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Sample records for parent material soil

  1. Soil Inorganic Carbon Formation: Can Parent Material Overcome Climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanbery, C.; Will, R. M.; Seyfried, M. S.; Benner, S. G.; Flores, A. N.; Guilinger, J.; Lohse, K. A.; Good, A.; Black, C.; Pierce, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Soil carbon is the third largest carbon reservoir and is composed of both organic and inorganic constituents. However, the storage and flux of soil carbon within the global carbon cycle are not fully understood. While organic carbon is often the focus of research, the factors controlling the formation and dissolution of soil inorganic carbon (SIC) are complex. Climate is largely accepted as the primary control on SIC, but the effects of soil parent material are less clear. We hypothesize that effects of parent material are significant and that SIC accumulation will be greater in soils formed from basalts than granites due to the finer textured soils and more abundant calcium and magnesium cations. This research is being conducted in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in southwestern Idaho. The watershed is an ideal location because it has a range of gradients in precipitation (250 mm to 1200 mm), ecology (sagebrush steppe to juniper), and parent materials (a wide array of igneous and sedimentary rock types) over a relatively small area. Approximately 20 soil profiles will be excavated throughout the watershed and will capture the effects of differing precipitation amounts and parent material on soil characteristics. Several samples at each site will be collected for analysis of SIC content and grain size distribution using a pressure calcimeter and hydrometers, respectively. Initial field data suggests that soils formed over basalts have a higher concentration of SIC than those on granitic material. If precipitation is the only control on SIC, we would expect to see comparable amounts in soils formed on both rock types within the same precipitation zone. However, field observations suggest that for all but the driest sites, soils formed over granite had no SIC detected while basalt soils with comparable precipitation had measurable amounts of SIC. Grain size distribution appears to be a large control on SIC as the sandier, granitic soils promote deeper percolation. This ongoing research will clarify the processes involved in SIC formation and identify the situations where it is an atmospheric source or sink.

  2. Dryland soil microbial communities display spatial biogeographic patterns associated with soil depth and soil parent material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common to drylands worldwide. We employed replicated, spatially nested sampling and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the soil microbial communities in three soils derived from different parent material (sandstone, shale, and gypsum). For each soil type, two depths (biocrusts, 0–1 cm; below-crust soils, 2–5 cm) and two horizontal spatial scales (15 cm and 5 m) were sampled. In all three soils, Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria demonstrated significantly higher relative abundance in the biocrusts, while Chloroflexi and Archaea were significantly enriched in the below-crust soils. Biomass and diversity of the communities in biocrusts or below-crust soils did not differ with soil type. However, biocrusts on gypsum soil harbored significantly larger populations of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and lower populations of Cyanobacteria. Numerically dominant operational taxonomic units (OTU; 97% sequence identity) in the biocrusts were conserved across the soil types, whereas two dominant OTUs in the below-crust sand and shale soils were not identified in the gypsum soil. The uniformity with which small-scale vertical community differences are maintained across larger horizontal spatial scales and soil types is a feature of dryland ecosystems that should be considered when designing management plans and determining the response of biocrusts to environmental disturbances.

  3. Dryland soil microbial communities display spatial biogeographic patterns associated with soil depth and soil parent material.

    PubMed

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2013-10-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common to drylands worldwide. We employed replicated, spatially nested sampling and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the soil microbial communities in three soils derived from different parent material (sandstone, shale, and gypsum). For each soil type, two depths (biocrusts, 0-1 cm; below-crust soils, 2-5 cm) and two horizontal spatial scales (15 cm and 5 m) were sampled. In all three soils, Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria demonstrated significantly higher relative abundance in the biocrusts, while Chloroflexi and Archaea were significantly enriched in the below-crust soils. Biomass and diversity of the communities in biocrusts or below-crust soils did not differ with soil type. However, biocrusts on gypsum soil harbored significantly larger populations of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and lower populations of Cyanobacteria. Numerically dominant operational taxonomic units (OTU; 97% sequence identity) in the biocrusts were conserved across the soil types, whereas two dominant OTUs in the below-crust sand and shale soils were not identified in the gypsum soil. The uniformity with which small-scale vertical community differences are maintained across larger horizontal spatial scales and soil types is a feature of dryland ecosystems that should be considered when designing management plans and determining the response of biocrusts to environmental disturbances. PMID:23621290

  4. Parental material and cultivation determine soil bacterial community structure and fertility.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Gao, Jusheng; Huang, Ting; Kendall, Joshua R A; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2015-01-01

    Microbes are the key components of the soil environment, playing important roles during soil development. Soil parent material provides the foundation elements that comprise the basic nutritional environment for the development of microbial community. After 30 years artificial maturation of cultivation, the soil developments of three different parental materials were evaluated and bacterial community compositions were investigated using the high-throughput sequencing approach. Thirty years of cultivation increased the soil fertility and soil microbial biomass, richness and diversity, greatly changed the soil bacterial communities, the proportion of phylum Actinobacteria decreased significantly, while the relative abundances of the phyla Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Armatimonadetes and Nitrospira were significantly increased. Soil bacterial communities of parental materials were separated with the cultivated ones, and comparisons of different soil types, granite soil and quaternary red clay soil were similar and different with purple sandy shale soil in both parental materials and cultivated treatments. Bacterial community variations in the three soil types were affected by different factors, and their alteration patterns in the soil development also varied with soil type. Soil properties (except total potassium) had a significant effect on the soil bacterial communities in all three soil types and a close relationship with abundant bacterial phyla. The amounts of nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as the abundances of the nifH gene in all cultivated soils were higher than those in the parental materials; Burkholderia and Rhizobacte were enriched significantly with long-term cultivation. The results suggested that crop system would not deplete the nutrients of soil parental materials in early stage of soil maturation, instead it increased soil fertility and changed bacterial community, specially enriched the nitrogen-fixing bacteria to accumulate nitrogen during soil development. PMID:25764534

  5. Climatic controls on soil hydraulic properties along soil chronosequences on volcanic parent material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beal, L. K.; Lohse, K. A.; Godsey, S.; Huber, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    Soil development is influenced by physical and chemical weathering processes and accumulation of eolian sediment. These weathering processes have often been examined using chronosequences that take advantage of deposited lava flows ranging in age. These studies typically characterize the physical and sometimes chemical properties, but rarely have these studies examined how hydraulic properties change with time. In addition, many of these studies occur in tropical climates where weathering occurs rapidly; relatively little is known about weathering processes in cool dry climates. This is important not only to understand how water and energy move in these water limited systems, but also to understand how they might change as climate patterns shift. The objectives of this research were to 1) measure and model the soil water retention, θ(h), and hydraulic conductivity, K(h), functions across a chronosequence of cinder cone sites in a cold desert region, 2) compare soil hydraulic properties across soil ages to examine how soil development in semi-arid climates moderates soil hydraulic processes, and 3) compare soil hydraulic characteristics in a dryland environment to those of a wet tropical climate across similarly aged lava flows. We contrast 2.1, 6.9 and 13.9 ka cinder cones soils at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument, Idaho, USA. Soil development at COTM is sparse and is concentrated in joints and crevices of the basalt. The soils contrast slightly in texture with age. The young (2.1 ka) soils are coarser grained with at least 20% greater sand content than the older (6.9, 13.9 ka) soils. Preliminary hydraulic modeling suggests that older soils have lower θ values than younger soils. This is likely due to a higher bulk density values from higher accumulations of secondary minerals in the old soils from loess input. The models show that the air entry points (α) occur at lower tensions in the young soils, likely caused by a greater pore size distribution. We observe that θ decreases with age, and α occurs at higher tensions. Soil horizons are developed dominantly on the cinder cones. These model estimates appear to match well with preliminary field measurements. Tropical climates enhance the weathering of basaltic parent material. The mean annual precipitation in the Hawaiian site is 2500 mm, and 310 mm at COTM. Accumulation of rainfall increases the weathering rate of the parent material. Using previous work characterizing the physical characteristics of soil across the Hawaii chronosequence to model the contrasting soils, we found that the 0.3 and 20 ka Hawaii soils had similar hydraulic properties; θ values were approximately 0.45 cm3/cm3 and Ks values were 6 cm/hr. However, these Hawaiian soils contrasted and were quantitatively lower than the entire COTM chronosequence. At the 2.1 ka COTM soil, Ks was 17 cm/hr and θ was 0.52-0.65 cm3/cm3 whereas at the 13.9 ka soil, Ks was 12 cm/hr and θ was 0.52 cm3/cm3. The 0.3 ka Hawaiian soil had a 20-30% higher silt content than the 2.1 ka COTM soil. Our models help quantify rates of soil development and hydraulic properties developed through time on volcanic parent materials.

  6. Nature and Properties of Lateritic Soils Derived from Different Parent Materials in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils. PMID:24883366

  7. Nature and properties of lateritic soils derived from different parent materials in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ko, Tzu-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils. PMID:24883366

  8. Controls of Parent Material and Topography on Soil Carbon Storage in the Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, N. R.; Seyfried, M. S.; Lohse, K. A.; Link, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    Semi-arid environments make up a large percentage of the world's terrestrial ecosystems, and climate is a major factor influencing soil carbon storage and release. However, the roles of local controls such as parent material, aspect and microtopography have received less attention and are important for consideration in soil carbon modeling. The purpose of this study is to understand the role that parent material, aspect and micro-topography play in storage and release of soil carbon along an elevation gradient in a semi-arid climate. Johnston Draw (JD) is a first order watershed within the Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory in southwestern Idaho with underlining late cretaceous, granitic Idaho batholith bedrock. Upper Sheep Creek (USC) is a first order watershed consisting of basalt. Both watersheds were chosen for this project due to similar size, aspect, elevation, vegetation and for the contrast in parent material. Two transects, totaling approximately nine soil pits, were excavated on both the north and south facing slopes of each watershed running parallel to the water channel. Soil carbon was generally higher in basalt compared to the granite parent material in pits with similar aspect, elevation and vegetation. Preliminary data using soil organic matter (SOM) as a proxy for organic carbon (OC) and soil water dynamics showed that percent OC declines markedly with elevation in JD and soil depth at lower elevations and is more homogenous throughout the profile moving up elevation (1646 meters 4.3-9.7%; 1707 meters 6.87-3.83%). Similarly, aspect controls patterns of SOM at depth more strongly at lower elevations. Findings from our study suggest that parent material and topography may play as important roles in semi-arid ecosystems as climate factors in controlling soil carbon storage.

  9. Assessment of soil parent material formation in periglacial environments through medium scale landscape evolution modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, M.; Günther, A.; Ringeler, A.; Baritz, R.; Böhner, J.

    2012-04-01

    Soil parental materials represent the weathering product of any surficial geological substrates comprising in-situ fragmented and dissolved rocks, unconsolidated sediments of various types and origins, or even paleosoils. Weathering, erosion, transport and accumulation processes of geological materials governing the formation of soil parent materials display a highly complex non-linear behaviour at larger spatial scales over smaller geological time periods (< 50.000 years) in lithologically complex settings. This is particularly evident in periglacial environments where regional allochthonous sediment supply contributes to soil parent material formation. We propose a GIS implementation of a landscape evolution model (LEM) for the spatiotemporal investigation of soil parent material evolution following a lithologically differentiated approach. The well-established LEM tool GOLEM has been adapted and realized as a module for the open-source GIS SAGA to operate in a spatially distributed framework, taking advantage of the highly developed capabilities of SAGA for morphometric digital terrain analysis. The LEM is driven by high-resolution paleo-climatic data (temperature, precipitation) representative for periglacial areas in Northern Germany over the last 50.000 years. The initial conditions of the LEM are determined for a test site by a digital terrain model and a geological model. The geological model was parameterized through geological field data derived from rock mass rating procedures and soft sediment analyses to account for a lithologically differentiated LEM set up with respect to first-order mechanical properties of both rock-type and unconsolidated lithologies. Weathering, erosion and transport functions of the LEM are calibrated using the extrinsic (climatic) and intrinsic (lithology) parameter data. First results indicate that our differentiated LEM-based approach displays some evidence for the spatiotemporal prediction of important soil parental material properties (e.g., thickness, structure, texture, and composition). However, the results have to be validated against field data, and the influence of discrete events (landslides, floods) has to be evaluated.

  10. Relationship between the parent material and the soil, in plain and mountainous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerek, Barbara; Kuti, Laszlo; Dobos, Timea; Vatai, Jozsef; Szentpetery, Ildiko

    2013-04-01

    One of the most important tasks of the soil is the nutrition of plants. This function is determinated by those parts of the geological media on what is the soil situated and from what the soil was formed (those two can be different). Soil can be formed definitely just from sediment, so it is more proper to speak about parent material than parent rock. Soil forming sediment is defined as the loose sediment on the surface, which is the upper layer of near-surface rocks in flat and hilly regions, and it is the upper layer of the sediment-ensemble situated on the undisturbed bedrock in mountainous areas. Considering its origin, these sediments could be autochthon or allochton. Soil forming is determinated, besides other factors (climate, elevation, vegetation, etc.), by the parent material, which has a crucial influence on the type, quality and fertility of soils through its mineral composition, physical and chemical characteristics. Agrogeological processes happen in the superficial loose sediments in mountainous areas, but the underlying solid rock (where on the surface or close to it, there is solid rock), has an effect on them. The plain and hilly regions covered by thick loose sediment and the areas build up by solid rock and covered with thinner loose sediment in mountainous areas should be searched separately. In plain areas the near-surface formations have to be studied as a whole down to the saturated zone, but at least to 10 m. In regions of mountain and mountain fronts, the thickness, the composition and genetics of the young unconsolidated sediments situated above the older solid rocks have a vital importance, and also the relations among the soils, soil forming sediments and the base rocks have to be understood.

  11. Fe-C interactions and soil organic matter stability in two tropical soils of contrasting parent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coward, E.; Thompson, A.; Plante, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The long residence time of soil organic matter (SOM) is a dynamic property, reflecting the diversity of stabilization mechanisms active within the soil matrix. Climate and ecosystem properties act at the broadest scale, while biochemical recalcitrance, physical occlusion and mineral association drive stability at the microscale. Increasing evidence suggests that the stability of SOM is dominated by organo-mineral interactions. However, the 2:1 clays that provide much of the stabilization capacity in temperate soils are typically absent in tropical soils due to weathering. In contrast, these soils may contain an abundance of iron and aluminium oxides and oxyhydroxides, known as short-range-order (SRO) minerals. These SRO minerals are capable of SOM stabilization through adsorption or co-precipitation, a faculty largely enabled by their high specific surface area (SSA). As such, despite their relatively small mass, SRO minerals may contribute substantially to the SOM stabilization capacity of tropical soils. The objective of this work is to characterize and quantify these Fe-C interactions. Surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were taken from 20 quantitative soil pits dug within the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory in northeast Puerto Rico. Soils were stratified across granodiorite and volcaniclastic parent materials. Four extraction procedures were used to isolate three different forms of Fe-C interactions: sodium pyrophosphate to isolate organo-metallic complexes, hydroxylamine and oxalate to isolate SRO Fe- and Al-hydroxides, and dithionite to isolate crystalline Fe-oxyhydroxides. Extracts were analysed for DOC and Fe and Al concentrations to estimate the amount of SOM associated with each mineral type. Soils were subjected to SSA and solid-phase C analyses before and after extraction to determine the contribution of the various Fe mineral types to soil SSA, and therefore to potential stabilization capacity through organo-mineral complexation. Preliminary results suggest that extracts from granodiorite parent material contain on average twice the Fe than those from volcaniclastic parent material. The removal of SRO minerals reduced SSA in both soil types, and appear to contribute substantially to SOM stabilization compared to the bulk mineral matrix.

  12. Shrubby Reed-Mustard Habitat: Parent Material, Soil, and Landscape Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, L. S.; Boettinger, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Shrubby reed-mustard (Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, a.k.a. Schoenocrambe suffrutescens, Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, or Hesperidanthus suffrutescens) is an endangered perennial shrub endemic to the southern Uinta Basin in northeast Utah. Only seven populations of shrubby reed-mustard have been identified. The arid area where the plant grows is rich in natural gas and oil deposits, as well as oil shale. Oil wells already dot the landscape, and there is significant concern that further development of these resources will threaten the continued existence of shrubby reed-mustard. Determination of the parent material, soil and landscape characteristics associated with shrubby reed-mustard habitat is imperative to facilitate conservation management. Shrubby reed-mustard grows where little else does and, based on field observations and remotely sensed spectral data, appears to occur in a particular type of strata. Our objective is to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of shrubby reed-mustard's environment. Site characteristics such as parent material and associated vegetation have been identified and documented. Soil properties such as water-soluble and total leachable elements, particle-size distribution, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus and potassium are being determined. During the course of this investigation, soils within four shrubby reed-mustard habitat areas were sampled. Soils from non-shrubby reed-mustard areas adjacent to the four shrubby reed-mustard populations were also sampled. Soil samples were collected from a total of twenty-five shrubby reed-mustard soil pits and twenty-four non-shrubby reed-mustard soil pits. The soil horizons of each pedon were delineated, and samples were collected from each horizon. Field data indicate that shrubby reed-mustard occurs exclusively in shale-derived, shallow soils on bedrock-controlled uplands. Although there is some overlap of plant species on both types of soils, soils that do not support shrubby reed-mustard are dominated by black sage, a species not found in shrubby reed-mustard habitat. To date, statistical analyses to compare shrubby reed-mustard sites and non-shrubby reed-mustard sites have included Mann-Whitney rank sum tests and t-tests. Statistical results to date show that chemical properties differ between shrubby reed-mustard and non-shrubby reed-mustard sites. Concentrations of several soluble and total metals were significantly higher in shrubby reed-mustard soils compared to adjacent soils, including copper, lead, nickel, and lithium. Soluble, total, and available phosphorus were significantly lower in shrubby reed-mustard soils than in non-shrubby reed-mustard soils. Elevated metals may be indicative of shrubby reed-mustard tolerance of these elements, while low phosphorus concentrations in shrubby reed-mustard soils may indicate that this plant can tolerate low-nutrient status soils. Additional laboratory analyses are underway to further characterize the habitat of shrubby reed-mustard. Descriptive analysis is continuing. Statistical analyses will be finalized upon completion of all laboratory tests. Based on these determinations, shrubby reed-mustard habitat will be better defined and understood, which will assist with the preservation of this endangered species in the face of further resource development.

  13. Unexpected dominance of parent-material strontium in a tropical forest on highly weathered soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, C.R.; Townsend, A.R.; Farmer, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    Controls over nutrient supply are key to understanding the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Conceptual models once held that in situ mineral weathering was the primary long-term control over the availability of many plant nutrients, including the base cations calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K). Recent evidence has shown that atmospheric sources of these "rock-derived" nutrients can dominate actively cycling ecosystem pools, especially in systems on highly weathered soils. Such studies have relied heavily on the use of strontium isotopes as a proxy for base-cation cycling. Here we show that vegetation and soil-exchangeable pools of strontium in a tropical rainforest on highly weathered soils are still dominated by local rock sources. This pattern exists despite substantial atmospheric inputs of Sr, Ca, K, and Mg, and despite nearly 100% depletion of these elements from the top 1 m of soil. We present a model demonstrating that modest weathering inputs, resulting from tectonically driven erosion, could maintain parent-material dominance of actively cycling Sr. The majority of tropical forests are on highly weathered soils, but our results suggest that these forests may still show considerable variation in their primary sources of essential nutrients. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east–west from Virginia to California, and north–south from northern Manitoba to the US–Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba–North Dakota segment of the north–south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  15. Effects of different parent material on the mineral characteristics of soils in the arid region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Irmak, S; Surucu, A K; Aydogdu, I H

    2007-02-15

    Physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of seven soils developed on four different parent materials such as basalt, limestone, marine and alluvium were studied to determine the effect of parent material on the soil characteristics in the arid and semiarid regions in the Southeast Anatolia Region of Turkey. Parent material have affected the morphology and chemistry of the soils. Carbonate contents of the soils are changing between 14.1 and 42.6%. The high carbonate contents of the soils, developed on the basalt rocks, might be attributed to eolian additions from calcareous soils. The red colour of basaltic soils might be associated with the Fe2O3 content of the parent material. Available Fe2O3 content of the basaltic soils was relatively higher than other soils and measured between 0.56 and 2.05%. Available Fe2O3 content of the soils on the marine was very low and changed between 0.26 and 0.37%. Total Fe2O3 content of the basaltic soils was higher than other soils and changed between 4.36 and 6.70%. The total Al2O3 content of the basaltic soils was obtained relatively higher than other soils and changed between 4.92 and 8.72%. The high Al2O3 and Fe2O3 contents of the basaltic soils may be associated with the weathering of basalt rocks. Also analysis of the basaltic rock samples has showed similar mineralogical composition. X-Ray diffraction analysis data showed that smectite was the dominant clay mineral in all the soils. Palygorskite was the second most abundant mineral after smectite. Moreover, some mineralogical properties reflected the traces of climatic changed during the Holocene. The leaching factor were determined as >1 in the Profile PL2 and as < 1 in the Profiles PL1, PL3, PL4, PL5; PL6 and PL7. The low leaching factor (< 1) may be attributed to weathering of parent material. The soils were classified according to Soil Taxonomy as Aridisol, Entisol, Vertisol and Inceptisol. PMID:19069531

  16. Impact of terrain attributes, parent material and soil types on gully erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplot, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    Gully erosion is a worldwide matter of concern because of the irreversible losses of fertile land, which often have severe environmental, economic and social consequences. While most of the studies on the gullying process have investigated the involved mechanisms (either overland flow incision, seepage or piping erosion), only few have been conducted on the controlling factors of gully wall retreat, an important, if not the dominant, land degradation process and sediment source in river systems. In a representative 4.4 km2 degraded area of the Drakensberg foothills (South Africa) the main objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the rate of gully bank retreat (GBR) and parent material, soil types and selected terrain attributes (elevation, specific drainage area, mean slope gradient, slope length factor, stream power index, compound topographic index and slope curvatures). The survey of gully bank retreat was performed during an entire hydrological year, from September 2007 to September 2008, using a network of pins (n = 440 from 110 pits). Both the gully contours and pin coordinates were determined, using a GPS with a 0.5 m horizontal accuracy (n = 20,120). The information on the parent material and the soil types was obtained from field observations complemented by laboratory analysis, while terrain attributes were extracted from a 20 m DEM generated from 5 m interval contour lines. The average GBR value for the 6512 m of gully banks found in the area was 0.049 ± 0.0013 m y- 1, which, considering bank height and soil bulk density, corresponded to an erosion rate of 2.30 ton ha- 1 y- 1. There was no significant difference in GBR between sandstone and dolerite and between Acrisols and Luvisols. Despite a weak one-to-one correlation with the selected terrain attributes (r < 0.2), a principal component analysis (PCA), the first two axes of which explained 68% of the data variability, pointed out that GBR was the highest at hillslope inflexion points (profile and plan slope curvatures close to zero), in the vicinity of the head cuts and for drainage areas up to 500 m2, as both situations experience a high removal rate of the soil material produced from the gully bank collapse and protecting gullies from laterally retreating. These results could be used to digitally map the more active gully banks for the improved implementation of preventive measures of gully growth, if high resolution DEMs are available. There remained, however, a certain amount of unexplained variability in the data, that further research studies on the mechanisms and associated factors of control of GBR could help to address.

  17. Geochemical evidence of Saharan dust parent material for soils developed on Quaternary limestones of Caribbean and western Atlantic islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Bush, C.A.; Stewart, K.C.; Rowland, T.R.; Crittenden, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Most previous workers have regarded the insoluble residues of high-purity Quaternary limestones (coral reefs and oolites) as the most important parent material for well-developed, clay-rich soils on Caribbean and western Atlantic islands, but this genetic mechanism requires unreasonable amounts of limestone solution in Quaternary time. Other possible parent materials from external sources are volcanic ash from the Lesser Antilles island arc and Saharan dust carried across the Atlantic Ocean on the northeast trade winds. Soils on Quaternary coral terraces and carbonate eolianites on Barbados, Jamaica, the Florida Keys (United States), and New Providence Island (Bahamas) were studied to determine which, if either, external source was important. Caribbean volcanic ashes and Saharan dust can be clearly distinguished using ratios of relatively immobile elements ( Al2O3 TiO2, Ti Y, Ti Zr, and Ti Th). Comparison of these ratios in 25 soils, where estimated ages range from 125,000 to about 870,000 yr, shows that Saharan dust is the most important parent material for soils on all islands. These results indicate that the northeast trade winds have been an important component of the regional climatology for much of the Quaterary. Saharan dust may also be an important parent material for Caribbean island bauxites of much greater age. ?? 1990.

  18. [Effects of fertilization on microbial biomass C and N in paddy soils derived from different parent materials].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-jun; Zeng, Xi-bai; Zhnag, Yang-zhu; Zhou, Qing; Guo, Hai-yan; Yan, Xiong; Chen, Jian-guo

    2007-05-01

    Based on the monitoring of soil fertility, this paper studied the characteristics of microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) in paddy soils derived from different parent materials in Hunan Province. The results showed different fertilization systems had different effects on soil MBC and MBN. After 18 years fertilization, the MBC and MBN in different paddy soils had similar variation trend, with the sequence of paddy soil derived from lake sediment > from river alluvium and quaternary red earth > from limestone > from shale. Soil MBC content ranged from 259.5 to 864.4 mg x kg(-1), while MBN ranged from 8.7 to 70.7 mg x kg(-1). Fertilization could increase soil MBC and MBN markedly. Organic fertilizer was the main element for the promotion of soil MBC and MBN, and combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers could obtain the greatest effect. The increment of soil MBC and MBN after applying inorganic fertilizer and its combination with organic fertilizer was 407.6 and 59.2 mg x kg(-1), in maximum, and the maximum increasing rate was 102.8% and 514.8%, respectively, compared with no fertilization. PMID:17650855

  19. Parent material and vegetation influence soil microbial community structure following 30-years of rock weathering and pedogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yarwood, Stephanie; Wick, Abbey; Williams, Mark; Daniels, W Lee

    2015-02-01

    The process of pedogenesis and the development of biological communities during primary succession begin on recently exposed mineral surfaces. Following 30 years of surface exposure of reclaimed surface mining sites (Appalachian Mountains, USA), it was hypothesized that microbial communities would differ between sandstone and siltstone parent materials and to a lesser extent between vegetation types. Microbial community composition was examined by targeting bacterial and archaeal (16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)) and fungal (internal transcribed spacer (ITS)) genes and analyzed using Illumina sequencing. Microbial community composition significantly differed between parent materials and between plots established with tall fescue grass or pitch x loblolly pine vegetation types, suggesting that both factors are important in shaping community assembly during early pedogenesis. At the phylum level, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria differed in relative abundance between sandstone and siltstone. The amount of the heavy fraction carbon (C) was significantly different between sandstone (2.0 mg g(-1)) and siltstone (5.2 mg g(-1)) and correlated with microbial community composition. Soil nitrogen (N) cycling was examined by determining gene copy numbers of ureC, archaeal amoA, and bacterial amoA. Gene quantities tended to be higher in siltstone compared to sandstone but did not differ by vegetation type. This was consistent with differences in extractable ammonium (NH4 (+)) concentrations between sandstone and siltstone (16.4 vs 8.5 μg NH4 (+)-N g(-1) soil), suggesting that nitrification rates may be higher in siltstone. Parent material and early vegetation are important determinants of early microbial community assembly and could be drivers for the trajectory of ecosystem development over longer time scales. PMID:25370885

  20. Effect of aging on the bioavailability and fractionation of arsenic in soils derived from five parent materials in a red soil region of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanan; Zeng, Xibai; Lu, Yahai; Su, Shiming; Bai, Lingyu; Li, Lianfang; Wu, Cuixia

    2015-12-01

    The effects of aging time and soil parent materials on the bioavailability and fractionations of arsenic (As) in five red soils were studied. The results indicated that As bioavailability in all soils decreased during aging, especially with a sharp decline occurring in the first 30 days. After aging for 360 days, the highest available As concentration, which accounted for 12.3% of the total, was observed in soils derived from purple sandy shale. While 2.67% was the lowest proportion of the available As in soils derived from quaternary red clay. Furthermore, the best fit of the available As changing with aging time was obtained using the pseudo-second-order model (R(2) = 0.939-0.998, P < 0.05). Notably, Al oxides played a more crucial role (R(2) = 0.89, P<0.05) than did Fe oxides in controlling the rate of As aging. The non-specially and specially absorbed As constituted the primary forms of available As. PMID:26349069

  1. A comparison of rates of hornblende etching in soils in glacial deposits of the northern Rocky Mountains: Influence of climate and characteristics of parent material

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, L.L. . Dept. of Geology); Hall, R.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Etching rates of hornblende grains in the soil matrix of glacial deposits in the Northern Rocky Mountains are dependent primarily upon the influences on soil moisture of the climate and texture of the parent materials. Etching is measured as the deepest penetration of weathering along cleavages. Previous works have shown that hornblende etching is a logarithmic function of depth. Hornblende etching is also a logarithmic function of age of the parent material, with etching rates declining rapidly after initially high rates during the first 10 to 15 kyr after deposition. A comparison of etching rates was made among four chronosequences from the Wind River Range, Wyoming and the Tobacco Root Range, Montana, which have differences in mean annual precipitation (MAP) and texture of the till parent materials. Using rates calculated from both ranges for the first 12 kyr after deposition, etching is slowest (0.02 [mu]m/1,000 yrs) in coarse-textured granitic parent materials where the MAP is 25--40 cm. In contrast, etching is faster by an order of magnitude (0.21 [mu]m/1,000 yrs) where MAP is 110--150 cm and the parent material is finer textured due to about 15% sedimentary rock material mixed with a granitic component. Within individual chronosequences, deposits at higher elevations have accelerated etching rates due to higher orographic precipitation or the influence of late-lying snow. These factors result in higher soil moisture content.

  2. Phyllosilicate weathering pathways in chlorite-talc bearing soil parent materials, D.R. Congo: early findings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumon, Mathijs; Oostermeyer, Fran; Timmermans, Els; De Meulemeester, Aschwin; Mees, Florias; Van Driessche, Isabel; Erens, Hans; Bazirake Mujinya, Basile; Van Ranst, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The study of the formation and transformation of clay minerals is of the upmost importance to understand soil formation and to adjust land-use management to the land surface conditions. These clay minerals determine to a large extent the soil physical and chemical properties. It is commonly observed that over time the mineralogy of any parent material is transformed to a simple assemblage composed mostly of Al and Fe oxides and low-activity clays, e.g. kaolinite. This is especially obvious in the humid tropics, which have been protected from glacial erosion, allowing deep, highly weathered soils to form. Despite the abundant presence of kaolinite in these soils, its formation pathways are still under debate: either neoformation by dissolution-crystallisation reactions or solid-state transformation of 2:1 phyllosilicates. To elucidate this, weathering sequences in a unique 40 m core taken below a termite mound, reaching a talc-chlorite bearing substrate in the Lubumbashi area, Katanga, DR Congo are being investigated in detail using a.o. quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, chemical characterization, micromorphology and µXRF-scanning with the main objective to improve the understanding of the formation pathways of kaolinite subgroup minerals in humid tropical environments. Based on an initial characterization of the core, two zones of interest were selected for more detailed analysis, for which the early findings will be presented. The first zone extends from ca. 9 m to 11 m below the surface is dominated by kaolinite but shows early traces of primary talc and micas. The second zone extends from 34 to 36 m below the surface and contains large amounts of chlorite, with smaller amounts of talc, micas and kaolinite.

  3. Impact of climate and parent material on chemical weathering in Loess-derived soils of the Mississippi River valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Bettis, E. Arthur, III; Been, J.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Peoria Loess-derived soils on uplands east of the Mississippi River valley were studied from Louisiana to Iowa, along a south-to-north gradient of decreasing precipitation and temperature. Major element analyses of deep loess in Mississippi and Illinois show that the composition of the parent material is similar in the northern and southern parts of the valley. We hypothesized that in the warmer, wetter parts of the transect, mineral weathering should be greater than in the cooler, drier parts of the transect. Profile average values of CaO/TiO2, MgO/ TiO2, K2O/TiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, Sr/Zr, Ba/Zr, and Rb/Zr represent proxies for depletion of loess minerals such as calcite, dolomite, hornblende, mica, and plagioclase. All ratios show increases from south to north, supporting the hypothesis of greater chemical weathering in the southern part of the valley. An unexpected result is that profile average values of Al2O3/TiO2 and Fe2O3/TiO2 (proxies for the relative abundance of clay minerals) show increases from south to north. This finding, while contrary to the evidence of greater chemical weathering in the southern part of the transect, is consistent with an earlier study which showed higher clay contents in Bt horizons of loess-derived soils in the northern part of the transect. We hypothesize that soils in the northern part of the valley received fine-grained loess from sources to the west of the Mississippi River valley either late in the last glacial period, during the Holocene or both. In contrast, soils in the southern part of the valley were unaffected by such additions.

  4. Modeling Water Flux at the Base of the Rooting Zone for Soils with Varying Glacial Parent Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, S.; Ellett, K. M.; Ficklin, D. L.; Olyphant, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Soils of varying glacial parent materials in the Great Lakes Region (USA) are characterized by thin unsaturated zones and widespread use of agricultural pesticides and nutrients that affect shallow groundwater. To better our understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants, improved models of water fluxes through the vadose zones of various hydrogeologic settings are warranted. Furthermore, calibrated unsaturated zone models can be coupled with watershed models, providing a means for predicting the impact of varying climate scenarios on agriculture in the region. To address these issues, a network of monitoring sites was developed in Indiana that provides continuous measurements of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET), soil volumetric water content (VWC), and soil matric potential to parameterize and calibrate models. Flux at the base of the root zone is simulated using two models of varying complexity: 1) the HYDRUS model, which numerically solves the Richards equation, and 2) the soil-water-balance (SWB) model, which assumes vertical flow under a unit gradient with infiltration and evapotranspiration treated as separate, sequential processes. Soil hydraulic parameters are determined based on laboratory data, a pedo-transfer function (ROSETTA), field measurements (Guelph permeameter), and parameter optimization. Groundwater elevation data are available at three of six sites to establish the base of the unsaturated zone model domain. Initial modeling focused on the groundwater recharge season (Nov-Feb) when PET is limited and much of the annual vertical flux occurs. HYDRUS results indicate that base of root zone fluxes at a site underlain by glacial ice-contact parent materials are 48% of recharge season precipitation (VWC RMSE=8.2%), while SWB results indicate that fluxes are 43% (VWC RMSE=3.7%). Due in part to variations in surface boundary conditions, more variable fluxes were obtained for a site underlain by alluvium with the SWB model (68% of recharge season precipitation, VWC RMSE=7.0%) predicting much greater drainage than HYDRUS (38% of recharge season precipitation, VWC RMSE=6.6%). Results also show that when calculating drainage flux over the recharge period, HYDRUS is highly sensitive to model initialization using observed water content from in-situ instrumentation. Simulated recharge season drainage flux is as much as 3.5 times higher when a one-month spin-up period was performed in the HYDRUS model for the same site. SWB results are less sensitive to water content initialization, but drainage flux is 1.6 times higher at one site using the same spin-up analysis. The long-term goals of this effort are to leverage the robust calibration data set to establish optimal approaches for determining hydraulic parameters such that water fluxes in the lower vadose zone can be modeled for a wider range of geomorphic settings where calibration data are unavailable.

  5. Applying a new procedure to assess the controls on aggregate stability - including soil parent material and soil organic carbon concentrations - at the landscape scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Gren; Rawlins, Barry; Wragg, Joanna; Lark, Murray

    2014-05-01

    Aggregate stability is an important physical indicator of soil quality and influences the potential for erosive losses from the landscape, so methods are required to measure it rapidly and cost-effectively. Previously we demonstrated a novel method for quantifying the stability of soil aggregates using a laser granulometer (Rawlins et al., 2012). We have developed our method further to mimic field conditions more closely by incorporating a procedure for pre-wetting aggregates (for 30 minutes on a filter paper) prior to applying the test. The first measurement of particle-size distribution is made on the water stable aggregates after these have been added to circulating water (aggregate size range 1000 to 2000 m). The second measurement is made on the disaggregated material after the circulating aggregates have been disrupted with ultrasound (sonication). We then compute the difference between the mean weight diameters (MWD) of these two size distributions; we refer to this value as the disaggregation reduction (DR; m). Soils with more stable aggregates, which are resistant to both slaking and mechanical breakdown by the hydrodynamic forces during circulation, have larger values of DR. We made repeated analyses of DR using an aggregate reference material (RM; a paleosol with well-characterised disaggregation properties) and used this throughout our analyses to demonstrate our approach was reproducible. We applied our modified technique - and also the previous technique in which dry aggregates were used - to a set of 60 topsoil samples (depth 0-15 cm) from cultivated land across a large region (10 000 km2) of eastern England. We wished to investigate: (i) any differences in aggregate stability (DR measurements) using dry or pre-wet aggregates, and (ii) the dominant controls on the stability of aggregates in water using wet aggregates, including variations in mineralogy and soil organic carbon (SOC) content, and any interaction between them. The sixty soil sampling locations were selected based on the quantities of SOC from previous analysis (on samples collected at sites across the entire region). We chose the samples to encompass a wide range of SOC concentrations (1.2-7%) within each of six strongly contrasting soil parent material (PM) groups (sandstone, mudstone, clay, chalk, limestone and marine alluvium). The DR values (calculated using re-scaled size distributions for particle diameters < 500 m) ranged from 17 to 151 m. The co-efficient of variation for DR analyses using fourteen aliquots of the RM was reasonably small (21 %). The PM groups accounted for a larger proportion of the variation in DR than SOC concentrations; together they accounted for around 50% of the variation in DR values. There was no evidence to include an interaction term between PM and SOC concentration. The proportion of clay-sized particles in the material after sonication was not a statistically significant predictor of DR. Pre-wetting the aggregates typically resulted in substantially smaller values of DR by comparison to using air-dried aggregates in our test. We suggest that the effects of differential clay swelling as a disruptive force during the wetting stage are greater than those associated with slaking (fragmentation due to trapped air). We believe this rapid (duration after the wetting procedure is 10 minutes), reproducible test could could be an effective means to monitor changes in this important soil property and improve predictions of soil erosion. Reference: Rawlins, B. G., Wragg, J. & Lark, R. M. 2012. Application of a novel method for soil aggregate stability measurement by laser granulometry with sonication. European Journal of Soil Science, 64, 92-103.

  6. A landscape-scale study of land use and parent material effects on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the Konya Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, M. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Ozdogan, M.; Erdogan, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    In ecosystems where intensive farming and grazing have been occurring for millennia, there is poor understanding of how present-day soil biogeochemical properties relate to factors associated with soil parent materials (e.g. texture, mineralogy), and the net effects of long-term land use practices. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total soil nitrogen (TN) are important for their roles in maintaining soil structure, moisture, fertility and contributing to carbon sequestration. Our research used a state factor approach (Jenny 1981) to study effects of soil parent materials and land use practices on SOC, TN, and other properties across thirty-five sites in the Konya Basin, an arid region in south-central Turkey farmed and grazed for over 8,000 years. This project is one of the first to study land use impacts on soils at a landscape scale (500 km2) in south-central Turkey, and incorporate geospatial data (e.g. a satellite imagery-derived land cover map we developed) to aid selection of field sites. Focusing on the plough layer (0-25cm) in two depth intervals, we compared effects of agriculture, orchard cultivation and grazing land use practices and clay-loam alluvial, sandy-loam volcanic and lacustrine clay soils on soil properties using standard least squares regression analyses. SOC and TN depended strongly on parent materials, but not on land use. Averaged across both depth intervals, alluvial soil SOC and TN concentrations (19.4 ± 1.32 Mg/ha SOC, 2.86 ± 1.23 Mg/ha TN) were higher and significantly different than lacustrine (9.72 ± 3.01 Mg/ha SOC, 1.57 ± 0.69 Mg/ha TN) and volcanic soil concentrations (7.40 ± 1.72 Mg/ha SOC, 1.02 ± 0.35 Mg/ha TN). Land use significantly affected SOC and TN on alluvial soils, but not on volcanic or lacustrine soils. Our results demonstrate the potential for land use to have different effects on different soils in this region. Our data on SOC, TN and other soil properties illustrate patterns in regional SOC and TN variability not shown by previous modeling or soil survey efforts. We provide baseline information on SOC and TN that can inform benchmarks for future soil monitoring and land use planning in an arid region that is likely to be highly impacted by future climatic changes, agricultural intensification and urban development. Our results suggest the importance of accounting for soil physical properties, and land use effects that are dependent on soil parent materials in future efforts to model or account for SOC and TN in similar ancient agricultural landscapes.

  7. Effects of Subsetting by Parent Materials on Prediction of Soil Organic Matter Content in a Hilly Area Using Vis-NIR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shengxiang; Shi, Xuezheng; Wang, Meiyan; Zhao, Yongcun

    2016-01-01

    Assessment and monitoring of soil organic matter (SOM) quality are important for understanding SOM dynamics and developing management practices that will enhance and maintain the productivity of agricultural soils. Visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (350-2500 nm) has received increasing attention over the recent decades as a promising technique for SOM analysis. While heterogeneity of sample sets is one critical factor that complicates the prediction of soil properties from Vis-NIR spectra, a spectral library representing the local soil diversity needs to be constructed. The study area, covering a surface of 927 km2 and located in Yujiang County of Jiangsu Province, is characterized by a hilly area with different soil parent materials (e.g., red sandstone, shale, Quaternary red clay, and river alluvium). In total, 232 topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected for SOM analysis and scanned with a Vis-NIR spectrometer in the laboratory. Reflectance data were related to surface SOM content by means of a partial least square regression (PLSR) method and several data pre-processing techniques, such as first and second derivatives with a smoothing filter. The performance of the PLSR model was tested under different combinations of calibration/validation sets (global and local calibrations stratified according to parent materials). The results showed that the models based on the global calibrations can only make approximate predictions for SOM content (RMSE (root mean squared error) = 4.23-4.69 g kg-1; R2 (coefficient of determination) = 0.80-0.84; RPD (ratio of standard deviation to RMSE) = 2.19-2.44; RPIQ (ratio of performance to inter-quartile distance) = 2.88-3.08). Under the local calibrations, the individual PLSR models for each parent material improved SOM predictions (RMSE = 2.55-3.49 g kg-1; R2 = 0.87-0.93; RPD = 2.67-3.12; RPIQ = 3.15-4.02). Among the four different parent materials, the largest R2 and the smallest RMSE were observed for the shale soils, which had the lowest coefficient of variation (CV) values for clay (18.95%), free iron oxides (15.93%), and pH (1.04%). This demonstrates the importance of a practical subsetting strategy for the continued improvement of SOM prediction with Vis-NIR spectroscopy. PMID:26974821

  8. Effects of Subsetting by Parent Materials on Prediction of Soil Organic Matter Content in a Hilly Area Using Vis–NIR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengxiang; Shi, Xuezheng; Wang, Meiyan; Zhao, Yongcun

    2016-01-01

    Assessment and monitoring of soil organic matter (SOM) quality are important for understanding SOM dynamics and developing management practices that will enhance and maintain the productivity of agricultural soils. Visible and near-infrared (Vis–NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (350–2500 nm) has received increasing attention over the recent decades as a promising technique for SOM analysis. While heterogeneity of sample sets is one critical factor that complicates the prediction of soil properties from Vis–NIR spectra, a spectral library representing the local soil diversity needs to be constructed. The study area, covering a surface of 927 km2 and located in Yujiang County of Jiangsu Province, is characterized by a hilly area with different soil parent materials (e.g., red sandstone, shale, Quaternary red clay, and river alluvium). In total, 232 topsoil (0–20 cm) samples were collected for SOM analysis and scanned with a Vis–NIR spectrometer in the laboratory. Reflectance data were related to surface SOM content by means of a partial least square regression (PLSR) method and several data pre-processing techniques, such as first and second derivatives with a smoothing filter. The performance of the PLSR model was tested under different combinations of calibration/validation sets (global and local calibrations stratified according to parent materials). The results showed that the models based on the global calibrations can only make approximate predictions for SOM content (RMSE (root mean squared error) = 4.23–4.69 g kg−1; R2 (coefficient of determination) = 0.80–0.84; RPD (ratio of standard deviation to RMSE) = 2.19–2.44; RPIQ (ratio of performance to inter-quartile distance) = 2.88–3.08). Under the local calibrations, the individual PLSR models for each parent material improved SOM predictions (RMSE = 2.55–3.49 g kg−1; R2 = 0.87–0.93; RPD = 2.67–3.12; RPIQ = 3.15–4.02). Among the four different parent materials, the largest R2 and the smallest RMSE were observed for the shale soils, which had the lowest coefficient of variation (CV) values for clay (18.95%), free iron oxides (15.93%), and pH (1.04%). This demonstrates the importance of a practical subsetting strategy for the continued improvement of SOM prediction with Vis–NIR spectroscopy. PMID:26974821

  9. The interaction between parent material, climate and volcanism as the major soil forming factor in the Ecuadorian high Andes region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, W.; Duyck, H.; Dercon, G.; Deckers, J.; Wyseure, G.

    2003-04-01

    The high Andes region of Ecuador and Colombia (>3500m a.s.l.) is covered by the so-called páramo ecosystem, characterised by a cold climate, a typical grass or small shrub vegetation and volcanic soils. Soil profiles of the paramo in the Austro Ecuatoriano, South Ecuador, were studied in order to reveal genetic relationships with geology, volcanic ash deposits, climate and land use. A gradual diminuation of Andic properties was found, related to the distance of the pedon to the active volcanoes of the Northern Volcanic Zone of the Andes. Pedons in the north of the region, closer to these volcanoes (Sangay, Tungurahua) are classified as non-allophanic Histic Andosols. The influence of the vicinity of the volcanoes leads to a higher oxalate extractable aluminium and iron. The genesis of the Andosols seems to be strongly related to the presence and thickness of volcanic ash depositions. The limit of these depositions is situated south of the city of Cuenca. Pedons further to the south are classified as Histosols. However, they also have clear Andic properties. Several differences in chemical properties between the Western and Eastern cordilleras where found, that are most probable related with a difference in mother material, and maybe also a different climatic regime. Correlation of the chemical properties with land use reveals that no chemical differences can be found that are invoked by occupying natural Andosols for agricultural purposes, within the first five years of cultivation. At last, the conclusions were used to revisit the World Reference Base for Soil Resources in order to sharpen up differenciation between Andosols and Histosols.

  10. Elemental and strontium isotopic geochemistry of the soil profiles developed on limestone and sandstone in karstic terrain on Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China: Implications for chemical weathering and parent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Jing; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Zhao, Zhi-Qi; Xu, Zhi-Fang; Liang, Chong-Shan; Li, Long-bo; Feng, Jia-Yi

    2013-05-01

    The limestone and yellow sandstone soil profiles from SW China were measured for chemical and Sr isotope compositions of the bulk soils and their sequential leachates (labile, carbonate, and residue or silicate fraction), aiming to characterize the parent materials of the soils, to understand the soil weathering and formation processes, and to discuss the origin of the red residua (terra rossa). The studied yellow sandstone soil, yellow limestone soil, and black limestone soil show different pH values, SiO2 contents, Rb/Sr abundance ratios, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios. The sequential leachates of different soil types also have different 87Sr/86Sr and Ca/Sr ratios. The major chemical compositions of the studied soil profiles suggest that all the sandstone and limestone soils are developing at a stage that feldspar is exhausting and the clay minerals are changing from smectite to kaolinite and gibbsite. As compared with the red residua distributed in the karst region, the soils studied here show lower CIA values (58-84), but both higher Na2O/K2O (0.9-2.7) and Na2O/Al2O3 concentration ratios (0.07-0.26) on average, suggesting a lower weathering intensity than that of the red residua. The depth profiles of soil CIA values, Na2O/K2O and Rb/Sr ratios, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios indicate that the weathering intensity is slightly lower for the upper and higher for the deeper soils, which suggest that the sandstone and limestone soil profiles were formed through both accumulation and weathering of in situ weathering residue and input of external detritus or soil from upper land. During weathering of the soils, preferential release of Ca and retention of Sr in soil result in higher Ca/Sr ratios in both labile and carbonate fractions than those in the residue fractions of all soil profiles. The co-variations of Hf/Nb and Zr/Nb ratios, together with those Rb/Sr and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of limestone soils, sandstone soils, and the red residua, demonstrate that their parent materials are distinct, and support the point that the widely distributed red residua is originated from the weathering residua of both carbonate and silicate clastic rocks, and further weathering of the weathering residua resulted in intensive release of Si, Na, Ca and relative enrichment of Al, K and other immobile elements in the red residua.

  11. Possibilities of including the taxonomy of soils and parent materials of Moscow city into the classification system of the soils of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, I. I.; Gerasimova, M. I.

    2011-05-01

    The analysis of the taxonomy of the soils and soil-forming rocks of Moscow city was performed in view of the compatibility of the taxonomy proposed with the new classification system of the soils of Russia. The common platform, which determines the possibility to incorporate the taxonomy of urban soils into the new classification system, is the principle of the priority of the diagnostic horizons, which provides the properties-oriented conceptual background of the compared systems. It was shown that the considered classification developments do not have any fundamental differences either in ideology or in concrete manifestations. Some contradictions in place can be eliminated by respective discussions and agreements.

  12. DETERMINATION OF EFFECTIVE POROSITY OF SOIL MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of a compacted soil liner is partly a function of the porosity, where the transport of materials through the liner occurs via the pore space. The project studies the pore spaces of compacted soil materials to estimate the effective porosity, which is the portion o...

  13. Background levels of some major, trace, and rare earth elements in indigenous plant species growing in Norway and the influence of soil acidification, soil parent material, and seasonal variation on these levels.

    PubMed

    Gjengedal, Elin; Martinsen, Thomas; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2015-06-01

    Baseline levels of 43 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements (REEs) in several native plant species growing in boreal and alpine areas, are presented. Focus is placed on species metal levels at different soil conditions, temporal variations in plant tissue metal concentrations, and interspecies variation in metal concentrations. Vegetation samples were collected at Sogndal, a pristine site in western Norway, and at Risdalsheia, an acidified site in southernmost Norway. Metal concentrations in the different species sampled in western Norway are compared with relevant literature data from Norway, Finland, and northwest Russia, assumed to represent natural conditions. Except for aluminium (Al) and macronutrients, the levels of metals were generally lower in western Norway than in southern Norway and may be considered close to natural background levels. In southern Norway, the levels of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in particular appear to be affected by air pollution, either by direct atmospheric supply or through soil acidification. Levels of some elements show considerable variability between as well as within plant species. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) are higher in most species at Sogndal compared to Risdalsheia, despite increased extractable concentrations in surface soil in the south, probably attributed to different buffer mechanisms in surface soil. Antagonism on plant uptake is suggested between Ca, Mg, and K on one hand and Al on the other. Tolerance among calcifuges to acid conditions and a particular ability to detoxify or avoid uptake of Al ions are noticeable for Vaccinium vitis-idaea. PMID:26022847

  14. Interactions between organisms and parent materials of a constructed Technosol shape its hydrostructural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, Maha; Grimaldi, Michel; Lerch, Thomas Z.; Pando, Anne; Gigon, Agnès; Blouin, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    There is no information on how organisms influence hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols and how such influence will be affected by the parent-material composition factor. In a laboratory experiment, parent materials, which were excavated deep horizons of soils and green waste compost (GWC), were mixed at six levels of GWC (from 0 to 50 %). Each mixture was set up in the presence/absence of plants and/or earthworms, in a full factorial design (n = 96). After 21 weeks, hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols were characterized by soil shrinkage curves. Organisms explained the variance of hydrostructural characteristics (19 %) a little better than parent-material composition (14 %). The interaction between the effects of organisms and parent-material composition explained the variance far better (39 %) than each single factor. To summarize, compost and plants played a positive role in increasing available water in macropores and micropores; plants were extending the positive effect of compost up to 40 and 50 % GWC. Earthworms affected the void ratio for mixtures from 0 to 30 % GWC and available water in micropores, but not in macropores. Earthworms also acted synergistically with plants by increasing their root biomass, resulting in positive effects on available water in macropores. Organisms and their interaction with parent materials positively affected the hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols, with potential positive consequences on resistance to drought or compaction. Considering organisms when creating Technosols could be a promising approach to improve their fertility.

  15. Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lao Parents and Teachers Association, Minneapolis, MN.

    This collection presents advice to help parents help their children succeed in school. Information sheets are included from many sources, in English and translated into Lao by the Lao Parents and Teachers Association. The emphasis is on the elementary grades, although some of the materials are useful for parents of high school students. The…

  16. Assessing parent material uniformity of Phaeozems in the Azul Sierras landscape: preliminary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, Núria; Rodríguez, Javier; Pazos, Mabel Susana

    2014-05-01

    South of Azul Co. (Argentina) there is an area with Precambrian and Paleozoic gneiss and migmatite outcrops that conform the wider system of Pampian Sierras, with slopes and intermountain areas covered by loess. The Phaeozems distribution in the Azul Sierras is complex and their genesis either being derived from a uniform parent material or a lithologic discontinuity is not known. The objective of this study was to confirm whether pedological processes or a lithologic discontinuity may be responsible for the textural contrast within soil profiles. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was used to determine elemental concentrations in various soil fractions. Three landscape units were defined: a) rocky, b) side slope and c) intermountain plain. Rocky area: 8-10 % slope, soils develop in between rock outcrops, are rather shallow with high organic matter content, coarse texture and gravely. They include: Endoleptic Phaeozems, Haplic Phaeozems (Pachic) and (Pachic Arenic). Sideslope: coarse textured soils with abundant gravels and lime free close to the rocky area; OC is high up to 50 cm depth; incipient clay illuviation is observed as coatings on pebbles. Half slope a petrocalcic horizon (tosca) appears at variable depth, coarse fragments diminish with increasing distance from the rock outcrops, OC remains high in the first 50 cm. All soil profiles have mollic horizon and argic horizon less than 20 cm thick. The petrocalcic horizon has a minimum depth of 50 cm. Soils classify as Luvic Phaeozem (Skeletic), Luvic Petrocalcic Phaeozem (Endoskeletic) and Luvic Petrocalcic Phaeozem. Intermountain plains: soils are deep, with clay accumulation, no coarse fragments nor rock outcrops, and gentle sloping. The mollic horizon reaches 53 cm thick and there is a well developed argic horizon. These soils classify as Luvic Phaeozems. Results showed that all indicators of parent material uniformity, i.e., depth distribution curves of Zr and Y in various fractions and Y:Zr ratio showed clear inflection and variation in side slope soils, indicanting soils developed from contrasting materials, so different trends in particle size fractions between 0-34 cm compared to the underlying layers are due to parent material differences and not pedogenesis. While Pampian soils are mainly developed from loess, the influence of gneiss and migmatites on soils in this landscape appears as an important conclusion.

  17. Infrared optical properties of Mars soil analog materials: Palagonites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.

    1992-01-01

    The globally distributed bright soils on Mars represent products of chemical alteration of primary igneous materials. As such, understanding the chemistry and mineralogy of these soils provides clues about the nature of the parent materials and the type, duration, and extent of the chemical weathering environments on Mars. Such clues are key in developing an understanding of the interior and surficial processes that have operated throughout Mars' history to yield the surface as it is currently observed. The generally homogeneous nature of these soils is illustrated by a variety of observational data. These data include (1) direct determination of elemental abundances by the X-ray fluorescence instruments on both Viking Landers, (2) Earth-based telescopic observations, and (3) space-based observations. Based on their spectral properties in the visible and near-infrared, terrestrial palagonitic soils have been suggested as analogs for the bright regions on Mars. Palagonites represent the weathering products of basaltic glass and as such are composed of a variety of minerals/materials. In order to gain an understanding regarding the chemical, mineralogical, and spectral properties of a broad suite of palagonites, several samples were collected from the eastern and central regions of the island of Hawaii.

  18. EPR-based material modelling of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramarzi, Asaad; Alani, Amir M.

    2013-04-01

    In the past few decades, as a result of the rapid developments in computational software and hardware, alternative computer aided pattern recognition approaches have been introduced to modelling many engineering problems, including constitutive modelling of materials. The main idea behind pattern recognition systems is that they learn adaptively from experience and extract various discriminants, each appropriate for its purpose. In this work an approach is presented for developing material models for soils based on evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR). EPR is a recently developed hybrid data mining technique that searches for structured mathematical equations (representing the behaviour of a system) using genetic algorithm and the least squares method. Stress-strain data from triaxial tests are used to train and develop EPR-based material models for soil. The developed models are compared with some of the well-known conventional material models and it is shown that EPR-based models can provide a better prediction for the behaviour of soils. The main benefits of using EPR-based material models are that it provides a unified approach to constitutive modelling of all materials (i.e., all aspects of material behaviour can be implemented within a unified environment of an EPR model); it does not require any arbitrary choice of constitutive (mathematical) models. In EPR-based material models there are no material parameters to be identified. As the model is trained directly from experimental data therefore, EPR-based material models are the shortest route from experimental research (data) to numerical modelling. Another advantage of EPR-based constitutive model is that as more experimental data become available, the quality of the EPR prediction can be improved by learning from the additional data, and therefore, the EPR model can become more effective and robust. The developed EPR-based material models can be incorporated in finite element (FE) analysis.

  19. Teacher-Parent Communication and Parents' Ability to Select Reading Material: A Study of a Baggy Book Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Kelley M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a home-reading program on parent-teacher communication and on the ability of parents to select reading material for their children. In this qualitative case study, parents of 4th grade students participated in a reading homework program with their children. Using constructivist theories, the study's…

  20. Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  1. Interactions between organisms and parent materials of a constructed Technosol shape its hydrostructural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, M.; Grimaldi, M.; Lerch, T. Z.; Pando, A.; Gigon, A.; Blouin, M.

    2015-12-01

    Constructed Technosols provide an opportunity to recycle urban waste, and are an alternative to the uptake of topsoil from the countryside. Despite potential problems of erosion, compaction or water holding capacity, their physical properties and the resulting water regulation services are poorly documented. In a laboratory experiment, excavated deep horizons of soils and green waste compost (GWC) were mixed at six levels of GWC (from 0 to 50 %). Each mixture was set up in the presence/absence of plants and/or earthworms, in a full factorial design (n = 96). After 21 weeks, hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols were characterized by soil shrinkage curves. Organisms explained the variance of hydrostructural characteristics (19 %) a little better than parent-material composition (14 %). The interaction between the effects of organisms and parent-material composition explained the variance far better (39 %) than each single factor. To summarize, compost and plants played a positive role in increasing available water in macropores and micropores; plants were extending the positive effect of compost up to 40 and 50 % GWC. Earthworms affected the void ratio for mixtures from 0 to 30 % GWC and available water in micropores, not in macropores. Earthworms also acted synergistically with plants by increasing their root biomass and the resulting positive effects on available water in macropores. Organisms and their interaction with parent materials thus positively affected the hydro-structural properties of constructed Technosols, with potential positive consequences on resistance to drought or compaction. Considering organisms when creating Technosols could be a promising approach to improve their fertility.

  2. Carbonaceous materials in soil-derived dusts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion affects over 500 million ha of land worldwide and creates between 500 and 5000 Tg of fugitive dust annually. This dust carries a disproportionate amount of organic and inorganic carbon when compared to the soil of origin. This loss of soil carbon degrades the soil of origin and may re...

  3. Contrasting environmental memories by ancient soils on different parent rocks in the South-western Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Michele; Catoni, Marcella; Bonifacio, Eleonora; Zanini, Ermanno

    2014-05-01

    Ancient soils (pre-Holocenic paleosols and vetusols) are uncommon on the Alps, because of the extensive Pleistocenic glaciations which erased most of the previously existing soils, the slope steepness and climatic conditions favoring soil erosion. However, in few sites, particularly in the outermost sections of the Alpine range, Pleistocene glaciers covered only small and scattered surfaces because of the low altitude reached in the basins, and ancient soils could be preserved for long periods of time on particularly stable surfaces. We described and sampled soils on 11 stable surfaces in the Upper Tanaro valley, Ligurian Alps (Southwestern Piemonte, Italy). The sampling sites were characterized by low steepness and elevation between 600 to 1600 m, under present day lower montane Castanea sativa/Ostrya carpinifolia forests, montane Fagus sylvatica and Pinus uncinata forests or montane heath/grazed grassland, on different substrata. In particular, we sampled soils developed on dolomite, limestone, quartzite, gneiss and shales. The soils were always well representative of the pedogenic trends active on the respective parent materials, i.e. the skeletal fraction in each soil was always composed of just one rock type, despite the proximity of lithological boundaries and the small dimensions of the different outcrops, often coexisting on the same stable surface. All the considered profiles showed signs of extremely long pedogenesis and/or different phases of intense pedogenesis interrupted by the deposition of periglacial cover beds in the steepest sites. Up to four phases of intense pedogenesis were recognized where cover beds were developed, presumably during cold Pleistocene phases, as present-day climate is not cold enough to create such periglacial morphologies. In such cases, each cover bed underwent similar pedogenesis, strongly dependent on the parent material: on quartzite, podzols with thick E horizons and well developed placic ones were formed in all phases except the most superficial one (i.e., Holocene phase), where non cemented spodic horizons or weakly cemented ortstein were formed; placic horizons were never found in Holocene soils. On limestone, each cover bed separated soils with extremely hard petrocalcic horizons overlaid by argillic ones. Where no cover beds were observed, podzols with extremely thick E horizons (up to more than 2 m thick) and a very hard, very thick ortstein were formed on quartzite. Red Nitisols-like or reddish brown Luvisols were formed on limestone and dolomite, while red, extremely acidic Alisols, with or without fragipan horizons were formed on shales. Very large stone circles and other large patterned ground features, which can be interpreted as evidence of past permafrost conditions, were preserved on coarse quartzitic conglomerate. These soils represent excellent pedo-signatures of different specific past climatic or environmental conditions, as a response of different lithologies to specific soil-forming environments, which range from warm and humid climates typical of red Luvisols and Nitisols, to cool and wet climates leading to the formation of Podzols with placic or ortstein horizons, to extremely cold and dry ones characterizing permafrost sites and often associated with fragipan formation, to warm and dry leading to the cementation of petrocalcic horizons. The precise dating and interpretation of these soils are intriguing.

  4. Neonicotinoid insecticide residues in soil dust and associated parent soil in fields with a history of seed treatment use on crops in southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Limay-Rios, Victor; Forero, Luis Gabriel; Xue, Yingen; Smith, Jocelyn; Baute, Tracey; Schaafsma, Arthur

    2016-02-01

    Using neonicotinoid insecticides as seed treatments is a common practice in field crop production. Exposure of nontarget organisms to neonicotinoids present in various environmental matrices is debated. In the present study, concentrations of neonicotinoid residues were measured in the top 5 cm of soil and overlying soil surface dust before planting in 25 commercial fields with a history of neonicotinoid seed treatment use in southwestern Ontario in 2013 and 2014 using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The mean total concentrations were 3.05 ng/g and 47.84 ng/g in 2013 and 5.59 ng/g and 71.17 ng/g in 2014 for parent soil and soil surface dust, respectively. When surface and parent soil residues were compared the mean concentration in surface dust was 15.6-fold and 12.7-fold higher than that in parent soil in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Pooled over years, the surface dust to parent soil ratio was 13.7, with mean concentrations of 4.36 ng/g and 59.86 ng/g for parent soil and surface dust, respectively. The present study's results will contribute important knowledge about the role these residues may play in the overall risk assessment currently under way for the source, transport, and impact of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in a maize ecosystem. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:303-310. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26395849

  5. Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B; Kehrer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. However they are important when numerical simulation of coupled heat and moisture transport for below-grade building components are performed as their temperature and moisture content has an influence on the durability of the below-grade building component. Soils can be classified by soil texture. According to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCA), 12 different soils can be defined on the basis of three soil components: clay, sand, and silt. This study shows how existing material properties for typical American soils can be transferred and used for the calculation of the coupled heat and moisture transport of building components in contact with soil. Furthermore a thermal validation with field measurements under known boundary conditions is part of this study, too. Field measurements for soil temperature and moisture content for two specified soils are carried out right now under known boundary conditions. As these field measurements are not finished yet, the full hygrothermal validation is still missing.

  6. Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil is a diverse natural material characterized by solid, liquid, and gas phases that impart unique chemical, physical, and biological properties. Soil provides many key functions, including supporting plant growth and providing environmental remediation. Monitoring key soil properties and processe...

  7. Hygrothermal Simulations of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B; Kehrer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. The computational approach for heat transfer via the ground is well defined (EN-ISO-13370:, 2007) together with simplified methods (Staszczuk, Radon, & Holm). Though the soil moisture transfer is generally ignored, it is proven not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, & Hens, 2004). Even though reliable material properties of soils are required to perform realistic hygrothermal calculations of soils coupled to buildings, such material properties have not been well defined in hygrothermal calculations tools. Typical building constructions which are greatly influenced by soils are basements, crawl spaces and slab on grade and reliable hygrothermal performance of such construction are highly requested; as it is ranked within the top 10 Building America Enclosure Research Ideas according to Enclosures STC - Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting, February 29, 2012 Austin, TX. There exists an extensive amount of measurements on soil properties in Soil Science though this information must be gathered as well as adapted to be applicable in Building Science and for hygrothermal simulation purposes. Soil properties are important when analyzing and designing both new building constructions and retrofitting measures, where the outer boundary of the buildings enclosure consists of soil materials. Concerning basement energy retrofits, interior solutions of improving the energy demand has to cooperate with the existing soil properties and must therefore be designed thereafter. In concerns of exterior retrofits, the soil material can be replaced, if needed, with a more suitable filling material, though this approach applies only for basement walls. The soil material beneath the basement floor can naturally not be replaced hence the soil properties of this part of the buildings enclosure still must be taken into consideration. This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from soil science. The obtained information must be applicable for Building Science related tasks and validated in hygrothermal calculation tools hence the second part of this study will focus on validation of the implemented soil properties. Basic changes in the software code may be requested as well. Different basement constructions will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI, from which simulations will be compared with existing or on-going measurements. The final outcome of the study is to enable an evaluation of several soil types in several climate zones combined with a number of basement assemblies. The study will define which type of soil together with a certain building construction which is considered most and least reliable in concerns of energy consumption and moisture safety. Further, what influences different soils will have on the total energy loss via the ground and if the performance of a different soils can be measured by a comparison of soil properties solely.

  8. Artificial soil formation and stabilization of material cycles in closed ecological systems for Mars habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchardt, Joshua D.

    Scientists are increasingly pressured to investigate novel ways in which to feed astronauts for the first mission to Mars in the 2030s. It is the aim of this thesis to conduct a preliminary investigation for soil formation of NASA JSC Mars-1A Regolith Simulant in an environmentally closed ecosystem to simulate plant growth within these initial habitats, and the prospect of soil formation from a Mars parent material for agricultural purposes. The rhizosphere and plant stress will be the main regions of research focus. It is hypothesized rhizosphere activity will determine the rate of stable soil formation adequate to support the agricultural needs of Mars's first human inhabitants. A Brassica rapa (Wisconsin FastPlant(TM)) was grown on several different substrates, and evaluated for plant stress, elemental analysis, soil fertility, and mineralogical analysis to identify the biogeochemical factors related to areas inside and outside of the rhizosphere, which affect soil formation. In addition, multiple plant generations were grown to investigate bioavailability of nutrients within the system, and lay down preliminary approaches for mathematical model development in order to predict & evaluate future conditions and applications under reduced resource availability situations. Overall, the story of early soil formation from a Mars regolith simulant is further defined to aid in the success of our first human adventurers to the red planet.

  9. Hygrothermal Simulation of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrer, Manfred; Pallin, Simon B

    2012-10-01

    The hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well defined (EN ISO 13370:2007, 2007), and simplified methods have been developed (Staszczuk, Radon, and Holm 2010). However, these approaches generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, and Hens 2004). This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from Soil Science. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in Building Science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools. Future parts of this study will focus on the validation aspect of the soil properties to be implemented. Basic changes in the software code may be requested at this time. Different types of basement construction will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI. Simulations from WUFI will be compared with existing or ongoing measurements. The intentions of the first part of this study have been fulfilled. The soil properties of interest in Building Science have been defined for 12 different soil textures. These properties will serve as input parameters when performing hygrothermal calculations of building constructions coupled to soil materials. The reliability of the soil parameters will be further evaluated with measurements in Part 2.

  10. Bibliotherapy for Children with Anxiety Disorders Using Written Materials for Parents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapee, Ronald M.; Abbott, Maree J.; Lyneham, Heidi J.

    2006-01-01

    The current trial examined the value of modifying empirically validated treatment for childhood anxiety for application via written materials for parents of anxious children. Two hundred sixty-seven clinically anxious children ages 6-12 years and their parents were randomly allocated to standard group treatment, wait list, or a bibliotherapy…

  11. Characterisation of the IAEA-375 Soil Reference Material for radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Altzitzoglou, T; Bohnstedt, A

    2016-03-01

    The Joint Research Centre Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (JRC-IRMM) participated in a research project initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to upgrade some of its existing reference materials (RMs). The aim of the work described in this article was to determine the activity concentration of a series of radionuclides in the IAEA-375 soil RM with values traceable to the SI units. The radionuclides (40)K, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (212)Pb, (212)Bi, (214)Pb and (214)Bi were measured by γ-ray spectrometry after drying the sample and placing it in a suitable container. The (90)Sr was assessed by liquid scintillation counting after dissolution of the soil by wet digestion and chemical separation of Sr by extraction chromatography. This soil RM was used later as basis for the 2010 EC Interlaboratory Comparison on Radionuclides in Soil. PMID:26651166

  12. Mobility of organic solvents in water-saturated soil materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, W.R.; Griffin, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This investigation presents an analysis of the mobility of 37 organic solvents in saturated soil-water systems, focusing on adsorption phenomena at the solid-liquid interface This analysis was made, in part, by applying predictive expressions that estimate the potential magnitude of adsorption by soil materials Of the 37 solvents considered, 19 were classified as either "very highly mobile" or "highly mobile" and, thus, would have little tendency to be retained by soils to a significant extent, 12 were considered to have medium mobility and 6 low mobility None of these solvents were in the immobile class The limited information available indicates that these predictive expressions yield satisfactory first approximations of the magnitude of adsorption of these solvents by soil materials ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  13. The influence of carbonates in parent rocks on the biological properties of mountain soils of the Northwest Caucasus region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazeev, K. Sh.; Kutrovskii, M. A.; Dadenko, E. V.; Vezdeneeva, L. S.; Kolesnikov, S. I.; Val'kov, V. F.

    2012-03-01

    The biological activity of different subtypes of soddy-calcareous soils (rendzinas) of the Northwest Caucasus region was studied. In the Novorossiisk-Abrau-Dyurso region (dry subtropics), typical soddy-calcareous soils with the high content of carbonates predominate; in the more humid conditions of the Lagonaki Plateau (Republic of Adygeya), leached soddy-calcareous soils carbonate-free down to the parent rock are spread. The number of microarthropods, the populations of fungi and bacteria, and the enzyme activity (catalase, dehydrogenase, and invertase) testify that the biological activity of these soils significantly differs. In the typical soddy-calcareous soils of the dry subtropics, the content of carbonates does not affect the characteristics mentioned; in the more humid conditions of the West Caucasus region, the presence of carbonates in the parent rocks intensifies the biological activity of the soddy-calcareous soils.

  14. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziff, Barry, Ed.; Hostettler, Karen, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The newsletter of the California Association for the Gifted includes the following brief articles on parenting: "Your Challenge, Their Lives" (Barry Ziff); "Courage to Be Who I Am, Unafraid" (Elizabeth Meckstroth); "Attribution: A Key to Encouraging More Responsible Behavior in the Gifted" (Saundra Sparling); "A Parent's Perspective" (Carolyn…

  15. On identifying parent plutonic rocks from lunar breccia and soil fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Lindstrom, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Breccia fragments expected from a well-studied boulder of Stillwater anorthosite have been modeled to test the ability to identify parental rock types from examination of breccia and soil fragments. Depending on their size, the boulder fragments give distributions that suggest mixtures of rock types, including monominerallic anorthosite with subordinant amounts of more gabbroic anorthosite, anorthosite, and gabbro for small fragments. The distribution of FeO in samples of lunar ferroan anorthosite (FAN) indicates that FAN has a heterogeneous distribution of mafic minerals like the boulder.

  16. Remediation of copper polluted red soils with clay materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gangya; Lin, Yunqing; Wang, Mingkuang

    2011-01-01

    Attapulgite and montmorillonite were utilized to remediate heavy metal polluted red soils in Guixi City, Jiangxi Province, China. The effects of clay minerals on availability, chemical distribution, and biotoxicity of Cu and Zn were evaluated. The results provided a reference for the rational application of clay materials to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils. From the sorption experiment, the maximum adsorbed Cu2+ by attapulgite and montmorillonite was 1501 and 3741 mg/kg, respectively. After polluted red soil was amended with attapulgite or montmorillonite and cultured at 30 and 60 days, soil pH increased significantly compared to the control. An 8% increase in the amount of montmorillonite in soil and 30 days incubation decreased acid exchangeable Cu by 24.7% compared to the control red soil. Acid exchangeable Cu decreased with increasing amounts of attapulgite and montmorillonite, with best remediation effect reached at a dose of 8%. Results also showed that the Cu poisoning effect on earthworms was reduced with the addition of attapulgite and montmorillonite. Montmorillonite showed the best effect, with the addition of a 2% dose the mortality of earthworms decreased from 60% to zero compared to the control. Our results indicated that the bioavailability of Cu in soils was reduced more effectively with the application of montmorillonite than attapulgite. PMID:21520816

  17. EFFECTS OF DRYING TREATMENTS ON POROSITY OF SOIL MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of three drying techniques on total porosity and pore size distribution of three soil materials were studied by Hg intrusion porosimetry. Some samples were dried in an oven at 40 C for 7 d; some samples were quick frozen in liquid N and lyophilized; some samples were ...

  18. Development of a material processing plant for lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goettsch, Ulix; Ousterhout, Karl

    1992-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in developing in-situ materials processing plants for both the Moon and Mars. Two of the most important aspects of developing such a materials processing plant is the overall system design and the integration of the different technologies into a reliable, lightweight, and cost-effective unit. The concept of an autonomous materials processing plant that is capable of producing useful substances from lunar regolith was developed. In order for such a materials processing plant to be considered as a viable option, it must be totally self-contained, able to operate autonomously, cost effective, light weight, and fault tolerant. In order to assess the impact of different technologies on the overall systems design and integration, a one-half scale model was constructed that is capable of scooping up (or digging) lunar soil, transferring the soil to a solar furnace, heating the soil in the furnace to liberate the gasses, and transferring the spent soil to a 'tile' processing center. All aspects of the control system are handled by a 386 class PC via D/A, A/D, and DSP (Digital Signal Processor) control cards.

  19. Material Testing and Constitutive Modeling of Alaskan Frozen Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. Y.; Fossum, A. F.; Bronowski, D. R.

    2002-12-01

    A series of laboratory tests, conducted using a unique high-pressure, low-temperature triaxial cell and the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), provided data to construct a well-determined constitutive database for Alaskan frozen soil at confining pressures up to 100 MPa and temperatures down to -25 degree C. The test cell is capable of operating at temperatures as low as -65 degree C and confining pressures up to 500 MPa. The operating conditions of temperature and pressure were achieved using an externally cooled pressure vessel, composed of HP 9-4-20 alloy steel and equipped with 12 coaxial feed-throughs. Quasi-static compression tests and indirect tension (or Brazilian) tests constrain the variabilities of material properties of the frozen soil. The SHPB tests determine dynamic compression properties and the strain rate dependency of the frozen soil. The results from laboratory material testing showed that Alaskan frozen soil exhibits pressure and temperature dependence, rate sensitivity, anisotropy, brittle and ductile behavior, volumetric compaction, and dilation. The rate-sensitive and anisotropic form of a plasticity model, developed by Fossum and Fredrich (2000), captured the deformation behavior of this material very well. This model includes high strain-rate sensitivity and anisotropy in both the elastic and plastic regimes. The model comprises a continuous yield and loading surface for unified dilation and compaction phenomena. It is envisioned that this model will be used to predict the deformation and failure of frozen soil under the dynamic loading conditions resulting from projectile penetration into frozen soil targets.

  20. EPR-based material modelling of soils considering volume changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramarzi, Asaad; Javadi, Akbar A.; Alani, Amir M.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper an approach is presented for developing material models for soils based on evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR), taking into account its volumetric behaviour. EPR is a recently developed hybrid data mining technique that searches for structured mathematical equations (representing the behaviour of a system) using genetic algorithm and the least squares method. Stress-strain data from triaxial test are used to train and develop EPR-based material models for soil. The developed models are compared with some of the well known conventional material models. In particular, the capability of the developed EPR models in predicting volume change behaviour of soils is illustrated. It is also shown that the developed EPR-based material models can be incorporated in finite element (FE) analysis. Two geotechnical examples are presented to verify the developed EPR-based FE model (EPR-FEM). The results of the EPR-FEM are compared with those of a standard FEM where conventional constitutive models are used to describe the material behaviour. The results show that EPR-FEM can be successfully employed to analyse geotechnical engineering problems. The advantages of the proposed EPR models are highlighted.

  1. Extralunar materials in cone-crater soil 14141.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, J. T.; Chou, C.-L.; Bild, R. W.; Baedecker, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis has been used to determine Ni, Zn, Ga, Ge, Cd, In, Ir, and Au in duplicate samples of lunar soil 14141 and in one additional replicate each of soils 14163 and 14259. The concentrations of extralunar trace elements Ni, Ge, Ir, and Au in 14141 and 14163 are, respectively, about 69 and 82% as high as those in 14259. Although most of the mass of 14141 appears to be ejecta from Cone Crater, a sizable contamination by mature Fra Mauro soil such as 14259 is also present. The siderophilic-element concentrations of the subregolith Fra Mauro materials are estimated to be 25 plus or minus 25% of those observed in 14259.

  2. Synergetic toxic effect of an explosive material mixture in soil.

    PubMed

    Panz, Katarzyna; Miksch, Korneliusz; Sójka, Tadeusz

    2013-11-01

    Explosives materials are stable in soil and recalcitrant to biodegradation. Different authors report that TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) and HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) are toxic, but most investigations have been performed in artificial soil with individual substances. The aim of the presented research was to assess the toxicity of forest soil contaminated with these substances both individually as well in combinations of these substances. TNT was the most toxic substance. Although RDX and HMX did not have adverse effects on plants, these compounds did cause earthworm mortality, which has not been reported in earlier research. Synergistic effects of explosives mixture were observed. PMID:24005241

  3. Sulphate release from construction and demolition material in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Stefan; Wessolek, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    In Berlin and many other cities soils are heavily influenced by anthropogenic activities and deposited substrates. A widespread technical substrate in technosols is construction and demolition material from residential and industrial buildings. Existing rubble landfills without sealing facilities pose threats to ground water quality. In the central city of Berlin rising sulphate concentrations of groundwaters (up to 1200 mg/L) are measured since more than two decades. Previous studies point out that the high sulphate concentrations are mainly attributed to World War II rubble. The major part of debris was deposited in form of landfills and contains approximately 0.3 wt% gypsum. The scope of our research is to determine mechanisms of sulphate release from debris material, interactions between sulphate release, soil hydraulic properties and potential sinks of sulphur. To estimate equilibrium concentration and kinetics of sulphate release of various debris components batch and column experiments are conducted. The same method is applied to determine potential adsorptive character of common debris components. To analyse the impacts of soil hydraulic properties on sulphate leaching we carry out soil column experiments with defined upper and lower boundary conditions, varying water flow velocity and induced preferential flow. Simultaneously we monitor sulphate concentration of soil leachate in a 2 m³ lysimeter. First results of the batch experiments show that gypsum from broken stucco is the main source of sulphate in the observed technosols. Other components as mortar and slag show a quite low sulphate release. Similar results are found within the column experiments. For brigs medium and strongly time dependent sulphate release is determined. Concentrations up to 1500 mg/L are measured in the soil leachate from the lysimeter.

  4. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jochim, Lisa; Mueller, Andrea

    This guide contains 15 learning activities that can be used in parenting classes, especially for adults with limited literacy skills. Activities include quotations for discussion and suggestions for conducting group discussions and writing lessons. The following activities are included: interpreting quotations about raising children; positive…

  5. Microbial properties of mine spoil materials in the initial stages of soil development

    SciTech Connect

    Machulla, G.; Bruns, M.A.; Scow, K.M.

    2005-08-01

    The early years of soil genesis during mine spoil reclamation are critical for vegetative establishment and may help predict reclamation success. Mine spoils in the Halle-Leipzig region of Germany were analyzed for microbial changes following a hay mulch-seeding treatment without topsoil or fertilizer application. Microbial biomass carbon (C{sub mic}) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of spoils were measured each year in the first 3 yr after treatment. In the third year, bacterial community DNA fingerprints were compared with those from a reference soil. Microbial indicators were measured at three depths in the upper 10 cm of spoils at three sites with contrasting parent materials: glacial till (sandy loam), limnic tertiary sediments (high-lignite sandy clay loam), and quaternary sand and gravel (loamy sand). Before reclamation, C{sub mic} means and standard deviations of surface spoils (0-1 cm) were 9{+-}6, 39{+-}11, and 38{+-}16 mg kg{sup -1} for the loamy sand, high-lignite sandy clay loam, and sandy loam spoils, respectively. Within one year, mean C{sub mic} at the surface increased to 148{+-}70, 229{+-}64, and 497{+-}167 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively, and was significantly higher at 0 to 1 cm than at lower depths. Highest DHA and DNA yields were obtained in the 0- to 1-cm depth of the sandy loam spoils. Microbial biomass C values exhibited significant correlations with DHA, DNA yield, and extractable C for all three mine spoils. Soil microbial indices were more responsive than plant measurements to differences in parent materials.

  6. Forming artificial soils from waste materials for mine site rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellishetty, Mohan; Wong, Vanessa; Taylor, Michael; Li, Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Surface mining activities often produce large volumes of solid wastes which invariably requires the removal of significant quantities of waste rock (overburden). As mines expand, larger volumes of waste rock need to be moved which also require extensive areas for their safe disposal and containment. The erosion of these dumps may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of contaminants such as trace metals, elevated sediment delivery in adjacent waterways, and the subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. The management of solid waste materials from industrial operations is also a key component for a sustainable economy. For example, in addition to overburden, coal mines produce large amounts of waste in the form of fly ash while sewage treatment plants require disposal of large amounts of compost. Similarly, paper mills produce large volumes of alkaline rejected wood chip waste which is usually disposed of in landfill. These materials, therefore, presents a challenge in their use, and re-use in the rehabilitation of mine sites and provides a number of opportunities for innovative waste disposal. The combination of solid wastes sourced from mines, which are frequently nutrient poor and acidic, with nutrient-rich composted material produced from sewage treatment and alkaline wood chip waste has the potential to lead to a soil suitable for mine rehabilitation and successful seed germination and plant growth. This paper presents findings from two pilot projects which investigated the potential of artificial soils to support plant growth for mine site rehabilitation. We found that pH increased in all the artificial soil mixtures and were able to support plant establishment. Plant growth was greatest in those soils with the greatest proportion of compost due to the higher nutrient content. These pot trials suggest that the use of different waste streams to form an artificial soil can potentially be used in mine site rehabilitation where there is a nutrient-rich source of waste.

  7. Differentiating pedogenesis from diagenesis in early terrestrial paleoweathering surfaces formed on granitic composition parent materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driese, S.G.; Medaris, L.G., Jr.; Ren, M.; Runkel, Anthony C.; Langford, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Unconformable surfaces separating Precambrian crystalline basement and overlying Proterozoic to Cambrian sedimentary rocks provide an exceptional opportunity to examine the role of primitive soil ecosystems in weathering and resultant formation of saprolite (weathered rock retaining rock structure) and regolith (weathered rock without rock structure), but many appear to have been affected by burial diagenesis and hydrothermal fluid flow, leading some researchers to discount their suitability for such studies. We examine one modern weathering profile (Cecil series), four Cambrian paleoweathering profiles from the North American craton (Squaw Creek, Franklin Mountains, Core SQ-8, and Core 4), one Neoproterozoic profile (Sheigra), and one late Paleoproterozoic profile (Baraboo), to test the hypothesis that these paleoweathering profiles do provide evidence of primitive terrestrial weathering despite their diagenetic and hydrothermal overprinting, especially additions of potassium. We employ an integrated approach using (1) detailed thin-section investigations to identify characteristic pedogenic features associated with saprolitization and formation of well-drained regoliths, (2) electron microprobe analysis to identify specific weathered and new mineral phases, and (3) geochemical mass balance techniques to characterize volume changes during weathering and elemental gains and losses of major and minor elements relative to the inferred parent materials. There is strong pedogenic evidence of paleoweathering, such as clay illuviation, sepic-plasmic fabrics, redoximorphic features, and dissolution and alteration of feldspars and mafic minerals to kaolinite, gibbsite, and Fe oxides, as well as geochemical evidence, such as whole-rock losses of Na, Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, Fe, and Mn greater than in modern profiles. Evidence of diagenesis includes net additions of K, Ba, and Rb determined through geochemical mass balance, K-feldspar overgrowths in overlying sandstone sections, and K-feldspars with reaction rims in weathered basement. The sub-Cambrian paleoweathering profiles formed on granite are remarkably similar to modern weathering profiles formed on granite, in spite of overprinting by potassium diagenesis. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  8. Materials for Sex Equality Education for Use by Teachers, Parents, and Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Organization for Women, Champaign, IL. Greater Champaign Area Chapter.

    These materials were compiled to help provide a better education for all children by increasing parents' and teachers' awareness of sexism and by providing new ideas and programs for helping people to overcome sex-role stereotyping in the schools. Included in the packet are: (1) a questionnaire designed to provoke thought before the beginning of a…

  9. Use of Biochar from the Pyrolysis of Waste Organic Material as a Soil Amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is being promoted for its potential to improve soil properties, fertility and carbon sequestration in soil. How this material might impact agricultural soils within temperate regions is largely unknown, Validation of biochar as a beneficial soil amendment and carbon sink would add important...

  10. Microbiological destruction of composite polymeric materials in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legonkova, O. A.; Selitskaya, O. V.

    2009-01-01

    Representatives of the same species of microscopic fungi developed on composite materials with similar polymeric matrices independently from the type of soils, in which the incubation was performed. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Clonostachys solani were isolated from the samples of polyurethane. Fusarium solani, Clonostachys rosea, and Trichoderma harzianum predominated on the surface of ultrathene samples. Ulocladium botrytis, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Fusarium solani predominated in the variants with polyamide. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus ochraceus, and Acremonium strictum were isolated from Lentex-based composite materials. Mucor circinelloides, Trichoderma harzianum, and Penicillium auranthiogriseum were isolated from composite materials based on polyvinyl alcohol. Electron microscopy demonstrated changes in the structure of polymer surface (loosening and an increase in porosity) under the impact of fungi. The physicochemical properties of polymers, including their strength, also changed. The following substances were identified as primary products of the destruction of composite materials: stearic acid for polyurethane-based materials; imide of dithiocarbonic acid and 1-nonadecen in variants with ultrathene; and tetraaminopyrimidine and isocyanatodecan in variants with polyamide. N,N-dimethyldodecan amide, 2-methyloximundecanon and 2-nonacosane were identified for composites on the base of Lentex A4-1. Allyl methyl sulfide and imide of dithiocarbonic acid were found in variants with the samples of composites based on polyvinyl alcohol. The identified primary products of the destruction of composite materials belong to nontoxic compounds.

  11. Adaptive transgenerational plasticity in an annual plant: grandparental and parental drought stress enhance performance of seedlings in dry soil.

    PubMed

    Herman, Jacob J; Sultan, Sonia E; Horgan-Kobelski, Tim; Riggs, Charlotte

    2012-07-01

    Stressful parental (usually maternal) environments can dramatically influence expression of traits in offspring, in some cases resulting in phenotypes that are adaptive to the inducing stress. The ecological and evolutionary impact of such transgenerational plasticity depends on both its persistence across generations and its adaptive value. Few studies have examined both aspects of transgenerational plasticity within a given system. Here we report the results of a growth-chamber study of adaptive transgenerational plasticity across two generations, using the widespread annual plant Polygonum persicaria as a naturally evolved model system. We grew five inbred Polygonum genetic lines in controlled dry vs. moist soil environments for two generations in a fully factorial design, producing replicate individuals of each genetic line with all permutations of grandparental and parental environment. We then measured the effects of these two-generational stress histories on traits critical for functioning in dry soil, in a third (grandchild) generation of seedling offspring raised in the dry treatment. Both grandparental and parental moisture environment significantly influenced seedling development: seedlings of drought-stressed grandparents or parents produced longer root systems that extended deeper and faster into dry soil compared with seedlings of the same genetic lines whose grandparents and/or parents had been amply watered. Offspring of stressed individuals also grew to a greater biomass than offspring of nonstressed parents and grandparents. Importantly, the effects of drought were cumulative over the course of two generations: when both grandparents and parents were drought-stressed, offspring had the greatest provisioning, germinated earliest, and developed into the largest seedlings with the most extensive root systems. Along with these functionally appropriate developmental effects, seedlings produced after two previous drought-stressed generations had significantly greater survivorship in very dry soil than did seedlings with no history of drought. These findings show that plastic responses to naturalistic resource stresses experienced by grandparents and parents can "preadapt" offspring for functioning under the same stresses in ways that measurably influence realized fitness. Possible implications of these environmentally-induced, inherited adaptations are discussed with respect to ecological distribution, persistence under novel stresses, and evolution in natural populations. PMID:22523124

  12. Processing lunar soils for oxygen and other materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, Christian W.; Gibson, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Two types of lunar materials are excellent candidates for lunar oxygen production: ilmenite and silicates such as anorthite. Both are lunar surface minable, occurring in soils, breccias, and basalts. Because silicates are considerably more abundant than ilmenite, they may be preferred as source materials. Depending on the processing method chosen for oxygen production and the feedstock material, various useful metals and bulk materials can be produced as byproducts. Available processing techniques include hydrogen reduction of ilmenite and electrochemical and chemical reductions of silicates. Processes in these categories are generally in preliminary development stages and need significant research and development support to carry them to practical deployment, particularly as a lunar-based operation. The goal of beginning lunar processing operations by 2010 requires that planning and research and development emphasize the simplest processing schemes. However, more complex schemes that now appear to present difficult technical challenges may offer more valuable metal byproducts later. While they require more time and effort to perfect, the more complex or difficult schemes may provide important processing and product improvements with which to extend and elaborate the initial lunar processing facilities. A balanced R&D program should take this into account. The following topics are discussed: (1) ilmenite--semi-continuous process; (2) ilmenite--continuous fluid-bed reduction; (3) utilization of spent ilmenite to produce bulk materials; (4) silicates--electrochemical reduction; and (5) silicates--chemical reduction.

  13. Soil solid materials affect the kinetics of extracellular enzymatic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammirato, C.; Miltner, A.; Kästner, M.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Soil solid materials affect the degradation processes of many organic compounds by decreasing the bioavailability of substrates and by interacting with degraders. The magnitude of this effect in the environment is shown by the fact that xenobiotics which are readily metabolized in aquatic environments can have long residence times in soil. Extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of cellobiose (enzyme: beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger) was chosen as model degradation process since it is easier to control and more reproducible than a whole cell processes. Furthermore extracellular enzymes play an important role in the environment since they are responsible for the first steps in the degradation of organic macromolecules; beta-glucosidase is key enzyme in the degradation of cellulose and therefore it is fundamental in the carbon cycle and for soil in general. The aims of the project are: 1) quantification of solid material effect on degradation, 2) separation of the effects of minerals on enzyme (adsorption →change in activity) and substrate (adsorption →change in bioavailability). Our hypothesis is that a rate reduction in the enzymatic reaction in the presence of a solid phase results from the sum of decreased bioavailability of the substrate and decreased activity of enzyme molecules. The relative contribution of the two terms to the overall effect can vary widely depending on the chemical nature of the substrate, the properties of the enzyme and on the surface properties of the solid materials. Furthermore we hypothesize that by immobilizing the enzyme in an appropriate carrier the adsorption of enzymes to soil materials can be eliminated and that therefore immobilization can increase the overall reaction rate (activity loss caused by immobilization < activity loss caused by adsorption to soil minerals). MATERIALS AND METHODS Enzymatic kinetic experiments are carried out in homogeneous liquid systems and in heterogeneous systems where solid materials (bentonite, kaolinite, goethite, activated charcoal) are suspended in a mixed liquid (standard experimental conditions: 66 mM phosphate buffer, pH 5, 25°C, 20 mg solid/ml buffer). The enzyme in an immobilized form (covalent bonding to oxirane groups on the surfaces of macroporous Eupergit® C particles) is used to exclude a direct effect of soil solid materials on the enzyme without excluding their effect on the availability of the substrate.The progress of the reactions is determined by measuring the accumulation of the product (i.e. glucose) in the systems at different times (after destroying enzymatic activity by boiling the samples) with a coupled enzymatic assay and an automatic microplate spectrophotometer. A regression analysis on the data points is performed to calculate the initial reaction rates, which is the parameter that allows to compare the different systems. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results show that, under the standard experimental conditions, cellobiose is not adsorbed by the clay minerals bentonite and kaolinite and by the iron oxyhydroxide goethite. In the case of activated charcoal a rapid adsorption phase in the first 20' is followed by a much slower process; after 4h 30' approximately 98% of cellobiose was adsorbed. The results from the adsorption experiments of beta-glucosidase to bentonite, kaolinite, goethite and activated charcoal show that, under the standard experimental conditions, the adsorption process is rapid in all cases (more than 80% of the adsorption takes place in the first 20 minutes). After 1h 20min the following fractions of enzyme were adsorbed: 30 % to bentonite, 60% to kaolinite, 67% to goethite, 100% to activated charcoal. The effect of kaolinite on the reaction rate was quantified: under the standard experimental conditions the initial reaction rate in presence of the mineral was 22% less then in the control. The fraction of enzyme molecules which are adsorbed to kaolinite (60%) loses 37% of its activity. CONCLUSIONS The results from the adsorption experiments lead to the conclusion that, among the solid materials tested, only activated charcoal may affect the reaction rate by limiting the substrate bioavailability while all the materials tested may affect the reaction rate by limiting the enzymatic activity. The results from the experiments on the effect of kaolinite on the reaction rate lead to the conclusion that even the degradation of substrates with unrestricted bioavailability can be affected by soil solid materials. The next experiments will show how much activity is lost by beta-glucosidase when adsorbed to bentonite and goethite and how activated carbon affects the reaction by limiting the substrate bioavailability and the enzymatic activity. In this last case beta-glucosidase will also be used in the immobilized form to eliminate the effect of activated carbon on the enzyme.

  14. Parental separation and adult psychological distress: an investigation of material and relational mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An association between parental separation or divorce occurring in childhood and increased psychological distress in adulthood is well established. However relatively little is known about why this association exists and how the mechanisms might differ for men and women. We investigate why this association exists, focussing on material and relational mechanisms and in particular on the way in which these link across the life course. Methods This study used the 1970 British Cohort Study (n = 10,714) to investigate material (through adolescent and adult material disadvantage, and educational attainment) and relational (through parent–child relationship quality and adult partnership status) pathways between parental separation (0–16 years) and psychological distress (30 years). Psychological distress was measured using Rutter’s Malaise Inventory. The inter-linkages between these two broad mechanisms across the life course were also investigated. Missing data were multiply imputed by chained equations. Path analysis was used to explicitly model prospectively-collected measures across the life course, therefore methodologically extending previous work. Results Material and relational pathways partially explained the association between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress (indirect effect = 33.3% men; 60.0% women). The mechanisms were different for men and women, for instance adult partnership status was found to be more important for men. Material and relational factors were found to interlink across the life course. Mechanisms acting through educational attainment were found to be particularly important. Conclusions This study begins to disentangle the mechanisms between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress. Interventions which aim to support children through education, in particular, are likely to be particularly beneficial for later psychological health. PMID:24655926

  15. Materials Testing and Quality Control Soils, 3-28. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This instructional package on material testing and quality control of soils has been adapted from military curriculum materials for use in technical and vocational education programs. This short course presents basic information on soils as well as exploration, field identification, and laboratory procedures that will enable students completing…

  16. Gender and Material Transfers between Older Parents and Children in Ismailia, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Cunningham, Solveig A.; Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, kin relations have been governed by a patriarchal contract, which defines expectations for intergenerational support along gendered lines. Social changes may be disrupting these customs and bringing attention to the ways gender may influence intergenerational support in rapidly changing contexts. Using data from 4,465 parent–child dyads in Ismailia, Egypt, we examined whether intergenerational material transfers favored women over men and whether gaps in needs and endowments accounted for gender differences in transfers. Fathers gave children money and goods more often than did mothers; mothers received material transfers from children more often than did fathers. Compared to sons, daughters made transfers to parents less often and received transfers from parents more often. We found residual advantages to mothers and daughters, even adjusting for differential needs and endowments. Findings corroborate persistent norms of gender complementarity, patrilocal endogamy, and reciprocation for women’s caregiving, despite changes that have threatened patriarchal rules of exchange. PMID:22448075

  17. Soils regulate and mitigate climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Question/Methods: The interaction of soil science and ecology can be traced back to the origins of soil science as an independent discipline within the natural sciences. Vasili Dokuchaev, the founder of modern soil science, identified five soil forming factors: parent material, climate, o...

  18. Predicting the preservation of cultural artefacts and buried materials in soil.

    PubMed

    Kibblewhite, Mark; Tóth, Gergely; Hermann, Tamás

    2015-10-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the fate of buried objects in soil and develops a method for assessing where preservation of different materials and stratigraphic evidence is more or less likely in the landscape. The results inform the extent of the cultural service that soil supports by preserving artefacts from and information about past societies. They are also relevant to predicting the state of existing and planned buried infrastructure and the persistence of materials spread on land. Soils are variable and preserve different materials and stratigraphic evidence differently. This study identifies the material and soil properties that affect preservation and relates these to soil types; it assesses their preservation capacities for bones, teeth and shells, organic materials, metals (Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, Pb and bronze), ceramics, glass and stratigraphic evidence. Preservation of Au, Pb and ceramics, glass and phytoliths is good in most soils but degradation rates of other materials (e.g. Fe and organic materials) is strongly influenced by soil type. A method is proposed for using data on the distribution of soil types to map the variable preservation capacities of soil for different materials. This is applied at a continental scale across the EU for bones, teeth and shells, organic materials, metals (Cu, bronze and Fe) and stratigraphic evidence. The maps produced demonstrate how soil provides an extensive but variable preservation of buried objects. PMID:26022409

  19. Laboratory evaluation of frozen soil target materials with a fused interface.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul

    2004-10-01

    To investigate the performance of artificial frozen soil materials with a fused interface, split tension (or 'Brazilian') tests and unconfined uniaxial compression tests were carried out in a low temperature environmental chamber. Intact and fused specimens were fabricated from four different soil mixtures (962: clay-rich soil with bentonite; DNA1: clay-poor soil; DNA2: clay-poor soil with vermiculite; and DNA3: clay-poor soil with perlite). Based on the 'Brazilian' test results and density measurements, the DNA3 mixture was selected to closely represent the mechanical properties of the Alaskan frozen soil. The healed-interface by the same soil layer sandwiched between two blocks of the same material yielded the highest 'Brazilian' tensile strength of the interface. Based on unconfined uniaxial compression tests, the frictional strength of the fused DNA3 specimens with the same soil appears to exceed the shear strength of the intact specimen.

  20. The Medical Geochemistry of Dusts, Soils, and Other Earth Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Ziegler, T. L.

    2003-12-01

    "Town clenched in suffocating grip of asbestos"USA Today, article on Libby,Montana, February, 2000"Researchers find volcanoes are bad for your health… long after they finish erupting"University of WarwickPress Release, 1999"Toxic soils plague city - arsenic, lead in 5 neighborhoods could imperil 17,000 residents"Denver Post, 2002"Ill winds - dust storms ferry toxic agents between countries and even continents"Science News, 2002A quick scan of newspapers, television, science magazines, or the internet on any given day has a fairly high likelihood of encountering a story (usually accompanied by a creative headline such as those above) regarding human health concerns linked to dusts, soils, or other earth materials. Many such concerns have been recognized and studied for decades, but new concerns arise regularly.Earth scientists have played significant roles in helping the medical community understand some important links between earth materials and human health, such as the role of asbestos mineralogy in disease (Skinner et al., 1988; Ross, 1999; Holland and Smith, 2001), and the role of dusts generated by the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake in an outbreak of Valley Fever ( Jibson et al., 1998; Schneider et al., 1997).Earth science activities tied to health issues are growing (Skinner and Berger, 2003), and are commonly classified under the emerging discipline of medical geology (Finkelman et al., 2001; Selinus and Frank, 2000; Selinus, in press).Medical geochemistry (also referred to as environmental geochemistry and health: Smith and Huyck (1999), Appleton et al. (1996)) can be considered as a diverse subdiscipline of medical geology that deals with human and animal health in the context of the Earth's geochemical cycle ( Figure 1). Many medical geochemistry studies have focused on how chemical elements in rocks, soils, and sediments are transmitted via water or vegetation into the food chain, and how regional geochemical variations can result in disease clusters either through dietary deficiency of essential elements or dietary excess of toxic elements. (28K)Figure 1. Potential human exposure routes within the earth's geochemical cycle can come from a wide variety of both natural and anthropogenic sources. This chapter focuses on a somewhat narrower area of medical geochemistry: the study of mechanisms of uptake of earth materials by humans and animals and their reactions to these materials. In order for earth materials to affect health, they must first interact with the body across key interfaces such as the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and eyes. In some way, all of these interfaces require the earth materials to interact chemically with water-based body fluids such as lung fluids, gastrointestinal fluids, saliva, or blood plasma.The primary goal of this chapter, co-authored by a geochemist and a toxicologist, is to provide both geochemists and scientists from health disciplines with an overview of the potential geochemical mechanisms by which earth materials can influence human health. It is clear that significant opportunities for advancement in this arena will require continued and increased research collaborations between geochemists and their counterparts in the health disciplines.

  1. Workshop on Parent-Body and Nebular Modification of Chondritic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E. (Editor); Krot, A. N. (Editor); Scott, E. R. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: thermal Metamorphosed Antarctic CM and CI Carbonaceous Chondrites in Japanese Collections, and Transformation Processes of Phyllosilicates; use of Oxygen Isotopes to Constrain the Nebular and Asteroidal Modification of Chondritic Materials; effect of Revised Nebular Water Distribution on Enstatite Chondrite Formation; interstellar Hydroxyls in Meteoritic Chondrules: Implications for the Origin of Water in the Inner Solar System; theoretical Models and Experimental Studies of Gas-Grain Chemistry in the Solar Nebula; chemical Alteration of Chondrules on Parent Bodies; thermal Quenching of Silicate Grains in Protostellar Sources; an Experimental Study of Magnetite Formation in the Solar Nebula; the Kaidun Meteorite: Evidence for Pre- and Postaccretionary Aqueous Alteration; a Transmission Electron Microscope Study of the Matrix Mineralogy of the Leoville CV3 (Reduced-Group) Carbonaceous Chondrite: Nebular and Parent-Body Features; rubidium-Strontium Isotopic Systematic of Chondrules from the Antarctic CV Chondrites Yamato 86751 and Yamato 86009: Additional Evidence for Late Parent-Body Modification; oxygen-Fugacity Indicators in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Parent-Body Alteration or High-Temperature Nebular Oxidation; thermodynamic Modeling of Aqueous Alteration in CV Chondrites; asteroidal Modification of C and O Chondrites: Myths and Models; oxygen Fugacity in the Solar Nebular; and the History of Metal and Sulfides in Chondrites.

  2. Measurement and modeling of energetic-material mass transfer to soil-pore water - Project CP-1227 final technical report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Sallaberry, Cedric M.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Phelan, James M.; Hadgu, Teklu

    2006-05-01

    Military test and training ranges operate with live-fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low-order detonations also disperse solid-phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution. This final report documents the results of experimental and simulation model development for evaluating mass transfer processes from solid-phase energetics to soil-pore water.

  3. As(V) and P Competitive Sorption on Soils, By-Products and Waste Materials

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Pérez, Ivana María; Paradelo-Núñez, Remigio; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    Batch-type experiments were used to study competitive As(V) and P sorption on various soils and sorbent materials. The materials assayed were a forest soil, a vineyard soil, pyritic material, granitic material, coarsely and finely ground mussel shell, calcinated mussel shell ash, pine sawdust and slate processing fines. Competition between As(V) and P was pronounced in the case of both soils, granitic material, slate fines, both shells and pine sawdust, showing more affinity for P. Contrary, the pyritic material and mussel shell ash showed high and similar affinity for As(V) and P. These results could be useful to make a correct use of the soils and materials assayed when focusing on As and P removal in solid or liquid media, in circumstances where both pollutants may compete for sorption sites. PMID:26690456

  4. As(V) and P Competitive Sorption on Soils, By-Products and Waste Materials.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Pérez, Ivana María; Paradelo-Núñez, Remigio; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2015-12-01

    Batch-type experiments were used to study competitive As(V) and P sorption on various soils and sorbent materials. The materials assayed were a forest soil, a vineyard soil, pyritic material, granitic material, coarsely and finely ground mussel shell, calcinated mussel shell ash, pine sawdust and slate processing fines. Competition between As(V) and P was pronounced in the case of both soils, granitic material, slate fines, both shells and pine sawdust, showing more affinity for P. Contrary, the pyritic material and mussel shell ash showed high and similar affinity for As(V) and P. These results could be useful to make a correct use of the soils and materials assayed when focusing on As and P removal in solid or liquid media, in circumstances where both pollutants may compete for sorption sites. PMID:26690456

  5. Impact of carbonaceous materials in soil on the transport of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaolin; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Bin; Lin, Zhongrong; Han, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2013-11-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) transported from contaminated soils by surface runoff pose significant risk for aquatic ecosystems. Based on a rainfall-runoff simulation experiment, this study investigated the impact of carbonaceous materials (CMs) in soil, identified by organic petrology analysis, on the transport of soil-bound PAHs under rainfall conditions. The hypothesis that composition of soil organic matter significantly impacts the enrichment and transport of PAHs was proved. CMs in soil, varying significantly in content, mobility and adsorption capacity, act differently on the transport of PAHs. Anthropogenic CMs like black carbon (BC) largely control the transport, as PAHs may be preferentially attached to them. Eventually, this study led to a rethink of the traditional enrichment theory. An important implication is that CMs in soil have to be explicitly considered to appropriately model the nonpoint source pollution of PAHs (possibly other hydrophobic chemicals as well) and assess its environmental risk. PMID:23938446

  6. MOBILE SYSTEM FOR EXTRACTING SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS FROM EXCAVATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory tests were conducted with three separate pollutants (phenol, arsenic trioxide, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and two soils of widely different characteristics (sand/gravel/silt/clay and organic loam) to evaluate techniques for cleansing soil contaminated with r...

  7. Chemical analyses of soils and other surficial materials, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Peard, J.L.; Severson, R.C.; Shacklette, H.T.; Thompkins, M.L.; Stewart, K.C.; Briggs, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    Introduction: The favorable response to the reports on the geochemistry of unconsolidated surficial materials of the conterminous United States (informally called the '50-mile geochemical survey,' Shacklette and others, 1971a, 1971b, 1973, and 1974) led us, in 1975, to initiate a somewhat similar survey of Alaska. The principal objective of studies of this type is to establish estimates of the abundance of elements in soils and other surficial materials. Such information is useful in the evaluation of geochemical data for (1) mineral resources, (2) environmental appraisals, and (3) the definition of broad-scale geochemical patterns. For about six years this effort progressed slowly on a non-funded, time-available basis. During fiscal years 1982 and 1983, however, some funds were made available through the USGS Energy Lands and Alaska Mineral Surveys programs which allowed for the completion of the field-work phase of the project. The sampling plan was kept simple because, as with the 50-mile study, the acquisition of samples depended on the voluntary cooperation of field personnel (only about 40 percent of the total number of samples was obtained by the authors).

  8. Soils and Fertilizers. Competency Based Teaching Materials in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This competency-based curriculum unit on soils and fertilizers is one of four developed for classroom use in teaching the turf and lawn services area of horticulture. The four sections are each divided into teaching content (in a question-and-answer format) and student skills that outline taking soil samples, testing samples, preparing soil for…

  9. CLASSIFICATION OF COAL SURFACE MINE SOIL MATERIAL FOR VEGETATION MANAGEMENT AND SOIL WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Alabama minesoil classification system was developed based on soil texture, soil color value and soil pH. Only five different soil classes were found in this study. However, the classification scheme allows for the inclusion of any minesoil that occurs on the basis of its text...

  10. Element concentrations in soils and other surficial materials of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Severson, R.C.; Shacklette, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    Mean concentrations of 35 elements, ash yields, and pH have been estimated for samples of sils and other unconsolidated surficial materials from 266 collection locations throughout Alaska. These background values can be applied to studies of environmental geochemistry and health, wildlife management, and soil-forming processes in cold climates and to computation of element abundances on a regional or worldwide scale. Limited data for an additoinal eight elements are also presented. Materials were collected using a one-way, three-level, analysis-of-variance samplling design in which collecting procedures were simplified for the convenience of the many volunteer field workers. The sample collectors were asked to avoid locations of known mineral deposits and obvious contamination, to take samples at a depth of about 20 cm where possible, and to take a replicate sample about 100 m distant from the first sample collected. With more than 60 percent of the samples replicated and 14 percent of the samples split for duplicate laboratory analyses, reliable estimates were made of the variability in element concentrations at two geographic scales and of the error associated with sample handling and laboratory procedures. Mean concentrations of most elements in surficial materials from the state of alaska correspond well with those reported in similar materials from the conterminous United STatess. Most element concentrations and ranges in samples of stream and lake sediments from Alaska, however, as reported in the literature, do not correspond well with those found in surficial materials of this study. This lack of correspondence is attributed to (1) a merger of two kinds ofsediments (stream and lake) for calculating means; (2) elimination from the sediment mean calculations of values below the limit of quantitative determination; (3) analytical methods different from those of the surficial materials study; and (4) most importantly, the inherent differences in chemistry of the materials. The distribution of variability in element concentrations o Alaskan surficial-material samples was, for most elements, largely among sampling locations, with only a samll part of the variability occurring between replicate samples at a location. The geochemical uniformity within sampling locations in Alaska is an expression of uniform geochemical cycling processes within small geographic areas. The concentration values for 35 elements in 266 samples were plotted on maps by symbols representing classes of concentration frequency distributions. These plotted symbols form patterns that may or may not be possible to interpret but nevertheless show differences that are observable at several geographical scales. The largest pattern is one generally low concentrations of many elements in materials from arctic and oceanic tundra regions, as contrasted to their often high concentrations in samples from interior and southeastern Alaska. The patttern for sodium isespecially pronounced. Intermediate-sized patterns are shown, for example, by the generally high values for magnesium and low values for silicon in the coastal forest region of southeastern Alaska. Many elements occur at low concentratoins in samples from the Alaskan peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. The degree of confidence in patterns of element abundance is expected to be in direct proportion to the number of samples included in the area. As the patterns become smaller, the probability increases that the patterns are not reproducible.

  11. Effect of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Source Materials and Soil Components on Partitioning and Dermal Uptake.

    PubMed

    Xia, Huan; Gomez-Eyles, Jose L; Ghosh, Upal

    2016-04-01

    The bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils can be influenced by the source material they are emitted within, the properties of the receiving soil, weathering processes, and the concentration of PAHs. In this study 30 contaminated soils were constructed with common PAH sources (fuel oil, soot, coal tar based skeet particles) and direct spike with a solvent added to different types and contents of soil organic matter and minerals to achieve PAH concentrations spanning 4 orders of magnitude. Source material had the greatest impact on PAH partitioning. Soils containing skeet generally exhibited the highest KD values, followed by soot, fuel oil, and solvent spiked soils. Among all soil compositions, the presence of 2% charcoal had the largest enhancement of KD. Partitioning behavior could not be predicted by an organic carbon and black carbon partitioning model. Including independently measured partitioning behavior of the soil components and PAH sources allowed better prediction but still suffered from issues of interaction (oil sorption in peat) and highly nonlinear partitioning with depletion (for skeet). Dermal absorption of PAHs measured using pig skin was directly related to the freely dissolved aqueous concentration in soil and not the total concentration in the soil. Overall, we show that PAH source materials have a dominating influence on partitioning, highlighting the importance of using native field soils in bioavailability and risk assessments. PMID:26964018

  12. Mobile system for extracting spilled hazardous materials from excavated soils. Final report Dec 76-Apr 82

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, R.; Milanowski, J.

    1983-10-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted with three separate pollutants (phenol, arsenic trioxide, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and two soils of widely different characteristics (sand/gravel/silt/clay and organic loam) to evaluate techniques for cleansing soil contaminated with released or spilled hazardous materials. The tests show that scrubbing of excavated soil on site is an efficient approach for freeing soils of certain contaminants but that the effectiveness depends on the washing fluid (water + additives) and on the soil composition and particle size distribution. Based on the test results, a full-scale, field-use system was designed, engineered, fabricated, assembled, and briefly tested; the unit is now ready for field demonstrations.

  13. Parent Education Workbook for Mainstreamed Students. Teachers Guide. Contemporary Parenting Choices: Materials for Mainstreamed Classrooms. Module 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Home Economics Education.

    The fourth part of a parenthood education curriculum series, the Parent Education Workbook consists of a teachers guide (and 12 student lesson units not replicated in the guide) divided into two parts, the first part focusing on relationships and the second on child care. The units are intended for use by mainstreamed mentally disabled (MD) and…

  14. Helium effects on the post-implantation creep properties and the microstructure of AISI 316L welds and parent material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yong; Schroeder, Herbert

    1992-09-01

    The influence of implanted helium on the creep properties in electron-beam welds of the Next European Torus (NET) reference material, AISI 316L, and its parent material in the as-received condition has been investigated at 873 K. Helium degredation effects (i.e. reduced creep rupture time and creep rupture strain) are more serious in the parent material than in the welds. The fracture mode for implanted weld specimens is usually transgranular, while for the parent material specimens it is mixed trans- and intergranular. TEM investigations show that in the welds there is a lot of σ-ferrite at grain boundaries (occupying about 50% of grain boundary area) and in the interior of grains as well. Helium bubble sizes increase with increasing helium concentration, while helium bubble densities remain constant. Helium bubbles in the matrix are larger in size but much lower in density than those at boundaries or interfaces.

  15. Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrer, Manfred; Pallin, Simon B

    2013-01-01

    Saving energy in buildings is top of mind with today s building professionals. Although designing energy-efficient walls and roofs is mostly a no-brainer, ensuring that below-grade foundations do not generate moisture problems has become even more complex, particularly because of how soil is involved. Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well-defined, and simplified methods have been developed. These approaches, however, generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible. The intention of an ongoing study at Oak Ridge (TN) National Laboratory, therefore, is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from soil science as well. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in building science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools, where additional plugins to the existing software code WUFI (an acronym for Warme unde Felichte Instructionar, which translates to unsteady heat and moisture) are required. (See the sidebar, opposite page, for specifics on WUFI.)Simulation results from WUFI are being compared with existing thermal-only measurements and are being accomplished with ongoing hygrothermal measurements. The final outcome of the study will be the evaluation of several soil types in several climate zones for a number of basement assembly types. The study will define the type of soil, together with the type of building construction considered most and least reliable with respect to energy consumption and moisture safety. Furthermore, the study will determine the influences that different soils have on total energy loss through the ground.

  16. [Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents].

    PubMed

    Vio, Fernando; Lera, Lydia; Fuentes-García, Alejandra; Salinas, Judith

    2012-09-01

    Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents. Delphi method applied to get expert consensus about healthy food topics to include in educational materials for preschool and school-age children, their parents and teachers is described. The questionnaire was developed with the results of surveys and focus groups in children, parents and teachers made previously. The questionnaire was mailed to 54 experts in nutrition, education and communication in a first round. The results were analyzed and forwarded in a second round with the subjects without consensus. The cycle was completed by a validation conducted with teachers and parents and were prioritized by audiovisual educational materials on the writings, favoring participatory activities such as cooking workshops, games, activities over the passive (information at parent meetings, delivery of educational materials and conferences of experts). There was consensus on education in health behaviors such as not giving them money to carry to school, make healthy food choices on family outings and recreational activities associated with healthy eating during weekends; prefer healthy food prepared at home instead of the processed food; restrict eating out candy and prefer family meals without watching TV and food instead of taking a snack in the evening. These results are critical to design educational materials on healthy eating plans to change current eating habits that are contributing significantly to increase the childhood obesity. PMID:24617030

  17. Growth of barley exposed to solvent refined coal (SRC) materials added to soil

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, J.F.; Rickard, W.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The growth of barley plants (Hordeum vulgare) grown in Ritzville silt loam soil, treated with solvent refined coal material, SRC solid (SRC I) and SRC liquid (SRC II) was examined. Although the SRC materials will not be introduced to soil or surface waters in normal uses, they could be spilled during transportation. Such spills could contaminate surface waters and agricultural, rangeland and forest soils, possibly causing acute or chronic damage to plants and also provide a way for certain inorganic and organic materials to enter food chains.

  18. Measurement and modeling of energetic material mass transfer to soil pore water :project CP-1227 FY03 annual technical report.

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, James M.; Barnett, James L.; Kerr, Dayle R.

    2004-01-01

    Military test and training ranges operate with live fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low order detonations also disperse solid phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution impacts. This report documents interim results of experimental work evaluating mass transfer processes from solid phase energetics to soil pore water. The experimental work is used as a basis to formulate a mass transfer numerical model, which has been incorporated into the porous media simulation code T2TNT. This report documents the results of the Phase III experimental effort, which evaluated the impacts of surface deposits versus buried deposits, energetic material particle size, and low order detonation debris. Next year, the energetic material mass transfer model will be refined and a 2-d screening model will be developed for initial site-specific applications. A technology development roadmap was created to show how specific R&D efforts are linked to technology and products for key customers.

  19. Economic Development Planning for Single Parents. Curriculum Materials for Vocational Teachers of Adolescents and Single Parents. Special Emphasis on Meeting the Needs of the Teen Parent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Kawanna J.; And Others

    This guide is intended for use in school-based intervention programs intended to help single parents (particularly teenagers who are expecting or already have a child) master basic money management and consumer skills. The guide is divided into sections dealing with the following topics: interpersonal relationships, value clarification,

  20. Unit The World of the Soil, First Trial Materials, Inspection Set, [Australian Science Education Project].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Australian Science Education project is producing materials designed for use in grades 7 - 10 of Australian schools. This is the first trial version of a unit expected to take about 20 40-minute periods to complete. Included are a teacher's guide to the unit, four pupil booklets ("Looking at Soils,""Things to do With Soils,""What is it…

  1. FRESHWATER ASSAY USING SOIL ELUATES AS SAMPLE MATERIAL (SINGLE LABORATORY EVALUATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chlorophyta assay, which uses soil as sample material, has been a useful bioassessment technique for screening hazardous waste site problems. n eluate is prepared from a 125-gram soil sample and then diluted into three separate concentrations prior to being tested using Selen...

  2. Unit The World of the Soil, First Trial Materials, Inspection Set, [Australian Science Education Project].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Australian Science Education project is producing materials designed for use in grades 7 - 10 of Australian schools. This is the first trial version of a unit expected to take about 20 40-minute periods to complete. Included are a teacher's guide to the unit, four pupil booklets ("Looking at Soils,""Things to do With Soils,""What is it

  3. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Soils Engineering 3-1. Edition 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This individualized, self-paced course for independent study in soils engineering was adapted from military curriculum materials for use in vocational education. The course is designed to acquaint students with various soil types and their characteristics using various procedures, tests, and recording forms. Some of these duties are determining…

  4. Income Is Not Enough: Incorporating Material Hardship Into Models of Income Associations With Parenting and Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Aber, J. Lawrence; Raver, C. Cybele; Lennon, Mary Clare

    2010-01-01

    Although research has clearly established that low family income has negative impacts on children’s cognitive skills and social – emotional competence, less often is a family’s experience of material hardship considered. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 (N = 21,255), this study examined dual components of family income and material hardship along with parent mediators of stress, positive parenting, and investment as predictors of 6-year-old children’s cognitive skills and social – emotional competence. Support was found for a model that identified unique parent-mediated paths from income to cognitive skills and from income and material hardship to social – emotional competence. The findings have implications for future study of family income and child development and for identification of promising targets for policy intervention. PMID:17328694

  5. Using soil E horizon in salvaged topsoil material - effect on soil texture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Topsoil is a limited natural resource that needs to be efficiently salvaged during landscape reconstruction operations for its further use as topsoil. Current guidelines for borrowed topsoil define topsoil as the surface layer of native soil, or soil A horizon. Using information from nearly 8,000 ...

  6. Development of the Intervention Materials for the HomeStyles Obesity Prevention Program for Parents of Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Spaccarotella, Kim; Delaney, Colleen; Koenings, Mallory; Alleman, Gayle; Hongu, Nobuko; Worobey, John; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Home environment is key to the development of obesity-preventing behaviors during childhood, yet few resources help preschool parents address factors at home associated with obesity risk. This paper describes creation of materials for an in-home intervention (HomeStyles) with this population. An advisory group of stakeholders and target audience members determined salient factors affecting childhood obesity to address in-home and developed program materials. The Social Cognitive Theory, Faith’s Core Behavior Change Strategies to Treat Childhood Obesity, Adult Learning Theory and motivational interviewing techniques guided development of 12 guides targeting strategies parents can use to shape the home environment. Interviews were conducted to determine effectiveness of the guides. Cognitive testing of guide design (n = 251) and content (n = 261) occurred in English and Spanish in New Jersey and Arizona with parents and home visitation staff who would present the guides. Interviews investigated perceptions of content usefulness and parent comprehension. Findings were also examined in light of theoretical underpinnings. Both home visitation staff and parents felt the guides were very readable and useful. Parents appreciated use of motivational interviewing techniques and Adult Learning Theory. Current research is testing these guides through an in-home, randomized control trial. PMID:26266419

  7. Development of the Intervention Materials for the HomeStyles Obesity Prevention Program for Parents of Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Spaccarotella, Kim; Delaney, Colleen; Koenings, Mallory; Alleman, Gayle; Hongu, Nobuko; Worobey, John; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-08-01

    Home environment is key to the development of obesity-preventing behaviors during childhood, yet few resources help preschool parents address factors at home associated with obesity risk. This paper describes creation of materials for an in-home intervention (HomeStyles) with this population. An advisory group of stakeholders and target audience members determined salient factors affecting childhood obesity to address in-home and developed program materials. The Social Cognitive Theory, Faith's Core Behavior Change Strategies to Treat Childhood Obesity, Adult Learning Theory and motivational interviewing techniques guided development of 12 guides targeting strategies parents can use to shape the home environment. Interviews were conducted to determine effectiveness of the guides. Cognitive testing of guide design (n = 251) and content (n = 261) occurred in English and Spanish in New Jersey and Arizona with parents and home visitation staff who would present the guides. Interviews investigated perceptions of content usefulness and parent comprehension. Findings were also examined in light of theoretical underpinnings. Both home visitation staff and parents felt the guides were very readable and useful. Parents appreciated use of motivational interviewing techniques and Adult Learning Theory. Current research is testing these guides through an in-home, randomized control trial. PMID:26266419

  8. Bioremediation of soils, sludges, and materials contaminated with toxic metals or radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.

    1993-04-01

    Bioremediation stabilizes and reclaims radionuclide or toxic metal-contaminated materials, soils, sediments, or wastes; it then recovers the contaminating radionuclides and metals. Waste materials are stabilized and reduced in volume using anaerobic bacteria; or alternatively, materials are treated with citric acid before bioremediation begins. Photolysis is used after bioremediation to release radionuclides.

  9. Trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.; Simmers, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the relation of trace element concentrations in soil to those in house mice (Mus musculus), common reed (Phragmites australis) and ladybugs (Coccinella septempunctata) at five disposal facilities for dredged material. The sites had a wide range of soil trace element concentrations, acid soils and a depauperate fauna. They were very poor wildlife habitat because they were dominated by the common reed. Bioassay earthworms exposed to surface soils from three of the five sites died, whereas those exposed to four of five soils collected a meter deep survived, presumably because the deeper, unoxidized soil, was not as acid. Concentrations of Ni and Cr in the biota from each of the sites did not seem to be related to the concentrations of the same elements in soil. Although Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in biota were correlated with those in soil, the range of concentrations in the biota was quite small compared to that in soil. The concentrations of Pb detected in mice were about as high as the concentrations previously reported in control mice from other studies. Mice from the most contaminated site (530 ppm Pb in soil) contained only slightly more Pb (8 ppm dry wt) than did mice (2-6 ppm dry wt) from sites containing much less Pb (22-92 ppm in soil). Despite the acid soil conditions, very little Cd was incorporated into food chains. Rather, Cd was leaching from the surface soil. We concluded that even the relatively high concentrations of trace elements in the acid dredged material studied did not cause high, concentrations of trace elements in the biota.

  10. Adolescent Connections: A Guide to Selecting Resource Materials for Parents of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheriff, Christine M.

    Since 1989, ParentLink has been devoted to supporting Missouri families and children by working with community teams to promote and support parenting efforts through a variety of means. Noting the widespread problem with high-risk behavior among Missouri adolescents and the importance of communication between parents and their adolescents in…

  11. Online Soil Science Lesson 3: Soil Forming Factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This lesson explores the five major factors of soil formation, namely: 1) climate; 2) organisms; 3) time; 4) topography; and 5) parent material and their influence in forming soil. The distinction between active and passive factors, moisture and temperature regimes, organism and topographic influen...

  12. Does thermal carbonization (Biochar) of organic material increase more merits for their amendments of sandy soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Xu, G.; Sun, J. N.; Shao, H. B.

    2014-02-01

    Organic materials (e.g. furfural residue) are generally believed to improve the physical and chemical properties of the soils with low fertility. Recently, biochar have been received more attention as a possible measure to improve the carbon balance and improve soil quality in some degraded soils. However, little is known about their different amelioration of a sandy saline soil. In this study, 56d incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of furfural and its biochar on the properties of saline soil. The results showed that both furfural and biochar greatly reduced pH, increased soil organic carbon (SOC) content and cation exchange capacity (CEC), and enhanced the available phosphorus (P) in the soil. Furfural is more efficient than biochar in reducing pH: 5% furfural lowered the soil pH by 0.5-0.8 (soil pH: 8.3-8.6), while 5% biochar decreased by 0.25-0.4 due to the loss of acidity in pyrolysis process. With respect to available P, 5% of the furfural addition increased available P content by 4-6 times in comparison to 2-5 times with biochar application. In reducing soil exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), biochar is slightly superior to furfural because soil ESP reduced by 51% and 43% with 5% furfural and 5% biochar addition at the end of incubation. In addition, no significant differences were observed between furfural and biochar about their capacity to retain N, P in leaching solution and to increase CEC in soil. These facts may be caused by the relatively short incubation time. In general, furfural and biochar have different amendments depending on soil properties: furfural was more effectively to decrease pH and to increase available P, whereas biochar played a more important role in increasing SOC and reducing ESP of saline soil.

  13. Soil Materials and Health: An new experience for teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Cationic clays are very extended compounds on the earth surface so they constitute the main component of soils and sedimentary rocks. Due to their presence and special properties that they have, mankind has used them with therapeutic aims from Prehistory, not being rare to find references to this subject in works of classic authors. During the Renaissance and with the appearance of the first Pharmacopeia, its use was regulated to a certain extent. The scientific development reached during the XXth century has allowed to understand and to study the reasons of the useful and peculiar properties of clays, directly related to their colloidal size and crystalline structure. These properties are translated in a high specific surface area, optimal rheological properties and/or excellent sorptive capacity; everything makes cationic clays very useful for a wide range of applications. In the field of health, cationic clays are used in Pharmaceutical Technology and Dermopharmacy as ideal excipients and substances of suitable biological activity due to their chemical inertness and low or null toxicity for the patient (Carretero, 2002; Lopez Galindo et al., 2005; Choy et al., 2007; del Hoyo, 2007). Cationic clays can be used in a wide range of applications in health. However, it must be also considered that the risk exposure to cationic clays may cause several diseases, as it has been seen above. Cationic clays have been used as excipients and active principles in the pharmaceutical industry. The last tendencies are their use in geomedicine, as much to come up as to treat diseases. One stands out his presence in spas and aesthetic medicine. Development of new pharmaceutical formulations is observed, based on cationic clays, for cancer therapy. It has to emphasize the importance in the synthesis of biosensors with cationic clays. Cationic clays can be considered a group of promising materials in the development of new health applications. The study of the use of the cationic clays in the field of the health is a source to develop numerous studies of cases in the teaching of different subjects related to the geoscience and a new opportunity to connect the learning with the reality. References -Carretero, MI 2002. Clay Minerals and Their Beneficial Effects upon Human Health. A review. Appl. Clay Sci. 21, pp. 155-163. -Choy, J.H., Choi, S.J., Oh, J.M., Park, T. 2007. Clay minerals and layered double hydroxides for novel biological applications. Appl. Clay Sci. 36 pp. 122-132. -Del Hoyo, C. 2007. Layered double hydroxides and human health: An overview. Appl. Clay Sci. 36, pp. 103-121. -Lopez-Galindo, A., Viseras Iborra, C. & Cerezo Gonzalez, P. 2005. Arcillas y salud. In: Conferencias de la XIX Reunion de la Sociedad Espanola de Arcillas. Rives, Ed., pp. 15-18.

  14. How physical alteration of technic materials affects mobility and phytoavailabilty of metals in urban soils?

    PubMed

    El Khalil, Hicham; Schwartz, Christophe; El Hamiani, Ouafae; Sirguey, Catherine; Kubiniok, Jochen; Boularbah, Ali

    2016-06-01

    One fundamental characteristic distinguishing urban soils from natural soils is the presence of technic materials or artefacts underlining the influence of human activity. These technic materials have different nature (organic or inorganic) and origins. They contribute to the enrichment of the soil solution by metallic trace elements. The present study aims to determine the effect of physical alteration of the technic coarse fraction on the bioavailability of metallic trace elements in urban Technosols. In general, results show that physical alteration increases the metallic trace elements water extractible concentrations of technic materials. The ability of lettuce to accumulate metallic trace elements, even at low concentrations, underlines the capacity of technic materials to contaminate the anthropised soil solution by bioavailable metals. The highest metal levels, accumulated by the various organs of the lettuce (leaves and roots), were measured in plants grown in presence of metallic particles mixtures. This indicates that the majority of metallic trace elements released by this technic constituent is bioavailable and explains the low plant biomass obtained. The abundant part of metallic trace elements released by the other technic constituents (building materials, bones, wood, plastic and fabric-paper) remains less bioavailable. Under anthropised soil conditions, technic materials have a significant effect on the metallic trace elements behavior. They impact the flow of these metallic elements in Technosols, which can increase their bioavailability and, therefore, the contamination of the food chain. PMID:26999750

  15. Factor analysis of the elemental composition of Pteridium aquilinum from serpentine and granite soils as a tool in the classification of relations between this composition and the type of parent rock in the Ślęża Massif in Lower Silesia, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A.; Garbiec, K.; Kolon, K.; Kempers, A. J.

    2009-08-01

    Concentrations of the elements N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Mo, Cd and Pb were measured in serpentine and granite soils and in the fern Pteridium aquilinum sampled from the Ślęża Massif in Lower Silesia, Poland. The serpentine soils were typical for serpentine soils in general with deficiency of K and Ca and excess of Mg, Ni and Cr. The principal component analysis (PCA) ordination based on the matrix of concentrations of elements in plants growing on serpentine and granite soils enabled the identification of the parent material from which ferns in this study were collected. This method indicated that the ferns from granite soils were distinguished by higher concentrations of Mo and Pb, while those from serpentine soils were distinguished by higher concentrations of Mg, Ni, Cr and Co. These differences in bioaccumulation reflect the higher concentrations of total and plant-available forms of Mg, Ni, Cr, Co in serpentinite and the higher concentrations of total Mo and total and plant-available Pb in granites as reported in literature. The different parent material types in the Ślęża Massif on which the investigated soils were developed influence the concentration and type of elements accumulated in P. aquilinum.

  16. Correspondence and Least Squares Analyses of Soil and Rock Compositions for the Viking Lander 1 and Pathfinder Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, K. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Clark, B. C.

    2000-01-01

    Correspondence and Least Squares Mixing Analysis techniques are applied to the chemical composition of Viking 1 soils and Pathfinder rocks and soils. Implications for the parent composition of local and global materials are discussed.

  17. Use of Biochar from the Pyrolysis of Waste Organic Material as a Soil Amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is a charcoal-like material produced by the thermochemical pyrolysis of biomass materials. It is being considered as a potentially significant means of storing carbon for long periods to mitigate greenhouse gases. Much of the interest comes from studies of Amazonian soils that appear to have...

  18. The Use of Soil Forming Factors in the Development of Soil Taxonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockheim, JG; Gennadiyev, AN; Hartemink, Alfred E.; Brevik, Eric C.

    2014-05-01

    The past and present roles of the five soil-forming factors in creating categories in USDA Soil Taxonomy have been analyzed. The factorial and genetic approach is clearly present in Soil Taxonomy, but was not so evident in the 7th Approximation of 1960. Soil climate is the most important factor in Soil Taxonomy. Climate is used at the highest level to define two of the 12 soil orders: Aridisols, the soils of the dry regions, and Gelisols, the permafrost-affected soils and is also used to differentiate suborders in eight of the remaining orders. Parent material is used to fully define two orders: Histosols and Andisols, and partially to define the suborders in the Entisol order (Fluvents, Psamments). Only one group of organisms, the worms (Verm-), is used at the great-group and subgroup levels in several orders. Relief and time are not used in defining taxa in Soil Taxonomy. Three of the eight epipedons are defined on the basis of parent material (folistic, histic, melanic), two on the basis of human activities (anthropic and plaggen), and two from the interaction of climate and vegetation (mollic and umbric). Of the 19 subsurface horizons, 11 originate from the interaction of climate and parent material. This analysis reveals there is an imbalance in the utilization of the soil-forming factors in Soil Taxonomy, with an emphasis on climate and parent material.

  19. Immobilisation of Cu, Pb and Zn in Scrap Metal Yard Soil Using Selected Waste Materials.

    PubMed

    Kamari, A; Putra, W P; Yusoff, S N M; Ishak, C F; Hashim, N; Mohamed, A; Isa, I M; Bakar, S A

    2015-12-01

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land. PMID:26395356

  20. Geobotanical discrimination of ultramafic parent materials An evaluation of remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Morrissey, L. A.; Horn, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    Color and color infrared aerial photography and imagery acquired from a Daedalus DEI-1260 multispectral airborne scanner were employed in an investigation to discriminate ultramafic rock types in a test site in southwest Oregon. An analysis of the relationships between vegetation characteristics and parent materials was performed using a vegetation classification and map developed for the project, lithologic information derived from published geologic maps of the region, and terrain information gathered in the field. Several analytical methods, including visual image analysis, band ratioing, principal components analysis, and contrast enhancement and subsequent color composite generation were used in the investigation. There was a close correspondence between vegetation types and major rock types. These were readily discriminated by the remote sensing techniques. It was found that ultramafic rock types were separable from non-ultramafic rock types and serpentine was distinguishable from non-serpentinized peridotite. Further investigations involving spectroradiometric and digital classification techniques are being performed to further identify rock types and to discriminate chromium and nickel-bearing rock types.

  1. Soil Loss From Tillage Ridge as Affected by Waste Materials and Soil Amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In semi-arid regions with low crop residues, tillage ridges are used to mitigate wind and water erosion. Unfortunately, without sufficient immobile soil aggregates, bare ridges also often need additional protection. From late winter through early summer of 2006-2008 the reduction in erosion by vario...

  2. Plastic Fibre Reinforced Soil Blocks as a Sustainable Building Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, C. K. Subramania; Nambiar, E. K. Kunhanandan; Abraham, Benny Mathews

    2012-10-01

    Solid waste management, especially the huge quantity of waste plastics, is one of the major environmental concerns nowadays. Their employability in block making in the form of fibres, as one of the methods of waste management, can be investigated through a fundamental research. This paper highlights the salient observations from a systematic investigation on the effect of embedded fibre from plastic waste on the performance of stabilised mud blocks. Stabilisation of the soil was done by adding cement, lime and their combination. Plastic fibre in chopped form from carry bags and mineral water bottles were added (0.1% & 0.2% by weight of soil) as reinforcement. The blocks were tested for density, and compressive strength, and observed failure patterns were analysed. Blocks with 0.1% of plastic fibres showed an increase in strength of about 3 to 10%. From the observations of failure pattern it can be concluded that benefits of fibre reinforcement includes both improved ductility in comparison with raw blocks and inhibition of crack propogation after its initial formation.

  3. Measurement and Modeling of Energetic Material Mass Transfer to Soil Pore Water - Project CP-1227 Annual Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    PHELAN, JAMES M.; WEBB, STEPHEN W.; ROMERO, JOSEPH V.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; GRIFFIN, FAWN A.

    2003-01-01

    Military test and training ranges operate with live fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low order detonations also disperse solid phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g. weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution impacts. This report documents interim results of experimental work evaluating mass transfer processes from solid phase energetics to soil pore water. The experimental work is used as a basis to formulate a mass transfer numerical model, which has been incorporated into the porous media simulation code T2TNT. Experimental work to date with Composition B explosive has shown that column tests typically produce effluents near the temperature dependent solubility limits for RDX and TNT. The influence of water flow rate, temperature, porous media saturation and mass loading is documented. The mass transfer model formulation uses a mass transfer coefficient and surface area function and shows good agreement with the experimental data. Continued experimental work is necessary to evaluate solid phase particle size and 2-dimensional effects, and actual low order detonation debris. Simulation model improvements will continue leading to a capability to complete screening assessments of the impacts of military range operations on groundwater quality.

  4. Inorganic materials as ameliorants for soil remediation of metal toxicity to wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Filho, Mateus Rosas; Siqueira, José Oswaldo; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Curi, Nilton

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved plant growth with 45% and reduced metal uptake by over 70% in comparison to untreated soil. Reductions in availability as estimated by BaCl2-extractable metals reached up to 90% for Zn and 65% for Cd as compared to unamended soil. These reductions were associated with lower shoot and root metal contents. Shoot Zn content was reduced from 1,369 microg g(-1) in plants grown on untreated soil to 377 microg g(-1) when grown on cyclonic ash amended soil while Cd decreased from 267 to 44 microg g(-1) in steel shots amended soil. Superphosphate addition had no ameliorating effect. On the contrary, it increased BaCl2-extractable amounts of Zn. Considering all parameters we determined, steel shots, cyclonic ash and silifertil are the most promising for remediating metal contaminated soil in the tropics. Further studies evaluating impacts, cost-effectiveness and durability of effects will be conducted. PMID:21598779

  5. [Study on Paddy Soil Chronosequences Based on Visiblc-Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectra].

    PubMed

    Wu, Deng-wei; Zhang, Gan-lin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate spectral characteristics of different soil compositions, eight soil profiles from two paddy soil chronosequences developed on red clays and red sandstones respectively were collected in Jiangxi Province. A total of 37 soil samples were taken from each soil horizons of the profiles. The paddy soil chronosequences were chosen mainly because all soil profiles have the same land management and thus parent materials and rice cultivation time would be two major soil formative factors. This makes it possible to study spectral response characteristics of soil organic matter (SOM) and parent material characteristics. We measured diffuse reflectance spectra data of soil samples using the Cary 5000 spectrophotometer at 350-2500 nm spectral range. Spectral response characteristics of SOM and inorganic minerals in paddy soils were analyzed according to different soil horizons, soil forming times and parent materials. Experiment results showed that for soil samples from a single parent material, overall reflectance presented by PC_1 score can be calibrated for soil organic matter (SOM) content with high precision (R(RC)² = 0.91, R(RS)² = 0.79), even though the SOM content was low (not more than 20 g · kg⁻¹). The absorption strength (AS) at 1400, 1900 and 2200 nm was mainly affected by the minerals inherited from parent materials. And the more the sample was near to bottom of a soil profile, the higher the AS value. Samples with the same mineral components had the similar AS ratio among these three wavelength locations. The differences in parent materials can significantly affect spectral curve shape and spectral absorption strength. To make the calibration more interpretative, parent material factors should be considered. PMID:26964213

  6. Shock-treated Lunar Soil Simulant: Preliminary Assessment as a Construction Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, Mark B.; Bernold, Leonhard E.; Horie, Yasuyuki

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to examine the feasibility of applying dynamic compaction techniques to fabricate construction materials from lunar regolith, preliminary explosive shock-loading experiments on lunar soil simulants were carried out. Analysis of our shock-treated samples suggests that binding additives, such as metallic aluminum powder, may provide the necessary characteristics to fabricate a strong and durable building material (lunar adobe) that takes advantage of a cheap base material available in abundance: lunar regolith.

  7. Carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils amended with livestock-derived organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzolla, D.; Said-Pullicino, D.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon dioxide gas xchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, as well as the carbon sink strength of various arable land ecosystems, is of primary interest for global change research. Measures for increasing soil C inputs include the preferential use of livestock-derived organic materials (e.g. animal manure and slurries, digestate from biogas production plants and compost). The application of such materials to agricultural soils returns essential nutrients for plant growth and organic matter to maintain long-term fertility. Whether or not such practices ultimately result in sustained C sequestration at the ecosystem level will depend on their mineralization rates. This work presents preliminary results from a laboratory incubation trial to evaluate carbon dioxide fluxes from two agricultural soils (a calcareous silt loam and a silty clay loam) amended with agricultural doses of (i) pig slurry (PSL), (ii) the digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of pig slurries (AAS) and (ii) a compost from the aerobic stabilisation of the digestate (LDC). These subsequent steps of slurry stabilisation resulted in a decrease in the content of labile organic matter which was reflected in a reduction in maximum carbon dioxide emission rates from amended soils. Measurements have shown that peak emissions from soils occur immediately after application of these organic materials (within 5 days) and decrease in the order PSL > AAS > LDC. Moreover, mean cumulative emissions over the first 40 days showed that a higher percentage (about 44%) of the C added with PSL was mineralised respect to C added with AAS (39%) and LDC (25%). Although it was hypothesised that apart from the quantity and stability of the added organic materials, even soil characteristics could influence C mineralisation rates, no significant differences were observed between emission fluxes for similarly treated soils. Mean cumulative emission fluxes after 40 days from treatment were of 114, 103 and 84 g C m-2 for PSL, AAS and LDC respectively. Carbon dioxide emission rates were corroborated with results obtained from the quantification of water-extractable organic C (WEOC) and soil microbial biomass-C (Cmic). The former represents the more labile fraction of soil organic matter and its concentration in the freshly amended soils followed the order LDC > AAS ≈ PSL. However, whereas WEOC concentrations decrease rapidly for PSL and LDC amended soils, AAS treated soils showed a steady increase during the first 20 days of incubation followed by a decrease thereafter. This was attributed to the release of soluble organic matter from the anaerobically stabilised digestate in the presence of an aerobic soil microbial community. Irrespective of the type of amendment, Cmic values increased with time with respect to the unamended controls, reaching highest values after 20 days from amendment and decreasing thereafter. Even after 40 days of incubation, Cmic values in all amended soils did not return to the background values obtained with unamended controls. These results suggest that the application of stabilised livestock-derived organic materials to soils may play an important role in reducing C emissions associated with agricultural practices and increase soil C stocks, apart from other indirect beneficial effects such as the recovery of energy from combustion of biogas from anaerobic fermentation of these waste materials.

  8. Diverse Chemical Zoning Trends in Acapulco Chromites: How Many Sources for the Parental Materials?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Goresy, A.; Janicke, J.

    1995-09-01

    Acapulco is considered to be a link between primitive chondritic meteorites and the differentiated achondrites. Its parent body presumably formed by accretion of material of chondritic compositions at an fO2 that lies between that of H- and enstatite chondrites [1]. The accreted chondritic material was subjected 4.557 Gyr ago to peak temperatures close to 1200 degrees C that lead to partial melting and extensive recrystallization [1, 2]. Seven morphologically different types of graphite with large variations in C- and N-isotopic compositions were recently reported from Acapulco [3, 4]. At least four distinct isotopic reservoirs are required to explain the C- and N-isotopic compositions of these graphites [3, 4]. While the silicate minerals in Acapulco have isotopically heavy N (delta^(15)N = + 15 per mil) chromites were found to be isotopically light (delta^(15)N = _ 75 to _ 82 per mil). Chromite occurs in Acapulco in six different assemblages: (1) as inclusions in silicates, (2) in FeNi, (3) in troilite, (4) with FeNi and troilite, (5) with FeNi and silicates, and (6) with troilite and silicates. It is also rarely present as small idiomorphic inclusions in plagioclase. Chromites in contact with silicates display no chemical zoning for Cr, Al, Ti, Fe, Mg, Mn, or Zn to the silicate borders thus indicating high degree of equilibration with the silicate neighbours. The MgO-contents of chromites in metals and troilites (4.74 to 7.2 %) are relatively lower and their compositional ranges are relatively wider than those in contact with silicates (6.1 to 7.69 %). Zoning profiles of MgO and FeO in chromites in all assemblages are quite flat. Chromites in contact with metals and troilite display a variety of zoning patterns of Cr, Al, Ti, and Zn. All these chromite types , however, depict the same MnO zoning trends with low MnO-contents in their cores (0.96 to 2.14 %) than in their rims to metal or troilite (1.7 to 3.1 %). With few exceptions, the zoning behaviour of Cr, Al, and Ti does not follow a substitutional scheme. Chromites with reverse Cr-zoning (61.3 wt. % Cr2O3 in the cores and 63.2 Wt. % Cr2O3 at the rims ) may have either flat Al2O3 - patterns (5.46 - 5.53 wt. %) or normal zoning trends (5.6 wt. % in the core and 4.81 wt. % at the rim). Some grains display prominent complementary Cr2O3- and Al2O3- zoning patterns (62.2 % wt. Cr2O3 and 2.9 wt. % Al2O3 in the Core; 58.9 wt. % Cr2O3 and 5.7 wt. % Al2O3 at the rim). In those grains the zoning profiles of TiO2 and ZnO (Figure 1) are similar to those of Al2O3 (in the core 1.33 wt. % TiO2, 1.63 wt. % ZnO; at the rim 0.67 wt. % TiO2, 1.24 wt. % ZnO). The well developed zoning of Cr, Al, Ti, Mn, and Zn from the cores of chromites to their borders to FeNi and troilite and the variability of the zoning patterns in assemblages containing FeNi and troilite indicate that the encountered zoning types reflect the primordial chemistry of these chromites in the parental material before melting. We have delineated six different types of zoning in Acapulco chromites so far. None of the encountered zoning patterns could have developed by crystallisation from a chondritic melt. The present results support the previous findings [3, 4] that several sources must have had contributed to the parental material of Acapulco. However, genetic correlations between the isotopically different graphite morphologies and the various chromites in Acapulco could not be established so far. References: [1] Zipfel et al. (1995) GCA, in press. [2] G"pel D. et al. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 226. [3] El Goresy A. et al. (1995) Nature, 373, 496-499.[4] El Goresy A. and Zinner E. K. (1995) LPS XXVI, 367-368. [5] Sturgeon G. and Marti K. (1991) Proc. LPS, Vol. 21, 523-525. [6] Kim Y. and Marti K. (1994) LPS XXV, 703-704. Fig.1. Zoning profiles for Cr2O3, Al2O3, MnO, ZnO, and TiO2 in chromite # 1 enclosed in troilite.

  9. Beneficial Use of Dredge Materials for Soil Reconstruction and Development of Dredge Screening Protocols.

    PubMed

    Koropchak, Sara C; Daniels, W Lee; Wick, Abbey; Whittecar, G Richard; Haus, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Upland placement of dredge sediments has the potential to provide beneficial reuse of suitable sediments for agricultural uses or urban soil reconstruction. However, the use of many dredge materials is limited by contaminants, and most established screening protocols focus on limiting major contaminants such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and generally ignore fundamental agronomic parameters. Since 2001, we have placed over 450,000 m of Potomac River fresh water dredge materials and 250,000 m of saline materials from various locations into monitored confined upland facilities in Charles City, VA, and documented their conversion to agricultural uses. Groundwater and soil quality monitoring has indicated no adverse effects from material placement and outstanding agricultural productivity for the freshwater materials. Once placed, saline materials rapidly leach and ripen with quick declines in pH, electrical conductivity, and sodicity, but potentials for local groundwater impacts must be considered. Our experience to date indicates that the most important primary screening parameter is acid-base accounting (potential acidity or lime demand), which should become a mandatory analytical requirement. Our second level of acceptance screening is based on a combination of federal and state residual waste and soil screening standards and basic agronomic principles. High silt+clay and total organic C may also limit rapid use of many dredge materials due to extended dewatering times and physical limitations. This dredge material screening system separates potential upland placement candidates into three soil quality management categories (unsuitable, suitable, and clean fill) with differing monitoring requirements. Similar use of these sediments in urban soil reconstruction is also recommended. PMID:26828161

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA FILL MATERIALS AND SOILS 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Foundation Fill Data Base project of the Foundation Fill Materials Specifications Task Area of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). Work included determination of radon concentrations...

  11. Lunar surface: identification of the dark mantling material in the apollo 17 soil samples.

    PubMed

    Pieters, C; McCord, T B; Charette, M P; Adams, J B

    1974-03-22

    Evidence indicates that Apollo 17 sample 74001, a soil consisting of very dark spheres, is composed almost entirely of the dark mantling material that covers a large region of the southeastern boundary of Mare Serenitatis. Other Apollo 17 samples contain only a component of this material. The underlying basalt in the Taurus-Littrow valley appears to be an extension of material forming the low-albedo ring around part of Mare Serenitatis and much of the surface of Mare Tranquillitatis. The surface of this basalt region is spectrally distinct from areas with dark mantling material. These results are derived fromn telescopic and laboratory measurements of the optical properties of lunar soil. Digital vidicon color images are used to map the extent of these material units in the Taurus-Littrow region. PMID:17789220

  12. Influence of soil moisture on soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fer, Miroslav; Kodesova, Radka; Nikodem, Antonin; Klement, Ales; Jelenova, Klara

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to describe an impact of soil moisture on soil respiration. Study was performed on soil samples from morphologically diverse study site in loess region of Southern Moravia, Czech Republic. The original soil type is Haplic Chernozem, which was due to erosion changed into Regosol (steep parts) and Colluvial soil (base slope and the tributary valley). Soil samples were collected from topsoils at 5 points of the selected elevation transect and also from the parent material (loess). Grab soil samples, undisturbed soil samples (small - 100 cm3, and large - 713 cm3) and undisturbed soil blocks were taken. Basic soil properties were determined on grab soil samples. Small undisturbed soil samples were used to determine the soil water retention curves and the hydraulic conductivity functions using the multiple outflow tests in Tempe cells and a numerical inversion with HYDRUS 1-D. During experiments performed in greenhouse dry large undisturbed soil samples were wetted from below using a kaolin tank and cumulative water inflow due to capillary rise was measured. Simultaneously net CO2 exchange rate and net H2O exchange rate were measured using LCi-SD portable photosynthesis system with Soil Respiration Chamber. Numerical inversion of the measured cumulative capillary rise data using the HYDRUS-1D program was applied to modify selected soil hydraulic parameters for particular conditions and to simulate actual soil water distribution within each soil column in selected times. Undisturbed soil blocks were used to prepare thin soil sections to study soil-pore structure. Results for all soil samples showed that at the beginning of soil samples wetting the CO2 emission increased because of improving condition for microbes' activity. The maximum values were reached for soil column average soil water content between 0.10 and 0.15 cm3/cm3. Next CO2 emission decreased since the pore system starts filling by water (i.e. aggravated conditions for microbes, closing soil gas pathways etc.). In the case of H2O exchange rate, values increased with increasing soil water contents (up to 0.15-0.20 cm3/cm3) and then remained approximately constant. Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic No. QJ1230319

  13. As(V) retention on soils and forest by-products and other waste materials.

    PubMed

    Seco-Reigosa, Natalia; Bermúdez-Couso, Alipio; Garrido-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2013-09-01

    As(V) retention capacity is determined by means of adsorption/desorption trials performed for coarse and fine ground mussel shell, forest and vineyard soils with or without fine shell, pine wood ash, oak wood ash, pine sawdust and slate-processing fines. Pine ash shows the highest arsenic retention potential (with >97 % adsorption and ≤1 % desorption), followed by shell-amended forest soil (adsorption between 96 and 92 %), by un-amended forest soil (adsorption between 98 and 86 %) and by the amended vineyard soil (adsorption between 92 and 75 %). Sawdust is the material with the lowest arsenic retention capacity in most cases, with un-amended vineyard soil also showing poor results. In the case of oak ash, As(V) percentage adsorption becomes higher with increasing added arsenic concentrations, while this increase in added arsenic causes lower percentage adsorption in the case of slate fines. Regarding adsorption ability, As(V) adsorption data were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir models, showing good fitting, with pine ash and shell-amended forest soil having the highest K F values. In view of that, mussel shell amendment would be useful to increase arsenic retention on forest and vineyard soils, while pine ash could be used to retain arsenic even from wastewaters. PMID:23608991

  14. Heavy metal fractionation and pedogenesis in subalpine and alpine soils on ophiolitic materials, western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, M.; Previtali, F.

    2009-04-01

    Soils on ultramafic materials are usually rich in Mg, Fe and heavy metals (particularly Ni, Cr, Mn, Co). These chemical properties could cause toxicity effects on biological communities. Metal fractionation shows the soil phases to which metals are associated (exchangeable, associated with organic matter, with amorphous or crystalline Fe or Mn oxides, in the crystal structure of primary minerals), and thus it is strictly related with metal mobilization and bioavailability. Ni, Cr, Mn, Co and Fe fractionations (6 fractions, analysed by a selective sequential extraction technique) were analysed in 6 subalpine and in 17 alpine soils (i.e., respectively under coniferous forest or above the present-day treeline) in the ophiolitic area of Mont Avic Natural Park (Valle d'Aosta, Italian Alps), on soils formed from metal-rich serpentinite or from metal-poor mafic rocks and calcschists. The results show a tight relationship between vegetation, soil forming processes, metal fractionation and bioavailability: below and above the present-day treeline soil forming processes and metal speciation change dramatically. Serpentinite soils are always extremely rich in metals, but metal speciation in analogous habitats is similar on every substrate. The results show a tight relationship between vegetation, soil forming processes, metal fractionation and bioavailability: below and above the present-day treeline soil forming processes and metal speciation change dramatically. Serpentinite soils are always extremely rich in metals, but metal speciation in analogous habitats is similar on every substrate. Under subalpine forest, the main pedogenic process is podzolization. In the extremely acidic and leached podzolic soils, all metals are mobilized and their lowest concentration is in the bleached E horizon, while there is a higher content in organic matter-rich surface horizon and in the spodic (illuvial) B. Not considering the amount associated with primary minerals (residual fraction), all the fractions of Ni, Co and Mn are strictly correlated with each other: in A and Bs horizons, the greatest amount is associated with organic matter and with crystalline Fe-oxides. The content in easily mobilizable forms associated with Mn and amorphous Fe oxides is only slightly lower. The greatest amount is in the residual fraction, as pedogenic forms are easily removed from the soil profiles by leaching; this is particularly evident in E horizons. Cr is less released by weathering, and the greatest fraction is associated with organic matter and amorphous Fe-oxides. No Cr could be detected associated with Mn oxides. The high mobility of metals in these soils increases their bioavailability. Above the treeline, the situation changes dramatically. Leaching is important only on stable, flat surfaces. Total and pedogenic fractions of Ni, Cr, Co and Fe increase from the bottom to the top of the soil profile, while all forms of Mn are strongly depleted in the upper horizons because of chemical reduction due to waterlogging at snowmelt. In fact, Mn is particularly sensitive to reduction processes. The most important factors involved in metal geochemistry are erosion and cryoturbation, which bring "fresh", metal-rich materials on the top of the profiles; weathering later releases the metals associated with pedogenic materials. The weak leaching due to limited acidification increases the concentration of potentially bioavailable metals (Fe, Co, Cr, and Ni) in the biologically active soil horizons. All metals are mobilized by waterlogging at snowmelt: extremely high contents of "labile" pedogenic forms of metals also in deep horizons of soils developed on metal-poor materials. However, the concentration due to the processes described above is stronger than leaching for Ni, Co, Fe and Cr.

  15. Strontium-Doped Hematite as a Possible Humidity Sensing Material for Soil Water Content Determination

    PubMed Central

    Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Baroni, Chiara; Zavattaro, Laura; Grignani, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the sensing behavior of Sr-doped hematite for soil water content measurement. The material was prepared by solid state reaction from commercial hematite and strontium carbonate heat treated at 900 °C. X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used for microstructural characterization of the synthesized powder. Sensors were then prepared by uniaxially pressing and by screen-printing, on an alumina substrate, the prepared powder and subsequent firing in the 800–1,000 °C range. These sensors were first tested in a laboratory apparatus under humid air and then in an homogenized soil and finally in field. The results evidenced that the screen printed film was able to give a response for a soil matric potential from about 570 kPa, that is to say well below the wilting point in the used soil. PMID:24025555

  16. Effect of organic materials on the chemical properties of saline soil in the Yellow River Delta of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan; Liu, Jie; Liu, Chunmeng; Zong, Shuang; Lu, Zhaohua

    2014-09-01

    A 180-day incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different organic materials on the chemical properties of coastal soil with high salinity and relatively low pH. Four organic materials (three kinds of plant residues: straw, composted straw, and fresh reed; and one kind of poultry manure: chicken manure) were applied at a ratio of 15 g·kg-1 to samples of costal saline soil from the Yellow River Delta of China. The results showed that the soil pH and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) decreased, whereas soil cation exchangeable capacity (CEC) and macronutrient concentrations increased, regardless of the type of organic material used. All treatments showed a remarkable increase in soil soluble organic carbon (SOC) during the 180-day incubation. The peak values of SOC in descending order were chicken manure, reed, composted straw, straw, and control soil. At the end of incubation, the highest level of SOC occurred in the straw-amended soil, followed by composted straw, reed, and chicken manureamended soils. Soil respiration rate and available nitrogen were significantly influenced by the type of material used. Although reed-amended soil had a relatively high SOC and respiration rate, the ESP was reduced the least. Considering the possible risk of heavy metals caused by chicken manure, it is proposed that straw and composted straw are the more efficient materials to use for reclaiming costal saline soil and improving the availability of macronutrients.

  17. Effect of organic materials on the chemical properties of saline soil in the Yellow River Delta of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan; Liu, Jie; Liu, Chunmeng; Zong, Shuang; Lu, Zhaohua

    2015-06-01

    A 180-day incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different organic materials on the chemical properties of coastal soil with high salinity and relatively low pH. Four organic materials (three kinds of plant residues: straw, composted straw, and fresh reed; and one kind of poultry manure: chicken manure) were applied at a ratio of 15 g·kg-1 to samples of costal saline soil from the Yellow River Delta of China. The results showed that the soil pH and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) decreased, whereas soil cation exchangeable capacity (CEC) and macronutrient concentrations increased, regardless of the type of organic material used. All treatments showed a remarkable increase in soil soluble organic carbon (SOC) during the 180-day incubation. The peak values of SOC in descending order were chicken manure, reed, composted straw, straw, and control soil. At the end of incubation, the highest level of SOC occurred in the straw-amended soil, followed by composted straw, reed, and chicken manureamended soils. Soil respiration rate and available nitrogen were significantly influenced by the type of material used. Although reed-amended soil had a relatively high SOC and respiration rate, the ESP was reduced the least. Considering the possible risk of heavy metals caused by chicken manure, it is proposed that straw and composted straw are the more efficient materials to use for reclaiming costal saline soil and improving the availability of macronutrients.

  18. Studies related to the evolution of the lunar soil materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Studies of the chemistry and morphology of the lunar samples are reported. The presence of fragments of plagoclase in the centers of the impact craters indicate that the glass spheres were derived by meteoritic impact from high velocity particles, while the glass was at high temperatures. From the study of the Apollo 16 samples, it is suggested that this material was formed in a hot impact ejecta blanket, or in an igneous environment, and later exposed to meteoritic impact. It is suggested that particles from Apollo 17 were formed in a cloud of siliceous vapors.

  19. Fate of organic carbon from different waste materials in cropland soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetsch, Lydia; Mueller, Carsten; Rumpel, Cornelia; Houot, Sabine; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2015-04-01

    Organic amendments are widely used to enhance the fertility of cropland soils. However, there is only scarce knowledge about the long term impact of added organic matter (OM) on the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool. Therefore, we analyzed a long-term field experiment in Feucherolles (France), which regularly received three different composts (home sorted bio-waste mixed with green waste (BIO), municipal solid waste (MSW) and a mixture of green waste and sewage sludge (GWS) and cattle manure since 1998. With these organic materials approximately 4 Mg total OC were added to the soil in two year intervals. The experiment was fully randomized with 4 replicates for each amendment. In September 2013 we took samples from the surface soil (0-5 cm of Ap horizon) of all 4 treatments and the unamended control. To study the chemical alteration and the fate of the added OC into different soil compartments, we fractionated the soils by physical means using a combined density and particle size protocol. Carbon and N content were determined in bulk soils, amendments as well as in size fractions (fPOM, oPOM <20µm and oPOM >20µm, sand, silt and a combined fine silt-clay fraction). Chemical composition was determined by solid-state 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. We found significant higher C contents for the oPOM small and sand fraction of BIO treated soil and for the clay fraction of GWS treated soils (p<0.05). Nitrogen contents were significantly higher for BIO treated soils in bulk soil, fPOM, oPOM small and for GWS treated soils in bulk soil, fPOM and oPOM. The NMR measurements revealed that only the chemical composition of the fPOM differed according to the treatment; towards the more altered fractions as the oPOM small, the compositional differences leveled out and became almost homogeneous. Furthermore, the NMR measurements indicate a similar OC composition within the independent field replicates regarding the different amendments and fractions. As previously shown, N was found to be concentrated in the clay fractions, but interestingly we were able to show this also for the oPOM small. Proteins and peptides, as indicated by the broad resonance between 30 and 55 ppm, clearly point to the presence of microbial products and residues in this fraction.

  20. Analyses of exobiological and potential resource materials in the Martian soil.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, R L; Marshall, J R; White, M R

    1992-01-01

    Potential Martian soil components relevant to exobiology include water, organic matter, evaporites, clays, and oxides. These materials are also resources for human expeditions to Mars. When found in particular combinations, some of these materials constitute diagnostic paleobiomarker suites, allowing insight to be gained into the probability of life originating on Mars. Critically important to exobiology is the method of data analysis and data interpretation. To that end we are investigating methods of analysis of potential biomarker and paleobiomarker compounds and resource materials in soils and rocks pertinent to Martian geology. Differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromatography is shown to be a highly useful analytical technique for detecting this wide and complex variety of materials. PMID:11538128

  1. Analyses of exobiological and potential resource materials in the Martian soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Marshall, John R.; White, Melisa R.

    1992-01-01

    Potential Martian soil components relevant to exobiology include water, organic matter, evaporites, clays, and oxides. These materials are also resources for human expeditions to Mars. When found in particular combinations, some of these materials constitute diagnostic paleobiomarker suites, allowing insight to be gained into the probability of life originating on Mars. Critically important to exobiology is the method of data analysis and data interpretation. To that end, methods of analysis of potential biomarker and paleobiomarker compounds and resource materials in soils and rocks pertinent to Martian geology are investigated. Differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromotography is shown to be a highly useful analytical technique for detecting this wide and complex variety of materials.

  2. Development of alternating current transmitter of detection system for magnetic material in soil subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indrasari, Widyaningrum; Djamal, Mitra; Srigutomo, Wahyu; Ramli

    2016-03-01

    Generally, detection system for magnetic material in soil subsurface using electromagnetic induction method consists of two parts, they are transmitter and receiver unit. A transmitter must be able to produce a continuous and stable AC current at a certain frequency, meanwhile receiver should be able to catch the secondary magnetic field of magnetic material in soil subsurface. The aim of this study was to develop a new AC current transmitter of detection system for the magnetic material in soil subsurface. This paper will describe the results of the development of AC current transmitter systems, distance characterization of the sensor detection toward horizontal solenoid positions, and characterization of magnetic material in the soil subsurface. It has successfully made the AC current transmitter system, composed of a sinusoidal signal generator, power amplifier, and a source of AC magnetic field. The output of the generator has a frequency varies: 1 kHz, 2 kHz, 5 kHz, and 10 kHz. We found that the AC current transmitter that has been developed able to work properly up to a frequency of 10 kHz.

  3. METHOD OF ESTIMATING THE TRAVEL TIME OF NONINTERACTING SOLUTES THROUGH COMPACTED SOIL MATERIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pollutant travel time through compacted soil material (i.e., when a pollutant introduced at the top first appears at the bottom) cannot be accurately predicted from the permeability (saturated hydraulic conductivity) alone. The travel time is also dependent on the effective p...

  4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION MATERIALS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During an evaluation of field portable gas chromatographs (GC), site-specific performance evaluation materials (PEM) were prepared and used as quality control samples. lean soils from two contaminated sites were spiked with various volatile organic compounds. he PEM were shipped ...

  5. Free and Inexpensive Materials Available for Teaching Conservation Education: Soil and Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Genevieve; Smith, Bonnie Mae

    This publication was prepared to accompany the revised "Soil and Water Section" of "Guides for Teacher Conservation in the Schools of Louisiana." Its purpose is to provide teachers with information about possible sources of teaching materials that can be obtained free or with only a small expenditure of funds. Each item listed is annotated for the…

  6. Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E.; Loureiro, C.; Chia, Y.P.

    1993-04-01

    A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications.

  7. Air-surface exchange of mercury with soils amended with ash materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jody Ericksen; Mae Sexauer Gustin

    2006-07-15

    Air-surface exchange of mercury (Hg) was measured from soil low in Hg amended with four different ash materials: a wood ash containing {approximately} 10% coal ash, amixture of two subbituminous coal fly ashes, a subbituminous coal ash containing {approximately} 10% petroleum coke ash and an ash from incinerated municipal sewage sludge (4.3 mg/kg Hg) using a dynamic flux chamber. Ash was added to soil to simulate agricultural supplements, soil stabilization, and pad layers used in livestock areas. For the agricultural amendment, {approximately} 0.4% ash was well mixed into the soil. To make the stabilized soil that could be used for construction purposes, {approximately} 20% ash was mixed into soil with water. The pad layer consisted of a wetted 1-cm layer of ash material on the soil surface. Diel trends of Hg flux were observed for all of the substrates with significantly higher Hg emissions during the day and negligible flux or deposition of Hg during the night. Hg fluxes, which were measured in the summer months, were best correlated with solar radiation, temperature, and air O{sub 3} concentrations. Mean Hg fluxes measured outdoors for unamended soils ranged from 19 to 140 ng/m{sup 2} day, whereas those for soil amended with ash to simulate an agricultural application ranged from 7.2 to 230 ng/m{sup 2} day. Fluxes for soil stabilized with ash ranged from 77 to 530 ng/m{sup 2} day and for soil with pads constructed of ash ranged from -50 to 90 ng/m{sup 2} day. Simple analytical tests were performed to assess whether algorithms based on these tests could be used to predict Hg fluxes observed outdoors using the flux chamber. Based on this study, no consistent relationships could be developed. More work is needed to assess long-term and seasonal variations in Hg flux from substrates before annual estimates of emissions can be developed. 45 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Encopresis (Soiling)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be. Many parents assume that kids who soil their pants are simply misbehaving or that they' ... teaching (generally older than 4 years) who frequently soil their underwear have a condition known as encopresis . ...

  9. Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rachor, Ingke; Gebert, Julia; Groengroeft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2011-05-15

    The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available to the landfill operator. Therefore, the methane oxidation capacity of different soils was assessed under simulated landfill conditions. Five sandy potential landfill top cover materials with varying contents of silt and clay were investigated with respect to methane oxidation and corresponding soil gas composition over a period of four months. The soils were compacted to 95% of their specific proctor density, resulting in bulk densities of 1.4-1.7 g cm{sup -3}, reflecting considerably unfavourable conditions for methane oxidation due to reduced air-filled porosity. The soil water content was adjusted to field capacity, resulting in water contents ranging from 16.2 to 48.5 vol.%. The investigated inlet fluxes ranged from 25 to about 100 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, covering the methane load proposed to allow for complete oxidation in landfill covers under Western European climate conditions and hence being suggested as a criterion for release from aftercare. The vertical distribution of gas concentrations, methane flux balances as well as stable carbon isotope studies allowed for clear process identifications. Higher inlet fluxes led to a reduction of the aerated zone, an increase in the absolute methane oxidation rate and a decline of the relative proportion of oxidized methane. For each material, a specific maximum oxidation rate was determined, which varied between 20 and 95 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1} and which was positively correlated to the air-filled porosity of the soil. Methane oxidation efficiencies and gas profile data imply a strong link between oxidation capacity and diffusive ingress of atmospheric air. For one material with elevated levels of fine particles and high organic matter content, methane production impeded the quantification of methane oxidation potentials. Regarding the design of landfill cover layers it was concluded that the magnitude of the expected methane load, the texture and expected compaction of the cover material are key variables that need to be known. Based on these, a column study can serve as an appropriate testing system to determine the methane oxidation capacity of a soil intended as landfill cover material.

  10. Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials.

    PubMed

    Rachor, Ingke; Gebert, Julia; Gröngröft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2011-05-01

    The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available to the landfill operator. Therefore, the methane oxidation capacity of different soils was assessed under simulated landfill conditions. Five sandy potential landfill top cover materials with varying contents of silt and clay were investigated with respect to methane oxidation and corresponding soil gas composition over a period of four months. The soils were compacted to 95% of their specific proctor density, resulting in bulk densities of 1.4-1.7 g cm(-3), reflecting considerably unfavourable conditions for methane oxidation due to reduced air-filled porosity. The soil water content was adjusted to field capacity, resulting in water contents ranging from 16.2 to 48.5 vol.%. The investigated inlet fluxes ranged from 25 to about 100g CH(4)m(-2)d(-1), covering the methane load proposed to allow for complete oxidation in landfill covers under Western European climate conditions and hence being suggested as a criterion for release from aftercare. The vertical distribution of gas concentrations, methane flux balances as well as stable carbon isotope studies allowed for clear process identifications. Higher inlet fluxes led to a reduction of the aerated zone, an increase in the absolute methane oxidation rate and a decline of the relative proportion of oxidized methane. For each material, a specific maximum oxidation rate was determined, which varied between 20 and 95 g CH(4)m(-2)d(-1) and which was positively correlated to the air-filled porosity of the soil. Methane oxidation efficiencies and gas profile data imply a strong link between oxidation capacity and diffusive ingress of atmospheric air. For one material with elevated levels of fine particles and high organic matter content, methane production impeded the quantification of methane oxidation potentials. Regarding the design of landfill cover layers it was concluded that the magnitude of the expected methane load, the texture and expected compaction of the cover material are key variables that need to be known. Based on these, a column study can serve as an appropriate testing system to determine the methane oxidation capacity of a soil intended as landfill cover material. PMID:21067907

  11. EFFECT OF SOIL PROPERTIES AND A SYNTHETIC MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE ON THE RETENTION OF CD, NI, PB, AND ZN IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Batch equilibrium metal immobilization studies were conducted using seven soil and sediment materials spiked with varying concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The objective was to examine the potential mobility of metals in subsoils of metals-contaminated sites. Soil pH influenc...

  12. Thermal analysis of soil treated with biochars from different raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ana, Méndez; Paola, Cely; Gabriel, Gascó

    2014-05-01

    Thermal analysis (DTA, DSC, TG and dTG) has been used for decades to characterize carbonaceous materials used as fuels (oil, coal). In the last years, these techniques has been used with soils in order to assess proportions of labile and recalcitrant organic matter and to study the evolution of organic matter in amended soils during laboratory incubations. Indeed, thermogravimetric behaviour of soils can be quantified as the weight loss of samples attributed to different temperature ranges: WL1 from 25 to 150ºC; WL2 from 200 to 350ºC and WL3 from 375 to 600ºC . WL2 and WL3 correspond to weight loss associated to organic matter combustion (Worg=WL2+WL3). It is established that first peak was associated with combustion of less humified organic matter, while the second one was related to the more humified. Also, the WL3/WL2 ratio, named thermostability index, was previously identified as a reliable parameter for evaluating the level of stability of organic matter in composts and other organic wastes that indicated the relative amount of the thermally more stable fraction of organic matter with respect to less stable one. These stability can be related with the soil CO2 emmisions after biochar application. The objective of this presentation is to show the application of thermal analysis to study the stability of soil organic matter in soils treated with different biochars.

  13. Use of Fly Ash as a Liming Material for Corn and Soybean Production on an Acidic Sandy Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fly ash (FA) produced from subbituminous coal combustion can potentially serve as a lime material for crop production in acidic soils in areas. A five-year study was conducted to determine if FA can be used as a liming material in an acid sandy soil under corn and soybean grain production. Fly ash...

  14. Gender and Material Transfers between Older Parents and Children in Ismailia, Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Cunningham, Solveig A.; Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily M.

    2012-01-01

    In Egypt, kin relations have been governed by a patriarchal contract, which defines expectations for intergenerational support along gendered lines. Social changes may be disrupting these customs and bringing attention to the ways gender may influence intergenerational support in rapidly changing contexts. Using data from 4,465 parent-child dyads

  15. Gender and Material Transfers between Older Parents and Children in Ismailia, Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Cunningham, Solveig A.; Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily M.

    2012-01-01

    In Egypt, kin relations have been governed by a patriarchal contract, which defines expectations for intergenerational support along gendered lines. Social changes may be disrupting these customs and bringing attention to the ways gender may influence intergenerational support in rapidly changing contexts. Using data from 4,465 parent-child dyads…

  16. Element concentrations in soils and other surficial materials of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shacklette, Hansford T.; Boerngen, Josephine G.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of soils or other regoliths, taken at a depth of approximately 20 cm form locations about 80 km apart, throughout the conterminous United States, were analyzed for their content of elements. In this manner, 1,318 sampling sites were chosen, and the results of the sample analyses for 50 elements were plotted on maps. The arithmetic and geometric mean, the geometric deviation, and a histogram showing frequencies of analytical values are given for 47 elements. The lower concentrations of some elements (notable, aluminum, barium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and strontium) in most samples of surficial materials from the Eastern United States, and the greater abundance of heavy metals in the same materials of the Western United States, indicates a regional geochemical pattern of the largest scale. The low concentrations of many elements in soils characterize the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Souls of the Pacific Northwest generally have high concentrations of aluminum, cobalt, iron, scandium, and vanadium, but are low in boron. Soils of the Rocky Mountain region tend to have high concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc. High mercury concentrations in surficial materials are characteristic of Gulf Coast sampling sites and the Atlantic coast sites of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Maine. At the State level, Florida has the most striking geochemical pattern by having soils that are low in concentrations of most elements considered in this study. Some smaller patterns of element abundance can be noted, but the degree of confidence in the validity of these patterns decreases as the patterns become less extensive.

  17. The Soil Series in Soil Classifications of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indorante, Samuel; Beaudette, Dylan; Brevik, Eric C.

    2014-05-01

    Organized national soil survey began in the United States in 1899, with soil types as the units being mapped. The soil series concept was introduced into the U.S. soil survey in 1903 as a way to relate soils being mapped in one area to the soils of other areas. The original concept of a soil series was all soil types formed in the same parent materials that were of the same geologic age. However, within about 15 years soil series became the primary units being mapped in U.S. soil survey. Soil types became subdivisions of soil series, with the subdivisions based on changes in texture. As the soil series became the primary mapping unit the concept of what a soil series was also changed. Instead of being based on parent materials and geologic age, the soil series of the 1920s was based on the morphology and composition of the soil profile. Another major change in the concept of soil series occurred when U.S. Soil Taxonomy was released in 1975. Under Soil Taxonomy, the soil series subdivisions were based on the uses the soils might be put to, particularly their agricultural uses (Simonson, 1997). While the concept of the soil series has changed over the years, the term soil series has been the longest-lived term in U.S. soil classification. It has appeared in every official classification system used by the U.S. soil survey (Brevik and Hartemink, 2013). The first classification system was put together by Milton Whitney in 1909 and had soil series at its second lowest level, with soil type at the lowest level. The second classification system used by the U.S. soil survey was developed by C.F. Marbut, H.H. Bennett, J.E. Lapham, and M.H. Lapham in 1913. It had soil series at the second highest level, with soil classes and soil types at more detailed levels. This was followed by another system in 1938 developed by M. Baldwin, C.E. Kellogg, and J. Thorp. In this system soil series were again at the second lowest level with soil types at the lowest level. The soil type concept was dropped and replaced by the soil phase in the 1950s in a modification of the 1938 Baldwin et al. classification (Simonson, 1997). When Soil Taxonomy was released in 1975, soil series became the most detailed (lowest) level of the classification system, and the only term maintained throughout all U.S. classifications to date. While the number of recognized soil series have increased steadily throughout the history of U.S. soil survey, there was a rapid increase in the recognition of new soil series following the introduction of Soil Taxonomy (Brevik and Hartemink, 2013). References Brevik, E.C., and A.E. Hartemink. 2013. Soil maps of the United States of America. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77:1117-1132. doi:10.2136/sssaj2012.0390. Simonson, R.W. 1997. Evolution of soil series and type concepts in the United States. Advances in Geoecology 29:79-108.

  18. Evaluation of Varying Biochars as Carrier Materials for Bacterial Soil Inoculants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Lauren; Crowley, David

    2014-05-01

    The incorporation of biochar into agricultural soils for carbon sequestration and improved soil fertility creates an opportunity to simultaneously deliver plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Many characteristics of biochar materials indicate that these particles could be conducive as inoculum carriers. This could provide a value-added component for biochar marketing and has an advantage over traditional carrier materials, which can be unsustainable or expensive to produce. Here, we assessed the suitability of 10 biochar types, made from 5 feedstocks at 2 pyrolysis temperatures (300°C and 600°C), to serve as carriers for 2 model PGPR strains, Enterobacter cloacae UW5 and Pseudomonas putida UW4. All biochars were characterized based on BET specific surface area, C-N content, pH, EC, and their abilities to adsorb bacterial cells from a liquid inoculum. Further studies incorporated qPCR to quantify the survival of inoculants after introduction into soils via biochar carriers. The biochars that performed well were further assayed for their influence on PGPR traits, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and auxin production. Peat and vermiculite served as traditional carrier materials to which we compared the biochars. Our findings indicated that biochars varied in their interactions with our model PGPR strains. Based on our analysis several biochar types were able to serve as carriers which were as good, if not better than, the traditional carrier materials. Future work should seek to assess shelf life and varying inoculation methods for the biochar-inoculant complexes.

  19. Overview of recent magnetic studies of high T{sub c} cuprate parent compounds and related materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, D.C.; Ami, T.; Borsa, F.

    1995-12-01

    Recent studies of the magnetic properties of several high superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) cuprate parent compounds and related materials will be reviewed. The observations of a Heisenberg to XY-like crossover upon cooling below {approximately}300K towards the Neel temperature T{sub N} = 257 K and a subsequent magnetic field-induced XY-like to Ising-like crossover near TN in single crystals of the K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4} type spin 1/2 model compound Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} will be described.

  20. Soils and the soil cover of the Valley of Geysers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, D. N.; Gennadiev, A. N.

    2014-06-01

    The results of field studies of the soil cover within the tourist part of the Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka performed in 2010 and 2011 are discussed. The morphology of soils, their genesis, and their dependence on the degree of hydrothermal impact are characterized; the soil cover patterns developing in the valley are analyzed. On the basis of the materials provided by the Kronotskii Biospheric Reserve and original field data, the soil map of the valley has been developed. The maps of vegetation conditions, soil temperature at the depth of 15 cm, and slopes of the surface have been used for this purpose together with satellite imagery and field descriptions of reference soil profiles. The legend to the soil map includes nine soil units and seven units of parent materials and their textures. Soil names are given according to the classification developed by I.L. Goldfarb (2005) for the soils of hydrothermal fields. The designation of soil horizons follows the new Classification and Diagnostic System of Russian Soils (2004). It is suggested that a new horizon—a thermometamorphic horizon TRM—can be introduced into this system by analogy with other metamorphic (transformed in situ) horizons distinguished in this system. This horizon is typical of the soils partly or completely transformed by hydrothermal impacts.

  1. Analysis of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in water, plant materials and soil.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, William C; Marek, LeEtta J; Hall, Kathleen E

    2016-03-01

    There is a need for simple, fast, efficient and sensitive methods of analysis for glyphosate and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in diverse matrices such as water, plant materials and soil to facilitate environmental research needed to address the continuing concerns related to increasing glyphosate use. A variety of water-based solutions have been used to extract the chemicals from different matrices. Many methods require extensive sample preparation, including derivatization and clean-up, prior to analysis by a variety of detection techniques. This review summarizes methods used during the past 15 years for analysis of glyphosate and AMPA in water, plant materials and soil. The simplest methods use aqueous extraction of glyphosate and AMPA from plant materials and soil, no derivatization, solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns for clean-up, guard columns for separation and confirmation of the analytes by mass spectrometry and quantitation using isotope-labeled internal standards. They have levels of detection (LODs) below the regulatory limits in North America. These methods are discussed in more detail in the review. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26454260

  2. Electrokinetic removal of charged contaminant species from soil and other media using moderately conductive adsorptive materials

    DOEpatents

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Mattson, Earl D.

    2001-01-01

    Method for collecting and concentrating charged species, specifically, contaminant species in a medium, preferably soil. The method utilizes electrokinesis to drive contaminant species into and through a bed adjacent to a drive electrode. The bed comprises a moderately electrically conductive adsorbent material which is porous and is infused with water or other solvent capable of conducting electrical current. The bed material, preferably activated carbon, is easily removed and disposed of. Preferably, where activated carbon is used, after contaminant species are collected and concentrated, the mixture of activated carbon and contaminant species is removed and burned to form a stable and easily disposable waste product.

  3. Biochemical properties of vineyard soils in Galicia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Miguéns, Tamara; Leirós, M A Carmen; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

    2007-05-25

    In the present study we investigated changes in soil biochemical activity in vineyard soils. With this aim, soil samples (0-10 cm) from 15 vineyard soils developed on diverse parent materials were collected during winter. All soil samples were analysed for a large number of both general and specific biochemical properties. The values of all of the biochemical parameters analysed were extremely low, between 3 and 39% of the usual values obtained for native Galician soils under climax vegetation. To estimate the level of biochemical quality of vineyard soils, while avoiding the problem of comparing soils with totally different organic matter contents, a biochemical equilibrium equation was used. The results showed that vineyard soils are highly degraded soils, for which in the most extreme cases, the value of the biochemical equilibrium index was 13%, i.e. almost 8 times lower that in high quality soils such as climax soils. PMID:17316764

  4. Materials testing for in situ stabilization treatability study of INEEL mixed wastes soils

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the contaminant-specific materials testing phase of the In Situ Stabilization Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study (TS). The purpose of materials testing is to measure the effectiveness of grouting agents to stabilize Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Acid Pit soils and select a grout material for use in the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Treatability Study within the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Test results will assist the selecting a grout material for the follow-on demonstrations described in Test Plan for the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Phases of the In Situ Stabilization Treatability Study at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

  5. Correlations between soil magnetic susceptibility and the content of particular elements as a reflection of pollution level, land use and parent rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachwał, Marzena; Magiera, Tadeusz; Bens, Oliver; Kardel, Kati

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility is a worldwide used measure of (ferri)magnetic minerals occurring in soils, sediments and dusts. In soils, these minerals are of various origin: air-derived particulate pollutions, parent rocks or pedogenesis. Human activity causes different changes in the content of magnetic minerals as well as their spatial and vertical distribution in soil profiles. Magnetic minerals are characterized by an affinity for other elements occurring in the soil, so positive correlations between magnetic susceptibility and particular elements like macrocomponents or heavy metals often occurs. The archival soil samples collected from different soil horizons in the territory of the Free State of Saxony (Germany) were subjected to the magnetic susceptibility measurements using Bartington MS2B. Additionally, samples were chemically analyzed by the S Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam. Values of magnetic susceptibility varied from 9.3 to 1382 ×10-8 m3/kg in organic soil horizon and from 0.1 to 2105 ×10-8 m3/kg in dipper layers. Calculated correlation coefficients between magnetic susceptibility and some elements indicate significant relationships characteristic for different factors influenced soil properties (pollution level, land use and parent rocks). The northern part of Saxony is divided by the Elbe into two parts: east part with loose sedimentary rocks and the west one with more solid loess bedrock enriched by spectrum of elements from the Ore Mountains. Correlations between magnetic susceptibility and Ca, Fe, Mn, and Zn were stated in the eastern, while soil magnetic susceptibility of the western part revealed a correlation with Fe, P, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mo, U, V, and W. Taking into account influences of industry and urbanization, soil magnetic susceptibility is enhanced in the areas with higher population density comparing with rural sites. In the area of Hoyerswerda and Weisswasser with low magnetic natural background (sand) the load of (ferri)magnetic minerals explained by high magnetic susceptibility values as a result of high pollution level, shows the considerable correlations with Na, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn, B, Be, V. What is more, the soil magnetic susceptibility, developed on different geological bedrocks, correlates with their natural geochemistry bound in the rock and connected with their ferromagnetic minerals (such magnetite and titanomagnetite present in slate, phyllite, mica schist). In that case the magnetic susceptibility correlates with such elements as: Fe, Mn, Ni, B and V. The soils in the south-eastern Saxony close to the border tri-point of Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic, reveal a correlation of magnetic susceptibility with Cd and As content. It can also be caused by power industry in Zittau, however they are developed on basalts and phonolithes in background that produce also strong magnetic signal of geogenic origin. All the statements made above are usually not so clear, since geogenic processes and anthropogenic influences often overlay in the soil.

  6. Rehabilitating acid soils for increasing crop productivity through low-cost liming material.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Javid Ahmad; Kundu, Manik Chandra; Hazra, Gora Chand; Santra, Gour Hari; Mandal, Biswapati

    2010-09-15

    Productivity of red and lateritic soils is low because of their acidity and deficiencies in few essential nutrients viz., nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, boron, molybdenum etc. We compared the effectiveness of basic slag, a low-cost liming material, with that of calcite as an ameliorant for these soils using mustard followed by rice as test crops. Experiments were conducted with three levels of each of basic slag and calcite along with a control on farmers' fields at 14 different locations. Influence of farmyard manure (FYM) and poultry manure (PM) on the effectiveness of the slag was also tested. On an average, basic slag performed better than calcite in increasing yields of both mustard and rice and left over higher amounts of available Ca, Si and Zn in residual soils. The slag also improved N, P, K and Ca nutrition of mustard and Si and Zn nutrition of rice with a favorable benefit:cost (B:C) ratio over the calcite (4.82 vs. 1.44). Effectiveness of the basic slag improved when it was applied in combination with FYM or PM (B:C, 5.83 and 6.27). Basic slag can, therefore, be advocated for use in the acidic red and lateritic soils for economically improving their productivity. PMID:20659758

  7. Improving quality of textile wastewater with organic materials as multi soil layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriyadi; Widijanto, H.; Pranoto; Dewi, AK

    2016-02-01

    On agricultural land, fresh water is needed especially for irrigation. Alternative ways to fulfill needs of fresh water is by utilizing wastewater from industry. Wastewater that produced in the industry in Surakarta is over flowing especially textile wastewater. Wastewater that produced from industry has many pollutants that affected decreasing fresh water quality for irrigation. Multi Soil Layering (MSL) is one of method that utilize the soil ability as main media by increasing its function of soil structure to purify wastewater, so it does not contaminate the environment and reusable. This research was purposed to know affectivity of organic materials (such as rice straw, baggase, sawdust, coconut fibre, and corncob) and dosage (5%, 10% and 25%) in MSL, also get alternative purification ways with easy and cheaper price as natural adsorbent. This study using field and laboratory experiment. The result shows that MSL can be an alternative method of purification of wastewater. The appropriate composition of organic materials that can be used as adsorbent is MSL with wood sawdust 10% dosage because it can increase pH, decrease the number of Cr, ammonia, and phosphate but less effective to decrease BOD and COD.

  8. Some adverse effects of soil amendment with organic Materials-The case of soils polluted by copper industry phytostabilized with red fescue.

    PubMed

    Cuske, Mateusz; Karczewska, Anna; Gałka, Bernard; Dradrach, Agnieszka

    2016-08-01

    The study was aimed to examine the effects of soil amendment with organic waste materials on the growth of red fescue and the uptake of Cu and Zn by this grass, in view of its potential usage for phytostabilization of Cu-polluted soils. Five soils, containing 301-5180 mg/kg Cu, were collected from the surroundings of copper smelter Legnica, and amended with lignite (LG) and limed sewage sludge (SS). Plant growth and the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the shoots and roots of grass were measured in a pot experiment and related to the results of Pytotoxkit and Microtox® tests performed on soil solution. The effects of soil amendment with LG and SS differed greatly, and depended on soil properties. In some cases, the application of alkaline SS resulted in dramatic increase of Cu phytotoxicity and its enhanced uptake by plants, while application of LG to slightly acidic soil caused increased accumulation of Zn in plants, particularly in their roots. The study confirmed good suitability of red fescue for phytostabilization of Cu-contaminated soils except for those extremely polluted. Organic amendments to be used for metal immobilization should be thoroughly examined prior to application. PMID:26853183

  9. Diffusion of Iodine and Rhenium in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2006-12-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e. sorption or precipitation). This understanding will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. A set of diffusion experiments using carbonated and non-carbonated concrete-soil half cells was conducted under unsaturated conditions (4% and 7% by wt moisture content). Spiked concrete half-cell specimens were prepared with and without colloidal metallic iron addition and were carbonated using supercritical carbon dioxide. Spikes of I and Re were added to achieve measurable diffusion profile in the soil part of the half-cell. In addition, properties of concrete materials likely to influence radionuclide migration such as carbonation were evaluated in an effort to correlate these properties with the release of iodine and rhenium.

  10. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC SOIL MATERIALS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINED LAND SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jin

    2006-03-01

    Abandoned mine sites associated with coal and metal mining across the western United States have been left as unproductive wastelands. The availability of soil materials or other materials to support the restoration of the vegetative cover and enhance the recovery of such areas is limited. The restoration of these areas often requires the use of available amendments such as organic waste products or to help stabilize the soil. Many of the organic waste products, including sewage sludge, clarifier sludge, fly ash sludge, and other by-products from the agricultural industries such as compost can be employed for beneficial uses. This study looked at the feasibility of applying organic waste products to a mine soil in Montana to increase soil fertility and enhance plant productivity. Waste rock samples were tested for acid forming potential via acid base accounting. Samples cores were constructed and leached with simulated rainwater to determine amendment affect on metal leaching. A greenhouse study was completed to determine the most suitable amendment(s) for the field mine land site. Results from the acid base accounting indicate that acid formed from the waste rock would be neutralized with the alkalinity in the system. Results also show that metals in solution are easily held by organics from the amendments and not allowed to leach in to the surrounding water system. Data from the greenhouse study indicated that the amendment of sewage sludge was most promising. Application of 2% sewage sludge along with 1% sewage sludge plus 1% clarifier sludge, 2% compost, and no treatment were used for mine land application. Initial results were encouraging and it appears that sewage sludge may be a good reclamation option for mine lands.

  11. Development of construction materials like concrete from lunar soils without water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Chandra S.; Saadatmanesh, H.; Frantziskonis, G.

    1989-01-01

    The development of construction materials such as concrete from lunar soils without the use of water requires a different methodology than that used for conventional terrestrial concrete. A unique approach is attempted that utilizes factors such as initial vacuum and then cyclic loading to enhance the mechanical properties of dry materials similar to those available on the moon. The application of such factors is expected to allow reorientation, and coming together, of particles of the materials toward the maximum theoretical density. If such a density can provide deformation and strength properties for even a limited type of construction, the approach can have significant application potential, although other factors such as heat and chemicals may be needed for specific construction objectives.

  12. Development of laboratory reference material: Soil 1. Baseline and highly elevated concentrations of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Kupiec, K; Konieczka, P; Namieśnik, J

    2011-01-01

    Reference materials play a key part in systems of inspection and quality control of results of analytical measurements. The main limitation in using certified reference materials (CRM) is their high price, which results from the long and costly process of producing the reference material. An alternative to costly CRM materials is the employment of laboratory reference materials, particularly for interlaboratory control of measurement results and procedures. Under the auspices of the Chair of Analytical Chemistry at the Chemical Department of Gdansk University of Technology, research on the development of new reference materials is being conducted. At present, the research is aimed at producing a new laboratory reference material (LRM): 'Soil 1. Baseline and Highly Elevated Concentrations of Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons' - LRM soil 1. This paper presents the production stages of the developed laboratory reference material: acquisition of raw material from soil samples taken from the environment of the Tri-city (in Polish, Trójmiasto Gdansk, Sopot, Gdynia) bypass road, homogenization and subsequent dosage into appropriate containers, tests of homogeneity of sampled material within one container and between containers, based on the results of the determination of selected parameters (total carbon, content of optional metals - Hg, Fe, Cu Zn, Mn, Mg, water content, content of PAH-group analytes). The obtained results of homogeneity tests of the proposed future laboratory reference material have confirmed the homogeneity of soil samples within a container and between containers. Currently, interlaboratory tests are being carried out to determine the reference value. PMID:21473281

  13. Reflectance and Mossbauer spectroscopy of ferrihydrite-montmorillonite assemblages as Mars soil analog materials.

    PubMed

    Bishop, J L; Pieters, C M; Burns, R G

    1993-01-01

    Spectroscopic analyses show that Fe(3+)-doped smectites prepared in the laboratory exhibit important similarities to the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite has been identified as the interlayer ferric component in Fe(3+)-doped smectites by a low quadrupole splitting and magnetic field strength of approximately 48 tesla in Mossbauer spectra measured at 4.2 K, as well as a crystal field transition at 0.92 micrometer. Ferrihydrite in these smectites explains features in the visible-near infrared region that resemble the energies and band strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. Clay silicates have met resistance in the past as Mars soil analogs because terrestrial clay silicates exhibit prominent hydrous spectral features at 1.4, 1.9, and 2.2 micrometers; and these are observed weakly, if at all, in reflectance spectra of Mars. However, several mechanisms can weaken or compress these features, including desiccation under low-humidity conditions. The hydration properties of the interlayer cations also effect band strengths, such that a ferrihydrite-bearing smectite in the Martian environment would exhibit a 1.9 micrometers H2O absorption that is even weaker than the 2.2 micrometers structural OH absorption. Mixing experiments demonstrate that infrared spectral features of clays can be significantly suppressed and that the reflectance can be significantly darkened by mixing with only a few percent of a strongly absorbing opaque material. Therefore, the absolute reflectance of a soil on Mars may be disproportionately sensitive to a minor component. For this reason, the shape and position of spectral features and the chemical composition of potential analogs are of utmost importance in assessing the composition of the soil on Mars. Given the remarkable similarity between visible-infrared reflectance spectra of soils in bright regions on Mars and Fe(3+)-doped montmorillonites, coupled with recent observations of smectites in SNC meteorites and a weak 2.2 micrometers absorption in some Mars soils, ferrihydrite-bearing smectites warrant serious consideration as a Mars soil analog. PMID:11539454

  14. Elaidate-Intercalated hydrotalcite as a sorbent material for metalaxyl immobilitzation in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Cabeza, Rocío; Cornejo, Juan; Hermosín, María C.; Cox, Lucía; Celis, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also known as hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTs), comprise a special group of layered materials. Their structure consists of positively charged layers of mixed divalent (MII) and trivalent (MIII) metal hydroxide [MII1-xMIIIx(OH)2]x+, with the positive charge being balanced by inorganic hydrated anions (An-x/n·mH2O), which occupy the interlayer space. LDHs have anion exchange properties and, therefore, are good sorbents for anionic pollutants. In addition, the anionic exchange properties of LDHs allow the intercalation of organic anions in the interlayer space to render the LDH surface hydrophobic. This increases its affinity to hydrophobic organic compounds. Pesticides with chiral centers are an emerging class of organic pollutants and it has become clear that addressing the different efficacy, toxicity, and environmental behavior of chiral pesticide enantiomers is necessary to avoid the incorrect assumption that enantiomers have identical environmental behavior. Appropriate soil remediation strategies accounting for the enantioselective behavior of chiral pesticide enantiomers are also needed. In this work, we evaluated the performance of elaidate-modified hydrotalcite (HT-ELA) as a sorbent to remove the chiral fungicide metalaxyl from aqueous solution and as an amendment for metalaxyl immobilization in soil. Analysis of metalaxyl by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography allowed us to monitor the sorption and mobility of the two enantiomers of metalaxyl, S-(+)-metalaxyl and R-(-)-metalaxyl, independently. Batch sorption experiments showed that HT-ELA [Mg3Al(OH)8ELA] displayed an excellent performance as an sorbent of the two enantiomers of metalaxyl from aqueous solution and that its addition to a sandy loam agricultural soil at a rate of 1% greatly enhanced the sorption of metalaxyl enantiomers by the soil. Column leaching experiments demonstrated that amending the soil top layer (0-2.5 cm) with HT-ELA at a rate of 1% reduced the leaching of S- and R-metalaxyl. The R-enantiomer of metalaxyl leached less than the S-enantiomer due to its faster degradation in the soil. Our results illustrate the ability of elaidate-modified hydrotalcite to enhance the retention of the two enantiomers of the fungicide metalaxyl in the tested soil, which may be useful in the design of immobilization strategies, particularly of the more persistent S-metalaxyl enantiomer, which may represent increased risk of ground water contamination. Acknowledgments: MINECO Project AGL2011-23779, FACCE-JPI Project Designchar4food, JA Research Group AGR-264 and FEDER-FSE (OP 2007-2013).

  15. Reflectance and Mossbauer spectroscopy of ferrihydrite-montmorillonite assemblages as Mars soil analog materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.; Chang, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Spectroscopic analyses show that Fe(3+)-doped smectites prepared in the laboratory exhibit important similarities to the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite has been identified as the interlayer ferric component in Fe(3+)-doped smectites by a low quadrupole splitting and magnetic field strength of approximately 48 tesla in Mossbauer spectra measured at 4.2 K, as well as a crystal field transition at 0.92 micrometer. Ferrihydrite in these smectites explains features in the visible-near infrared region that resemble the energies and band strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. Clay silicates have met resistance in the past as Mars soil analogs because terrestrial clay silicates exhibit prominent hydrous spectral features at 1.4, 1.9, and 2.2 micrometers; and these are observed weakly, if at all, in reflectance spectra of Mars. However, several mechanisms can weaken or compress these features, including desiccation under low-humidity conditions. The hydration properties of the interlayer cations also effect band strengths, such that a ferrihydrite-bearing smectite in the Martian environment would exhibit a 1.9 micrometers H2O absorption that is even weaker than the 2.2 micrometers structural OH absorption. Mixing experiments demonstrate that infrared spectral features of clays can be significantly suppressed and that the reflectance can be significantly darkened by mixing with only a few percent of a strongly absorbing opaque material. Therefore, the absolute reflectance of a soil on Mars may be disproportionately sensitive to a minor component. For this reason, the shape and position of spectral features and the chemical composition of potential analogs are of utmost importance in assessing the composition of the soil on Mars. Given the remarkable similarity between visible-infrared reflectance spectra of soils in bright regions on Mars and Fe(3+)-doped montmorillonites, coupled with recent observations of smectites in SNC meteorites and a weak 2.2 micrometers absorption in some Mars soils, ferrihydrite-bearing smectites warrant serious consideration as a Mars soil analog.

  16. Parenting: The Underdeveloped Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    This parent education curriculum contains a variety of materials designed to help local Parent Teacher Associations (PTAs) hold meetings for parents on child rearing. The materials help organizers plan meetings on topics such as dating, drugs, and careers. The unit contains a leader's guide, which contains a description of how to plan meetings,…

  17. A soil-inventory of agricultural used soils of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebner, Clemens; Gensior, Andreas; Evertsbusch, Sven; Freibauer, Annette; Flessa, Heiner

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of UNFCCC reports for greenhouse gas emissions of land use and land use change also soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes of have to be reported. Since 1990 a forest soil inventory exists for Germany, but similar data are still missing for agricultural land. Up till now, a very rough estimation of the soil organic carbon stocks based on the soil map of Germany at the scale of 1:1,000,000 and estimated soil organic carbon contents and bulk densities have been used for the national inventory reports. Now we are starting an extended agricultural soil inventory for Germany which is explicitly designed to detect soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes. We will use a grid of 8x8 km, like it was used for the forest soil inventory. In order to extrapolate from point data and perform regionalisations, not only soil type, soil parent material and basic climate parameters will be taken into account, but under agricultural land use different agricultural management practices will be considered. Management data, like crop rotation, depth and intensity of soil tillage and application of fertilizers, manure and composts are collected from farmers during the inventory via questionnaires. It was shown that those data are essential to estimate and extrapolate point data to report soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes on regional scale. The concept of this soil carbon inventory will be presented.

  18. Dependence of the tensile properties of 316 L parent material and welds on implanted hydrogen and/or helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Herbert; Liu, Wanpei

    1992-09-01

    The interest in the low temperature tensile properties of candidate alloys for first wall and blanket structures of future fusion devices is due to the possible low pressure water cooling and the associated low operation temperature in recent design studies. Therefore, the tensile properties of hydrogen and/or helium implanted 316 L stainless steel and its weldments as a function of gas concentrations and temperature were investigated. The main effects of the implantation are hardening, resulting in large increases of the yield strength proportional to the implanted gas concentration, and a gradual decrease of the corresponding rupture strain. The ultimate tensile stresses are less affected. The effect of helium implantation seems to be more pronounced than that of hydrogen implantation. At 673 K most of the implantation induced changes are recovered. Generally parent material and welds still show large ductility (≥20%) under all conditions investigated.

  19. Soils, time, and primate paleoenvironments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Soils are the skin of the earth. From both poles to the equator, wherever rocks or sediment are exposed at the surface, soils are forming through the physical and chemical action of climate and living organisms. The physical attributes (color, texture, thickness) and chemical makeup of soils vary considerably, depending on the composition of the parent material and other variables: temperature, rainfall and soil moisture, vegetation, soil fauna, and the length of time that soil-forming processes have been at work. United States soil scientists1 have classified modern soils into ten major groups and numerous subgroups, each reflecting the composition and architecture of the soils and, to some extent, the processes that led to their formation. The physical and chemical processes of soil formation have been active throughout geologic time; the organic processes have been active at least since the Ordovician.2 Consequently, nearly all sedimentary rocks that were deposited in nonmarine settings and exposed to the elements contain a record of ancient, buried soils or paleosols. A sequence of these rocks, such as most ancient fluvial (stream) deposits, provides a record of soil paleoenvironments through time. Paleosols are also repositories of the fossils of organisms (body fossils) and the traces of those organisms burrowing, food-seeking, and dwelling activities (ichnofossils). Indeed, most fossil primates are found in paleosols. Careful study of ancient soils gives new, valuable insights into the correct temporal reconstruction of the primate fossil record and the nature of primate paleoenvironments. ?? 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Leaching experiments on the release of heavy metals and PAH from soil and waste materials.

    PubMed

    Krüger, O; Kalbe, U; Berger, W; Simon, F G; Meza, S López

    2012-03-15

    Leaching tests are fundamental tools for the assessment of long-term impact of contaminated waste materials on the soil-groundwater pathway. Experiments were carried out in the framework of standardization and validation of column percolation and batch test procedures, in particular concerning the stipulation of the experimental setup. The colloid release of column and batch experiments was compared and the influence of different column filling heights (12.5-50 cm) on the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from soil was studied, as well as the effect of varying contact times (2.5-16 h) on the release of chromium from construction and demolition (C&D) waste and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash. The results indicate that filtration of the eluate, which is required for batch tests, does not always allow the simulation of the actual colloid amount in soil pore water. Medium column heights four times the inner diameter of the column seemed to provide reasonable equilibrium adjustment conditions and avoid major biodegradation. The release of chromium was only marginally affected by the contact time, varied between 0.115 and 0.150 mg/kg for demolition waste eluate at a liquid-to-solid ratio of approximately 5L/kg. PMID:21377270

  1. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  2. Low-temperature and low atmospheric pressure infrared reflectance spectroscopy of Mars soil analog materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1995-01-01

    Infrared reflectance spectra of carefully selected Mars soil analog materials have been measured under low atmospheric pressures and temperatures. Chemically altered montmorillonites containing ferrihydrite and hydrated ferric sulfate complexes are examined, as well as synthetic ferrihydrite and a palagonitic soil from Haleakala, Maui. Reflectance spectra of these analog materials exhibit subtle visible to near-infrared features, which are indicative of nanophase ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides and are similar to features observed in the spectra of the bright regions of Mars. Infrared reflectance spectra of these analogs include hydration features due to structural OH, bound H2O, and adsorbed H2O. The spectral character of these hydration features is highly dependent on the sample environment and on the nature of the H2O/OH in the analogs. The behavior of the hydration features near 1.9 micron, 2.2 micron, 2.7 micron, 3 micron, and 6 microns are reported here in spectra measured under a Marslike atmospheric environment. In spectra of these analogs measured under dry Earth atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micron band depth is 8-17%; this band is much stronger under moist conditions. Under Marslike atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micron feature is broad and barely discernible (1-3% band depth) in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil samples. In comparable spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonite the 1.9-micron feature is also broad, but stronger (6% band depth). In the low atmospheric pressure and temperature spectra of the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite this feature is sharper than the other analogs and relatively stronger (6% band depth). Although the intensity of the 3-micron band is weaker in spectra of each of the analogs when measured under Marslike conditions, the 3-micron band remains a dominant feature and is especially broad in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil. The structural OH features observed in these materials at 2.2-2.3 micron and 2.75 microns remain largely unaffected by the environmental conditions. A shift in the Christiansen feature towards shorter wavelengths has also been observed with decreasing atmospheric pressure and temperature in the midinfrared spectra of these samples.

  3. Low-temperature and low atmospheric pressure infrared reflectance spectroscopy of Mars soil analog materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1995-01-01

    Infrared reflectance spectra of carefully selected Mars soil analog materials have been measured under low atmospheric pressures and temperatures. Chemically altered montmorillonites containing ferrihydrite and hydrated ferric sulfate complexes are examined, as well as synthetic ferrihydrate and a palagonitic soil from Haleakala, Maui. Reflectance spectra of these analog materials exhibit subtle visible to near-infrared features, which are indicative of nanophase ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides and are similar to features observed in the spectra of the bright regions of Mars. Infrared reflectance spectra of these analogs include hydration features due to structural OH, bound H2O and adsorbed H2O. The spectal character of these hydration features is highly dependent on the sample environment and on the nature of the H2O/OH in the analogs. The behavior of the hydration features near 1.9 micrometers, 2.2 micrometers, 2.7 micrometers, 3 micrometers, and 6 micrometers are reported here in spetra measured under Marslike atmospheric environment. In spectra of these analogs measured under dry Earth atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micrometer band depth is 8-17%; this band is much stonger under moist conditions. Under Marslike atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micrometer feature is broad and barely discernible (1-3% band depth) in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil samples. In comparable spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonite the 1.9-micrometer feature is also broad, but stronger (6% band depth). In the low atmospheric pressure and temperature spectra of the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite this feature is sharper than the other analogs and relatively stronger (6% band depth). Although the intensity of the 3- micrometer band is weaker in spectra of each of the analogs when measured under Marslike conditions, the 3-micromter band remains a dominant feature and is especially broad in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil. The structural OH features observed in these materials at 2.2-2.3 micrometers and 2.27 micrometers remain largely unaffected by the environmental conditions. A shift in the Christiansen feature towards shorter wavelengths has also been observed with decreasing atmospheric pressure and temperature in the midinfrared spectra of these samples.

  4. Evaluation of bottom ash and composted manure blends as a soil amendment material.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, S; Kenimer, A L; Sadaka, S S; Mathis, J G

    2003-09-01

    The long-term goal of this project was to find alternative uses for bottom ash (BA) and composted dairy manure (CM), by-products of coal combustion and livestock production, respectively. The study discussed in this paper focused on potential water quality impacts associated with using blended BA and CM as a soil amendment. The constituents of BA and CM include heavy metals and other chemicals that, while essential nutrients for plant growth, also pose a potential threat to water quality. Four blends (BA:CM, v/v) namely, B1 (100%:0%), B2 (70%:30%), B3 (50%:50%) and B4 (0%:100%), were subjected to flow-through water table management and two blends, B2 (70%:30%) and B3 (50%:50%), were subjected to constant head water table management using de-ionized water. Leachate and standing water from saturated and flooded blends of BA and CM were examined for total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), COD, pH, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), NO(3)-N, total P, total K as well as selected metals over a 5 and 7 week period for flow-through and constant head watertables, respectively. The results showed that higher CM content resulted in higher TS, VS, TKN, P and K concentrations in the leachate and standing water. Concentrations of these constituents were higher in leachate than in the standing water. Even though, marked reductions of most chemicals in the leachate and standing water were realized within one to three weeks, initially high concentrations of chemicals in leachate and standing water from these particular blends made them unsuitable as soil amendment material. Based upon these results, it was concluded that additional column studies of BA and CM blends with reduced CM content (5%, 10% and 20%) should be performed to further assess the feasibility of BA and CM blends as an environmentally safe soil amendment material. PMID:12798111

  5. Long Term Effects of Fluidized Bed Material Applied at Disposal Levels on Soil Metals and Nutrient Concentrations as Related to Soil Depth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to assess the movement of macro and micro elements in an old apple [Malus domestica Borkh.] orchard that received a one time application of 36 kg m-2 of fluidized bed combustion material (FBC) 23 years earlier. Soil samples were taken in an area where 15 trees were planted ...

  6. Biotic carbon feedbacks in a materially closed soil-vegetation-atmosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milcu, Alexandru; Lukac, Martin; Subke, Jens-Arne; Manning, Pete; Heinemeyer, Andreas; Wildman, Dennis; Anderson, Robert; Ineson, Phil

    2012-04-01

    The magnitude and direction of the coupled feedbacks between the biotic and abiotic components of the terrestrial carbon cycle is a major source of uncertainty in coupled climate-carbon-cycle models. Materially closed, energetically open biological systems continuously and simultaneously allow the two-way feedback loop between the biotic and abiotic components to take place, but so far have not been used to their full potential in ecological research, owing to the challenge of achieving sustainable model systems. We show that using materially closed soil-vegetation-atmosphere systems with pro rata carbon amounts for the main terrestrial carbon pools enables the establishment of conditions that balance plant carbon assimilation, and autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration fluxes over periods suitable to investigate short-term biotic carbon feedbacks. Using this approach, we tested an alternative way of assessing the impact of increased CO2 and temperature on biotic carbon feedbacks. The results show that without nutrient and water limitations, the short-term biotic responses could potentially buffer a temperature increase of 2.3°C without significant positive feedbacks to atmospheric CO2. We argue that such closed-system research represents an important test-bed platform for model validation and parameterization of plant and soil biotic responses to environmental changes.

  7. Evaluation of lunar rocks and soils for resource utilization: Detailed image analysis of raw materials and beneficiated products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Jerde, Eric A.; Mckay, David S.; Graf, John; Oder, Robin R.

    1993-01-01

    The rocks and soils of the Moon will be the raw materials for fuels and construction needs at a lunar base. This includes sources of materials for the generation of hydrogen, oxygen, metals, and other potential construction materials. For most of the bulk material needs, the regolith, and its less than 1 cm fraction, the soil, will suffice. But for specific mineral resources, it may be necessary to concentrate minerals from rocks or soils, and it is not always obvious which is the more appropriate feedstock. Besides an appreciation of site geology, the mineralogy and petrography of local rocks and soils is important for consideration of the resources which can provide feedstocks of ilmenite, glass, agglutinates, anorthite, etc. In such studies, it is very time-consuming and practically impossible to correlate particle counts (the traditional method of characterizing lunar soil petrography) with accurate modal analyses and with mineral associations in multi-mineralic grains. But x ray digital imaging, using x rays characteristic of each element, makes all this possible and much more (e.g., size and shape analysis). An application of beneficiation image analysis, in use in our lab (Oxford Instr. EDS and Cameca SX-50 EMP), was demonstrated to study mineral liberation from lunar rocks and soils. Results of x ray image analysis are presented.

  8. Effect of Ground Rubber vs. ZnSO4 on Spinach Accumulation of Cd from Cd-Mineralized California Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain soils derived from marine shale in Salinas Valley, CA, USA, contain significant levels of natural Cd but normal levels of Zn, all derived from the soil parent materials. Crops grown on these soils contain high levels of Cd, and because of the high Cd:Zn, this Cd is highly bioavailable and a...

  9. Plant material as bioaccumulator of arsenic in soils affected by mining activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-López, Salvadora; Martínez-Sánchez, Maria Jose; García-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination is an important environmental problem, since the metals are harmful to humans, animals and tend to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to determine the total concentration of As, As (III) and As(V) in soil samples, leaves and roots of plant material, growing in a mining area in Spain (Murcia). Ditichia viscosa was used as the plant of reference. The concentrations of bioavailable As in plant samples were calculated by different soil chemical extraction methods; deionized water, 0.5N NaHCO3 (Olsen extraction), oxidizable medium, 0.5 HCl, 0.05M (NH4)2SO4, 0.005M DTPA and Mehra-Jackson extraction. For this study, fourteen samples were collected in the surrounding area of Sierra Minera and Portman Bay (Murcia, SE Spain). Samples were air dried and sieved to < 2mm for general analytical determinations. To determine the As content, soil samples were first ground to a fine powder using an agate ball mill. Fresh vegetable samples were separated into root and aboveground biomass and then lyophilized. Arsenic levels were obtained by using atomic fluorescence spectrometry with an automated continuous flow hydride generation (HG-AFS) spectrometer. Samples showed pH average values close to neutrality. Most samples showed a very low organic matter percentage. Electrical conductivity and calcium carbonate content were considerably low in most samples. The mineralogical analysis showed that the main minerals were quartz, muscovite, kaolinite and illite, while the minority minerals were alteration products derived of mining activities (iron oxides and hydroxides, siderite, jarosite and gypsum), calcite and feldspars. Although the plants do not absorb arsenic in the same proportion, the results suggest that a good relationship exists between the total content of As in soil and the total content in plant. The results showed that the arsenic content in roots was positively correlated with the oxidizable-organic matter and sulfides fraction (oxidaizable medium extraction procedure). Arsenic concentration in leaves was positively correlated with the arsenic extracted by HCl, with the oxidizable-organic matter and sulfides fraction and with the arsenic extracted by Mehra-Jackson extraction. According to our results, As is accumulated in the leaves of the plants and is linked with iron oxides of these soils affected by mining activities.

  10. Environmental materials for remediation of soils contaminated with lead and cadmium using maize (Zea mays L.) growth as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Huang, Zhanbin; Liu, Xiujie; Imran, Suheryani; Peng, Licheng; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a severe environmental problem. Remediation of contaminated soils can be accomplished using environmental materials that are low cost and environmentally friendly. We evaluated the individual and combination effects of humic acid (HA), super absorbent polymer (SAP), zeolite (ZE), and fly ash composites (FC) on immobilization of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in contaminated soils. We also investigated long-term practical approaches for remediation of heavy metal pollution in soil. The biochemical and morphological properties of maize (Zea mays L.) were selected as biomarkers to assess the effects of environmental materials on heavy metal immobilization. The results showed that addition of test materials to soil effectively reduced heavy metal accumulation in maize foliage, improving chlorophyll levels, plant growth, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The test materials reduced heavy metal injury to maize throughout the growth period. A synergistic effect from combinations of different materials on immobilization of Pb and Cd was determined based on the reduction of morphological and biochemical injuries to maize. The combination of zeolite and humic acid was especially effective. Treatment with a combination of HA + SAP + ZE + FC was superior for remediation of soils contaminated with high levels of Pb and Cd. PMID:26604199

  11. Apollo 17 materials viewed from 2 to 4 mm soil particles: Pre-serenitatis highlands components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Bishop, Kaylynn M.

    1993-01-01

    Among the highland lithologies of 2-4 mm rock fragments in North Massif soil 76503, we have found a compositional group, low in incompatible element concentrations, that we interpret as representing the pre-Serenitatis surface. A component of these materials is an igneous-textured lithology that we believe formed in large impact melts. These are compositionally similar to, and possibly precursors of, many of the granulitic breccias that appear to be mixtures of ferroan and magnesian-suite rocks. The polymict, or old, upper-crustal breccias, along with granulitic breccias and the endogenous igneous lithologies found particularly at the North Massif stations, constitute the poorly consolidated portions of North Massif. Highland samples from the South Massif, on the other hand, are enriched in materials of the competent, impact-melt breccias formed by the Serenitatis impact. The competent melt-breccias contain clasts of most of the pre-existing surface materials, but they also contain components not found in the rocks of the poorly consolidated massif materials.

  12. Parents' Regulation and Self-Regulation and Performance in Children with Intellectual Disability in Problem-Solving Using Physical Materials or Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Lefevre, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    This study compared mothers and fathers' regulation with respect to 29 children with intellectual disability (ID) and 30 typically developing (TD) children, matched on their mental age (MA), as they solved eight tasks using physical materials and computers. Seven parents' regulatory strategies were coded as they supported their child's…

  13. Becoming Informed Consumers: A National Survey of Parents' Experience with Respite Services. Guide Materials for Respite Care for Families with Members Who Are Disabled. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, James A.; Bedford, Sara

    The project sought to determine the content and form of materials that would enable parents of children with disabilities to become informed critical consumers of respite services. Project activities included establishment and utilization of a national advisory panel; an indepth review of the literature on family supports, systems change, and…

  14. Assessment of soil organic carbon distribution in Europe scale by spatio-temporal data and geostatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Ece; Panagos, Panos; Montanarella, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Accuracy in assessing the distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important issue because SOC is an important soil component that plays key roles in the functions of both natural ecosystems and agricultural systems. The SOC content varies from place to place and it is strongly related with climate variables (temperature and rainfall), terrain features, soil texture, parent material, vegetation, land-use types, and human management (management and degradation) at different spatial scales. Geostatistical techniques allow for the prediction of soil properties using soil information and environmental covariates. In this study, assessment of SOC distribution has been predicted using combination of LUCAS soil samples with local soil data and ten spatio-temporal predictors (slope, aspect, elevation, CTI, CORINE land-cover classification, parent material, texture, WRB soil classification, average temperature and precipitation) with Regression-Kriging method in Europe scale. Significant correlation between the covariates and the organic carbon dependent variable was found.

  15. Reclamation with Recovery of Radionuclides and Toxic Metals from Contaminated Materials, Soils, and Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, A. J.; Dodge, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites. In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded, and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (polyuranate) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

  16. A framework for assessing ecological risks of petroleum-derived materials in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II

    1997-05-01

    Ecological risk assessment estimates the nature and likelihood of effects of human actions on nonhuman organisms, populations, and ecosystems. It is intended to be clearer and more rigorous in its approach to estimation of effects and uncertainties than previously employed methods of ecological assessment. Ecological risk assessment is characterized by a standard paradigm that includes problem formulation, analysis of exposure and effects, risk characterization, and communication with a risk manager. This report provides a framework that applies the paradigm to the specific problem of assessing the ecological risks of petroleum in soil. This type of approach requires that assessments be performed in phases: (1) a scoping assessment to determine whether there is a potential route of exposure for potentially significant ecological receptors; (2) a screening assessment to determine whether exposures could potentially reach toxic levels; and (3) a definitive assessment to estimate the nature, magnitude, and extent of risks. The principal technical issue addressed is the chemically complex nature of petroleum--a complexity that may be dealt with by assessing risks on the basis of properties of the whole material, properties of individual chemicals that are representative of chemical classes, distributions of properties of the constituents of chemical classes, properties of chemicals detected in the soil, and properties of indicator chemicals. The advantages and feasibility of these alternatives are discussed. The report concludes with research recommendations for improving each stage in the assessment process.

  17. Removal and recovery of radionuclides and toxic metals from wastes, soils and materials

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.

    1993-07-01

    A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites (Figure 1). In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (uranium trioxide) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

  18. Effect of Soil Solid-Phase Material Migration on Soil Properties within a Small Watershed Detected Using the Magnetic Tracer Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshovskii, Timur; Gennadiev, Alexander; Zhidkin, Andrei

    2014-05-01

    We have performed detailed studies of the lateral migration of the solid soil material and the soil cover within a small catchment area (Russia, Tula region, Lokna river basin). The main goal of this work is to characterize the migration and accumulation features of the soil solid-phase material within a small watershed and to analyze the effect of the lateral mass transfer on the crucial soil fertility-related properties in the catchment basin under study. The total area of the catchment and the ravine network elements is 96 ha. The catchment basin is drop-shaped; it slightly curves and is latitudinally oriented. The catchment basin's slopes are of southern, eastern, northern, and intermediate exposures with average inclination of 1,5-5 degrees. The magnetic tracer method was used to assess the volumes and rates of the lateral migration of the solid-phase soil material on the selected territory. This method is based on the investigation of the spherical magnetic particles (SMPs), which fall onto the soil cover from the atmosphere, where they arrive at the burning of coals and some other fuels, mostly in steam locomotives. The period of the most intensive emission of SMPs into the soil in the territory of Russia corresponds to the last 100-150 years [1]. The reserve of SMPs in the 0- to 25-cm layer is estimated to be 3.8 g/m2on the least eroded sub-horizontal surface. The zones with the concentration of SMPs lower than their average content on the least eroded surface were characterized as dispersion zones. The zones of the basin with significant exceeding the value of 3.8 g/m2 were marked as accumulation zones of the soil solid-phase material. Dispersion zones are found in the middle part of the ridge in the north-eastern area, in the middle part of a longslope in the south-western area of the catchment basin, and other [2]. Accumulation zones are observed in a cup-shaped depression on the plowed slope adjacent to the ravine's head, on steep unplowed slopes of the ravine adjacent to its bottom, on the ravine's bottom, and other [2]. The genesis of these zones is result of the summary effect of the exposure, the inclination, and the slope's length, the spatial interference of the zones, the variability of the carrying capacity of the water flow, etc. The total area of the revealed dispersion zones makes up 35% of the catchment basin; the accumulation zones occupy 26% of the catchment area. The transit-buffer area occupies 39% of the catchment basin. The area proportions of the different functional zones characterize the specific migration structure of the small watershed. [1] Olson K., Gennadiyev A., Zhidkin A., Markelov M., Golosov V., and Lang J. Use of magnetic tracer and radio-cesium methods to determine past cropland soil erosion amounts and rates. Catena 104 (2013), 103-110. [2] Gennadiev A., Koshovskii T., Zhidkin A., and Kovach R. Lateral migration of soil solid-phase material within a landscape-geochemical arena detected using the magnetic tracer method. Eurasian Soil Science 46, 10 (2013), 983-993.

  19. MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPORT EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC MATERIALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the formulation, numerical development, and use of a multiphase, multicomponent, biodegradation model designed to simulate physical, chemical, and biological interactions occurring primarily in field scale soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (B...

  20. Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Min; Chang, Yung-Nan; Sistani, Karamat R; Wang, Yen-Wen; Lu, Wen-Chieh; Lin, Chia-Wei; Dong, Jing-Hong; Hu, Chih-Chung; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2012-02-01

    A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements (i.e., As, B, and Se), i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation, and/or rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material is applied to soil. Three FGD materials collected from two power plants were used. Our results show Hg released into the air and uptake in grass from all FGD material-treated soils were all higher (P < 0.1) than the amounts observed from untreated soil. Hg in the soil amended with the FGD material collected from a natural oxidation wet scrubber (i.e., SNO) was more readily released to air compared to the other two FGD materials collected from the synthetic gypsum dewatering vacuum belt (i.e., AFO-gypsum) and the waste water treatment plant (i.e., AFO-CPS) of a forced oxidation FGD system. No Hg was detected in the leachates collected during the only 3-hour, 1-inch rainfall event that occurred throughout the 4-week testing period. For every kilogram of FGD material applied to soil, AFO-CPS released the highest amount of Hg, B, and Se, followed by SNO, and AFO gypsum. Based on the same energy production rate, the land application of SNO FGD material from Plant S released higher amounts of Hg and B into ambient air and/or grass than the amounts released when AFO-gypsum from Plant A was used. Using FGD material with lower concentration levels of Hg and other elements of concern does not necessary post a lower environmental risk. In addition, this study demonstrates that considering only the amounts of trace elements uptake in surface vegetation may under estimate the overall release of the trace elements from FGD material-amended soils. It also shows, under the same soil amendment conditions, the mobility of trace elements varies when FGD materials produced from different processes are used. PMID:22442930

  1. Parent material which produces saline outcrops as a factor in differential distribution of perennial plants in the northern Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.; Wood, R.A.; El-Ghonemy, A.A.; Bamberg, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    An area of 0.46 km/sup 2/ divided into six zones in the northern Mojave Desert transitional with the Great Basin Desert has been studied. Diversity is high among the perennial plant species within the 0.46 km/sup 2/ area. Common species for the two deserts that are present in the area studied are Atriplex confertifolia (Torr. and Frem.) S. Wats., Ceratoides lanata (Pursh) J.T. Howell, Grayia spinosa (Hook.) Moq., Ephedra nevadensis S. Wats. Some other species present include Lycium andersonii A. Gray, Lycium pallidum Miers, Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) Payne., Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC) Cov., Acamptopappus shockleyi A. Gray, and Krameria parvifolia, Benth. Some of the species are relatively salt tolerant and some are relatively salt sensitive. A total of 4282 individual plants were measured. There was considerable variation in distribution of the 10 dominant species present, apparently due to zonal variations of salinity dispersed within the study area. Correlation coefficients among pairs of the species for different zones illustrate interrelationships among the salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive species. Observations on an adjacent hillside with rock outcroppings indicate that the saline differences in this area are partly due to outcroppings of parent volcanic rock materials that yield Na salts upon weathering.

  2. Schoolwide Programs: Parents' Guide & Capacity-Building Materials = Programas Schoolwide: Una Guia para Padres y Materias de Capacitacion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WestEd, San Francisco, CA.

    The reauthorization of Title I (Improving America's Schools Act--IASA) made the Schoolwide Program (Schoolwide) a major strategy for schools with high poverty rates and stressed the importance of parent involvement. This guide was developed to provide professional development and parent education on Schoolwide implementation in California. The…

  3. Effects of bedding materials in applied poultry litter and immobilizing agents on runoff water, soil properties, and bermudagrass growth.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jing; Adeli, Ardeshir; Brooks, John P; McLaughlin, Michael R; Read, John

    2014-01-01

    Poultry producers in the United States have begun using different types of bedding materials in production houses. Release into the environment of nutrients from applied poultry litter (PL) made with different bedding materials has not been investigated, and little information is available on nutrient concentrations in soils that receive broiler litter made with such materials. In this greenhouse study, two bedding materials (rice hulls and pine chips) in PL and two nutrient-immobilizing agents (gypsum and biochar) were applied to bermudagrass, and chemical and microbial contents of runoff water, soil properties, and plant growth were evaluated. Treatments with rice hull bedding material in PL had less runoff nutrient and greater soil soluble N and P compared with pine chip bedding. Gypsum and biochar both significantly reduced C, N, P, Cu, and Zn losses from the first runoff event, which were reduced by 26, 30, 37, 38, and 38% and by 25, 24, 30, 29, and 35%, respectively, but only gypsum obviously reduced these nutrients from later events. Potassium, Ca, Mg, and Mn increased by 2, 36, 11, and 9 times, respectively, and soluble P, Cu, and Fe significantly decreased by 68, 72, and 98%, respectively, in soil amended with gypsum. Rice hull PL in combination with gypsum significantly increased the growth of bermudagrass. Our results indicate that rice hull PL posed less risk for nutrient loss than pine chip PL when applied to fields and that gypsum was better than biochar for reducing runoff C, N, P, and Cu. PMID:25602562

  4. Diffusion of iodine and Technetium-99 through waste encasement concrete and unsaturated soil fill material

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Wood, Marcus I.; John M. Hanchar, Simcha Stores-Gascoyne, Lauren Browning

    2004-10-30

    An assessment of long-term performance of low level waste-enclosing cement grouts requires diffusivity data for radionuclide species such as, 129I and 99Tc. The diffusivity of radionuclides in soil and concrete media was collected by conducting soil-soil and concrete-soil half-cell experiments. The soil diffusivity coefficients for iodide were 7.03 x 10-8 cm2/s and 2.42 x 10-7 cm2/s for soils at 4% and 7% moisture contents, respectively. Iodide diffusivity in soil is a function of moisture content and is about an order of magnitude slower at lower moisture content. The soil diffusivity coefficients for 99Tc were 5.89 {+-} 0.80 x 10-8 cm2/s (4% moisture content) and 2.04 {+-} 0.57 x 10-7 cm2/s (7% moisture content), respectively. The soil diffusivity of iodide and 99Tc were similar in magnitude at both water contents, indicating that these ions have similar diffusion mechanisms in unsaturated coarse-textured Hanford soil. The diffusivity of iodide in concrete ranged from 2.07 x 10-14 cm2/s (4% soil moisture content) to 1.31 x 10-12 cm2/s (7% soil moisture content), indicating that under unsaturated soil moisture conditions, iodide diffusivity is highly sensitive to changing soil moisture conditions. Depending on the soil moisture content, the diffusivity of 99Tc in concrete ranged from 4.54 x 10-13 cm2/s to 8.02 x 10-12 cm2/s. At 4% soil moisture content, iodide diffused about 20 times more slowly than 99Tc, and at 7% soil moisture content, iodide in concrete diffused about 6 times slower than 99Tc.

  5. Impact of rock materials and biofertilizations on P and K availability for maize (Zea Maize) under calcareous soil conditions

    PubMed Central

    Abou-el-Seoud, I.I.; Abdel-Megeed, A.

    2011-01-01

    The present work evaluated the synergistic effects of soil fertilization with rock P and K materials and co-inoculation with P and K-dissolving bacteria [PDB (Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum) and KDB (Bacillus mucilaginosus and B. subtilis)] on the improvement of P and K uptake, P and K availability and growth of maize plant grown under limited P and K soil conditions (calcareous soil). The experiment was establishment with eight treatments: without rock P and K materials or bacteria inoculation (control), rock P (RP), rock K (RK), RP + PDB, RK + KDB and R(P + K)+(P + K)DB. Under the same conditions of this study, co-inoculation of PDB and KDB in conjunction with direct application of rock P and K materials (R(P + K)) into the soil increased P and K availability and uptake, and the plant growth (shoot and root growth) of maize plants grown on P and K limited soils. PMID:23961162

  6. Data Collection Handbook to Support Modeling Impacts of Radioactive Material in Soil and Building Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Charley; Kamboj, Sunita; Wang, Cheng; Cheng, Jing-Jy

    2015-09-01

    This handbook is an update of the 1993 version of the Data Collection Handbook and the Radionuclide Transfer Factors Report to support modeling the impact of radioactive material in soil. Many new parameters have been added to the RESRAD Family of Codes, and new measurement methodologies are available. A detailed review of available parameter databases was conducted in preparation of this new handbook. This handbook is a companion document to the user manuals when using the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It can also be used for RESRAD-BUILD code because some of the building-related parameters are included in this handbook. The RESRAD (onsite) has been developed for implementing U.S. Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), crops and livestock, human intake, source characteristic, and building characteristic parameters are used in the RESRAD (onsite) code. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code and can also model the transport of radionuclides to locations outside the footprint of the primary contamination. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, and measurement methodologies. It also provides references for sources of additional information. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD Family of Codes, the discussions and values are valid for use of other pathway analysis models and codes.

  7. [Effects of Different Kinds of Organic Materials on Soil Heavy Metal Phytoremediation Efficiency by Sedum alfredii Hance].

    PubMed

    Yao, Gui-hua; Xu, Hai-zhou; Zhu, Lin-gang; Ma, Jia-wei; Liu, Dan; Ye, Zheng-qian

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of clean organic materials i. e., biogas residue (BR), mushroom residue (MR), and bamboo shell (BS) on phytoextraction remediation of two heavy metal contaminated soils (collected from Wenzhou and Fuyang, which referred to "Wenzhou soil" and "Fuyang soil", respectively.) using a cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. The results indicated that the effects of organic materials on availabilities of soil heavy metals were different due to different kinds of heavy metals, organic materials, and the application rates of the organic materials. Addition with 5% BR showed the greatest activation to copper (Cu), Zn in Wenzhou soil, and in Fuyang soil 1% BS had the highest activation for Cu, Zn, lead ( Ph) and Cd. Growth of shoot biomass of Sedum alfredii Hance increased with the addition rate of organic materials, and the plant dry weights were increased by 23.7%-93.0%. In Wenzhou soil, only 1% BS treatment had the best effect on Cd uptake and accumulation in shoots of Sedum alfredii Hance, increased by 22.6%, while other treatments were inferior to the control. For Zn, MR treatments were inferior to the control, while other treafments were superior to the control, of which 5% BR, 1% BS and 5% BS exceeded the control by 39. 6%, 32.6% and 23.8%, respectively. In Fuyang soil, for Cd, the treatment effects of 5% BS, 1% BR and 5% BR were the greatest, of which Cd accumulation in shoots exceeded the control by 12.9%, 12.8% and 6.2%, respectively, while Cd accumulations in shoots in all other treatments were less than that of control. For Zn, the treatments of adding organic materials promoted Zn accumulation in shoots of Sedum alfredii Hance, and the best treatments were as follows: 5% BS. 5% BR and 5% MR, exceeded the control by 38.4%, 25.7% and 22.4%, respectively. PMID:26911018

  8. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-29

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5 g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 40 mg/L were used. The K{sub d} values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The K{sub d} values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53 mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  9. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5 g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 40 mg/L were used. The Kd values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The Kd values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53 mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  10. PRODUCTION OF METHYL SULFIDE AND DIMETHYL DISULFIDE FROM SOIL-INCORPORATED PLANT MATERIALS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CONTROLLING SOILBORNE PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-incorporated plant materials have been associated with reduction in soilborne pathogens and diseases. Most credits have been given to secondary products of glucosinolate hydrolysis. Little is known about the production of volatile sulfur compounds and even less on their efficacy against soilb...

  11. Soil magnetic susceptibility reflects soil moisture regimes and the adaptability of tree species to these regimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, J.-S.; Grimley, D.A.; Xu, C.; Dawson, J.O.

    2008-01-01

    Flooded, saturated or poorly drained soils are frequently anaerobic, leading to dissolution of the strongly magnetic minerals, magnetite and maghemite, and a corresponding decrease in soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). In this study of five temperate deciduous forests in east-central Illinois, USA, mean surface soil MS was significantly higher adjacent to upland tree species (31 ?? 10-5 SI) than adjacent to floodplain or lowland tree species (17 ?? 10-5 SI), when comparing regional soils with similar parent material of loessal silt. Although the sites differ in average soil MS for each tree species, the relative order of soil MS means for associated tree species at different locations is similar. Lowland tree species, Celtis occidentalis L., Ulmus americana L., Acer saccharinum L., Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. were associated with the lowest measured soil MS mean values overall and at each site. Tree species' flood tolerance rankings increased significantly, as soil MS values declined, the published rankings having significant correlations with soil MS values for the same species groups. The three published classifications of tree species' flood tolerance were significantly correlated with associated soil MS values at all sites, but most strongly at Allerton Park, the site with the widest range of soil drainage classes and MS values. Using soil MS measurements in forests with soil parent material containing similar initial levels of strongly magnetic minerals can provide a simple, rapid and quantitative method to classify soils according to hydric regimes, including dry conditions, and associated plant composition. Soil MS values thus have the capacity to quantify the continuum of hydric tolerances of tree species and guide tree species selection for reforestation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling soil magnetic susceptibility and frequency-dependent susceptibility to aid landmine clearance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannam, Jacqueline A.; Dearing, John A.

    2006-05-01

    Information on the electromagnetic properties of soils and their effects on metal detectors is increasingly necessary for effective demining due to limited detector efficacy in highly magnetic soils and the difficulty of detecting minimummetal mines. Magnetic measurements of soils, such as magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility can aid the detection of problem soils, but are not part of standard soil analyses. Consequently, little information about soil magnetism exists within the soil, environmental science and environmental geophysics communities. Lack of empirical data may be compensated through the estimation of soil magnetic characteristics by predictive modeling approaches. Initial modeling of soil types in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) was attempted by expert and analogue approaches, using only coarse scale soil type information, which resulted in the production of national soil maps for low field and frequency-dependent susceptibility. Validation of the maps was achieved by comparison of empirical magnetic data from soil samples in the National Bosnian soil archive in Sarajevo. Discrepancies between the model and empirical data are explained in part by the differences in soil parent material within each soil type, which controls the amount of Fe released into the soil system available for in situ conversion to magnetic Fe oxides. The integration of soil information (type and parent material), expert knowledge and empirical data refines the predictive modeling of soil magnetic characteristics in temperate-Mediterranean environments such as BiH. Further spatial separation of soil types in the landscape can be achieved by digital terrain modeling. Preliminary fine-scale, landscape-soil modeling indicates improved spatial resolution of soil types compared with the original coarsely-mapped soil units, and the potential to synthesize local scale soil magnetic maps.

  13. Conserving Soil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Designed as enrichment materials for grades six through nine, this program is an interdisciplinary study of soils. As part of the program students: (1) examine soil organisms; (2) research history of local Native Americans to see how they and others have used the land and its soils; (3) investigate how soils are degraded and how they are conserved…

  14. Assessment of radon-222 concentrations in buildings, building materials, water and soil in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Kullab, Mahmoud

    2005-05-01

    Monitoring of radon gas ((222)Rn) in Jordan was started in the early 1990s. Since then our radon group at Yarmouk University and others have carried out tens of studies that include measurements of indoor radon, radon in water, radon in soil and radon emanating from building materials. All major cities of Jordan had been surveyed, from the northern city of Irbid down to the southern port city of Aqaba. Most of these studies were carried out by using time-integrated passive radon dosimeters containing CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors. In addition to that, an active radon monitor was used to study the seasonal variation of (222)Rn in Al-Ruseifa that lies near abandoned phosphate mines and in Amman area. During such a study passive dosimeters were also used. The average radon concentrations in dwellings in Jordanian cities ranged from about 20 to 386 Bq/m(3) with the highest readings exhibited during the winter season around the town of Al-Ruseifa. PMID:15763484

  15. Tillage and crop rotation effects on soil quality in two Iowa fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil quality is affected by inherent (parent material, climate, and topography) and anthropogenic (tillage and crop rotation) factors. We evaluated effects of five tillage treatments on 23 potential soil quality indicators after 31 years in a corn (Zea mays L.)/soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotat...

  16. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  17. Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western U.S.A. III. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Plant uptake of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from mine soils was assessed using alfalfa Medicago sativa, sainfoin Onobrychis viciaefolia, smooth brome Bromus inermis, crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum, slender wheatgrass A. trachycaulum and intermediate wheatgrass A. intermedium; mine soil (cover-soil and spoil material) samples were collected from rehabilitated areas of 11 western US surface-coal mines in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Correlations between metals in plants and DTPA-extractable metals from mine soils were generally not statistically significant and showed no consistent patterns for a single metal or for a single plant species. Metal uptake by plants, relative to amounts in DTPA extracts of mine soil, was positively related to mine soil organic matter content or negatively related to mine soil pH. DTPA-extractable metal levels were significantly correlated with mine soil pH and organic-matter content.-from Authors

  18. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards.

    PubMed

    Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Brevik, Eric C; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Jordán, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-05-01

    Soil erosion is extreme in Mediterranean orchards due to management impact, high rainfall intensities, steep slopes and erodible parent material. Vall d'Albaida is a traditional fruit production area which, due to the Mediterranean climate and marly soils, produces sweet fruits. However, these highly productive soils are left bare under the prevailing land management and marly soils are vulnerable to soil water erosion when left bare. In this paper we study the impact of different agricultural land management strategies on soil properties (bulk density, soil organic matter, soil moisture), soil water erosion and runoff, by means of simulated rainfall experiments and soil analyses. Three representative land managements (tillage/herbicide/covered with vegetation) were selected, where 20 paired plots (60 plots) were established to determine soil losses and runoff. The simulated rainfall was carried out at 55mmh(-1) in the summer of 2013 (<8% soil moisture) for one hour on 0.25m(2) circular plots. The results showed that vegetation cover, soil moisture and organic matter were significantly higher in covered plots than in tilled and herbicide treated plots. However, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion were significantly higher in herbicide treated plots compared to the others. Runoff sediment concentration was significantly higher in tilled plots. The lowest values were identified in covered plots. Overall, tillage, but especially herbicide treatment, decreased vegetation cover, soil moisture, soil organic matter, and increased bulk density, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion. Soil erosion was extremely high in herbicide plots with 0.91Mgha(-1)h(-1) of soil lost; in the tilled fields erosion rates were lower with 0.51Mgha(-1)h(-1). Covered soil showed an erosion rate of 0.02Mgha(-1)h(-1). These results showed that agricultural management influenced water and sediment dynamics and that tillage and herbicide treatment should be avoided. PMID:26881727

  19. Spatial disaggregation of complex soil map units at regional scale based on soil-landscape relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Sébastien; Lemercier, Blandine; Berthier, Lionel; Walter, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Accurate soil information over large extent is essential to manage agronomical and environmental issues. Where it exists, information on soil is often sparse or available at coarser resolution than required. Typically, the spatial distribution of soil at regional scale is represented as a set of polygons defining soil map units (SMU), each one describing several soil types not spatially delineated, and a semantic database describing these objects. Delineation of soil types within SMU, ie spatial disaggregation of SMU allows improved soil information's accuracy using legacy data. The aim of this study was to predict soil types by spatial disaggregation of SMU through a decision tree approach, considering expert knowledge on soil-landscape relationships embedded in soil databases. The DSMART (Disaggregation and Harmonization of Soil Map Units Through resampled Classification Trees) algorithm developed by Odgers et al. (2014) was used. It requires soil information, environmental covariates, and calibration samples, to build then extrapolate decision trees. To assign a soil type to a particular spatial position, a weighed random allocation approach is applied: each soil type in the SMU is weighted according to its assumed proportion of occurrence in the SMU. Thus soil-landscape relationships are not considered in the current version of DSMART. Expert rules on soil distribution considering the relief, parent material and wetlands location were proposed to drive the procedure of allocation of soil type to sampled positions, in order to integrate the soil-landscape relationships. Semantic information about spatial organization of soil types within SMU and exhaustive landscape descriptors were used. In the eastern part of Brittany (NW France), 171 soil types were described; their relative area in the SMU were estimated, geomorphological and geological contexts were recorded. The model predicted 144 soil types. An external validation was performed by comparing predicted with effectively observed soil types derived from available soil maps at scale of 1:25.000 or 1:50.000. Overall accuracies were 63.1% and 36.2%, respectively considering or not the adjacent pixels. The introduction of expert rules based on soil-landscape relationships to allocate soil types to calibration samples enhanced dramatically the results in comparison with a simple weighted random allocation procedure. It also enabled the production of a comprehensive soil map, retrieving expected spatial organization of soils. Estimation of soil properties for various depths is planned using disaggregated soil types, according to the GlobalSoilmap.net specifications. Odgers, N.P., Sun, W., McBratney, A.B., Minasny, B., Clifford, D., 2014. Disaggregating and harmonising soil map units through resampled classification trees. Geoderma 214, 91-100.

  20. Particle size distribution of eroded material from semi-arid soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The particle size distribution (PSD) of eroded sediments can be used to deduce potential nutrient losses, pollution hazards and the redistribution of soil components over the landscape. We studied eroded sediments from three semi-arid soils, with different clay contents, that were wetted at a slow (...

  1. Contributions of pyrogenic materials on the accumulation of soil organic matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil amendment of charcoal co-product (HHVdb as high as coal) from thermochemical waste biomass-to-energy conversion (slow/fast pyrolysis and gasification) has received considerable interests for both contaminated and agricultural lands. Biochar amendment not only increases soil organic carbon cont...

  2. Effects of adding organic materials to an acid sulfate soil on the growth of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) seedlings.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Shamshuddin J; Muhrizal S; Fauziah I; Husni MH

    2004-05-05

    Acid sulfate soils having a pH of less than 3.5 are widespread in Malaysia. Some of these soils are planted to cocoa, but the yield is reported to be low due to soil infertility related to Al toxicity. Cocoa growth is sensitive to the presence of Al in the soil. To a certain extent, Al toxicity in soils can be reduced by organic matter application and to a greater extent in iron-poor acid sulfate soil. A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of various types of organic materials easily available in the country to ameliorate acid sulfate soil infertility for growing cocoa seedlings. The treatments were control (nil), lime (3 t/ha), peat (10% w/w), peat plus green manure (10% w/w), peat plus rice straw (10% w/w), peat plus chicken dung (10% w/w) and peat plus POMS (Palm oil mill sludge) (10% w/w). The growth of cocoa seedlings was affected significantly by the presence of Al in the cocoa tissues. As the amount of Al in the leaves increased, the relative top dry weight of cocoa seedlings decreased. Likewise, the relative plant height was negatively correlated with Al in the leaves. Peat as well as peat in combination with green manure, rice straw, chicken dung or palm oil mill sludge was able to reduce Al toxicity in acid sulfate soil; the highest top dry weight of cocoa seedlings were obtained in the peat plus green manure treatment. The best cocoa seedlings root growth was found for the peat treatment alone. The relative top dry weight of cocoa seedlings was negatively correlated with Al(3+) as well as Al(3+)+Al(OH)(2+)+Al(OH)(2)(+) activity in the soil solution. The critical values for Al(3+) and the combination of Al(3+)+Al(OH)(2+)+Al(OH)(2)(+) activity in the soil solution were 10 microM and 15 microM, respectively.

  3. Effects of adding organic materials to an acid sulfate soil on the growth of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Shamshuddin, J; Muhrizal, S; Fauziah, I; Husni, M H A

    2004-05-01

    Acid sulfate soils having a pH of less than 3.5 are widespread in Malaysia. Some of these soils are planted to cocoa, but the yield is reported to be low due to soil infertility related to Al toxicity. Cocoa growth is sensitive to the presence of Al in the soil. To a certain extent, Al toxicity in soils can be reduced by organic matter application and to a greater extent in iron-poor acid sulfate soil. A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of various types of organic materials easily available in the country to ameliorate acid sulfate soil infertility for growing cocoa seedlings. The treatments were control (nil), lime (3 t/ha), peat (10% w/w), peat plus green manure (10% w/w), peat plus rice straw (10% w/w), peat plus chicken dung (10% w/w) and peat plus POMS (Palm oil mill sludge) (10% w/w). The growth of cocoa seedlings was affected significantly by the presence of Al in the cocoa tissues. As the amount of Al in the leaves increased, the relative top dry weight of cocoa seedlings decreased. Likewise, the relative plant height was negatively correlated with Al in the leaves. Peat as well as peat in combination with green manure, rice straw, chicken dung or palm oil mill sludge was able to reduce Al toxicity in acid sulfate soil; the highest top dry weight of cocoa seedlings were obtained in the peat plus green manure treatment. The best cocoa seedlings root growth was found for the peat treatment alone. The relative top dry weight of cocoa seedlings was negatively correlated with Al(3+) as well as Al(3+)+Al(OH)(2+)+Al(OH)(2)(+) activity in the soil solution. The critical values for Al(3+) and the combination of Al(3+)+Al(OH)(2+)+Al(OH)(2)(+) activity in the soil solution were 10 microM and 15 microM, respectively. PMID:15081715

  4. Effect of Magnesium as Substitute Material in Enzyme-Mediated Calcite Precipitation for Soil-Improvement Technique.

    PubMed

    Putra, Heriansyah; Yasuhara, Hideaki; Kinoshita, Naoki; Neupane, Debendra; Lu, Chih-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The optimization of enzyme-mediated calcite precipitation was evaluated as a soil-improvement technique. In our previous works, purified urease was utilized to bio-catalyze the hydrolysis of urea, which causes the supplied Ca(2+) to precipitate with [Formula: see text] as calcium carbonate. In the present work, magnesium chloride was newly added to the injecting solutions to delay the reaction rate and to enhance the amount of carbonate precipitation. Soil specimens were prepared in PVC cylinders and treated with concentration-controlled solutions composed of urea, urease, calcium, and magnesium chloride. The mechanical properties of the treated soil specimens were examined through unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests. A precipitation ratio of the carbonate up to 90% of the maximum theoretical precipitation was achieved by adding a small amount of magnesium chloride. Adding magnesium chloride as a delaying agent was indeed found to reduce the reaction rate of the precipitation, which may increase the volume of the treated soil if used in real fields because of the slower precipitation rate and the resulting higher injectivity. A mineralogical analysis revealed that magnesium chloride decreases the crystal size of the precipitated materials and that another carbonate of aragonite is newly formed. Mechanical test results indicated that carbonate precipitates within the soils and brings about a significant improvement in strength. A maximum UCS of 0.6 MPa was obtained from the treated samples. PMID:27200343

  5. Effect of Magnesium as Substitute Material in Enzyme-Mediated Calcite Precipitation for Soil-Improvement Technique

    PubMed Central

    Putra, Heriansyah; Yasuhara, Hideaki; Kinoshita, Naoki; Neupane, Debendra; Lu, Chih-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The optimization of enzyme-mediated calcite precipitation was evaluated as a soil-improvement technique. In our previous works, purified urease was utilized to bio-catalyze the hydrolysis of urea, which causes the supplied Ca2+ to precipitate with CO32− as calcium carbonate. In the present work, magnesium chloride was newly added to the injecting solutions to delay the reaction rate and to enhance the amount of carbonate precipitation. Soil specimens were prepared in PVC cylinders and treated with concentration-controlled solutions composed of urea, urease, calcium, and magnesium chloride. The mechanical properties of the treated soil specimens were examined through unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests. A precipitation ratio of the carbonate up to 90% of the maximum theoretical precipitation was achieved by adding a small amount of magnesium chloride. Adding magnesium chloride as a delaying agent was indeed found to reduce the reaction rate of the precipitation, which may increase the volume of the treated soil if used in real fields because of the slower precipitation rate and the resulting higher injectivity. A mineralogical analysis revealed that magnesium chloride decreases the crystal size of the precipitated materials and that another carbonate of aragonite is newly formed. Mechanical test results indicated that carbonate precipitates within the soils and brings about a significant improvement in strength. A maximum UCS of 0.6 MPa was obtained from the treated samples. PMID:27200343

  6. Comparison of American Society of Testing Materials and Soil Science Society of America Hydrometer Methods for Particle-Size Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Jason M.; Gee, Glendon W.

    2006-05-31

    Particle-size analysis (PSA) is widely used in both soil science and geo-engineering. Soil classification schemes are built on PSA values while recent developments in pedotransfer functions rely on PSA to estimate soil hydraulic properties. Because PSA is method dependent, the standardization of experimental procedures is important for the comparison of reported results. A study was conducted to compare the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) hydrometer method (D422) for particle-size analysis with the hydrometer method published by the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). Tests on soils ranging in texture from sand to a sandy clay loam were conducted at temperatures ranging from 20 C to 30 C. The main difference between methods is the temperature correction, with the ASTM method relying on an empirical correction and the SSSA method using a blank hydrometer reading. Identical texture estimates for all but one sample was observed between methods. Percent fines, silt, and clay demonstrated relatively consistent values between methods. D50 and D30 showed reasonable agreement between methods, with differences of less than 4 percent and 8 percent. For D10 values, the agreement was less satisfactory, with uncertainties of as much as 10 percent. The results suggest that ASTM and SSSA methods can be used interchangeably for textural analysis.

  7. Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen

    2006-01-01

    Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth. PMID:17048298

  8. Soil Mineralogical Control of Aggregate-Protected Carbon in a Mature Secondary Conifer Forest in Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, C.; Torn, M. S.

    2003-12-01

    Forest systems have the potential to act as sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide, as shown by the role of secondary forest growth in the North American C sink. We investigated the role of soil mineralogy as a key parameter in controlling long-term soil C storage and aggregate-protection of C in secondary growth forests of California. Soil pedons were sampled to a depth of one meter on granitic and andesitic parent materials in 80 year old ponderosa pine forests. Soil samples were characterized for total C and N, pH, clay content and clay mineralogy. The latter were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selective dissolution (SD) techniques. The andesitic soils contain 50% more C than the granitic soils (19.6 vs 12.8 kg m-2) mainly due to significant differences in surface horizon C content. No significant difference was observed in subsurface C concentration between parent materials. XRD data indicates only slight differences in clay species between parent materials. In both soils, clay crystallinity increases with depth, with an increased dominance of kaolinite and gibbsite, while amorphous material decreases with depth. The main soil mineralogy difference between the parent materials is greater crystalline (38.7 vs 22.8 g kg-1) and short range order (1.0 vs 0.5 g kg-1) iron oxide content in the andesite derived soils. Chemical and physical indices of C differed significantly between parent materials. Both soils had similar amounts of Na-pyrophosphate (pH 10) extractable C (Cp), but significantly more Cp in the andesite soil was stabilized in Al and Fe organo-metal complexes ([Alp+Fep]/Cp; 1.0 vs 0.7). In addition, a greater portion of the total C was contained in aggregate fractions in the andesitic soils (17.8 vs 9.4 gC kg soil-1). Radiocarbon analyses will be carried out on three C fractions separated by density and ultrasonic dispersion techniques to isolate inter-aggregate, intra-aggregate and organo-mineral pools for modeling C dynamics. Preliminary data suggest a longer mean residence time of C in andesite than granite derived soils. We hypothesize that the enhanced aggregate C storage and slower turnover time of C in andesitic soils is a function of iron oxides acting to stabilize soil aggregates and of short range order aluminosilicates providing greater reactive surface area to bind organic compounds. These results suggest that the potential for natural soil C storage and sequestration management in secondary growth forests may be sensitive to parent material and soil development.

  9. An interdisciplinary approach to decipher different phases of soil formation using root abundances and geochemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesenberg, Guido; Gocke, Martina

    2015-04-01

    Pedogenic processes are commonly thought to be restricted mainly to the uppermost few dm of soils. However, often processes like water infiltration and - more obviously - rooting lead to much deeper penetration of soil, soil parent material and, if present, paleosols. The extent to which root penetration and subsequent organic matter incorporation, release of root exudates and microbial activity influence the general chemical and physical properties of deeper soil horizons remains largely unknown. We determined the lateral extent of root-derived overprint of the soil parent material as well as the overprint of the chemical properties in paleosols by combining root quantities obtained in the field with a large variety of inorganic and organic chemical as well as microbial properties in bulk soils and rhizosphere samples. Soils, soil parent material and paleosols were sampled along a transect from The Netherlands via Germany and Hungary towards Serbia, where soil and underlying loess, sand, and paleosol profiles were excavated in pits of 2 m to 13 m depth. Root counting on horizontal levels and profile walls during field campaigns, assisted by three-dimensional X-ray microtomographic scanning of undisturbed samples, enabled the quantitative assessment of recent and ancient root systems. Ages were determined by 14C dating for the latter, and by OSL dating for sediments, respectively. The bulk elemental composition of soils, sediments and paleosols and molecular structure of organic matter therein helped to quantitatively assess the root-related overprint in different depth intervals. The results point to the significance of deep roots as a soil forming factor extending into soil parent material, as well as the overprint of geochemical proxies in paleosols due to intense root penetration at various phases after burial. The shown examples highlight potential pitfalls in assessing rooted soil and paleosol profiles and their ages, and provide potential solutions for proper data interpretation.

  10. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the New Brunswick Site, Middlesex County, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, D.; Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1996-02-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the New Brunswick Site, located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides of concern and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the New Brunswick Site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. The guidelines derived in this report are intended to apply to the remediation of these remaining residual radioactive materials at the site. The primary radionuclides of concern in these remaining materials are expected to be radium-226 and, to a lesser extent, natural uranium and thorium. The DOE has established generic cleanup guidelines for radium and thorium in soil; however, cleanup guidelines for other radionuclides must be derived on a site-specific basis.

  11. Inter-comparison exercise for determination of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil and building material.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Fei; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Qiang; Zhao, Li; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Jianfeng; Xu, Cuihua

    2010-12-01

    A nationwide inter-comparison exercise for the determination of activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil and building material was organized by the National Institute for Radiological Protection (NIRP), CDC, China. The primary purpose of this work was to assess the accuracy and precision of gamma-spectrometry analyses. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in accordance with established inter-comparison procedures. A total of 15 laboratories participated in this programme. All participants reported their comparison results for a total of 87 data sets for three nuclides in soil and building material. The overall measurement results of samples for inter-comparison showed a good agreement with the reference values, with nearly 87% of the participants producing acceptable results. Some influential factors in measurement comparisons are also discussed in this paper on the basis of reported results. PMID:20620070

  12. Protective barrier materials analysis: Fine soil site characterization: A research report for Westinghouse Hanford Company

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Glennon, M.A.; Young, M.A.; Gee, G.W.

    1987-11-01

    We collected soil samples for the physical characterization of a potential fine-soil quarry site at the McGee Ranch, which is located approximately 1 km northwest of the Hanford Site's Yakima Barricade. Forty test borings were made using a hollow-stem auger. Field moisture content and grain-size distribution were determined. The samples were classified into one of 19 sediment classes based on their grain-size distributions. Maps and cross sections were constructed from both the field and laboratory data to delineate the distributions of the various sediment classes. Statistical evaluations were made to determine the variations within the fine-soil fraction of the various sediment classes. Volume estimates were then made of the amounts of soil meeting the preliminary grain-size criteria. The physical characterization of the fine soils sampled near the McGee Ranch site indicated that approximately 3.4 million cubic meters of soil met or exceeded the minimum grain-size criteria for the fine soils needed for the protective barriers program. 11 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Reflectance spectroscopy of ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites as Mars soil analog materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.; Edwards, J. O.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Froschl, H.

    1995-01-01

    Spectroscopic analyses have shown that smectites enhanced in the laboratory with additional ferric species exhibit important similarities to those of the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite in these chemically treated smectites has features in the visible to near-infrared region that resemble the energies and band strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. New samples have been prepared with sulfate as well, because S was found by Viking to be a major component in the surface material on Mars. A suite of ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites, prepared with variable Fe3+ and S concentrations and variable pH conditions, has been analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy in the visible and infrared regions, Mossbauer spectroscopy at room temperature and 4 K, differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. These analyses support the formation of ferrihydrite of variable crystallinity in the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonites and a combination of schwertmannite and ferrihydrite in the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites. Small quantities of poorly crystalline or nanophase forms of other ferric materials may also be present in these samples. The chemical formation conditions of the ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites influence the character of the low temperature Mossbauer sextets and the visible reflectance spectra. An absorption minimum is observed at 0.88-0.89 micrometers in spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing samples, and at 0.89-0.92 micrometers in spectra of the ferrihydrate-bearing montmorillonites. Mossbauer spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites indicate variable concentrations of ferrihydrite and schwertmannite in the interlaminar spaces and along grain surfaces. Dehydration under reduced atmospheric pressure conditions induces a greater effect on the adsorbed and interlayer water in ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite than on the water in ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonite. Reflectance spectra of ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonite include a strong 3-micrometers band that is more resistant to dry atmospheric conditions than the 3-micrometers band in spectra of similarly prepared ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonites.

  14. Mass Transport within Soils

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated zone with three major horizons, the saturated zone can be further divided into other zones based on hydraulic and geologic conditions. Wetland soils are a special and important class in which near-saturation conditions exist most of the time. When a contaminant is added to or formed in a soil column, there are several mechanisms by which it can be dispersed, transported out of the soil column to other parts of the environment, destroyed, or transformed into some other species. Thus, to evaluate or manage any contaminant introduced to the soil column, one must determine whether and how that substance will (1) remain or accumulate within the soil column, (2) be transported by dispersion or advection within the soil column, (3) be physically, chemically, or biologically transformed within the soil (i.e., by hydrolysis, oxidation, etc.), or (4) be transported out of the soil column to another part of the environment through a cross-media transfer (i.e., volatilization, runoff, ground water infiltration, etc.). These competing processes impact the fate of physical, chemical, or biological contaminants found in soils. In order to capture these mechanisms in mass transfer models, we must develop mass-transfer coefficients (MTCs) specific to soil layers. That is the goal of this chapter. The reader is referred to other chapters in this Handbook that address related transport processes, namely Chapter 13 on bioturbation, Chapter 15 on transport in near-surface geological formations, and Chapter 17 on soil resuspention. This chapter addresses the following issues: the nature of soil pollution, composition of soil, transport processes and transport parameters in soil, transformation processes in soil, mass-balance models, and MTCs in soils. We show that to address vertical heterogeneity in soils in is necessary to define a characteristic scaling depth and use this to establish process-based expressions for soil MTCs. The scaling depth in soil and the corresponding MTCs depend strongly on (1) the composition of the soil and physical state of the soil, (2) the chemical and physical properties of the substance of interest, and (3) transformation rates in soil. Our particular focus is on approaches for constructing soil-transport algorithms and soil-transport parameters for incorporation within multimedia fate models. We show how MTC's can be developed to construct a simple two-compartment air-soil system. We then demonstrate how a multi-layer-box-model approach for soil-mass balance converges to the exact analytical solution for concentration and mass balance. Finally, we demonstrate and evaluate the performance of the algorithms in a model with applications to the specimen chemicals benzene, hexachlorobenzene, lindane gammahexachlorocyclohexane, benzo(a)pyrene, nickel, and copper.

  15. A sequential extraction procedure to evaluate the mobilization behavior of rare earth elements in soils and tailings materials.

    PubMed

    Mittermüller, Marc; Saatz, Jessica; Daus, Birgit

    2016-03-01

    A novel sequential extraction method for evaluation of the mobilization behavior of rare earth elements in soils and mine tailings materials is presented. The sequence consists of the following four steps: 0.05 mol L(-1) calcium nitrate (easily soluble and ion exchange fraction), 0.1 mol L(-1) citric acid (fraction mobilized by complexation and carbonate bound), 0.05 mol L(-1) hydroxylamine hydrochloride (pH = 2) (reducible fraction), 1.4 mol L(-1) nitric acid (acid soluble fraction). The procedure was optimized with a certified soil material and a mine tailings material and was applied to eight samples of a soil profile. The different results obtained by using either the developed method or the widespread used BCR-Method for comparison are discussed. There were clear advantages using the newly created sequential extraction procedure in getting more detailed information about the bioavailable fraction and a fraction addressing REE phosphates. PMID:26766351

  16. The Effect of Equilibration Time and Tubing Material on Soil Gas Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection of soil vapor samples representative of in-situ conditions presents challenges associated with the unavoidable disturbance of the subsurface and potential losses to the atmosphere. This article evaluates the effects of two variables that influence the concentration...

  17. Composition and Color of Martian Soil from Oxidation of Meteoritic Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Aqueous weathering is not necessary for formation of the martian soils. The chemical composition and oxidation state of the surface fines can be attributed to meteoritic influx. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Ice-lens formation and geometrical supercooling in soils and other colloidal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Style, Robert W.; Peppin, Stephen S. L.; Cocks, Alan C. F.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2011-10-01

    We present a physically intuitive model of ice-lens formation and growth during the freezing of soils and other dense, particulate suspensions. Motivated by experimental evidence, we consider the growth of an ice-filled crack in a freezing soil. At low temperatures, ice in the crack exerts large pressures on the crack walls that will eventually cause the crack to split open. We show that the crack will then propagate across the soil to form a new lens. The process is controlled by two factors: the cohesion of the soil and the geometrical supercooling of the water in the soil, a new concept introduced to measure the energy available to form a new ice lens. When the supercooling exceeds a critical amount (proportional to the cohesive strength of the soil) a new ice lens forms. This condition for ice-lens formation and growth does not appeal to any ad hoc, empirical assumptions, and explains how periodic ice lenses can form with or without the presence of a frozen fringe. The proposed mechanism is in good agreement with experiments, in particular explaining ice-lens pattern formation and surges in heave rate associated with the growth of new lenses. Importantly for systems with no frozen fringe, ice-lens formation and frost heave can be predicted given only the unfrozen properties of the soil. We use our theory to estimate ice-lens growth temperatures obtaining quantitative agreement with the limited experimental data that are currently available. Finally we suggest experiments that might be performed in order to verify this theory in more detail. The theory is generalizable to complex natural-soil scenarios and should therefore be useful in the prediction of macroscopic frost-heave rates.

  19. [Desorption characteristics of phosphorus in tea tree rhizosphere soil].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Jun; Bao, Chun-Hong; Miao, Xiao-Lin; Hu, Wen-Min

    2013-07-01

    In order to explore the phosphorus (P) release process and its supply mechanism in tea tree rhizosphere soil, an exogenous P adsorption and culture experiment was conducted to study the P desorption process and characters in the tea tree rhizosphere soils having been cultivated for different years and derived from different parent materials. The least squares method was used to fit the isotherms of P desorption kinetics. There was an obvious difference in the P desorption process between the rhizosphere soils and non-rhizosphere soils. The P desorption ability of the rhizosphere soils was significantly higher than that of the non-rhizosphere soils. As compared with non-rhizosphere soils, rhizosphere soils had higher available P content, P desorption rate, and beta value (desorbed P of per unit adsorbed P), with the average increment being 5.49 mg x kg(-1), 1.7%, and 24.4%, respectively. The P desorption ability of the rhizosphere soils derived from different parent materials was in the order of granite > quaternary red clay > slate. The average available P content and P desorption ability of the rhizosphere soils increased with increasing cultivation years. PMID:24175512

  20. Continental-scale patterns in soil geochemistry and mineralogy: results from two transects across the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, L.G.; Cannon, W.F.; Eberl, D.D.; Smith, D.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Horton, J.D.; Garrett, R.G.; Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) initiated a pilot study that involved collection of more than 1500 soil samples from 221 sites along two continental transects across Canada and the United States. The pilot study was designed to test and refine protocols for a soil geochemical survey of North America. The two transects crossed a wide array of soil parent materials, soil ages, climatic conditions, landforms, land covers and land uses. Sample sites were selected randomly at approximately 40-km intervals from a population defined as all soils of the continent. At each site, soils representing 0 to 5 cm depth, and the O, A, and C horizons, if present, were collected and analyzed for their near-total content of over 40 major and trace elements. Soils from 0–5 cm depth were also collected for analysis of organic compounds. Results from the transects confirm that soil samples collected at a 40-km spacing reveal coherent, continental- to subcontinental-scale geochemical and mineralogical patterns that can be correlated to aspects of underlying soil parent material, soil age and climate influence. The geochemical data also demonstrate that at the continental-scale the dominance of any of these major factors that control soil geochemistry can change across the landscape. Along both transects, soil mineralogy and geochemistry change abruptly with changes in soil parent materials. However, the chemical influence of a soil’s parent material can be obscured by changing climatic conditions. For the transects, increasing precipitation from west to east and increasing temperature from north to south affect both soil mineralogy and geochemistry because of climate effects on soil weathering and leaching, and plant productivity. Regional anomalous metal concentrations can be linked to natural variations in soil parent materials, such as high Ni and Cr in soils developed on ultramafic rocks in California or high P in soils formed on weathered Ordovician limestones in central Kentucky. On local scales, anomalous metal concentrations recognized in soil profiles, such as high P in soils from animal confinement sites, are consistent with local anthropogenic disturbances. At a larger scale, the distribution of Hg across the west to east transect demonstrates that it can be difficult to distinguish between natural or anthropogenic contributions and that many factors can contribute to an element’s spatial distribution. Only three samples in a subset of seventy-three 0–5 cm depth soil samples from the north to south transect had organochlorine pesticides values above the method detection limit, apparently related to historic usage of the pesticides DDT and dieldrin.

  1. Genesis of marine terrace soils, Barbados, West Indies: evidence from mineralogy and geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Crittenden, R.C.; Rosholt, J.N.; Bush, C.A.; Stewart, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Well-developed, clay-rich soils dominated by interstratified kaolinite-smectite are found on the uplifted coral reef terraces on the island of Barbados. The reef limestone is unlikely to have been the soil parent material however, because it is 98% CaCO 3 and geomorphic evidence argues against the 20 m of reef solution required to produce the soils by this process. The mineralogy of the sand, silt, and clay fractions of the soils, and trace element geochemistry, suggest that aeolian materials carried on the trade winds from Africa, volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent, and quartz from Tertiary bedrock on the island itself are the parent materials for the soils. -Authors

  2. The Teaching Parents Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Gail R.

    The Teaching Parents Program at a center for moderately retarded students (5 to 13 years old) who may also be visually handicapped, multiply handicapped, or emotionally disturbed allows parents to learn principles of behavior modification, task analysis, and data collection while working with a child in the classroom. Materials used in the program…

  3. The Stress Corrosion Resistance and the Cryogenic Temperature Mechanical Behavior of 18-3 Mn (Nitronic 33) Stainless Steel Parent and Welded Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montano, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    The ambient and cryogenic temperature mechanical properties and the ambient temperature stress corrosion results of 18-3 Mn (Nitronic 33)stainless steel, longitudinal and transverse, as received and as welded (TIG) material specimens manufactured from 0.063 inch thick sheet material, were described. The tensile test results indicate an increase in ultimate tensile and yield strengths with decreasing temperature. The elongation remained fairly constant to -200 F, but below that temperature the elongation decreased to less than 6.0% at liquid hydrogen temperature. The notched tensile strength (NTS) for the parent metal increased with decreasing temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature. Below -320 F the NTS decreased rapidly. The notched/unnotched (N/U) tensile ratio of the parent material specimens remained above 0.9 from ambient to -200 F, and decreased to approximately 0.65 and 0.62, respectively, for the longitudinal and transverse directions at liquid hydrogen temperature. After 180 days of testing, only those specimens exposed to the salt spray indicated pitting and some degradation of mechanical properties.

  4. Mathematical modelling and optimization of synthetic textile dye removal using soil composites as highly competent liner material.

    PubMed

    Das, Papita; Banerjee, Priya; Mondal, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    Soil is widely used as adsorbent for removing toxic pollutants from their aqueous solutions due to its wide availability and cost efficiency. This study investigates the potential of soil and soil composites for removal of crystal violet (CV) dye from solution on a comparative scale. Optimisation of different process parameters was carried out using a novel approach of response surface methodology (RSM) and a central composite design (CCD) was used for determining the optimum experimental conditions, as well as the result of their interactions. Around 99.85 % removal of CV was obtained at initial pH 6.4, which further increased to 99.98 % on using soil and cement composite proving it to be the best admixture of those selected. The phenomenon was found to be represented best by the Langmuir isotherm at different temperatures. The process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and was determined to be spontaneous chemisorption in nature. This adsorbent can hence be suggested as an appropriate liner material for the removal of CV dye. PMID:25138552

  5. Water in the critical zone: soil, water and life from profile to planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, Mike

    2015-04-01

    Water is essential to the critical zone between bedrock and the atmosphere, and without water the soil is dead. Water provides the basis for the abundant life within the soil and, interacting with micro-organisms, drives the key processes in the critical zone. This review looks at the balances that control the flow of water through the soil, and how water movement is one of the major controls on the fluxes and transformations that control the formation, evolution and loss of material that controls the 'life' and 'health' of the soil. At regional scales, climate, acting largely through the soil hydrology, plays a major part in determining the type of soils developed - from hyper arid soils dominated by aeolian inputs, through arid and semi-arid soils with largely vertical water exchanges with the atmosphere, to temperate soils with substantial lateral drainage, and humid soils dominated by organic peats. Soil water balance controls the partition of precipitation between evaporative loss, lateral subsurface flow and groundwater recharge, and, in turn, has a major influence on the potential for plant growth and on the lateral connectivity between soils on a hillslope. Sediment and solute balances distinguish soils of accumulation from soils that tend towards a stable chemical depletion ratio. Reflecting the availability of water and the soil material, carbon balance plays a major role in soil horizonation and distinguishes soils dominated by mineral or organic components. At finer catena and catchment scales, lateral connectivity, or its absence, determines how soils evolve through the transfer of water and sediment downslope, creating more or less integrated landscapes in a balance between geomorphological and pedological processes. Within single soil profiles, the movement of water controls the processes of weathering and soil horizonation by ion diffusion, advective leaching and bioturbation, creating horizonation that, in turn, modifies the hydrological responses of both soil and landscape. For example, the soil hydrological regime helps to contrast soils that accumulate more and less soluble constituents of the parent material.

  6. Immobilization of Cu, Pb and Zn in mine-contaminated soils using reactive materials.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Andrés; Cardellach, Esteve; Corbella, Mercé

    2011-02-28

    Immobilization processes were used to chemically stabilize soil contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn from mine tailings and industrial impoundments. We examined the effectiveness of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), phosphoric acid and MgO at immobilizing Cu, Pb and Zn in soil contaminated by either mine tailings or industrial and mine wastes. The effectiveness was evaluated using column leaching experiments and geochemical modelling, in which we assessed possible mechanisms for metal immobilization using PHREEQC and Medusa numerical codes. Experimental results showed that Cu was mobilized in all the experiments, whereas Pb immobilization with H(3)PO(4) may have been related to the precipitation of chloropyromorphite. Thus, the Pb concentrations of leachates of pure mining and industrial contaminated soils (32-410 μg/l and 430-1000 μg/l, respectively) were reduced to 1-60 and 3-360 μg/l, respectively, in the phosphoric acid experiment. The mobilization of Pb at high alkaline conditions, when Pb(OH)(4)(-) is the most stable species, may be the main obstacle to the use of OPC and MgO in the immobilization of this metal. In the mining- and industry-contaminated soil, Zn was retained by OPC but removed by MgO. The experiments with OPC showed the Zn decrease in the leachates of mining soil from 226-1960 μg/l to 92-121 μg/l. In the industrial contaminated soil, the Zn decrease in the leachates was most elevated, showing >2500 μg/l in the leachates of contaminated soil and 76-173 μg/l in the OPC experiment. Finally, when H(3)PO(4) was added, Zn was mobilized. PMID:21190796

  7. Influence of soils on Landsat spectral signatures of corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalsted, K. J.; Worcester, B. K.; Devries, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Landsat data have been investigated extensively to determine crop types and acreage. However, confounding site factors have been found to reduce accuracy. Soils data in a small, contiguous area in southeast South Dakota were used to stratify Landsat data. A June 5 and July 29 CCT were used in a statistical analysis of corn training data. Significant soil parameters causing differences in study area soils were slope and parent material. Implication of the results is that, in this region, stratification of CCT data along parent material boundaries would improve corn classification accuracy. Research expanding on the interaction of soils and crops is both in progress and scheduled for additional studies in east central South Dakota.

  8. Sampling Soil for Characterization and Site Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Elissa

    1999-01-01

    The sampling scheme for soil characterization within the GLOBE program is uniquely different from the sampling methods of the other protocols. The strategy is based on an understanding of the 5 soil forming factors (parent material, climate, biota, topography, and time) at each study site, and how each of these interact to produce a soil profile with unique characteristics and unique input and control into the atmospheric, biological, and hydrological systems. Soil profile characteristics, as opposed to soil moisture and temperature, vegetative growth, and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions, change very slowly, depending on the parameter being measured, ranging from seasonally to many thousands of years. Thus, soil information, including profile description and lab analysis, is collected only one time for each profile at a site. These data serve two purposes: 1) to supplement existing spatial information about soil profile characteristics across the landscape at local, regional, and global scales, and 2) to provide specific information within a given area about the basic substrate to which elements within the other protocols are linked. Because of the intimate link between soil properties and these other environmental elements, the static soil properties at a given site are needed to accurately interpret and understand the continually changing dynamics of soil moisture and temperature, vegetation growth and phenology, atmospheric conditions, and chemistry and turbidity in surface waters. Both the spatial and specific soil information can be used for modeling purposes to assess and make predictions about global change.

  9. Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials from Simulated Composition of Lunar and Martian Soils: Selected Properties and Potential Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. S.; Sen, S.; Reis, S. T.; Kim, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    In-situ resource processing and utilization on planetary bodies is an important and integral part of NASA's space exploration program. Within this scope and context, our general effort is primarily aimed at developing glass and glass-ceramic type materials using lunar and martian soils, and exploring various applications of these materials for planetary surface operations. Our preliminary work to date have demonstrated that glasses can be successfully prepared from melts of the simulated composition of both lunar and martian soils, and the melts have a viscosity-temperature window appropriate for drawing continuous glass fibers. The glasses are shown to have the potential for immobilizing certain types of nuclear wastes without deteriorating their chemical durability and thermal stability. This has a direct impact on successfully and economically disposing nuclear waste generated from a nuclear power plant on a planetary surface. In addition, these materials display characteristics that can be manipulated using appropriate processing protocols to develop glassy or glass-ceramic magnets. Also discussed in this presentation are other potential applications along with a few selected thermal, chemical, and structural properties as evaluated up to this time for these materials.

  10. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Zika & Pregnancy: What ... fiberglass) material: these casts come in many bright colors and are lighter and cooler. The fiberglass (a ...

  11. Effect of 10 different TiO2 and ZrO2 (nano)materials on the soil invertebrate Enchytraeus crypticus.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Susana I L; Caputo, Gianvito; Pinna, Nicola; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; Amorim, Mónica J B

    2015-10-01

    Nearly 80% of all the nano-powders produced worldwide are metal oxides, and among these materials titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) is one of the most produced. Titanium dioxide's toxicity is estimated as low to soil organisms, but some studies have shown that TiO2 nanoparticles can cause oxidative stress. Additionally, it is known that TiO2 is activated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which can promote photocatalytic generation of reactive oxygen species, which is seldom taken into account in toxicity testing. In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of different TiO2 and zirconium materials on the soil oligochaete Enchytraeus crypticus, using exposure via soil, water, and soil:water extracts, and studied the effects combined with UV radiation. The results showed that zirconium dioxide (bulk and nano) was not toxic, whereas zirconium tetrachloride reduced enchytraeid reproduction in soil (50% effect concentration = 502 mg/kg). The TiO2 materials were also not toxic via soil exposure or under UV radiation. However, pre-exposure to TiO2 and UV radiation via aqueous media caused a lower reproductive output post-exposure in clean soil (20-50% less but only observed at the lowest concentration tested, 1 mg/L); that is, the effect of TiO2 in water was potentiated by the UV radiation and measurable as a decrease in reproduction in soil media. PMID:26013659

  12. SORPTION-DESORPTION OF IMIDACLOPRID AND ITS METABOLITES IN SOIL AND VADOSE ZONE MATERIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorption-desorption is arguably the most important process affecting the transport of pesticides through soil since it controls the amount of pesticide available for transport. Sorption is usually characterized by determining batch sorption coefficients. These coefficients are often used in transpor...

  13. System for high throughput water extraction from soil material for stable isotope analysis of water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major limitation in the use of stable isotope of water in ecological studies is the time that is required to extract water from soil and plant samples. Using vacuum distillation the extraction time can be less than one hour per sample. Therefore, assembling a distillation system that can process m...

  14. Soil Organic Carbon Mapping by Geostatistics in Europe Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, E.; Panagos, P.; Montanarella, L.

    2013-12-01

    Accuracy in assessing the distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important issue because SOC is an important soil component that plays key roles in the functions of both natural ecosystems and agricultural systems. The SOC content varies from place to place and it is strongly related with climate variables (temperature and rainfall), terrain features, soil texture, parent material, vegetation, land-use types, and human management (management and degradation) at different spatial scales. Geostatistical techniques allow for the prediction of soil properties using soil information and environmental covariates. In this study, assessment of SOC distribution has been predicted with Regression-Kriging method in Europe scale. In this prediction, combination of the soil samples which were collected from the LUCAS (European Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) & BioSoil Projects, with local soil data which were collected from six different CZOs in Europe and ten spatial predictors (slope, aspect, elevation, CTI, CORINE land-cover classification, parent material, texture, WRB soil classification, annual average temperature and precipitation) were used. Significant correlation between the covariates and the organic carbon dependent variable was found. Moreover, investigating the contribution of local dataset in watershed scale into regional dataset in European scale was an important challenge.

  15. Trace element distribution and mobilization in Scottish soils with particular reference to cobalt, copper and molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Berrow, M L; Ure, A M

    1986-03-01

    Total and extractable trace element contents have been determined in about 1000 soil profiles representing the main soil series occurring throughout Scotland. The frequency distributions of a number of trace elements in these soils are described and some relationships between total and extractable contents discussed. The geological nature of the soil parent material, soil texture, organic matter content and environmental contamination are the principal factors controlling soil total contents. Soil drainage class, because of its effect on mineral weathering and soil oxidation-reduction conditions, has a major influence on soil extractable contents, availability to plants and crop uptake. Particular attention is paid to cobalt, copper and molybdenum because of their importance for animal health in Scotland. PMID:24213839

  16. Geo-pedological control of soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks at the landscape scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barré, Pierre; Durand, Hermine; Chenu, Claire; Meunier, Patrick; Montagne, David; Castel, Géraldine; Billiou, Daniel; Cécillon, Lauric

    2015-04-01

    Geo-pedology, here defined as soil type (or Reference Soil Group) and parent material, can have a major impact on ecosystem (vegetation and soil) functioning. Geo-pedology can therefore deeply influence soil organic matter (SOM) stock. Nonetheless, the effect of geo-pedology on soil organic C (SOC) and N stocks has seldom been investigated. Indeed, factors known to influence SOM stocks such as land use and climate frequently co-vary with geo-pedology, so that testing the influence on SOM stocks of the factor "geo-pedology" alone is challenging. In this work, we studied SOM stocks of forest and cropland soils in a small landscape (17 km²) of the Paris basin (AgroParisTech domain, Thiverval-Grignon, France). We collected soil samples (0-30 cm) in 50 forest and cropland plots, located in five geo-pedological contexts: Luvisols developed on loess deposit, Cambisols developed on hard limestone, Cambisols developed on shelly limestone, Cambisols developed on chalk and Cambisols developed on calcareous clay deposits. We then determined SOM stocks (organic C and total N) and SOM distribution across different particle size fractions (coarse sand, fine sand and silt-clay). As expected, SOC stocks were much higher in forests (~ 83 tC ha-1) than in cultivated soils (~ 49 tC ha-1). Interestingly, Cambisols had higher SOC stocks than Luvisols (69 vs 56 tC ha-1) and the difference between SOC stocks in forest and cultivated soils was much higher for Cambisols compared to Luvisols. Within Cambisols, parent material did not influence SOC stocks but the interaction between parent material and land use was significant, indicating that the effect of land use on SOC stocks was modulated by parent material. Similar trends were observed for soil N stocks. Conversely, soil type and parent material did not control SOM distribution in soil size fractions, while forest soils showed a higher distribution of SOC and N in the sand-size fraction than cropland soils. Overall, our study evidenced a geo-pedological control of SOM stocks and clearly indicates that the change in SOM stocks resulting from a land-use change is strongly modulated by soil type. A good knowledge of the Reference Soil Group distributions is therefore needed to reduce the uncertainty on SOC stock evolutions in a changing environment from the landscape to the global scale.

  17. A Multi-Wavelength Grain-by-Grain Survey of Lunar Soils in Search of Rare Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, S.; Lucey, P. G.; Viti, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon is unique among terrestrial planets for its lack of an atmosphere and global tectonic or volcanic processes. These factors and its position in the inner solar system mean that it is a potential repository of meteoritic material from all of the terrestrial planets. The National Research Council's 2007 report on the Scientific Context for the Exploration of the Moon highlighted this unique possibility and defined the search for rare materials including those from the early Earth as a key goal for future lunar exploration. Armstrong et al. (2002) estimated that Earth material could be present at the 7 ppm level in surface lunar regolith and emphasized that since a single gram of lunar fines contains over 10 million particles, the search for terran material in lunar soils should begin with the current stock of lunar samples. Joy et al. (2012) demonstrated that mineral and lithologic relics of impactors can survive and be recognized in lunar samples, and recent work by Burchell et al. (2014) suggests that fossil fragments from Earth could survive the extreme shocks associated with transport to the Moon. Following the concept laid out by Armstrong et al. (2002), we are conducting a survey of lunar soil samples using microscopic hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy across visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared wavelengths to conduct a search for rare particles, including those that could be sourced from the early Earth. Our system currently consists of three microscopic imaging spectrometers with ~30 micron spatial resolution, permitting resolved imaging of individual grains. Fields of view of at least 1 cm and scan rates near 1 mm/sec permit rapid processing of relatively large quantities of sample. Existing spectrometers cover the 0.5 to 2.5 micron region, permitting detection and characterization of the common iron-bearing lunar minerals olivine and pyroxene, and the 8-14 micron region, which permits detection of other, rarer minerals of interest such as apatite and zircons. We are developing the capability to measure the 3 micron region to search for hydrated minerals. Our system also incorporates a micromanipulator which will be used for sorting of soils and isolation of grains of interest. We will report on the status of the system and progress towards identifying and isolating rare grains in lunar soils.

  18. Soil experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim

    1987-01-01

    An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil experiment with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil experiment without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.

  19. Method for recovery of hydrocarbons form contaminated soil or refuse materials

    DOEpatents

    Ignasiak, Teresa; Turak, Ali A.; Pawlak, Wanda; Ignasiak, Boleslaw L.; Guerra, Carlos R.; Zwillenberg, Melvin L.

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for separating an inert solid substantially inorganic fraction comprising sand or soil from a tarry or oily organic matter in a feedstock. The feedstock may be contaminated soil or tarry waste. The feedstock is combined with pulverized coal and water. The ratio (oil or tar to dry weight of coal) of about 1.0:10 to about 4.0:10 at a temperature in the range of 60.degree.-95.degree. C. The mixture is agitated, the coarse particles are removed, and up to about 0.10% by weight (based on weight of coal) of a frothing agent is added. The mixture is then subjected to flotation, and the froth is removed from the mixture.

  20. Methods using earthworms for the evaluation of potentially toxic materials in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, E.F.; Loehr, R.C.; Malecki, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using earthworms to indicate effects of potentially toxic wastes when such wastes are intentionally or accidentally added to soils. Initial work with metals has shown that earthworms exhibit specific growth and reproductive responses. These responses are related to the concentration and solubility of the metal. Of the metals tested, cadmium was found to be the most toxic, followed by nickel, copper, zinc, and lead. The metal concentration in earthworm tissue and the background manure-metal mixture was measured, permitting the concentration factor to be computed. The concentration factor is the ratio of the metal in the worm tissue to that in the surrounding manure-metal mixture. These and other studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that the methods described in this paper may be used to predict the effect of land-applied or atmospherically deposited residues on the soil biota.

  1. Does the feedstock origin of pyrolyzed materials influence the leaching quality and quantity of dissolved organic carbon from soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suddick, E.; Spencer, R. G.; Pereira, E. I.; Six, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Soils play a major role in the global C cycle and can be both a source of C emissions to the atmosphere and also a C sink. In order to sequester vast quantities of C and increase soil C stocks, which may be used to partly offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the future, new technologies are needed. Recently, there has been an abundance of interest in the use of pyrolyzed biomass C, termed biochar, as an amendment to terrestrial ecosystems to provide a large and long term sink of C. However, the stability and permanence of this black C source in soil is still relatively unknown and the uncertainty surrounding its turnover time may have implications for both C sequestration and the fate and transport of dissolved organic C leached to nearby water resources. Biochar can be derived from a multitude of feed stocks (e.g. walnut shells, wood chippings, poultry litter) and under a variety of pyrolysis conditions (e.g. high temperature or low temperatures); each process and feed stock can yield very different materials that has many different physical (e.g. surface area) and chemical (e.g. CEC, C and N content) properties. Each feed stock and pyrolysis condition may consequently contribute to a distinct recalcitrance in soil. Therefore, we undertook a pot trial to evaluate the chemical characteristics of leachate from soils incubated with biochars derived from 15 different feed stocks. Using optical property parameters such as SUVA, chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) slope parameter and fluorescence characteristics, we were able to determine the C leaching potential of each feedstock. Preliminary data suggests that there are distinct variations in optical properties with feed stock origin, for example an algae digestate showed a lower absorbance at 350 nm (a350) (25.7 m-1) and a steeper spectral slope at 290-350 nm (S290-350 x10-3) (17.7 nm-1) indicative of the presence of lower molecular weight compounds compared to control treatment with a signature typical of SOC (a350 = 29.2 m-1; S290-350 = 16.8 nm-1). The ramifications for the transport of both the quantity and quality of C to aquatic systems will be discussed, especially in light of the popularity of "designer" biochars that could be used as a soil amendment in the future

  2. Biodegradation of alpha and beta endosulfan in soil as influenced by application of different organic materials.

    PubMed

    Al-Hassan, Raghed M; Bashour, Isam I; Kawar, Nasri S

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of amending soil with four different sources of organic matter on the degradation rate of alpha and beta endosulfan isomers. Poultry by-product meal, poultry manure, dairy manure, and municipal solid waste compost were cured, dried, ground (<1 mm) and thoroughly mixed with a calcareous soil at a rate of 2% and placed in plastic pots. Endosulfan was added at the rate of 20 mg kg(-1). The moisture level was kept near field capacity and the pots were kept at room temperature. Soil sub-samples, 100 g each, were collected from every pot at days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, and 57 for the measurement of endosulfan isomers. Endosulfan residues were extracted from the soil samples with acetone. The supernatant was filtered through anhydrous sodium sulphate, 5 mL aliquot was diluted to 25 mL with hexane, mixed well, and then two sub-samples from the filtrates were analyzed for alpha and beta endosulfan isomers by gas chromatography. The results indicated that the half-life (T(1/2)) of alpha-endosulfan in the poultry by-product meal treatment was 15 days compared to about 22 days in the other treatments. The T(1/2) of beta-endosulfan was 22 days in the poultry by-product meal treatment and followed a bi-phasic pattern, 57 days in the municipal solid waste compost treatment and the extrapolated T(1/2) was about 115 days for the other three treatments. PMID:15620084

  3. RCRA materials analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Detection limits in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Koskelo, A.; Cremers, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    The goal of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) that this report supports is research, development, testing and evaluation of a portable analyzer for RCRA and other metals. The instrumentation to be built will be used for field-screening of soils. Data quality is expected to be suitable for this purpose. The data presented in this report were acquired to demonstrate the detection limits for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of soils using instrument parameters suitable for fieldable instrumentation. The data are not expected to be the best achievable with the high pulse energies available in laboratory lasers. The report presents work to date on the detection limits for several elements in soils using LIBS. The elements targeted in the Technical Task Plan are antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, selenium, and zirconium. Data for these elements are presented in this report. Also included are other data of interest to potential customers for the portable LIBS apparatus. These data are for barium, mercury, cesium and strontium. Data for uranium and thorium will be acquired during the tasks geared toward mixed waste characterization.

  4. Effects of polyacrylamide on soil erosion and nutrient losses from substrate material in steep rocky slope stabilization projects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhang; Chen, Wenlu; Li, Chengjun; Pu, Yanpin; Sun, Haifeng

    2016-06-01

    Erosion of denuded steep rocky slopes causes increasing losses of nitrogen and phosphorus, which is a severe problem in rocky slope protection. Thus, it is important to determine the appropriate materials that can reduce the erodibility and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus of the soil. In this paper, twenty-seven simulated rainfall events were carried out in a greenhouse, in which the substrate material was artificial soil; nine types of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) were studied, which consisted of three molecular weight (6, 12, and 18Mgmol(-1)) and three charge density (10, 20, and 30%) formulations in a 3 by 3 factorial design. The results showed that: (1) Polyacrylamide application reduced total nitrogen losses by 35.3% to 50.0% and total phosphorus losses by 34.9% to 48.0% relative to the control group. (2) The losses of total nitrogen and total phosphorus had significant correlation with the molecular weight. Besides, the losses of total phosphorus, particulate-bound phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen (NH4-N) were significantly correlated with their molecular weight and charge density. However, the losses of dissolved organic nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen (NO3-N), dissolved organic phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus (PO4-P) were non-significantly correlated with molecular weight and charge density. (3) Particulate-bound nitrogen and phosphorus were responsible for the losses of nitrogen and phosphorus during runoff events, where particulate-bound nitrogen made up 71.7% to 73.2% of total nitrogen losses, and particulate-bound phosphorus made up 82.3% to 85.2% of total phosphorus losses. (4) Polyacrylamide treatments increased water-stable aggregates content by 32.3% to 59.1%, total porosity by 11.3% to 49.0%, final infiltrative rate by 41.3% to 72.5%, and reduced soil erosion by 18.9% to 39.8% compared with the control group. Overall, the results of this study indicated that polyacrylamide application in the steep rocky slope stabilization projects could significantly reduce nutrient losses and soil erosion of substrate material. PMID:26950616

  5. Attenuation coefficients of soils and some building materials of Bangladesh in the energy range 276-1332 keV.

    PubMed

    Alam, M N; Miah, M M; Chowdhury, M I; Kamal, M; Ghose, S; Rahman, R

    2001-06-01

    The linear and mass attenuation coefficients of different types of soil, sand, building materials and heavy beach mineral samples from the Chittagong and Cox's Bazar area of Bangladesh were measured using a high-resolution HPGe detector and the gamma-ray energies 276.1, 302.8, 356.0, 383.8, 661.6 and 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV emitted from point sources of 133Ba, 137Cs and 60Co, respectively. The linear attenuation coefficients show a linear relationship with the corresponding densities of the samples studied. The variations of the mass attenuation coefficient with gamma-ray energy were exponential in nature. The measured mass attenuation coefficient values were compared with measurements made in other countries for similar kinds of materials. The values are in good agreement with each other in most cases. PMID:11300413

  6. Map Scale in the Context of Progress in Soil Geography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Bradley; Schaetzl, Randall

    2014-05-01

    In this presentation, we review historical soil maps from a geographical perspective, in contrast to the more traditional temporal perspective. Our geographical perspective is operationalized by comparing soil maps based on their scale and classification system. To analyze the connection between scale in historical soil maps and their associated classification systems, we place soil maps into three categories of cartographic scale. We then examine how categories of cartographic scale correspond to the selection of environmental soil predictors used to initially create the maps, as reflected by the maps' legend. Previous analyses of soil mapping from the temporal perspective have concluded that soil classification systems have co-evolved with gains in soil knowledge. We conclude that paradigm shifts in soil mapping and classification can be better explained by their correlation to historical improvements in scientific understanding, differences in purpose for mapping, and advancement in geographic technologies. We observe that, throughout history, small cartographic scale maps have tended to emphasize climate-vegetation zonation. Medium cartographic scale maps have put more emphasis on parent material as a variable to explain soil distributions. And finally, soil maps at large cartographic scales have relied more on topography as a predictive factor. Importantly, a key characteristic of modern soil classification systems is their multi-scale approach, which incorporates these phenomena scales within their classification hierarchies. Although most modern soil classification systems are based on soil properties, the soil map remains a model, the purpose of which is to predict the spatial distributions of those properties. Hence, multi-scale classification systems still tend to be organized, at least in part, by this observed spatial hierarchy. Although the hierarchy observed in this study is generally known in pedology today, it also represents a new view on the evolution of soil science. Increased recognition of this hierarchy may also help to more holistically combine soil formation factors with soil geography and pattern, particularly in the context of digital soil mapping.

  7. Assessment of some straw-derived materials for reducing the leaching potential of Metribuzin residues in the soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cara, Irina Gabriela; Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Trofin, Alina Elena; Cazacu, Ana; Ţopa, Denis; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara; Jităreanu, Gerard

    2015-12-01

    Biomass (straw waste) can be used as raw to obtain materials for herbicide removal from wastewater. These by-products have some important advantages, being environmentally friendly, easily available, presenting low costs, and requiring little processing to increase their adsorptive capacity. In the present study, some materials derived from agricultural waste (wheat, corn and soybean straw) were investigated as potential adsorbents for metribuzin removal from aqueous solutions. The straw wastes were processed by grinding, mineralisation (850 °C) and KOH activation in order to improve their functional surface activity. The materials surface characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The adsorbents capacity was evaluated using batch sorption tests and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for herbicide determination. For adsorption isotherms, the equilibrium time considered was 3 h. The experimental adsorption data were modelled by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The activated straw and ash-derived materials from wheat, corn and soybean increased the adsorption capacity of metribuzin with an asymmetrical behaviour. Overall, our results sustain that activated ash-derived from straw and activated straw materials can be a valuable solution for reducing the leaching potential of metribuzin through soil.

  8. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the Colonie Site, Colonie, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, D.

    1996-05-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Colonie site located in Colonie, New York. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The site became contaminated with radioactive material as a result of operations conducted by National Lead (NL) Industries from 1958 to 1984; these activities included brass foundry operations, electroplating of metal products, machining of various components using depleted uranium, and limited work with small amounts of enriched uranium and thorium. The Colonie site comprises the former NL Industries property, now designated the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS), and 56 vicinity properties contaminated by fallout from airborne emissions; 53 of the vicinity properties were previously remediated between 1984 and 1988. In 1984, DOE accepted ownership of the CISS property from NL Industries. Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines.

  9. Soil Mineralogy and Substrate Quality Effects on Microbial Priming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, B. K.; Rasmussen, C.; Dijkstra, P.; Schwartz, E.; Mau, R. L.; Liu, X. J. A.; Hungate, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) cycling can slow or accelerate in response to new C inputs from fresh organic matter. This change in native C mineralization, known as the "microbial priming effect," is difficult to predict because the underlying mechanisms of priming are still poorly understood. We hypothesized that soil mineral assemblage, specifically short-range-order (SRO) minerals, influences microbial responses to different quality C substrate inputs. To test this, we added 350 μg C g-1soil weekly of an artificial root exudates mixture primarily comprised of glucose, sucrose, lactate and fructose (a simple C source) or ground ponderosa pine litter (a complex C source) for six weeks to three soil types from similar ecosystems derived from different parent material. The soils, from andesite, basalt, and granite parent materials, had decreasing abundance in SRO minerals, respectively. We found that the simple C substrate induced 63 ±16.3% greater positive priming than the complex C across all soil types. The quantity of soil SRO materials was negatively correlated with soil respiration, but positively correlated with priming. The lowest SRO soil amended with litter primed the least (14 ± 11 μgCO2-C g-1), while the largest priming effect occurring in the highest SRO soil amended with simple substrate (246 ± 18 μgCO2-C g-1). Our results indicate that higher SRO mineral content could accelerate microorganisms' capacity to mineralize native soil organic carbon and respond more strongly to labile C inputs. However, while all treatments exhibited positive priming, the amount of C added over the six-week incubation was greater than total CO2 respired. This suggests that despite a relative stimulation of native C mineralization, these soils act as C sinks rather than sources in response to fresh organic matter inputs.

  10. Land application of carbonatic lake-dredged materials: Effects on soil quality and forage productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productive disposal options of carbonatic lake-dredged materials (82% CaCO3) may provide substantial and intangible benefits that will enhance the environment, community, and society. The ability to reuse carbonatic lake-dredged materials (CLDM) for agricultural purposes is important because it redu...

  11. The Systems Mapping of Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforova, Alexandra; Fleis, Maria; Borisov, Mickail

    2013-04-01

    Soil, together with rocks, waters, air, and living organisms, is one of the natural elements, which make up landscapes. At the same time soil is a unique (derivative) natural element because only it originates from the interaction of all the other (basic) natural elements. Reasoning from this fact, soil maps must be unique too - fundamentally different from geological, geomorphological, natural vegetation, and other thematic maps of the basic natural elements. It is suggested creating conceptually new soil maps, namely the systems soil maps, which are derived from the systems landscape maps. Legends of such maps are based on hierarchical classification of natural landscapes-systems. The last-mentioned are regarded as elementary structural units of the Earth's landscape envelope comprised of interacting landscape elements. The landscapes-systems step by step are divided into divisions and subdivisions of different hierarchical levels unless reaching separate and isolated landscapes-systems, which can not be divided further because of their homogeneity. Criteria used to differentiate between landscapes-systems include the most prominent properties of natural landscape elements, for instance: sequence of the elements, range of altitudes and slopes, zonal vegetation types associated with effective heat sum and precipitation ratio, the main genetic soil horizons, genetic types and forms of relief, lithology of parent materials, depth of humus horizons, chemical composition of ground waters, and so forth. Levels at which criteria of classification are soil properties are named the "soil" one; they are the lowest one in each scale range. The systems soil maps are produced for "soil" levels and show certain soil properties in connection with those properties of the basic natural elements, which cause these soil properties. In GIS environment the systems soil maps are produced automatically from an integrated polygon layer created manually on the basis of expert analysis of the maximum possible quantity of thematic, mainly paper, maps, and texts. The hierarchy of the natural landscapes, as well as hierarchy of the properties of their elements, is displayed with the help of an additional line layer containing information about rank-ordered natural boundaries. Currently, polygon systems maps of Saratov oblast in GIS format and paper systems maps of the Nechernozemnaya Zone of the European Russia have been created. Scale of the main topographic maps, which were used, is 1:1,500,000. The systems soil mapping is regarded as a pathway to development of a global soil data infrastructure and universal soil classification system.

  12. Parenting Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2005-01-01

    Parenting is a subject about which people typically hold strong opinions, but about which too little solid information or considered reflection exists. And clearly critical questions about parenting abound. Moreover, the family generally, and parenting specifically, are today in a greater state of flux, question, and re-definition than perhaps…

  13. Parental Involvment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Jeanne; And Others

    This document presents one module in a set of training resources for trainers to use with parents and/or professionals serving children with disabilities; focus is on parental involvement. The modules stress content and activities that build skills and offer resources to promote parent-professional collaboration. Each module takes about 2 hours to…

  14. Aggregating available soil water holding capacity data for crop yield models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seubert, C. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Holt, D. A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.

  15. Survey and evaluation of contaminants in earthworms and in soils derived from dredged material at confined disposal facilities in the Great Lakes region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Stafford, C.

    1993-01-01

    Soils derived from dredged material were collected, together with earthworms from nine confined disposal facilities located in the Great Lakes Region. These samples were analyzed for 18 elements, 11 organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The concentrations detected in earthworms were evaluated in terms of their potential hazard to wildlife, which for the sake of the evaluation were assumed to prey entirely either on earthworms or on other soil invertebrates having similar concentrations. The soil concentrations (dry wt.) of the contaminants of greatest concern were < 1.9 to 32 ppm Cd, < 0.053 to 0.94 ppm Hg, 4.6 to 550 ppm Pb, and < 0.1 to 1.0 ppm PCBs. The concentrations in earthworms (dry wt., ingested soil included) were as high as 91 ppm Cd, 1.6 ppm Hg, 200 ppm Pb, and 1.8 ppm PCBs. Based on laboratory toxicity studies of relatively sensitive species, and on concentration factors calculated from the earthworm and soil data, we estimated that lethal or serious sublethal effects on wildlife might be expected at concentrations of 10 ppm Cd, 3 ppm Hg, 670 ppm Pb, and 1.7 ppm PCBs in alkaline surface soils derived from dredged material. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in earthworms were well below those in soil.

  16. Efficiency of a Multi-Soil-Layering System on Wastewater Treatment Using Environment-Friendly Filter Materials

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chia-Chun; Wang, Pei-Hao

    2015-01-01

    The multi-soil-layering (MSL) system primarily comprises two parts, specifically, the soil mixture layer (SML) and the permeable layer (PL). In Japan, zeolite is typically used as the permeable layer material. In the present study, zeolite was substituted with comparatively cheaper and more environmentally friendly materials, such as expanded clay aggregates, oyster shells, and already-used granular activated carbon collected from water purification plants. A series of indoor tests indicated that the suspended solid (SS) removal efficiency of granular activated carbon was between 76.2% and 94.6%; zeolite and expanded clay aggregates achieved similar efficiencies that were between 53.7% and 87.4%, and oyster shells presented the lowest efficiency that was between 29.8% and 61.8%. Further results show that the oyster shell system required an increase of wastewater retention time by 2 to 4 times that of the zeolite system to maintain similar chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency. Among the four MSL samples, the zeolite system and granular activated carbon system demonstrated a stable NH3-N removal performance at 92.3%–99.8%. The expanded clay aggregate system present lower removal performance because of its low adsorption capacity and excessively large pores, causing NO3−-N to be leached away under high hydraulic loading rate conditions. The total phosphorous (TP) removal efficiency of the MSL systems demonstrated no direct correlation with the permeable layer material. Therefore, all MSL samples achieved a TP efficiency of between 92.1% and 99.2%. PMID:25809517

  17. Efficiency of a multi-soil-layering system on wastewater treatment using environment-friendly filter materials.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chia-Chun; Wang, Pei-Hao

    2015-03-01

    The multi-soil-layering (MSL) system primarily comprises two parts, specifically, the soil mixture layer (SML) and the permeable layer (PL). In Japan, zeolite is typically used as the permeable layer material. In the present study, zeolite was substituted with comparatively cheaper and more environmentally friendly materials, such as expanded clay aggregates, oyster shells, and already-used granular activated carbon collected from water purification plants. A series of indoor tests indicated that the suspended solid (SS) removal efficiency of granular activated carbon was between 76.2% and 94.6%; zeolite and expanded clay aggregates achieved similar efficiencies that were between 53.7% and 87.4%, and oyster shells presented the lowest efficiency that was between 29.8% and 61.8%. Further results show that the oyster shell system required an increase of wastewater retention time by 2 to 4 times that of the zeolite system to maintain similar chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency. Among the four MSL samples, the zeolite system and granular activated carbon system demonstrated a stable NH3-N removal performance at 92.3%-99.8%. The expanded clay aggregate system present lower removal performance because of its low adsorption capacity and excessively large pores, causing NO3--N to be leached away under high hydraulic loading rate conditions. The total phosphorous (TP) removal efficiency of the MSL systems demonstrated no direct correlation with the permeable layer material. Therefore, all MSL samples achieved a TP efficiency of between 92.1% and 99.2%. PMID:25809517

  18. Soil magnetic susceptibility: A quantitative proxy of soil drainage for use in ecological restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimley, D.A.; Wang, J.-S.; Liebert, D.A.; Dawson, J.O.

    2008-01-01

    Flooded, saturated, or poorly drained soils are commonly anaerobic, leading to microbially induced magnetite/maghemite dissolution and decreased soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). Thus, MS is considerably higher in well-drained soils (MS typically 40-80 ?? 10-5 standard international [SI]) compared to poorly drained soils (MS typically 10-25 ?? 10-5 SI) in Illinois, other soil-forming factors being equal. Following calibration to standard soil probings, MS values can be used to rapidly and precisely delineate hydric from nonhydric soils in areas with relatively uniform parent material. Furthermore, soil MS has a moderate to strong association with individual tree species' distribution across soil moisture regimes, correlating inversely with independently reported rankings of a tree species' flood tolerance. Soil MS mapping can thus provide a simple, rapid, and quantitative means for precisely guiding reforestation with respect to plant species' adaptations to soil drainage classes. For instance, in native woodlands of east-central Illinois, Quercus alba , Prunus serotina, and Liriodendron tulipifera predominantly occur in moderately well-drained soils (MS 40-60 ?? 10-5 SI), whereas Acer saccharinum, Carya laciniosa, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica predominantly occur in poorly drained soils (MS <20 ?? 10-5 SI). Using a similar method, an MS contour map was used to guide restoration of mesic, wet mesic, and wet prairie species to pre-settlement distributions at Meadowbrook Park (Urbana, IL, U.S.A.). Through use of soil MS maps calibrated to soil drainage class and native vegetation occurrence, restoration efforts can be conducted more successfully and species distributions more accurately reconstructed at the microecosystem level. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  19. Analysis of remotely sensed data for detecting soil limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, L. A.; Frazee, C. J.; Waltz, F. A.

    1973-01-01

    During 1971 and 1972 a detailed study was conducted on a fallow field in the proposed Oahe Irrigation Project to determine the relationship between the tonal variation observed on aerial photographs and the properties of eroded soil. Correlation and regression analysis of digitized, multiemulsion, color infrared film (2443) data and detailed field data revealed a highly significant correlation between film transmittance and several soil properties indicative of the erosion limitation. Computer classification of the multiemulsion film data resulted in maps portraying the eroded soil and the normal soil. Both correlation and computer classification results were best using the reflectance data from the red spectral band. The results showed film transmittance was actually measuring the reflectivity of the soil surface which was increased by the incorporation of the light colored, calcareous parent material exposed by erosion or tillage on soils with thin surface horizons.

  20. Income Is Not Enough: Incorporating Material Hardship into Models of Income Associations with Parenting and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Aber, J. Lawrence; Raver, C. Cybele; Lennon, Mary Clare

    2007-01-01

    Although research has clearly established that low family income has negative impacts on children's cognitive skills and social-emotional competence, less often is a family's experience of material hardship considered. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (N=21,255), this study examined dual components of…

  1. MOELCULAR SIZE EXCLUSION BY SOIL ORGANIC MATERIALS ESTIMATED FROM THEIR SWELLING IN ORGANIC SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A published method previously developed to measure the swelling characteristics of pow dered coal samples has been adapted for swelling measurements on various peat, pollen, chain, and cellulose samples The swelling of these macromolecular materials is the volumetric manifestatio...

  2. Coal tar, material used in soil improvement for use in road engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa Díaz, R.; Montañez, A.; Cuentas, J.

    2016-02-01

    Coal tar is a by-product of coal distillation in the absence of oxygen to obtain metallurgical coke; its colour varies from dark coffee to black, slightly viscous and its density is greater than that of water. Taking into account the previous characteristics, this document presents a study of the feasibility of using coal tar for the improvement of physical properties, mechanics and dynamics of materials used in road engineering. In this way, the origin, characteristics, and properties of tar are first described. Next, its combination with which granular-based material is evaluated through the CBR test procedure to determine its resistance and to compare it with the non-stabilized material. Finally, the behaviour of the material when subjected to dead loads by means of resistant modules found with the NAT (Nottingham Asphalt Tester) is explored. As a result, the option of using coal tar as a stabilizer was identified due to its use under specific conditions.

  3. Physiochemical, site, and bidirectional reflectance factor characteristics of uniformly moist soils. [Brazil, Spain and the United States of America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The bidirectional reflectance factor (0.5 micron to 2.3 micron wavelength interval) and physiochemical properties of over 500 soils from 39 states, Brazil and Spain were measured. Site characteristics of soil temperature regime and moisture zone were used as selection criteria. Parent material and internal drainage were noted for each soil. At least five general types of soil reflectance curves were identified based primarily on the presence or absence of ferric iron absorption bands, organic matter content, and soil drainage characteristics. Reflectance in 10 bands across the spectrum was found to be negatively correlated with the natural log of organic matter content.

  4. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the B&T Metals Company site, Columbus, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, Mm.; Yu, C

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil were derived for the B&T Metals Company site in Columbus, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that following remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 n-mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three scenarios were considered; each assumed that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The three scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food and water consumed. The evaluations indicate that the dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of total uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) at the B&T Metals site did not exceed 1, I 00 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker, current use) or 300 pCi/g for Scenario B (resident with municipal water supply, a likely future use). The dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded at the site if the total uranium concentration of the soil did not exceed 880 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident with an on-site water well, a plausible but unlikely future use).

  5. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the former Baker Brothers, Inc., Site, Toledo, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmagadda, M.; Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.

    1995-04-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the former Baker Brothers, Inc., site in Toledo, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that following remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three scenarios were considered; each assumed that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The three scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food and water consumed. The evaluation indicates that the dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of total combined uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) at the former Baker Brothers site did not exceed 710 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker, current use) or 210 pCi/g for Scenario B (resident - municipal water supply, a likely future use). The dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded at the site if the total uranium concentration of the soil did not exceed 500 pCi/g for Scenario C (subsistence farmer - on-site well water, a plausible but unlikely future use).

  6. Remediation of metal-contaminated soils with the addition of materials--part I: characterization and viability studies for the selection of non-hazardous waste materials and silicates.

    PubMed

    González-Núñez, R; Alba, M D; Orta, M M; Vidal, M; Rigol, A

    2011-11-01

    Contamination episodes in soils require interventions to attenuate their impact. These actions are often based on the addition of materials to increase contaminant retention in the soil and to dilute the contaminant concentration. Here, non-hazardous wastes (such as sugar foam, fly ash and a material produced by the zeolitization of fly ash) and silicates (including bentonites) were tested and fully characterized in the laboratory to select suitable materials for remediating metal-contaminated soils. Data from X-ray fluorescence (XRF), N(2) adsorption/desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses revealed the chemical composition, specific surface area and the phases appearing in the materials. A pH titration test allowed the calculation of their acid neutralization capacity (ANC). The metal sorption and desorption capacities of the waste materials and silicates were also estimated. Sugar foam, fly ash and the zeolitic material were the best candidate materials. Sugar foam was selected because of its high ANC (17000 meq kg(-1)), and the others were selected because of their larger distribution coefficients and lower sorption reversibilities than those predicted in the contaminated soils. PMID:22018740

  7. Development of a standard reference material for Cr(vi) in contaminated soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagourney, S.J.; Wilson, S.A.; Buckley, B.; Kingston, H.M.S.; Yang, S.-Y.; Long, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last several decades, considerable contamination by hexavalent chromium has resulted from the land disposal of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR). COPR contains a number of hexavalent chromium-bearing compounds that were produced in high temperature industrial processes. Concern over the carcinogenic potential of this chromium species, and its environmental mobility, has resulted in efforts to remediate these waste sites. To provide support to analytical measurements of hexavalent chromium, a candidate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material?? (SRM 2701), having a hexavalent chromium content of approximately 500 mg kg -1, has been developed using material collected from a waste site in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. The collection, processing, preparation and preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the material are discussed. A two-phase multi-laboratory testing study was carried out to provide data on material homogeneity and to assess the stability of the material over the duration of the study. The study was designed to incorporate several United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) determinative methods for hexavalent chromium, including Method 6800 which is based on speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), an approach which can account for chromium species inter-conversion during the extraction and measurement sequence. This journal is ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.

  8. Sulfate reduction in sulfuric material after re-flooding: Effectiveness of organic carbon addition and pH increase depends on soil properties.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chaolei; Fitzpatrick, Rob; Mosley, Luke M; Marschner, Petra

    2015-11-15

    Sulfuric material is formed upon oxidation of sulfidic material; it is extremely acidic, and therefore, an environmental hazard. One option for increasing pH of sulfuric material may be stimulation of bacterial sulfate reduction. We investigated the effects of organic carbon addition and pH increase on sulfate reduction after re-flooding in ten sulfuric materials with four treatments: control, pH increase to 5.5 (+pH), organic carbon addition with 2% w/w finely ground wheat straw (+C), and organic carbon addition and pH increase (+C+pH). After 36 weeks, in five of the ten soils, only treatment +C+pH significantly increased the concentration of reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) compared to the control and increased the soil pore water pH compared to treatment+pH. In four other soils, pH increase or/and organic carbon addition had no significant effect on RIS concentration compared to the control. The RIS concentration in treatment +C+pH as percentage of the control was negatively correlated with soil clay content and initial nitrate concentration. The results suggest that organic carbon addition and pH increase can stimulate sulfate reduction after re-flooding, but the effectiveness of this treatment depends on soil properties. PMID:26024614

  9. Relationships between reddening and soil magnetic properties as indices for the weathering of tropical soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preetz, Holger; Hannam, Jacqueline; Igel, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Soil magnetic susceptibility is caused by the presence of ferrimagnetic Fe- and Fe-/Ti-Oxides such as magnetite, titanomagnetite and maghemite that are stable in soils and can accumulate due to their resistance to weathering. Macro-sized ferrimagnetic minerals tend to be of lithogenic provenance and weather directly from basic igneous rocks. Ultrafine grained ferrimagnetic minerals are thought to form during pedogenesis and can be identified by their superparamagnetic (SP) behaviour. Quantifying SP behaviour by measuring frequency dependent (FD) magnetic susceptibility can potentially provide a proxy for soil formation and weathering in certain environments. There are very limited magnetic measurements of tropical soils and we investigated a unique dataset of 506 samples from tropical regions. Samples included topsoils, subsoils and weathered and unweathered parent rock from lateritic soils from the entire tropical belt representing a variety of soil parent materials: ultrabasic magmatic rocks, basic and intermediate magmatic rocks, acid magmatic rocks, clay and clay slate, phyllite, sandstones. The relationship between magnetic measurements and redness rating was investigated as a potential indicator of tropical soil development, particularly lateritic processes. Soils from ultrabasic and basic parent materials showed little correlation between FD susceptibility and RR due a strong lithogenic overprint and a potential input of lithogenic SP material. This influence is likely to derive from a relative enrichment, indicated by higher magnetic values from pedogenic samples compared with unweathered parent material. The enrichment of weathering resistant ferrimagnetic iron oxides is concordant with lateritic processes for enrichment of other elements such as Al. Soils from clay and clay slate show positive correlations primarily due to diminished inputs from lithogenic sources. In this instance, RR and FD susceptibility could be used as proxies for neoformation of hematite and SP ferrimagnetic iron oxides respectively. Pedogenic hematite has been suggested to derive from the transformation of ferrimagnetic minerals, hence as hematite content increases, magnetic properties should decrease. The coexistence of hematite and ferrimagnetic minerals after such long weathering histories in the clay-derived laterites suggest other pathways may operate during tropical weathering and laterite formation. However, colour saturation may occur in the RR measurements as hematite content reaches large concentrations.

  10. MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...

  11. Intrinsic W nucleosynthetic isotope variations in carbonaceous chondrites: Implications for W nucleosynthesis and nebular vs. parent body processing of presolar materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Christoph; Schönbächler, Maria

    2015-09-01

    The progressive dissolution of the carbonaceous chondrites Orgueil (CI1), Murchison (CM2) and Allende (CV3) with acids of increasing strength reveals correlated W isotope variations ranging from 3.5 ε182W and 6.5 ε183W in the initial leachate (acetic acid) to -60 ε182W and -40 ε183W in the leachate residue. The observed variations are readily explained by variable mixing of s-process depleted and s-process enriched components. One W s-process carrier is SiC, however, the observed anomaly patterns and mass-balance considerations require at least on additional s-process carrier, possibly a silicate or sulfide. The data reveal well-defined correlations, which provide a test for s-process nucleosynthesis models. The correlations demonstrate that current models need to be revised and highlight the need for more precise W isotope data of SiC grains. Furthermore the correlations provide a mean to disentangle nucleosynthetic and radiogenic contributions to 182W (ε182Wcorrected = ε182Wmeasured - (1.41 ± 0.05) × ε183Wmeasured; ε182Wcorrected = ε182Wmeasured - (-0.12 ± 0.06) × ε184Wmeasured), a prerequisite for the successful application of the Hf-W chronometer to samples with nucleosynthetic anomalies. The overall magnitude of the W isotope variations decreases in the order CI1 > CM2 > CV3. This can be interpreted as the progressive thermal destruction of an initially homogeneous mixture of presolar grains by parent-body processing. However, not only the magnitude but also the W anomaly patterns of the three chondrites are different. In particular leach step 2, that employs nitric acid, reveals a s-deficit signature for Murchison, but a s-excess for Orgueil and Allende. This could be the result of redistribution of anomalous W into a new phase by parent-body alteration, or, the fingerprint of dust processing in the solar nebula. Given that the thermal and aqueous alteration of Murchison is between the CI and CV3 chondrites, parent-body processing is probably not the sole cause for creating the different pattern. Small-scale nebular redistribution of anomalous W may have played a role as well. Similar nebular processes possibly acted differently on specific carrier phases and elements, resulting in the diverse nucleosynthetic signatures observed in planetary materials today.

  12. Summary of hydrologic and physical properties of rock and soil materials, as analyzed by the hydrologic laboratory of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1948-60

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, D.A.; Johnson, A.I.

    1967-01-01

    The Hydrologic Laboratory was established in 1948 to serve as the central testing laboratory for the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since then, thousands of samples of rock and soil materials have been analyzed in the laboratory. Analytical data on samples from 42 States and for the period 1948-60 are summarized in this report. The data are presented in a form that allows easy comparison of the physical and hydrologic properties of many sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rock and soil materials. Sedimentary rocks--the principal water-bearing rocks analyzed--are discussed in detail.

  13. Soil Chemistry Still Affected 23 Years After Large Application of Fluidized Bed Material

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to assess the movement of arsenic, aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury and zinc in an old apple (Malus domestica Borkh) orchard that received a one time application of 36 kg/ m2 of fluidized bed combustion material (FBCM) 23 years earlier. S...

  14. Suppression of Boride Formation in Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Pairings of Parent Superalloy Materials with Different Compositions and Grain Structures and Resulting Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steuer, Susanne; Singer, Robert F.

    2014-07-01

    Two Ni-based superalloys, columnar grained Alloy 247 and single-crystal PWA1483, are joined by transient liquid phase bonding using an amorphous brazing foil containing boron as a melting point depressant. At lower brazing temperatures, two different morphologies of borides develop in both base materials: plate-like and globular ones. Their ratio to each other is temperature dependent. With very high brazing temperatures, the deleterious boride formation in Alloy 247 can be totally avoided, probably because the three-phase-field moves to higher alloying element contents. For the superalloy PWA1483, the formation of borides cannot be completely avoided at high brazing temperatures as incipient melting occurs. During subsequent solidification of these areas, Chinese-script-like borides precipitate. The mechanical properties (tensile tests at room and elevated temperatures and short-term creep rupture tests at elevated temperatures) for brazed samples without boride precipitation are very promising. Tensile strengths and creep times to 1 pct strain are comparable, respectively, higher than the ones of the weaker parent material for all tested temperatures and creep conditions (from 90 to 100 pct rsp. 175 to 250 pct).

  15. Cr(VI) adsorption/desorption on untreated and mussel shell-treated soil materials: fractionation and effects of pH and chromium concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, M.; Cutillas-Barreiro, L.; Nóvoa-Muñoz, J. C.; Arias-Estévez, M.; Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J.; Álvarez-Rodríguez, E.; Núñez-Delgado, A.

    2014-12-01

    We used batch-type experiments to study Cr(VI) adsorption/desorption on granitic material, forest soil, pyritic material, mussel shell, and on forest soil and granitic material amended with 12 t ha-1 shell, considering the effects of varying Cr(VI) concentration and pH. Sequential extractions were carried out to fractionate adsorbed Cr(VI) and to determine the stability of Cr(VI) retention. The pyritic material had the highest Cr(VI) retention capacity, whereas the granitic material showed the lowest retention potential. When high Cr concentrations were added, some saturation of the adsorbent surfaces became apparent, but Cr release remained low. The highest Cr retention was achieved at very acid pH value, with release progressively increasing as a function of increasing pH. The amendment with 12 t ha-1 mussel shell did not cause marked changes in Cr(VI) retention. Adsorption data were satisfactory adjusted to the Freundlich model. Regarding Cr(VI) fractionation, the soluble fraction (weakly bound) was the dominant in mussel shell and in the un-amended and amended granitic material, whereas more stable fractions dominated in the pyritic material (residual fraction) and in the forest soil (oxidizable fraction). In conclusion, the pyritic material presented the highest Cr(VI) retention capacity, while the retention was low and weak on the granitic material; mussel shell was characterized by not marked Cr(VI) retention potential, and it did not cause remarkable increase in Cr(VI) retention when used to amend the granitic material or the forest soil.

  16. Cr(VI) sorption/desorption on untreated and mussel-shell-treated soil materials: fractionation and effects of pH and chromium concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, M.; Cutillas-Barreiro, L.; Nóvoa-Muñoz, J. C.; Arias-Estévez, M.; Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J.; Álvarez-Rodríguez, E.; Núñez-Delgado, A.

    2015-04-01

    We used batch-type experiments to study Cr(VI) sorption/desorption on granitic material, forest soil, pyritic material, mussel shell, and on forest soil and granitic material amended with 12 t ha-1 (1.2 kg m -2) shell, considering the effects of varying Cr(VI) concentration and pH. Sequential extractions were carried out to fractionate adsorbed Cr(VI) and to determine the stability of Cr(VI) retention. The pyritic material had the highest Cr(VI) retention capacity, whereas the granitic material showed the lowest retention potential. When high Cr concentrations were added, some saturation of the adsorbent surfaces became apparent, but Cr release remained low. The highest Cr retention was achieved at a very acid pH value, with release progressively increasing as a function of increasing pH. The amendment with 12 t ha-1 mussel shell did not cause marked changes in Cr(VI) retention. Sorption data were satisfactory adjusted to the Freundlich model. Regarding Cr(VI) fractionation, the soluble fraction (weakly bound) was dominant in mussel shell and in the unamended and amended granitic material, whereas more stable fractions dominated in the pyritic material (residual fraction) and in the forest soil (oxidizable fraction). In conclusion, the pyritic material presented the highest Cr(VI) retention capacity, while the retention was low and weak on the granitic material; mussel shell was not characterized by a marked Cr(VI) retention potential, and it did not cause remarkable increase in Cr(VI) retention when used to amend the granitic material or the forest soil.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of the Hybrid Clay- Based Material Montmorillonite-Melanoidin: A Potential Soil Model

    SciTech Connect

    V Vilas; B Matthiasch; J Huth; J Kratz; S Rubert de la Rosa; P Michel; T Schäfer

    2011-12-31

    The study of the interactions among metals, minerals, and humic substances is essential in understanding the migration of inorganic pollutants in the geosphere. A considerable amount of organic matter in the environment is associated with clay minerals. To understand the role of organic matter in the environment and its association with clay minerals, a hybrid clay-based material (HCM), montmorillonite (STx-1)-melanoidin, was prepared from L-tyrosine and L-glutamic acid by the Maillard reaction. The HCM was characterized by elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), and thermal analysis. The presence of organic materials on the surface was confirmed by XPS and STXM. The STXM results showed the presence of organic spots on the surface of the STx-1 and the characterization of the functional groups present in those spots. Thermal analysis confirmed the existence of organic materials in the montmorillonite interlayer, indicating the formation of a composite of melanoidin and montmorillonite. The melanoidin appeared to be located partially between the layers of montmorillonite and partially at the surface, forming a structure that resembles the way a cork sits on the top of a champagne bottle.

  18. A quantitative comparison of Soil Development in four climatic regimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; Taylor, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    A new quantitative Soil Development Index based on field data has been applied to chronosequences formed under different climatic regimes. The four soil chronosequences, developed primarily on sandy deposits, have some numeric age control and are located in xeric-inland (Merced, Calif.), xeric-coastal (Ventura, Calif.), aridic (Las Cruces, N. Mex.), and udic (Susquehanna Valley, Pa.) soil-moisture regimes. To quantify field properties, points are assigned for developmental increases in soil properties in comparison to the parent material. Currently ten soil-field properties are quantified and normalized for each horizon in a given chronosequence, including two new properties for carbonate-rich soils in addition to the eight properties previously defined. When individual properties or the combined indexes are plotted as a function of numeric age, rates of soil development can be compared in different climates. The results demonstrate that (1) the Soil Development Index can be applied to very different soil types, (2) many field properties develop systematically in different climatic regimes, (3) certain properties appear to have similar rates of development in different climates, and (4) the Profile Index that combines different field properties increases significantly with age and appears to develop at similar rates in different climates. The Soil Development Index can serve as a preliminary guide to soil age where other age control is lacking and can be used to correlate deposits of different geographical and climatic regions. ?? 1983.

  19. Soils of the Galindez Island, Argentine archipelago, Western Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, Evgeny; Parnikoza, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic Peninsula is a part of Antarctica which is characterized by increased soil diversity, caused by specific of parent materials and diversity of non-vascular and vascular plants. Soils of Galindez Island have been investigated during the 18-th Ukranian Antarctic Expedition 2013/14. This Island situated in Argentine archipelago (coastal part of Antarctic Peninsula). Soils of Galindez Island presented by following types: Leptosols, Lithosols, Histic Lithosols and Leptosols and some Gleyic soils, located in lowlands and coastal parts. An average solum profile thickness is 3-19 cm which result from the small depth of debris's, underplayed by massive crystallic rocks. The permafrost layer is located within the massive rock, but not in coarse friable parent material. The soils with bird influence are widely spread both in coastal and central part of Island. In the coastal parts we can find typical Ornithosols in the penguin rockeries areas. The main aim of our investigation was characterization of soils formed under vegetation, exactly under Deschampsia antarctica Desv. localities. Argentine Islands is the central part of D. antarctica spreading area in region of Antarctic peninsula. Probably, these islands colonized by hairgrass mainly due to ornitogenic activity. So, coastal population appearance related with Larus dominicanus nest areas and feeding activity. Thus, we found typical post ornithogenic soils here. This kind of soils we also observed in population of hairgrass of Galindez mainland where it was connected with the other Antarctic bird - Catharacta maccormicki activity. Thus, the soil diversity and soil geochemistry of the Galindez Island are closely related to the activity of birds. The spatial pattern of soils, their chemistry and organic matter quality is discussed in relation with distribution of bird nesting and feeding activity.

  20. Soil chemistry in lithologically diverse datasets: the quartz dilution effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton R.

    2009-01-01

    National- and continental-scale soil geochemical datasets are likely to move our understanding of broad soil geochemistry patterns forward significantly. Patterns of chemistry and mineralogy delineated from these datasets are strongly influenced by the composition of the soil parent material, which itself is largely a function of lithology and particle size sorting. Such controls present a challenge by obscuring subtler patterns arising from subsequent pedogenic processes. Here the effect of quartz concentration is examined in moist-climate soils from a pilot dataset of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project. Due to variable and high quartz contents (6.2–81.7 wt.%), and its residual and inert nature in soil, quartz is demonstrated to influence broad patterns in soil chemistry. A dilution effect is observed whereby concentrations of various elements are significantly and strongly negatively correlated with quartz. Quartz content drives artificial positive correlations between concentrations of some elements and obscures negative correlations between others. Unadjusted soil data show the highly mobile base cations Ca, Mg, and Na to be often strongly positively correlated with intermediately mobile Al or Fe, and generally uncorrelated with the relatively immobile high-field-strength elements (HFS) Ti and Nb. Both patterns are contrary to broad expectations for soils being weathered and leached. After transforming bulk soil chemistry to a quartz-free basis, the base cations are generally uncorrelated with Al and Fe, and negative correlations generally emerge with the HFS elements. Quartz-free element data may be a useful tool for elucidating patterns of weathering or parent-material chemistry in large soil datasets.

  1. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil at the Middlesex Sampling Plant Site, Middlesex, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) site in Middlesex, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy. The site became contaminated from operations conducted in support of the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) between 1943 and 1967. Activities conducted at the site included sampling, storage, and shipment of uranium, thorium, and beryllium ores and residues. Uranium guidelines for single radioisotopes and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the MSP site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The RESRAD computer code, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Four scenarios were considered for the site. These scenarios vary regarding future land use at the site, sources of water used, and sources of food consumed.

  2. Estimating Soil Organic Carbon Stocks and Spatial Patterns with Statistical and GIS-Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Junjun; Jing, Changwei; Lin, Shengpan; Zhang, Cao; Liu, Qiankun; DeGloria, Stephen D.; Wu, Jiaping

    2014-01-01

    Accurately quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) is considered fundamental to studying soil quality, modeling the global carbon cycle, and assessing global climate change. This study evaluated the uncertainties caused by up-scaling of soil properties from the county scale to the provincial scale and from lower-level classification of Soil Species to Soil Group, using four methods: the mean, median, Soil Profile Statistics (SPS), and pedological professional knowledge based (PKB) methods. For the SPS method, SOC stock is calculated at the county scale by multiplying the mean SOC density value of each soil type in a county by its corresponding area. For the mean or median method, SOC density value of each soil type is calculated using provincial arithmetic mean or median. For the PKB method, SOC density value of each soil type is calculated at the county scale considering soil parent materials and spatial locations of all soil profiles. A newly constructed 1∶50,000 soil survey geographic database of Zhejiang Province, China, was used for evaluation. Results indicated that with soil classification levels up-scaling from Soil Species to Soil Group, the variation of estimated SOC stocks among different soil classification levels was obviously lower than that among different methods. The difference in the estimated SOC stocks among the four methods was lowest at the Soil Species level. The differences in SOC stocks among the mean, median, and PKB methods for different Soil Groups resulted from the differences in the procedure of aggregating soil profile properties to represent the attributes of one soil type. Compared with the other three estimation methods (i.e., the SPS, mean and median methods), the PKB method holds significant promise for characterizing spatial differences in SOC distribution because spatial locations of all soil profiles are considered during the aggregation procedure. PMID:24840890

  3. Titanium Mass-balance Analysis of Paso Robles Soils: Elemental Gains and Losses as Affected by Acid Alteration Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, Brad; Ming, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia Hills soils have been exposed to aqueous alteration in alkaline [1] as well as acid conditions [2,3]. The Paso Robles class soils are bright soils that possess the highest S concentration of any soil measured on Mars [2]. Ferric-sulfate detection by Moessbauer analysis indicated that acid solutions were involved in forming these soils [4]. These soils are proposed to have formed by alteration of nearby rock by volcanic hydrothermal or fumarolic activity. The Paso Robles soils consist of the original Paso Robles-disturbed-Pasadena (PR-dist), Paso Robles- PasoLight (PR-PL), Arad-Samra, Arad-Hula, Tyrone- Berker Island1 and Tyrone-MountDarwin [2 ,3. ]Chemical characteristics indicate that the PR-dist and PR-PL soils could be derived from acid weathering of local Wishstone rocks while the Samra and Hula soils are likely derived from local Algonquin-Iroquet rock [3]. The Paso Robles soils were exposed to acidic sulfur bearing fluids; however, little else is known about the chemistry of the alteration fluid and its effects on the alteration of the proposed parent materials. The objectives of this work are to conduct titanium normalized mass-balance analysis to1) assess elemental gains and losses from the parent materials in the formation of the Paso Robles soils and 2) utilize this information to indicate the chemical nature of the alteration fluids.

  4. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance - Part II: Development of an accelerate aging method for roofing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Berdahl, Paul; Gilbert, Haley; Quelen, Sarah; Marlot, Lea; Preble, Chelsea; Chen, Sharon; Montalbano, Amadine; Rosseler, Olivier; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Destaillats, Hugo

    2013-11-18

    Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products?single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles?and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. This accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

  5. Verification of the Classification and Diagnostic system of Russian soils (2004) on the materials of a collection of soil monoliths from the V.V. Dokuchaev Central Soil Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparin, B. F.; Gerasimova, M. I.; Lebedeva, I. I.; Sukhacheva, E. I.; Tonkonogov, V. D.

    2007-05-01

    The first in the world collection of soil monoliths from the Dokuchaev Central Soil Museum (St. Petersburg) was examined in order to test and verify the new substantive-genetic classification system of Russian soils. This work made it possible to introduce a number of refinements in the second edition of the Russian soil classification system (2004). These refinements included the addition of new diagnostic horizons and features and the specification of their definitions. The analysis of the museum collection of soils has definite advantages, as it allows one to work with soils from different geographic regions simultaneously, to consider morphological features of soils under standard conditions, to use analytical soil data, and to analyze different names (i.e., interpretations of the genesis) given to the same soils. At the same time, a critical analysis of the collection creates necessary prerequisites for a comparative analysis of soils from different regions of Russia with the national reference soil base, which is important in order to reveal the real pedogenetic diversity and improve the information base on soil resources in Russia.

  6. Sulfur‐Limonene Polysulfide: A Material Synthesized Entirely from Industrial By‐Products and Its Use in Removing Toxic Metals from Water and Soil

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Michael P.; Evans, Austin M.; Worthington, Max J. H.; Albuquerque, Inês S.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Gibson, Christopher T.; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Lewis, David A.; Bernardes, Gonçalo J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A polysulfide material was synthesized by the direct reaction of sulfur and d‐limonene, by‐products of the petroleum and citrus industries, respectively. The resulting material was processed into functional coatings or molded into solid devices for the removal of palladium and mercury salts from water and soil. The binding of mercury(II) to the sulfur‐limonene polysulfide resulted in a color change. These properties motivate application in next‐generation environmental remediation and mercury sensing. PMID:26481099

  7. Sulfur-Limonene Polysulfide: A Material Synthesized Entirely from Industrial By-Products and Its Use in Removing Toxic Metals from Water and Soil.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Michael P; Evans, Austin M; Worthington, Max J H; Albuquerque, Inês S; Slattery, Ashley D; Gibson, Christopher T; Campbell, Jonathan A; Lewis, David A; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Chalker, Justin M

    2016-01-01

    A polysulfide material was synthesized by the direct reaction of sulfur and d-limonene, by-products of the petroleum and citrus industries, respectively. The resulting material was processed into functional coatings or molded into solid devices for the removal of palladium and mercury salts from water and soil. The binding of mercury(II) to the sulfur-limonene polysulfide resulted in a color change. These properties motivate application in next-generation environmental remediation and mercury sensing. PMID:26481099

  8. Leadership Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes how three principles of leadership presented by Heifetz (1994) in "Leadership Without Easy Answers" can be translated into the leadership parenting of young children. Focuses on distinguishing between child-rearing issues that require parents to act as trainers versus those demanding a problem-solving role, on responding to children's…

  9. Parent Express.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Elise, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Intended for use by parents of infants and toddlers, this series of 27 8-page month-by-month newsletters provides research-based information on infant and child development and care from 0 to 36 months. Topics in the series for infants include: becoming a parent; getting ready for child birth; the newborn child; and characteristics of the child at…

  10. Soils and the soil cover of the arkaim reserve (Steppe Zone of the Trans-Ural Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikhod'ko, V. E.; Ivanov, I. V.; Manakhov, D. V.; Manakhova, E. V.

    2012-08-01

    Soils of the Arkaim Reserve in the area around a unique settlement-fortress of the Bronze Age in Chelyabinsk oblast have been studied. These soils are generally typical of the entire Trans-Ural Plateau. The soil properties are characterized in detail on the basis of factual data on 170 soil pits and four soil catenas. The soil cover of the reserve is specified into six geomorphic groups: (a) denudational surfaces of the low mountains, (b) accumulative-denudational surfaces of the low mountains, (c) denudational-accumulative plain surfaces, (d) lacustrine-alluvial plain surfaces, (e) floodplain surfaces, and (f) slopes and bottoms of the local ravines and hollows. Chernozems occupy about 50% of the reserve; solonetzes and saline soils, 32%; meadow chernozems, 7%; and forest soils, 1%. The soils of the reserve are relatively thin; they have a distinct tonguing of the humus horizon and are often saline and solonetzic. The latter properties are inherited from the parent materials and are preserved in the soils for a long time under the conditions of a dry continental climate. The genetic features of the soils differ in dependence on the composition and age of the parent materials. With respect to the thickness of the soil profiles and the reserves of soil humus, the soils can be arranged into the following lithogenic sequence: the soils developed from the eluvium of igneous rocks-redeposited kaolin clay-montmorillonite-hydromica nonsaline and saline loams and clays. The content of Corg in the upper 20 cm varies from 2.5 to 5.6%, and the reserves of Corg in the layers of 0-0.5 and 0-1.0 m reach 57-265 and 234-375 t/ha, respectively. The soils of pastures subjected to overgrazing occupy two-thirds of the reserve. Their humus content is 10-16% higher in comparison with that in the analogous plowed soils. Another characteristic feature of the humus in the soils of the pastures is its enrichment in the labile fraction (28-40% of Corg).

  11. [Analysis of XRD spectral characteristics of soil clay mineral in two typical cultivated soils].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Luo, Xiang-Li; Jiang, Hai-Chao; Li, Qiao; Shen, Cong-Ying; Liu, Hang; Zhou, Ya-Juan; Zhao, Lan-Po; Wang, Ji-Hong

    2014-07-01

    The present paper took black soil and chernozem, the typical cultivated soil in major grain producing area of Northeast, as the study object, and determinated the soil particle composition characteristics of two cultivated soils under the same climate and location. Then XRD was used to study the composition and difference of clay mineral in two kinds of soil and the evolutionary mechanism was explored. The results showed that the two kinds of soil particles were composed mainly of the sand, followed by clay and silt. When the particle accumulation rate reached 50%, the central particle size was in the 15-130 microm interval. Except for black soil profile of Shengli Xiang, the content of clay showed converse sequence to the central particle in two soils. Clay accumulated under upper layer (18.82%) in black soil profile while under caliche layer (17.41%) in chernozem profile. Clay content was the least in parent material horizon except in black profile of Quanyanling. Analysis of clay XRD atlas showed that the difference lied in not only the strength of diffraction peak, but also in the mineral composition. The main contents of black soil and chernozem were both 2 : 1 clay, the composition of black soil was smectite/illite mixed layer-illite-vermiculite and that of chernozem was S/I mixture-illite-montmorillonite, and both of them contained little kaolinite, chlorite, quartz and other primary mineral. This paper used XRD to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two kinds of typical cultivated soil comparatively, and it was a new perspective of soil minerals study. PMID:25269317

  12. [Phosphorus availability in cropland soils of China and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhuang; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Soil phosphorus (P) availability directly determines cropland productivity. Based on the long-term fertilization experiments in different climatic zones of China, this paper summarized the P content, its availability, and the factors affecting the P transformation in China cropland soils. The total and available P contents in different types of China cropland soils were 0.31-1.72 g x kg(-1) and 0.1-228.8 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Soil parent material, soil physical and chemical prosperities, and fertilization practices were the main factors affecting the soil P availability. It was suggested that more attentions should be paid on the mixed application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers to improve the P availability of cropland soils and on the potential environmental impacts of this fertilization. PMID:23718018

  13. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area, which landscape is characterized by till and limestone plains with thin Quaternary cover, the soil cover is more heterogeneous than in previous area. Kuusiku soil cover is more variegated by the soil texture and as well as by the genesis of soils. In addition to Cambisols, Leptosols, Gleysols and Luvisols may be found here as well. The dominating soils in Olustvere research area, which is situated on wavy upland plateau, are Albeluvisols.

  14. A Brief History of Soil Mapping and Classification in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Hartemink, Alfred E.

    2014-05-01

    Soil maps show the distribution of soils across an area but also depict soil science theory and ideas on soil formation and classification at the time the maps were created. The national soil mapping program in the USA was established in 1899. The first nation-wide soil map was published by M. Whitney in 1909 and showed soil provinces that were largely based on geology. In 1912, G.N. Coffey published the first country-wide map based on soil properties. The map showed 5 broad soil units that used parent material, color and drainage as diagnostic criteria. The 1913 national map was produced by C.F. Marbut, H.H. Bennett, J.E. Lapham, and M.H. Lapham and showed broad physiographic units that were further subdivided into soil series, soil classes and soil types. In 1935, Marbut drafted a series of maps based on soil properties, but these maps were replaced as official U.S. soil maps in 1938 with the work of M. Baldwin, C.E. Kellogg, and J. Thorp. A series of soil maps similar to modern USA maps appeared in the 1960s with the 7th Approximation followed by revisions with the 1975 and 1999 editions of Soil Taxonomy. This review has shown that soil maps in the United States produced since the early 1900s moved initially from a geologic-based concept to a pedologic concept of soils. Later changes were from property-based systems to process-based, and then back to property-based. The information in this presentation is based on Brevik and Hartemink (2013). Brevik, E.C., and A.E. Hartemink. 2013. Soil Maps of the United States of America. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77:1117-1132. doi:10.2136/sssaj2012.0390.

  15. ACRES Rural Parent Resource Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Rural Special Education.

    Intended for parents of handicapped children in rural areas, the directory lists a variety of resources available to families. A section on general information lists materials for parents; academic programs for handicapped and gifted children; prevocational and vocational training programs; physical, recreational, and social/emotional programs;…

  16. A new approach of mapping soils in the Alps - Challenges of deriving soil information and creating soil maps for sustainable land use. An example from South Tyrol (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruck, Jasmin; Gruber, Fabian E.; Geitner, Clemens

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays sustainable land use management is gaining importance because intensive land use leads to increasing soil degradation. Especially in mountainous regions like the Alps sustainable land use management is important, as topography limits land use. Therefore, a database containing detailed information of soil characteristics is required. However, information of soil properties is far from being comprehensive. The project "ReBo - Terrain classification based on airborne laser scanning data to support soil mapping in the Alps", founded by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano, aims at developing a methodical framework of how to obtain soil data. The approach combines geomorphometric analysis and soil mapping to generate modern soil maps at medium-scale in a time and cost efficient way. In this study the open source GRASS GIS extension module r.geomorphon (Jasciewicz and Stepinski, 2013) is used to derive topographically homogeneous landform units out of high resolution DTMs on scale 1:5.000. Furthermore, for terrain segmentation and classification we additionally use medium-scale data sets (geology, parent material, land use etc.). As the Alps are characterized by a great variety of topography, parent material, wide range of moisture regimes etc. getting reliable soil data is difficult. Additionally, geomorphic activity (debris flow, landslide etc.) leads to natural disturbances. Thus, soil properties are highly diverse and largely scale dependent. Furthermore, getting soil information of anthropogenically influenced soils is an added challenge. Due to intensive cultivation techniques the natural link between the soil forming factors is often repealed. In South Tyrol we find the largest pome producing area in Europe. Normally, the annual precipitation is not enough for intensive orcharding. Thus, irrigation strategies are in use. However, as knowledge about the small scaled heterogeneous soil properties is mostly lacking, overwatering and modifications of the regional water balance are often involved. Therefore, a rudimentary approach to involve these anthropogenically influenced areas in soil maps can be based on expert decision trees. In it the potential soil inclusive the kind and degree of the anthropogenic degradation is presented. The aim of this approach is to give the map user suitable soil information itself. References: Jasiewicz, J. & Stepinski, T. F. (2013): Geomorphons - a pattern recognition approach to classification and mapping of landforms. Geomorphology 182, 147 - 156.

  17. Effects of land use and geological factors on the spatial variability of soil carbon and nitrogen in the Konya Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, M. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Ozdogan, M.; Clayton, M.

    2012-12-01

    The landscape-scale (10s-100s km2) spatial variability of soil properties such as carbon and nitrogen stocks is poorly known in many regions worldwide, especially in semi-arid landscapes with millenial histories of intense land use activities. Characterizing patterns and understanding processes that affect such variability is important for basic research on land use impacts for soils and ecosystems, such as modeling regional-scale ecosystem biogeochemical balances and greenhouse gas emissions, as well as applied research for precision agriculture, soil erosion control, water conservation and carbon accounting. Here, we use geostatistical analyses to study patterns of spatial variability in total carbon (TC), organic carbon (SOC), and total nitrogen (TN) stocks in soils (0-25 cm) of the Konya Basin, Turkey. We hypothesized that land use will have a stronger effect on SOC variability, which will be more tightly linked with vegetation and human management, while parent material will be a more important predictor of TC variability in these arid soils with high carbonate content. We collected a total of 560 samples from 35 sites distributed across three soil parent materials and three classes of land use (agriculture, grazing lands and orchards), using multi-temporal analyses of Landsat data to map land cover and geographic information systems (GIS) to aid selection of field sites. Building on previous research that found parent materials strongly control TC, TN and SOC, we tested whether soil parent materials or land-use practices more strongly explain patterns of spatial variability of soil properties at nested scales, including within field-site (within 35 1-ha field sites) and landscape scales (across 35 sites). Initial results show that spatial patterns of total carbon (TC) are strongly affected by soil parent materials and field sites at landscape scales. Forthcoming analyses will analyze patterns in TN and SOC. Our analyses, which test effects of geological factors and human activities on the spatial variability of soil properties, can inform development of landscape-scale soil sampling schemes for soil carbon and nitrogen accounting so that they are representative of soils at landscape scales in dryland environments. They suggest that in drylands, land management strategies to increase carbon stocks in soils differ based on soil type. Further, they will contribute understanding to what processes varying across spatial scales may be driving soil heterogeneity.

  18. A new model for humic materials and their interactions with hydrophobic organic chemicals in soil-water or sediment-water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A generalized model of humic materials in soils and sediments, which is consistent with their observed properties, is presented. This model provides a means of understanding the interaction of hydrophobic pollutants with humic materials. In this model, it is proposed that the humic materials in soils and sediments consist of a number of different oligomers and simple compounds which result from the partial degradation of plant remains. These degradation products are stabilized by incorporation into humic aggregates bound together by weak bonding mechanisms, such as hydrogen bonding, pi bonding, and hydrophobic interactions. The resulting structures are similar to micelles or membranes, in which the interiors of the structures are hydrophobic and the exteriors are hydrophilic. Hydrophobic compounds will partition into the hydrophobic interiors of the humic micelles or "membrane-like" structures. ?? 1986.

  19. Molybdenum isotope fractionation in soils: Influence of redox conditions, organic matter, and atmospheric inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, C.; Pett-Ridge, J. C.; Opfergelt, S.; Guicharnaud, R. A.; Halliday, A. N.; Burton, K. W.

    2015-08-01

    Molybdenum isotope fractionation accompanying soil development is studied across three pedogenic gradients encompassing a range of controlling factors. These factors include variable redox conditions, organic matter content, Fe and Mn oxy(hydr)oxide content, mineral composition, degree of weathering, pH, type and amount of atmospheric inputs, age, climate, and underlying rock type. Soil profiles from the island of Maui (Hawaii) along a precipitation gradient ranging from 850 to 5050 mm mean annual precipitation show a decrease in average soil δ98Mo from -0.04 ± 0.11‰ at the driest, most oxic site, which is indistinguishable from the basalt parent material (-0.09 ± 0.08‰), to -0.33 ± 0.10‰ at the wettest, most reducing site. A suite of 6 Icelandic soils display a broad trend with heavier δ98Mo values (up to +1.50 ± 0.09‰) in soil horizons that are more weathered and have higher organic matter content. Selective extractions of Mo from different soil components indicate that the association with organic matter and silicate or Ti-oxide residue dominates retention of Mo in these soils, with adsorption on Fe and Mn oxy(hydr)oxides playing a lesser role. Across all basaltic soils, δ98Mo values are lighter in soils that exhibit the most net Mo loss relative to the parent material, and δ98Mo values are heavier in soils that exhibit net Mo gains. A well-drained regolith profile in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico developed on quartz diorite shows heavier δ98Mo values than the parent material (up to +0.71 ± 0.10‰ with an integrated profile average of +0.28 ± 0.10‰) in soil and shallower saprolite, despite overall moderate loss of 28% of Mo relative to the bedrock. However, the deeper saprolite is unfractionated from bedrock (-0.01 ± 0.10‰, quartz diorite bedrock) indicating that rock weathering dissolution processes and secondary clay formation do not fractionate Mo isotopes. Our data suggest that the Mo mass balance and isotope composition of soils are controlled by redox conditions, organic matter, and atmospheric inputs. In this way Mo isotopes have the potential to react to and record climate driven changes in the weathering environment. The presence of both isotopically light and heavy Mo (relative to parent material) across all sites and within individual soil profiles suggests that it is normal for multiple fractionation mechanisms to operate under the open-system conditions of soils.

  20. Acidification of forest soil in Russia: From 1893 to present

    SciTech Connect

    Lapenis, A.G.; Lawrence, G.B.; Andreev, A.A.; Bobrov, A.A.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

    2003-01-02

    It is commonly believed that fine-textured soils developed on carbonate parent material are well buffered from possible acidification. There are no data, however, that document resistance of such soils to acidic deposition exposure on a timescale longer than 30-40 years. In this paper, we report on directly testing the long-term buffering capacity of nineteenth century forest soils developed on calcareous silt loam. In a chemical analysis comparing archived soils with modern soils collected from the same locations similar to 100 years later, we found varying degrees of forest-soil acidification in the taiga and forest steppe regions. Land-use history, increases in precipitation, and acidic deposition were contributing factors in acidification. The acidification of forest soil was documented through decreases in soil pH and changes in concentrations of exchangeable calcium and aluminum, which corresponded with changes in communities of soil microfauna. Although acidification was found at all three analyzed locations, the trends in soil chemistry were most pronounced where the highest loading of acidic deposition had taken place.

  1. Acidification of forest soil in Russia: From 1893 to present

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapenis, A.G.; Lawrence, G.B.; Andreev, A.A.; Bobrov, A.A.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    It is commonly believed that fine-textured soils developed on carbonate parent material are well buffered from possible acidification. There are no data, however, that document resistance of such soils to acidic deposition exposure on a timescale longer than 30-40 years. In this paper, we report on directly testing the long-term buffering capacity of nineteenth century forest soils developed on calcareous silt loam. In a chemical analysis comparing archived soils with modern soils collected from the same locations ???100 years later, we found varying degrees of forest-soil acidification in the taiga and forest steppe regions. Land-use history, increases in precipitation, and acidic deposition were contributing factors in acidification. The acidification of forest soil was documented through decreases in soil pH and changes in concentrations of exchangeable calcium and aluminum, which corresponded with changes in communities of soil microfauna. Although acidification was found at all three analyzed locations, the trends in soil chemistry were most pronounced where the highest loading of acidic deposition had taken place. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Magnetic susceptibility for use in delineating hydric soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimley, D.A.; Vepraskas, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Field indicators are used to identify hydric soil boundaries and to delineate wetlands. The most common field indicators may not be seen in some soils with thick, dark, mollic epipedons, and do not form in Fe-poor soils. This study evaluated magnetic susceptibility (MS) meter as a field tool to determine hydric soil boundaries. Five Mollisoldominated sites formed in glacial deposits in Illinois were evaluated along with one Ultisol-dominated site formed in Coastal Plain sediments of North Carolina. Measurements of volumetric MS were made along transects at each site that extended from wetland into upland areas. One created wetland was evaluated. Field indicators were used to identify the hydric soils. Results showed that volumetric MS values were significantly (P 0.15) differences in MS were found for Coastal Plain hydric and nonhydric soils where MS values were low (<10 ?? 10-5 SI). Critical MS values that separated hydric and nonhydric soils varied between 20 ?? 10-5 and 30 ?? 10-5 SI for the loessal soils evaluated in Illinois. Such critical values will have to be determined on site using field indicators until specific values can be defined for hydric soils within a given parent material. With a critical MS value in hand, a wetland delineator can make MS measurements along transects perpendicular to the envisioned hydric soil boundary to quickly and quantitatively identify it.

  3. Changes in soil CO2 efflux of organic calcaric soils due to disturbance by wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M.; Katzensteiner, K.

    2012-04-01

    Disturbances such as windthrow or insect infestations are supposed to have a significant influence on the soil carbon balance of affected forests. Increasing soil temperatures and changes in the soil moisture regime, caused by the removed tree layer, are expected to change soil CO2 efflux, also known as soil respiration. Beside an anticipated stimulation of the carbon mineralization, the main part of root allocated CO2 is offset due to the blown down trees. On mountain forest sites of the Northern Limestone Alps, where highly active organic soils above calcareous parent material are characteristic (Folic Histosols and Rendzic Leptosols), an increase of the mineralization rate of carbon may contribute to enormous humus losses. Serious site degradation can be the consequence, especially on south exposed slopes where extreme climatic conditions occur. The present study tries to give insights to disturbance induced changes in temporal and spatial behaviour of soil respiration for a montane mountain forest located in the Northern Limestone Alps of Upper Austria. Soil respiration, soil temperature and volumetric water content were measured on two windthrow areas (blow down dates were 2007 and 2009 respectively) as well as in an adjacent mature mixed forest during the vegetation periods of 2010 and 2011. Soil respiration in both years was mainly driven by soil temperature, which explained up to 90 % of the concerning temporal variation. Volumetric water content had a significant influence as additional temporal driver. After removing the temperature trend, significant differences in basal soil respiration rates were found for the disturbance area and the forest stand. Inter seasonal declines in soil respiration were ascertained for the mature stand as well as for the recent windthrow. Particular decreases are related to drought stress in summer 2011 and a proceeded decomposition of labile soil carbon components at the windthrow site. An interaction between soil type and stratum showed a distinctive decrease in the soil CO2 efflux pattern for organic soils by comparing the recent and old disturbance areas. Such a downward trend was also detected on the more recently disturbed area in the consecutive years. These findings support the assumption that carbon mineralization can account for excessive losses in soil organic carbon after forest disturbance, whereas organic humus soils are supposed to be particularly vulnerable. This study is part of the INTERREG Bayern-Österreich 2007 -2013 project 'SicAlp - Standortssicherung im Kalkalpin' which is funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and national funding.

  4. MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPORT EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC MATERIALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLO-GICAL MATERIAL (EPA/600/SR-97/099)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...

  5. On the origin of superparamagnetic minerals of tropical soils and their impact on landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, Jan; Preetz, Holger; Altfelder, Sven

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic susceptibility of soils is mainly determined by their content of ferrimagnetic minerals whereas titanomagnetite, magnetite and maghemite being the most important ones. Titanomagnetite and magnetite are of magmatic origin, i.e. they crystallise during cooling of iron-rich magma and are part of many igneous rocks. Maghemite and sometimes magnetite are of pedogenic origin. They develop by crystallisation of dissolved iron during soil forming processes. Ferrimagnetic minerals that are smaller than some tens of nanometres are superparamagnetic (SP) and show frequency dependent susceptibility. SP minerals crystallise if magma cools down rapidly (e.g. volcanic magmas, glasses and ashes) and are frequently formed during pedogenesis. In order to investigate the origin and formation of SP minerals in tropical soils, we analyse magnetic properties of 594 samples from the entire tropics comprising the whole range of weathering states from unweathered rock to highly weathered soil. Tropical soils are subject to intense chemical weathering and are rich in ferrimagnetic and in particular SP minerals. The process leading to a high content of these minerals is either residual enrichment due to their weathering resistance or neo-formation. In this study we focus on the frequency dependent susceptibility (absolute and relative) of the samples and classify it according to the parent material and alteration. We observe that • within each parent-material group, rock material shows in general lower susceptibility and absolute frequency dependence than soil material • ultrabasic and basic/intermediate rocks and soils developed from these rocks show high absolute frequency dependent susceptibility and, in contrast, acid rocks and sediments show lower absolute frequency dependence • absolute frequency dependence increases from unweathered rock to weathered rock, and from subsoil to topsoil material within every group of parent material • relative frequency dependence rises successively with weathering for ultrabasic, basic/intermediate and acid igneous parent material, but, it tends to decrease for clay/clay slate and sandstone. Based on the above observations we conclude that the content of SP minerals depends on both: parent rock and alteration of the material. The total amount of SP minerals rises during weathering, regardless of the parent material. The process is either preferential accumulation of weathering resistant magnetic minerals, including the ultra-fine grained fraction, or neo-formation of new magnetic minerals. The increase of relative frequency dependence of igneous rocks is a clear indication that SP minerals are formed during soil genesis. However, for some sedimentary rocks, the amount of SP minerals is already high and is not subsequently increased further during weathering. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) based metal detectors are the most widely used sensing techniques in landmine clearance operations. They are negatively influenced by magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence. In particular tropical soils show to have a negative impact on EMI sensors. Besides, the tropics are the regions which are most affected by landmines where most of the humanitarian demining-activities concentrate. Currently, no soil classification system exists that helps to predict the influence of frequency dependent susceptibility on landmine detection. We deduce a system that can be used to predict the soil impact depending on parent material and weathering. Our system can be consulted by demining organisations to predict metal detector performance in tropical regions based on geologic and soil maps. Ultra-basic, basic and intermediate igneous rocks have a moderate influence on EMI detectors in average cases and a very severe influence in extreme cases. Soils developed from these rocks have a severe or very severe influence. In contrast, acid igneous rocks and sediments do not influence EMI detectors severely. Soils developed from these rocks have no influence in average cases; however, they may have a very severe influence in extreme cases.

  6. Total parenting.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins to cast being a parent as a matter of "parenting," a technological deployment of skills and techniques, with the loss of older, more spontaneous and intuitive relations between parents and children. Smith examines this phenomenon further through a discussion of how it is captured to some extent in Hannah Arendt's notion of "natality" and how it is illuminated by Charles Dickens in his classic novel, Dombey and Son. PMID:20662172

  7. Teen Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Teen Parents Ages & ...

  8. Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... the birth of a child. So parents of twins or higher-order multiples (triplets or more) can ... the chances of having multiples. The incidence of twin and higher-order multiple births has climbed rapidly ...

  9. Effective Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... older, slowing down and experiencing changes in your body Your relationship with your spouse or partner Your relationship with your parents and siblings Your friendships Evaluate problems in these areas, and how they might be ...

  10. GEMAS - Soil geochemistry and health implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Ladenberger, Anna; Wragg, Joanna; Gulan, Aleksandra

    2014-05-01

    The GEMAS Project resulted in a large coherent data set displaying baseline levels of elements in agricultural and grazing land soil, which has a wide variety of applications. Medical geology is an emerging new discipline providing a link between geoscience and medicine by interpreting natural geological factors in relation to human and animal health and their geographical distribution. Medical geology shows not only problems related to harmful health effects of natural geological materials and processes, but also deals with their beneficial aspects. Since the GEMAS project demonstrates the importance of geological factors in geochemical patterns in European soil, this data set can be used in improving our understanding of how the geological processes may affect human health in Europe. The main potential health problems are related to deficiency of nutrients in soil and toxic effects of potentially harmful elements. Deficiency in macro- (e.g., K, Fe, Mg, P) and micro-nutrients (e.g., Se, Zn, Cl) can be responsible for a reduction in crop productivity and certain health issues for livestock and humans. On the other hand, bioavailability of crucial elements depends on soil parameters, e.g., pH; namely, low pH in soil (in northern Europe) makes more micronutrients bioavailable, with the exception of Mo, P and Ca. Rocks underlying the soil layer have a major impact on soil composition, and soil parent material can be a main source of toxic metals, for instance, soil developed on black shale (e.g., Oslo region) shows potentially toxic levels of metals, such as As, Cd, U, Zn and Pb. High content of organic matter is another factor amplifying the toxic levels of metals in soil. Several important topics with health implications can be then addressed using the GEMAS data set, namely, soil properties and element bioavailability, arsenic toxicity, selenium deficiency, potential health effects of liming, uranium in European soil, influence of recent and historical volcanic activity on soil composition and its health consequences. References Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part A: Methodology and interpretation of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 528 pp. Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part B: General background information and further analysis of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 352 pp.

  11. Novel approach for quantitatively estimating element retention and material balances in soil profiles of recharge basins used for wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Eshel, Gil; Lin, Chunye; Banin, Amos

    2015-01-01

    We investigated changes in element content and distribution in soil profiles in a study designed to monitor the geochemical changes accruing in soil due to long-term secondary effluent recharge, and its impact on the sustainability of the Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) system. Since the initial elemental contents of the soils at the studied site were not available, we reconstructed them using scandium (Sc) as a conservative tracer. By using this approach, we were able to produce a mass-balance for 18 elements and evaluate the geochemical changes resulting from 19 years of effluent recharge. This approach also provides a better understanding of the role of soils as an adsorption filter for the heavy metals contained in the effluent. The soil mass balance suggests 19 years of effluent recharge cause for a significant enrichment in Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mg, K, Na, S and P contents in the upper 4m of the soil profile. Combining the elements lode record during the 19 years suggest that Cr, Ni, and P inputs may not reach the groundwater (20 m deep), whereas the other elements may. Conversely, we found that 58, 60, and 30% of the initial content of Mn, Ca and Co respectively leached from the upper 2-m of the soil profile. These high percentages of Mn and Ca depletion from the basin soils may reduce the soil's ability to buffer decreases in redox potential pe and pH, respectively, which could initiate a reduction in the soil's holding capacity for heavy metals. PMID:25300016

  12. Soil morphology of canopy and intercanopy sites in a pinon-Juniper woodland

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, D.W.; Wilcox, B.P.; Breshear, D.D.

    1996-11-01

    Pinon-juniper woodlands in the semiarid western USA have expanded as much as fivefold during the last 150 yr, often accompanied by losses of understory vegetation and increasing soil erosion. We conducted this study to determine the differences in soil morphology between canopy and intercanopy locations within a pinon (Pinus edulis Engelm.)-juniper [Juniperus monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg.] woodland with uniform parent material, topography, and climate. The woodland studied, located near Los Alamos, NM, has a mean tree age of 135 yr. We examined soil morphology by augering 135 profiles in a square grid pattern and comparing soils under pinon and juniper canopies with intercanopy soils. Only two of the 17 morphological properties compared showed significant differences. The B horizons make up a slightly greater proportion of total profile thickness in intercanopy soils, and there are higher percentages of coarse fragments in the lower portions of canopy soil profiles. Canopy soils have lower mean pH and higher mean organic C than intercanopy soils. Regression analysis showed that most soil properties did not closely correspond with tree size, but total soil thickness and B horizon thickness are significantly greater under the largest pinon trees, and soil reaction is lower under the largest juniper trees. Our findings suggest that during the period in which pinon-juniper woodlands have been expanding, the trees have had only minor effects on soil morphology. 36 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Lunar Soil Particle Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) beneficiates soil prior to in situ resource utilization (ISRU). It can improve ISRU oxygen yield by boosting the concentration of ilmenite, or other iron-oxide-bearing materials found in lunar soils, which can substantially reduce hydrogen reduction reactor size, as well as drastically decreasing the power input required for soil heating

  14. "Lou soil", a fertile anthropogenic soil with thousands of years of cultivating history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J.; Liang, B.; Yan, J.; Zhao, W.

    2012-12-01

    Chinese farmers have a very long history of using manures in their fields. Owing to the long-term addition of manures, an anthropogenic layer was formed on the top of original soil profile (drab soil) in Guanzhong Plains on the south edge of the Loess Plateau, North China. This soil is named the Manural Loessial soil (or Lou soil, "Lou" means the different stories of a building in Chinese). The depth of anthropogenic layer is in range of about 30 to 100 cm depth, which has a close relationship with the soil productivity. This fertile agricultural soil has sustained the agriculture in the region for millenniums. We had determined the organic carbon (SOC) in 7 soil profiles, and found that the depths of anthropogenic layer of were in range of 40 to 71 cm (averaging 59 cm). And the anthropogenic layer became shallower as the profile was far from the village due to less manure application. The organic C stocks in this layer accounted for 69% of organic C stocks in 0-100 cm soil profiles. Organic C stocks in Lou soil was higher than that in the newly cultivated soil developed from loess parent materials. Our 30-day incubation experiment found that addition of synthetic N fertilizer significantly increased the decomposition of SOC in the soils. However, The decomposition rate of SOC in the soil added with manure and inorganic fertilizers for 18-yr (MNPK soil) was significantly lower than in the soils added without fertilizer or inorganic fertilizers (NF soil, and NPK soils). The half-life of the organic C in MNPK soils was also slower than the NF soil, and NPK soil. It indicates that long-term combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers improves the stabilization of soil organic C. Long-term cultivation has not only increased organic C stocks, but also stabilization of organic C in soil profile. It provides us a unique sample to study the mechanism of accumulation and stabilization of organic C in soil to balance agricultural production and C sequestration in a warming earth. Our micro-plot experiment with 15N-labeled fertilizer in the long-term fertilizer trial found that the use efficiency of N fertilizer (NUE) in MNPK soil was higher than the NPK soil and NF soil in both wheat-summer fallow and winter wheat and summer corn rotation system. However, the N fertilizer losses in MNPK soil was lower than the NPK soil and NF soil in the two systems. We concluded that the long-term combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers improves N synchrony between the supply and crop demand, and reduces its loss. Since the 1980s, however, the application of manure to arable fields has declined in Guanzhong Plain, and in other parts of China, due to the increasing use of inorganic fertilizers, and labor costs to apply manure. The nutrient input of the arable fields are heavily dependent on inorganic fertilizers. It changes the biogeochemical cycling of the ecosystem, and results in a series of problems, including eutrophication, greenhouse gas emission, and nitrate leaching. Therefore, we need to find the alternatives to solve the problems, to conserve this old anthropogenic soil while producing enough food to feed the growing population.

  15. Soil-restoration rate and initial soil formation trends on example of anthropogenically affected soils of opencast mine in Kursk region, Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigareva, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    The mining industry is one of the main factors which anthropogenically change the environment. Mining process results in removing of the rocks and mechanical changes of considerable amounts of ground. One of the main results of mining arising of antropic ecosystems as well as increasing of the new created soils total area is technosols. The main factor controlling the soil formation in postmining environment is the quality of spoiled materials. Initial soil formation has been investigated on spoils of the largest iron ore extraction complex in Russia - Mikhailovsky mining and concentration complex which is situated in Kursk region, Russia. Investigated soils are presented by monogenetic weak developed soils of different age (10-15-20 years). Young soils are formed on the loess parent materials (20 year-old soil), or on a mix of sand and clay overburdens (15 and 10-year-old soils). Anthropogenically affected soils are characterized by well-developed humus horizon which is gradually replaced by weakly changed soil-building rocks (profile type A-C for 10-, 15-years old soils, and A-AC-C for 20 years old soils). Gray-humus soils are characterized by presence of diagnostic humus horizon gradually replaced by soil-building rock. The maximum intensity of humus accumulation has been determined in a semi-hydromorphic 10-year-old soil developed on the mixed heaps which is connected with features of water-air conditions complicating mineralization of plant remnants. 20-year-old soil on loess is characterized by rather high rate of organic substances accumulation between all the automorphous soils. It was shown that one of the most effective restoration ways for anthropogenically affected soils is a biological reclamation. Since overburdens once appeared on a day surface are overgrown badly in the first years, they are subject to influence of water and wind erosion. Our researchers have found out that permanent grasses are able to grow quickly; they accumulate a considerable quantity of top and root mass, promote accumulation of humus and accelerate soil building.

  16. VALIDATION OF SIGNATURE POLARLIPID FATTY ACID BIOMARKERS FOR ALKANE-UTILIZING BACTERIA IN SOILS AND SUBSURFACE AQUIFER MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extractable cell membrane-derived polarlipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA) obtained from aerated soils gassed with methane or propane and from methane-and propane-oxidizing bacteria isolated from the soils were analyzed by capiliary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. xposure...

  17. Analysis and assessment on heavy metal sources in the coastal soils developed from alluvial deposits using multivariate statistical methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinling; He, Ming; Han, Wei; Gu, Yifan

    2009-05-30

    An investigation on heavy metal sources, i.e., Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cd in the coastal soils of Shanghai, China, was conducted using multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis, clustering analysis, and correlation analysis). All the results of the multivariate analysis showed that: (i) Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd had anthropogenic sources (e.g., overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, industrial and municipal discharges, animal wastes, sewage irrigation, etc.); (ii) Zn and Cr were associated with parent materials and therefore had natural sources (e.g., the weathering process of parent materials and subsequent pedo-genesis due to the alluvial deposits). The effect of heavy metals in the soils was greatly affected by soil formation, atmospheric deposition, and human activities. These findings provided essential information on the possible sources of heavy metals, which would contribute to the monitoring and assessment process of agricultural soils in worldwide regions. PMID:18976857

  18. Selenium in arid and semiarid soils

    SciTech Connect

    Burau, R.G. )

    1989-02-01

    Selenium is an essential element for many life forms but can cause toxicity when present at high levels in animal diets. The chemistry and particularly the geochemistry of selenium is similar to that of sulfur. Selenate, the selenium analog of sulfate, is the key to understanding selenium toxicity in arid and semiarid areas. Selenate salts of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium are generally more soluble than those of sulfate. Also, selenate is not significantly adsorbed in neutral and alkaline soils. Therefore, selenate is highly mobile, causing it to be transferred readily from place to place dissolved in water, where it also enters biological food webs by plant uptake. Within plants, selenium is incorporated into organic compounds by forming C-Se bonds. Three other factors that control selenium in soil-water-plant systems are soil parent material. 14 refs.

  19. Parental Marital Quality, Parental Divorce, and Relations with Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Amato, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined data from 419 parents and their adult children to assess impact of parental marital quality and divorce while child is residing with parents on parent-child relations 12 years later. Low marital quality and divorce appeared to have independent effects on adult child-parent relations. Fathers' relationships suffered more than mothers';…

  20. Organic carbon stocks and sequestration rates of forest soils in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Grüneberg, Erik; Ziche, Daniel; Wellbrock, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) provides the Greenhouse Gas Reporting in Germany with a quantitative assessment of organic carbon (C) stocks and changes in forest soils. Carbon stocks of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil (30 cm) were estimated on the basis of ca. 1.800 plots sampled from 1987 to 1992 and resampled from 2006 to 2008 on a nationwide grid of 8 × 8 km. Organic layer C stock estimates were attributed to surveyed forest stands and CORINE land cover data. Mineral soil C stock estimates were linked with the distribution of dominant soil types according to the Soil Map of Germany (1 : 1 000 000) and subsequently related to the forest area. It appears that the C pool of the organic layer was largely depending on tree species and parent material, whereas the C pool of the mineral soil varied among soil groups. We identified the organic layer C pool as stable although C was significantly sequestered under coniferous forest at lowland sites. The mineral soils, however, sequestered 0.41 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. Carbon pool changes were supposed to depend on stand age and forest transformation as well as an enhanced biomass input. Carbon stock changes were clearly attributed to parent material and soil groups as sandy soils sequestered higher amounts of C, whereas clayey and calcareous soils showed small gains and in some cases even losses of soil C. We further showed that the largest part of the overall sample variance was not explained by fine-earth stock variances, rather by the C concentrations variance. The applied uncertainty analyses in this study link the variability of strata with measurement errors. In accordance to other studies for Central Europe, the results showed that the applied method enabled a reliable nationwide quantification of the soil C pool development for a certain period. PMID:24616061

  1. Diffusion and Leaching Behavior of Radionuclides in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material – Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-08-31

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed, and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Some of the mobilization scenarios include (1) potential leaching of waste form before permanent closure cover is installed; (2) after the cover installation, long-term diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste form into surrounding fill material; (3) diffusion of radionuclides from contaminated soils into adjoining concrete encasement and clean fill material. Additionally, the rate of diffusion of radionuclides may be affected by the formation of structural cracks in concrete, the carbonation of the buried waste form, and any potential effect of metallic iron (in the form of rebars) on the mobility of radionuclides. The radionuclides iodine-129 ({sup 129}I), technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), and uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) are identified as long-term dose contributors in Category 3 waste (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, and carbonate-complexed {sup 238}U may readily leach into the subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989, 1992a, b, 1993, and 1995). The leachability and/or diffusion of radionuclide species must be measured to assess the long-term performance of waste grouts when contacted with vadose-zone pore water or groundwater. Although significant research has been conducted on the design and performance of cementitious waste forms, the current protocol conducted to assess radionuclide stability within these waste forms has been limited to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Method 1311 Federal Registry (EPA 1992) and ANSI/ANS-16.1 leach test (ANSI 1986). These tests evaluate the performance under water-saturated conditions and do not evaluate the performance of cementitious waste forms within the context of waste repositories which are located within water-deficient vadose zones. Moreover, these tests assess only the diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste forms and neglect evaluating the mechanisms of retention, stability of the waste form, and formation of secondary phases during weathering, which may serve as long-term secondary hosts for immobilization of radionuclides. The results of recent investigations conducted under arid and semi-arid conditions (Al-Khayat et al. 2002; Garrabrants et al. 2002; Garrabrants and Kosson 2003; Garrabrants et al. 2004; Gervais et al. 2004; Sanchez et al. 2002; Sanchez et al. 2003) provide valuable information suggesting structural and chemical changes to concrete waste forms which may affect contaminant containment and waste form performance. However, continued research is necessitated by the need to understand: the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties, and the associated impact on contaminant release. Recent reviews conducted by the National Academies of Science recognized the efficacy of cementitious materials for waste isolation, but further noted the significant shortcomings in our current understanding and testing protocol for evaluating the performance of various formulations.

  2. New elements in teaching soil-landscape relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonneveld, M. P. W.

    2012-04-01

    A landscape is an area whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors. Landscapes are fundamental spatial units for soil scientists working in the fields of soil survey and soil geography. For these scientists but also for those who use their products (e.g. maps), interrelations between geology, geomorphology, soil formation and derived soil patterns in relation to land use are keys to the understanding of landscape functions. Many of these relations have been documented in aging soil survey reports but these are often difficult to access. As a result, important and unique soil-landscape phenomena remain hidden for other environmental scientists or the general public. In the Netherlands, efforts have been undertaken to aggregate information from soil survey reports and recent scientific insights into a new book with the aim to teach students the basic elements in soil-landscape research and to provide insights into valuable earth phenomena that are in need of preservation and/or careful management. New elements include amongst others: - State-of-the-art graphics to show how basic soil forming factors such as climate (change), parent material and time are interrelated. - Detailed catenas for specific soil-landscape systems, showing the relations between geomorphology and soil genesis. - Combining traditional soil maps with high-resolution DEM data to make soil-landscape relations more explicit. - Indicating the extent and impacts of land use change using maps of land use history. With this approach, current insights into natural patterns of geodiversity and pedodiversity are documented and available as a resource for education but also for policy makers working in the fields of geoheritage.

  3. Soil ecology of Coccidioides immitis at Amerindian middens in California.

    PubMed

    Lacy, G H; Swatek, F E

    1974-02-01

    Outbreaks of coccidioidomycosis and isolation of Coccidioides immitis have been reported from Amerindian middens. This study was undertaken to determine the most important ecological component(s) for the occurrence of C. immitis at archeological sites. Soils from 10 former Indian villages with no prior history of coccidioidal infection were collected and cultured. The physicochemical properties of the midden soils were compared with nonmidden soils and positive soils. The following theories for the sporadic distribution of the pathogen in the soil of the Lower Sonoran Life Zone were considered: (i) the Larrea tridentata (creosote bush) association, (ii) the preference for saline soils, (iii) isolation near rodent burrows, and (iv) animals as possible agents of dispersal. Results showed that a high percentage of the midden soils contained C. immitis, whereas none of the adjacent, nonmidden soils yielded the fungus. Physicochemical analyses revealed that the dark color and alkaline pH of the midden soils were due to past organic contamination. Repeated isolations were made from soils with low to moderate alkalinity. Alkalinity and sandy texture were consistent features of all soils in this study. However, the lack of any reports of nonsandy infested soils possibly indicates that the sandy texture and alkalinity may be factors in the distribution of this fungus. The organic content, soil parent material, and color were not important in the soil ecology. L. tridentata was not significant in the macroflora at the infested sites surveyed. Samples collected without reference to rodent burrows yielded a high percentage of recoveries. Animals, although not the major natural reservoir, cannot be ignored as possible factors in the ecology of C. immitis. PMID:4856715

  4. Soil Ecology of Coccidioides immitis at Amerindian Middens in California

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, George H.; Swatek, Frank E.

    1974-01-01

    Outbreaks of coccidioidomycosis and isolation of Coccidioides immitis have been reported from Amerindian middens. This study was undertaken to determine the most important ecological component(s) for the occurrence of C. immitis at archeological sites. Soils from 10 former Indian villages with no prior history of coccidioidal infection were collected and cultured. The physicochemical properties of the midden soils were compared with nonmidden soils and positive soils. The following theories for the sporadic distribution of the pathogen in the soil of the Lower Sonoran Life Zone were considered: (i) the Larrea tridentata (creosote bush) association, (ii) the preference for saline soils, (iii) isolation near rodent burrows, and (iv) animals as possible agents of dispersal. Results showed that a high percentage of the midden soils contained C. immitis, whereas none of the adjacent, nonmidden soils yielded the fungus. Physicochemical analyses revealed that the dark color and alkaline pH of the midden soils were due to past organic contamination. Repeated isolations were made from soils with low to moderate alkalinity. Alkalinity and sandy texture were consistent features of all soils in this study. However, the lack of any reports of nonsandy infested soils possibly indicates that the sandy texture and alkalinity may be factors in the distribution of this fungus. The organic content, soil parent material, and color were not important in the soil ecology. L. tridentata was not significant in the macroflora at the infested sites surveyed. Samples collected without reference to rodent burrows yielded a high percentage of recoveries. Animals, although not the major natural reservoir, cannot be ignored as possible factors in the ecology of C. immitis. Images PMID:4856715

  5. National Soil Information System in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emrah Erdogan, Hakki; Sahin, Mehmet; Sahin, Yuksel

    2013-04-01

    Land consolidation (LC) represents complexity if management, legal, economic and technical procedures realized in order to adjust the land structure according to actual human preferences and needs. It includes changes in ownership rights to land and other real estate property, exchange of parcels among owners, changes in parcel borders, parcel size and shape, joining and dividing of parcels, changes in land use, construction works as roads, bridges, water changes etc.. Since the subject of LC is agricultural lands, the quality of consolidation depends on the quality of soil data. General Directorate of Agrarian Reform (GDAR) is the responsible institution on land consolidation whole of Turkey. Under GDAR, National Soil Information System (NSIS) has been build up with base soil data in relevant scale (1:5000). NSIS contain detailed information on soil chemical and physical properties, current land use, parent material, land capability class, Storie Index Values. SI were used on land consolidation, land use planning and farm development services. LCC was used for land distribution, rental land; define of village settlement, consolidation, expropriation, reconstruction, reclamation, non-agricultural usage. LCC were also specified to subclasses in four different limited factors as i) flow and erosion risk ii) requirement of drainage and soil moisture iii) Limits of soil tillage and root (shallow soils, low water retention capacity, stony, salty .etc) iv) climatic limits. In this study, digital soil survey and mapping project located in Yumurtalik, Adana is presented as an example of NSIS data structure. The project cover an area of 45709 ha that include crop lands as an area of 28528 ha and other land use (urban, roads..etc) as an area of 17181 ha. Soil profiles were described in 45 different points and totally 1279 soil samples were collected in field study and the check bore hole were made in 3170 points.

  6. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents' material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60C and passed through 2 m sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  7. Conserving Soil. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This book of enrichment materials is an interdisciplinary study of soil designed for students in grades 6-9. The materials are presented in three units. Unit 1 contains eight activities in which students investigate soil science and study the social impact of soil by examining the history of land use by local Native Americans. Unit 2 contains 10…

  8. Soil development over millennial timescales - a comparison of soil chronosequences of different climates and lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, D.; Schülli-Maurer, I.; Wagner, S.; Scarciglia, F.; Sperstad, R.; Svendgård-Stokke, S.; Sørensen, R.; Schellmann, G.

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports soil development over time in different climates, on time-scales ranging from a few thousand to several hundred thousand years. Changes in soil properties over time, underlying soil-forming processes and their rates are presented. The paper is based on six soil chronosequences, i.e. sequences of soils of different age that are supposed to have developed under the similar conditions with regard to climate, vegetation and other living organisms, relief and parent material. The six soil chronosequences are from humid-temperate, Mediterranean and semi-arid climates. They are compared with regard to soil thickness increase, changes in soil pH, formation of pedogenic iron oxides (expressed as Fed/Fet ratios), clay formation, dust influx (both reflected in clay/silt ratios), and silicate weathering and leaching of base cations(expressed as (Ca+Mg+K+Na)/Al molar ratios) over time. This comparison reveals that the increase of solum thickness with time can be best described by logarithmic equations in all three types of climates. Fed/Fet ratios (proportion of pedogeniciron Fed compared to total iron Fet) reflects the transformation of iron in primary minerals into pedogeniciron. This ratio usually increases with time, except for regions, where the influx of dust (having low Fed/Fet ratios) prevails over the process of pedogeniciron oxide formation, which is the case in the Patagonian chronosequences. Dust influx has also a substantial influence on the time courses of clay/silt ratios and on element indices of silicate weathering. Using the example of a 730 kasoil chronosequence from southern Italy, the fact that soils of long chronosequences inevitably experienced major environmental changes is demonstrated, and, consequentially a modified definition of requirements for soil chronosequences is suggested. Moreover, pedogenic thresholds, feedback systems and progressive versus regressive processes identified in the soil chronosequences are discussed.

  9. Vegetation disturbance and erosion after fire: Interactions of severity, climate, topography, and soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, Daniel G.

    2010-05-01

    Fire has been used by humans as a tool for manipulating vegetation for millennia. These fires have profoundly affected the vegetation component of ecosystems but have also affected soil formation and erosional processes. The interactions of fire severity, climate, topography, and soil systems have produced a wide array of responses and degrees of erosion. Fire has been part of many ecosystems since the Carboniferous, but humans have taken fire frequency and impacts to a new level. One result has been a global increase in desertification and degradation of soils. Erosional of soils contributed to the decline of past civilizations and now raises a new specter due to climate change and burgeoning human populations. This paper examines the interactions of vegetation, fire regime, fire severity, climate, topography, parent material, and soil erosion on long-term soil sustainability in the 21st Century.

  10. Spatial variability characteristics of soil available N, P, and K and their influencing factors at the county scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Su; Li, Tinxuan; Wang, Yongdong; Yu, Haiying

    2009-06-01

    Spatial variability, a major feature of soils, was generally influenced by various factors, relative studies on which laid solid foundations for precision agriculture. In this investigation, method of geostatistics combined with GIS was used to analyze the spatial variability characteristics of soil available nitrogen (SAN), soil available phosphorus (SAP) and soil available potassium (SAK) and their influencing factors in Shuangliu county Sichuan province, China. The results showed that, SAP and SAK were normally distributed through naturally logarithmic transformation. Semivariogram analysis revealed that SAN and SAK were highly spatial correlated, while SAP moderately spatial correlated, and the spatially dependent ranges of SAN, SAK and SAP contents were 21590m, 76903m and 23300m, respectively. Through ordinary Kriging interpolation, SAN, SAP and SAK presented different varying tendencies in the study area. SSR test indicated that SAN was significantly different depending on different soil types; SAP was significantly different depending on terrain conditions and soil parental materials; SAK was strongly affected by soil parental materials. The fertilizer application rate at the regions with high soil available N, P and K contents was obviously higher than that with low soil available nutrient contents.

  11. Soil moisture: Some fundamentals. [agriculture - soil mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milstead, B. W.

    1975-01-01

    A brief tutorial on soil moisture, as it applies to agriculture, is presented. Information was taken from books and papers considered freshman college level material, and is an attempt to briefly present the basic concept of soil moisture and a minimal understanding of how water interacts with soil.

  12. Can Low Water/Rock Hydrothermal Alteration of Impact Materials Explain the Rock Component of the Martian Soil?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, M. J.; Newsom, H. E.

    2003-01-01

    The martian regolith is a globally homogenized product of chemical and aeolian weathering processes. The soil is thought to consist of a rock component, with lesser amounts of mobile elements (Ca, Na, and K) than a presumed protolith, and a salt or mobile element component enriched in sulfur and chlorine. In this study we consider the contributions of hydrothermal processes to the origin of the rock component of the martian soil.

  13. Mercury content of Illinois soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dreher, G.B.; Follmer, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    For a survey of Illinois soils, 101 cores had been collected and analyzed to determine the current and background elemental compositions of Illinois soils. Mercury and other elements were determined in six samples per core, including a surface sample from each core. The mean mercury content in the surface samples was 33 ?? 20 ??g/kg soil, and the background content was 20 ?? 9 ??g/kg. The most probable sources of mercury in these soils were the parent material, and wet and dry deposition of Hg0 and Hg2+ derived from coal-burning power plants, other industrial plants, and medical and municipal waste incinerators. Mercury-bearing sewage sludge or other fertilizers applied to agricultural fields could have been the local sources of mercury. Although the mercury content correlated with organic carbon content or clay content in individual cores, when all the data were considered, there was no strong correlation between mercury and either the organic carbon or the clay-size content.

  14. Preliminary investigation of Large Format Camera photography utility in soil mapping and related agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, R. E.; Hudnall, W. H.

    1987-01-01

    The use of Space Shuttle Large Format Camera (LFC) color, IR/color, and B&W images in large-scale soil mapping is discussed and illustrated with sample photographs from STS 41-6 (October 1984). Consideration is given to the characteristics of the film types used; the photographic scales available; geometric and stereoscopic factors; and image interpretation and classification for soil-type mapping (detecting both sharp and gradual boundaries), soil parent material topographic and hydrologic assessment, natural-resources inventory, crop-type identification, and stress analysis. It is suggested that LFC photography can play an important role, filling the gap between aerial and satellite remote sensing.

  15. Parental Power and Adolescents' Parental Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acock, Alan C.; Yang, Wen Shan

    1984-01-01

    Combines McDonald's social power of parental identification with sex-linked models of parental identification to account for the identification of daughters (N=199) and sons (N=147) with their parents. Found that because of a halo effect, a gain in identification with one parent is not at the other parent's expense. (JAC)

  16. Knowledge translation of the HELPinKIDS clinical practice guideline for managing childhood vaccination pain: usability and knowledge uptake of educational materials directed to new parents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although numerous evidence-based and feasible interventions are available to treat pain from childhood vaccine injections, evidence indicates that children are not benefitting from this knowledge. Unrelieved vaccination pain puts children at risk for significant long-term harms including the development of needle fears and subsequent health care avoidance behaviours. Parents report that while they want to mitigate vaccination pain in their children, they lack knowledge about how to do so. An evidence-based clinical practice guideline for managing vaccination pain was recently developed in order to address this knowledge-to-care gap. Educational tools (pamphlet and video) for parents were included to facilitate knowledge transfer at the point of care. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usability and effectiveness in terms of knowledge acquisition from the pamphlet and video in parents of newly born infants. Methods Mixed methods design. Following heuristic usability evaluation of the pamphlet and video, parents of newborn infants reviewed revised versions of both tools and participated in individual and group interviews and individual knowledge testing. The knowledge test comprised of 10 true/false questions about the effectiveness of various pain management interventions, and was administered at three time points: at baseline, after review of the pamphlet, and after review of the video. Results Three overarching themes were identified from the interviews regarding usability of these educational tools: receptivity to learning, accessibility to information, and validity of information. Parents’ performance on the knowledge test improved (p≤0.001) from the baseline phase to after review of the pamphlet, and again from the pamphlet review phase to after review of the video. Conclusions Using a robust testing process, we demonstrated usability and conceptual knowledge acquisition from a parent-directed educational pamphlet and video about management of vaccination pain. Future studies are planned to determine the impact of these educational tools when introduced in clinical settings on parent behaviors during infant vaccinations. PMID:23394070

  17. Materialism.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26301463

  18. Spatial variability of available soil microelements in an ecological functional zone of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Ye, Huichun; Shen, Chongyang; Huang, Yuanfang; Huang, Wenjiang; Zhang, Shiwen; Jia, Xiaohong

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the spatial variability of soil microelements and its influencing factors is of importance for a number of applications such as scientifically formulated fertilizer and environmental protection. This study used descriptive statistics and geostatistics to investigate the spatial variability of available soil Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn contents in agricultural topsoil (0-20 cm) in an ecological functional zone located at Yanqing County, Beijing, China. Kriging method was applied to map the spatial patterns of available soil Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn contents. Results showed that the available soil Cu had a widest spatial correlation distance (e.g., 9.6 km), which for available soil Fe, Mn, and Zn were only 1.29, 2.58, and 0.99 km, respectively. The values of C 0/sill for available soil Fe and Zn were 0.12 and 0.11, respectively, demonstrating that the spatial heterogeneity was mainly due to structural factors. The available soil Mn and Cu had the larger values of C 0/sill (i.e., 0.50 and 0.44 for Mn and Cu, respectively), which showed a medium spatial correlation. Mapping of the spatial patterns of the four microelements showed that the decrease trend of available soil Fe and Mn were from northeast to southwest across the study area. The highest amount of available soil Cu was distributed in the middle of the study area surrounding urban region which presented as a "single island". The highest amount of available soil Zn was mainly distributed in the north and south of the study area. One-way analysis of variance for the influencing factors showed that the lithology of parental materials, soil organic matter, and pH were important factors affecting spatial variability of the available microelements. The topography only had a significant influence on the spatial variability of available soil Fe and Mn contents, parental materials, and the land use types had little influence on the spatial variability. PMID:25619696

  19. Total Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins

  20. Total Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins…

  1. Parental Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Lehman, Stephanie; Clapp, John; Hovell, Melbourne; Sipan, Carol; Blumberg, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period during which many youth experiment with risk practices. This paper examined the association of parental monitoring with a range of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use behaviors among high-risk youth, while controlling for other demographic and environmental variables previously found to be associated with AOD

  2. Parental Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Lehman, Stephanie; Clapp, John; Hovell, Melbourne; Sipan, Carol; Blumberg, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period during which many youth experiment with risk practices. This paper examined the association of parental monitoring with a range of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use behaviors among high-risk youth, while controlling for other demographic and environmental variables previously found to be associated with AOD…

  3. Constructive Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Sally

    This book turns important research and theory into essential, easy-to-follow guidelines for new parents and child care providers to help them focus on the critical first 3 years of life to build a strong foundation for the future. All the key areas of child development are covered, including self-esteem, and cognitive, motor and social

  4. Perceived Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Sofie; Doumen, Sarah; Germeijs, Veerle; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Contingent self-esteem (i.e., the degree to which one's self-esteem is dependent on meeting particular conditions) has been shown to predict a wide range of psychosocial and academic problems. This study extends previous research on contingent self-esteem by examining the predictive role of perceived parenting dimensions in a sample of early

  5. Perceived Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Sofie; Doumen, Sarah; Germeijs, Veerle; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Contingent self-esteem (i.e., the degree to which one's self-esteem is dependent on meeting particular conditions) has been shown to predict a wide range of psychosocial and academic problems. This study extends previous research on contingent self-esteem by examining the predictive role of perceived parenting dimensions in a sample of early…

  6. Constructive Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Sally

    This book turns important research and theory into essential, easy-to-follow guidelines for new parents and child care providers to help them focus on the critical first 3 years of life to build a strong foundation for the future. All the key areas of child development are covered, including self-esteem, and cognitive, motor and social…

  7. Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1988-01-01

    Children ranging from fifth to twelfth grade, and their parents, were presented with items pertaining to family transgressions and asked to judge the legitimacy of parental jurisdiction, justify its wrongness or permissibility, and assess its contingency on parental authority. (PCB)

  8. Distribution and characterization of soils and landform relationships in Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Pedro Adnet; Francelino, Marcio R.; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Simas, Felipe N. B.; de Mendona, Bruno A. F.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the spatial distribution of soils from the northern part of Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, which is the largest ice-free area of the South Shetlands archipelago, Maritime Antarctica. Physical and chemical characteristics are presented for 23 soil profiles. Soil parent materials vary from marine sedimentary to volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks, intruded by igneous bodies. To assess soil-landscape relationships, twenty-three soil profiles were described and sampled. Soil samples of selected horizons were submitted to chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses. Soil mapping was based on the soil profiles, integrated with the existent topographic map (1:25.000 scale), a digital elevation model, the geological map and a satellite image. Twenty different soil units were identified and mapped. According to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) system, soils were classified as Fluvisols, Regosols, Leptosols or Cryosols, which correspond mostly to Fluvents, Orthents/Psamments, Inceptsols and Gelisols, respectively, according to the Soil Taxonomy. Soils from northern Byers Peninsula are generally shallow and coarse textured, with low organic matter content. Three soils from the rocky platforms of the northern coastal region possess ornithogenic character, with lower pH, higher P, Al3 + and organic C values when compared to soils not influenced by sea birds. In non-ornithogenic soils, the presence of easily weatherable minerals in the clay fraction indicates that physical weathering occurs with limited chemical alteration of primary minerals. The influence of penguin and other birds on coastal soils alters clay mineralogy, with formation of poorly crystalline P-rich phases. A better understanding of the depth of the permafrost table and the spatial distribution of permafrost is necessary for a more conclusive classification of Cryosols or Gelisols.

  9. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data

    SciTech Connect

    Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G.; Post, W.M.; Emanuel, W.R.; Olson, J.S.

    1984-05-01

    A compilation of soil carbon and nitrogen storage data for more than 3500 soil profiles from under natural vegetation or relatively undisturbed sites is presented in this report. A summary table of the carbon and nitrogen storage in a pedon of surface cubic meter for each soil profile, as well as location, elevation, climate, parent material, and vegetation information, are presented. The data were used to determine average carbon and nitrogen storage on land surfaces of the world. Calculations were also made of storage related to climatic classifications, ecosystem clasifications, and latitudinal increments from the equator to 75/sup 0/. Carbon (kg.m/sup -3/) varies from 2 in hot dry climates, through 10 in many cold dry or seasonally moist (warm or hot) climates, to more than 30 in wet alpine or subpolar climates. Nitrogen storage, an order of magnitude smaller than carbon storage in soils, shows broad parallels but exceeds 1600 g.m/sup -3/ for subtropical/tropical premontane or lower montane soils, as well as alpine or subpolar wet soils. Such limiting conditions, defined by a balance of income and loss rates for mature soil profiles, also explain much of the variation among major ecosystem complexes whose soils are partly disturbed, incompletely recovered, or imperfectly known regarding their maturity and stability. Classifying profiles into Holdridge life zones and using appropriate life zone areas, we estimate 1309 x 10/sup 15/ g carbon and 92 x 10/sup 15/ g nitrogen in the world's soils. Alternatively, using average organic carbon and nitrogen densities from one degree latitude bands multiplied by the earth's surface area in the respective bands, we arrive at 1728 x 10/sup 15/ g of carbon and 117 x 10/sup 15/ g of nitrogen. Inadequacies that lead to the disparate estimates are discussed. 123 references, 5 figures, 7 tables.

  10. Origin of nitrogen in reforested lignite-rich mine soils revealed by stable isotope analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abad Chabbi; Mathieu Sebilo; Cornelia Rumpel; Wolfgang Schaaf; Andre Mariotti

    2008-04-15

    Restoration of the nitrogen cycle is an important step in the recovery of an ecosystem after open-cast mining. Carbon and nitrogen in rehabilitated lignite containing mine soils can be derived from plant material as well as from lignite inherent to the parent substrate. We assessed the use elemental and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements to trace the origin of soil nitrogen and applied these techniques to elucidate the origin of mineral N in the soil and the soil solution. The conceptual approach of this study included physical fractionation in addition to sampling of vegetation and soil from a lignite-containing mine site in Lusatia rehabilitated in 1985 with Pinus Nigra. We studied the elemental and isotopic composition of bulk samples as well as isolated fractions and soil solution. Our data indicate that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of the soil samples are the result of mixing between plant material and substrate inherent lignite. {delta}{sup 15}N isotopes may be used as indicators of nitrogen contribution from plants to solid samples as well as soil solution. N-isotope composition of ammonia shows low spatial and interannual variability, despite strong concentration changes. Plant-derived nitrogen contributes in higher amounts to the soil solution compared to the bulk mineral soil. 45 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Effects of aqueous extract of soil-like substrate made from three different materials on seed germination and seedling growth of rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lingzhi; Fu, Yuming; Fu, Wenting; Yan, Min; Li, Leyuan; Liu, Hong

    2014-03-01

    Biologically processing rice and wheat straws into soil-like substrate (SLS) and then reusing them in plant cultivation system to achieve waste recycle is very crucially important in Bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). However, rice is a plant with strong allelopathic potential. It is not clear yet that what kinds of raw materials can be processed into proper SLS to grow rice in BLSS. Therefore, in this study, the aqueous extract of SLS made from three different materials including rice straw, wheat straw and rice-wheat straw mixture was utilized to investigate its effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of rice. The gradients of the extract concentrations (soil:water) were 1:3, 1:5, 1:9, and 1:15 with deionized water used as control. The effects of different types of SLS on seed germination and seedling vitality of rice were confirmed by analyzing the germination rate, seedling length, root length, the fresh weight and other indicants. In addition, based on the analysis towards pH, organic matter composition and other factors of the SLS as well as the chlorophyll, hormone content of rice, and the mechanism of the inhibition was speculated in order to explore the preventive methods of the phenomenon. Finally, the feasibility of cultivating rice on SLSs made from the raw materials mentioned above was evaluated and wheat raw was determined as the most appropriate material for growing rice.

  12. Magnetic and Geochemical Properties of Andic Soils from the Massif Central, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grison, H.; Petrovsky, E.; Dlouha, S.; Kapicka, A.

    2014-12-01

    Ferrimagnetic iron oxides are the key magnetic minerals responsible for enhancement of the magnetic susceptibility in soils. Soils with andic properties contain high amount of Fe-oxides, but only few attempts were made to characterize these soils using magnetic methods. Magnetic susceptibility is in particular suitable for its sensitivity and fast measurement; the presence of Fe-oxides can be easily identified directly in the field. The aim of our study is to describe main magnetic and geochemical properties of soils rich in Fe oxides derived from strongly magnetic volcanic basement. The studied sites are located at the basalt parent rock formed during Pleistocene, Pliocene and Miocene. Investigated soils are exposed to the mountainous climate with the perudic soil moisture regime and cryic temperature soil regime. Seven basalt soil profiles with typical andic properties were analyzed down to parent rock by a set of magnetic and geochemical methods. The magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ and in laboratory using the Bartington MS2D and AGICO MFK1. Its temperature dependence was measured in order to assess phase transformations of magnetic minerals using the KLY4. Magnetic data were completed by the hysteresis, IRM and DCD measurements using ADE EV9 VSM. Geochemical data include soil reaction (pH), organic carbon, cations exchange capacity, and extractable iron and aluminium in the soil extracted by a dithionite-citrate, acid-ammonium oxalate and a pyrophosphate solution. Scanning electron microscopy was done for top/sub-soil and rock samples. Geochemical soil properties reflecting iron oxide stability correlate well with mass-specific magnetic susceptibility. Well pronounced relationship was observed between magnetic grain size, precipitation and soil pH, second group is reflecting concentration of feri-magnetic particles and age of parent rock, and the third group reflects degree of weathering and the thermomagnetic indices expressing changes in magneto-mineralogy along the soil profiles. Influence of the weathering processes on all the measured parameters is discussed. Soil genesis is influenced by several factors, where the moisture is more important than the age of the parent material. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by Czech Science Foundation through grant No 13-10775S.

  13. Geochemistry of the Paleocene-Eocene and Miocene-Pliocene clayey materials of the eastern part of the Wouri River (Douala sub-basin, Cameroon): Influence of parent rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngon Ngon, G. F.; Mbog, M. B.; Etame, J.; Ntamak-Nida, M. J.; Logmo, E. O.; Gerard, M.; Yongue-Fouateu, R.; Bilong, P.

    2014-03-01

    Major and trace element concentrations of clay deposits of the Missole II and Bomkoul respectively from the Paleocene-Eocene N'Kapa Formation and the Miocene-Pliocene-Matanda-Wouri Formation in the eastern part of the Wouri River in the Douala sub-basin of Cameroon have been investigated to identify the parent rocks. To carry out this study, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP/AES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) were performed to determine respectively the mineralogical and chemical data of Missole II and Bomkoul clayey materials. Clay sediments are essentially kaolinitic and illitic, and kaolinitic and smectitic respectively in both sites. They are generally siliceous, aluminous with small iron and bases (MgO, CaO, Na2O, and K2O) contents. Samples of Missole II profiles are more siliceous than those from the Bomkoul grey and dark grey clayey materials. Clayey materials have high Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA = 80-99.34) which suggests that they are strongly weathered under humid tropical climate before and after their deposition in the coastal plain. The value of Eu/Eu* (0.48-0.61), La/Sc (2.15-20.50), Th/Sc (0.74-2.25), Th/Co (1.08-8.33), and Cr/Th (5.24-13.55) ratios support essentially a silicic or felsic parent rocks. Total REE concentrations reflect the variations in their grain-size fractions. Chondrite-normalised REE patterns with LREE enrichment, flat HREE, and negative Eu anomaly are attributed essentially to silicic or felsic parent rocks like those from weathered materials developed from the gneisses around the coastal plain in the littoral part of Cameroon (Noa Tang et al., 2012), main characteristic of Paleocene-Eocene and Miocene-Pliocene clay sediments of Missole II and Bomkoul areas.

  14. Soil magnetic properties in Bulgaria at a national scale-Challenges and benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, Neli; Jordanova, Diana; Petrov, Petar

    2016-02-01

    Establishing topsoil magnetic database at a national scale provides important information for soil classification, evaluation of soil drainage, indirect estimation of the total soil carbon and initial planning in precision agriculture. The Bulgarian database consists of 511 topsoil samples from the upper 20 cm of natural unpolluted soils. Samples have been characterized by detailed magnetic measurements, including mass-specific magnetic susceptibility, frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanence, isothermal remanence and their ratios, hysteresis parameters and ratios, as well as soil reaction (pH). Histograms of the measured parameters per soil type and for the whole database show specific peculiarities and dependence from various parameters. Statistical factor analysis revealed that 87% from the total variance can be explained by four factors. The main factor is dominated by the contribution from concentration-dependent magnetic parameters, second one reflects the role of fine-grained pedogenic magnetic fraction, the third one is determined by the properties of the parent material, fourth one is governed by the internal structural peculiarities of the magnetic particles. The results from cluster analysis reveal the role of soil type and geology for the observed magnetic characteristics. The results emphasize the major role of geology (parent material) for the magnetic signature of topsoil samples on a national scale using sampling density of 1 sample/200 km2. Spatial interpolation of different magnetic parameters using modelled experimental variograms and kriging algorithm highlight lateral peculiarities in the concentration and grain size of the strongly magnetic iron oxides in the topsoils. Additional geochemical data for selected set of samples and meteorological information reveal the role of climate characteristics (mean annual temperature and precipitation) on the formation and development of the strongly magnetic pedogenic fraction in soils developed on the same parent material.

  15. Use of 13C labeling to assess carbon partitioning in transgenic and nontransgenic (parental) rice and their rhizosphere soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei Xiang; Liu, Wei; Lu, Hao Hao; Chen, Ying Xu; Medha, Devare; Janice, Thies

    2009-01-01

    Photosynthetic assimilation of CO2 is a primary source of carbon in soil and root exudates and can influence the community dynamics of rhizosphere organisms. Thus, if carbon partitioning is affected in transgenic crops, rhizosphere microbial communities may also be affected. In this study, the temporal effects of gene transformation on carbon partitioning in rice and rhizosphere microbial communities were investigated under greenhouse conditions using the 13C pulse-chase labeling method and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. The 13C contents in leaves of transgenic (Bt) and nontransgenic (Ck) rice were significantly different at the seedling, booting and heading stages. There were no detectable differences in 13C distribution in rice roots and rhizosphere microorganisms at any point during rice development. Although a significantly lower amount of Gram-positive bacterial PLFAs and a higher amount of Gram-negative bacterial PLFAs were observed in Bt rice rhizosphere as compared with Ck at all plant development stages, there were no significant differences in the amount of individual 13C-PLFA between Bt and Ck rhizospheres at any growing stage. These findings indicate that the insertion of cry1Ab and marker genes into rice had no persistent or adverse effect on the photosynthate distribution in rice or the microbial community composition in its rhizosphere. PMID:19049503

  16. [Parenting Renewal. Leaflets and Lessons for Parents of Children Five to Twelve Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Instructional materials on parenting skills for parents of children 5 to 12 years of age are provided, with teaching guides for extension service agents. Organized as a series of nine leaflets followed by nine corresponding lessons, leaflets for parents concern: (1) an overview of the leaflets; (2) readiness: guiding normal development; (3)…

  17. [Parenting Renewal. Leaflets and Lessons for Parents of Children Birth to Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Instructional materials on parenting skills for parents of newborn through 4-year-old children are provided, with teaching guides for extension service agents. Organized as a series of nine leaflets followed by nine corresponding lessons, leaflets for parents concern: (1) an overview of the leaflets; (2) readiness: guiding normal development; (3)…

  18. Successful Parenting for School-Age Parents. Teacher's Resource Guide. Student Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    The teacher's guide and student reference book presented here were developed as resources to facilitate school-age parenting education. The materials were organized around the nine essential elements for the Parenting Education for School-Age Parents course in Texas. The teacher's guide contains teaching strategies, teaching aids, paper-and-pencil…

  19. Cave-soils, the soils forming underneath the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, Endre; Bertóti, Diána; Kovács, Károly; Vadnai, Péter

    2015-04-01

    Limestone cave sediments of the Bükk-mountain in the North-Eastern part of Hungary were described, analysed and classified using WRB soil classification system. Cave sediments can be considered as soils, partly on the basis of their origin, partly of processes taking place in them. Based on the results, it can be concluded that cave soils are often shallow, lying directly above the continuous rock. In general they are layered, with clearly distinct layers of alluvial origin. Their organic matter content depends on the nature of the sediment. They often contain considerable quantities of undecomposed organic sediment, acting as the basis for very intensive soil life, which can be detected in the soil structure and may in some cases result in Vermic characteristics. The texture is very variable, ranging from clay to rough gravelly sand. Almost 100% of the soils are calcareous, the lime content is of secondary origin and its amount is at least 2%. Therefore, the pH values fluctuate from neutral to 8.5, mostly having a value around 8. In rare cases gley formation also occurs, especially on poorly drained areas, where there is no water flow to refresh the dissolved oxygen content. In the "oxy-aquic" state, characterized by high dissolved oxygen content, the iron is not reduced, so gley formation is not induced. From pedological point of view, cave sediments show a very diverse picture. Besides sedimentary layers, numerous soil formation processes can be detected, which can be considered analogue with surface processes, therefore they definitely need to be classified as soils. According to all these, in the Hungarian classification cave soils are primarily classified as alluvial, colluvial or lithomorphic soils. The WRB classification places them mainly in the Fluvisol and Leptosol Reference Groups, and according to the soils examined in the present work, they can be described with the Leptic (Epileptic), Fluvic (in rare cases Colluvic), Vermic, Calcaric, Eutric, Gleyic, or possibly with the Mollic or Rhodic qualifiers. Despite the relatively small number of analysed and reference samples during the mineralogical examinations, we can say that clear trends could be observed in the cave sediments. Due to the present and historical heterogeneity of the catchment area, it is difficult to associate the samples with surface soils. It could be established, however, that approximately half of the minerals in the cave soils are quartz, with ratios of 38-73% depending on the texture. Smectite-vermiculite associations were dominant in the clay mineral fraction, making up 80-90% of the whole fraction in seven of the eight samples. The only exception was the Mexikó-2 sample, where relatively fresh, unweathered, unleached illite-muscovite is mixed with intensively weathered kaolinite. The explanation for this probably comes from the different origin of the parent materials deposited on each other, either over time or during sampling. This theory needs to be confirmed by further detailed analysis. The work has been supported by "Kútfő" TÁMOP-4.2.2.-A11/1/KONV-2012-0049 project and HUSK/1001/2.1.2/0058 cross-border project. Keywords: cave sediments, soil, WRB, soil contamination, soil formation

  20. Evaluation of meat and bone meal combustion residue as lead immobilizing material for in situ remediation of polluted aqueous solutions and soils: "chemical and ecotoxicological studies".

    PubMed

    Deydier, E; Guilet, R; Cren, S; Pereas, V; Mouchet, F; Gauthier, L

    2007-07-19

    As a result of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, meat and bone meal (MBM) production can no longer be used to feed cattle and must be safely disposed of or transformed. MBM specific incineration remains an alternative that could offer the opportunity to achieve both thermal valorization and solid waste recovery as ashes are calcium phosphate-rich material. The aim of this work is to evaluate ashes efficiency for in situ remediation of lead-contaminated aqueous solutions and soils, and to assess the bioavailability of lead using two biological models, amphibian Xenopus laevis larvae and Nicotiana tabaccum tobacco plant. With the amphibian model, no toxic or genotoxic effects of ashes are observed with concentrations from 0.1 to 5 g of ashes/L. If toxic and genotoxic effects of lead appear at concentration higher than 1 mg Pb/L (1 ppm), addition of only 100 mg of ashes/L neutralizes lead toxicity even with lead concentration up to 10 ppm. Chemical investigations (kinetics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis) reveals that lead is quickly immobilized as pyromorphite [Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2] and lead carbonate dihydrate [PbCO(3).2H2O]. Tobacco experiments are realized on contaminated soils with 50, 100, 2000 and 10000 ppm of lead with and without ashes amendment (35.3g ashes/kg of soil). Tobacco measurements show that plant elongation is bigger in an ashes-amended soil contaminated with 10000 ppm of lead than on the reference soil alone. Tobacco model points out that ashes present two beneficial actions as they do not only neutralize lead toxicity but also act as a fertilizer. PMID:17240054

  1. Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western USA. I. Chemical characteristics of spoil and replaced cover-soil.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1983-01-01

    A range of at least one order of magnitude was observed for DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and organic matter content of samples of spoil and cover-soil from eleven western USA surface-coal mines. The observed pH of these samples ranged from 3.9 to 8.9; however, most samples were near-neutral to alkaline in reaction. Most constituent levels were found to be below proposed guidelines for maximum permissible levels in mine soil. -from Authors

  2. Major element composition of glasses in three Apollo 15 soils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Warner, J.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately 180 glasses in each of three Apollo 15 soils have been analyzed for nine elements. Cluster analysis techniques allow the recognition of preferred glass compositions that are equated with parent rock compositions. Green glass rich in Fe and Mg, poor in Al and Ti may be derived from deep-seated pyroxenitic material now present at the Apennine Front. Fra Mauro basalt (KREEP) is most abundant in the LM soil and is tentatively identified as ray material from the Aristillus-Autolycus area. Highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro), believed to be derived from the lunar highlands, has the same composition as at other landing sites, but is less abundant. The Apennine Front is probably not true highland material but may contain a substantial amount of material with the composition of Fra Mauro basalt, but lacking the high-K content.

  3. Employment of a novel magnetically multifunctional purifying material for determination of toxic highly chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls at trace levels in soil samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiabin; Pan, Muyun; Gan, Ning; Cao, Yuting; Wu, Dazhen

    2014-10-17

    In this study, we developed a magnetically multifunctional purifying material for efficient removal of matrix interferences, especially certain organochlorine pesticide (DDT, DDE, and DDD), during the determination of toxic highly chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at trace levels in soil samples. The multifunctional adsorbent (CMCD-NH2-MNPs) was prepared by grafting carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin on the surface of amino-functionalized magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. CMCD-NH2-MNPs has stronger host-guest complexation with DDT, DDE, and DDD, but the same adsorbent shows weaker adsorption ability toward highly chlorinated PCBs (from tetra- to octa-chlorinated PCBs) owing to their steric hindrance effect. Based on this principle, a simple and rapid gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for six indicator PCBs (PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB138, PCB153, and PCB180) in soil. Comparative studies were conducted to determine the clean-up efficiency of the following three techniques: (i) Oasis-HLB, (ii) multi-layer silica column, and (iii) dSPE employing CMCD-NH2-MNPs. The results indicate that CMCD-NH2-MNPs as the purification material can easily and effectively remove DDT, DDE, and DDD in soil samples within a short duration of time. The recoveries for highly chlorinated PCBs were in the range of 85.4-102.2%, with RSDs varying between 1.0 and 6.5%. The proposed method was verified as one of the most effective clean-up procedures for the analysis of highly chlorinated PCBs in real soil samples. PMID:25240650

  4. Amount of organic matter required to induce sulfate reduction in sulfuric material after re-flooding is affected by soil nitrate concentration.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chaolei; Mosley, Luke M; Fitzpatrick, Rob; Marschner, Petra

    2015-03-15

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) with sulfuric material can be remediated through microbial sulfate reduction stimulated by adding organic matter (OM) and increasing the soil pH to >4.5, but the effectiveness of this treatment is influenced by soil properties. Two experiments were conducted using ASS with sulfuric material. In the first experiment with four ASS, OM (finely ground mature wheat straw) was added at 2-6% (w/w) and the pH adjusted to 5.5. After 36 weeks under flooded conditions, the concentration of reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) and pore water pH were greater in all treatments with added OM than in the control without OM addition. The RIS concentration increased with OM addition rate. The increase in RIS concentration between 4% and 6% OM was significant but smaller than that between 2% and 4%, suggesting other factors limited sulfate reduction. In the second experiment, the effect of nitrate addition on sulfate reduction at different OM addition rates was investigated in one ASS. Organic matter was added at 2 and 4% and nitrate at 0, 100, and 200 mg nitrate-N kg(-1). After 2 weeks under flooded conditions, soil pH and the concentration of FeS measured as acid volatile sulfur (AVS) were lower with nitrate added at both OM addition rates. At a given nitrate addition rate, pH and AVS concentration were higher at 4% OM than at 2%. It can be concluded that sulfate reduction in ASS at pH 5.5 can be limited by low OM availability and high nitrate concentrations. Further, the inhibitory effect of nitrate can be overcome by high OM addition rates. PMID:25600239

  5. Radionuclides in soils of Byers Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Navas, A; Soto, J; Lpez-Martnez, J

    2005-05-01

    As a part of a broader study of the surface formations in maritime Antarctica, a preliminary survey on the content of radionuclides has been carried out in soils of Byers Peninsula, located in the western end of Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands. Data on natural and artificial radionuclides are very scarce in Antarctica and the studied soil samples can be representative of the maritime Antarctic environment. Byers Peninsula has an extensive presence of permafrost and an active layer, the studied soils being Criosols and Cryic Leptosols. A series of soil cores between 13 and 40 cm depth have been collected in different lithological and altitudinal contexts. In the southwestern sector of the peninsula, soils have been sampled in seven different sites along a transect on different geomorphological units from an upper marine platform (88 m above sea level) to a Holocene raised beach at an altitude of 24 m a.s.l. The parent materials are mainly Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous marine sandstones and conglomerates and Lower Cretaceous volcanoclastic materials. Individual samples have been obtained from the cores according to textural and colour criteria and analysed for (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs by gamma spectrometry. Radionuclides show variations in the depth profile as well as in the different morphoedaphic environments studied. Variability in some radionuclides seems to be related to mineralogy derived from parent materials as well as with cryogenic and soil processes affecting the depth distribution of the granulometric fractions and the organic matter. PMID:15763489

  6. Many Parents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maseng, Torleiv; Moxnes, John F.

    2015-06-01

    In all living species at most, two parents are needed in order to make an offspring. In this paper, we assume that N parents are needed, and we calculate the optimum N in terms of fitness using a simple probabilistic approach. The probability of finding an attractive partner is set to P. The probability that this partner gives increased fitness is set to 1- R. We show that the best number of partners is N = 2 for any value of R as long as 1/2 < P < 2/3. For P < 1/2, the most beneficial is N = 1 partner. As P increases, there exists an optimum number of partners N > 2.

  7. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil at the Former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company Site, Fairfield, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Faillace, E.R.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1995-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company site in Fairfield, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that, after remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed (1) 30 mrem/yr for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or (2) 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material (RESRAD) computer code, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

  8. Unlocking the biogeochemical black box: What drives microbial response to climate forcing in semi-arid soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravec, B. G.; McLain, J. E.; Lohse, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    Microbial mediated cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and their loss from soils are closely linked to soil moisture and temperature. Yet, it is unclear how microbial communities will respond to climatic forcing (namely increased inter-annual precipitation variability and severe drought) and to what extent parent material controls these responses. We used Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and C utilization assays to determine the relative abundance and diversity of microbial populations during pre-, mid- and post-monsoon time intervals at four sites along a steep elevation gradient (temperature and precipitation range of >10°C and >50 cm, respectively) in the Santa Catalina Mountains, AZ. Contrasting parent materials (schist and granite) were paired at elevations. RT-PCR results showed large increases of bacterial and fungal biomarkers at high elevations with the onset of precipitation (pre- to mid- monsoon conditions) (as much as 824%). In contrast, bacteria biomarkers did not change at low elevation granite site as a result of the onset of precipitation whereas fungal biomarkers increased by 177% at this site. Both bacteria and fungal biomarkers increased substantially at low elevation schist sites with the onset of precipitation. Finally, C utilization assays indicated that high elevation sites had a relatively high diversity of C utilization compared to low elevation soils. We hypothesize that increased bacterial and fungal abundance in low elevation schist-derived soils relative to granite soils after the onset of monsoon rains may be a function of soil texture, with higher clay content in schist soils leading to higher soil moisture availability. Alternatively, differences in microbial responses may be due to higher C availability in schist soils compared to granite soils. Higher C utilization diversity as well as similar bacteria and fungal biomarker responses found at high elevation sites (both granite and schist soils) in response to increased precipitation suggest that climate conditions rather than parent materials direct microbial response under wet/cool soil conditions. Findings from our lower elevation sites suggest that microbial sensitivity to dryer and hotter conditions result in a decrease in soil microbial diversity and seasonal response and stronger control of parent material in modulating these responses. Rainout and rainon experiments and reciprocal transplants are underway to test these hypotheses.

  9. Paddy soil — A suitable target for monitoring heavy metal pollution by magnetic proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, H. T.; Hu, S. Y.; Blaha, U.; Rösler, W.; Duan, X. M.; Appel, E.

    2011-10-01

    A preliminary magnetic study around Meishan steel mill in Nanjing (SE China) was carried out combining geochemical analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to prove that paddy soil can be a suitable target for environmental study on heavy metal pollution. Magnetic background investigation showed a strong variation in this area due to different land uses and soil types. Magnetic susceptibilities (MS) measured on forest soils are much higher than in paddy fields, and values below 20 cm of the soil surface in forest with parent material of Xiashu loess are several times higher than in paddy soil with parent material of fluvisol. Measurements on vertical profiles show that paddy soil has a very low and stable magnetic background with mass-specific MS around 15 × 10 - 8 m 3 kg - 1 . A strong enhancement of MS values is found in the upper ~ 20 cm of paddy soil predominated by multidomain and pseudo single domain magnetite. However, relatively low S-ratios (0.57 to 0.85) reveal a significant contribution of imperfect anti-ferromagnetic minerals. Detailed research on a paddy soil core at site C719 near the steel mill indicates strong correlation between magnetic mineral concentration-related parameters (χ, ARM, SIRM) and heavy metal concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn. In addition, typical anthropogenic Fe-spherules are detected in top paddy soil by means of SEM, which indicates that the increase of susceptibility in upper soil is mainly caused by steel mill emission. Mapping of MS in paddy fields across the steel mill area shows a decrease of MS with the distance to the major emission zone. Positive correlation between χ and Zn is found by measuring surface soil samples around the steel mill. Because of low background and high homogeneity of the ~ 20 cm uppermost mixing layer paddy fields are especially suitable for magnetic surface mapping of heavy metal pollution.

  10. Rock and Soil Types at Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Type areas of rocks and soils. (A) Dark rock type and bright soil type: Shown is the dark rock Barnacle Bill. Reflectance spectra typical of fresh basalt and APXS spectra indicating more silica-rich basaltic andesite compositions characterize this type. These rocks are typically the small boulders and intermediate-sized cobbles at the Pathfinder site. The bright soil type is very common and in this case comprises Barnacle Bill's wind tail and much of the surround soil area. This soil has a high reflectance and a strongly reddened spectrum indicative of oxidized ferric minerals. (B) Bright rock type: Shown is the bright rock Wedge. Reflectance spectra typical of weathered basalt and APXS spectra indicating basaltic compositions characterize this type. These rocks are typically larger than 1 meter in diameter and many display morphologies indicating flood deposition. (C) Pink rock type: Shown is the pink rock Scooby Doo. APXS and reflectance spectra indicate a composition and optical characteristics similar to the drift soil. However, the morphology of the pink rock type indicates a cemented or rocklike structure. This material may be a chemically cemented hardpan that underlies much of the Pathfinder site. (D) Dark soil type: The dark soil type is typically found on the windward sides of rocks or in rock-free areas like Photometry Flats (shown here) where the bright soil has been striped away by aeolian action or in open areas. Other locations include the Mermaid Dune. (E) Disturbed soil type: The darkening of disturbed soil relative to its parent material, bright soil, as a result of changes in soil texture and compaction caused by movement of the rover and retraction of the lander airbag. (F) Lamb-like soil type: This soil type shows reflectance and spectral characteristics intermediate between the bright and dark soils. Its distinguishing feature is a weak spectral absorption near 900 nanometers not seen in either the bright or dark soils.

    NOTE: original caption as published in Science Magazine

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  11. Soil development as limiting factor for shrub expansion in southwestern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caviezel, Chatrina; Hunziker, Matthias; Zoller, Oliver; Wüthrich, Christoph; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2014-05-01

    Southern Greenland currently experiences an increase in summer temperatures and a prolonged growing season (Masson-Delmotte et al. 2012), resulting in an increased shrub cover at the boreal - tundra border ecotone (Normand et al. 2013). These findings suggest the beginning of a greener Greenland in which tundra vegetation is transformed to a boreal woody flora. However, vegetation at borderline ecotones is influenced by further ecologic factors than just temperature. In this study, the ecologic conditions at a selection of sites along an elevation gradient near Igaliku in southern Greenland were examined to identify potential factors limiting the expansion of woody vegetation apart from temperature. The sites differ in elevation, topography, shrub density and soil parent material. The three study sites comprise i) well established birch shrubs growing between 50 and 180 m a.s.l., where the parent material origins from the Julianehab granite (Brooks 2012); ii) extended shrub patches at about 250 m a.s.l., where the parent material consists of Gardar Sandstones and Lavas (Brooks 2012) and iii) restricted shrub patches at an elevation of 250 m a.s.l., where the soil parent material originates from the Gardar intrusions (Brooks 2012). The extent of the shrub areas, topography and soil moisture were mapped, additionally soil samples were analyzed for C-and N-content, texture including coarse fraction and pH and used as soil development indicators. Our results show that the topographic setting regulates the existence or absence of soil while the soil parent material is an important limiting factor for soil moisture. According to these findings, we suggest that a high proportion of areas where temperature increase would allow the increase of shrub cover is not suitable for a woody flora. Brooks, Kent. 2012. "A Tale of Two Intrusions—where Familiar Rock Names No Longer Suffice." Geology Today 28 (1): 13-19. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2451.2012.00815.x. Masson-Delmotte, V., D. Swingedouw, A. Landais, M. S. Seidenkrantz, E. Gauthier, V. Bichet, C. Massa, B. Perren, V. Jomelli, and G. Adalgeirsdottir. 2012. "Greenland Climate Change: From the Past to the Future." Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/wcc.186/full. Normand, Signe, Christophe Randin, Ralf Ohlemüller, Christian Bay, Toke T. Høye, Erik D. Kjær, Christian Körner, et al. 2013. "A Greener Greenland? Climatic Potential and Long-Term Constraints on Future Expansions of Trees and Shrubs." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 368 (1624) (August 19): 20120479. doi:10.1098/rstb.2012.0479.

  12. A history of Soil Survey in England and Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, S.; Deeks, L.

    2012-04-01

    Early soil mapping in Britain was dominated, as in the USA, by soil texture with maps dating back to the early 1900's identifying surface texture and parent rock materials. Only in the 1920's did Dokuchaev's work in Russia involving soil morphology and the development of the soil profile start to gain popularity, drawing in the influence of climate and topography on pedogenesis. Intentions to create a formal body at this time responsible for soil survey were not implemented and progress remained slow. However, in 1939 definite steps were taken to address this and the soil survey was created. In 1947, its activities were transferred from Bangor to the research branch of the Rothamsted experimental station in Hertfordshire under Professor G.W. Robinson. Soon after, a number of regional offices were also established to act as a link with the National Agricultural Advisory Service. At this time a Pedology Department was established at Rothamsted, focussing on petrological, X-ray, spectrographic and chemical analyses. Although not a Rothamsted Department itself, the Survey did fall under the 'Lawes Agricultural Trust'. A Soil Survey Research Advisory Board was also formed to act as a liaison with the Agricultural Field Council. In Scotland by contrast, soil survey activities became centred on the Macaulay Institute in Aberdeen. Developments in the survey of British soils were accompanied in parallel by the development of soil classification systems. In 1930 a Soils Correlation Committee had been formed to ensure consistency in methods and naming of soil series and to ensure the classification was applied uniformly. In England and Wales the zonal system adopted was similar to that used in the USA, where soil series were named after the location where they were first described. American soil scientists such as Veitch and Lee provided stimulus to the development of mapping methods. In Scotland a differing classification was adopted, being similar to that used in Canada, recognising the importance of the soil drainage characteristics within areas of similar parent material. This led to the adoption of the soil catena approach and the usage of soil 'associations'. With Britain entering the Second World War in 1939, there followed the almost complete cessation of survey activities and it was only in the aftermath of that war that recruitment of surveyors could re-commence. The first Soil Survey Field Handbook was published in 1940. Systematic and formal national soil survey activities across both England and Wales can be dated back to 1947 when work commenced to provide a complete picture of the soil resources of the two countries. Mapping at 1:25,000 scale, almost half the land was covered when, in 1979, the survey received instructions, together with the Scottish survey, to complete respective national maps at 1:250,000, which were published in the early 1980s. Attention then turned again to mapping lowland areas in more detail as well as specialised and thematic maps. However, in 1987 systematic survey was terminated and staff of the Soil Survey of England and Wales disbanded to form the Soil Survey and Land Research Centre (SSLRC) at what became Cranfield University - where its successor, the National Soil Resources Institute (NSRI) operates currently.

  13. Relevant magnetic and soil parameters as potential indicators of soil conservation status of Mediterranean agroecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quijano, Laura; Chaparro, Marcos A. E.; Marié, Débora C.; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2014-09-01

    The main sources of magnetic minerals in soils unaffected by anthropogenic pollution are iron oxides and hydroxides derived from parent materials through soil formation processes. Soil magnetic minerals can be used as indicators of environmental factors including soil forming processes, degree of pedogenesis, weathering processes and biological activities. In this study measurements of magnetic susceptibility are used to detect the presence and the concentration of soil magnetic minerals in topsoil and bulk samples in a small cultivated field, which forms a hydrological unit that can be considered to be representative of the rainfed agroecosystems of Mediterranean mountain environments. Additional magnetic studies such as isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and thermomagnetic measurements are used to identify and characterize the magnetic mineralogy of soil minerals. The objectives were to analyse the spatial variability of the magnetic parameters to assess whether topographic factors, soil redistribution processes, and soil properties such as soil texture, organic matter and carbonate contents analysed in this study, are related to the spatial distribution pattern of magnetic properties. The medians of mass specific magnetic susceptibility at low frequency (χlf) were 36.0 and 31.1 × 10-8 m3 kg-1 in bulk and topsoil samples respectively. High correlation coefficients were found between the χlf in topsoil and bulk core samples (r = 0.951, p < 0.01). In addition, volumetric magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ in the field (κis) and values varied from 13.3 to 64.0 × 10-5 SI. High correlation coefficients were found between χlf in topsoil measured in the laboratory and volumetric magnetic susceptibility field measurements (r = 0.894, p < 0.01). The results obtained from magnetic studies such as IRM, ARM and thermomagnetic measurements show the presence of magnetite, which is the predominant magnetic carrier, and hematite. The predominance of superparamagnetic minerals in upper soil layers suggests enrichment in pedogenic minerals. The finer soil particles, the organic matter content and the magnetic susceptibility values are statistically correlated and their spatial variability is related to similar physical processes. Runoff redistributes soil components including magnetic minerals and exports fine particles out the field. This research contributed to further knowledge on the application of soil magnetic properties to derive useful information on soil processes in Mediterranean cultivated soils.

  14. Quantifying soil and critical zone variability in a forested catchment through digital soil mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holleran, M.; Levi, M.; Rasmussen, C.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying catchment-scale soil property variation yields insights into critical zone evolution and function. The objective of this study was to quantify and predict the spatial distribution of soil properties within a high-elevation forested catchment in southern Arizona, USA, using a combined set of digital soil mapping (DSM) and sampling design techniques to quantify catchment-scale soil spatial variability that would inform interpretation of soil-forming processes. The study focused on a 6 ha catchment on granitic parent materials under mixed-conifer forest, with a mean elevation of 2400 m a.s.l, mean annual temperature of 10 °C, and mean annual precipitation of ~ 85 cm yr-1. The sample design was developed using a unique combination of iterative principal component analysis (iPCA) of environmental covariates derived from remotely sensed imagery and topography, and a conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS) scheme. Samples were collected by genetic horizon from 24 soil profiles excavated to the depth of refusal and characterized for soil mineral assemblage, geochemical composition, and general soil physical and chemical properties. Soil properties were extrapolated across the entire catchment using a combination of least-squares linear regression between soil properties and selected environmental covariates, and spatial interpolation or regression residual using inverse distance weighting (IDW). Model results indicated that convergent portions of the landscape contained deeper soils, higher clay and carbon content, and greater Na mass loss relative to adjacent slopes and divergent ridgelines. The results of this study indicated that (i) the coupled application of iPCA and cLHS produced a sampling scheme that captured the greater part of catchment-scale soil variability; (ii) application of relatively simple regression models and IDW interpolation of residuals described well the variance in measured soil properties and predicted spatial correlation of soil properties to landscape structure; and (iii) at this scale of observation, 6 ha catchment, topographic covariates explained more variation in soil properties than vegetation covariates. The DSM techniques applied here provide a framework for interpreting catchment-scale variation in critical zone process and evolution. Future work will focus on coupling results from this coupled empirical-statistical approach to output from mechanistic, process-based numerical models of critical zone process and evolution.

  15. The occurrence, sources and spatial characteristics of soil salt and assessment of soil salinization risk in Yanqi basin, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhaoyong, Zhang; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Yimit, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the soil salinization risk of the oases in arid land of northwest China, we chose a typical oasis-the Yanqi basin as the research area. Then, we collected soil samples from the area and made comprehensive assessment for soil salinization risk in this area. The result showed that: (1) In all soil samples, high variation was found for the amount of Ca2+ and K+, while the other soil salt properties had moderate levels of variation. (2) The land use types and the soil parent material had a significant influence on the amount of salt ions within the soil. (3) Principle component (PC) analysis determined that all the salt ion values, potential of hydrogen (pHs) and ECs fell into four PCs. Among them, PC1 (C1-, Na+, SO4(2-), EC, and pH) and PC2 (Ca2+, K+, Mg2+and total amount of salts) are considered to be mainly influenced by artificial sources, while PC3 and PC4 (CO3(-) and HCO3(2-)) are mainly influenced by natural sources. (4) From a geo-statistical point of view, it was ascertained that the pH and soil salt ions, such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3(-), had a strong spatial dependency. Meanwhile, Na+ and Cl- had only a weak spatial dependency in the soil. (5) Soil salinization indicators suggested that the entire area had a low risk of soil salinization, where the risk was mainly due to anthropogenic activities and climate variation. This study can be considered an early warning of soil salinization and alkalization in the Yanqi basin. It can also provide a reference for environmental protection policies and rational utilization of land resources in the arid region of Xinjiang, northwest China, as well as for other oases of arid regions in the world. PMID:25211240

  16. The Occurrence, Sources and Spatial Characteristics of Soil Salt and Assessment of Soil Salinization Risk in Yanqi Basin, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhaoyong, Zhang; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Yimit, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the soil salinization risk of the oases in arid land of northwest China, we chose a typical oasis-the Yanqi basin as the research area. Then, we collected soil samples from the area and made comprehensive assessment for soil salinization risk in this area. The result showed that: (1) In all soil samples, high variation was found for the amount of Ca2+ and K+, while the other soil salt properties had moderate levels of variation. (2) The land use types and the soil parent material had a significant influence on the amount of salt ions within the soil. (3) Principle component (PC) analysis determined that all the salt ion values, potential of hydrogen (pHs) and ECs fell into four PCs. Among them, PC1 (C1-, Na+, SO42-, EC, and pH) and PC2 (Ca2+, K+, Mg2+and total amount of salts) are considered to be mainly influenced by artificial sources, while PC3 and PC4 (CO3- and HCO32-) are mainly influenced by natural sources. (4) From a geo-statistical point of view, it was ascertained that the pH and soil salt ions, such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3-, had a strong spatial dependency. Meanwhile, Na+ and Cl- had only a weak spatial dependency in the soil. (5) Soil salinization indicators suggested that the entire area had a low risk of soil salinization, where the risk was mainly due to anthropogenic activities and climate variation. This study can be considered an early warning of soil salinization and alkalization in the Yanqi basin. It can also provide a reference for environmental protection policies and rational utilization of land resources in the arid region of Xinjiang, northwest China, as well as for other oases of arid regions in the world. PMID:25211240

  17. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  18. A statistical approach for validating eSOTER and digital soil maps in front of traditional soil maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Michael; Baritz, Rainer; Köthe, Rüdiger; Melms, Stephan; Günther, Susann

    2015-04-01

    During the European research project eSOTER, three different Digital Soil Maps (DSM) were developed for the pilot area Chemnitz 1:250,000 (FP7 eSOTER project, grant agreement nr. 211578). The core task of the project was to revise the SOTER method for the interpretation of soil and terrain data. It was one of the working hypothesis that eSOTER does not only provide terrain data with typical soil profiles, but that the new products actually perform like a conceptual soil map. The three eSOTER maps for the pilot area considerably differed in spatial representation and content of soil classes. In this study we compare the three eSOTER maps against existing reconnaissance soil maps keeping in mind that traditional soil maps have many subjective issues and intended bias regarding the overestimation and emphasize of certain features. Hence, a true validation of the proper representation of modeled soil maps is hardly possible; rather a statistical comparison between modeled and empirical approaches is possible. If eSOTER data represent conceptual soil maps, then different eSOTER, DSM and conventional maps from various sources and different regions could be harmonized towards consistent new data sets for large areas including the whole European continent. One of the eSOTER maps has been developed closely to the traditional SOTER method: terrain classification data (derived from SRTM DEM) were combined with lithology data (re-interpreted geological map); the corresponding terrain units were then extended with soil information: a very dense regional soil profile data set was used to define soil mapping units based on a statistical grouping of terrain units. The second map is a pure DSM map using continuous terrain parameters instead of terrain classification; radiospectrometric data were used to supplement parent material information from geology maps. The classification method Random Forest was used. The third approach predicts soil diagnostic properties based on covariates similar to DSM practices; in addition, multi-temporal MODIS data were used; the resulting soil map is the product of these diagnostic layers producing a map of soil reference groups (classified according to WRB). Because the third approach was applied to a larger test area in central Europe, and compared to the first two approaches, has worked with coarser input data, comparability is only partly fulfilled. To evaluate the usability of the three eSOTER maps, and to make a comparison among them, traditional soil maps 1:200,000 and 1:50,000 were used as reference data sets. Three statistical methods were applied: (i) in a moving window the distribution of the soil classes of each DSM product was compared to that of the soil maps by calculating the corrected coefficient of contingency, (ii) the value of predictive power for each of the eSOTER maps was determined, and (iii) the degree of consistency was derived. The latter is based on a weighting of the match of occurring class combinations via expert knowledge and recalculating the proportions of map appearance with these weights. To re-check the validation results a field study by local soil experts was conducted. The results show clearly that the first eSOTER approach based on the terrain classification / reinterpreted parent material information has the greatest similarity with traditional soil maps. The spatial differentiation offered by such an approach is well suitable to serve as a conceptual soil map. Therefore, eSOTER can be a tool for soil mappers to generate conceptual soil maps in a faster and more consistent way. This conclusion is at least valid for overview scales such as 1.250,000.

  19. Pedological and geological relationships with soil lichen and moss distribution in the eastern Mojave Desert, CA, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.; Phillips, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are ubiquitous in drylands globally. Lichens and mosses are essential biocrust components and provide a variety of ecosystem services, making their conservation and management of interest. Accordingly, understanding what factors are correlated with their distribution is important to land managers. We hypothesized that cover would be related to geologic and pedologic factors. We sampled 32 sites throughout the eastern Mojave Desert, stratifying by parent material and the age of the geomorphic surfaces. The cover of lichens and mosses on ‘available ground’ (L + Mav; available ground excludes ground covered by rocks or plant stems) was higher on limestone and quartzite-derived soils than granite-derived soils. Cover was also higher on moderately younger-aged geomorphic surfaces (Qya2, Qya3, Qya4) and cutbanks than on very young (Qya1), older-aged surfaces (Qia1, Qia2), or soils associated with coppice mounds or animal burrowing under Larrea tridentata. When all sites and parent materials were combined, soil texture was the most important factor predicting the occurrence of L + Mav, with cover positively associated with higher silt, very fine sand, and fine sand fractions and negatively associated with the very coarse sand fraction. When parent materials were examined separately, nutrients such as available potassium, iron, and calcium became the most important predictors of L + Mav cover.

  20. Exploring the multiplicity of soil-human interactions: organic carbon content, agro-forest landscapes and the Italian local communities.

    PubMed

    Salvati, Luca; Barone, Pier Matteo; Ferrara, Carlotta

    2015-05-01

    Topsoil organic carbon (TOC) and soil organic carbon (SOC) are fundamental in the carbon cycle influencing soil functions and attributes. Many factors have effects on soil carbon content such as climate, parent material, land topography and the human action including agriculture, which sometimes caused a severe loss in soil carbon content. This has resulted in a significant differentiation in TOC or SOC at the continental scale due to the different territorial and socioeconomic conditions. The present study proposes an exploratory data analysis assessing the relationship between the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon and selected socioeconomic attributes at the local scale in Italy with the aim to provide differentiated responses for a more sustainable use of land. A strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis contributed to understand the effectiveness of local communities responses for an adequate comprehension of the role of soil as carbon sink. PMID:25903408

  1. Genetic features of soils in the basin of Lake Kotokel, the Transbaikal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsanova, L. D.; Gyninova, V. B.; Tsybikdorzhiev, Ts. Ts.; Gonchikov, B.-M. N.; Shakhmatova, E. Yu.

    2014-07-01

    The diversity of the soils and the specific features of the pedogenesis in the basin of Lake Kotokel have been studied. The specificity of the pedogenesis and soil cover patterns in the lake basin are controlled by the altitudinal zonation, the diversity of parent materials, and the influence of air masses from Lake Baikal. Gray metamorphic soils and raw-humus burozems developed under taiga vegetation in the mountains predominate in the basin of Lake Kotokel. The coastal landscapes and river valleys are occupied by swampy and meadow alluvial soils. The genetic features of the major soils have been characterized on the basis of field descriptions, laboratory data, and special macro- and micromorphological studies.

  2. Volatile element depletion and K-39/K-41 fractionation in lunar soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, S. E.; Tilton, G. R.; Wright, J. E.; Lee-Hu, C.-N.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence for selective loss and isotopic fractionation (in the case of K) of volatile elements during formation of agglutinates by micrometeoritic bombardment of lunar soils is presented. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of volatile elements (K, Rb, Pb) and nonvolatile elements (U, Th, Ba, Sr, rare earths) in separates taken from soils 14163, 14259, 15041, 68501, and 71500 are examined. Rayleigh fractionation calculations applied to K-39/K-41 isotopic data indicate ten-fold recycling of bulk soil, to account for observed isotopic anomalies. The lunar soil fines fraction seems to be a site of deposition for volatile or labile Pb produced during agglutination. Local fines (below 75 microns) are viewed as representative of the parent material for agglutinates formed in situ by micrometeoritic impact. Magnetic separation of agglutinates from soil 68501 revealed a bimodal population, with one class comprising welded blocky magnetic glasses.

  3. Soil processes and functions across an international network of Critical Zone Observatories: Introduction to experimental methods and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banwart, Steven; Menon, Manoj; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Bloem, Jaap; Blum, Winfried E. H.; Souza, Danielle Maia de; Davidsdotir, Brynhildur; Duffy, Christopher; Lair, Georg J.; Kram, Pavel; Lamacova, Anna; Lundin, Lars; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.; Novak, Martin; Panagos, Panos; Ragnarsdottir, Kristin Vala; Reynolds, Brian; Robinson, David; Rousseva, Svetla; de Ruiter, Peter; van Gaans, Pauline; Weng, Liping; White, Tim; Zhang, Bin

    2012-11-01

    Growth in human population and demand for wealth creates ever-increasing pressure on global soils, leading to soil losses and degradation worldwide. Critical Zone science studies the impact linkages between these pressures, the resulting environmental state of soils, and potential interventions to protect soil and reverse degradation. New research on soil processes is being driven by the scientific hypothesis that soil processes can be described along a life cycle of soil development. This begins with formation of new soil from parent material, development of the soil profile, and potential loss of the developed soil functions and the soil itself under overly intensive anthropogenic land use, thus closing the cycle. Four Critical Zone Observatories in Europe have been selected focusing research at sites that represent key stages along the hypothetical soil life cycle; incipient soil formation, productive use of soil for farming and forestry, and decline of soil due to longstanding intensive agriculture. Initial results from the research show that soil develops important biogeochemical properties on the time scale of decades and that soil carbon and the development of favourable soil structure takes place over similar time scales. A new mathematical model of soil aggregate formation and degradation predicts that set-aside land at the most degraded site studied can develop substantially improved soil structure with the accumulation of soil carbon over a period of several years. Further results demonstrate the rapid dynamics of soil carbon; how quickly it can be lost, and also demonstrate how data from the CZOs can be used to determine parameter values for models at catchment scale. A structure for a new integrated Critical Zone model is proposed that combines process descriptions of carbon and nutrient flows, a simplified description of the soil food web, and reactive transport; all coupled with a dynamic model for soil structure and soil aggregation. This approach is proposed as a methodology to analyse data along the soil life cycle and test how soil processes and rates vary within, and between, the CZOs representing different life cycle stages. In addition, frameworks are discussed that will help to communicate the results of this science into a more policy relevant format using ecosystem service approaches.

  4. Assessment of radioactive materials and heavy metals in the surface soil around uranium mining area of Tongliao, China.

    PubMed

    Haribala; Hu, Bitao; Wang, Chengguo; Gerilemandahu; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Shuai; Bao, Shanhu; Li, Yuhong

    2016-08-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides and heavy metals in the surface soil of the uranium mining area of Tongliao, China, were measured using gamma spectrometry, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and microwave dissolution atomic fluorescence spectrometry respectively. The estimated average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs are 27.53±16.01, 15.89±5.20, 12.64±4.27, 746.84±38.24 and 4.23±4.76Bq/kg respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose rate in the air and annual effective dose rate are 46.58±5.26nGy/h and 57.13±6.45μSv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices were also calculated and their mean values are within the acceptable limits. The heavy metal concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg and As from the surface soil were measured and their health risks were then determined. Although the content of Cd is much higher than the average background in China, its non-cancer and cancer risk indices are all within the acceptable ranges. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate are well below their permissible limit. In addition the correlations between the radioactivity concentrations of the radionuclides and the heavy metals in soil were determined by the Pearson linear coefficient. PMID:27107776

  5. Soils developed from alluvial and proluvial deposits in the Gröndalselva River valley in West Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereverzev, V. N.; Litvinova, T. I.

    2012-05-01

    The genetic characterization of soils developed from alluvial and proluvial deposits in the Gröndalselva River valley (West Spitsbergen) is presented. These soils are compared with analogous soils formed on marine terraces along the coasts of Isfjord and Grönfjord. Gray-humus (soddy) soils with an O-AY-C profile have been described on parent materials of different origins, including alluvial and proluvial sediments. The texture of the soils in the Gröndalselva River valley varies from medium to heavy loam and differs from the texture of the soils on other geomorphic positions in the higher content of fine particles. The soils developed from the alluvial deposits are characterized by their richer mineralogical and chemical composition in comparison with the soils developed from proluvial deposits, marine deposits, and bedrocks. All the deposits are impoverished in CaO. No differentiation of the chemical composition of the soils along the soil profiles has been found in the soils of the coastal areas and the river valley. Some accumulation of oxalate-soluble Al and Fe compounds takes place in the uppermost mineral horizon. The soils of all the geomorphic positions have a high humus content and a high exchange capacity.

  6. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils and plant material in the post-industrial city of Katowice, Poland.

    PubMed

    Steindor, Karolina A; Franiel, Izabella J; Bierza, Wojciech M; Pawlak, Beata; Palowski, Bernard F

    2016-04-15

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environment pollution by biological monitoring. The leaves and bark of popular ornamental trees Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L. and soil from the sampling sites were used to perform heavy metals pollution monitoring in urban areas with different pollution sources, as well to investigate the suitability of the leaves and bark as bioindicators of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu pollution. Plant samples were collected at nine locations classified into three pollution groups based on metal content in the soils. The chosen pollution indices were used to assess the level of contamination according to background values. Soils in the Katowice area are found to be relatively heavily contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cd. Both of the maple tree species did not statistically differ in terms of the investigated elements' concentration in leaves or bark. Only bark samples reflected the pollution level, showing differences between the sampling points, and therefore are recommended for biomonitoring purposes. PMID:26809744

  7. Rapid mineral differentiation among horizons of a meadow soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, Zoltán; Ringer, Marianna; Kiss, Klaudia; Horváth Szabó, Kata; Németh, Tibor; Sipos, Péter; Madarász, Balázs; Jakab, Gergely

    2015-04-01

    Soil development under hydromorphic conditions may results intense mineral transformation and rapid vertical differentiation in the profile. Original papers refer more than hundreds of years for this kinds of mineral transformations. We suppose that this process could be more rapid. Present paper focuses on the profile development of a sandy meadow soil (calcic, gleyic Phaeozem ferric, arenic) from the soil mineralogical viewpoint. The main aim was to explore the degree of mineral phase alteration via soil formation during a half-century under hydromorphic conditions. The studied soil is located in a swampy area (near to Ceglédbercel, Hungary). The parent material deposited during an extremely heavy flood event in 1963. The reference (parent) material can be found near to the study site. We combined routine field tests (carbonate content, dipididil test) with laboratory measurements (selective extractions for the determination of amorphous and crystalline Fe, and Mn content; X-ray phase analysis; X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy; particle sizing by laser diffraction; NDIR and FT-IR and DRS spectrometry), whereas Eh and pH measured by field monitoring station. The most intense mineralogical transformations developed in the zone of the heaviest redox oscillation. Results show that well developed horizons have emerged during fifty years in the studied soil. This time was enough for bivalent and trivalent iron mineral crystallisation and smectite formation in this zone. The high proportion of amorphous and colloidal phases refers to very intensive recent processes. Soil formation under hydromorphic conditions proceeds at higher speeds contrariwise to the century time scale reported in sources (discussing non-waterlogged cases). Support of the Hungarian Research Fund OTKA under contracts K100180 (for Z. Szalai) and K100181 (for T Németh) are gratefully acknowledged.

  8. The distribution of organic material and its contribution to the micro-topography of particles from wettable and water repellent soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Rob; Cheng, Shuying; Doerr, Stefan H.; Wright, Chris J.; Bayer, Julia V.; Williams, Rhodri P.

    2010-05-01

    Organic coatings on mineral particles will mask the physic-chemical properties of the underlying mineral surface. Surface images and force measurements obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM) provide information about the nature of and variability in surfaces properties at the micro- to nano-scale. As AFM technology and data processing advance it is anticipated that a significant amount of information will be obtained simultaneously from individual contacts made at high frequency in non-contact or tapping mode operation. For present purposes the surfaces of model materials (smooth glass surfaces and acid-washed sand (AWS)) provide an indication of the dependency of the so-called AFM phase image on the topographic image (which is obtained synoptically). Pixel wise correlation of these images reveals how the modulation of an AFM probe is affected when topographic features are encountered. Adsorption of soil-derived humic acid (HA) or lecithin (LE), used here as an example for natural organic material, on these surfaces provides a soft and compliant, albeit partial, covering on the mineral which modifies the topography and the response of an AFM tip as it partially indents the soft regions (which contributes depth to the phase image). This produces a broadening on the data domain in the topographic/phase scatter diagram. Two dimensional classifications of these data, together with those obtained from sand particles drawn from water repellent and wettable soils, suggest that these large adsorbate molecules appear to have little preference to attach to particular topographic features or elevations. It appears that they may effectively remain on the surface at the point of initial contact. If organic adsorbates present a hydrophobic outer surface, then it seems possible that elevated features will not be immune from this and provide scope for a local, albeit, small contribution to the expression of super-hydrophobicity. It is therefore speculated here that the water repellency of a soil is the result of not only of particle surface chemistry and soil pore space geometry, but also of the micro-topography generated by organic material adsorbed on particle surfaces.

  9. Parental licensure.

    PubMed

    Lykken, D T

    2001-11-01

    Most of the 1,400,000 men currently locked up in American prisons would have become tax-paying neighbors had they been switched in the hospital nursery and sent home with a mature, self-supporting, married couple. The parent with whom they did go home would in most instances not have been fit to adopt someone else's baby. It is argued that perhaps the only effective way to reduce crime and the other pathologies of the growing American underclass--apart from building still more prisons--would be to require from persons wishing to birth and rear a child of their own those same minimal criteria usually expected in adoptive parents. For evolutionary reasons, human beings are reluctant to interfere with the procreational rights of any person, no matter how immature, incompetent, or unsocialized he or she might be. In consequence, human beings tend not to think about the right of the child to a reasonable opportunity for life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. PMID:11785157

  10. Recognition and analysis of fossil soils developed on alluvium: a Late Ordovician example

    SciTech Connect

    Feakes, C.R.; Retallack, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    A series of fossil soils in alluvial red beds from the upper Juniata Formation, near Potters Mills, Pennsylvania, provide evidence of soil forming processes during the late Ordovician. Paleogeographic and facies considerations indicate that the fossil soils formed floodplains west of the Taconic uplift. Most studies of paleosols of this age or older have considered soils developed on metamorphic or igneous basement rock. Alluvial fossil soils provide evidence of conditions during shorter intervals of weathering without problems of overprinting by successive and different weathering regimes. They can be recognized by the presence of trace fossils and development of soil horizonation and structure. Problems associated with such fossil soils include establishing the nature of the parent material and distinguishing clay formation in the soil from originally deposited fining upwards cycles. These difficulties can be overcome by comparing paleosols of different development, as indicated by degree of ferruginization, density of trace fossils, amount of clay, and abundance and size of caliche nodules. In modern soils, caliche forms in alkaline conditions under which TiO/sub 2/ is stable. Gains and losses of oxides in gm/cc relative to TiO/sub 2/ in a strongly developed paleosol were compared with those of a weakly developed paleosol, taken to approximate the compositional range of the parent material. Anomalous enrichment in K/sub 2/O has been documented in other ancient fossil soils. Both XRD studies and a strong correlation between K/sub 2/O and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ are evidence that most of the potassium is contained in illite.

  11. Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices

  12. Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

  13. Oxygen isotopes unravel the role of microorganisms in phosphate cycling in soils.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Federica; Pfahler, Verena; Bünemann, Else K; Guelland, Kathi; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    Phosphorus (P) is considered the ultimate limiting nutrient for plants in most natural systems and changes in the distribution of inorganic and organic P forms during soil development have been well documented. In particular, microbial activity has been shown to be an important control on P cycling but its contribution in building up the pool of plant-available P during soil development is still poorly quantified. To determine the importance of different biological processes on P cycling, we analyzed the isotopic composition of oxygen in phosphate (δ(18)O-Pi) from the parent material, soil microorganisms, the available P pool, and from the vegetation along a 150-year soil chronosequence of a glacier forefield. Our results show that at all sites, δ(18)O-Pi of microbial Pi is within the range expected for the temperature-dependent equilibrium between phosphate and water. In addition, the isotopic signature of available Pi is close to the signature of microbial Pi, independently of the contribution of parent material Pi, vegetation Pi or Pi released from organic matter mineralization. Thus, we show that phosphate is cycled through soil microorganisms before being released to the available pool. This isotopic approach demonstrates for the first time in the field and over long time scales, and not only through controlled experiments, the role of the microbial activity in cycling of P in soils. PMID:22545923

  14. Silent play in a loud theatre - soil development in a geomorphically active proglacial area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlaar, Piet; Temme, Arnaud; Heckmann, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Proglacial areas are scientifically famous for two sets of processes: first, the tumultuous geomorphic response to glacial retreat including enhanced fluvial activity and mass movements such as debris flows, rock fall and landslides. Second, the slow and somewhat regular development of soil and vegetation. These two sets of processes have usually been studied in isolation: soil development is best observed in wide, flat proglacial areas where not much geomorphic work is done. This has left questions unanswered that relate to the effect of geomorphic disturbance on high mountain soil formation, and vice versa. We attempted to characterize these interactions in the geomorphically active proglacial area of the Gepatsch Ferner in the Kaunertal in Austria. Geomorphic activity in this area is intensively studied in the PROSA project. In our study, several dozen soils were sampled in order to describe soil properties. Sampling locations were selected with Latin Hypercube sampling to best cover the variation in soil-forming factors. Results clearly showed that soil properties were not only a function of age, but also of erosion-deposition amounts and geomorphic regime. In contrast to what is reported in literature, soil pH in very young soils rose before it dropped as soils became older. The early pH rise probably reflects the leaching of pyrite in the parent material.

  15. Teens Parenting Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Jeanne Warren; Brunelli, Jean; McCullough, Sally

    Noting that specialized educational programs for teen parents should address the teen parents' needs for knowledge about self-development, pregnancy, parenting, and economic independence as well as problem solving and interpersonal skills, this series of guides for school-age parents and the parent educators working with such teens provides a…

  16. Parenting and Video Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinkuehler, Constance

    2016-01-01

    There is a terrific disconnect between parenting advice related to media and the realities of contemporary parenting. We condone enrichment parenting and condemn the use of "digital babysitters," admonishing parents who exceed the two-hour screen time limitation even when, all the while, no one is listening. Parents are not merely blasé…

  17. Involving Divorced Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarriff, Harold M.; Levine, Valerie

    1993-01-01

    In divorced families, the noncustodial parent is usually as important to the child as the residential parent. Schools should avoid actions that cause parental conflict, place one parent in a sole decision-making role, or deny a parent's access to information or involvement. School responsibilities governing routine correspondence, cyclical and…

  18. Mineral Occurrence, Translocation, and Weathering in Soils Developed on Four Types of Carbonate and Non-carbonate Alluvial Fan Deposits in Mojave Desert, Southeastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y.; McDonald, E. V.

    2007-12-01

    Soil geomorphology and mineralogy can reveal important clues about Quaternary climate change and geochemical process occurring in desert soils. We investigated (1) the mineral transformation in desert soils developed on four types of alluvial fans (carbonate and non-carbonate) under the same conditions of climate and landscape evolution; and (2) the effects of age, parent materials, and eolian processes on the transformation and translocation of the minerals. Four types of alluvial-fan deposits along the Providence Mountains piedmonts, Mojave Desert, southeastern California, USA were studied: (1) carbonate rocks, primarily limestone and marble (LS), (2) fine-grained rhyodacite and rhyolitic tuff mixed with plutonic and carbonate rocks (VX), (3) fine- to coarse- grained mixed plutonic (PM) rocks, and (4) coarse-grained quartz monzonite (QM). These juxtaposed fan deposits are physically correlated in a small area (about 20 km by 15 km) and experienced the same climatic changes in the late Pleistocene and Holocene. The soils show characteristic mineral compositions of arid/semiarid soils: calcite is present in nearly all of the samples, and a few of the oldest soils contain gypsum and soluble salts. Parent material has profound influence on clay mineral composition of the soils: (1) talc were observed only in soils developed on the volcanic mixture fan deposits, and talc occurs in all horizons; (2) palygorskite occur mainly in the petrocalcic (Bkm) of old soils developed on the LS and VX fan deposits, indicating pedogenic origin; (3) chlorite was observed mainly in soils developed on VX fan deposits (all ages) and on some LS deposits, but it is absent in soils developed on PM and QM fan deposits; and (4) vermiculite was common throughout soils developed on plutonic rock fan deposits. These mineralogical differences suggest that minerals in the soils are primarily inherited from their parent materials and that mineral weathering in this area was weak. Except the abundance of palygorskite, soils developed on alluvial fans with different ages (4,000 to 200,000 yrs old) did not show other distinct mineralogy difference as a function of age or soil development, which supports the weak weathering of the soils. The results suggest that the clays in the argillic horizons are primarily derived from the accumulation of desert dust, and with time, are translocated into subsoil horizons. The pedogenic accumulation of dust is a soil-geomorphic process common to the Mojave Desert, as well as other deserts in the world.

  19. A Reexamination of Amino Acids in Lunar Soils: Implications for the Survival of Exogenous Organic Material During Impact Delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, Karen L. F.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1996-01-01

    Using a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography technique, we have analyzed both the hot water extract and the acid hydrolyzed hot water extract of lunar soil collected during the Apollo 17 mission. Both free amino acids and those derived from acid labile precursors are present at a level of roughly 15 ppb. Based on the D/L amino acid ratios, the free alanine and aspartic acid observed in the hot water extract can be entirely attributed to terrestrial biogenic contamination. However, in the acid labile fraction, precursors which yield amino acids are apparently present in the lunar soil. The amino acid distribution suggests that the precursor is probably solar wind implanted HCN. We have evaluated our results with regard to the meteoritic input of intact organic compounds to the moon based on an upper limit of less than or equal to 0.3 ppb for alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, a non-protein amino acid which does not generally occur in terrestrial organisms and which is not a major amino acid produced from HCN, but which is a predominant amino acid in many carbonaceous chondrites. We find that the survival of exogenous organic compounds during lunar impact is less than or equal to 0.8%. This result represents an example of minimum organic impact survivability. This is an important first step toward a better understanding of similar processes on Earth and on Mars, and their possible contribution to the budget of prebiotic organic compounds on the primitive Earth.

  20. A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soils: implications for the survival of exogenous organic material during impact delivery.

    PubMed

    Brinton, K L; Bada, J L

    1996-01-01

    Using a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography technique, we have analyzed both the hot water extract and the acid hydrolyzed hot water extract of lunar soil collected during the Apollo 17 mission. Both free amino acids and those derived from acid labile precursors are present at a level of roughly 15 ppb. Based on the D/L amino acid ratios, the free alanine and aspartic acid observed in the hot water extract can be entirely attributed to terrestrial biogenic contamination. However, in the acid labile fraction, precursors which yield amino acids are apparently present in the lunar soil. The amino acid distribution suggests that the precursor is probably solar wind implanted HCN. We have evaluated our results with regard to the meteoritic input of intact organic compounds to the moon based on an upper limit of < or = 0.3 ppb for alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, a non-protein amino acid which does not generally occur in terrestrial organisms and which is not a major amino acid produced from HCN, but which is a predominant amino acid in many carbonaceous chondrites. We find that the survival of exogenous organic compounds during lunar impact is < or = 0.8%. This result represents an example of minimum organic impact survivability. This is an important first step toward a better understanding of similar processes on Earth and on Mars, and their possible contribution to the budget of prebiotic organic compounds on the primitive Earth. PMID:11541128

  1. Using magnetic susceptibility to discriminate between soil moisture regimes in selected loess and loess-like soils in northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valaee, Morteza; Ayoubi, Shamsollah; Khormali, Farhad; Lu, Sheng Gao; Karimzadeh, Hamid Reza

    2016-04-01

    This study used discriminant analysis to determine the efficacy of magnetic measures for discriminating between four soil moisture regimes in northern Iran. The study area was located on loess deposits and loess-like soils containing similar parent material. Four soil moisture regimes including aridic, xeric, udic, and aquic were selected. A total of 25 soil profiles were drug from each regime and composite soil samples were collected within the moisture control section. A set of magnetic measures including magnetic susceptibility at low (χlf) and high (χhf) frequencies, frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd), saturation isothermal remnant magnetization (SIRM), and isothermal remnant magnetization (IRM100 mT, IRM 20 mT) were measured in the laboratory. Dithionite citrate bicarbonate (Fed) and acid oxalate (Feo) contents of all soil samples were also determined. The lowest and highest χlf and χhf were observed in aquic and udic moisture regimes, respectively. A similar trend was obtained for Fed and Fed-Feo. The significant positive correlation between Fed and SIRM (r = 0.60; P < 0.01) suggested the formation of stable single domains (SSD) due to pedogenic processes. The results of discriminant analysis indicated that a combination of magnetic measures could successfully discriminate between the selected moisture regimes in the study area (average accuracy = 80%). It can thus be concluded that magnetic measures could be applied as a powerful indicator for differentiation of soil moisture regimes in the study area.

  2. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  3. The Parent Care Pavilion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Morris; Green, Janice G.

    1977-01-01

    Describes operation of the Parent Care Pavilion of the J. W. Riley Children's Hospital in Indianapolis, which encourages active parent involvement in care of hospitalized children on a 24-hour basis. Benefits to children, parents and staff are described. (BF)

  4. Parenting while Being Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

  5. Landmarks of History of Soil Science in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapa, R.

    2012-04-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical Island in the Southern tip of Indian subcontinent positioned at 50 55' to 90 50' N latitude and 790 42' to 810 53' E longitude surrounded by the Indian Ocean. It is an island 435 km in length and 224 km width consisting of a land are of 6.56 million ha with a population of 20 million. In area wise it is ranked as 118th in the world, where at present ranked as 47 in population wise and ranked 19th in population density. The country was under colonial rule under Portuguese, Dutch and British from 1505 to 1948. The majority of the people in the past and present earn their living from activities based on land, which indicates the important of the soil resource. The objective of this paper is to describe the landmarks of the history of Soil Science to highlight the achievements and failures, which is useful to enrich our present understanding of Sri Lankan soils. The landmarks of the history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka can be divided to three phases namely, the early period (prior to 1956), the middle period (1956 to 1972) and the present period (from 1972 onwards). During the early period, detailed analytical studies of coffee and tea soils were compiled, and these gave mainly information on up-country soils which led to fertilizer recommendations based on field trials. In addition, rice and forest soils were also studied in less detail. The first classification of Sri Lankan soils and a provisional soil map based on parent material was published by Joachim in 1945 which is a major landmark of history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka. In 1959 Ponnamperuma proposed a soil classification system for wetland rice soils. From 1963 to 1968 valuable information on the land resource was collected and documented by aerial resource surveys funded by Canada-Ceylon Colombo plan aid project. This covered 18 major river basins and about 1/4th of Sri Lanka, which resulted in producing excellent soil maps and information of the areas called the Kelani Aruvi Ara and Walawe basins. The provisional soil map was updated by many other workers as Moorman and Panabokke in 1961 and 1972 using this information. The soil map produced by De Alwis and Panabokke in 1972 at a scale of 1:500,000 was the soil maps mostly used during the past years During the present era, the need for classification of Soils of Sri Lanka according to international methods was felt. A major leap forward in Soil Survey, Classification leading to development of a soil data base was initiated in 1995 with the commencement of the "SRICANSOL" project which was a twining project between the Soil Science Societies of Sri Lanka and Canada. This project is now completed with detail soil maps at a scale of 1:250,000 and soil classified according to international methods for the Wet, Intermediate and Dry zones of Sri Lanka. A digital database consisting of soil profile description and physical and chemical data is under preparation for 28, 40 and 51 benchmark sites of the Wet, Intermediate and Dry zones respectively. The emphases on studies on Soil Science in the country at present is more towards environmental conservation related to soil erosion control, reducing of pollution of soil and water bodies from nitrates, pesticide residues and heavy metal accumulation. Key words: Sri Lanka, Provisional soil map

  6. Preparation for Parenting. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This instructional guide for a one-half-credit technical laboratory course for grades 10-12 teaches parental responsibilities; child guidance techniques; positive role modeling and parenting practices that promote child development, health, safety, and well-being. Introductory materials consist of a course description; overview of course design;…

  7. Parents with Children--II. Intergenerational Continuities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinton, D.; Rutter, M.

    1984-01-01

    Studies families showing parenting difficulties and examines possible origins of those difficulties. Findings demonstrate a strong link between multiple parenting breakdown and markedly disrupted family experiences in childhood. Concludes that explanatory models based exclusively on either personal or material factors are inadequate. (RH)

  8. Parental Involvement to Parental Engagement: A Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Janet; Montgomery, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Based on the literature of the field, this article traces a continuum between parental involvement with schools, and parental engagement with children's learning. The article seeks to shed light on an area of confusion; previous research has shown that different stakeholder groups understand "parental engagement" in different ways.…

  9. Resilient Parenting: Overcoming Poor Parental Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Wendy J.; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This study identified groups of mothers with varying patterns of adaptive functioning and bonds with their own parents. These patterns were related to mothers' parenting of their own children to understand how some mothers avoid repeating the cycle of poor parenting. Data from 210 new mothers were analyzed before hospital discharge about bonding…

  10. Lead in vegetation, forest floor material, and soils of the spruce-fir zone, Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Bogle, M.A.; Turner, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Based on a survey during 1982, lead concentrations in vegetation, litter and soils of the spruce-fir zone of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park are generally less than values reported for similar sites in the northeastern United States and western Europe. As expected, lead concentrations increased with increasing age of spruce and fir foliage, and with increasing degree of decomposition of litter. Fir bole wood was higher in lead than spruce bole wood, but both species were far below acutely phytotoxic levels. Although the results of this study indicated no immediate cause for concern, periodic monitoring of lead and other metals in the spruce-fir zone should be continued to provide early detection of significant changes. 32 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  11. Small-scale microcosms to detect chemical induced changes in soil nematode communities--effects of crystal proteins and Bt-maize plant material.

    PubMed

    Höss, Sebastian; Reiff, Nicola; Nguyen, Hang T; Jehle, Johannes A; Hermes, Hanna; Traunspurger, Walter

    2014-02-15

    Small-scale laboratory microcosms (30 g soil in 50 ml tubes) were evaluated for their suitability to assess the impact of chemicals on in situ soil nematode communities. For this purpose, appropriate conditions in the microcosms were explored to ensure stable conditions and a homogenous distribution of the nematodes. Then, the microcosms were used to assess the toxicity of insecticidal crystal proteins (Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, Cry3Bb1) present in genetically modified maize (MON89034×MON88017) on in situ nematode communities. Highly abundant and genus rich nematode communities could be maintained over a period of 12 weeks. Due to a low variance between the replicates of the treatments, low detection limits could be achieved. Using meaningful stress indices, such as the maturity indices, the microcosm study revealed dose-dependent effects of the insecticidal Cry proteins that could be verified as toxic effects by comparing with effects of two positive controls (Cu, nematicidal Cry5B). Moreover, toxic effects could be differentiated from organic enrichment effects that were induced by the addition of plant material. With a NOECCommunity of 0.1 mg kg(-1) dry wt, the nematode communities reacted considerably more sensitive to the Cry proteins than a single-species nematode toxicity test (NOEC: 29 mg l(-1)). The small-scale microcosm set-up turned out to be a suitable, low-budget tool for assessing the toxicity of chemicals on soil nematodes on community level, representing a link between single-species toxicity tests and large scale outdoor mesocosms. PMID:24317172

  12. Solid-liquid separation method governs the in vitro bioaccessibility of metals in contaminated soil-like test materials.

    PubMed

    Laird, Brian D; Weiseth, Blake; Packull-McCormick, Sara R; Peak, Derek; Dodd, Matt; Siciliano, Steven D

    2015-09-01

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model was used to explore the role of solid-liquid separation method on the bioaccessibility of trace elements in a smelter-impacted soil (NIST-2711) from Helena, MT and a mine overburden from an open-pit gold and silver mine in Mount Nansen, YK (YK-OVB). Separation methods studied included centrifugation (5,000 g, 12,000 g), syringe microfiltration (0.45 μm), and ultrafiltration (1,000 kDa, 50 kDa, 30 kDa, 10 kDa, 3 kDa). Results indicated that the use of syringe microfiltration generally yields the same bioaccessibility as the use of centrifugation and that the speed of centrifugation does not typically affect metal bioaccessibility. However, ultrafiltration consistently yields a significantly lower bioaccessibility than the use of centrifugation and syringe microfiltration. There are rarely any differences between bioaccessibility estimates generated using a low-resistance (1,000 kDa) and a high-resistance (3 kDa) ultrafiltration membrane; therefore, under the in vitro gastrointestinal conditions modeled herein, negligible quantities of trace elements are complexed to small molecules between 3 and 1,000 kDa. The primary exceptions to these trends were observed for Pb in NIST-2711 (5,000 g>12,000 g>0.45 μm>ultrafiltration) and for Tl in NIST-2711 and YK-OVB (5000 g∼12,000 g>0.45 μm>ultrafiltration). These results provide valuable information to researchers attempting to expand the use of in vitro bioaccessibility beyond soil Pb and As. PMID:25600322

  13. Variable Charge Soils: Mineralogy and Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Qafoku, Nik; Van Ranst, Eric; Noble, Andrew; Baert, Geert

    2003-11-01

    Soils rich in particles with amphoteric surface properties in the Oxisols, Ultisols, Alfisols, Spodosols and Andisols orders (1) are considered variable charge soils (2). The term “variable charge” is used to describe organic and inorganic soil constituents with reactive surface groups whose charge varies with pH, ionic concentration and composition of the soil solution. Such groups are the surface carboxyl, phenolic and amino functional groups of organic materials in soils, and surface hydroxyl groups of Fe and Al oxides, allophane and imogolite. The hydroxyl surface groups are also present on edges of some phyllosilicate minerals such as kaolinite, mica, and hydroxyl-interlayered vermiculite. The variable charge is developed on the surface groups as a result of adsorption or desorption of ions that are constituents of the solid phase, i.e., H+, and the adsorption or desorption of solid-unlike ions that are not constituents of the solid. Highly weathered soils usually undergo isoeletric weathering and reach a “zero net charge” stage during their development. They have a slightly acidic to acidic soil solution pH, which is close to either point of zero net charge (PZNC) (3) or point of zero salt effect (PZSE) (3). They are characterized by high abundances of minerals with a point of zero net proton charge (PZNPC) (3) at neutral and slightly basic pHs; the most important being Fe and Al oxides and allophane. Under acidic conditions, the surfaces of these minerals are net positively charged. In contrast, the surfaces of permanent charge phyllosilicates are negatively charged regardless of ambient conditions. Variable charge soils therefore, are heterogeneous charge systems. The coexistence and interactions of oppositely charged surfaces or particles confers a different pattern of physical and chemical behavior on the soil, relatively to a homogeneously charged system of temperate regions. In some variable charge soils (Oxisols and some Ultisols developed on ferromagnesian-rich parent materials) the surfaces of phyllosilicates are coated to a lesser or greater extent by amorphous or crystalline, oppositely charged nanoparticles of Fe and Al oxides. These coatings exhibit a high reactive surface area and help cementing larger particles with one another. As a result of these electrostatic interactions, stable microaggregates that are difficult to disperse are formed in variable charge soils. Most of highly weathered soils have reached the “advanced stage” of Jackson-Sherman weathering sequence that is characterized by the removal of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe(II), the presence of Fe and Al polymers, and very dilute soil solutions with an ionic strength (IS) of less than 1 mmol L-1. The inter-penetration or overlapping of the diffuse double layers on oppositely charged surfaces may occur in these dilute systems. These diffuse layer interactions may affect the magnitude of the effective charge, i.e., the counter-ion charge (4). In addition, salt adsorption, which is defined as the simultaneous adsorption in equivalent amounts of the cation and anion of an electrolyte with no net release of other ions into the soil solution, appears to be a common phenomenon in these soils. They act as cation- and anion-exchangers and as salt-sorbers. The magnitude of salt adsorption depends strongly on initial IS in the soil solution and the presence in appreciable amounts of oppositely charged surfaces. Among the authors that have made illustrious contributions towards a better understanding of these fascinating soil systems are S. Matson, R.K. Schofield, van Olphen, M.E. Sumner, G.W. Thomas, G.P. Gillman, G. Uehara, B.K.G. Theng, K. Wada, N.J. Barrow, J.W. Bowden, R.J. Hunter and G. Sposito. This entry is mainly based on publications by these authors.

  14. Geomorphic Controls on High Elevation Meadow Soil Development and Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, J.; Arnold, C. L.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Berhe, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    High elevation meadows form in response to the geomorphology of the landscape that ultimately controls the elevation of their water table and soil development. Proper understanding of soil development in high elevation meadows is essential since these meadow soils play a critical role in the filtering and release of water to the watershed. This study was conducted in a subalpine meadow in Yosemite National Park that formed in response to glacial ablation drift. In this heterogeneous landscape, we were able to examine geomorphological controls on meadow soil development, while controlling for all other soil forming factors such as time, parent material, climate, and organisms. We collected soil samples from three depths across the meadow hydrologic gradient in three topographically distinct locations in the meadow. We measured gravimetric water content, pH, soil color, particle size distribution, cation exchange capacity, C:N ratio, and bulk density on each sample. By conducting these tests on each sample we were able to obtain data that would allow us to compare how soils differ in characteristics based on their topographical location in the meadow. We found that soil color showed very small differences across depth and water content of the relevant area. The carbon concentration of the samples differed throughout depth and water content of an area. Dry areas had a carbon concentration ranging between 2.52-5.99%, while intermediate areas had a range of 2.67-24.66%; wet areas had a range of 3.45-24.84%. C: N ratio was more consistent with all values ranging from 13.04-18.13%, with an average throughout all samples of 15.02% N. Understanding how soils differ across geomorphologically distinct regions of the meadow will allow for a better understanding on how topography will affect biodiversity and water quality in these areas.

  15. SOIL PHYSICS AND HYDROLOGY: CONDITIONERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil conditioners have been used since ancient times, even before the chemical and physical basis of conditioner effectiveness was accurately understood. Soil conditioners have included both organic and mineral materials as well as natural and synthetic materials. Examples of natural organic soil ...

  16. Recruiting Parents and the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens-Brower, Teresa Jo

    1997-01-01

    An Oregon elementary teacher attributes her best teaching year ever to parents' and community members' voluntary participation. They got involved in four ways--communicating through voice mail, sharing expertise in the classroom, helping gather lesson materials, and participating in monthly learning celebrations. These activities supplemented…

  17. Parenting Workshops on Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Newport Public Library, Gurnee, IL.

    The parent education materials in this packet are intended for use by professionals, and some paraprofessionals, who work with children from birth through 5 years of age and with their families. Included are guidelines for choosing playthings for children of any age, and lists of suggested toys for children of various ages, and, in particular,…

  18. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    SciTech Connect

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents’ material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  19. Calcium carbonate precipitation by strain Bacillus licheniformis AK01, newly isolated from loamy soil: a promising alternative for sealing cement-based materials.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Ali; Ramezanianpour, Ali Akbar; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Vali, Hojatollah; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2015-01-01

    The relevant experiments were designed to determine the ability of indigenous bacterial strains isolated from limestone caves, mineral springs, and loamy soils to induce calcium carbonate precipitation. Among all isolates examined in this study, an efficient carbonate-precipitating soil bacterium was selected from among the isolates and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequences as Bacillus licheniformis AK01. The ureolytic isolate was able to grow well on alkaline carbonate-precipitation medium and precipitate calcium carbonate more than 1 g L(-1). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) examinations were performed in order to confirm the presence of calcium carbonate in the precipitate and to determine which polymorphs were present. The selected isolate was determined to be an appropriate candidate for application in a surface treatment of cement-based material to improve the properties of the mortar. Biodeposition of a layer of calcite on the surface of cement specimens resulted in filling in pore spaces. This could be an alternative method to improve the durability of the mortar. The kind of bacterial culture and medium composition had a profound impact on the resultant CaCO(3) crystal morphology. PMID:25590872

  20. Detection of residual oil-sand-derived organic material in developing soils of reclamation sites by ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Noah, Mareike; Poetz, Stefanie; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Wilkes, Heinz

    2015-06-01

    The reconstruction of disturbed landscapes back to working ecosystems is an issue of increasing importance for the oil sand areas in Alberta, Canada. In this context, the fate of oil-sand-derived organic material in the tailings sands used for reclamation is of utmost environmental importance. Here we use electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry of maltene fractions to identify compositional variations over a complete oil sand mining and recultivation process chain. On the basis of bulk compound class distributions and percentages of unique elemental compositions, we identify specific compositional features that are related to the different steps of the process chain. The double bond equivalent and carbon number distributions of the N1 and S1O2 classes are almost invariant along the process chain, despite a significant decrease in overall abundance. We thus suggest that these oil-sand-derived components can be used as sensitive tracers of residual bitumen, even in soils from relatively old reclamation sites. The patterns of the O2, O3, and O4 classes may be applied to assess process-chain-related changes in organic matter composition, including the formation of plant-derived soil organic matter on the reclamation sites. The N1O2 species appear to be related to unidentified processes in the tailings ponds but do not represent products of aerobic biodegradation of pyrrolic nitrogen compounds. PMID:25961672

  1. Social Variations in Perceived Parenting Styles among Norwegian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elstad, Jon Ivar; Stefansen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented the associations between parenting and parenting styles and child and adolescent outcomes. Little is known, however, about the social structuring of parenting in contemporary Nordic welfare states. A possible hypothesis is that socioeconomic variations in parenting styles in present-day Norway will be small because of material affluence, limited income inequality, and an active welfare state. This study examines social variations in parenting as perceived by Norwegian adolescents (N = 1362), with a focus on four parenting style dimensions: responsiveness, demandingness, neglecting, and intrusive. Responsiveness seems to capture major divisions in parenting. Adolescents in families with fewer economic resources experienced their parents as somewhat less responsive, but responsiveness was not related to parents' education. Low parental education was on the other hand associated with perceptions of parents as neglecting and intrusive. Viewing parents as demanding did neither vary with parental education nor with family economy. Substantial variations in parenting styles persist in present-day Norway, and these variations correspond moderately with the families' placement in the social structure. Indicators of parenting and parenting styles may be useful indicators of some aspects of child and adolescent well-being. PMID:25132873

  2. A mass-balance model to separate and quantify colloidal and solute redistributions in soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, C.R.; Chadwick, O.A.; Hartshorn, A.S.; Khomo, L.M.; Chorover, J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of weathering and pedogenesis have long used calculations based upon low solubility index elements to determine mass gains and losses in open systems. One of the questions currently unanswered in these settings is the degree to which mass is transferred in solution (solutes) versus suspension (colloids). Here we show that differential mobility of the low solubility, high field strength (HFS) elements Ti and Zr can trace colloidal redistribution, and we present a model for distinguishing between mass transfer in suspension and solution. The model is tested on a well-differentiated granitic catena located in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Ti and Zr ratios from parent material, soil and colloidal material are substituted into a mixing equation to quantify colloidal movement. The results show zones of both colloid removal and augmentation along the catena. Colloidal losses of 110kgm-2 (-5% relative to parent material) are calculated for one eluviated soil profile. A downslope illuviated profile has gained 169kgm-2 (10%) colloidal material. Elemental losses by mobilization in true solution are ubiquitous across the catena, even in zones of colloidal accumulation, and range from 1418kgm-2 (-46%) for an eluviated profile to 195kgm-2 (-23%) at the bottom of the catena. Quantification of simultaneous mass transfers in solution and suspension provide greater specificity on processes within soils and across hillslopes. Additionally, because colloids include both HFS and other elements, the ability to quantify their redistribution has implications for standard calculations of soil mass balances using such index elements. ?? 2011.

  3. Analyzing Layers of Soil Colluvia for Reconstruction of Soil Erosion and Holocene Landscape Genesis With Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werban, U.; Dreibrodt, S.; Rabbel, W.; Bork, H.; Al Hagrey, S.

    2005-05-01

    Since the GPR method is suitable to differentiate soil layers with different water content based on the dielectric contrast, we apply it to solve landscape genetic and geomorphological questions. Historical and recent soil erosion events, caused by surface runoff, are documented in sequences of soil colluvia. These depositional areas called geoarchives often contain dateable objects, such as artifacts (potsherd or bricks) and charcoal. Geoarchives, e.g. colluvial fans and trench in-fills, are used as a source of information about past environmental conditions and for determination of land use impacts caused by human activities. Large exposures are common to characterize soil colluvia stratigraphy, and additional drillings are needed to correlate the layers and horizons found in different exposures. Often, soil colluvia sequences are characterized by a well defined layering and consecutive layers show different grain size. These layers have different saturation-suction relationships (pF-curve) and varied moisture contents. Our research focuses on radar mapping and characterizing these layers of soil colluvia in consideration of different moisture distributions. We present measurements with 200 MHz and 400 MHz antennas determined in a catchment area in northern Germany. Common offset measurements were used to map the distribution of accumulated sediments. GPR travel times were depth migrated to correlate them with the exposure survey. The velocity distribution with depth was determined with multi offset measurements and analysis of reflections of a metal rod in a known depth. TDR measurements in different layers within the exposure are used to verify the moisture distribution with depth. We mapped the boundary between soil colluvium and the underlying parent material (weichselian till, glaciofluviatil sand) and differentiated layers within the soil colluvia. Consequently a more detailed balancing of erosion and accumulation rates to quantify historical soil losses is possible. GPR measurements in soils are due to the fast and nearly non-destructive application and the additional detailed spatial information an excellent supplement of landscape genetic investigations.

  4. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey Field Leach Test for Assessing Water Reactivity and Leaching Potential of Mine Wastes, Soils, and Other Geologic and Environmental Materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.

    2007-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a fast (5-minute), effective, simple, and cost-effective leach test that can be used to simulate the reactions that occur when materials are leached by water. The USGS Field Leach Test has been used to predict, assess, and characterize the geochemical interactions between water and a broad variety of geologic and environmental matrices. Examples of some of the samples leached include metal mine wastes, various types of dusts, biosolids (processed sewage sludge), flood and wetland sediments, volcanic ash, forest-fire burned soils, and many other diverse matrices. The Field Leach Test has been an integral part of these investigations and has demonstrated its value as a geochemical characterization tool. It has enabled investigators to identify which constituents are water reactive, soluble, mobilized, and made bioaccessible because of leaching by water, and to understand potential impacts of these interactions on the surrounding environment.

  6. Rare earth elements in soils from selected areas on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, W.M.; Halbig, J.B.

    1985-07-01

    Fifty soil samples for the wet, windward (east) side and dry, leeward (west) side of the Island of Hawaii were analyzed for La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, and Lu by neutron activation/gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis. Data on concentrations in each sample are listed and analyzed statistically for soil samples collected from the western slope of Kohala Mountain, the western coastal plain of Mauna Kea, and the Northeastern coastal plain of Maunal Loa. Rare earth element (REE) concentrations are two to six times greater in soils from the western, dry side of the island, and good statistical correlation is exhibited among the samples for pairs of individual REEs. In the organic-rich soils of the east side, correlations are poor but are markedly improved when sample weights are adjusted for weight due to organic matter and water in soil colloids. If the mean compositions of selected rock samples from the Hawaii Reference Suite are representative of the compositions of the parent materials, REEs in the soils are moderately enriched (up to two times, based on oven-dry weights). Rare earth element concentrations in the island's western soils are as much as two times greater than the mean REE values of common sedimentary rocks worldwide; however, they are well within the concentration ranges of soils of continental origin. The eastern soils tend to have less La and Ce, but similar amounts of the middle and heavy REEs.

  7. Soils of Sub-Antarctic tundras: diversity and basic chemical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, Evgeny; Vlasov, Dmitry; Mukhametova, Nadezhda

    2014-05-01

    Antarctic peninsula is known as specific part of Antarctica, which is characterizes by humid and relatively warm climate of so-called sub Antarctic (maritime) zone. Annual precipitation and long above zero period provides the possibility of sustainable tundra's ecosystem formation. Therefore, the soil diversity of these tundra landscapes is maximal in the whole Antarctic. Moreover, the thickness of parent material debris's is also highest and achieves a 1 or 2 meters as highest. The presence of higher vascular plants Deshampsia antarctica which is considered as one of the main edificators provides the development of humus accumulation in upper solum. Penguins activity provides an intensive soil fertilization and development of plant communities with increased density. All these factors leads to formation of specific and quite diverse soil cover in sub Antarctic tundra's. These ecosystems are presented by following permafrost affected soils: Leptosols, Lithoosols, Crysols, Gleysols, Peats and Ornhitosols. Also the post Ornhitosols are widely spreaded in subantarcic ecosystems, they forms on the penguin rockeries during the plant succession development, leaching of nutrients and organic matter mineralization. "Amphibious" soils are specific for seasonal lakes, which evaporates in the end if Australian summer. These soils have specific features of bio sediments and soils as well. Soil chemical characteristic as well as organic matter features discussed in comparison with Antacrtic continental soil in presentation.

  8. Assessing Organic Carbon Stabilization in Chihuahuan Desert Soils Using Sequential Density Fractionation

    NASA