptibility can potentially provide a proxy for soil formation and weathering in certain environments. There are very limited magnetic measurements of tropical soils and we investigated a unique dataset of 506 samples from tropical regions. Samples included topsoils, subsoils and weathered and unweathered parent rock from lateritic soils from the entire tropical belt representing a variety of soil parent materials: ultrabasic magmatic rocks, basic and intermediate magmatic rocks, acid magmatic rocks, clay and clay slate, phyllite, sandstones. The relationship between magnetic measurements and redness rating was investigated as a potential indicator of tropical soil development, particularly lateritic processes. Soils from ultrabasic and basic parent materials showed little correlation between FD susceptibility and RR due a strong lithogenic overprint and a potential input of lithogenic SP material. This influence is likely to derive from a relative enrichment, indicated by higher magnetic values from pedogenic samples compared with unweathered parent material. The enrichment of weathering resistant ferrimagnetic iron oxides is concordant with lateritic processes for enrichment of other elements such as Al. Soils from clay and clay slate show positive correlations primarily due to diminished inputs from lithogenic sources. In this instance, RR and FD susceptibility could be used as proxies for neoformation of hematite and SP ferrimagnetic iron oxides respectively. Pedogenic hematite has been suggested to derive from the transformation of ferrimagnetic minerals, hence as hematite content increases, magnetic properties should decrease. The coexistence of hematite and ferrimagnetic minerals after such long weathering histories in the clay-derived laterites suggest other pathways may operate during tropical weathering and laterite formation. However, colour saturation may occur in the RR measurements as hematite content reaches large concentrations.

Preetz, Holger; Hannam, Jacqueline; Igel, Jan

2010-05-01

280

The distribution of soil phosphorus for global biogeochemical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) is a major element required for biological activity in terrestrial ecosystems. Although the total P content in most soils can be large, only a small fraction is available or in an organic form for biological utilization because it is bound either in incompletely weathered mineral particles, adsorbed on mineral surfaces, or, over the time of soil formation, made unavailable by secondary mineral formation (occluded). In order to adequately represent phosphorus availability in global biogeochemistry-climate models, a representation of the amount and form of P in soils globally is required. We develop an approach that builds on existing knowledge of soil P processes and databases of parent material and soil P measurements to provide spatially explicit estimates of different forms of soil P on the global scale. We assembled data on the various forms of phosphorus in soils globally, chronosequence information, and several global spatial databases to develop a map of total soil P and the distribution among mineral bound, labile, organic, occluded, and secondary P forms in soils globally. The amount of P, to 50 cm soil depth, in soil labile, organic, occluded, and secondary pools is 3.5 ± 3, 8.7 ± 6, 13.2 ± 9, and 3.3 ± 2 Pg P respectively. The amount in soil mineral particles to the same depth is estimated at 12.5 ± 9 Pg P for a global soil total of 41.2 ± 20 Pg P. The large uncertainty in our estimates reflects our limited understanding of the processes controlling soil P transformations during pedogenesis and lack of measurements of soil P. In spite of the large uncertainty, the estimated global spatial variation and distribution of different soil P forms presented in this study will be useful for global biogeochemistry models that include P as a limiting element in biological production by providing initial estimates of the available soil P for plant uptake and microbial utilization.

Yang, X.; Post, W. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Jain, A.

2012-11-01

281

Technical Assistance Alliance for Parent Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... Translated Materials Parent Center Exchange Log-In About Us The ALLIANCE National Parent Technical Assistance Center (NPTAC) ... Coordinator Jesús Villaseñor, Multi-Cultural Advisor Connect with Us! Become a Fan of ALLIANCE NPTAC on Facebook! ...

282

ANALYSIS OF SULFUR IN SOIL, PLANT AND SEDIMENT MATERIALS: SAMPLE HANDLING AND USE OF AN AUTOMATED ANALYZER  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods for analyzing soil, vegetation and sediment samples for total S and handling soil samples for analysis of S constituents were examined. ECO automated total S anelyzer (SC-132) was used for the analysis of vegetation, sediments and soil samples. esults from the LECO analyz...

283

A simple method for determination of ammonium in semimicro?Kjeldahl analysis of soils and plant materials using a block digester  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for determination of ammonium in semimicro?Kjeldahl analysis of soils and plant materials using a Tecator or Technicon 40?tube block digester is described. It involves use of an inexpensive steam distillation apparatus that permits direct distillation of ammonium from the tubes used for Kjeldahl digestion in 40?tube block digesters. The method is rapid and precise, and it gives

J. M. Bremner; G. A. Breitenbeck

1983-01-01

284

Abundance of Microbes Involved in Nitrogen Transformation in the Rhizosphere of Leucanthemopsis alpina (L.) Heywood Grown in Soils from Different Sites of the Damma Glacier Forefield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glacier forefields are an ideal playground to investigate the role of development stages of soils on the formation of plant–microbe\\u000a interactions as within the last decades, many alpine glaciers retreated, whereby releasing and exposing parent material for\\u000a soil development. Especially the status of macronutrients like nitrogen differs between soils of different development stages\\u000a in these environments and may influence plant

Stefanie Töwe; Andreas Albert; Kristina Kleineidam; Robert Brankatschk; Alexander Dümig; Gerhard Welzl; Jean Charles Munch; Josef Zeyer; Michael Schloter

2010-01-01

285

Raising Girlyboys: A Parent's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of children are expressing themselves in gender-expansive or gender-variant ways. A subgroup of those children are girlyboys: boys who accept themselves as boys but cross culturally defined gender lines in their attitudes, behaviors, and desires. Using clinical material, written accounts, and personal observations, this paper investigates the experience of parents raising these boys. Facilitative parenting is differentiated

Diane Ehrensaft

2007-01-01

286

Abusive Parents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presents, with commentary, a panel of women incarcerated for child abuse. These women belong to a prison chapter of Parents Anonymous. Also offers commentary from a social worker on the social, personal, and family dynamics of child abuse. Primary audienc...

1994-01-01

287

Soils and the soil cover of the arkaim reserve (Steppe Zone of the Trans-Ural Region)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils of the Arkaim Reserve in the area around a unique settlement-fortress of the Bronze Age in Chelyabinsk oblast have been studied. These soils are generally typical of the entire Trans-Ural Plateau. The soil properties are characterized in detail on the basis of factual data on 170 soil pits and four soil catenas. The soil cover of the reserve is specified into six geomorphic groups: (a) denudational surfaces of the low mountains, (b) accumulative-denudational surfaces of the low mountains, (c) denudational-accumulative plain surfaces, (d) lacustrine-alluvial plain surfaces, (e) floodplain surfaces, and (f) slopes and bottoms of the local ravines and hollows. Chernozems occupy about 50% of the reserve; solonetzes and saline soils, 32%; meadow chernozems, 7%; and forest soils, 1%. The soils of the reserve are relatively thin; they have a distinct tonguing of the humus horizon and are often saline and solonetzic. The latter properties are inherited from the parent materials and are preserved in the soils for a long time under the conditions of a dry continental climate. The genetic features of the soils differ in dependence on the composition and age of the parent materials. With respect to the thickness of the soil profiles and the reserves of soil humus, the soils can be arranged into the following lithogenic sequence: the soils developed from the eluvium of igneous rocks-redeposited kaolin clay-montmorillonite-hydromica nonsaline and saline loams and clays. The content of Corg in the upper 20 cm varies from 2.5 to 5.6%, and the reserves of Corg in the layers of 0-0.5 and 0-1.0 m reach 57-265 and 234-375 t/ha, respectively. The soils of pastures subjected to overgrazing occupy two-thirds of the reserve. Their humus content is 10-16% higher in comparison with that in the analogous plowed soils. Another characteristic feature of the humus in the soils of the pastures is its enrichment in the labile fraction (28-40% of Corg).

Prikhod'ko, V. E.; Ivanov, I. V.; Manakhov, D. V.; Manakhova, E. V.

2012-08-01

288

Estimating cumulative soil accumulation rates with in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclide depth profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model relating spatially averaged rates of cumulative soil accumulation and hillslope erosion to cosmogenic nuclide distribution in depth profiles is presented. Model predictions are compared with cosmogenic 21Ne and AMS radiocarbon data from soils of the Pajarito Plateau, New Mexico. Rates of soil accumulation and hillslope erosion estimated by cosmogenic 21Ne are significantly lower than rates indicated by radiocarbon and regional soil-geomorphic studies. The low apparent cosmogenic erosion rates are artifacts of high nuclide inheritance in cumulative soil parent material produced from erosion of old soils on hillslopes. In addition, 21Ne profiles produced under conditions of rapid accumulation (>0.1 cm/a) are difficult to distinguish from bioturbated soil profiles. Modeling indicates that while 10Be profiles will share this problem, both bioturbation and anomalous inheritance can be identified with measurement of in situ-produced 14C.

Phillips, W. M.

2000-10-01

289

Parenting perceptions and behaviors of preschool parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions and behaviors of parents of young preschoolers is a subject that has not been extensively researched. Many studies have explored global parenting styles and child developmental outcomes, rather than the way parents conceptualize their roles. Further, most research considers parenting typical children. However, parenting special needs children is challenging. When children with special needs are young, parents are faced

Shoshana Sperling

2003-01-01

290

Soil Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, an...

L. Hutcheson T. Butler M. Smith C. Cline S. Scruggs

1987-01-01

291

MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPORT EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC MATERIALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLO-GICAL MATERIAL (EPA/600/SR-97/099)  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...

292

Parent role characteristics: Parents' perceptions of their parent role  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has widely examined the various beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions held by parents. However, few have formally examined parents' perceptions of their role or the characteristics that encompass this role, even though many have argued that the job of parent is most difficult. This study utilized the Parent Role Questionnaire (PRQ), developed by Mowder in 1990, to examine how parents

Rose Anne Turiano

2001-01-01

293

Fractionation of Volatile Elements by Heating of Solid Allende: Implications for the Source Material of Earth, Moon, and the Eucrite Parent Body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CI-chondrites have average solar-system abundances of moderately volatile (Na, K, Rb, Sn, etc.) and highly volatile (Cs, Pb, etc.) elements. In most other types of chondrites and in samples from differentiated planetary bodies, these elements are more or less depleted relative to CI chondrites. Volatile-element fractionation occurred either by evaporation or incomplete condensation [1]. Recent data on the isotopic composition of K indicate that depletion of volatiles did not occur by evaporation from a melt of CI-chondritic composition [2]. Evaporative loss from a solid, however, would not necessarily lead to isotopic fractionation of K in the residue [e.g., 3]. In order to study loss of volatile elements from solids, we performed a series of heating experiments under variable oxygen fugacities at temperatures of 1050 degrees C to 1300 degrees C. Residues were analyzed by INAA [4]. We report here additional analyses (K, Rb, Cs, Sn, Pb) of these residues by isotope dilution-SSMS. Results (including Na data from INAA) are shown in Fig. 1. Results at other oxygen fugacities are similar, i.e., there is no strong dependence on fO2, contrary to the results for Au, As, and Zn [4]. Elements are arranged in the order of decreasing condensation temperatures. Depletions increase with increasing temperature and, at least for the 1050 degrees C experiment, with decreasing condensation temperature. The CI- normalized Allende pattern has no strong depletions of Cs and Pb, unlike the experimental results, indicating that evaporation from a solid cannot produce patterns observed in volatile-element-depleted meteorites. Even heating at temperatures as low as 1050 degrees C, affecting alkali elements only slightly, leads to large losses of lead, which are an order of magnitude greater than required for producing CV chondrite patterns. Depletions of these elements apparently occurred in the solar nebula before accretion by incomplete condensation or removal of gas during condensation. Nearly-CI-chondritic Sn/Pb ratios are observed in Allende and other carbonaceous chondrites. Evaporation from a solid leads to a severe increase in this ratio. Similarly, Rb/Cs ratios (about 12) are approximately CI-like in all groups of carbonaceous chondrites, perhaps reflecting the inability of nebular processes to fractionate these ratios. In contrast, terrestrial, lunar, and eucritic rocks have much higher Rb/Cs ratios [5]. As volatile loss from molten magmas is excluded [2], their low Cs contents must be characteristic of the parent material. This may exclude carbonaceous chondrites as source materials of eucrites, the Earth, and the Moon. The low Cs in planetary precursor materials may have been produced by secondary heating of small fragments of solid matter at subsolidus temperatures before final accretion. Equilibrated chondrites also show high Rb/Cs ratios, perhaps indicating mobilization of Cs at metamorphic temperatures. References: [1] Palme H. et al. (1988) in Meteorites and the Early Solar System, 436-461, Univ. of Arizona. [2] Humayan M. and Clayton R. N. (1993) LPSC XXIV, 685-686. [3] Davis A. M. et al. (1990) Nature, 347, 655-658. [4] Wulf A. V. and Palme H. (1991) LPSC XXII, 1527-1528. [5] McDonough W. F. et al. (1992) GCA, 56, 1001-1012. Figure 1 appears here in the hard copy.

Jochum, K. P.; Palme, H.

1993-07-01

294

Acidification of forest soil in Russia: From 1893 to present  

SciTech Connect

It is commonly believed that fine-textured soils developed on carbonate parent material are well buffered from possible acidification. There are no data, however, that document resistance of such soils to acidic deposition exposure on a timescale longer than 30-40 years. In this paper, we report on directly testing the long-term buffering capacity of nineteenth century forest soils developed on calcareous silt loam. In a chemical analysis comparing archived soils with modern soils collected from the same locations similar to 100 years later, we found varying degrees of forest-soil acidification in the taiga and forest steppe regions. Land-use history, increases in precipitation, and acidic deposition were contributing factors in acidification. The acidification of forest soil was documented through decreases in soil pH and changes in concentrations of exchangeable calcium and aluminum, which corresponded with changes in communities of soil microfauna. Although acidification was found at all three analyzed locations, the trends in soil chemistry were most pronounced where the highest loading of acidic deposition had taken place.

Lapenis, A.G.; Lawrence, G.B.; Andreev, A.A.; Bobrov, A.A.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

2003-01-02

295

Acidification of forest soil in Russia: From 1893 to present  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is commonly believed that fine-textured soils developed on carbonate parent material are well buffered from possible acidification. There are no data, however, that document resistance of such soils to acidic deposition exposure on a timescale longer than 30-40 years. In this paper, we report on directly testing the long-term buffering capacity of nineteenth century forest soils developed on calcareous silt loam. In a chemical analysis comparing archived soils with modern soils collected from the same locations ˜100 years later, we found varying degrees of forest-soil acidification in the taiga and forest steppe regions. Land-use history, increases in precipitation, and acidic deposition were contributing factors in acidification. The acidification of forest soil was documented through decreases in soil pH and changes in concentrations of exchangeable calcium and aluminum, which corresponded with changes in communities of soil microfauna. Although acidification was found at all three analyzed locations, the trends in soil chemistry were most pronounced where the highest loading of acidic deposition had taken place.

Lapenis, A. G.; Lawrence, G. B.; Andreev, A. A.; Bobrov, A. A.; Torn, M. S.; Harden, J. W.

2004-03-01

296

The Effects of Athlete Retirement on Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often parents who introduce their children to competitive sports and parents who then provide remarkable emotional and material support across their children's athletic careers (Bloom, 1985; Côté, 1999). Considerable research documents athletes’ retirement experiences (Baillie, 1993; Baillie & Danish, 1992; Svoboda & Vanek, 1982; Werthner & Orlick, 1982), yet none explores the effects of retirement on parents. The

Patricia Lally; Gretchen Kerr

2008-01-01

297

Parental control based on speaker class verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restricting children access to materials unsuitable for them such as violence scenes is very important for parents. So there is a feature named Parental Control in devices such as televisions and computers to define the contents children can access. The parental control setting must be protected from children and is usually done by a password. In this paper, we propose

Sajad Shirali-Shahreza; Hossein Sameti; Mohammad Shirali-Shahreza

2008-01-01

298

Application of the effective medium approximation for determining water contents through GPR in coarse-grained soil materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the relation between the dielectric constant of soils and their volumetric water content to be used in non-invasive measures of water content, like Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). After modeling the porous medium as a Multi Indicator structure, we derive the effective permittivity of the soil as function of the water content by adopting the effective medium approximation. The

A. Fiori; A. Benedetto; M. Romanelli

2005-01-01

299

Glomalin-related soil protein contains non-mycorrhizal-related heat-stable proteins, lipids and humic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glomalin is reportedly a stable and persistent protein produced in copious quantities by mycorrhizal fungi and may be an important pool of organic N in soil. Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), however, is only operationally defined by its extraction method, and has been only poorly characterized at best. The goal of this study was to characterize the molecular structures within GRSP.

Adam W. Gillespie; Richard E. Farrell; Fran L. Walley; Andrew R. S. Ross; Peter Leinweber; Kai-Uwe Eckhardt; Tom Z. Regier; Robert I. R. Blyth

2011-01-01

300

Effect of Organic Materials on Partitioning, Extractability and Plant Uptake of Metals in an Alum Shale Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils developed on sulphide-bearing shale (alum shale) in Norway contain naturally high amount of heavy metals. We conducted a greenhouse pot experiment to study the effect of four rates (0, 2, 4, and 8%) and three sources (cow manure, pig manure and peat soil) of organic matter in partitioning and distribution, extractability and plant uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni and

R. P. Narwal; B. R. Singh

1998-01-01

301

Effects of organic materials added to vary acid soils on pH, aluminum, exchangeable NHâ, and crop yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alfalfa meal, sucrose, and peat moss were added in large amounts to very acid soil to find their effects on yields of barley and alfalfa grown in the greenhouse. Alfalfa meal was found to be the most effective. Its action was attributed primarily to complexing of exchangeable Al and, in consequence, decreasing toxic quantities of Al in the soil. The

P. B. Hoyt; R. C. Turner

1975-01-01

302

Mechanics of lunar soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic areas of the mechanics of lunar soils may be stated as: a study of the effect of low-level gravitational accelerations and high vacuum on the properties of mineral grains of various soils; a selection of soils and materials on the earth which may serve as analogs of the lunar soils and investigation of their properties and uses on

I. Io Cherkasov; V. V. Mikheev; V. P. Petrukhin; V. V. Shvarev

1970-01-01

303

Parental Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adolescence is a developmental period during which many youth experiment with risk practices. This paper examined the association of parental monitoring with a range of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use behaviors among high-risk youth, while controlling for other demographic and environmental variables previously found to be associated with AOD…

Shillington, Audrey M.; Lehman, Stephanie; Clapp, John; Hovell, Melbourne; Sipan, Carol; Blumberg, Elaine

2005-01-01

304

Constructive Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book turns important research and theory into essential, easy-to-follow guidelines for new parents and child care providers to help them focus on the critical first 3 years of life to build a strong foundation for the future. All the key areas of child development are covered, including self-esteem, and cognitive, motor and social…

Goldberg, Sally

305

Total Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this…

Smith, Richard

2010-01-01

306

Parental Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescence is a developmental period during which many youth experiment with risk practices. This paper examined the association of parental monitoring with a range of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use behaviors among high-risk youth, while controlling for other demographic and environmental variables previously found to be associated with AOD…

Shillington, Audrey M.; Lehman, Stephanie; Clapp, John; Hovell, Melbourne; Sipan, Carol; Blumberg, Elaine

2005-01-01

307

Soil microcosm experiments to study the effects of waste material application on nitrogen and carbon turnover of lignite mine spoils in Lusatia (Germany)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lignite and pyrite containing spoil substrates of the Lusatian mining district are marked by very high acidity and salt\\u000a concentrations due to pyrite oxidation and by a very low content of pedogenic organic matter and nutrients. The effects of\\u000a fly ash application to neutralize the produced acid and of organic waste material application to improve the ecological soil\\u000a functions

Ralf Blechschmidt; Wolfgang Schaaf; Reinhard F. Hüttl

1999-01-01

308

Preliminary Exploration of Dynamic Effect in a Field Soil Retention Curves: Direct Laboratory Quantification of Material Coefficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The constitutive relationship between capillary pressure and wetting fluid saturation (retention curve) is needed in the modeling of multi-phase flow in porous media. This relationship is usually measured under equilibrium conditions of the two phases (wetting and non-wetting). The question is whether such curves adequately describe the relationships between capillary pressure and saturation in drainage or imbibition events with a time scale of in the order of hours. Hassanizadeh et al. pointed out that the difference in capillary pressures in static and dynamic retention curves on the rate of change of saturation is due to dynamic effects. A very few experimental approaches exists to quantify this effect properly. Typically, the increase in capillary pressure due to dynamic effect is defined as a product of a material coefficient (tau) and rate of change in wetting phase saturation (-dSw/dt). The study based on inverse modeling using multi-step outflow column experiment data showed that tau may be a function of wetting fluid saturation rather than a constant. In this study, we attempted to measure tau in a more direct manner. A vertical column was filled with water-saturated field soil (Ohji fine sand). At the midpoint of the column, pressure and water content sensors were installed. Initially saturated column was first drained very slowly and primary drainage retention curve was obtained. The sample was wetted very slowly and subjected to three secondary drainage cycles with different drainage rates. The retention curves presented a slight increase in the displacement pressure as the drainage rate increased. Based on the difference in the retention curves and the rate of saturation change, tau was calculated. Although the data were somewhat scattered, overall trend indicated that tau for Ohji fine sand decreases as saturation decreases.

Komatsu, M.; Sakaki, T.; Illangasekare, T. H.

2006-12-01

309

Parental Time Family Income and Child Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract ,Parents make many decisions that involve a tradeoff between the amount of time and material resources they provide to their children. In this paper I examine to what degree additional family income,can compensate,for a decrease in parent-child time in terms of child outcomes. I use within-family variation in the amount,of parental time and family income that children receive. Parents

Joseph Price

310

Analysis and assessment on heavy metal sources in the coastal soils developed from alluvial deposits using multivariate statistical methods.  

PubMed

An investigation on heavy metal sources, i.e., Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cd in the coastal soils of Shanghai, China, was conducted using multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis, clustering analysis, and correlation analysis). All the results of the multivariate analysis showed that: (i) Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd had anthropogenic sources (e.g., overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, industrial and municipal discharges, animal wastes, sewage irrigation, etc.); (ii) Zn and Cr were associated with parent materials and therefore had natural sources (e.g., the weathering process of parent materials and subsequent pedo-genesis due to the alluvial deposits). The effect of heavy metals in the soils was greatly affected by soil formation, atmospheric deposition, and human activities. These findings provided essential information on the possible sources of heavy metals, which would contribute to the monitoring and assessment process of agricultural soils in worldwide regions. PMID:18976857

Li, Jinling; He, Ming; Han, Wei; Gu, Yifan

2008-09-16

311

Selenium in arid and semiarid soils  

SciTech Connect

Selenium is an essential element for many life forms but can cause toxicity when present at high levels in animal diets. The chemistry and particularly the geochemistry of selenium is similar to that of sulfur. Selenate, the selenium analog of sulfate, is the key to understanding selenium toxicity in arid and semiarid areas. Selenate salts of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium are generally more soluble than those of sulfate. Also, selenate is not significantly adsorbed in neutral and alkaline soils. Therefore, selenate is highly mobile, causing it to be transferred readily from place to place dissolved in water, where it also enters biological food webs by plant uptake. Within plants, selenium is incorporated into organic compounds by forming C-Se bonds. Three other factors that control selenium in soil-water-plant systems are soil parent material. 14 refs.

Burau, R.G. (California Univ., Davis (USA))

1989-02-01

312

Conserving Soil. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book of enrichment materials is an interdisciplinary study of soil designed for students in grades 6-9. The materials are presented in three units. Unit 1 contains eight activities in which students investigate soil science and study the social impact of soil by examining the history of land use by local Native Americans. Unit 2 contains 10…

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

313

Development of Remote Methods for Obtaining Soil Information and Location of Construction Materials Using Gamma Ray Signatures for Project THEMIS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Emanation Characteristics of Rocks, Soils and Rn-222 Loss Effect on the U-Pb System Discordance; Radon-222 Emanation Characteristics of Lunar Fines; Program and Abstracts Natural Radiation Environment 2.

1972-01-01

314

Effect of freezing and thawing processes on soil aggregate stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of freezing and thawing on wet aggregate stability of soils formed on different parent materials was determined for different aggregate size groups (0.0–1.0; 1.0–2.0; and 2.0–4.0 mm), different water contents and for various freezing and thawing cycles (three, six and nine times) and freezing temperatures (?4 and ?18 °C). The initial wet aggregate stability decreased with freeze–thaw treatments

Taskin Oztas; Ferhan Fayetorbay

2003-01-01

315

Murderous parents.  

PubMed

This article offers observations regarding some of the major manifestations of family violence, neonaticide, infanticide, and filicide with the purpose of aiding in the early identification of parents at risk. They are discussed within the past and present historical and cultural milieu. A brief review of pertinent literature is presented. Pertinent case studies from the forensic psychiatric practice of the author along with psychodynamic reflections are offered. PMID:12113159

Palermo, George B

2002-04-01

316

Stuffing Carbon Away: Mechanisms of Carbon Sequestration in Soils  

SciTech Connect

Soils offer the potential to sequester large quantities of carbon from the atmosphere for decades to millennia and so may ameliorate the anthropogenic influence of fossil fuel release. However changes in climate can drastically affect the soil's ability to store carbon through changes mineralogy on time scales of human interest. It is essential to understand the major controls on soil carbon dynamics before we attempt to manage sequestration to control atmospheric CO{sub 2} buildup. Models of the terrestrial carbon cycle often use clay content to parameterize soil carbon turnover. Evidence from volcanic soils suggests that soil mineralogy is a major control on a soil's ability to store carbon, because different types of minerals have widely varying abilities to physically and chemically isolate soil organic matter from decomposition, however volcanic soils represent only a small percentage of the earth's soils. The relationship between precipitation and soil carbon storage is also complex and poorly constrained. Significantly, precipitation changes predicted as a result of atmospheric CO{sub 2} doubling include increased rainfall throughout California. We utilized {sup 14}C, {delta}{sup 13}C, and the total organic carbon, iron, and aluminum contents to address the question of the importance of mineralogy and climate on carbon storage in soils formed on a globally representative parent material. The California coastal terraces, formed over the last 500 thousand years as a result of tectonic uplift and sea level change, provide a natural laboratory to examine the effect of mineralogy and climate on carbon storage. We have focused on two terraces sequences, one near Eureka and one near Santa Cruz. Within each set of terraces only soil mineral development varies; all other variables are constant (rainfall, plant systems, and soil parent material, and land management). Annual precipitation at Eureka is twice that at Santa Cruz, allowing us to examine its role in the transport of organic carbon to deeper horizons. The objective of the study is to improve the understanding of soil carbon storage and derive a set of proxies for organic carbon turnover for terrestrial carbon cycle models.

Reimer, P J; Masiello, C A; Southon, J R; Trumbore, S E; Harden, J W; White, A F; Chadwick, O A; Torn, M S

2003-01-24

317

Soils developed from alluvial and proluvial deposits in the Gröndalselva River valley in West Spitsbergen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genetic characterization of soils developed from alluvial and proluvial deposits in the Gröndalselva River valley (West Spitsbergen) is presented. These soils are compared with analogous soils formed on marine terraces along the coasts of Isfjord and Grönfjord. Gray-humus (soddy) soils with an O-AY-C profile have been described on parent materials of different origins, including alluvial and proluvial sediments. The texture of the soils in the Gröndalselva River valley varies from medium to heavy loam and differs from the texture of the soils on other geomorphic positions in the higher content of fine particles. The soils developed from the alluvial deposits are characterized by their richer mineralogical and chemical composition in comparison with the soils developed from proluvial deposits, marine deposits, and bedrocks. All the deposits are impoverished in CaO. No differentiation of the chemical composition of the soils along the soil profiles has been found in the soils of the coastal areas and the river valley. Some accumulation of oxalate-soluble Al and Fe compounds takes place in the uppermost mineral horizon. The soils of all the geomorphic positions have a high humus content and a high exchange capacity.

Pereverzev, V. N.; Litvinova, T. I.

2012-05-01

318

Spatial variability characteristics of soil available N, P, and K and their influencing factors at the county scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial variability, a major feature of soils, was generally influenced by various factors, relative studies on which laid solid foundations for precision agriculture. In this investigation, method of geostatistics combined with GIS was used to analyze the spatial variability characteristics of soil available nitrogen (SAN), soil available phosphorus (SAP) and soil available potassium (SAK) and their influencing factors in Shuangliu county Sichuan province, China. The results showed that, SAP and SAK were normally distributed through naturally logarithmic transformation. Semivariogram analysis revealed that SAN and SAK were highly spatial correlated, while SAP moderately spatial correlated, and the spatially dependent ranges of SAN, SAK and SAP contents were 21590m, 76903m and 23300m, respectively. Through ordinary Kriging interpolation, SAN, SAP and SAK presented different varying tendencies in the study area. SSR test indicated that SAN was significantly different depending on different soil types; SAP was significantly different depending on terrain conditions and soil parental materials; SAK was strongly affected by soil parental materials. The fertilizer application rate at the regions with high soil available N, P and K contents was obviously higher than that with low soil available nutrient contents.

Pang, Su; Li, Tinxuan; Wang, Yongdong; Yu, Haiying

2009-06-01

319

Soil Taxonomy and Soil Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 16 papers in this report deal with the following areas: soil taxonomy; an overview; diagnostic soil horizons in soil taxonomy; soil moisture and temperature regimes in soil taxonomy; particle size and mineralogy in soil taxonomy; soil series and soil ...

1977-01-01

320

Soil mineral surfaces of paddy soils are accessible for organic carbon accumulation after decalcification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied organic carbon (OC) accumulation due to organo-mineral associations during soil development on calcareous parent material. Two chronosequences in Zhejiang Province, PR China, were investigated; one under paddy cultivation with a maximum soil age of 2000 years, and the other under upland crops where the oldest soil was 700 years old. Bulk soils and soil fractions of the uppermost A horizons were analyzed for OC concentrations and radio carbon contents. Total pedogenic iron (Fed) concentration was determined by dithionite extraction and the proportion of oxalate extractable iron (Feox) was extracted by using the method of Schwertmann (1964). The specific surface area (SSA) of soil minerals was measured by the BET-N2 method (Brunauer et al., 1938) under four conditions: untreated, after organic matter removal, after iron removal and after removal of both. Within 700/2000 years of pedogenesis, we observed no change in clay mineral composition and no additional formation of the SSA of soil minerals. But the soils differed in the degree of decalcification, OC accumulation and in the formation of iron. Paddy soil management led to an enhanced decalcification and larger OC accumulation. Management-induced redox cycles caused larger proportions of Feox in paddy soils. Their large SSA, added to the surface area of clay minerals, provided additional options for OC covering. Unexpectedly, there was no evidence of formation of secondary minerals during soil development, which could provide new surfaces for OC accumulation. However, the study revealed higher OC coverings of mineral surfaces after decalcification in paddy soils. As carbonate and Ca2+ ions seemed to interconnect clay minerals, making their surface accessible to OC, the faster dissolution of carbonate and leaching of Ca2+ ions in paddy soils made additional clay mineral surfaces available to OC. In contrast, the surface area of minerals in non-paddy soils, in which decalcification was much lower, seemed to be partly inaccessible for OC covering due to strong microaggregation by cementation with carbonate and Ca2+-bridging. The smaller accumulation of mineral-associated SOM in non-paddy soils was additionally confirmed by the retarded replacement of the inherited carbon. The accelerated decalcification of paddy soils led to enhanced accessibility of mineral surfaces for OC covering, which intensified OC accumulation from the early stages of soil formation onward. References Brunauer, S., Emmett, P.H., Teller, E., (1938). Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 60 (2), 309-319. Schwertmann, U., 1964. Differenzierung der Eisenoxide des Bodens durch Extraktion mit Ammoniumoxalat-Lösung. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung, Düngung, Bodenkunde 105 (3), 194-202.

Wissing, Livia

2013-04-01

321

Soil Stabilization, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Nondestructive Tests for Determining Compressive Strength of Cement-Stabilized Soils; Properties of Municipal Solid Waste Ash-Cement Composite; Determining Cement Content of Soil-Cement by Heat of Neutralization; Material Characterization and In...

N. C. Kassabian A. G. Tobias L. Crayton K. Solomon N. Solomon

1991-01-01

322

Soil stabilization 1982  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven papers cover the following areas: design, construction and performance of lime, fly ash, and slag pavement; evaluation of heavily loaded cement stabilized bases; coal refuse and fly ash compositions; potential highway base course materials; lime soil mixture design considerations for soils of southeastern United States; short term active soil property changes caused by injection of lime and fly ash; soil cement for use in stream channel grade stabilization structures; and reaction products of lime treated southeastern soils.

Barenberg, E. J.; Thompson, M. R.; Tayabji, S. D.; Nussbaum, P. J.; Ciolko, A. T.

323

Is the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program Acceptable to Parents from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Behavioural parenting programs are an effective intervention for behavioural and emotional problems in children, however these programs have low utilisation rates by culturally diverse parents. We examined the cultural acceptability of program materials, preferences for delivery methods, and barriers to use of the Triple P-Positive Parenting

Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew; Goadby, Elizabeth; Headley, Clea; Hodge, Lauren; McAuliffe, Christine; Pope, Sue; Anderson, Emily

2011-01-01

324

Instructor Manual, 1984-1985. Delta College Parent Awareness. Developmental Disabilities/Parent Awareness Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for instructors in the Delta College Parent Awareness Program, this manual provides information on the program, its students, and appropriate instructional techniques. Introductory material describes the Parent Awareness Program designed for parents and family members of persons with mental retardation, cerebal palsy, epilepsy, autism,…

Delta Coll., University Center, MI. Allied Health-Community Affairs.

325

The Working Parents' Curriculum: Class Designs To Meet the Needs of Expectant and New Working Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to meet needs of expectant and new working parents, these curriculum materials provide guidelines for instructors and discussions of six parent education topics. The curriculum begins by examining the qualifications an instructor should have before attempting to teach expectant or working parents. Subsequently described are specific ways…

O'Brien, Mary Parys

326

Distribution and characterization of soils and landform relationships in Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the spatial distribution of soils from the northern part of Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, which is the largest ice-free area of the South Shetlands archipelago, Maritime Antarctica. Physical and chemical characteristics are presented for 23 soil profiles. Soil parent materials vary from marine sedimentary to volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks, intruded by igneous bodies. To assess soil-landscape relationships, twenty-three soil profiles were described and sampled. Soil samples of selected horizons were submitted to chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses. Soil mapping was based on the soil profiles, integrated with the existent topographic map (1:25.000 scale), a digital elevation model, the geological map and a satellite image. Twenty different soil units were identified and mapped. According to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) system, soils were classified as Fluvisols, Regosols, Leptosols or Cryosols, which correspond mostly to Fluvents, Orthents/Psamments, Inceptsols and Gelisols, respectively, according to the Soil Taxonomy. Soils from northern Byers Peninsula are generally shallow and coarse textured, with low organic matter content. Three soils from the rocky platforms of the northern coastal region possess ornithogenic character, with lower pH, higher P, Al3 + and organic C values when compared to soils not influenced by sea birds. In non-ornithogenic soils, the presence of easily weatherable minerals in the clay fraction indicates that physical weathering occurs with limited chemical alteration of primary minerals. The influence of penguin and other birds on coastal soils alters clay mineralogy, with formation of poorly crystalline P-rich phases. A better understanding of the depth of the permafrost table and the spatial distribution of permafrost is necessary for a more conclusive classification of Cryosols or Gelisols.

Moura, Pedro Adnet; Francelino, Marcio R.; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Simas, Felipe N. B.; de Mendonça, Bruno A. F.

2012-06-01

327

Origin of nitrogen in reforested lignite-rich mine soils revealed by stable isotope analysis  

SciTech Connect

Restoration of the nitrogen cycle is an important step in the recovery of an ecosystem after open-cast mining. Carbon and nitrogen in rehabilitated lignite containing mine soils can be derived from plant material as well as from lignite inherent to the parent substrate. We assessed the use elemental and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements to trace the origin of soil nitrogen and applied these techniques to elucidate the origin of mineral N in the soil and the soil solution. The conceptual approach of this study included physical fractionation in addition to sampling of vegetation and soil from a lignite-containing mine site in Lusatia rehabilitated in 1985 with Pinus Nigra. We studied the elemental and isotopic composition of bulk samples as well as isolated fractions and soil solution. Our data indicate that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of the soil samples are the result of mixing between plant material and substrate inherent lignite. {delta}{sup 15}N isotopes may be used as indicators of nitrogen contribution from plants to solid samples as well as soil solution. N-isotope composition of ammonia shows low spatial and interannual variability, despite strong concentration changes. Plant-derived nitrogen contributes in higher amounts to the soil solution compared to the bulk mineral soil. 45 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Abad Chabbi; Mathieu Sebilo; Cornelia Rumpel; Wolfgang Schaaf; Andre Mariotti [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Department of Soil Protection and Recultivation

2008-04-15

328

Games in an Introductory Soil Science Course: A Novel Approach for Increasing Student Involvement with Course Material  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes an optional recitation course that was developed to supplement a traditionally taught lecture-plus-laboratory course in soil science. Popular, competitive games that would be familiar to students were revised to be "soils-based" and were employed in the recitation class. These games were seen as a potential means to use knowledge in an atypical fashion while at the same time generating enthusiasm for the subject. Evaluation of two terms of games implementation showed that these activities increased both student enthusiasm and, potentially, course performance.

Sulzman, Elizabeth

329

Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western USA. I. Chemical characteristics of spoil and replaced cover-soil.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A range of at least one order of magnitude was observed for DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and organic matter content of samples of spoil and cover-soil from eleven western USA surface-coal mines. The observed pH of these samples ranged from 3.9 to 8.9; however, most samples were near-neutral to alkaline in reaction. Most constituent levels were found to be below proposed guidelines for maximum permissible levels in mine soil. -from Authors

Severson, R. C.; Gough, L. P.

1983-01-01

330

Linking Parent to Parent: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an innovative approach to building a school community taking hold at a Winston-Salem, North Carolina, elementary school. Called Parents in Partnership, the program uses a Big Brother/Big Sister model to link parents of incoming kindergarten children with more experienced parents at the school. The parents form informal, personal networks…

Oberle, Sylvia Ingle

1991-01-01

331

Parenting Matters: What Works in Parenting Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because the expansion of parenting education is likely to continue, it is important to ensure that methods involved in parenting education are effective. This report summarizes research on the effectiveness of parenting education and provides information to help practitioners develop methods of working with parents that are based on sound research…

Lloyd, Eva, Ed.

332

Parent-Teacher Conferences: Suggestions for Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parent-teacher conferences sometimes become a cause for concern for everyone involved—children, parents, and teachers. Children just beginning their school experience may be wary of the idea of parents and teachers talking about them behind closed doors. Parents may feel uncomfortable about going inside their child's classroom, sitting in small chairs, and listening to reports of their child's conduct and class

Ann-Marie Clark; ERIC DIGEST

333

Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting

Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

334

Holocene pedogenesis in the Black soil area of southern Central Germany - a multiproxy approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black soils (chernozems, phaeozems) cover some areas in the driest parts of Central Germany and are especially found on loessic material. However, time and causes of formation of these soils as well as their former distribution in the region have been a matter of debate for many decades: Accordingly, hypotheses about their age range from the Latest Pleistocene until the Neolithic period, and the assumed formation processes vary from natural (steppic vegetation, properties of parent material) to anthropogenic factors (forest-clearance, fire activity). In order to shed light on some of these open questions, several sites with black soil material (recent black soils, black soil colluvia, black soil material at archaeologic sites) in southern Central Germany were investigated. We applied a multi-proxy approach that combined intensive field work with the analysis of geochemical and environmental magnetic proxies with micromorphology as well as with OSL and archaeological dating. We tried to obtain information about the intensity of the development of black soils during different periods of the past and to look at their transformation during the Late Holocene. Finally, we tried to link this information with the known hypotheses about the formation of black soils as well as with landscape and palaeoclimatic development in Central Germany.

von Suchodoletz, Hans; Lauer, Tobias; Tinapp, Christian; Müller, Susann; Eckmeier, Eileen; Glaser, Bruno; Goldmann, Lisa; Zielhofer, Christoph

2013-04-01

335

Remote Sensing of Soil Surface Texture, Carbon and Water Contents using Bare Soil Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of spatial soil diversity and landscape dynamics is fundamental to understanding of global biogeochemical cycles. Remote sensing data are increasingly being used for large-scale quantification of land-based measurements such as soil texture, carbon and water content. These regional estimates of surface soil properties through remote sensing can be used as input for global biogeochemical models. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between bare soil reflectance and surface soil texture (sand, silt, and clay), organic matter, and soil moisture. High spatial (2 m) and spectral resolution (414-920 nm) hyperspectral /multispectral aerial imageries were collected over the Mississippi Delta and Mississippi Blackland Prairie Regions. Major soils included Commerce (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, thermic Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts), Robinsonville (coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, nonacid, thermic Typic Udifluvents), and Convent (coarse-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, thermic Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts) and Brooksville (Fine, smectitic, thermic Aquic Hapluderts). Over three hundred surface soil samples were collected within the study area and analyzed for particle size analysis, organic matter, moisture and hydraulic properties. ArcView GIS was used to generate sampling locations which included random, transect, and target soil sampling. Each soil sample represented a composite of six sub-samples collected within a two meter square area. These sample sites were selected to represent the range of aspect, slope, elevation, and parent materials within the site. To reduce the dimensionality of the hyperspectral data set, PCA analysis was applied. The selected bands were used in generating the statistical relationships between spectral reflectance and surface soil properties data. Stepwise (backward & forward) and partial least square statistical methods were used to generate surface maps of soil texture, organic matter, and surface soil moisture. The multivariate analysis including partial least squares and stepwise linear regression reveal that the near infrared band (NIR950 nm) was the best predictor of percent clay (R2 = 0.683) and silt (R2 = 0.634), while the combination of Red band (RED650 nm) and Green band (Green550 nm) were the best predictors of organic matter. Surface soil moisture dynamic was highly spatially correlated with soil texture maps. Once these relationships were established, ERDAS Imagine Spatial Module was used to generate surface maps for percent clay, percent silt and percent organic matter. These final products not only could be used for management purposes but also to quantify the spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of soils and their impact on climate change.

Iqbal, J.; Owens, P. R.

2005-12-01

336

Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data  

SciTech Connect

A compilation of soil carbon and nitrogen storage data for more than 3500 soil profiles from under natural vegetation or relatively undisturbed sites is presented in this report. A summary table of the carbon and nitrogen storage in a pedon of surface cubic meter for each soil profile, as well as location, elevation, climate, parent material, and vegetation information, are presented. The data were used to determine average carbon and nitrogen storage on land surfaces of the world. Calculations were also made of storage related to climatic classifications, ecosystem clasifications, and latitudinal increments from the equator to 75/sup 0/. Carbon (kg.m/sup -3/) varies from 2 in hot dry climates, through 10 in many cold dry or seasonally moist (warm or hot) climates, to more than 30 in wet alpine or subpolar climates. Nitrogen storage, an order of magnitude smaller than carbon storage in soils, shows broad parallels but exceeds 1600 g.m/sup -3/ for subtropical/tropical premontane or lower montane soils, as well as alpine or subpolar wet soils. Such limiting conditions, defined by a balance of income and loss rates for mature soil profiles, also explain much of the variation among major ecosystem complexes whose soils are partly disturbed, incompletely recovered, or imperfectly known regarding their maturity and stability. Classifying profiles into Holdridge life zones and using appropriate life zone areas, we estimate 1309 x 10/sup 15/ g carbon and 92 x 10/sup 15/ g nitrogen in the world's soils. Alternatively, using average organic carbon and nitrogen densities from one degree latitude bands multiplied by the earth's surface area in the respective bands, we arrive at 1728 x 10/sup 15/ g of carbon and 117 x 10/sup 15/ g of nitrogen. Inadequacies that lead to the disparate estimates are discussed. 123 references, 5 figures, 7 tables.

Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G.; Post, W.M.; Emanuel, W.R.; Olson, J.S.

1984-05-01

337

Is the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program Acceptable to Parents from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural parenting programs are an effective intervention for behavioural and emotional problems in children, however these\\u000a programs have low utilisation rates by culturally diverse parents. We examined the cultural acceptability of program materials,\\u000a preferences for delivery methods, and barriers to use of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. One hundred and thirty seven\\u000a parents watched a video outlining the 17 strategies

Alina Morawska; Matthew Sanders; Elizabeth Goadby; Clea Headley; Lauren Hodge; Christine McAuliffe; Sue Pope; Emily Anderson

338

Improved soil carbonate determination by FT-IR and X-ray analysis.  

PubMed

In forest soils on calcareous parent material, carbonate is a key component that influences both chemical and physical soil properties and thus fertility and productivity. At low organic carbon contents, it is difficult to distinguish between organic and inorganic carbon, e.g. carbonates, in soils. The common gas-volumetric method to determine carbonate has a number of disadvantages. We hypothesize that a combination of two spectroscopic methods, which account for different forms of carbonate, can be used to model soil carbonate in our region. Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy was combined with X-ray diffraction to develop a model based on partial least squares regression. Results of the gas-volumetric Scheibler method were corrected for the calcite/dolomite ratio. The best model performance was achieved when we combined the two analytical methods using four principal components. The root mean squared error of prediction decreased from 13.07 to 11.57, while full cross-validation explained 94.5 % of the variance of the carbonate content. This is the first time that a combination of the proposed methods has been used to predict carbonate in forest soils, offering a simple method to precisely estimate soil carbonate contents while increasing accuracy in comparison with spectroscopic approaches proposed earlier. This approach has the potential to complement or substitute gas-volumetric methods, specifically in study areas with low soil heterogeneity and similar parent material or in long-term monitoring by consecutive sampling. PMID:23459253

Bruckman, Viktor J; Wriessnig, Karin

2012-09-01

339

Fundamental considerations of water repellancy in soil, and related effects on other natural and man-made materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation will concern the understanding of soil water repellancy and wettability at a fundamental level, and the difficulties of relating the very small, micron scale at which the repellancy and wettability characteristics are produced to the much larger, field scale at which they are normally observed. The presentation will not be a review of past work, but rather will

G. Peter Matthews

2010-01-01

340

Sequential Selective Extraction Procedures for the Study of Heavy Metals in Soils, Sediments, and Waste Materials—a Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review selected protocols of sequential selective extraction procedure that are used to characterize the geochemical distribution of heavy metals in soils, wastes, and sediments. They discuss the development of earlier protocols, their modifications, and the extent to which a given protocol pertains to different conditions. Emphasis is given to the considerations that led to a choice of reagents

Amir Hass; Pinchas Fine

2010-01-01

341

Biological control of beech and hornbeam affects species richness via changes in the organic layer, pH and soil moisture characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. ?Litter quality is an important ecosystem factor, which may affect undergrowth species richness via decomposition and organic layers directly, but also via longer-term changes in soil pH and moisture. The impact of beech trees with low-degradable and hornbeam trees with high-degradable litter on biodiversity and soil characteristics was studied in ancient forests on decalcified marl, a parent material sensitive

A. M. Kooijman; E. Cammeraat

2010-01-01

342

The Influence of Soil Biodiversity on Hydrological Pathways and the Transfer of Materials between Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The boundaries between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, known as critical transition zones (CTZ), are dynamic interfaces\\u000a for fluxes of water, sediment, solutes, and gases. Moreover, they often support unique or diverse biotas. Soils, especially\\u000a those of riparian zones, have not been recognized as CTZ even though they play a critical role in regulating the hydrologic\\u000a pathways of infiltration and leaching,

R. D. Bardgett; J. M. Anderson; V. Behan-Pelletier; L. Brussaard; D. C. Coleman; C. Ettema; A. Moldenke; J. P. Schimel; D. H. Wall

2001-01-01

343

Inclusion of nitrate and nitrite in the Kjeldahl nitrogen determination of soils and plant materials using sodium thiosulphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium thiosulphate was used in a modification of the regular Kjeldahl method for the determination of total N in soil and plant samples containing NO 3?N and NO 2?N. Quantitative recoveries of added N?labelled and unlabelled N0 3?N (1000 ?g N), NO 2?N (500 ?g N), and NO 3?N (500 ?g N) + N0 2?N (250 ?g N) were obtained

R. C. Dalai; K. L. Sahrawat; R. J. K. Myers

1984-01-01

344

Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline\\u000a water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch\\u000a has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the\\u000a effect of different mulch

Yan-min Yang; Xiao-jing Liu; Wei-qiang Li; Cun-zhen Li

2006-01-01

345

Bulk Content of Uranium, Radium, and Thorium in Certain Parent Rocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The content of natural radioactive elements in soils can be determined from their concentrations in the parent rocks from which the soils inherit the mineralogical and chemical composition. Data on the natural radioactive elements are reviewed in a profil...

D. M. Rubtsov T. V. Gil

1972-01-01

346

The origin of lead in the organic horizon of tundra soils: atmospheric deposition, plant translocation from the mineral soil or soil mineral mixing?  

PubMed

Knowledge of the anthropogenic contribution to lead (Pb) concentrations in surface soils in high latitude ecosystems is central to our understanding of the extent of atmospheric Pb contamination. In this study, we reconstructed fallout of Pb at a remote sub-arctic region by using two ombrotrophic peat cores and assessed the extent to which this airborne Pb is able to explain the isotopic composition ((206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio) in the O-horizon of tundra soils. In the peat cores, long-range atmospheric fallout appeared to be the main source of Pb as indicated by temporal trends that followed the known European pollution history, i.e. accelerated fallout at the onset of industrialization and peak fallout around the 1960s-70s. The Pb isotopic composition of the O-horizon of podzolic tundra soil ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.170 ± 0.002; mean ± SD) overlapped with that of the peat ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.16 ± 0.01) representing a proxy for atmospheric aerosols, but was clearly different from that of the parent soil material ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.22-1.30). This finding indicated that long-range fallout of atmospheric Pb is the main driver of Pb accumulation in podzolic tundra soil. In O-horizons of tundra soil weakly affected by cryoturbation (cryosols) however, the input of Pb from the underlying mineral soil increased as indicated by (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios of up to 1.20, a value closer to that of local soil minerals. Nevertheless, atmospheric Pb appeared to be the dominant source in this soil compartment. We conclude that Pb concentrations in the O-horizon of studied tundra soils - despite being much lower than in boreal soils and representative for one of the least exposed sites to atmospheric Pb contaminants in Europe - are mainly controlled by atmospheric inputs from distant anthropogenic sources. PMID:21820157

Klaminder, Jonatan; Farmer, John G; MacKenzie, Angus B

2011-08-04

347

Proactive Parent Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents examples of teacher-parent interactions designed to help teachers communicate with parents. The scenarios involve a teacher communicating with parents about a struggling student, a teacher communicating with parents about a student's behavior problems, and a teacher attempting to communicate with a confrontational parent. Teacher prompts…

Babcock, Sharel; Backlund, Judy

2001-01-01

348

Parent-Offspring Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

synopsis. When parent-offspring relations in sexually reproducing species are viewed from the standpoint of the offspring as well as the parent, conflict is seen to be an expected feature of such relations. In particular, parent and offspring are expected to disagree over how long the period of parental investment should last, over the amount of parental investment that should be

ROBERT L. TRIVERS

1974-01-01

349

The distribution of organic material and its contribution to the micro-topography of particles from wettable and water repellent soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic coatings on mineral particles will mask the physic-chemical properties of the underlying mineral surface. Surface images and force measurements obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM) provide information about the nature of and variability in surfaces properties at the micro- to nano-scale. As AFM technology and data processing advance it is anticipated that a significant amount of information will be obtained simultaneously from individual contacts made at high frequency in non-contact or tapping mode operation. For present purposes the surfaces of model materials (smooth glass surfaces and acid-washed sand (AWS)) provide an indication of the dependency of the so-called AFM phase image on the topographic image (which is obtained synoptically). Pixel wise correlation of these images reveals how the modulation of an AFM probe is affected when topographic features are encountered. Adsorption of soil-derived humic acid (HA) or lecithin (LE), used here as an example for natural organic material, on these surfaces provides a soft and compliant, albeit partial, covering on the mineral which modifies the topography and the response of an AFM tip as it partially indents the soft regions (which contributes depth to the phase image). This produces a broadening on the data domain in the topographic/phase scatter diagram. Two dimensional classifications of these data, together with those obtained from sand particles drawn from water repellent and wettable soils, suggest that these large adsorbate molecules appear to have little preference to attach to particular topographic features or elevations. It appears that they may effectively remain on the surface at the point of initial contact. If organic adsorbates present a hydrophobic outer surface, then it seems possible that elevated features will not be immune from this and provide scope for a local, albeit, small contribution to the expression of super-hydrophobicity. It is therefore speculated here that the water repellency of a soil is the result of not only of particle surface chemistry and soil pore space geometry, but also of the micro-topography generated by organic material adsorbed on particle surfaces.

Bryant, Rob; Cheng, Shuying; Doerr, Stefan H.; Wright, Chris J.; Bayer, Julia V.; Williams, Rhodri P.

2010-05-01

350

Problematic Parents and the Community Parent Education: Representations of Social Class, Ethnicity, and Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents an analysis of the Swedish version of the Community Parent Education. The analysis was done by using Bacchi's (2009) policy analysis approach combined with an investigation of how social categories intersect in the material. The material consisted of the course leader manual and a DVD with 22 film sequences illustrating poor parenting. The author shows that in

Ulrika Widding

2011-01-01

351

Metal distribution and nature of some Cu, Mn and V complexes in humic and fulvic acid fractions of soil organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic matter from an arable soil derived from base rich parent material was extracted by alkali and fractionated on the basis of solubility in 0.1 N HCl, hot water and hot 6 N HCl and by selective adsorption on charcoal. The distribution of associated metals was determined and Cu had the largest proportion, 15%, associated with the organic matter. Moderate

M. V. Cheshire; M. L. Berrow; B. A. Goodman; C. M. Mundie

1977-01-01

352

Application of 13C NMR to investigate the transformations and biodegradation of organic materials by wood- and soil-feeding termites, and a coprophagous litter-dwelling dipteran larva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to characterize the C in samples of the food (wood), gut contents and faeces from the wood-feeding termite, Microcerotermes parvus; soil in the guts and mound material from the soil-feeding termite, Thoracotermes macrothorax; and the food and faeces from the litter-feeding, coprophagous larvae of the dipteran fly, Bibio marci. Spectra from

D. W. Hopkins; J. A. Chudek; D. E. Bignell; J. Frouz; E. A. Webster; T. Lawson

1998-01-01

353

Application of 13C NMR to investigate the transformations and biodegradation of organic materials by wood- and soil-feeding termites, and a coprophagous litter-dwelling dipteran larva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to characterize the C in samples of the food (wood), gut contents and faeces from the wood-feeding termite, Microcerotermes parvus; soil in the guts and mound material from the soil-feeding termite, Thoracotermes macrothorax ; and the food and faeces from the litter-feeding, coprophagous larvae of the dipteran fly, Bibio marci. Spectra

D. W. Hopkins; J. A. Chudek; D. E. Bignell; J. Frouz; E. A. Webster; T. Lawson

1998-01-01

354

Parenting Workshops on Child Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The parent education materials in this packet are intended for use by professionals, and some paraprofessionals, who work with children from birth through 5 years of age and with their families. Included are guidelines for choosing playthings for children of any age, and lists of suggested toys for children of various ages, and, in particular,…

Warren-Newport Public Library, Gurnee, IL.

355

Quality soil management or soil quality management : performance versus semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 200 years, soil science has used reductionist research to develop agricultural technologies that have unlocked the hidden potential of earth's natural systems to feed, clothe, and provide raw materials to the human population of over six billion. The soil quality paradigm seeks to change that scientific approach, the nomenclature of soil science, and institutional priorities for soil

R. E Sojka; D. R Upchurch; N. E Borlaug

2003-01-01

356

The distribution of soil phosphorus for global biogeochemical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) is a major element required for biological activity in terrestrial ecosystems. Although the total P content in most soils can be large, only a small fraction is available or in an organic form for biological utilization because it is bound either in incompletely weathered mineral particles, adsorbed on mineral surfaces, or, over the time of soil formation, made unavailable by secondary mineral formation (occluded). In order to adequately represent phosphorus availability in global biogeochemistry-climate models, a representation of the amount and form of P in soils globally is required. We develop an approach that builds on existing knowledge of soil P processes and databases of parent material and soil P measurements to provide spatially explicit estimates of different forms of naturally occurring soil P on the global scale. We assembled data on the various forms of phosphorus in soils globally, chronosequence information, and several global spatial databases to develop a map of total soil P and the distribution among mineral bound, labile, organic, occluded, and secondary P forms in soils globally. The amount of P, to 50cm soil depth, in soil labile, organic, occluded, and secondary pools is 3.6 ± 3, 8.6 ± 6, 12.2 ± 8, and 3.2 ± 2 Pg P (Petagrams of P, 1 Pg = 1 × 1015g) respectively. The amount in soil mineral particles to the same depth is estimated at 13.0 ± 8 Pg P for a global soil total of 40.6 ± 18 Pg P. The large uncertainty in our estimates reflects our limited understanding of the processes controlling soil P transformations during pedogenesis and a deficiency in the number of soil P measurements. In spite of the large uncertainty, the estimated global spatial variation and distribution of different soil P forms presented in this study will be useful for global biogeochemistry models that include P as a limiting element in biological production by providing initial estimates of the available soil P for plant uptake and microbial utilization.

Yang, X.; Post, W. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Jain, A.

2013-04-01

357

Single Parent/Homemaker Project Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Annual reports, project descriptions, and various other materials are provided for 35 projects. Most of the projects focus on homemaking; some are on sex equity. Project titles include: Single Parent/Adult Homemaker Reentry Program (Ashland Community College); Career Awareness Class for the Single Parent and/or Homemaker (Cumberland Valley Health…

Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Office of Vocational Education.

358

An Adaptive Poly-Parental Recombination Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic recombination framework is presented within which both the unit of inher- itance of genetic material from a parent, and the number of parents involved in the creation of a new individual are potentially learnt through the evolution of competing subpopulations representing different strategies. At the heart of the framework is a recombination mechanism whereby a newly cre- ated

Jim Smith; Terence C. Fogarty

1995-01-01

359

Preparation for Parenting. Teacher's Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional guide for a one-half-credit technical laboratory course for grades 10-12 teaches parental responsibilities; child guidance techniques; positive role modeling and parenting practices that promote child development, health, safety, and well-being. Introductory materials consist of a course description; overview of course design;…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

360

Sponsoring the Next Generation: Parental Willingness to Pay for Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sociologists and economists have been widely concerned with parental investment in children, that investment has rarely been examined directly. The Parent Survey of the High School and Beyond data set provides material for examining the traits of parents and children that shape parental payment for higher education. Parents' reported willingness and ability to pay, along with savings for children's

Lala Carr Steelman; Brian Powell

1991-01-01

361

The role of soil-forming processes in the definition of taxa in Soil Taxonomy and the World Soil Reference Base  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern soil taxonomic systems, including Soil Taxonomy (ST) and the World Reference Base (WRB) for Soil Resources, classify soils using diagnostic horizons, properties, and materials. Although these systems are based on genetic principles, the approaches used have de-emphasized the role of soil processes in soil taxonomic systems. Meanwhile, a consideration of soil processes is important for understanding the genetic underpinnings

J. G. Bockheim; A. N. Gennadiyev

2000-01-01

362

SOIL INGESTION BY CONSTRUCTION WORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil ingestion is a means by which toxic materials can enter the human body. Soil ingestion is considered to be a potentially important mechanism of exposure, especially for toxic substances that are concentrated in soil and dust. There are very few studies of soil ingestion in...

363

Enzymes in Forest Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forest soils are known to accumulate dead organic material (plant litter ) on the soil surface. When fresh, this material\\u000a contains a range of substrates, including soluble saccharides, organic acids, amino acids or starch, as well as the plant\\u000a cell wall-derived biopolymers, cellulose , hemicelluloses and lignin , which are used as growth substrates by soil decomposer\\u000a microorganisms. The sequential

Petr Baldrian; Martina Štursová

364

Soil: The Great Decomposer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to understand that soil, under different environmental conditions, plays a role in the decomposition of organic materials. Students use bottle experiments to observe changes in the decomposition of vegetable scraps. Students vary temperature, moisture, and light conditions to determine the conditions that best facilitate the decomposition of organic material in soil.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

365

Quantification of functional soil organic carbon pools for different soil units and land uses in southeast Germany (Bavaria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic carbon (SOC) can be divided in different functional pools according to their degree of stabilization and corresponding turnover times. A quantification of these functional SOC pools for different soil types and land uses would allow an estimation of future SOC stocks and potential SOC sources/sinks under changing land uses and climactic conditions. In this study, functional SOC pools were determined for all relevant soil units and major land uses within the state of Bavaria in southeast Germany. For each of the 33 major soil units within Bavaria, representative soil profiles under the main land uses cropland, grassland and forest were selected to fully cover the range of environmental conditions that control SOC storage. Each soil horizon down to the parent material at the 99 locations was fractionated according to the method of Zimmermann et al. (2007). This approach isolates five SOC fractions (particulate organic matter, dissolved organic carbon, sand- and aggregate-associated SOC, silt- and clay-associated SOC and a chemically resistant SOC fraction) using a combined physical and chemical fractionation. These fractions are related to three functional SOC pools with specific turnover rates (labile, intermediate, stable). With this approach, the amount of active, intermediate and passive SOC for both top- and subsoils was determined for important soil units and land uses in Bavaria that can further be used for regionalization and modelling.

Wiesmeier, Martin; von Lützow, Margit; Spörlein, Peter; Geuß, Uwe; Hangen, Edzard; Reischl, Arthur; Schilling, Bernd; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

2013-04-01

366

SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP PRODUCTIVITY OF AN ERODED SOIL AMENDED WITH CATTLE MANURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erosion changes soil properties, especially physical properties, mainly because it removes surface soil rich in organic materials and exposes lower soil layers. In 1988, a study was established to determine the effects of soil erosion and long-term manure applications on selected soil phys­ ical properties and corn (Zea mays L.) production. After 10 years of an­ nual manure applications, soil

Francisco J. Arriaga; Birl Lowery

2003-01-01

367

Carbon storage and fluxes in existing and newly created urban soils.  

PubMed

Carbon storage (carbon density; kg C m(2)), concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil pore water and soil respiration (g C m(2) yr(-1)) were measured in a 35 year old urban lawn soil amended with a surface mulch application of green waste compost and compared to those in two newly created urban soils, manufactured by mixing different volumes of green waste compost with existing soils or soil forming materials. The aim was to determine C storage and calculate annual fluxes in two newly created urban soils compared to an existing urban soil, to establish the potential for maintaining and building carbon storage. In the lawn soil, organic carbon storage was largely limited to the upper 15 cm of the soil, with material below 30 cm consisting of substantial amounts of alkaline building debris augmenting sandstone parent material. Leaching of DOC directly from the surface applied compost mulch amendment was readily mobile within the upper 15 cm of soil beneath, but not to 30 cm depth, indicating limited vertical redistribution of the soluble organic C fraction to the deeper, technic horizons. Only a very small proportion of annual C losses were attributable to DOC export (? 0.5%) whilst a much greater amount was accounted for by soil respiration (?20%). In the two newly created urban soils, ? 30% additions of compost mixed with existing soil forming materials trebled C densities from <2 to 6 kg total carbon (TC) m(2), surpassing those of the existing lawn soil (? 5 kg TC m(2)). Adding 45% compost served only to reduce bulk density so that C densities did not increase further until >50% compost was applied. Combined increases in soil respiration losses and DOC leaching associated with higher compost application rates suggested that volumes of ?30% compost were altogether optimal for sustainable C storage whilst minimising annual losses. Thus repeated applications of small amounts, rather than single applications of large amounts of green waste compost could be most effective at maintaining and building C storage in urban soils. PMID:22495017

Beesley, Luke

2012-04-10

368

Patterns of Parental Help  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores the nature of the relationship between parental attitudes and children's school performance. Particular emphasis is placed upon the parents' own perspective on the situation that occurs when their children start at infant school and the way in which parental expectations are confirmed or altered during this first term. The parents (usually mothers only) of 50 children were

Jill Cohen

1979-01-01

369

Questionnaire for Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 116-item parent questionnaire is designed for parents of elementary school children. It is intended to be used with the child's mother, or the person acting as the child's mother. The questionnaire consists of a section devoted to demographic variables and scales measuring 14 parent variables: (1) parent's achievement aspirations for the…

Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

370

Parent Interview Schedule.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 116-item interview schedule designed for parents who failed to respond to the Questionnaire for Parents, is individually administered to the mother of the child of elementary school age. It consists of scales measuring 14 parent variables plus a section devoted to demographic variables: (1) parent's achievement aspirations for the child, (2)…

Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

371

Teens Parenting. Project Seed.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes Teens Parenting, a program that brings together a group of parenting teenagers for a 20-week learning experience using the "Nurturing Program for Teenage Parents and Their Families." It is noted that the program is open to all teenage parents in the area, whether or not they are currently…

Drasby, Gail; And Others

372

Customizing Parenting Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors of this article discuss customizing parent education which requires customized assessment. At Auburn University, Kreg Edgmon and Wally Goddard developed a parent assessment based on the National Extension Parent Education Model (NEPEM) (Smith, Cudaback, Goddard, & Myers-Walls, 1994). All items in the parent assessment were tested with…

Goddard, H. Wallace; Dennis, Steven A.

2004-01-01

373

Parents Teach Reading, Too.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents and teachers need to be involved in teaching children to read and to enjoy reading. There are three planks in a platform that will help all parents become involved in their children's learning to read. First, parents must set the example. If they want their children to read, parents must read around them and to them. Secondly, they must…

Clary, Linda Mixon

374

Parental Rights in Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parental rights in schooling, which protect parents' entitlement to provide for the education of their children, are discussed in this chapter. The courts and legislatures are being forced to deal with these rights. Further, churches, schools, and parents are pressed to define and better protect parental rights, because of the following…

Ball, William Bentley

375

Parent Hearing Aid Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

2012-01-01

376

Parents and the media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we analysed the effects of parental social background and family composition on various types of parental media socialization. We employed the Family Survey Dutch Population 1998, 2000 and 2003 (N=2608), and analysed respondents’ reports of socialization practices in their parental home. Respondents from high-status families report more extensive parental media socialization in all highbrow and guidance activities.

Natascha Notten; Gerbert Kraaykamp

2009-01-01

377

Cultural Approaches to Parenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing

Marc H. Bornstein

2012-01-01

378

Children of Incarcerated Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The arrest and imprisonment of a parent is significant trauma for children, and children of incarcerated parents are at high risk for juvenile delinquency. This book for social workers, psychologists, and others who work with children whose parents are incarcerated examines parental incarceration, its impact on children, care and placement of…

Gabel, Katherine, Ed.; Johnston, Denise, Ed.

379

Parental Involvement. IDRA Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This newsletter contains seven articles about meaningful participation by parents, particularly Hispanic and other minority parents, in the education of their children. "Parents Reclaiming Their Schools: New Initiative Brings Parents Together for Better Schools" (Aurelio M. Montemayor) describes objectives and activities of a Texas-based…

IDRA Newsletter, 1994

1994-01-01

380

Ideas: Working with Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaboration of teachers and parents can strengthen school and home ties. The key ingredients in teachers' efforts to promote parent involvement are communication and education. Forms of one-way and two-way communication with parents are described. Educational strategies discussed include parent instruction and the use of support groups and…

Silliman, Benjamin; Royston, Karen

1990-01-01

381

A Chance to Parent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While parents with disabilities may face big challenges, with appropriate supports, many can be great parents. Just like other parents, they do not have to be responsible for every part of childrearing all by themselves. All parents rely on supports to help raise their children, such as day care, carpools, schools, babysitting co-ops, or advice…

Yuan, Susan; Brillhart, Lindsay; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

382

Codependency and Parenting Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between the parent-child relationship (as perceived by late adolescent-early adult children) and the adolescent's codependency. College students 17through 22 years of age (N = 175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father (via ratings of perceived parental support and coercive control) and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style

Judith L. Fischer; Duane W. Crawford

1992-01-01

383

School Parent Involvement Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This school parent involvement policy is divided into three sections: (1) Development and Adoption of the Parent Involvement Policy; (2) Contents of the Parent Involvement Policy; and (3) Distributing and Revising the School's Parent Involvement Policy. This paper presents the provision of the Section 1118 of Title I of the No Child Left Behind…

Center for Law and Education (NJ3), 2005

2005-01-01

384

Turn Parents into Partners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on how music teachers can improve their interaction with parents and involve them in their child's music education. States that teachers should meet with parents early in the year and inform parents about their child's accomplishments. Offers ideas about discipline issues and how parents can become involved in the music program. (CMK)|

Bobetsky, Victor V.

2003-01-01

385

Meet the Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Notification tools can do more than alert the school community to an emergency. New systems are cultivating parental involvement by sending home daily reports on students' behavior, attendance, and performance. South El Monte High School's new parent notification system, a service from TeleParent, contacts parents personally by text message or…

Villano, Matt

2008-01-01

386

Parents, Kids and TV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three articles offer parents suggestions on how to make television a positive experience for their children. An editorial introduces the following themes basic to all the articles: type and amount of television viewing should be regulated by parents, parents should discuss television with their children, and parents must become aware of the…

Gaffney, Maureen, Ed.

1983-01-01

387

Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range  

SciTech Connect

A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products.

NONE

1997-06-01

388

Humic acids as proxies for assessing different Mediterranean forest soils signatures using solid-state CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Humic acids (HAs) of four representative forest soils profiles from Central Spain (two with different vegetation - pine and oak - but same parent material - granitie, and two with same vegetation - holm oak - but different parent material - granite and limestone) were investigated by solid-state cross polarization with magic angle spinning (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The objectives included the investigation of the impact of different forest properties on HA composition, assessing how the structural characteristics of the HA vary with soil depth, and evaluating the role of HA as surrogates for mapping the different forest soils signatures using structural data derived from (13)C NMR spectroscopy. On average, alkyl C is the dominant C constituent (38-48% of the total NMR peak area) in all HA samples, followed by aromatic (12-22%) and O-alkyl C (12-19%), and finally carboxyl C (7.0-10%). The NMR data also indicated that HA composition is likely to be differently affected by the soil physico-chemical properties and type of forest vegetation. The structural characteristics of the HA from soil under oak did not differ broadly downward in the profile, whereas soil HA under pine forest exhibits a somewhat higher recalcitrant nature as a consequence of a higher degree of decomposition. The soil HA from holm oak forests differed from the other two forest soils, exhibiting a progressive decomposition of the alkyl C structures with increasing depth, while the carbohydrate-like indicator (O-alkyl C) is apparently being protected from mineralization in the horizons below the ground level. Overall, these differences in soil HA NMR signatures are an important diagnostic tool for understanding the role of different soil environmental factors on the structural composition of HA from Mediterranean forest soils. PMID:23332874

Duarte, Regina M B O; Fernández-Getino, Ana P; Duarte, Armando C

2013-01-18

389

Exploring the relationship between mothers' and fathers' parenting practices and children's materialist values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on 2218 British secondary school age children were used to explore the relationship between parenting and materialism. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis carried out to explore the role of parenting in children's materialism showed that although father involvement was unrelated to materialism, mother's involvement was negatively and inter-parental conflict was positively related to child's materialism. Emotional and behavioural problems

Eirini Flouri

2004-01-01

390

Rb-Sr isotope systematics of granitic soil chronosequence: The importance of biotite weathering  

SciTech Connect

The Rb-Sr isotope systematics of bedrock, soil digests, and the cation exchange fraction of soils from a granitic glacial soil chronosequence in the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming, USA, were investigated. Six soil profiles ranging in age from 0.4 to {approximately}300 kyr were studied and revealed that the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of exchangeable strontium in the B-horizons decreased from 0.7947 to 0.7114 with increasing soil age. Soil digests of the same samples showed much smaller variation in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr from 0.7272 to 0.7103 and also generally decreased with increasing soil age. Elevation of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of Sr released by weathering over the soil digest and bedrock values results from the rapid weathering of biotite to form hydrobiotite and vermiculite in the younger soils. Biotite is estimated to weather at approximately eight times the rate of plagioclase (per gram of mineral) in the youngest soil profile and decreases to a rate of only {approximately}20% of that of plagioclase in the oldest soil. {sup 87}Rb/{sup 86}Sr ratios of the soil cation exchange fraction are estimated to be depleted by factors of up to 11 over the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios released by weathering, due to ion exchange partitioning. This study demonstrates that the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio released by weathering of crystalline rocks can deviate significantly from bedrock values, and that in soils less than {approximately}20 kyr in age which contain biotite in the soil parent material, weathering-derived {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values can be elevated so dramatically that this factor must be considered in estimations of weathering rates based on strontium isotopes. 54 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Blum, J.D. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Erel, Y. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)

1997-08-01

391

Cultural Approaches to Parenting  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting.

Bornstein, Marc H.

2012-01-01

392

Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements in the three potential mitigation pathways, i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation (i.e., grass), and rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material ...

393

Crop yield and the fate of nitrogen and phosphorus following application of plant material and feces to soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic materials are the most important sources of nutrients for agricultural production in farming systems of semi-arid West Africa. However, reliance on locally available organic nutrient sources for both crop and livestock production is rapidly becoming unsustainable. A series of feeding and agronomic trials have been conducted to address the role of livestock in sustainable nutrient cycling. This paper reports

J. M. Powell; F. N. Ikpe; Z. C. Somda

1999-01-01

394

Effect of salinity on the dielectric properties of geological materials: implication for soil moisture detection by means of remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the exploitation of dielectric properties of saline deposits for the detection and mapping of moisture in arid regions on both Earth and Mars. We then present a simulation and experimental study in order to assess the effect of salinity on the permittivity of geological materials and therefore on the radar backscattering coefficient in the [1-7 GHz

Y. Lasne; P. Paillou; G. Ruffle; C. Serradilla; F. Demontoux; A. Freeman; T. Farr; K. McDonald; B. Chapman; J.-M. Malezieux

2007-01-01

395

[Morphology of soil iron oxides and its correlation with soil-forming process and forming conditions in a karst mountain].  

PubMed

The quantity and morphology of iron oxides are indicators of soil forming-process and forming conditions. In order to analyze the connection between soil iron oxides and soil forming conditions and degenerative process of karst ecosystem, we have chosen 14 soil profiles on the top and middle section of Jinfo Mountain, a typical karst slope in Chongqing, China. Morphology and contents of soil iron oxides were studied by using chemical selective extraction techniques. We draw conclusions: 1) total iron (Fe(t)) is mainly controlled by parent material and lithology. Significant difference of Fe(t) content exists between soils in Top Mountain (51.49 g x kg(-1), mean value from 5 profiles) and soils at the middle sector of North Slope (86.29 g x kg(-1), mean value of 9 profiles); 2) the results show low concentration of F(d) (29.16 g x kg(-1)) and low ratio of Fe(d) to Fe(t)(35.40%) in soil clay under conditions of high elevation and low temperature on Top Mountain. In contrast, the results indicate advanced weathering and soil-forming process at middle slope sites due to high temperature; this is supported by high mean values of Fe(d) (43.92 g x kg(-1)) and ratio of Fe(d)/Fe(t) in clay (60.41%); 3) long humid climatic setting and large numbers of soil organic matter on top of the mountain result in high activation degrees (F(o)/Fe(d)) and high complexation degrees (Fe(p)/Fe(d)); mean values of them are 73.51%, 17.21% respectively, which are higher than that of soils at middle slope sites (13.06%, 0.41%); 4) after degradation or deforestation of secondary forestland (pines massoniana among bushes) at middle section of the hillslope, soil free iron oxides (Fe(d)) and total iron oxides (Fe(t)) decrease as well as soil organic carbon and clay, because of progressively increasing of soil erosion. Average contents of Fe(t) and Fe(d) in clay from 2 shrub profiles are 98.25 g x kg(-1), 50.81 g x kg(-1) respectively. However, the four tillage soils we have studied reveal lower values of Fe(t) (84.52 g x kg(-1)) and Fe(d) in clay (47.86 g x kg(-1)). Soil iron oxides are reliable indicators to estimate degeneration of karst ecosystem and karst rock desertification. PMID:22946190

Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Zhu, Zhang-Xiong; Fu, Wa-Li; Wen, Zhi-Lin

2012-06-01

396

Evolution of soils on quaternary reef terraces of Barbados, West Indies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils on uplifted Quaternary reef terraces of Barbados, ???125,000 to ???700,000 yr old, form a climo-chronosequence and show changes in physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties with terrace age. Parent materials are dust derived from the Sahara, volcanic ash from the Lesser Antilles island arc, and detrital carbonate from the underlying reef limestone. Although some terrace soils are probably eroded, soils or their remnants are redder and more clay-rich with increasing terrace age. Profile-average Al2O3 and Fe2O3 content increases with terrace age, which partially reflects the increasing clay content, but dithionite-extractable Fe also increases with terrace age. Profile-average K2O/TiO2, Na2O/TiO2, and P2O5/TiO2 values decrease with terrace age, reflecting the depletion of primary minerals. Average SiO2/Al2O3 values also decrease with terrace age and reflect not only loss of primary minerals but also evolution of secondary clay minerals. Although they are not present in any of the parent materials, the youngest terrace soils are dominated by smectite and interstratified kaolinite-smectite, which gradually alter to relatively pure kaolinite over ???700,000 yr. Comparisons with other tropical islands, where precipitation is higher and rates of dust fall may be lower, show that Barbados soils are less weathered than soils of comparable age. It is concluded that many soil properties in tropical regions can be potentially useful relative-age indicators in Quaternary stratigraphic studies, even when soils are eroded or changes in soil morphology are not dramatic. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

Muhs, D. R.

2001-01-01

397

Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions and Parenting Practices  

PubMed Central

A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the Five-Factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the five personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process.

Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

2011-01-01

398

Evolution of desert pavements and the vesicular layer in soils of the Transantarctic Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to mid-latitude deserts, the properties, formation and evolution of desert pavements and the underlying vesicular layer in Antarctica are poorly understood. This study examines the desert pavements and the vesicular layer from seven soil chronosequences in the Transantarctic Mountains that have developed on two contrasting parent materials: sandstone–dolerite and granite–gneiss. The pavement density commonly ranges from 63 to 92%

James G. Bockheim

2010-01-01

399

Zonal, provincial, lithological, and geomorphic features of soil salinization in the Southern federal okrug of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between soil salinization and the zonal and provincial bioclimatic conditions, the lithological composition\\u000a of the sediments, and the geomorphic features of the territory have been analyzed for the Southern federal okrug of Russia.\\u000a It is shown that the lithological and geomorphic conditions (relief, salinity of parent materials, degree of drainage, and\\u000a the depth of saline groundwater) play an

A. F. Novikova; E. I. Pankova; A. A. Kontoboitseva

2011-01-01

400

An evaluation of the level of naturally occurring radioactive material in soil samples along the Chao Phraya river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of natural radioactivity in river sediments and riverbank surface soils collected along the Chao Phraya River and its tributaries in Thailand. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in 238U and 232Th decay chains as well as 40K in all samples have been determined by means of a gamma-ray spectrometry system using a hyper-pure germanium detector in a low background configuration. The ranges of specific activity for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found to be 15.2-67.0, 16.8-73.3 and 204.6-656.5 Bq kg-1, respectively. Additionally, evaluations have been made of the absorbed gamma dose rate in air and the annual effective dose equivalent from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation in order to assess any excess radiological risk from agricultural usage of fertilizers. In this study, the absorbed dose rate was observed to vary from 30.5 to 102.6 nGy h-1 and the outdoor annual effective dose equivalent to range from 37.4 to 125.8 ?Sv yr-1.

Santawamaitre, T.; Regan, P. H.; Bradley, D. A.; Matthews, M.; Malain, D.; Al-Sulaiti, H. A.

2010-07-01

401

Persistence and dissipation pathways of the antidepressant sertraline in agricultural soils.  

PubMed

Sertraline is a widely-used antidepressant that is one of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It has been detected in biosolids and effluents from sewage treatment plants. Since sertraline can reach agriculture land through the application of municipal biosolids or reclaimed water, the persistence and dissipation pathways of (3)H-sertraline were determined in laboratory incubations using three agriculture soils varying in textures and properties. The total solvent extractable radioactivity decreased in all three soils with times to dissipate 50% of material (DT50) ranging from 48.1±3.5 (loam soil) to 84.5±13.8 (clay soil) days. Two hydroxylated sertraline transformation products were identified in all three soils by high performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS), but the accumulation did not exceed 10% of the initial parent concentration. The addition of liquid municipal biosolids to the loam soil had no effect on the rate of sertraline dissipation, or production of transformation products. In summary, sertraline was persistent in agricultural soils with major dissipation pathways including the production of non-extractable soil-bound residues, and accumulation of hydroxylated transformation products. The biologically active sertraline transformation product norsertraline was not detected in soil. PMID:23523727

Li, Hongxia; Sumarah, Mark W; Topp, Edward

2013-03-22

402

Genetic features of soils on sorted sand deposits of different origins in the Kola Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differences in the chemical composition of soils developed from sorted sands of different origins are revealed. The iron-illuvial podzols on rich glaciofluvial and marine sands are characterized by well-pronounced Al-Fe-humus differentiation of the Si, Al, and Fe in the soil profile. These soils are relatively similar in their bulk elemental composition. The difference between them is seen in the degree of differentiation of the soil profiles; it is stronger in the soils developed from glaciofluvial deposits. This is particularly true with respect to the oxalate-soluble iron and aluminum hydroxides. The deposits derived from the red-colored Tersk sandstone and processed by the sea (in the coastal zone of the White Sea) have the poorest chemical composition. In the soils developed from them, the differentiation of oxalate-soluble compounds is slightly pronounced (for Fe) or completely absent (for Si and Al). These soils can be classified as podzolized ferruginous red-colored psammozems (within the order of poorly developed soils) with the following horizons: O-Ce-Cf-C. The Ce horizon has the features of podzolization, and the Cf horizon has some features attesting to the illuvial accumulation of Fe. The profile of these soils inherits a reddish tint from the parent material.

Pereverzev, V. N.

2009-09-01

403

Description and reconstruction of the soil pore space using correlation functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a method for the description and reconstruction of the soil pore space using correlation functions has been examined. The reconstruction procedure employed here is the best way of verification of the potential descriptor of the soil pore space. Thin sections representing eight major types of pore space in zonal loamy soils and parent materials of the Russian Plain with pores of different shapes and orientations have been chosen for this study. Comparison based on the morphological analysis of the original pore space images and their correlation function reconstructions obtained using simulated annealing technique indicates that this method of reconstruction adequately describes the isometric soil pore space with isometric dissected, isometric slightly dissected, and rounded pores. The two-point correlation functions calculated with the use of the orthogonal method proved to be different for the examined types of soil pore space; they reflect the soil porosity, specific surface, and pore structure correlations at different lengths. The results of this study allow us to conclude that the description of the soil pore space with the help of correlation functions is a promising approach, but requires more development. Further directions of the development of this method for describing the soil pore space and determining the soil physical processes are outlined.

Gerke, K. M.; Karsanina, M. V.; Skvortsova, E. B.

2012-09-01

404

Making a Difference: Inservice Training for Parent Aides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These inservice training materials were developed to address issues arising when parent aides assist parents under stress. Survey data from aides and their supervisors indicated that they wanted to know how to communicate with parents about their children; how to work with families having problems with alcohol, exploitation, and depression; how…

Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

405

There is Significant Stress among Parents Having Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the level of parenting stress and associating factors of stress in parents rearing children with autism. Materials and Methods: The sample included 60 parents (30 fathers, 30 mothers) of 30 children with diagnosis of autism. The sample was taken from different hospitals and institutions of mental retardation in Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Wah Cantt, Pakistan from 2005-2006. Stress

Fazaila Sabih; Wahid Bakhsh Sajid

406

Effect of distribution coefficient, contaminated area, and the depth contamination of the guildelines for uranium residual radoiactive material in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup guidelines for uranium applicable to remedial actions at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites are derived on a site-specific basis. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline Computer code, RESRAD, is used in these evaluations. This analysis investigates the effect of site-specific parameters on the guideline values (specifically distribution coefficient, depth of contamination,

S. Kamboj; M. Nimmagadda; E. Faillace; C. Yu; W. A. Williams

1996-01-01

407

Parenting Regarding Children with Special Needs: Parental Perceptions and Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parenting is an important part of a child's development that begins before the child is born and extends throughout parents' and children's lives. Previous research has shown that parenting is an important indicator of children's later psychological adjustment. According to the parent development theory (PDT), parenting behaviors are generally consistent with individuals' parenting beliefs and perceptions of the parenting role.

Devorah Neuhaus

2011-01-01

408

Soil characteristics of semidesert soils along a precipitation gradient in the Negev (Israel)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sand dunes of the north-western Negev desert (Israel) show a unique precipitation gradient on a short distance. This area is build up by the same parent material and suited to investigate the influence of changes in rainfall on soil characteristics in semi-desert ecosystems. The study site is the western extension of the Sinai sand field, the sand dunes are stabilised by biological soil crusts and perennial vegetation like Retama raetam. Along this precipitation gradient the three investigation areas Nizzana South (90mm ^a-), Nizzana 84 (130mm ^a-1) and Nizzana 69 (170mm ^a-1) are situated. At every study site two soil profiles were investigated, each under the legume Retama raetam and in the bare interspace covered by biological soil crusts. The soil samples were taken at the interdune positions at every study site. The soil sampling included the biological soil crust, the topsoil and the subsoil up to 1,5 m. The narrow sampling of 20cm wide steps allow a mapping of the distribution of nutrients, carbonates and soluble salts of in order to show the impact of perennial plants and rainfall on soil properties. Soluble salts and nutrients were measured in a 1:5 water extraction, calcium carbonate was determined according to Scheibler. The data shows a strong influence of perennial shrubs on the deposition of dust and the redistribution of nutrients compared to the bare interspace. The distribution of highly and less soluble salts below the perennial shrub proofs a shallower water infiltration than in the comparable interspace area. The interspace between the plants is covered by a biological soil crust, which also strongly influences the matter fluxes by nutrient-fixation, creation of runoff and stabilization of the soil surface. These biological soil crusts show higher amounts of elements than the subsoils. The comparison of the three areas along the rainfall gradient shows higher inputs of soluble salts with increasing precipitation due to wet deposition, while carbonate contents are negatively correlated with decreasing precipitation. This is related to a higher dust input in the southern study site, which was generated in the lime stone Negev. Higher amounts of rainfall introduce higher element leaching. Perennial plants cover the surface and reduce infiltration. Inputs into the soils through dust have to be evaluated for every location to separate between effects of deposition and rainfall.

Steckenmesser, Daniel; Drahorad, Sylvie; Felix-Henningsen, Peter

2010-05-01

409

Soil stratigraphy and plant soil interactions on a Late Glacial Holocene fluvial terrace sequence, Sierra Nevada National Park, northern Venezuelan Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of a flight of alluvial terraces in the Sierra Nevada National Park near Pico Mucuñuque in the Eastern Mérida Andes has yielded information on geomorphic, pedogenic, and vegetational changes from Late Glacial time to the present. The terraces formed in large part due to stream incision/migration triggered by neotectonic uplift (>7000 yr BP) of a Late Glacial/Early Holocene glaciolacustrine lithosequence and, with the exception of the oldest/highest terrace, exhibit near-uniform lithology/parent materials. Soils developed in the terrace materials range from thin, weakly developed profiles (O/C/Cu horizons) to Entisols with O/Ah/Cox/Cu horizons and similar buried counterparts representing former short periods of floodplain stability or slow aggradation. The buried soils provide organic-rich material that yields radiocarbon ages, which provide time constraints on individual pedons and the geomorphic development of the site. Iron and aluminum extracts of soil matrix material provide information on the formation and accumulation of goethite and hematite, the relative accumulation of ferrihydrite (gain/loss), and the downward translocation of organically complexed Al as a function of soil development and age. SEM analysis of heavy mineral grains indicates varying material sources and degrees of weathering in the soil chronosequence. A qualitative study of plant functional types across the terrace sequence shows that older surfaces support greater plant diversity. The study also suggests ways in which the plant communities influence soil development at the site through varying organic matter inputs and varying soil moisture use by specific species (e.g., ferns on the oldest terrace), which may explain the absence of B horizons in the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene soils.

Mahaney, William C.; Dirszowsky, Randy W.; Milner, Michael W.; Harmsen, Rudolf; Finkelstein, Sarah A.; Kalm, Volli; Bezada, Maximilano; Hancock, R. G. V.

2007-01-01

410

Biochar effects on soil biota – A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil amendment with biochar is evaluated globally as a means to improve soil fertility and to mitigate climate change. However, the effects of biochar on soil biota have received much less attention than its effects on soil chemical properties. A review of the literature reveals a significant number of early studies on biochar-type materials as soil amendments either for managing

Johannes Lehmann; Matthias C. Rillig; Janice Thies; Caroline A. Masiello; William C. Hockaday; David Crowley

2011-01-01

411

In-situ vitrification of soil  

DOEpatents

A method of vitrifying soil at or below a soil surface location. Two or more conductive electrodes are inserted into the soil for heating of the soil mass between them to a temperature above its melting temperature. Materials in the soil, such as buried waste, can thereby be effectively immobilized.

Brouns, Richard A. (Kennewick, WA); Buelt, James L. (Richland, WA); Bonner, William F. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

412

Phosphomonoesterase production and persistence and composition of bacterial communities during plant material decomposition in soils with different pH values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study the synthesis and persistence of acid and alkaline phosphomonoesterases in three soils with different pH values amended with ryegrass residues. The organic input increased soil respiration, as estimated by CO2–C evolution in all soils. The ATP content of the three soils showed a 3–7-fold increase between 7 and 10d in the different

G. Renella; L. Landi; J. Ascher; M. T. Ceccherini; G. Pietramellara; P. Nannipieri

2006-01-01

413

[Accumulation characteristics of arsenic in suburban soils of Beijing].  

PubMed

Various land uses and enormous environmental pressures are characteristics of suburbs. Full understanding of suburban soil pollution is necessary for urban planning and development. In this study, 167 surface soil samples (0-20 cm) located in suburbs of Beijing between the fifth and sixth ring road were collected based on the 3 km x 3 km grids. The purpose of our investigation is to reveal the accumulating characteristics of As in Beijing suburbs. Results showed that arsenic contents in suburban soils of Beijing ranged from 2.89 mg x kg(-1) to 11.38 mg x kg(-1), with mean of 7.11 mg x kg(-1). The means were in the range of the background values reported in late 1990s, but the values of each quantile were lower than the soil background values reported in early 1980s. Factor analysis suggested that As in Beijing suburban soil shared the same group as those elements coming from parent materials such as Co, Mn and Ni. The spatial distribution map using Kriging interpolation showed that As contents in northwestern, eastern and southeastern parts were higher than those in northeastern and southwestern parts. Those plots with contents of the highest 25% were all located near the pollution sources, while most of those with the lowest 25% contents located far from the pollution sources. Comparison of As contents in different land uses showed that human activities had influence on the accumulation of As in soils. Inhabitation areas and agricultural fields had higher As contents than the green lands and vacant lands. Pollution sources significantly affected the accumulation of As in soils of inhabitation areas, green lands and vacant lands. Arsenic contents in soils near factories were significantly higher than those far from factories and traffic corridors. To sum up, the spatial distributions of As contents in soils in Beijing suburban area were generally determined by the distributions of parent materials, while human activities increased the accumulation of As in soils to some degree. PMID:23213914

Qi, Jie; Wang, Mei-e; Wang, Zi-qiang; Ouyang, Zhi-yun

2012-08-01

414

Parental authority questionnaire.  

PubMed

A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness. PMID:16370893

Buri, J R

1991-08-01

415

Parenting by lying  

PubMed Central

The present set of studies identifies the phenomenon of `parenting by lying', in which parents lie to their children as a means of influencing their emotional states and behaviour. In Study 1, undergraduates (n = 127) reported that their parents had lied to them while maintaining a concurrent emphasis on the importance of honesty. In Study 2 (n = 127), parents reported lying to their children and considered doing so to be acceptable under some circumstances, even though they also reported teaching their children that lying is unacceptable. As compared to European American parents, Asian American parents tended to hold a more favourable view of lying to children for the purpose of promoting behavioural compliance.

Heyman, Gail D.; Luu, Diem H.; Lee, Kang

2010-01-01

416

Zonal, provincial, lithological, and geomorphic features of soil salinization in the Southern federal okrug of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between soil salinization and the zonal and provincial bioclimatic conditions, the lithological composition of the sediments, and the geomorphic features of the territory have been analyzed for the Southern federal okrug of Russia. It is shown that the lithological and geomorphic conditions (relief, salinity of parent materials, degree of drainage, and the depth of saline groundwater) play an important role in the distribution of salt-affected soils against the background of the more general regularities specified by the climate. The participation of salt-affected soils in the soil cover of the Southern federal okrug increases in the eastward direction from the forest-steppe zone to the semidesert zone in agreement with an increase in the aridity and continentality of the climate. The chemical composition of soil salts also changes: the sulfate and soda-sulfate types predominate in the forest-steppe zone; the sulfate type or the sulfate type with the participation of soda, in the steppe zone; the sulfate-chloride type, in the dry steppe zone; and the chloride type, in the semidesert zone. The lithological and geomorphic conditions within the particular zones and provinces affect the distribution pattern of the salt-affected soils and the degree and chemistry of the soil salinization. The areas of salt-affected soils were calculated with the use of a digital version of the Map of Salt-Affected Soils of Russia (1: 2.5 M scale) with due account for the participation of these soils in the soil cover of the particular delineations and the data on the depth of the upper boundary of the salt-bearing horizons, the degree and chemistry of the soil salinization, and the area of solonetzes and solonetzic soils.

Novikova, A. F.; Pankova, E. I.; Kontoboitseva, A. A.

2011-08-01

417

Changes in eroded material and runoff as affected by rain depth and aggregate slaking in three semi-arid region soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seal formation, runoff and interrill soil erosion are controlled by, among other factors, soil texture, rain properties (kinetic energy and intensity), and aggregate slaking. Previous studies typically reported the total amounts of runoff and soil loss for an entire storm.We examined, at intervals o...

418

Variation in woody plant mortality and dieback from severe drought among soils, plant groups, and species within a northern Arizona ecotone.  

PubMed

Vegetation change from drought-induced mortality can alter ecosystem community structure, biodiversity, and services. Although drought-induced mortality of woody plants has increased globally with recent warming, influences of soil type, tree and shrub groups, and species are poorly understood. Following the severe 2002 drought in northern Arizona, we surveyed woody plant mortality and canopy dieback of live trees and shrubs at the forest-woodland ecotone on soils derived from three soil parent materials (cinder, flow basalt, sedimentary) that differed in texture and rockiness. Our first of three major findings was that soil parent material had little effect on mortality of both trees and shrubs, yet canopy dieback of trees was influenced by parent material; dieback was highest on the cinder for pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) and one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma). Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) dieback was not sensitive to parent material. Second, shrubs had similar mortality, but greater canopy dieback, than trees. Third, pinyon and ponderosa pines had greater mortality than juniper, yet juniper had greater dieback, reflecting different hydraulic characteristics among these tree species. Our results show that impacts of severe drought on woody plants differed among tree species and tree and shrub groups, and such impacts were widespread over different soils in the southwestern U.S. Increasing frequency of severe drought with climate warming will likely cause similar mortality to trees and shrubs over major soil types at the forest-woodland ecotone in this region, but due to greater mortality of other tree species, tree cover will shift from a mixture of species to dominance by junipers and shrubs. Surviving junipers and shrubs will also likely have diminished leaf area due to canopy dieback. PMID:20532566

Koepke, Dan F; Kolb, Thomas E; Adams, Henry D

2010-06-08

419

Evaluating soluble toxicants in contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex mixtures of water soluble materials from contaminated soils can move into groundwater and surface water by leaching, percolation, and runoff. We evaluated the potential toxicity of leachable materials from seven soils. Five soil samples were obtained at designated toxic or hazardous waste sites, and two additional soils samples were obtained from a coal storage area and from an agricultural

J. R. Pratt; P. V. McCormick; K. W. Pontasch; J. Cairns

1988-01-01

420

Parent to Parent: Giftedness with a Twist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discovering that a child is gifted can be both exhilarating and daunting. Parents watch in amazement and awe as their 3-year-old reads a first-grade-level book flawlessly, or they might listen to their preschool child's distress over seeing a homeless person on the street. Parents observe as their 6-year-old dismantles a broken CD player and…

McGee, Christy D.

2012-01-01

421

Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions, and Parenting Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play)…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

2011-01-01

422

Parenting Curriculum for Language Minority Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum consists of a workbook for language minority parents learning English as a Second Language and parenting skills, and a teaching activities guide for instructors. The guide, developed for both literate and non-literate adults, serves three purposes: (1) as a visual aid for the classroom, with pictures introducing English in…

Holt, Grace D.

423

Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied soils on high-purity limestones of Quaternary age on the western Atlantic Ocean islands of Barbados, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas. Potential soil parent materials in this region, external to the carbonate substrate, include volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent (near Barbados), volcanic ash from the islands of Dominica and St. Lucia (somewhat farther from Barbados), the fine-grained component of distal loess from the lower Mississippi River Valley, and wind-transported dust from Africa. These four parent materials can be differentiated using trace elements (Sc, Cr, Th, and Zr) and rare earth elements that have minimal mobility in the soil-forming environment. Barbados soils have compositions that indicate a complex derivation. Volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent appears to have been the most important influence, but African dust is a significant contributor, and even Mississippi River valley loess may be a very minor contributor to Barbados soils. Soils on the Florida Keys and islands in the Bahamas appear to have developed mostly from African dust, but Mississippi River valley loess may be a significant contributor. Our results indicate that inputs of African dust are more important to the genesis of soils on islands in the western Atlantic Ocean than previously supposed. We hypothesize that African dust may also be a major contributor to soils on other islands of the Caribbean and to soils in northern South America, central America, Mexico, and the southeastern United States. Dust inputs to subtropical and tropical soils in this region increase both nutrient-holding capacity and nutrient status and thus may be critical in sustaining vegetation.

Muhs, Daniel R.; Budahn, James R.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Carey, Steven N.

2007-06-01

424

The coupled release of REE and Pb to the soil labile pool with time by weathering of accessory phases, Wind River Mountains, WY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare earth element (REE) distributions and Pb isotope compositions were explored in soils varying in age from ca. 0.4 to ?300 ka, developed on moraines in the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming. Soil extracts (0.6 M HCl) were used to examine the soil labile pool while the major element distribution in soil profiles was used to determine the extent of weathering at different soil depths. The results show that the chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the deepest bulk soil within each profile reflects the composition of the moraine till, except for the oldest soil. Up to ca. 12 ka, the soil extract fraction is enriched in light REE, indicating early release of light REE to the soil labile pool while that of the two oldest soils are relatively enriched in heavy REE. In the soil extracts the La/Sm ratio normalized to the deepest soil (La D/Sm D) decreases systematically with soil age. Similarly, the Eu-anomaly in the deepest soil from each profile (Eu D/Eu D*) decreases slightly with soil age in the three young soils; however, Eu D/Eu D* increases with soil age in the older soils. The systematic trends of these two ratios indicate the depletion of light REE in young soils and the enrichment of Eu and heavy REE in the older soils. Based on the Pb isotope ratios, the relative contribution of Pb to the soil labile pool via mineral weathering of U- or Th-rich phases was assessed for the different stages of weathering. The whole-soil profile 208Pb/ 204Pb ratio was found to decrease with soil age and with La D/Sm D, whereas it increased with the Eu D/Eu D* ratio. In each horizon, Pb isotope ratios ( 206Pb/ 204Pb, 207Pb/ 204Pb, and 208Pb/ 204Pb) ratio generally decrease with soil age. In order to overcome possible effects from parent material heterogeneity, the amount of radiogenic Pb as compared to the whole-soil composition was calculated and this was found to decrease systematically with soil age.

Harlavan, Yehudit; Erel, Yigal; Blum, Joel D.

2009-01-01

425

SOILS AND SOIL SCIENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Soil science is a relatively new discipline which has mainly developed since the 1880s. It uses terms, methods and processes borrowed from other basic disciplines like climatology, geology, chemistry, physics and biology, but with a direct application to soils. At present, it is difficult to speak about one single science but as soil sciences, as they cover several fields

Willy Verheye

426

Hand in Hand with Parents: A Teacher's Guide to Parent Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Guidelines for conducting home visits with parents of Title I students are presented. The guidelines include the following: (1) a list of purposes for home visits; (2) suggestions for what to do and what not to do when visiting; (3) types of information that parents can provide; and (4) ways to deal with difficult situations. Additional materials

Des Moines Public Schools, IA.

427

Smithsonian Soils Exhibit: Soils Sustain Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In partnership with the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) and the Agronomic Science Foundation (ASF), the Smithsonian Institute is preparing a soils exhibit to help "visitors understand how soil is intricately linked to the health of humanity, the environment and the planet." The site explains the exhibit's three major proposed aspects: an educational outreach program, a temporary interactive exhibit, and a permanent State Soil Monolith Collection. Users can view the timeline for the project, which was initiated in 2001 and is planned to open in 2006. Soil scientists can learn how they can contribute by donating their soil educational materials to the project, which is expected to inform six to nine million visitors.

428

Parents, Kids and TV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three articles offer parents suggestions on how to make television a positive experience for their children. An editorial introduces the following themes basic to all the articles: type and amount of television viewing should be regulated by parents, pare...

M. Gaffney

1983-01-01

429

Parenting and infant sleep.  

PubMed

Infant sleep undergoes dramatic evolution during the first year of life. This process is driven by underlying biological forces but is highly dependent on environmental cues including parental influences. In this review the links between infant sleep and parental behaviors, cognitions, emotions and relationships as well as psychopathology are examined within the context of a transactional model. Parental behaviors, particularly those related to bedtime interactions and soothing routines, are closely related to infant sleep. Increased parental involvement is associated with more fragmented sleep. Intervention based on modifying parental behaviors and cognitions have direct effect on infant sleep. It appears that parental personality, psychopathology and related cognitions and emotions contribute to parental sleep-related behaviors and ultimately influence infant sleep. However, the links are bidirectional and dynamic so that poor infant sleep may influence parental behaviors and poor infant sleep appears to be a family stressor and a risk factor for maternal depression. PMID:19631566

Sadeh, Avi; Tikotzky, Liat; Scher, Anat

2009-07-23

430

Parent Outreach Success  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through the Massachusetts Parent Involvement Project (MassPIP), teams of community businesses, service organizations, school personnel, parents, and children joined together and planned and conducted science, mathematics, and technology related activities

Nitzberg, Joel; Sparrow, Judith

2001-11-01

431

A worksite parenting program.  

PubMed

With more and more companies offering wellness programs for their employees, it seems reasonable to offer parent training classes to employees as an educational tool and a means of coping with stress. A series of parenting classes was developed using the STAR Parenting Model. The STAR Model teaches parents to stop, think, ask, and respond to their children based on tenets of cognitive behavior management. Classes taught to faculty and staff of the university were well attended and participants indicated that the method positively altered their parenting practices. Parents are challenged by their young children and by their jobs and careers. Parenting education at work may help to ease some employee stress and improve their parenting practices. PMID:2306310

Anderson, R C; Fox, R A

1990-02-01

432

Community Engaged Parent Education: Strengthening Civic Engagement among Parents and Parent Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We introduce Community Engaged Parent Education as a model for civic engagement in parent education. In Community Engaged Parent Education, the parent educator weaves the public dimensions of parenting into the everyday practice of group parent education. It is not a curriculum but a community-collaborative way of teaching all parenting topics by…

Doherty, William J.; Jacob, Jenet; Cutting, Beth

2009-01-01

433

Improved soil carbonate determination by FT-IR and X-ray analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In forest soils on calcareous parent material, carbonate is a key component which influences both chemical and physical soil properties and thus fertility and productivity. At low organic carbon contents it is difficult to distinguish between organic and inorganic carbon (carbonate) in soils. The common gas-volumetric method to determine carbonate has a number of disadvantages. We hypothesize that a combination of two spectroscopic methods, which account for different forms of carbonate, can be used to model soil carbonate in our study region. Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-MIR) was combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) to develop a model based on partial least squares regression (PLSR). Results of the gas-volumetric Scheibler method were corrected for the calcite/dolomite ratio. The best model performance was achieved when we combined the two analytical methods using four principal components. The root mean squared error of prediction decreased from 13.07 to 11.57, while full cross-validation explained 94.5% of the variance of the carbonate content. This is the first time that a combination of the proposed methods has been used to predict carbonate in forest soils, offering a simple and cheap method to precisely estimate soil carbonate contents while increasing accuracy in comparison to spectroscopic approaches proposed earlier. This approach has the potential to complement or substitute gas-volumetric methods, specifically in study areas with low soil heterogeneity and similar parent material or in long-term monitoring by consecutive sampling. Reference: Bruckman, V. and K. Wriessnig, Improved soil carbonate determination by FT-IR and X-ray analysis. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 2012: p. 1-6. [DOI:DOI 10.1007/s10311-012-0380-4

Bruckman, Viktor; Wriessnig, Karin

2013-04-01

434

Assessing Parents and Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes a study designed to determine the effectiveness of parental influence on their children. The researcher interviewed nine students from a St. Louis, Missouri Catholic elementary school along with the students' parents and teachers. The author presents findings related to family discipline procedures, parental expectations for children,…

Dixon, Mary

2002-01-01

435

Parents Reviewing Annual Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the perceptions of 12 British parents of children with special needs concerning their involvement in the required annual review process. Analysis of questionnaire and recorded discussions suggested that parents' views might be valued in principle but devalued in practice. Recommendations focus on preparatory meetings for parents

Jones, Phyllis; Swain, John

2001-01-01

436

Black Grandparents as Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been an increase in the number of children being raised by their grandparents. As these grandparents take on the primary parenting responsibilities of their grandchildren, they are being deprived of a wholesome and more typical grandparent-grandchild relationship. Many of these children are born to drug-addicted parents or to parents who…

Poe, Lenora Madison

437

Parenting With Teenagers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses factors that affect parent-child relationships when children become adolescents. Several factors are seen to be related to the development of reciprocity in parenting behaviors between adolescents and their parents. Factors related to the development of reciprocity are (1) teenagers' physical and intellectual development and…

Wattenberg, William W.

438

Relational Responding in Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between parenting stress and relational conditioning. Fourteen students who were not mothers, 14 mothers who reported high parenting stress and 14 mothers with low parenting stress completed two matching-to-sample (MTS) computer tasks, each requiring formation of three 3-member classes. The first MTS task…

Murrell, Amy R.; Wilson, Kelly G.; LaBorde, Cicely T.; Drake, Chad E.; Rogers, Leslie J.

2008-01-01

439

A Parent's Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This response to Mahoney et al. (EC 623 392) by a parent of a child with disabilities agrees with the need for parent education in early intervention and offers the author's personal experiences to underscore points such as the importance of collaboration with families and the need to consider parents' limited time and resources. (DB)

Greene, Marci

1999-01-01

440

Parent Outreach Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the Massachusetts Parent Involvement Project (MassPIP) comprising 59 local community coalitions of businesses, service organizations, school personnel, parents, and children. Describes steps coalitions follow in planning events and presents community success stories. The project developed a set of activities that parents can do at home…

Nitzberg, Joel; Sparrow, Judith

2001-01-01

441

Educational Surrogate Parent Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended for individuals who agree to act as educational surrogate parents for children with disabilities in North Dakota. Section 1 provides an overview of the educational surrogate parent service, including surrogate parent qualifications, protections, responsibilities, confidentiality, and the surrogate's partnership with the…

North Dakota State Dept. of Public Instruction, Bismarck.

442

Children of Incarcerated Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes what is known about the children of incarcerated parents in California. The report estimates the number of children in California who have parents in the state's criminal justice system (jail, prison, parole, and probation) and summarizes key findings from the research literature on the impact of parental arrest and…

Simmons, Charlene Wear

2000-01-01

443

Parenting by lying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present set of studies identifies the phenomenon of ‘parenting by lying’, in which parents lie to their children as a means of influencing their emotional states and behaviour. In Study 1, undergraduates (n = 127) reported that their parents had lied to them while maintaining a concurrent emphasis on the importance of honesty. In Study 2 (n = 127),

Gail D. Heyman; Diem H. Luu; Kang Lee

2009-01-01

444

Categories of Parent Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The growing interest in effective parent involvement has produced several ways to classify or describe ways parents are or should be involved. This article reviews and evaluates Ira Gordon's systems approach, the California-based System Development Corporation's categories, Eugenia H. Berger's parental role categories, Chavkin and Williams'…

Bauch, Jerold P.

1994-01-01

445

NYS Foster Parent Manual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual was developed for use in foster parents' day-to-day life with the children in their care. It gives them practical information on topics like medical care, payments, and the role of the court, and also provides guidance on areas like welcoming a child, discipline, and parent visits. The manual emphasizes the role of foster parents in…

McBride, Rebecca

2007-01-01

446