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1

Dryland soil microbial communities display spatial biogeographic patterns associated with soil depth and soil parent material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common to drylands worldwide. We employed replicated, spatially nested sampling and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the soil microbial communities in three soils derived from different parent material (sandstone, shale, and gypsum). For each soil type, two depths (biocrusts, 0–1 cm; below-crust soils, 2–5 cm) and two horizontal spatial scales (15 cm and 5 m) were sampled. In all three soils, Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria demonstrated significantly higher relative abundance in the biocrusts, while Chloroflexi and Archaea were significantly enriched in the below-crust soils. Biomass and diversity of the communities in biocrusts or below-crust soils did not differ with soil type. However, biocrusts on gypsum soil harbored significantly larger populations of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and lower populations of Cyanobacteria. Numerically dominant operational taxonomic units (OTU; 97% sequence identity) in the biocrusts were conserved across the soil types, whereas two dominant OTUs in the below-crust sand and shale soils were not identified in the gypsum soil. The uniformity with which small-scale vertical community differences are maintained across larger horizontal spatial scales and soil types is a feature of dryland ecosystems that should be considered when designing management plans and determining the response of biocrusts to environmental disturbances.

Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

2013-01-01

2

Parent material and chemical weathering in alpine soils on Mt. Mansfield, Vermont, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the elemental composition of soil and bedrock samples to determine the extent of chemical weathering and the nature of the soil parent material in alpine soils on Vermont's highest summit. Previously it was unclear whether these soils formed through weathering of bedrock, glacial till, or eolian sediment, or solely through the accumulation of organic matter. In eighteen profiles,

Jeffrey S. Munroe; Gianina Farrugia; Peter C. Ryan

2007-01-01

3

Nature and properties of lateritic soils derived from different parent materials in taiwan.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils. PMID:24883366

Ko, Tzu-Hsing

2014-01-01

4

Nature and Properties of Lateritic Soils Derived from Different Parent Materials in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils.

2014-01-01

5

Landscape formation and soil genesis in volcanic parent materials in humid tropical lowlands of Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of volcanism on landscape genesis, and formation of soils on volcanic parent material was studied in the Atlantic lowland of Costs Rica. This lowland is a subduction basin of tectonic origin, in which thick alluvial and marine sediments are accumulated. At its southwestern side it is bordered by active volcanoes. The climate of the area is hot and

A. Nieuwenhuyse

1996-01-01

6

Vertical distribution and pools of microbial residues in tropical forest soils formed from distinct parent materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of soil microbial residues to stable carbon pools may be of particular importance in the tropics where carbon\\u000a residence times are short and any available carbon is rapidly utilized. In this study we investigated the vertical distribution\\u000a of microbially-derived amino sugars in two tropical forests on contrasting meta-sedimentary and serpentinite parent materials\\u000a in the lowlands of Mt. Kinabalu,

Lindsey K. Moritz; Chao Liang; Rota Wagai; Kanehiro Kitayama; Teri C. Balser

2009-01-01

7

Shrubby Reed-Mustard Habitat: Parent Material, Soil, and Landscape Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrubby reed-mustard (Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, a.k.a. Schoenocrambe suffrutescens, Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, or Hesperidanthus suffrutescens) is an endangered perennial shrub endemic to the southern Uinta Basin in northeast Utah. Only seven populations of shrubby reed-mustard have been identified. The arid area where the plant grows is rich in natural gas and oil deposits, as well as oil shale. Oil wells already dot the landscape, and there is significant concern that further development of these resources will threaten the continued existence of shrubby reed-mustard. Determination of the parent material, soil and landscape characteristics associated with shrubby reed-mustard habitat is imperative to facilitate conservation management. Shrubby reed-mustard grows where little else does and, based on field observations and remotely sensed spectral data, appears to occur in a particular type of strata. Our objective is to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of shrubby reed-mustard's environment. Site characteristics such as parent material and associated vegetation have been identified and documented. Soil properties such as water-soluble and total leachable elements, particle-size distribution, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus and potassium are being determined. During the course of this investigation, soils within four shrubby reed-mustard habitat areas were sampled. Soils from non-shrubby reed-mustard areas adjacent to the four shrubby reed-mustard populations were also sampled. Soil samples were collected from a total of twenty-five shrubby reed-mustard soil pits and twenty-four non-shrubby reed-mustard soil pits. The soil horizons of each pedon were delineated, and samples were collected from each horizon. Field data indicate that shrubby reed-mustard occurs exclusively in shale-derived, shallow soils on bedrock-controlled uplands. Although there is some overlap of plant species on both types of soils, soils that do not support shrubby reed-mustard are dominated by black sage, a species not found in shrubby reed-mustard habitat. To date, statistical analyses to compare shrubby reed-mustard sites and non-shrubby reed-mustard sites have included Mann-Whitney rank sum tests and t-tests. Statistical results to date show that chemical properties differ between shrubby reed-mustard and non-shrubby reed-mustard sites. Concentrations of several soluble and total metals were significantly higher in shrubby reed-mustard soils compared to adjacent soils, including copper, lead, nickel, and lithium. Soluble, total, and available phosphorus were significantly lower in shrubby reed-mustard soils than in non-shrubby reed-mustard soils. Elevated metals may be indicative of shrubby reed-mustard tolerance of these elements, while low phosphorus concentrations in shrubby reed-mustard soils may indicate that this plant can tolerate low-nutrient status soils. Additional laboratory analyses are underway to further characterize the habitat of shrubby reed-mustard. Descriptive analysis is continuing. Statistical analyses will be finalized upon completion of all laboratory tests. Based on these determinations, shrubby reed-mustard habitat will be better defined and understood, which will assist with the preservation of this endangered species in the face of further resource development.

Kelly, L. S.; Boettinger, J. L.

2012-12-01

8

Unexpected dominance of parent-material strontium in a tropical forest on highly weathered soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Controls over nutrient supply are key to understanding the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Conceptual models once held that in situ mineral weathering was the primary long-term control over the availability of many plant nutrients, including the base cations calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K). Recent evidence has shown that atmospheric sources of these "rock-derived" nutrients can dominate actively cycling ecosystem pools, especially in systems on highly weathered soils. Such studies have relied heavily on the use of strontium isotopes as a proxy for base-cation cycling. Here we show that vegetation and soil-exchangeable pools of strontium in a tropical rainforest on highly weathered soils are still dominated by local rock sources. This pattern exists despite substantial atmospheric inputs of Sr, Ca, K, and Mg, and despite nearly 100% depletion of these elements from the top 1 m of soil. We present a model demonstrating that modest weathering inputs, resulting from tectonically driven erosion, could maintain parent-material dominance of actively cycling Sr. The majority of tropical forests are on highly weathered soils, but our results suggest that these forests may still show considerable variation in their primary sources of essential nutrients. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

Bern, C. R.; Townsend, A. R.; Farmer, G. L.

2005-01-01

9

The chemistry and parent material of urban soils in Bristol (UK): implications for contaminated land assessment.  

PubMed

An earlier survey of topsoil from parks and allotment in the city of Bristol (UK) revealed the presence of relatively high levels of "pseudo-total" Cd, As, Cu, Pb and Zn, with Cd and As exceeding present UK soil guidelines. This follow-up work aimed at (1) estimating geochemical thresholds for these elements based on "near-total" soil, bedrock and sediment heavy metals and (2) determining the genetic relationship between soil and bedrock using rare earth elements (REEs or lanthanides) as tracers. "Near-total" concentration of 34 elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Zn, Y and the rare earth elements Ce, Dy, Er, Eu, Gd, Ho, La, Lu, Nd, Pr, Sm, Tb, Yb) were obtained by ICP-MS and ICP-OES. The results show that the soil composition is largely controlled by the soil parent material, though extreme outliers are indicative of contamination at a few sites of parkland and allotments. Cumulative frequency plots show the presence of different data sets for which separate "background" values should be determined. The REE data provide evidence that weathering of the underlying sandstone was a determinant factor leading to the relatively high heavy metal enrichment found in soil samples and sediments. Reference to UK soil guidelines to decide on possible remediation measures could be very misleading due to the natural high background levels of some elements in the underlying bedrock. Before defining land as "contaminated", a thorough geochemical investigation is required at local scale in order to produce a more realistic and correct environmental assessment. PMID:22740127

Giusti, L

2013-02-01

10

Impact of terrain attributes, parent material and soil types on gully erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gully erosion is a worldwide matter of concern because of the irreversible losses of fertile land, which often have severe environmental, economic and social consequences. While most of the studies on the gullying process have investigated the involved mechanisms (either overland flow incision, seepage or piping erosion), only few have been conducted on the controlling factors of gully wall retreat, an important, if not the dominant, land degradation process and sediment source in river systems. In a representative 4.4 km2 degraded area of the Drakensberg foothills (South Africa) the main objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the rate of gully bank retreat (GBR) and parent material, soil types and selected terrain attributes (elevation, specific drainage area, mean slope gradient, slope length factor, stream power index, compound topographic index and slope curvatures). The survey of gully bank retreat was performed during an entire hydrological year, from September 2007 to September 2008, using a network of pins (n = 440 from 110 pits). Both the gully contours and pin coordinates were determined, using a GPS with a 0.5 m horizontal accuracy (n = 20,120). The information on the parent material and the soil types was obtained from field observations complemented by laboratory analysis, while terrain attributes were extracted from a 20 m DEM generated from 5 m interval contour lines. The average GBR value for the 6512 m of gully banks found in the area was 0.049 ± 0.0013 m y- 1, which, considering bank height and soil bulk density, corresponded to an erosion rate of 2.30 ton ha- 1 y- 1. There was no significant difference in GBR between sandstone and dolerite and between Acrisols and Luvisols. Despite a weak one-to-one correlation with the selected terrain attributes (r < 0.2), a principal component analysis (PCA), the first two axes of which explained 68% of the data variability, pointed out that GBR was the highest at hillslope inflexion points (profile and plan slope curvatures close to zero), in the vicinity of the head cuts and for drainage areas up to 500 m2, as both situations experience a high removal rate of the soil material produced from the gully bank collapse and protecting gullies from laterally retreating. These results could be used to digitally map the more active gully banks for the improved implementation of preventive measures of gully growth, if high resolution DEMs are available. There remained, however, a certain amount of unexplained variability in the data, that further research studies on the mechanisms and associated factors of control of GBR could help to address.

Chaplot, Vincent

2013-03-01

11

Regional mapping of soil parent material by machine learning based on point data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A machine learning system (MART) has been used to predict soil parent material (SPM) at the regional scale with a 50-m resolution. The use of point-specific soil observations as training data was tested as a replacement for the soil maps introduced in previous studies, with the aim of generating a more even distribution of training data over the study area and reducing information uncertainty. The 27,020-km 2 study area (Brittany, northwestern France) contains mainly metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary substrates. However, superficial deposits (aeolian loam, colluvial and alluvial deposits) very often represent the actual SPM and are typically under-represented in existing geological maps. In order to calibrate the predictive model, a total of 4920 point soil descriptions were used as training data along with 17 environmental predictors (terrain attributes derived from a 50-m DEM, as well as emissions of K, Th and U obtained by means of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry, geological variables at the 1:250,000 scale and land use maps obtained by remote sensing). Model predictions were then compared: i) during SPM model creation to point data not used in model calibration (internal validation), ii) to the entire point dataset (point validation), and iii) to existing detailed soil maps (external validation). The internal, point and external validation accuracy rates were 56%, 81% and 54%, respectively. Aeolian loam was one of the three most closely predicted substrates. Poor prediction results were associated with uncommon materials and areas with high geological complexity, i.e. areas where existing maps used for external validation were also imprecise. The resultant predictive map turned out to be more accurate than existing geological maps and moreover indicated surface deposits whose spatial coverage is consistent with actual knowledge of the area. This method proves quite useful in predicting SPM within areas where conventional mapping techniques might be too costly or lengthy or where soil maps are insufficient for use as training data. In addition, this method allows producing repeatable and interpretable results, whose accuracy can be assessed objectively.

Lacoste, Marine; Lemercier, Blandine; Walter, Christian

2011-10-01

12

Comparison of Three Digestion Methods for Total Soil Potassium Estimation in Soils of Papua New Guinea Derived from Varying Parent Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimate of total potassium (K) contents of soils is required to assess the difficultly available fractions of soil potassium. Three digestion procedures were evaluated in terms of recovery of elemental K, precision, and simplicity in combination with analysis of K contents by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) in soils derived from contrasting parent materials. A hydrofluoric acid–perchloric acid

B. K. Rajashekhar Rao; John Bailey; Robin Walter Wingwafi

2011-01-01

13

Multiscale analysis of nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms in soils developed over sandstone and basic parent materials with contrasting texture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mono- and multifractal analysis of soil nitrogen adsorption isotherms (NAI) have been proven to be useful, allowing a better characterization of soil surface properties and soil porous system. Multiscale analysis of nitrogen desorption isotherms (NDI), which was less frequently performed, can also provide very valuable information. The multifractal theory was used to analyse both soil adsorption and desorption isotherms from soils developed over contrasting parent material and with different texture. We sampled 32 soil horizons from 6 soil profiles in neighbouring sites from São Paulo State, Brazil. Three of the profiles, developed over sandstone, were sandy loam or loamy, whereas the other three profiles, developed over weathered sediments or basic parent material, were clayey textured. Soil specific surface area (SSA) varied, from about 3.0 to 46 m2 g-1. Surface parameters showed a strong correlation with clay content, but they were not correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC). The scaling properties of both nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms from all the studied soil horizons could be fitted reasonably well with multifractal models. Multifractal parameters from NAIs and NDIs showed great differences. The singularity spectra, f(?) of the desorption isotherms had an asymmetrically long left part and its asymmetry was in general higher compared with adsorption isotherms. Moreover, adsorption isotherms behaved like more clustered measures, showing lower entropy dimension, D1, smaller correlation dimension, D2, and higher heterogeneity than desorption isotherms. Differences in multifractal behaviour of NAIs and NDIs had been proven to be mainly related to the characteristics of the hysteretic loop measured at high relative pressures. Several multifractal parameters extracted from NAIs and NDIs also distinguished between sandy-loam and loam soils and clayey soils. Multifractal parameters calculated from NAIs and NDIs provide new insight to assess soil surface properties.

Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Marinho, Mara de A.; de Abreu, Cleide A.

2014-05-01

14

Climate and Parent Material Influence on Development and Characteristics of Soils on Non-Calcareous Loess in Croatia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three profiles of the representative climax soils formed on non-calcareous loess (two Stagnic Cutanic Albeluvisols and one Luvic Stagnosol) were studied along the mean annual precipitation (MAP) gradient in the Pannonian region of Croatia. The purpose of the study was to compare the soil profiles' characteristics and to determine the main processes of their formation, in order to test the concept of soil climosequence on non-calcareous loess in this part of the Pannonian Basin. Each soil profile was opened on level plateau terrain and under well developed forest vegetation (Epimedio-carpinetum betuli community). The results pointed to several soil characteristics as consistent with the precipitation gradient. At the same time, given the merely partial uniformity of loess parent materials across the investigated transect, clay content and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil profiles studied did not correspond to the MAP gradient. Although all three soil profiles developed from pre-cycled and post-depositionally modified loess parent materials of same provenance, the uneven environmental conditions of eolian depositions caused variations in loess characteristics, i.e. formation of brown loess at the site of one analyzed profile and loess derivates at the sites of two remaining profiles. Therefore, climosequences sensu stricto could not have formed on non-calcareous loess in the Pannonian region of Croatia. Nevertheless, the effects of acidification and pseudogleization were found to be least expressed at the site with the lowest MAP, and most expressed at the site with the highest MAP. At the other hand, rate of lessivage, as the third major pedogenic process identified, did not increase along with the increase of MAP, i.e. it depended more on soil pH and clay mineralogy, than on the amount of precipitation. Keywords: Stagnosols; Albeluvisols; Loess derivates; Brown loess; Climosequence.

Rubinic, Vedran; Durn, Goran; Husnjak, Stjepan; Tadej, Neven

2014-05-01

15

SOILS AND THEIR PARENT GEOLOGIC MATERIALS IN PART OF THE UNGLACIATED ALLEGHENY PLATEAU, UPPER OHIO VALLEY, AS INTERPRETED FROM A PIPELINE EXCAVATION1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of study of the soils, soil parent material, and relevant bedrock along the excavation for a pipeline, which extended for five miles from the northeast corner of section 12, St. Clair Township, to the center of sec- tion 27, Middleton Township, Columbiana County, Ohio. These results are correlated with some pedologic and geologic generalizations gathered

HEBER D. LESSIG

16

A landscape-scale study of land use and parent material effects on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the Konya Basin, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ecosystems where intensive farming and grazing have been occurring for millennia, there is poor understanding of how present-day soil biogeochemical properties relate to factors associated with soil parent materials (e.g. texture, mineralogy), and the net effects of long-term land use practices. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total soil nitrogen (TN) are important for their roles in maintaining soil structure, moisture, fertility and contributing to carbon sequestration. Our research used a state factor approach (Jenny 1981) to study effects of soil parent materials and land use practices on SOC, TN, and other properties across thirty-five sites in the Konya Basin, an arid region in south-central Turkey farmed and grazed for over 8,000 years. This project is one of the first to study land use impacts on soils at a landscape scale (500 km2) in south-central Turkey, and incorporate geospatial data (e.g. a satellite imagery-derived land cover map we developed) to aid selection of field sites. Focusing on the plough layer (0-25cm) in two depth intervals, we compared effects of agriculture, orchard cultivation and grazing land use practices and clay-loam alluvial, sandy-loam volcanic and lacustrine clay soils on soil properties using standard least squares regression analyses. SOC and TN depended strongly on parent materials, but not on land use. Averaged across both depth intervals, alluvial soil SOC and TN concentrations (19.4 ± 1.32 Mg/ha SOC, 2.86 ± 1.23 Mg/ha TN) were higher and significantly different than lacustrine (9.72 ± 3.01 Mg/ha SOC, 1.57 ± 0.69 Mg/ha TN) and volcanic soil concentrations (7.40 ± 1.72 Mg/ha SOC, 1.02 ± 0.35 Mg/ha TN). Land use significantly affected SOC and TN on alluvial soils, but not on volcanic or lacustrine soils. Our results demonstrate the potential for land use to have different effects on different soils in this region. Our data on SOC, TN and other soil properties illustrate patterns in regional SOC and TN variability not shown by previous modeling or soil survey efforts. We provide baseline information on SOC and TN that can inform benchmarks for future soil monitoring and land use planning in an arid region that is likely to be highly impacted by future climatic changes, agricultural intensification and urban development. Our results suggest the importance of accounting for soil physical properties, and land use effects that are dependent on soil parent materials in future efforts to model or account for SOC and TN in similar ancient agricultural landscapes.

Mayes, M. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Ozdogan, M.; Erdogan, M. A.

2011-12-01

17

Soil production rates on silicate parent material in high-mountains: different approaches - different results?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-mountain soils develop in particularly sensitive environments. Consequently, deciphering and predicting what drives the rates of soil formation in such environments is a major challenge. In terms of soil production from chemical weathering, the predominating perception for high-mountain soils and cold environments often is that the chemical weathering 'portion' of soil development is temperature-inhibited, often to the point of non-occurrence. Several concepts exist to determine long-term rates of soil formation and development. We present three different approaches: (1) quantification of soil formation from minimally eroded soils of known age using chronosequences (known surface age and soil thickness - SAST), (2) determination of soil residence times (SRT) and production rates through chemical weathering using (un)stable isotopes (e.g. 230Th / 234U activity ratios), and (3) a steady state approach using cosmogenic isotopes (e.g. 10Be). Data form different climate zones, and particularly from high-mountains (alpine environment), were compared. The SAST and steady state approach gave quite similar results for alpine environments (European Alps and the Wind River Range (Rocky Mountains USA)). Soil formation rates in mountain areas (but having a temperate climate) using the SRT approach, did not differ greatly from the SAST and Steady State approaches. Independent of the chosen approach, the results seem moderately comparable. Soil formation rates in high-mountain areas (alpine climate) ranged from very low to extremely high values and showed a clear decreasing tendency with time. Very young soils have up to 3 - 4 orders of magnitude higher rates of development than old soils (105 to 106 years). This is due to the fact that weathering is kinetically limited in regions having young surfaces and supply limited on old surfaces. Soil production rates cannot be infinitely high. Consequently, a speed limit must exist. In the literature, this limit has been set at about 320 to 450 t km-2 yr-1. Our results show, however, that in alpine areas soil formation easily reaches rates of up to 1000 - 3000 t km-2 yr-1 using the SAST approach. These data are consistent with previous studies in mountain regions demonstrating that soils continue to develop with time, even under continuous seasonal snowpack and, thus, that the concept of 'temperature-controlled' soil development (soil-forming intervals) is spurious.

Egli, Markus; Dahms, Dennis; Norton, Kevin

2013-04-01

18

Impact of climate and parent material on chemical weathering in Loess-derived soils of the Mississippi River valley  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Peoria Loess-derived soils on uplands east of the Mississippi River valley were studied from Louisiana to Iowa, along a south-to-north gradient of decreasing precipitation and temperature. Major element analyses of deep loess in Mississippi and Illinois show that the composition of the parent material is similar in the northern and southern parts of the valley. We hypothesized that in the warmer, wetter parts of the transect, mineral weathering should be greater than in the cooler, drier parts of the transect. Profile average values of CaO/TiO2, MgO/ TiO2, K2O/TiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, Sr/Zr, Ba/Zr, and Rb/Zr represent proxies for depletion of loess minerals such as calcite, dolomite, hornblende, mica, and plagioclase. All ratios show increases from south to north, supporting the hypothesis of greater chemical weathering in the southern part of the valley. An unexpected result is that profile average values of Al2O3/TiO2 and Fe2O3/TiO2 (proxies for the relative abundance of clay minerals) show increases from south to north. This finding, while contrary to the evidence of greater chemical weathering in the southern part of the transect, is consistent with an earlier study which showed higher clay contents in Bt horizons of loess-derived soils in the northern part of the transect. We hypothesize that soils in the northern part of the valley received fine-grained loess from sources to the west of the Mississippi River valley either late in the last glacial period, during the Holocene or both. In contrast, soils in the southern part of the valley were unaffected by such additions.

Muhs, D. R.; Bettis, III, E. A.; Been, J.; McGeehin, J. P.

2001-01-01

19

Relationship between soil erosion, slope, parent material, and distance to road (Case study: Latian Watershed, Iran)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil erosion is the dominating factor of damaging roads in Iran. Roads are a critical component of civilization. Developing\\u000a and maintaining the economic activity that is vital for the quality of modern life would be difficult without roads. Accelerated\\u000a erosion and increased sediment yields resulting from changes in land use are critical environmental problems, and one of the\\u000a important changes

Shirin Mohammadkhan; Hasan Ahmadi; Mohammad Jafari

2011-01-01

20

Modeling Water Flux at the Base of the Rooting Zone for Soils with Varying Glacial Parent Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils of varying glacial parent materials in the Great Lakes Region (USA) are characterized by thin unsaturated zones and widespread use of agricultural pesticides and nutrients that affect shallow groundwater. To better our understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants, improved models of water fluxes through the vadose zones of various hydrogeologic settings are warranted. Furthermore, calibrated unsaturated zone models can be coupled with watershed models, providing a means for predicting the impact of varying climate scenarios on agriculture in the region. To address these issues, a network of monitoring sites was developed in Indiana that provides continuous measurements of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET), soil volumetric water content (VWC), and soil matric potential to parameterize and calibrate models. Flux at the base of the root zone is simulated using two models of varying complexity: 1) the HYDRUS model, which numerically solves the Richards equation, and 2) the soil-water-balance (SWB) model, which assumes vertical flow under a unit gradient with infiltration and evapotranspiration treated as separate, sequential processes. Soil hydraulic parameters are determined based on laboratory data, a pedo-transfer function (ROSETTA), field measurements (Guelph permeameter), and parameter optimization. Groundwater elevation data are available at three of six sites to establish the base of the unsaturated zone model domain. Initial modeling focused on the groundwater recharge season (Nov-Feb) when PET is limited and much of the annual vertical flux occurs. HYDRUS results indicate that base of root zone fluxes at a site underlain by glacial ice-contact parent materials are 48% of recharge season precipitation (VWC RMSE=8.2%), while SWB results indicate that fluxes are 43% (VWC RMSE=3.7%). Due in part to variations in surface boundary conditions, more variable fluxes were obtained for a site underlain by alluvium with the SWB model (68% of recharge season precipitation, VWC RMSE=7.0%) predicting much greater drainage than HYDRUS (38% of recharge season precipitation, VWC RMSE=6.6%). Results also show that when calculating drainage flux over the recharge period, HYDRUS is highly sensitive to model initialization using observed water content from in-situ instrumentation. Simulated recharge season drainage flux is as much as 3.5 times higher when a one-month spin-up period was performed in the HYDRUS model for the same site. SWB results are less sensitive to water content initialization, but drainage flux is 1.6 times higher at one site using the same spin-up analysis. The long-term goals of this effort are to leverage the robust calibration data set to establish optimal approaches for determining hydraulic parameters such that water fluxes in the lower vadose zone can be modeled for a wider range of geomorphic settings where calibration data are unavailable.

Naylor, S.; Ellett, K. M.; Ficklin, D. L.; Olyphant, G. A.

2013-12-01

21

Applying a new procedure to assess the controls on aggregate stability - including soil parent material and soil organic carbon concentrations - at the landscape scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aggregate stability is an important physical indicator of soil quality and influences the potential for erosive losses from the landscape, so methods are required to measure it rapidly and cost-effectively. Previously we demonstrated a novel method for quantifying the stability of soil aggregates using a laser granulometer (Rawlins et al., 2012). We have developed our method further to mimic field conditions more closely by incorporating a procedure for pre-wetting aggregates (for 30 minutes on a filter paper) prior to applying the test. The first measurement of particle-size distribution is made on the water stable aggregates after these have been added to circulating water (aggregate size range 1000 to 2000 µm). The second measurement is made on the disaggregated material after the circulating aggregates have been disrupted with ultrasound (sonication). We then compute the difference between the mean weight diameters (MWD) of these two size distributions; we refer to this value as the disaggregation reduction (DR; µm). Soils with more stable aggregates, which are resistant to both slaking and mechanical breakdown by the hydrodynamic forces during circulation, have larger values of DR. We made repeated analyses of DR using an aggregate reference material (RM; a paleosol with well-characterised disaggregation properties) and used this throughout our analyses to demonstrate our approach was reproducible. We applied our modified technique - and also the previous technique in which dry aggregates were used - to a set of 60 topsoil samples (depth 0-15 cm) from cultivated land across a large region (10 000 km2) of eastern England. We wished to investigate: (i) any differences in aggregate stability (DR measurements) using dry or pre-wet aggregates, and (ii) the dominant controls on the stability of aggregates in water using wet aggregates, including variations in mineralogy and soil organic carbon (SOC) content, and any interaction between them. The sixty soil sampling locations were selected based on the quantities of SOC from previous analysis (on samples collected at sites across the entire region). We chose the samples to encompass a wide range of SOC concentrations (1.2-7%) within each of six strongly contrasting soil parent material (PM) groups (sandstone, mudstone, clay, chalk, limestone and marine alluvium). The DR values (calculated using re-scaled size distributions for particle diameters < 500 µm) ranged from 17 to 151 µm. The co-efficient of variation for DR analyses using fourteen aliquots of the RM was reasonably small (21 %). The PM groups accounted for a larger proportion of the variation in DR than SOC concentrations; together they accounted for around 50% of the variation in DR values. There was no evidence to include an interaction term between PM and SOC concentration. The proportion of clay-sized particles in the material after sonication was not a statistically significant predictor of DR. Pre-wetting the aggregates typically resulted in substantially smaller values of DR by comparison to using air-dried aggregates in our test. We suggest that the effects of differential clay swelling as a disruptive force during the wetting stage are greater than those associated with slaking (fragmentation due to trapped air). We believe this rapid (duration after the wetting procedure is 10 minutes), reproducible test could could be an effective means to monitor changes in this important soil property and improve predictions of soil erosion. Reference: Rawlins, B. G., Wragg, J. & Lark, R. M. 2012. Application of a novel method for soil aggregate stability measurement by laser granulometry with sonication. European Journal of Soil Science, 64, 92-103.

Turner, Gren; Rawlins, Barry; Wragg, Joanna; Lark, Murray

2014-05-01

22

Soils as Construction Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This geotechnical project will introduce you with the concept of using soils as construction materials.This project involves characterizing soils using various laboratory analyses and applying the Unified Soil Classification System in naming the soil. Keywords: Geotechnical, Mass Wetness, Grain Size Analysis, Atterberg Limits

Kowalewski, Douglas

23

Elemental and strontium isotopic geochemistry of the soil profiles developed on limestone and sandstone in karstic terrain on Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China: Implications for chemical weathering and parent materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limestone and yellow sandstone soil profiles from SW China were measured for chemical and Sr isotope compositions of the bulk soils and their sequential leachates (labile, carbonate, and residue or silicate fraction), aiming to characterize the parent materials of the soils, to understand the soil weathering and formation processes, and to discuss the origin of the red residua (terra rossa). The studied yellow sandstone soil, yellow limestone soil, and black limestone soil show different pH values, SiO2 contents, Rb/Sr abundance ratios, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios. The sequential leachates of different soil types also have different 87Sr/86Sr and Ca/Sr ratios. The major chemical compositions of the studied soil profiles suggest that all the sandstone and limestone soils are developing at a stage that feldspar is exhausting and the clay minerals are changing from smectite to kaolinite and gibbsite. As compared with the red residua distributed in the karst region, the soils studied here show lower CIA values (58-84), but both higher Na2O/K2O (0.9-2.7) and Na2O/Al2O3 concentration ratios (0.07-0.26) on average, suggesting a lower weathering intensity than that of the red residua. The depth profiles of soil CIA values, Na2O/K2O and Rb/Sr ratios, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios indicate that the weathering intensity is slightly lower for the upper and higher for the deeper soils, which suggest that the sandstone and limestone soil profiles were formed through both accumulation and weathering of in situ weathering residue and input of external detritus or soil from upper land. During weathering of the soils, preferential release of Ca and retention of Sr in soil result in higher Ca/Sr ratios in both labile and carbonate fractions than those in the residue fractions of all soil profiles. The co-variations of Hf/Nb and Zr/Nb ratios, together with those Rb/Sr and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of limestone soils, sandstone soils, and the red residua, demonstrate that their parent materials are distinct, and support the point that the widely distributed red residua is originated from the weathering residua of both carbonate and silicate clastic rocks, and further weathering of the weathering residua resulted in intensive release of Si, Na, Ca and relative enrichment of Al, K and other immobile elements in the red residua.

Liu, Wen-Jing; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Zhao, Zhi-Qi; Xu, Zhi-Fang; Liang, Chong-Shan; Li, Long-bo; Feng, Jia-Yi

2013-05-01

24

A Leader's Guide for Developing a Parent to Parent Support Program for Parents of Special Needs Children and Materials for Parent Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by the Florida Parent to Parent Support Program, two manuals provide materials for developing local parent-to-parent support groups for parents of children with a broad range of special needs, including those with sensory, physical, or learning disorders; developmental disabilities; emotional disturbances; and those at high risk for or…

Duwa, Susan M.; Luppino, Lori L.

25

Decomposition of different organic materials in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate organic C mineralization of various organic materials added to soils. A soil sample was mixed with organic material to approximate a field application of 9 g organic C kg-1 soil (0.9% or 50 Mg ha-1). The organic materials used were four crop residues [corn (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), sorghum (Sorghum

H. A. Ajwa; M. A. Tabatabai

1994-01-01

26

Assessing parent material uniformity of Phaeozems in the Azul Sierras landscape: preliminary studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South of Azul Co. (Argentina) there is an area with Precambrian and Paleozoic gneiss and migmatite outcrops that conform the wider system of Pampian Sierras, with slopes and intermountain areas covered by loess. The Phaeozems distribution in the Azul Sierras is complex and their genesis either being derived from a uniform parent material or a lithologic discontinuity is not known. The objective of this study was to confirm whether pedological processes or a lithologic discontinuity may be responsible for the textural contrast within soil profiles. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was used to determine elemental concentrations in various soil fractions. Three landscape units were defined: a) rocky, b) side slope and c) intermountain plain. Rocky area: 8-10 % slope, soils develop in between rock outcrops, are rather shallow with high organic matter content, coarse texture and gravely. They include: Endoleptic Phaeozems, Haplic Phaeozems (Pachic) and (Pachic Arenic). Sideslope: coarse textured soils with abundant gravels and lime free close to the rocky area; OC is high up to 50 cm depth; incipient clay illuviation is observed as coatings on pebbles. Half slope a petrocalcic horizon (tosca) appears at variable depth, coarse fragments diminish with increasing distance from the rock outcrops, OC remains high in the first 50 cm. All soil profiles have mollic horizon and argic horizon less than 20 cm thick. The petrocalcic horizon has a minimum depth of 50 cm. Soils classify as Luvic Phaeozem (Skeletic), Luvic Petrocalcic Phaeozem (Endoskeletic) and Luvic Petrocalcic Phaeozem. Intermountain plains: soils are deep, with clay accumulation, no coarse fragments nor rock outcrops, and gentle sloping. The mollic horizon reaches 53 cm thick and there is a well developed argic horizon. These soils classify as Luvic Phaeozems. Results showed that all indicators of parent material uniformity, i.e., depth distribution curves of Zr and Y in various fractions and Y:Zr ratio showed clear inflection and variation in side slope soils, indicanting soils developed from contrasting materials, so different trends in particle size fractions between 0-34 cm compared to the underlying layers are due to parent material differences and not pedogenesis. While Pampian soils are mainly developed from loess, the influence of gneiss and migmatites on soils in this landscape appears as an important conclusion.

Roca, Núria; Rodríguez, Javier; Pazos, Mabel Susana

2014-05-01

27

Soils - Part 8: Characteristics of Fertilizer Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The various characteristics of fertilizer materials being sold on the market today will be discussed. You will learn to identify some of the consequences of using each type of fertilizer material and how that material was developed and manufactured.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

28

Effects of land use and parent materials on trace elements accumulation in topsoil.  

PubMed

To determine the effects of parent material and land use on the concentration of trace elements in the agricultural topsoil of Guizhou Province, China, a total of 584 agricultural topsoil samples were collected in a typical region. The results indicate that the contents of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb) in agricultural soils were greater than in the uncultivated soils, and the paddy fields exhibited higher contents of trace elements than dry lands. The enrichments of most trace elements in agricultural topsoil derived from carbonate rock were more serious. In paddy fields, Cd, Cr, and As showed positive relationships with soil organic matter ( < 0.01) but were not affected by pH, carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and clay ( > 0.05). Lead and Hg formed the second component in principal component analysis (PCA) and were closely related to pH and clay content. In dry lands, the trace elements were well correlated with pH, C/N, and clay ( < 0.05). Analysis of PCA and correlation showed that Cd, Cr, and Hg were mainly derived from inorganic fertilizers, whereas Pb and As were primarily from organic manures. These results suggest that the effect of anthropogenic activities on paddy fields is more serious than on dry lands. Parent materials not only serve as sources of soil trace elements but also control the loss and accumulation of trace elements by affecting soil physicochemical properties, especially in dry lands. PMID:23673744

Tu, Cheng-Long; He, Teng-Bing; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Lu, Xiao-Hui

2013-01-01

29

Parenting  

MedlinePLUS

... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

30

Children's Health Status: Examining the Associations among Income Poverty, Material Hardship, and Parental Factors  

PubMed Central

Background We examined a model of multiple mediating pathways of income poverty, material hardship, parenting factors, and child health status to understand how material hardship and parental factors mediate the effects of poverty on child health. We hypothesized that: (a) poverty will be directly associated with material hardship, parental depression, and health status, and indirectly with parenting behaviors through its effects on parental depression and material hardship; (b) material hardship will be associated with parental depression, parenting behaviors, and health status; and (c) parental depression will be correlated with parenting behaviors, and that both parental depression and parenting behaviors will predict child health. Methods and Results We used data from the 2002 National Survey of American Families for a sample of 9,645 6-to-11 year-olds to examine a 4-step structural equation model. The baseline model included covariates and income poverty. In the hardship model, food insufficiency and medical need were added to the baseline model. The parental model included parental depression and parenting behavior and baseline model. In the full model, all the constructs were included. First, income poverty had a direct effect on health status, and an indirect effect through its association with material hardship, parental depressive affect, and parenting behaviors. Medical need and food insufficiency had negative effects on child health, and indirect effects on health through their association with parental depression and parenting behaviors. Finally, parental depression and parenting behaviors were associated with child health, and part of the effect of parental depression on health was explained by its association with parenting behaviors. Conclusions Poverty has an independent effect on health, however, its effects are partially explained by material hardship, parental depression and parental behaviors. To improve children's health would require a multi-pronged approach involving income transfers, health insurance coverage, food and nutrition assistance, and parenting interventions.

Ashiabi, Godwin S.; O'Neal, Keri K.

2007-01-01

31

Controls of soil organic material stability in coastal wetland soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we utilize ramped pyrolysis to identify relative stability differences in bulk soil organic material (SOM) from three wetland types (fresh, brackish, and salt marshes). Wetland soils are responsible for the storage of 500-700 Pg of carbon, globally. Understanding the stability of this carbon is important for predicting its role as source or sink in the global carbon cycle and with various changes in climate. By comparing and relating our ramped pyrolysis stability index to the SOM depth, TOC, composition, and source, we are able to determine which of these factors plays the larger role in controlling its stability. Preliminary results indicate that, of these factors, the source of OM has the most control over SOM stability in these wetland environments, with fresh marsh SOM being more stable than salt and brackish marsh SOM. As fresh marshes are replaced by salt marshes accompanying sea-level rise, our results imply that this will initiate the accumulation of less stable OM in these soils.

Williams, Elizabeth; Rosenheim, Brad

2014-05-01

32

Optimal mapping of terrestrial gamma dose rates using geological parent material and aerogeophysical survey data.  

PubMed

Regulatory authorities need ways to estimate natural terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates (nGy h?¹) across the landscape accurately, to assess its potential deleterious health effects. The primary method for estimating outdoor dose rate is to use an in situ detector supported 1 m above the ground, but such measurements are costly and cannot capture the landscape-scale variation in dose rates which are associated with changes in soil and parent material mineralogy. We investigate the potential for improving estimates of terrestrial gamma dose rates across Northern Ireland (13,542 km²) using measurements from 168 sites and two sources of ancillary data: (i) a map based on a simplified classification of soil parent material, and (ii) dose estimates from a national-scale, airborne radiometric survey. We used the linear mixed modelling framework in which the two ancillary variables were included in separate models as fixed effects, plus a correlation structure which captures the spatially correlated variance component. We used a cross-validation procedure to determine the magnitude of the prediction errors for the different models. We removed a random subset of 10 terrestrial measurements and formed the model from the remainder (n = 158), and then used the model to predict values at the other 10 sites. We repeated this procedure 50 times. The measurements of terrestrial dose vary between 1 and 103 (nGy h?¹). The median absolute model prediction errors (nGy h?¹) for the three models declined in the following order: no ancillary data (10.8) > simple geological classification (8.3) > airborne radiometric dose (5.4) as a single fixed effect. Estimates of airborne radiometric gamma dose rate can significantly improve the spatial prediction of terrestrial dose rate. PMID:23147566

Rawlins, B G; Scheib, C; Tyler, A N; Beamish, D

2012-12-01

33

Soil Quality: Science and Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

parent materials, topographies, and biota, all acting over geologic time (Jenny, 1941). Inherent differences are The term soil quality (SQ) encompasses both a soil's productive well reflected by the soil series description of the U.S.

Michelle M. Wander; Gerald L. Walter; Todd M. Nissen; German A. Bollero; Susan S. Andrews; Deborah A. Cavanaugh-Grant

34

Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The newsletter of the California Association for the Gifted includes the following brief articles on parenting: "Your Challenge, Their Lives" (Barry Ziff); "Courage to Be Who I Am, Unafraid" (Elizabeth Meckstroth); "Attribution: A Key to Encouraging More Responsible Behavior in the Gifted" (Saundra Sparling); "A Parent's Perspective" (Carolyn…

Ziff, Barry, Ed.; Hostettler, Karen, Ed.

1989-01-01

35

Contrasting environmental memories by ancient soils on different parent rocks in the South-western Italian Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient soils (pre-Holocenic paleosols and vetusols) are uncommon on the Alps, because of the extensive Pleistocenic glaciations which erased most of the previously existing soils, the slope steepness and climatic conditions favoring soil erosion. However, in few sites, particularly in the outermost sections of the Alpine range, Pleistocene glaciers covered only small and scattered surfaces because of the low altitude reached in the basins, and ancient soils could be preserved for long periods of time on particularly stable surfaces. We described and sampled soils on 11 stable surfaces in the Upper Tanaro valley, Ligurian Alps (Southwestern Piemonte, Italy). The sampling sites were characterized by low steepness and elevation between 600 to 1600 m, under present day lower montane Castanea sativa/Ostrya carpinifolia forests, montane Fagus sylvatica and Pinus uncinata forests or montane heath/grazed grassland, on different substrata. In particular, we sampled soils developed on dolomite, limestone, quartzite, gneiss and shales. The soils were always well representative of the pedogenic trends active on the respective parent materials, i.e. the skeletal fraction in each soil was always composed of just one rock type, despite the proximity of lithological boundaries and the small dimensions of the different outcrops, often coexisting on the same stable surface. All the considered profiles showed signs of extremely long pedogenesis and/or different phases of intense pedogenesis interrupted by the deposition of periglacial cover beds in the steepest sites. Up to four phases of intense pedogenesis were recognized where cover beds were developed, presumably during cold Pleistocene phases, as present-day climate is not cold enough to create such periglacial morphologies. In such cases, each cover bed underwent similar pedogenesis, strongly dependent on the parent material: on quartzite, podzols with thick E horizons and well developed placic ones were formed in all phases except the most superficial one (i.e., Holocene phase), where non cemented spodic horizons or weakly cemented ortstein were formed; placic horizons were never found in Holocene soils. On limestone, each cover bed separated soils with extremely hard petrocalcic horizons overlaid by argillic ones. Where no cover beds were observed, podzols with extremely thick E horizons (up to more than 2 m thick) and a very hard, very thick ortstein were formed on quartzite. Red Nitisols-like or reddish brown Luvisols were formed on limestone and dolomite, while red, extremely acidic Alisols, with or without fragipan horizons were formed on shales. Very large stone circles and other large patterned ground features, which can be interpreted as evidence of past permafrost conditions, were preserved on coarse quartzitic conglomerate. These soils represent excellent pedo-signatures of different specific past climatic or environmental conditions, as a response of different lithologies to specific soil-forming environments, which range from warm and humid climates typical of red Luvisols and Nitisols, to cool and wet climates leading to the formation of Podzols with placic or ortstein horizons, to extremely cold and dry ones characterizing permafrost sites and often associated with fragipan formation, to warm and dry leading to the cementation of petrocalcic horizons. The precise dating and interpretation of these soils are intriguing.

D'Amico, Michele; Catoni, Marcella; Bonifacio, Eleonora; Zanini, Ermanno

2014-05-01

36

Bibliotherapy for Children with Anxiety Disorders Using Written Materials for Parents: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current trial examined the value of modifying empirically validated treatment for childhood anxiety for application via written materials for parents of anxious children. Two hundred sixty-seven clinically anxious children ages 6-12 years and their parents were randomly allocated to standard group treatment, wait list, or a bibliotherapy…

Rapee, Ronald M.; Abbott, Maree J.; Lyneham, Heidi J.

2006-01-01

37

The influence of carbonates in parent rocks on the biological properties of mountain soils of the Northwest Caucasus region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biological activity of different subtypes of soddy-calcareous soils (rendzinas) of the Northwest Caucasus region was studied. In the Novorossiisk-Abrau-Dyurso region (dry subtropics), typical soddy-calcareous soils with the high content of carbonates predominate; in the more humid conditions of the Lagonaki Plateau (Republic of Adygeya), leached soddy-calcareous soils carbonate-free down to the parent rock are spread. The number of microarthropods, the populations of fungi and bacteria, and the enzyme activity (catalase, dehydrogenase, and invertase) testify that the biological activity of these soils significantly differs. In the typical soddy-calcareous soils of the dry subtropics, the content of carbonates does not affect the characteristics mentioned; in the more humid conditions of the West Caucasus region, the presence of carbonates in the parent rocks intensifies the biological activity of the soddy-calcareous soils.

Kazeev, K. Sh.; Kutrovskii, M. A.; Dadenko, E. V.; Vezdeneeva, L. S.; Kolesnikov, S. I.; Val'kov, V. F.

2012-03-01

38

Modification of hydraulic conductivity in granular soils using waste materials.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates the use of waste products such as silica fume and fly ash in modification of the granular soils in order to remove some environmental problems and create new useful findings in the field of engineering. It is known that silica fume and fly ash, as well as clay material, are used in geotechnical engineering because of their pozzolanic reactivity and fineness to improve the soil properties needed with respect to engineering purposes. The main objective of this research project was to investigate the use of these materials in geotechnical engineering and to improve the hydraulic properties of soils by means of grouting. For this reason, firstly, suitable grouts in suspension forms were prepared by using silica fume, fly ash, clay and cement in different percentages. The properties of these cement-based grouts were then determined to obtain the desired optimum values for grouting. After that, these grouts were penetrated into the soil samples under pressure. The experimental work indicates that these waste materials and clay improved the physical properties and the fluidity of the cement-based grouts and they also decreased the hydraulic conductivity of the grouted soil samples by sealing the voids of the soil. The results of this study have important findings concerning the use of these materials in soil treatment and the improvement of hydraulic conductivity of the soils. PMID:15120433

Akbulut, S; Saglamer, A

2004-01-01

39

Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science  

SciTech Connect

Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. However they are important when numerical simulation of coupled heat and moisture transport for below-grade building components are performed as their temperature and moisture content has an influence on the durability of the below-grade building component. Soils can be classified by soil texture. According to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCA), 12 different soils can be defined on the basis of three soil components: clay, sand, and silt. This study shows how existing material properties for typical American soils can be transferred and used for the calculation of the coupled heat and moisture transport of building components in contact with soil. Furthermore a thermal validation with field measurements under known boundary conditions is part of this study, too. Field measurements for soil temperature and moisture content for two specified soils are carried out right now under known boundary conditions. As these field measurements are not finished yet, the full hygrothermal validation is still missing.

Pallin, Simon B [ORNL] [ORNL; Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

40

Processing Lunar Soils for Oxygen and Other Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two types of lunar materials are excellent candidates for lunar oxygen production: ilmenite and silicates such as anorthite. Both are lunar surface minable, occurring in soils, breccias, and basalts. Because silicates are considerably more abundant than i...

C. W. Knudsen M. A. Gibson

1992-01-01

41

Bottom-up effects of geologic parent material through ecological interaction webs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Community ecologists study the interactions between species to understand what controls the distribution and abundance of different populations. Communities are thus portrayed as "interaction webs", in which different species exert reciprocal pressures on each other. In the case of one population being a resource for which another population is the consumer (i.e. food-web), reciprocal pressures are commonly referred to as "bottom-up" vs. "top-down" effects. The starting point for studying bottom-up effects is usually the vegetation (primary producers), and its end-point the decomposer community responsible for breaking down detrital matter from each trophic level. In my presentation, I will present results from three former graduate students, to argue that the starting point for studying bottom-up effects should be the geologic parent material (GPM), whose importance has often been overlooked by community ecologists. For example, our data show that GPM had a stronger effect on forest floor nutrient budgets than the identity or successional stage of the vegetation. Likewise, GPM had a strong effect on the structure of forest floor microbial communities, as well as their resistance to, and resilience from, disturbance. GPM also had a significant effect on the richness and diversity of understory plant communities from similar forest stands. Finally, we present evidence that soil fertility controls the resistance and tolerance of certain plant species to selective browsing, thereby affecting the composition of the dominant plant cover and the feeding patterns of large herbivores.

Bradley, R.

2012-04-01

42

Hygrothermal Simulations of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties  

SciTech Connect

Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. The computational approach for heat transfer via the ground is well defined (EN-ISO-13370:, 2007) together with simplified methods (Staszczuk, Radon, & Holm). Though the soil moisture transfer is generally ignored, it is proven not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, & Hens, 2004). Even though reliable material properties of soils are required to perform realistic hygrothermal calculations of soils coupled to buildings, such material properties have not been well defined in hygrothermal calculations tools. Typical building constructions which are greatly influenced by soils are basements, crawl spaces and slab on grade and reliable hygrothermal performance of such construction are highly requested; as it is ranked within the top 10 Building America Enclosure Research Ideas according to Enclosures STC - Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting, February 29, 2012 Austin, TX. There exists an extensive amount of measurements on soil properties in Soil Science though this information must be gathered as well as adapted to be applicable in Building Science and for hygrothermal simulation purposes. Soil properties are important when analyzing and designing both new building constructions and retrofitting measures, where the outer boundary of the buildings enclosure consists of soil materials. Concerning basement energy retrofits, interior solutions of improving the energy demand has to cooperate with the existing soil properties and must therefore be designed thereafter. In concerns of exterior retrofits, the soil material can be replaced, if needed, with a more suitable filling material, though this approach applies only for basement walls. The soil material beneath the basement floor can naturally not be replaced hence the soil properties of this part of the buildings enclosure still must be taken into consideration. This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from soil science. The obtained information must be applicable for Building Science related tasks and validated in hygrothermal calculation tools hence the second part of this study will focus on validation of the implemented soil properties. Basic changes in the software code may be requested as well. Different basement constructions will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI, from which simulations will be compared with existing or on-going measurements. The final outcome of the study is to enable an evaluation of several soil types in several climate zones combined with a number of basement assemblies. The study will define which type of soil together with a certain building construction which is considered most and least reliable in concerns of energy consumption and moisture safety. Further, what influences different soils will have on the total energy loss via the ground and if the performance of a different soils can be measured by a comparison of soil properties solely.

Pallin, Simon B [ORNL; Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL

2013-01-01

43

Hygrothermal Simulation of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties  

SciTech Connect

The hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well defined (EN ISO 13370:2007, 2007), and simplified methods have been developed (Staszczuk, Radon, and Holm 2010). However, these approaches generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, and Hens 2004). This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from Soil Science. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in Building Science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools. Future parts of this study will focus on the validation aspect of the soil properties to be implemented. Basic changes in the software code may be requested at this time. Different types of basement construction will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI. Simulations from WUFI will be compared with existing or ongoing measurements. The intentions of the first part of this study have been fulfilled. The soil properties of interest in Building Science have been defined for 12 different soil textures. These properties will serve as input parameters when performing hygrothermal calculations of building constructions coupled to soil materials. The reliability of the soil parameters will be further evaluated with measurements in Part 2.

Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

2012-10-01

44

The soiling of materials in the ambient atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models describing the rate of soiling of exposed surfaces due to the deposition and accumulation of particulate matter from the atmosphere are reviewed. Samples of white painted wood were exposed for 110 days in the ambient atmosphere. Separate samples were sheltered and unsheltered from rainfall. Reflectance was measured daily. Results are compared with recently published studies in the U.S.A. (samples in the ambient atmosphere) and the U.K. (samples in a road tunnel). Experimental soiling rates were compared with predicted values. Existing models were satisfactory for predicting soiling in a tunnel but underestimated soiling in an ambient situation; a revised formulation is proposed for this situation. Rainfall generally produced a cleaning effect but redistribution of washed-off material could produce enhanced soiling.

Hamilton, R. S.; Mansfield, T. A.

45

Composting of Lignocellulosic Waste Material for Soil Amendment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Composting of lignocellulosic waste material and application of compost as soil amendment improves the physical, chemical,\\u000a and biological properties of soils. Composting method includes in-vessel, windrow, aerated pile, continuous-feed, and vermicomposting.\\u000a The composting process proceeds through three phases: the mesophilic phase, the thermophilic phase, and the cooling and maturation\\u000a phase. Extensive studies are available on the population of bacteria, actinomycetes,

Ramesh Chander Kuhad; Piyush Chandna; Lata; Ajay Singh

46

Differentiating pedogenesis from diagenesis in early terrestrial paleoweathering surfaces formed on granitic composition parent materials  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unconformable surfaces separating Precambrian crystalline basement and overlying Proterozoic to Cambrian sedimentary rocks provide an exceptional opportunity to examine the role of primitive soil ecosystems in weathering and resultant formation of saprolite (weathered rock retaining rock structure) and regolith (weathered rock without rock structure), but many appear to have been affected by burial diagenesis and hydrothermal fluid flow, leading some researchers to discount their suitability for such studies. We examine one modern weathering profile (Cecil series), four Cambrian paleoweathering profiles from the North American craton (Squaw Creek, Franklin Mountains, Core SQ-8, and Core 4), one Neoproterozoic profile (Sheigra), and one late Paleoproterozoic profile (Baraboo), to test the hypothesis that these paleoweathering profiles do provide evidence of primitive terrestrial weathering despite their diagenetic and hydrothermal overprinting, especially additions of potassium. We employ an integrated approach using (1) detailed thin-section investigations to identify characteristic pedogenic features associated with saprolitization and formation of well-drained regoliths, (2) electron microprobe analysis to identify specific weathered and new mineral phases, and (3) geochemical mass balance techniques to characterize volume changes during weathering and elemental gains and losses of major and minor elements relative to the inferred parent materials. There is strong pedogenic evidence of paleoweathering, such as clay illuviation, sepic-plasmic fabrics, redoximorphic features, and dissolution and alteration of feldspars and mafic minerals to kaolinite, gibbsite, and Fe oxides, as well as geochemical evidence, such as whole-rock losses of Na, Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, Fe, and Mn greater than in modern profiles. Evidence of diagenesis includes net additions of K, Ba, and Rb determined through geochemical mass balance, K-feldspar overgrowths in overlying sandstone sections, and K-feldspars with reaction rims in weathered basement. The sub-Cambrian paleoweathering profiles formed on granite are remarkably similar to modern weathering profiles formed on granite, in spite of overprinting by potassium diagenesis. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

Driese, S. G.; Medaris, Jr. , L. G.; Ren, M.; Runkel, A. C.; Langford, R. P.

2007-01-01

47

Gender and Material Transfers between Older Parents and Children in Ismailia, Egypt  

PubMed Central

In Egypt, kin relations have been governed by a patriarchal contract, which defines expectations for intergenerational support along gendered lines. Social changes may be disrupting these customs and bringing attention to the ways gender may influence intergenerational support in rapidly changing contexts. Using data from 4,465 parent–child dyads in Ismailia, Egypt, we examined whether intergenerational material transfers favored women over men and whether gaps in needs and endowments accounted for gender differences in transfers. Fathers gave children money and goods more often than did mothers; mothers received material transfers from children more often than did fathers. Compared to sons, daughters made transfers to parents less often and received transfers from parents more often. We found residual advantages to mothers and daughters, even adjusting for differential needs and endowments. Findings corroborate persistent norms of gender complementarity, patrilocal endogamy, and reciprocation for women’s caregiving, despite changes that have threatened patriarchal rules of exchange.

Yount, Kathryn M.; Cunningham, Solveig A.; Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily M.

2011-01-01

48

Gender and Material Transfers between Older Parents and Children in Ismailia, Egypt.  

PubMed

In Egypt, kin relations have been governed by a patriarchal contract, which defines expectations for intergenerational support along gendered lines. Social changes may be disrupting these customs and bringing attention to the ways gender may influence intergenerational support in rapidly changing contexts. Using data from 4,465 parent-child dyads in Ismailia, Egypt, we examined whether intergenerational material transfers favored women over men and whether gaps in needs and endowments accounted for gender differences in transfers. Fathers gave children money and goods more often than did mothers; mothers received material transfers from children more often than did fathers. Compared to sons, daughters made transfers to parents less often and received transfers from parents more often. We found residual advantages to mothers and daughters, even adjusting for differential needs and endowments. Findings corroborate persistent norms of gender complementarity, patrilocal endogamy, and reciprocation for women's caregiving, despite changes that have threatened patriarchal rules of exchange. PMID:22448075

Yount, Kathryn M; Cunningham, Solveig A; Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily M

2012-02-01

49

Parent University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description of the Parent University program of the San Rafael (California) City Schools is presented. The Parent University is described as a 1-day event in which parents are offered a variety of seminars and workshops on topics in education and parenting. Materials included in this document are: (1) an overview of the second annual Parent

Howlett, Hoyt S.

50

Materials for Sex Equality Education for Use by Teachers, Parents, and Young People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These materials were compiled to help provide a better education for all children by increasing parents' and teachers' awareness of sexism and by providing new ideas and programs for helping people to overcome sex-role stereotyping in the schools. Included in the packet are: (1) a questionnaire designed to provoke thought before the beginning of a…

National Organization for Women, Champaign, IL. Greater Champaign Area Chapter.

51

Challenging Ideological Exclusion of Curriculum Material: Rights of Students and Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that, as a matter of constitutional law, public school boards of education do not possess unrestricted authority to exclude material from the curriculum on the basis of ideological content, and explores the rights of students and parents to challenge such exclusions. Available from Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, Harvard…

Stern, Nat

1979-01-01

52

Diverse Chemical Zoning Trends in Acapulco Chromites: How Many Sources for the Parental Materials?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acapulco is considered to be a link between primitive chondritic meteorites and the differentiated achondrites. Its parent body presumably formed by accretion of material of chondritic compositions at an fO2 that lies between that of H- and enstatite chondrites [1]. The accreted chondritic material was subjected 4.557 Gyr ago to peak temperatures close to 1200 degrees C that lead to

A. El Goresy; J. Janicke

1995-01-01

53

Evaluation of soils for use as liner materials: a soil chemistry approach.  

PubMed

Movement of NH(4)(+) below animal waste lagoons is generally a function of the whole-lagoon seepage rate, soil mineralogy, cations in the lagoon liquor, and selectivity for NH(4)(+) on the soil-exchange sites. Binary exchange reactions (Ca(2+)-K(+), Ca(2+)-NH(4)(+), and K(+)-NH(4)(+)) were conducted on two soils from the Great Plains and with combinations of these soils with bentonite or zeolite added. Binary exchanges were used to predict ternary exchanges Ca(2+)-K(+)-NH(4)(+) following the Rothmund-Kornfeld approach and Gaines-Thomas convention. Potassium and NH(4)(+) were preferred over Ca(2+), and K(+) was preferred over NH(4)(+) in all soils and soils with amendments. Generally, the addition of bentonite did not change cation selectivity over the native soils, whereas the addition of zeolite did. The Rothmund-Kornfeld approach worked well for predicting equivalent fractions of cations on the exchanger phase when only ternary-solution phase compositions were known. Actual swine- and cattle-lagoon solution compositions and the Rothmund-Kornfeld approach were used to project that native soils are predicted to retain 53 and 23%, respectively, of the downward-moving NH(4)(+) on their exchange sites. Additions of bentonite or zeolite to soils under swine lagoons may only slightly improve the equivalent fraction of NH(4)(+) on the exchange sites. Although additions of bentonite or zeolite may not help increase the NH(4)(+) selectivity of a liner material, increases in the overall cation exchange capacity (CEC) of a soil will ultimately decrease the amount of soil needed to adsorb downward-moving NH(4)(+). PMID:15843659

DeSutter, Tom M; Pierzynski, Gary M

2005-01-01

54

Parental separation and adult psychological distress: an investigation of material and relational mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background An association between parental separation or divorce occurring in childhood and increased psychological distress in adulthood is well established. However relatively little is known about why this association exists and how the mechanisms might differ for men and women. We investigate why this association exists, focussing on material and relational mechanisms and in particular on the way in which these link across the life course. Methods This study used the 1970 British Cohort Study (n?=?10,714) to investigate material (through adolescent and adult material disadvantage, and educational attainment) and relational (through parent–child relationship quality and adult partnership status) pathways between parental separation (0–16 years) and psychological distress (30 years). Psychological distress was measured using Rutter’s Malaise Inventory. The inter-linkages between these two broad mechanisms across the life course were also investigated. Missing data were multiply imputed by chained equations. Path analysis was used to explicitly model prospectively-collected measures across the life course, therefore methodologically extending previous work. Results Material and relational pathways partially explained the association between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress (indirect effect?=?33.3% men; 60.0% women). The mechanisms were different for men and women, for instance adult partnership status was found to be more important for men. Material and relational factors were found to interlink across the life course. Mechanisms acting through educational attainment were found to be particularly important. Conclusions This study begins to disentangle the mechanisms between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress. Interventions which aim to support children through education, in particular, are likely to be particularly beneficial for later psychological health.

2014-01-01

55

Development of a material processing plant for lunar soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently there is considerable interest in developing in-situ materials processing plants for both the Moon and Mars. Two of the most important aspects of developing such a materials processing plant is the overall system design and the integration of the different technologies into a reliable, lightweight, and cost-effective unit. The concept of an autonomous materials processing plant that is capable of producing useful substances from lunar regolith was developed. In order for such a materials processing plant to be considered as a viable option, it must be totally self-contained, able to operate autonomously, cost effective, light weight, and fault tolerant. In order to assess the impact of different technologies on the overall systems design and integration, a one-half scale model was constructed that is capable of scooping up (or digging) lunar soil, transferring the soil to a solar furnace, heating the soil in the furnace to liberate the gasses, and transferring the spent soil to a 'tile' processing center. All aspects of the control system are handled by a 386 class PC via D/A, A/D, and DSP (Digital Signal Processor) control cards.

Goettsch, Ulix; Ousterhout, Karl

1992-01-01

56

Theoretical Analysis of the Adhesion Force of Soil to Solid Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adhesion force of soil to solid materials is composed of intermolecular forces, water ring attraction and an attraction force of the water film between the soil and solid materials. The intermolecular attraction of soil adhesion was derived from Lifishitz's intermolecular attraction theory between two macro-objects. The water ring attraction of soil adhesion was based on the energy in the

Xian Jia

2004-01-01

57

Soil solarization with biodegradable materials and its impact on soil microbial communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of soil solarization (SS), one of the most promising techniques for the control of soilborne pathogens, is seriously limited by the drawback regarding the disposal of the used plastic materials. A possible solution to this problem is the use of biodegradable plastics. The aim of this study was to make comparisons between the impact of SS performed with

Giuliano Bonanomi; Mario Chiurazzi; Silvia Caporaso; Giovanni Del Sorbo; Giancarlo Moschetti; Scala Felice

2008-01-01

58

Forming artificial soils from waste materials for mine site rehabilitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface mining activities often produce large volumes of solid wastes which invariably requires the removal of significant quantities of waste rock (overburden). As mines expand, larger volumes of waste rock need to be moved which also require extensive areas for their safe disposal and containment. The erosion of these dumps may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of contaminants such as trace metals, elevated sediment delivery in adjacent waterways, and the subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. The management of solid waste materials from industrial operations is also a key component for a sustainable economy. For example, in addition to overburden, coal mines produce large amounts of waste in the form of fly ash while sewage treatment plants require disposal of large amounts of compost. Similarly, paper mills produce large volumes of alkaline rejected wood chip waste which is usually disposed of in landfill. These materials, therefore, presents a challenge in their use, and re-use in the rehabilitation of mine sites and provides a number of opportunities for innovative waste disposal. The combination of solid wastes sourced from mines, which are frequently nutrient poor and acidic, with nutrient-rich composted material produced from sewage treatment and alkaline wood chip waste has the potential to lead to a soil suitable for mine rehabilitation and successful seed germination and plant growth. This paper presents findings from two pilot projects which investigated the potential of artificial soils to support plant growth for mine site rehabilitation. We found that pH increased in all the artificial soil mixtures and were able to support plant establishment. Plant growth was greatest in those soils with the greatest proportion of compost due to the higher nutrient content. These pot trials suggest that the use of different waste streams to form an artificial soil can potentially be used in mine site rehabilitation where there is a nutrient-rich source of waste.

Yellishetty, Mohan; Wong, Vanessa; Taylor, Michael; Li, Johnson

2014-05-01

59

Structure formation of slag-soil construction materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated that mainly amorphous new formations grow during the hydration and strengthening of dump ferrous\\u000a slag from different metallurgical processes, with or without activators (additions of 2–3% of Portland cement) and mixed with\\u000a natural soils. Their high rates of strength, and water and frost resistance render of these new materials appropriate for\\u000a the construction of roads and

V. A. Mymrin; H. A. Ponte; M. J. J. S. Ponte; A. M. Maul

2005-01-01

60

Workshop on Parent-Body and Nebular Modification of Chondritic Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics considered include: thermal Metamorphosed Antarctic CM and CI Carbonaceous Chondrites in Japanese Collections, and Transformation Processes of Phyllosilicates; use of Oxygen Isotopes to Constrain the Nebular and Asteroidal Modification of Chondritic Materials; effect of Revised Nebular Water Distribution on Enstatite Chondrite Formation; interstellar Hydroxyls in Meteoritic Chondrules: Implications for the Origin of Water in the Inner Solar System; theoretical Models and Experimental Studies of Gas-Grain Chemistry in the Solar Nebula; chemical Alteration of Chondrules on Parent Bodies; thermal Quenching of Silicate Grains in Protostellar Sources; an Experimental Study of Magnetite Formation in the Solar Nebula; the Kaidun Meteorite: Evidence for Pre- and Postaccretionary Aqueous Alteration; a Transmission Electron Microscope Study of the Matrix Mineralogy of the Leoville CV3 (Reduced-Group) Carbonaceous Chondrite: Nebular and Parent-Body Features; rubidium-Strontium Isotopic Systematic of Chondrules from the Antarctic CV Chondrites Yamato 86751 and Yamato 86009: Additional Evidence for Late Parent-Body Modification; oxygen-Fugacity Indicators in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Parent-Body Alteration or High-Temperature Nebular Oxidation; thermodynamic Modeling of Aqueous Alteration in CV Chondrites; asteroidal Modification of C and O Chondrites: Myths and Models; oxygen Fugacity in the Solar Nebular; and the History of Metal and Sulfides in Chondrites.

Zolensky, M. E. (Editor); Krot, A. N. (Editor); Scott, E. R. D. (Editor)

1997-01-01

61

Assessing lithologic discontinuities and parent material uniformity within the Texas sandy mantle and implications for archaeological burial and preservation potential in upland settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alfisols within the Texas Gulf Coast Plain commonly exhibit textural contrasts between sandy, artifact-bearing A-E horizons (i.e., sandy mantle), and artifact-sterile clay-rich Bt (argillic) horizons. This has invoked debate about parent material uniformity and pedogenic versus geomorphic sandy mantle origins, which has implications for the scientific value of buried archaeological sites. To improve our understanding of archaeological burial in upland settings, we evaluated parent material uniformity within five pedons to distinguish pedogenically derived textural changes from geomorphologically created lithologic discontinuities. Depth trends in clay-free particle size classes and stable/immobile Ti and Zr constituents failed to reveal lithologic discontinuities between the sandy mantle and Bt horizons, and the observed textural differences are interpreted to have resulted from pedogenic processes. This interpretation is supported by clay skins, fine clay increases in Bt horizons, and micromorphological observations. Consequently, artifacts buried in upland summits have likely moved down the soil profile due to biomantle processes. Deep sandy mantle sites, non-parallel contacts between the sandy mantle and Bt horizons, and paleogullies incised into Eocene bedrock are better explained by colluvial/soil creep processes adjacent to summits, where archaeological materials may exhibit preservation potential. No single explanation can account for sandy mantle origins, and we advocate a case-by-case approach.

Ahr, Steven W.; Nordt, Lee C.; Driese, Steven G.

2012-07-01

62

Non-volcanic andic soils - a new soil type?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous sites are described all over the world with soils fulfilling all requirements of andic soil properties developed in non-volcanic and non-allophanic parent materials, and in different bioclimatic zones. Up to now these soils are mainly assigned to Andisols/Andosols or andic Inceptisols in WRB and US Soil Taxonomy. Common factors and properties of this group of soils are in general acid parent materials, advanced soil development, comparably high amounts of oxidic Fe and Al compounds, leaching environment, and a probably underestimated role of iron with respect to the specific soil properties, e.g. extremely stabile, pseudo-sand like micro-aggregates. Considering the worldwide occurrence of these soils and the specificity of their physicochemical properties, I suggest soil forming processes and a new soil type clearly different from Andosols/Andisols in a narrow sense.

Bäumler, Rupert

2014-05-01

63

Soil Properties and Geomorphology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To prepare for this exercise, the students have been lectured on soil formation and on a field trip, described a simple soil within loess. Here, the students use data collected from a chronosequence to compare the relative age and amount of soil formation on a series of fluvial terraces. The students are to insert the data into a graphic program and generate specific graphs of soil properties. The students then interpret the amount of soil formation compared to the relative age of the fluvial terraces. Finally, the students assess how the 5 soil forming factors (climate, organisms, relief, parent material, and time) influenced soil formation in this setting. Designed for a geomorphology course

Sweeney, Mark

64

Parent Education Workbook for Mainstreamed Students. Teachers Guide. Contemporary Parenting Choices: Materials for Mainstreamed Classrooms. Module 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fourth part of a parenthood education curriculum series, the Parent Education Workbook consists of a teachers guide (and 12 student lesson units not replicated in the guide) divided into two parts, the first part focusing on relationships and the second on child care. The units are intended for use by mainstreamed mentally disabled (MD) and…

Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Home Economics Education.

65

Processing lunar soils for oxygen and other materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two types of lunar materials are excellent candidates for lunar oxygen production: ilmenite and silicates such as anorthite. Both are lunar surface minable, occurring in soils, breccias, and basalts. Because silicates are considerably more abundant than ilmenite, they may be preferred as source materials. Depending on the processing method chosen for oxygen production and the feedstock material, various useful metals and bulk materials can be produced as byproducts. Available processing techniques include hydrogen reduction of ilmenite and electrochemical and chemical reductions of silicates. Processes in these categories are generally in preliminary development stages and need significant research and development support to carry them to practical deployment, particularly as a lunar-based operation. The goal of beginning lunar processing operations by 2010 requires that planning and research and development emphasize the simplest processing schemes. However, more complex schemes that now appear to present difficult technical challenges may offer more valuable metal byproducts later. While they require more time and effort to perfect, the more complex or difficult schemes may provide important processing and product improvements with which to extend and elaborate the initial lunar processing facilities. A balanced R&D program should take this into account. The following topics are discussed: (1) ilmenite--semi-continuous process; (2) ilmenite--continuous fluid-bed reduction; (3) utilization of spent ilmenite to produce bulk materials; (4) silicates--electrochemical reduction; and (5) silicates--chemical reduction.

Knudsen, Christian W.; Gibson, Michael A.

1992-01-01

66

Study on strength properties of reinforced expensive soils with failure material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the tri-axial tests, the stress-strain relationship and strength properties of reinforced expensive soils are studied to get the relation between the strength index of reinforced soil and that of the corresponding plain soil. According to stress-strain relationship of reinforcement soils under different layers and principle of equivalent confining pressure, strength properties of reinforced expensive soils with failure material

Wantao Ding; Jinhui Liu; Qin Liu; Shengyou Lei

2009-01-01

67

Fate of anilide and aniline herbicides in plant-materials-amended soils.  

PubMed

The fate of herbicides trifluralin, pendimethalin, alachlor and metolachlor in paddy field soils amended with plant materials was investigated. The plant materials were purple sesbania, vegetable soybean and rice straw. The investigation was performed at two temperatures (25 and 40 degrees C) and two soil water moistures (60 and 90% water-holding capacity). The results showed linear and Freudlich equations described the adsorption of amide compound to soil. Adsorption coefficient (K(d)) fit to linear equation were in general greater in plant material-amended soils than in non-amended soil, especially in soil amending with rice straw. Increasing temperature and soil water moisture content shortened the half-lives of compounds in various treated soils. The movement of compounds in the soil columns showed the maximum distribution of aniline type compound, trifluralin and pendimethalin, appeared at the upper top of 0 to 5 and 0 to 10 cm of soil column, respectively, and of anilide type, alachlor and metolachlor, were distributed at 0 to 25 cm of the soil column. The mobility of chemicals in the different treated soils was simulated by the behavior assessment model (BAM). There was no significant difference among different plant material incubated soils on dissipation and mobility of compounds in soils. PMID:18576218

Yen, Jui-Hung; Tsai, Pi-Wen; Chen, Wen-Ching; Wang, Yei-Shung

2008-06-01

68

Soil and xylem water potential and soil water content in contrasting Pinus contorta ecosystems, Southeastern Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between volumetric soil water content (?), in situ soil water potential (?soil) and predawn xylem pressure potential (?predawn) were quantified in four contrasting lodgepole pine ecosystems in Wyoming, USA. On three of the sites, changes in ?soil correlated closely with ?predawn, but on a porous soil derived from coarse granitic parent material, ?predawn declines occurred much sooner than

T. J. Fahey; D. R. Young

1984-01-01

69

Economic Development Planning for Single Parents. Curriculum Materials for Vocational Teachers of Adolescents and Single Parents. Special Emphasis on Meeting the Needs of the Teen Parent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended for use in school-based intervention programs intended to help single parents (particularly teenagers who are expecting or already have a child) master basic money management and consumer skills. The guide is divided into sections dealing with the following topics: interpersonal relationships, value clarification,…

Simpson, Kawanna J.; And Others

70

Laboratory evaluation of frozen soil target materials with a fused interface.  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the performance of artificial frozen soil materials with a fused interface, split tension (or 'Brazilian') tests and unconfined uniaxial compression tests were carried out in a low temperature environmental chamber. Intact and fused specimens were fabricated from four different soil mixtures (962: clay-rich soil with bentonite; DNA1: clay-poor soil; DNA2: clay-poor soil with vermiculite; and DNA3: clay-poor soil with perlite). Based on the 'Brazilian' test results and density measurements, the DNA3 mixture was selected to closely represent the mechanical properties of the Alaskan frozen soil. The healed-interface by the same soil layer sandwiched between two blocks of the same material yielded the highest 'Brazilian' tensile strength of the interface. Based on unconfined uniaxial compression tests, the frictional strength of the fused DNA3 specimens with the same soil appears to exceed the shear strength of the intact specimen.

Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul

2004-10-01

71

The Medical Geochemistry of Dusts, Soils, and Other Earth Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Town clenched in suffocating grip of asbestos"USA Today, article on Libby,Montana, February, 2000"Researchers find volcanoes are bad for your health… long after they finish erupting"University of WarwickPress Release, 1999"Toxic soils plague city - arsenic, lead in 5 neighborhoods could imperil 17,000 residents"Denver Post, 2002"Ill winds - dust storms ferry toxic agents between countries and even continents"Science News, 2002A quick scan of newspapers, television, science magazines, or the internet on any given day has a fairly high likelihood of encountering a story (usually accompanied by a creative headline such as those above) regarding human health concerns linked to dusts, soils, or other earth materials. Many such concerns have been recognized and studied for decades, but new concerns arise regularly.Earth scientists have played significant roles in helping the medical community understand some important links between earth materials and human health, such as the role of asbestos mineralogy in disease (Skinner et al., 1988; Ross, 1999; Holland and Smith, 2001), and the role of dusts generated by the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake in an outbreak of Valley Fever ( Jibson et al., 1998; Schneider et al., 1997).Earth science activities tied to health issues are growing (Skinner and Berger, 2003), and are commonly classified under the emerging discipline of medical geology (Finkelman et al., 2001; Selinus and Frank, 2000; Selinus, in press).Medical geochemistry (also referred to as environmental geochemistry and health: Smith and Huyck (1999), Appleton et al. (1996)) can be considered as a diverse subdiscipline of medical geology that deals with human and animal health in the context of the Earth's geochemical cycle ( Figure 1). Many medical geochemistry studies have focused on how chemical elements in rocks, soils, and sediments are transmitted via water or vegetation into the food chain, and how regional geochemical variations can result in disease clusters either through dietary deficiency of essential elements or dietary excess of toxic elements. (28K)Figure 1. Potential human exposure routes within the earth's geochemical cycle can come from a wide variety of both natural and anthropogenic sources. This chapter focuses on a somewhat narrower area of medical geochemistry: the study of mechanisms of uptake of earth materials by humans and animals and their reactions to these materials. In order for earth materials to affect health, they must first interact with the body across key interfaces such as the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and eyes. In some way, all of these interfaces require the earth materials to interact chemically with water-based body fluids such as lung fluids, gastrointestinal fluids, saliva, or blood plasma.The primary goal of this chapter, co-authored by a geochemist and a toxicologist, is to provide both geochemists and scientists from health disciplines with an overview of the potential geochemical mechanisms by which earth materials can influence human health. It is clear that significant opportunities for advancement in this arena will require continued and increased research collaborations between geochemists and their counterparts in the health disciplines.

Plumlee, G. S.; Ziegler, T. L.

2003-12-01

72

Impact of carbonaceous materials in soil on the transport of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events.  

PubMed

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) transported from contaminated soils by surface runoff pose significant risk for aquatic ecosystems. Based on a rainfall-runoff simulation experiment, this study investigated the impact of carbonaceous materials (CMs) in soil, identified by organic petrology analysis, on the transport of soil-bound PAHs under rainfall conditions. The hypothesis that composition of soil organic matter significantly impacts the enrichment and transport of PAHs was proved. CMs in soil, varying significantly in content, mobility and adsorption capacity, act differently on the transport of PAHs. Anthropogenic CMs like black carbon (BC) largely control the transport, as PAHs may be preferentially attached to them. Eventually, this study led to a rethink of the traditional enrichment theory. An important implication is that CMs in soil have to be explicitly considered to appropriately model the nonpoint source pollution of PAHs (possibly other hydrophobic chemicals as well) and assess its environmental risk. PMID:23938446

Luo, Xiaolin; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Bin; Lin, Zhongrong; Han, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

2013-11-01

73

Income Is Not Enough: Incorporating Material Hardship Into Models of Income Associations With Parenting and Child Development  

PubMed Central

Although research has clearly established that low family income has negative impacts on children’s cognitive skills and social – emotional competence, less often is a family’s experience of material hardship considered. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 (N = 21,255), this study examined dual components of family income and material hardship along with parent mediators of stress, positive parenting, and investment as predictors of 6-year-old children’s cognitive skills and social – emotional competence. Support was found for a model that identified unique parent-mediated paths from income to cognitive skills and from income and material hardship to social – emotional competence. The findings have implications for future study of family income and child development and for identification of promising targets for policy intervention.

Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Aber, J. Lawrence; Raver, C. Cybele; Lennon, Mary Clare

2010-01-01

74

The Use of Media Materials and Role Training Programs with Parents in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines why parents of visually impaired children in India sometimes fail to assume appropriate roles in the rehabilitation process. It describes the media available to educate parents and discusses two direct training programs in rural villages, which teach rehabilitation techniques to parents and children. (Author/DB)

Mathur, M. L.

1992-01-01

75

The determination of boron in soil extracts, plant materials, composts, manures, water and nutrient solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid colorimetric method for the determination of boron in soil extracts, plant materials, composts, manures, water and nutrient solution is proposed. The method is rapid, reliable and carried out in aqueous solution. A marked advantage is that boron can be determined in the same soil extract or plant material digest used for determination of other elements.

Benjamin Wolf

1971-01-01

76

Element concentrations in soils and other surficial materials of Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mean concentrations of 35 elements, ash yields, and pH have been estimated for samples of sils and other unconsolidated surficial materials from 266 collection locations throughout Alaska. These background values can be applied to studies of environmental geochemistry and health, wildlife management, and soil-forming processes in cold climates and to computation of element abundances on a regional or worldwide scale. Limited data for an additoinal eight elements are also presented. Materials were collected using a one-way, three-level, analysis-of-variance samplling design in which collecting procedures were simplified for the convenience of the many volunteer field workers. The sample collectors were asked to avoid locations of known mineral deposits and obvious contamination, to take samples at a depth of about 20 cm where possible, and to take a replicate sample about 100 m distant from the first sample collected. With more than 60 percent of the samples replicated and 14 percent of the samples split for duplicate laboratory analyses, reliable estimates were made of the variability in element concentrations at two geographic scales and of the error associated with sample handling and laboratory procedures. Mean concentrations of most elements in surficial materials from the state of alaska correspond well with those reported in similar materials from the conterminous United STatess. Most element concentrations and ranges in samples of stream and lake sediments from Alaska, however, as reported in the literature, do not correspond well with those found in surficial materials of this study. This lack of correspondence is attributed to (1) a merger of two kinds ofsediments (stream and lake) for calculating means; (2) elimination from the sediment mean calculations of values below the limit of quantitative determination; (3) analytical methods different from those of the surficial materials study; and (4) most importantly, the inherent differences in chemistry of the materials. The distribution of variability in element concentrations o Alaskan surficial-material samples was, for most elements, largely among sampling locations, with only a samll part of the variability occurring between replicate samples at a location. The geochemical uniformity within sampling locations in Alaska is an expression of uniform geochemical cycling processes within small geographic areas. The concentration values for 35 elements in 266 samples were plotted on maps by symbols representing classes of concentration frequency distributions. These plotted symbols form patterns that may or may not be possible to interpret but nevertheless show differences that are observable at several geographical scales. The largest pattern is one generally low concentrations of many elements in materials from arctic and oceanic tundra regions, as contrasted to their often high concentrations in samples from interior and southeastern Alaska. The patttern for sodium isespecially pronounced. Intermediate-sized patterns are shown, for example, by the generally high values for magnesium and low values for silicon in the coastal forest region of southeastern Alaska. Many elements occur at low concentratoins in samples from the Alaskan peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. The degree of confidence in patterns of element abundance is expected to be in direct proportion to the number of samples included in the area. As the patterns become smaller, the probability increases that the patterns are not reproducible.

Gough, L.P.; Severson, R.C.; Shacklette, H.T.

1988-01-01

77

Retention of phenylarsenicals in soils derived from volcanic materials.  

PubMed

Sorption of phenylarsenicals including 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid (roxarsone), an animal feed additive widely used for growth stimulation, on soils was investigated in batch systems. Phenylarsonic acid, o-arsanilic acid and roxarsone were retained differently by unpolluted, non-sterilized soils. Sorption isotherms were analyzed by the Henry, Tóth and Langmuir-Freundlich equations. The saturation capacity of the Acrisol soil was 3.4 for o-arsanilic acid, 10.9 for phenylarsonic acid and 1.9 g(As) kg(soil)(-1) (dry mass) for roxarsone. The iron content in the soil was not the only factor determining retention of the studied phenylarsenicals. The order of retention on the three soils after 24 h was: roxarsone>o-arsanilic acid>phenylarsonic acid. Besides arsenite and arsenate, new arsenic-containing compounds were detected. PMID:21194836

Arroyo-Abad, Uriel; Elizalde-González, María P; Hidalgo-Moreno, Claudia M; Mattusch, Jürgen; Wennrich, Rainer

2011-02-28

78

SOME CONSTRUCTION EXPERIENCES ON SOFT SOIL USING LIGHT WEIGHT MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time dependent settlement of soft soil poses s erious maintenance problem to the developments along the coastal area encountering thick marine deposits. Rehabilitation works for properties s uffering settlement problem in soft soil deposits generally face with time and facility services constraints. These c onstraints hampered the selection o f remedial methods which require longer construction duration and a mple

C. H. Gan; S. M. Tan

79

Geobotanical discrimination of ultramafic parent materials An evaluation of remote sensing techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Color and color infrared aerial photography and imagery acquired from a Daedalus DEI-1260 multispectral airborne scanner were employed in an investigation to discriminate ultramafic rock types in a test site in southwest Oregon. An analysis of the relationships between vegetation characteristics and parent materials was performed using a vegetation classification and map developed for the project, lithologic information derived from published geologic maps of the region, and terrain information gathered in the field. Several analytical methods, including visual image analysis, band ratioing, principal components analysis, and contrast enhancement and subsequent color composite generation were used in the investigation. There was a close correspondence between vegetation types and major rock types. These were readily discriminated by the remote sensing techniques. It was found that ultramafic rock types were separable from non-ultramafic rock types and serpentine was distinguishable from non-serpentinized peridotite. Further investigations involving spectroradiometric and digital classification techniques are being performed to further identify rock types and to discriminate chromium and nickel-bearing rock types.

Mouat, D. A.; Morrissey, L. A.; Horn, E. M.

1984-01-01

80

Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science  

SciTech Connect

Saving energy in buildings is top of mind with today s building professionals. Although designing energy-efficient walls and roofs is mostly a no-brainer, ensuring that below-grade foundations do not generate moisture problems has become even more complex, particularly because of how soil is involved. Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well-defined, and simplified methods have been developed. These approaches, however, generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible. The intention of an ongoing study at Oak Ridge (TN) National Laboratory, therefore, is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from soil science as well. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in building science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools, where additional plugins to the existing software code WUFI (an acronym for Warme unde Felichte Instructionar, which translates to unsteady heat and moisture) are required. (See the sidebar, opposite page, for specifics on WUFI.)Simulation results from WUFI are being compared with existing thermal-only measurements and are being accomplished with ongoing hygrothermal measurements. The final outcome of the study will be the evaluation of several soil types in several climate zones for a number of basement assembly types. The study will define the type of soil, together with the type of building construction considered most and least reliable with respect to energy consumption and moisture safety. Furthermore, the study will determine the influences that different soils have on total energy loss through the ground.

Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL] [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

81

What Is Soil?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Soil is the solid material on Earth's surface that results from the interaction of weather and biological activities with the underlying geologic formation. Soil is produced from broken down rocks, organic matter (decayed animal and plant life), water, and air. Soil generally loosens from its parent material at a rate of one centimeter every 250 to 2,500 years. This lesson encourages students to think about the differences in soil. The Table of Contents, Preface, and a section that describes how to use this book are included in this free selection.

2001-01-01

82

Diverse Chemical Zoning Trends in Acapulco Chromites: How Many Sources for the Parental Materials?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acapulco is considered to be a link between primitive chondritic meteorites and the differentiated achondrites. Its parent body presumably formed by accretion of material of chondritic compositions at an fO2 that lies between that of H- and enstatite chondrites [1]. The accreted chondritic material was subjected 4.557 Gyr ago to peak temperatures close to 1200 degrees C that lead to partial melting and extensive recrystallization [1, 2]. Seven morphologically different types of graphite with large variations in C- and N-isotopic compositions were recently reported from Acapulco [3, 4]. At least four distinct isotopic reservoirs are required to explain the C- and N-isotopic compositions of these graphites [3, 4]. While the silicate minerals in Acapulco have isotopically heavy N (delta^(15)N = + 15 per mil) chromites were found to be isotopically light (delta^(15)N = _ 75 to _ 82 per mil). Chromite occurs in Acapulco in six different assemblages: (1) as inclusions in silicates, (2) in FeNi, (3) in troilite, (4) with FeNi and troilite, (5) with FeNi and silicates, and (6) with troilite and silicates. It is also rarely present as small idiomorphic inclusions in plagioclase. Chromites in contact with silicates display no chemical zoning for Cr, Al, Ti, Fe, Mg, Mn, or Zn to the silicate borders thus indicating high degree of equilibration with the silicate neighbours. The MgO-contents of chromites in metals and troilites (4.74 to 7.2 %) are relatively lower and their compositional ranges are relatively wider than those in contact with silicates (6.1 to 7.69 %). Zoning profiles of MgO and FeO in chromites in all assemblages are quite flat. Chromites in contact with metals and troilite display a variety of zoning patterns of Cr, Al, Ti, and Zn. All these chromite types , however, depict the same MnO zoning trends with low MnO-contents in their cores (0.96 to 2.14 %) than in their rims to metal or troilite (1.7 to 3.1 %). With few exceptions, the zoning behaviour of Cr, Al, and Ti does not follow a substitutional scheme. Chromites with reverse Cr-zoning (61.3 wt. % Cr2O3 in the cores and 63.2 Wt. % Cr2O3 at the rims ) may have either flat Al2O3 - patterns (5.46 - 5.53 wt. %) or normal zoning trends (5.6 wt. % in the core and 4.81 wt. % at the rim). Some grains display prominent complementary Cr2O3- and Al2O3- zoning patterns (62.2 % wt. Cr2O3 and 2.9 wt. % Al2O3 in the Core; 58.9 wt. % Cr2O3 and 5.7 wt. % Al2O3 at the rim). In those grains the zoning profiles of TiO2 and ZnO (Figure 1) are similar to those of Al2O3 (in the core 1.33 wt. % TiO2, 1.63 wt. % ZnO; at the rim 0.67 wt. % TiO2, 1.24 wt. % ZnO). The well developed zoning of Cr, Al, Ti, Mn, and Zn from the cores of chromites to their borders to FeNi and troilite and the variability of the zoning patterns in assemblages containing FeNi and troilite indicate that the encountered zoning types reflect the primordial chemistry of these chromites in the parental material before melting. We have delineated six different types of zoning in Acapulco chromites so far. None of the encountered zoning patterns could have developed by crystallisation from a chondritic melt. The present results support the previous findings [3, 4] that several sources must have had contributed to the parental material of Acapulco. However, genetic correlations between the isotopically different graphite morphologies and the various chromites in Acapulco could not be established so far. References: [1] Zipfel et al. (1995) GCA, in press. [2] G"pel D. et al. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 226. [3] El Goresy A. et al. (1995) Nature, 373, 496-499.[4] El Goresy A. and Zinner E. K. (1995) LPS XXVI, 367-368. [5] Sturgeon G. and Marti K. (1991) Proc. LPS, Vol. 21, 523-525. [6] Kim Y. and Marti K. (1994) LPS XXV, 703-704. Fig.1. Zoning profiles for Cr2O3, Al2O3, MnO, ZnO, and TiO2 in chromite # 1 enclosed in troilite.

El Goresy, A.; Janicke, J.

1995-09-01

83

Inorganic Materials as Ameliorants for Soil Remediation of Metal Toxicity to Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved

Mateus Rosas Ribeiro Filho; José Oswaldo Siqueira; Jaco Vangronsveld; Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares; Nilton Curi

2011-01-01

84

Unit The World of the Soil, First Trial Materials, Inspection Set, [Australian Science Education Project].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Australian Science Education project is producing materials designed for use in grades 7 - 10 of Australian schools. This is the first trial version of a unit expected to take about 20 40-minute periods to complete. Included are a teacher's guide to the unit, four pupil booklets ("Looking at Soils,""Things to do With Soils,""What is it…

Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

85

FRESHWATER ASSAY USING SOIL ELUATES AS SAMPLE MATERIAL (SINGLE LABORATORY EVALUATION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Chlorophyta assay, which uses soil as sample material, has been a useful bioassessment technique for screening hazardous waste site problems. n eluate is prepared from a 125-gram soil sample and then diluted into three separate concentrations prior to being tested using Selen...

86

Modelling Transport of Waste Material Leachate in Soils in Support of Environmental Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer model has been developed that simulates the burden on a underlying soil of a reused waste-material. Waste-material reused as building material for the foundation of a road will leach out by rain water. The leachate, containing various chemical ...

J. C. H. van Eijkeren T. G. Aalbers P. G. M. de Wilde

1992-01-01

87

Concentration of Radionuclides in Building Materials and Soils in The Netherlands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

About 150 samples of building materials used in the Netherlands have been analysed by gamma spectrometry for their Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 concentrations. From 26 samples of soils the radioactivity concentration was measured. Calibration was performed by ...

J. G. Ackers

1985-01-01

88

Detection of tritium sorption on four soil materials.  

PubMed

In order to measure groundwater age and design nuclear waste disposal sites, it is important to understand the sorption behavior of tritium on soils. In this study, batch tests were carried out using four soils from China: silty clays from An County and Jiangyou County in Sichuan Province, both of which could be considered candidate sites for Very Low Level Waste disposal; silty sand from Beijing; and loess from Yuci County in Shanxi Province, a typical Chinese loess region. The experimental results indicated that in these soil media, the distribution coefficient of tritium is slightly influenced by adsorption time, water/solid ratio, initial tritium specific activity, pH, and the content of humic and fulvic acids. The average distribution coefficient from all of these influencing factors was about 0.1-0.2 mL/g for the four types of soil samples. This relatively modest sorption of tritium in soils needs to be considered in fate and transport studies of tritium in the environment. PMID:21194813

Teng, Yanguo; Zuo, Rui; Wang, Jinsheng; Hu, Qinhong; Sun, Zongjian; Zeng, Ni

2011-02-01

89

Geotechnical characteristics of residual soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual soils are products of chemical weathering and thus their characteristics are dependent upon environmental factors of climate, parent material, topography and drainage, and age. These conditions are optimized in the tropics where well-drained regions produce reddish lateritic soils rich in iron and aluminum sesquioxides and kaolinitic clays. Conversely, poorly drained areas tend towards montmorillonitic expansive black clays. Andosols develop

Frank C. Townsend

1985-01-01

90

Soil Materials and Health: An new experience for teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cationic clays are very extended compounds on the earth surface so they constitute the main component of soils and sedimentary rocks. Due to their presence and special properties that they have, mankind has used them with therapeutic aims from Prehistory, not being rare to find references to this subject in works of classic authors. During the Renaissance and with the appearance of the first Pharmacopeia, its use was regulated to a certain extent. The scientific development reached during the XXth century has allowed to understand and to study the reasons of the useful and peculiar properties of clays, directly related to their colloidal size and crystalline structure. These properties are translated in a high specific surface area, optimal rheological properties and/or excellent sorptive capacity; everything makes cationic clays very useful for a wide range of applications. In the field of health, cationic clays are used in Pharmaceutical Technology and Dermopharmacy as ideal excipients and substances of suitable biological activity due to their chemical inertness and low or null toxicity for the patient (Carretero, 2002; Lopez Galindo et al., 2005; Choy et al., 2007; del Hoyo, 2007). Cationic clays can be used in a wide range of applications in health. However, it must be also considered that the risk exposure to cationic clays may cause several diseases, as it has been seen above. Cationic clays have been used as excipients and active principles in the pharmaceutical industry. The last tendencies are their use in geomedicine, as much to come up as to treat diseases. One stands out his presence in spas and aesthetic medicine. Development of new pharmaceutical formulations is observed, based on cationic clays, for cancer therapy. It has to emphasize the importance in the synthesis of biosensors with cationic clays. Cationic clays can be considered a group of promising materials in the development of new health applications. The study of the use of the cationic clays in the field of the health is a source to develop numerous studies of cases in the teaching of different subjects related to the geoscience and a new opportunity to connect the learning with the reality. References -Carretero, MI 2002. Clay Minerals and Their Beneficial Effects upon Human Health. A review. Appl. Clay Sci. 21, pp. 155-163. -Choy, J.H., Choi, S.J., Oh, J.M., Park, T. 2007. Clay minerals and layered double hydroxides for novel biological applications. Appl. Clay Sci. 36 pp. 122-132. -Del Hoyo, C. 2007. Layered double hydroxides and human health: An overview. Appl. Clay Sci. 36, pp. 103-121. -Lopez-Galindo, A., Viseras Iborra, C. & Cerezo Gonzalez, P. 2005. Arcillas y salud. In: Conferencias de la XIX Reunion de la Sociedad Espanola de Arcillas. Rives, Ed., pp. 15-18.

Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

2014-05-01

91

Correspondence and Least Squares Analyses of Soil and Rock Compositions for the Viking Lander 1 and Pathfinder Sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Correspondence and Least Squares Mixing Analysis techniques are applied to the chemical composition of Viking 1 soils and Pathfinder rocks and soils. Implications for the parent composition of local and global materials are discussed.

Larsen, K. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Clark, B. C.

2000-01-01

92

Association of the Fungicide Propiconazole with Size Fractionated Material from a Silty Clay Soil – S.E. Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eroded soil material may be an important transporting agent for pesticides that are strongly sorbed to soil. The abilityof the fungicide propiconazole to interact with colloidal andparticulate materials has been studied by means of sorptionand desorption experiments. Size separation of silty clay soilfrom Mørdre, Norway and subsequent characterization showedthat different size fractions of soil possessed different physical and chemical properties

G. Riise; H. Madsen; T. Krogstad; M. Nandrup Pettersen

2001-01-01

93

External gamma dose responses from residual radioactive materials in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

External gamma dose responses from radioactive soils have previously been calculated as air-absorbed doses in a point receptor above the ground. Such responses, however, are not accurate measures for estimating the effective dose equivalent (H{sub E}) for assessing radiological risks to humans, as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The ambient dose equivalent H*(10), as defined by

S. Y. Chen; Y. C. Yuan

1989-01-01

94

Impact of three soil types on afforestation in China's Loess Plateau: Growth and survival of six tree species and their effects on soil properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil chemical and physical characteristics can significantly affect the growth and distribution of all types of vegetation, particularly in arid environments. Because of soil erosion, most of the topsoil has disappeared from China's arid Loess Plateau, exposing parent material or soils with low nutrient content in many locations. However, little research has been done on the impact of these soil

Shixiong Cao; Li Chen; Chenguang Xu; Zhande Liu

2007-01-01

95

The Use of Soil Forming Factors in the Development of Soil Taxonomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past and present roles of the five soil-forming factors in creating categories in USDA Soil Taxonomy have been analyzed. The factorial and genetic approach is clearly present in Soil Taxonomy, but was not so evident in the 7th Approximation of 1960. Soil climate is the most important factor in Soil Taxonomy. Climate is used at the highest level to define two of the 12 soil orders: Aridisols, the soils of the dry regions, and Gelisols, the permafrost-affected soils and is also used to differentiate suborders in eight of the remaining orders. Parent material is used to fully define two orders: Histosols and Andisols, and partially to define the suborders in the Entisol order (Fluvents, Psamments). Only one group of organisms, the worms (Verm-), is used at the great-group and subgroup levels in several orders. Relief and time are not used in defining taxa in Soil Taxonomy. Three of the eight epipedons are defined on the basis of parent material (folistic, histic, melanic), two on the basis of human activities (anthropic and plaggen), and two from the interaction of climate and vegetation (mollic and umbric). Of the 19 subsurface horizons, 11 originate from the interaction of climate and parent material. This analysis reveals there is an imbalance in the utilization of the soil-forming factors in Soil Taxonomy, with an emphasis on climate and parent material.

Bockheim, JG; Gennadiyev, AN; Hartemink, Alfred E.; Brevik, Eric C.

2014-05-01

96

Soils - Part 1: The Origin and Development of Soil(How Soil Gets a Life and a Name)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, you will gain an understanding of the five soil forming factors and will be able to describe how each influences soil development. You will learn to identify common parent materials, determine the age of a soil, identify the types of native vegetation associated with different soils in Nebraska and define soil horizons.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

97

Lunar surface: identification of the dark mantling material in the Apollo 17 soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence indicates that Apollo 17 sample 74001, a soil consisting of ; very dark spheres, is composed almost entirely of the dark mantling material that ; covers a large region of the southeastern boundary of Mare Serenitatis. Other ; Apollo 17 samples contain only a component of this material. The underlying ; basalt in the Taurus- Littrow valley appears to

C. Pieters; T. B. McCord; M. P. Charette; J. B. Adams

1974-01-01

98

Dose–response functions for the soiling of heritage materials due to air pollution exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of materials (Portland limestone, white painted steel, white plastic and polycarbonate filter material) was exposed at locations in London, Athens and Krakow. Regular measurements of reflectance were taken over a period of twelve months. Co-located measurements of PM10 concentrations were available. Based on these results, the relationship between soiling (measured as loss of reflectance) and ambient PM10 concentrations

John Watt; David Jarrett; Ron Hamilton

2008-01-01

99

Reactions between fulvic acid, a soil humic material, and dialkyl phthalates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fulvic acid, a water-soluble soil humic material that occurs widely in soils and waters, can “complex” hydrophobic dialkyl phthalates and make them soluble in water. The extent of the reaction depends on the type of phthalate. Thus, one number-average molecular weight of FA can solubilize four moles of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate but only one mole of dibutyl phthalate, while 2

Keiichiro Matsuda; Morris Schnitzer

1971-01-01

100

Knowledge, attitudes and practices among parents and teachers about soil-transmitted helminthiasis control programs for school children in Guimaras, Philippines.  

PubMed

We determined the attitudes toward and practices regarding soil-transmitted helminthes (STH) control among parents and school teachers to identify reasons behind attitudes and practices that do not promote STH control. Written knowledge, attitudes and practices surveys were distributed to parents (N = 531) and teachers (N = 105) of students at 11 elementary schools in Guimaras Province, the Philippines. The survey addressed attitudes about mass drug administration (MDA), knowledge about STH control, hygienic practices, and acceptability of distributing deworming tablets among teachers. More than 90% of parents and teachers held favorable attitudes towards MDA. Sixty-nine percent of parents and 75.5% of teachers believed stool exams were necessary before MDA. Thirty-seven percent of parents stated they would not allow teachers to administer deworming tablets and 91.5% of parents feared teachers would not detect side effects of the medication. Forty-eight percent of teachers felt they could safely give deworming tablets and 81.4% of teachers were afraid of managing the side effects of deworming tablets. Forty-seven point eight percent of parents and 42.2% of teachers stated defecation in the open occured in their community. Although attitudes toward STH control were largely favorable, misconceptions about the MDA strategy, lack of support for teachers giving deworming tablets, and the practice of open defecation still exist as barriers to STH control efforts. The next step to achieve effective STH control will be to clarify misconceptions in education campaigns, to train teachers about medication administration, campaign to improve sanitation and hygiene and begin targeted mass treatment in Guimaras, the Philippines. PMID:24437309

Parikh, Divya Sinha; Totañes, Francis I G; Tuliao, Alex H; Ciro, Raezelle N T; Macatangay, Bernard J C; Belizario, Vicente Y

2013-09-01

101

Soil type and land use intensity determine the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to test whether soil types can be characterized by their arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities. To answer this question, a well-defined study area in the temperate climatic zone of Central Europe was chosen with a large spectrum of soils and parent materials. Representative soil samples were taken from three soil types (Cambisol, Fluvisol and

Fritz Oehl; Endre Laczko; Arno Bogenrieder; Karl Stahr; Robert Bösch; Marcel van der Heijden; Ewald Sieverding

2010-01-01

102

Shock-treated lunar soil simulant: Preliminary assessment as a construction material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an effort to examine the feasibility of applying dynamic compaction techniques to fabricate construction materials from lunar regolith, preliminary explosive shock-loading experiments on lunar soil simulants were carried out. Analysis of our shock-treated samples suggests that binding additives, such as metallic aluminum powder, may provide the necessary characteristics to fabricate a strong and durable building material (lunar adobe) that takes advantage of a cheap base material available in abundance: lunar regolith.

Boslough, Mark B.; Bernold, Leonhard E.; Horie, Yasuyuki

1992-01-01

103

Overview of recent magnetic studies of high T{sub c} cuprate parent compounds and related materials  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of the magnetic properties of several high superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) cuprate parent compounds and related materials will be reviewed. The observations of a Heisenberg to XY-like crossover upon cooling below {approximately}300K towards the Neel temperature T{sub N} = 257 K and a subsequent magnetic field-induced XY-like to Ising-like crossover near TN in single crystals of the K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4} type spin 1/2 model compound Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} will be described.

Johnston, D.C.; Ami, T.; Borsa, F. [and others

1995-12-01

104

Carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils amended with livestock-derived organic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide gas xchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, as well as the carbon sink strength of various arable land ecosystems, is of primary interest for global change research. Measures for increasing soil C inputs include the preferential use of livestock-derived organic materials (e.g. animal manure and slurries, digestate from biogas production plants and compost). The application of such materials to agricultural soils returns essential nutrients for plant growth and organic matter to maintain long-term fertility. Whether or not such practices ultimately result in sustained C sequestration at the ecosystem level will depend on their mineralization rates. This work presents preliminary results from a laboratory incubation trial to evaluate carbon dioxide fluxes from two agricultural soils (a calcareous silt loam and a silty clay loam) amended with agricultural doses of (i) pig slurry (PSL), (ii) the digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of pig slurries (AAS) and (ii) a compost from the aerobic stabilisation of the digestate (LDC). These subsequent steps of slurry stabilisation resulted in a decrease in the content of labile organic matter which was reflected in a reduction in maximum carbon dioxide emission rates from amended soils. Measurements have shown that peak emissions from soils occur immediately after application of these organic materials (within 5 days) and decrease in the order PSL > AAS > LDC. Moreover, mean cumulative emissions over the first 40 days showed that a higher percentage (about 44%) of the C added with PSL was mineralised respect to C added with AAS (39%) and LDC (25%). Although it was hypothesised that apart from the quantity and stability of the added organic materials, even soil characteristics could influence C mineralisation rates, no significant differences were observed between emission fluxes for similarly treated soils. Mean cumulative emission fluxes after 40 days from treatment were of 114, 103 and 84 g C m-2 for PSL, AAS and LDC respectively. Carbon dioxide emission rates were corroborated with results obtained from the quantification of water-extractable organic C (WEOC) and soil microbial biomass-C (Cmic). The former represents the more labile fraction of soil organic matter and its concentration in the freshly amended soils followed the order LDC > AAS ? PSL. However, whereas WEOC concentrations decrease rapidly for PSL and LDC amended soils, AAS treated soils showed a steady increase during the first 20 days of incubation followed by a decrease thereafter. This was attributed to the release of soluble organic matter from the anaerobically stabilised digestate in the presence of an aerobic soil microbial community. Irrespective of the type of amendment, Cmic values increased with time with respect to the unamended controls, reaching highest values after 20 days from amendment and decreasing thereafter. Even after 40 days of incubation, Cmic values in all amended soils did not return to the background values obtained with unamended controls. These results suggest that the application of stabilised livestock-derived organic materials to soils may play an important role in reducing C emissions associated with agricultural practices and increase soil C stocks, apart from other indirect beneficial effects such as the recovery of energy from combustion of biogas from anaerobic fermentation of these waste materials.

Pezzolla, D.; Said-Pullicino, D.; Gigliotti, G.

2009-04-01

105

Exposure of Soil and Groundwater to Spills of Hazardous Materials Transported by Rail: A Geographic Information System Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental impact of a hazardous material spill is a complex function of the material’s physical and chemical characteristics and the local environmental conditions in which it is spilled. This study develops a geographical probability distribution for two important environmental parameters affecting this impact: soil type and groundwater depth. The paper assesses the probability of exposure of various soil types

Pooja Anand; Christopher P L Barkan

2006-01-01

106

Own education, current conditions, parental material circumstances, and risk of myocardial infarction in a former communist country  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To study the association between own education, adult and parental circumstances and the risk of myocardial infarction in a former communist country.?DESIGN—Population based case-control study.?SETTING—General population of five districts of the Czech Republic in the age group 25-64 years.?PARTICIPANTS—Random sample of population (938 men and 1048 women, response rate 77%) served as controls to 282 male and 80 female cases of non-fatal first myocardial infarctions.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Myocardial infarction was defined by the WHO MONICA criteria based on ECG, enzymes and symptoms. The following socioeconomic indicators were studied: own education, crowded housing conditions (more than one person per room), car ownership, and education and occupation of mother and father.?RESULTS—There was a weak correlation between education and car ownership, and a strong association between own education and parental education and occupation. Crowding was not related to other socioeconomic factors. The risk of myocardial infarction was inversely related to education, and was unrelated to material conditions and parental education and occupation. The age-sex-district adjusted odds ratios for apprenticeship, secondary, and university education, compared with primary education, were 0.87, 0.74 and 0.46, respectively (p for trend 0.009); odds ratios for car ownership and crowding were 1.01 (95% confidence intervals 0.77, 1.34) and 0.92 (0.76, 1.12), respectively. Further adjustment for parental circumstances and adult height did not change these estimates but adjustment for coronary risk factors reduced the gradient. Increased height seemed, anomalously, to confer a small increased risk.?CONCLUSIONS—In this population, the social gradient in non-fatal myocardial infarction is only apparent for own education. Materialist explanations for this gradient seem unlikely but behaviours seem responsible for a part of the gradient.???Keywords: myocardial infarction; ischaemic heart disease; socioeconomic factors; epidemiology; Eastern Europe

Bobak, M.; Hertzman, C.; Marmot, M.

2000-01-01

107

An inventory of carbon storage in forest soil and down woody material of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program conducts an annual forest inventory which includes measurements of down and dead wood and soil characteristics as indicators of forest health. Both indicators are measured on a systematic nationwide array of approximately 7800 plots where each one may represent up to 38,850 ha. Between 10 and 20% of these plots are measured every year. The down woody material indicator includes measurements of coarse and fine downed and deadwood. Carbon (C) storage in these down woody materials is estimated using line intersect biomass estimators and C conversion constants. The soil quality indicator is based on a range of statistically based methods including volumetric sampling of the forest floor and the collection of mineral soil cores representing depth increments of 0-10 and 10-20 cm. Carbon content of the soil samples is determined by dry combustion. We combined indicator measurements collected over 3 years (2001-2003) to estimate the C storage in soil and down wood in forests of the United States. Preliminary results suggest that as much as 80 Mg ha-1 of C may be stored in forest soil and down woody material in some locations. Carbon storage by component is roughly ranked as follows: 0-10 cm mineral soil >10-20 cm mineral soil > the forest floor > coarse wood > fine wood. Preliminary spatial analysis of the C stocks in the North Central region of the United States illustrates the influences of latitude on C storage

Perry, Charles H.; Woodall, Christopher W.; Amacher, Michael C.; O'Neill, Katherine P.

108

CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA FILL MATERIALS AND SOILS 1990  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Foundation Fill Data Base project of the Foundation Fill Materials Specifications Task Area of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). Work included determination of radon concentrations...

109

CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA FILL MATERIALS AND SOILS - 1990  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Foundation Fill Data Base project of the Foundation Fill Materials Specifications Task Area of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). ork included determination of radon concentrations ...

110

The structural and sorptive characteristics of high-surface-area carbonaceous material (HSACM) in soils.  

PubMed

The structural and sorptive characteristics of the high-surface-area carbonaceous material (HSACM) isolated from soils were investigated. The HSACM contents in soils were first identified by the organic petrology method. A novel isolation method using acid demineralization, base extraction, and ZnBr(2) floatation sequential steps was developed to extract the HSACM from soil. The differences in structural and sorptive characteristics with the HSACM and the intact soil were investigated using nitrogen adsorption isotherms and trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption isotherms at low concentrations (0 to about 2 mg/L) both with and without tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as the cosolute. It was found that HSACM possesses a much higher specific surface area and pore volume as well as a smaller pore size than the original soil. Moreover, the sorption of TCE to HSACM is noticeably more nonlinear and competitive than to the original soil. A small amount of highly adsorptive HSACM is largely responsible for the nonlinear soil sorption of a single solute at very low concentrations. PMID:16839670

Huang, Hui-Chen; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu; Lee, Chung-Kung; Chen, Jiunn-Chen

2006-12-01

111

Strontium-Doped Hematite as a Possible Humidity Sensing Material for Soil Water Content Determination  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work is to study the sensing behavior of Sr-doped hematite for soil water content measurement. The material was prepared by solid state reaction from commercial hematite and strontium carbonate heat treated at 900 °C. X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used for microstructural characterization of the synthesized powder. Sensors were then prepared by uniaxially pressing and by screen-printing, on an alumina substrate, the prepared powder and subsequent firing in the 800–1,000 °C range. These sensors were first tested in a laboratory apparatus under humid air and then in an homogenized soil and finally in field. The results evidenced that the screen printed film was able to give a response for a soil matric potential from about 570 kPa, that is to say well below the wilting point in the used soil.

Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Baroni, Chiara; Zavattaro, Laura; Grignani, Carlo

2013-01-01

112

Heavy metal fractionation and pedogenesis in subalpine and alpine soils on ophiolitic materials, western Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils on ultramafic materials are usually rich in Mg, Fe and heavy metals (particularly Ni, Cr, Mn, Co). These chemical properties could cause toxicity effects on biological communities. Metal fractionation shows the soil phases to which metals are associated (exchangeable, associated with organic matter, with amorphous or crystalline Fe or Mn oxides, in the crystal structure of primary minerals), and thus it is strictly related with metal mobilization and bioavailability. Ni, Cr, Mn, Co and Fe fractionations (6 fractions, analysed by a selective sequential extraction technique) were analysed in 6 subalpine and in 17 alpine soils (i.e., respectively under coniferous forest or above the present-day treeline) in the ophiolitic area of Mont Avic Natural Park (Valle d'Aosta, Italian Alps), on soils formed from metal-rich serpentinite or from metal-poor mafic rocks and calcschists. The results show a tight relationship between vegetation, soil forming processes, metal fractionation and bioavailability: below and above the present-day treeline soil forming processes and metal speciation change dramatically. Serpentinite soils are always extremely rich in metals, but metal speciation in analogous habitats is similar on every substrate. The results show a tight relationship between vegetation, soil forming processes, metal fractionation and bioavailability: below and above the present-day treeline soil forming processes and metal speciation change dramatically. Serpentinite soils are always extremely rich in metals, but metal speciation in analogous habitats is similar on every substrate. Under subalpine forest, the main pedogenic process is podzolization. In the extremely acidic and leached podzolic soils, all metals are mobilized and their lowest concentration is in the bleached E horizon, while there is a higher content in organic matter-rich surface horizon and in the spodic (illuvial) B. Not considering the amount associated with primary minerals (residual fraction), all the fractions of Ni, Co and Mn are strictly correlated with each other: in A and Bs horizons, the greatest amount is associated with organic matter and with crystalline Fe-oxides. The content in easily mobilizable forms associated with Mn and amorphous Fe oxides is only slightly lower. The greatest amount is in the residual fraction, as pedogenic forms are easily removed from the soil profiles by leaching; this is particularly evident in E horizons. Cr is less released by weathering, and the greatest fraction is associated with organic matter and amorphous Fe-oxides. No Cr could be detected associated with Mn oxides. The high mobility of metals in these soils increases their bioavailability. Above the treeline, the situation changes dramatically. Leaching is important only on stable, flat surfaces. Total and pedogenic fractions of Ni, Cr, Co and Fe increase from the bottom to the top of the soil profile, while all forms of Mn are strongly depleted in the upper horizons because of chemical reduction due to waterlogging at snowmelt. In fact, Mn is particularly sensitive to reduction processes. The most important factors involved in metal geochemistry are erosion and cryoturbation, which bring "fresh", metal-rich materials on the top of the profiles; weathering later releases the metals associated with pedogenic materials. The weak leaching due to limited acidification increases the concentration of potentially bioavailable metals (Fe, Co, Cr, and Ni) in the biologically active soil horizons. All metals are mobilized by waterlogging at snowmelt: extremely high contents of "labile" pedogenic forms of metals also in deep horizons of soils developed on metal-poor materials. However, the concentration due to the processes described above is stronger than leaching for Ni, Co, Fe and Cr.

D'Amico, M.; Previtali, F.

2009-04-01

113

Soil carbon and material fluxes across the eroding Alaska Beaufort Sea coastline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon, nitrogen, and material fluxes were quantified at 48 sampling locations along the 1957 km coastline of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. Landform characteristics, soil stratigraphy, cryogenic features, and ice contents were determined for each site. Erosion rates for the sites were quantified using satellite images and aerial photos, and the rates averaged across the coastline increased from 0.6 m yr-1 during circa 1950-1980 to 1.2 m yr-1 during circa 1980-2000. Soils were highly cryoturbated, and organic carbon (OC) stores ranged from 13 to 162 kg OC m-2 in banks above sea level and averaged 63 kg OC m-2 over the entire coastline. Long-term (1950-2000) annual lateral fluxes due to erosion were estimated at -153 Gg OC, -7762 Mg total nitrogen, -2106 Tg solids, and -2762 Tg water. Total land area loss along the Alaska Beaufort Sea coastline was estimated at 203 ha yr-1. We found coastal erosion rates, bank heights, soil properties, and material stores and fluxes to be extremely variable among sampling sites. In comparing two classification systems used to classifying coastline types from an oceanographic, coastal morphology perspective and geomorphic units from a terrestrial, soils perspective, we found both systems were effective at differentiating significant differences among classes for most material stores, but the coastline classification did not find significant differences in erosion rates because it lacked differentiation of soil texture.

Ping, Chien-Lu; Michaelson, Gary J.; Guo, Laodong; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Kanevskiy, Mikhail; Shur, Yuri; Dou, Fugen; Liang, Jingjing

2011-06-01

114

Transport and anaerobic biodegradation of propylene glycol in gravel-rich soil materials.  

PubMed

Continued input of airplane de-icing/anti-icing fluids (ADAF) to runway adjacent soils may result in the depletion of soil-borne terminal electron acceptors. We studied the transport and transformation of propylene glycol (PG), the major constituent of many ADAF, in topsoil and subsoil samples using saturated column experiments at 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C. The export of soil-borne DOC was generally high, non-exhaustive and rate limited. Retardation of added PG was negligible. Rapid PG degradation was observed only in topsoil materials high in organic matter at 20 degrees C. At 4 degrees C, no significant degradation was observed. Thus, under unfavorable, i.e., wet and cold conditions typical for winter de-icing operations, PG and its metabolites will be relocated to deeper soil horizons or even to the groundwater. In subsoil materials, PG degradation was very slow and incomplete. We found that subsoil degradation depended on the import of active microorganisms originating from the organic-rich topsoil material. The degradation efficiency is strongly influenced by the flow velocity, i.e., the residence time of PG in the soil column. Poorly crystalline iron(III) and manganese(IV) (hydr)oxides are used during microbial respiration acting as terminal electron acceptors. This results in the formation and effective relocation of reduced and mobile Fe and Mn species. Long-term application of ADAF to runway adjacent soil as well as the lasting consumption of Fe and Mn will tend to decrease the soil redox potential. Without proper counteractive measures, this will eventually favor the development of methanogenic conditions. PMID:16563561

Jaesche, Philipp; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

2006-05-30

115

Transport and anaerobic biodegradation of propylene glycol in gravel-rich soil materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continued input of airplane de-icing/anti-icing fluids (ADAF) to runway adjacent soils may result in the depletion of soil-borne terminal electron acceptors. We studied the transport and transformation of propylene glycol (PG), the major constituent of many ADAF, in topsoil and subsoil samples using saturated column experiments at 4 °C and 20 °C. The export of soil-borne DOC was generally high, non-exhaustive and rate limited. Retardation of added PG was negligible. Rapid PG degradation was observed only in topsoil materials high in organic matter at 20 °C. At 4 °C, no significant degradation was observed. Thus, under unfavorable, i.e., wet and cold conditions typical for winter de-icing operations, PG and its metabolites will be relocated to deeper soil horizons or even to the groundwater. In subsoil materials, PG degradation was very slow and incomplete. We found that subsoil degradation depended on the import of active microorganisms originating from the organic-rich topsoil material. The degradation efficiency is strongly influenced by the flow velocity, i.e., the residence time of PG in the soil column. Poorly crystalline iron(III) and manganese(IV) (hydr)oxides are used during microbial respiration acting as terminal electron acceptors. This results in the formation and effective relocation of reduced and mobile Fe and Mn species. Long-term application of ADAF to runway adjacent soil as well as the lasting consumption of Fe and Mn will tend to decrease the soil redox potential. Without proper counteractive measures, this will eventually favor the development of methanogenic conditions.

Jaesche, Philipp; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

2006-05-01

116

Analyses of exobiological and potential resource materials in the Martian soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential Martian soil components relevant to exobiology include water, organic matter, evaporites, clays, and oxides. These materials are also resources for human expeditions to Mars. When found in particular combinations, some of these materials constitute diagnostic paleobiomarker suites, allowing insight to be gained into the probability of life originating on Mars. Critically important to exobiology is the method of data analysis and data interpretation. To that end, methods of analysis of potential biomarker and paleobiomarker compounds and resource materials in soils and rocks pertinent to Martian geology are investigated. Differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromotography is shown to be a highly useful analytical technique for detecting this wide and complex variety of materials.

Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Marshall, John R.; White, Melisa R.

1992-01-01

117

Studies related to the evolution of the lunar soil materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the chemistry and morphology of the lunar samples are reported. The presence of fragments of plagoclase in the centers of the impact craters indicate that the glass spheres were derived by meteoritic impact from high velocity particles, while the glass was at high temperatures. From the study of the Apollo 16 samples, it is suggested that this material was formed in a hot impact ejecta blanket, or in an igneous environment, and later exposed to meteoritic impact. It is suggested that particles from Apollo 17 were formed in a cloud of siliceous vapors.

Carter, J. L.

1973-01-01

118

Energetic Materials Effects on Essential Soil Processes: Decomposition of Orchard Grass (Dactylis glomerata) Litter in Soil Contaminated with Energetic Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We investigated the effects of individual nitrogen-based energetic materials (EMs) 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2- ADNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), nitroglycerin (NG), and 2,4,6,8,10, 12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitan...

C. T. Phillips G. I. Sunahara M. Simini R. G. Kuperman R. T. Checkai

2014-01-01

119

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION MATERIALS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

During an evaluation of field portable gas chromatographs (GC), site-specific performance evaluation materials (PEM) were prepared and used as quality control samples. lean soils from two contaminated sites were spiked with various volatile organic compounds. he PEM were shipped ...

120

Degradation of bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid in soil and bedding materials at termiticidal application rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organophosphorus, pyrethroid and chloronicotinyl insecticides have been used to control termites in building structures in recent years. We investigated the degradation behaviour of three insecticides (bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid) at termiticidal application rates under standard laboratory conditions (25 °C, 60% field moisture capacity and darkness) for 24 months. The study was carried out on one soil and two bedding materials

Sundaram Baskaran; Rai S Kookana; Ravendra Naidu

1999-01-01

121

Content and chemical form of mercury and selenium in soil, sludge, and fertilizer materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content and chemical from of Hg and Se were determined for several samples of municipal sewage sludge and sludge ash, garden soil having a history of sludge and residential compost application, and selected fertilizer materials (peat moss, cow manure, residential compost, composted municipal refuse and sewage sludge, Miloganite). Municipal sewage sludge had the highest levels of total Hg (averaging

Chris J. Cappon

1984-01-01

122

Determination of benzene and toluene in soils and plant material by azeotropic distillation  

SciTech Connect

The suspected dumping of gasoline near a garden resulted in the need for a method that would measure trace amounts of benzene and toluene in both soil and plant samples. In this report the authors show that a method involving methanolic extraction and azeotropic distillation is a highly sensitive technique that eliminated the contamination of the GC column by non-volatile material.

Kozloski, R.P.

1985-01-01

123

Interference Problems with Phosphoantimonylmolybdenum Colorimetric Measurement of Phosphorus in Soil and Plant Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical evaluation of potential chemical interference on a molybdenum?based phosphorus (P) colorimetric method that is used widely for soil, plant, and water research was conducted. A wide variety of elements and compounds [aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), nitrate (NO3), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)] commonly found in these materials or extracting

C. G. Kowalenko; D. Babuin

2007-01-01

124

Leaching experiments on the release of heavy metals and PAH from soil and waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaching tests are fundamental tools for the assessment of long-term impact of contaminated waste materials on the soil-groundwater pathway. Experiments were carried out in the framework of standardization and validation of column percolation and batch test procedures, in particular concerning the stipulation of the experimental setup. The colloid release of column and batch experiments was compared and the influence of

O. Krüger; U. Kalbe; W. Berger; F.-G. Simon; S. López Meza

125

Radon Exhalation Rates Measured at Surfaces of Building Materials and Soil in The Netherlands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for the determination of the radon exhalation rate from the surface of building material or soil. The results of measurements in the Netherlands are given. Slabs with dimensions of about 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.1 m sup 3 were made for laborato...

J. G. Ackers

1985-01-01

126

Suction Cup Materials and their Potential to Bias Trace Metal Analyses of Soil Solutions: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed the effects of physical and chemical characteristics of filter materials on trace metal concentrations in soil solutions to evaluate their suitability for porous sections of suction cups. Among the materials described in the literature, e.g. ceramics, Al2O3, sintered Ni or glass, and various plastic filters, a great variation in bubbling pressure, pore size, permeability, chemical composition and stability,

W. W. Wenzel; G. Wieshammer

1995-01-01

127

Evaluation of Plasticity Models’ Ability to Analyze Typical Earth Dams’ Soil Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection of the constitutive laws reproducing the response of geomaterials usually becomes a very complicated procedure;\\u000a especially during the analysis of geostructures containing coarse grained materials. The objective of this study, is the evaluation\\u000a of models based on the perfect and hardening plasticity theory, regarding their ability to analyze the behaviour of soil materials,\\u000a used for the construction of

C. J. Loupasakis; B. G. Christaras; G. Ch. Dimopoulos; T. N. Hatzigogos

2009-01-01

128

Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil  

SciTech Connect

A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications.

Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Loureiro, C. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Chia, Y.P. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Geology

1993-04-01

129

Experimental study of bentonite–soil mixtures as anti-seepage materials of constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, mixtures of different kinds of bentonite and soil were used and tested in order to find a cheap alternative to current anti-seepage materials for constructed wetlands. The anti-seepage layer of constructed wetlands was simulated in the experimental study and the permeability coefficient of the mixed materials was determined in order to evaluate the anti-seepage effect of mixtures.

Jing Chen; Zifu Li; Xin Zhao; Haihan Li

2011-01-01

130

Air-surface exchange of mercury with soils amended with ash materials  

SciTech Connect

Air-surface exchange of mercury (Hg) was measured from soil low in Hg amended with four different ash materials: a wood ash containing {approximately} 10% coal ash, amixture of two subbituminous coal fly ashes, a subbituminous coal ash containing {approximately} 10% petroleum coke ash and an ash from incinerated municipal sewage sludge (4.3 mg/kg Hg) using a dynamic flux chamber. Ash was added to soil to simulate agricultural supplements, soil stabilization, and pad layers used in livestock areas. For the agricultural amendment, {approximately} 0.4% ash was well mixed into the soil. To make the stabilized soil that could be used for construction purposes, {approximately} 20% ash was mixed into soil with water. The pad layer consisted of a wetted 1-cm layer of ash material on the soil surface. Diel trends of Hg flux were observed for all of the substrates with significantly higher Hg emissions during the day and negligible flux or deposition of Hg during the night. Hg fluxes, which were measured in the summer months, were best correlated with solar radiation, temperature, and air O{sub 3} concentrations. Mean Hg fluxes measured outdoors for unamended soils ranged from 19 to 140 ng/m{sup 2} day, whereas those for soil amended with ash to simulate an agricultural application ranged from 7.2 to 230 ng/m{sup 2} day. Fluxes for soil stabilized with ash ranged from 77 to 530 ng/m{sup 2} day and for soil with pads constructed of ash ranged from -50 to 90 ng/m{sup 2} day. Simple analytical tests were performed to assess whether algorithms based on these tests could be used to predict Hg fluxes observed outdoors using the flux chamber. Based on this study, no consistent relationships could be developed. More work is needed to assess long-term and seasonal variations in Hg flux from substrates before annual estimates of emissions can be developed. 45 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Jody Ericksen; Mae Sexauer Gustin [University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States). Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences

2006-07-15

131

Halloysite versus gibbsite: Silicon cycling as a pedogenetic process in two lowland neotropical rain forest soils of La Selva, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halloysite and gibbsite, although known to require quite different conditions for their formation, commonly occur together in the same horizon in oxisols derived from andesitic parent materials in tropical Costa Rica. We selected two soils of similar parent material, but of different ages and soil moisture regimes to identify possible clues to the coexistence of these two minerals. We employed

Markus Kleber; Luitgard Schwendenmann; Edzo Veldkamp; Jenny Rößner; Reinhold Jahn

2007-01-01

132

Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials.  

PubMed

The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available to the landfill operator. Therefore, the methane oxidation capacity of different soils was assessed under simulated landfill conditions. Five sandy potential landfill top cover materials with varying contents of silt and clay were investigated with respect to methane oxidation and corresponding soil gas composition over a period of four months. The soils were compacted to 95% of their specific proctor density, resulting in bulk densities of 1.4-1.7 g cm(-3), reflecting considerably unfavourable conditions for methane oxidation due to reduced air-filled porosity. The soil water content was adjusted to field capacity, resulting in water contents ranging from 16.2 to 48.5 vol.%. The investigated inlet fluxes ranged from 25 to about 100g CH(4)m(-2)d(-1), covering the methane load proposed to allow for complete oxidation in landfill covers under Western European climate conditions and hence being suggested as a criterion for release from aftercare. The vertical distribution of gas concentrations, methane flux balances as well as stable carbon isotope studies allowed for clear process identifications. Higher inlet fluxes led to a reduction of the aerated zone, an increase in the absolute methane oxidation rate and a decline of the relative proportion of oxidized methane. For each material, a specific maximum oxidation rate was determined, which varied between 20 and 95 g CH(4)m(-2)d(-1) and which was positively correlated to the air-filled porosity of the soil. Methane oxidation efficiencies and gas profile data imply a strong link between oxidation capacity and diffusive ingress of atmospheric air. For one material with elevated levels of fine particles and high organic matter content, methane production impeded the quantification of methane oxidation potentials. Regarding the design of landfill cover layers it was concluded that the magnitude of the expected methane load, the texture and expected compaction of the cover material are key variables that need to be known. Based on these, a column study can serve as an appropriate testing system to determine the methane oxidation capacity of a soil intended as landfill cover material. PMID:21067907

Rachor, Ingke; Gebert, Julia; Gröngröft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

2011-05-01

133

EFFECT OF SOIL PROPERTIES AND A SYNTHETIC MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE ON THE RETENTION OF CD, NI, PB, AND ZN IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Batch equilibrium metal immobilization studies were conducted using seven soil and sediment materials spiked with varying concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The objective was to examine the potential mobility of metals in subsoils of metals-contaminated sites. Soil pH influenc...

134

Thermal analysis of soil treated with biochars from different raw materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal analysis (DTA, DSC, TG and dTG) has been used for decades to characterize carbonaceous materials used as fuels (oil, coal). In the last years, these techniques has been used with soils in order to assess proportions of labile and recalcitrant organic matter and to study the evolution of organic matter in amended soils during laboratory incubations. Indeed, thermogravimetric behaviour of soils can be quantified as the weight loss of samples attributed to different temperature ranges: WL1 from 25 to 150ºC; WL2 from 200 to 350ºC and WL3 from 375 to 600ºC . WL2 and WL3 correspond to weight loss associated to organic matter combustion (Worg=WL2+WL3). It is established that first peak was associated with combustion of less humified organic matter, while the second one was related to the more humified. Also, the WL3/WL2 ratio, named thermostability index, was previously identified as a reliable parameter for evaluating the level of stability of organic matter in composts and other organic wastes that indicated the relative amount of the thermally more stable fraction of organic matter with respect to less stable one. These stability can be related with the soil CO2 emmisions after biochar application. The objective of this presentation is to show the application of thermal analysis to study the stability of soil organic matter in soils treated with different biochars.

Ana, Méndez; Paola, Cely; Gabriel, Gascó

2014-05-01

135

Assessment of isotopically exchangeable Al in soil materials using 26Al tracer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of aluminium (Al) in many acidic soils is controlled by complexation reactions with soil organic matter. In such soils, Al solubility is theoretically a function of the pool size of "active" Al, i.e., the total amount of Al that equilibrates with the soil solution within a defined period of time. To date, no reliable measurements of "active" Al in soil materials exist. In this study, we determined the isotopically exchangeable pool of Al ( EAl) as an operationally defined assessment of "active" Al in acidic mineral soils. The suitability of CuCl 2 and pyrophosphate (Na 4P 2O 7) as extractants for "active" Al was also evaluated. Eleven samples, mostly from spodic B horizons, were spiked with carrier-free 26Al and equilibrated for different time periods (1-756 h). The size of the Al pool with which the 26Al tracer exchanged increased with time during the whole experimental period. Thus, contact time between solid and solution phases needs to be defined when assessing the "active" Al pool. Values of EAl obtained after 1 to 5 d of equilibration were equal to the amount of CuCl 2 extractable Al, but considerably smaller than the Na 4P 2O 7-extractable pool. Equilibration times greater than 5 d resulted in CuCl 2 extractable Al concentrations that under-estimated the "active" Al pool. Three of the investigated samples were rich in imogolite-type materials (ITM). In these samples, 30-50 % of the added 26Al rapidly became associated with soil constituents in forms that could not be extracted by Na 4P 2O 7, indicating that a part of ITM may be in a dynamic state.

Kleja, D. Berggren; Standring, W.; Oughton, D. H.; Gustafsson, J.-P.; Fifield, K.; Fraser, A. R.

2005-11-01

136

The Soil Series in Soil Classifications of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organized national soil survey began in the United States in 1899, with soil types as the units being mapped. The soil series concept was introduced into the U.S. soil survey in 1903 as a way to relate soils being mapped in one area to the soils of other areas. The original concept of a soil series was all soil types formed in the same parent materials that were of the same geologic age. However, within about 15 years soil series became the primary units being mapped in U.S. soil survey. Soil types became subdivisions of soil series, with the subdivisions based on changes in texture. As the soil series became the primary mapping unit the concept of what a soil series was also changed. Instead of being based on parent materials and geologic age, the soil series of the 1920s was based on the morphology and composition of the soil profile. Another major change in the concept of soil series occurred when U.S. Soil Taxonomy was released in 1975. Under Soil Taxonomy, the soil series subdivisions were based on the uses the soils might be put to, particularly their agricultural uses (Simonson, 1997). While the concept of the soil series has changed over the years, the term soil series has been the longest-lived term in U.S. soil classification. It has appeared in every official classification system used by the U.S. soil survey (Brevik and Hartemink, 2013). The first classification system was put together by Milton Whitney in 1909 and had soil series at its second lowest level, with soil type at the lowest level. The second classification system used by the U.S. soil survey was developed by C.F. Marbut, H.H. Bennett, J.E. Lapham, and M.H. Lapham in 1913. It had soil series at the second highest level, with soil classes and soil types at more detailed levels. This was followed by another system in 1938 developed by M. Baldwin, C.E. Kellogg, and J. Thorp. In this system soil series were again at the second lowest level with soil types at the lowest level. The soil type concept was dropped and replaced by the soil phase in the 1950s in a modification of the 1938 Baldwin et al. classification (Simonson, 1997). When Soil Taxonomy was released in 1975, soil series became the most detailed (lowest) level of the classification system, and the only term maintained throughout all U.S. classifications to date. While the number of recognized soil series have increased steadily throughout the history of U.S. soil survey, there was a rapid increase in the recognition of new soil series following the introduction of Soil Taxonomy (Brevik and Hartemink, 2013). References Brevik, E.C., and A.E. Hartemink. 2013. Soil maps of the United States of America. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77:1117-1132. doi:10.2136/sssaj2012.0390. Simonson, R.W. 1997. Evolution of soil series and type concepts in the United States. Advances in Geoecology 29:79-108.

Indorante, Samuel; Beaudette, Dylan; Brevik, Eric C.

2014-05-01

137

Method of estimating the travel time of noninteracting solutes through compacted soil material  

SciTech Connect

The pollutant travel time through compacted soil material (i.e., when a pollutant introduced at the top first appears at the bottom) cannot be accurately predicted from the permeability (saturated hydraulic conductivity) alone. The travel time is also dependent on the effective porosity of the material; i.e., the portion of the total porosity that contributes significantly to fluid flow. Pollutant travel time is directly proportional to effective porosity and thickness of a compacted layer and inversely proportional to permeability and hydraulic gradient. The total porosity is calculated from measurements of bulk and particle density. Pore-size distribution information is obtained from the cumulative porosity curve of the sample as measured by mercury-intrusion porosimeter. The paper also compares measured and predicted solute breakthrough times for three compacted soil materials.

Horton, R.; Thompson, M.L.; McBride, J.F.

1987-01-01

138

Evaluation of Varying Biochars as Carrier Materials for Bacterial Soil Inoculants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The incorporation of biochar into agricultural soils for carbon sequestration and improved soil fertility creates an opportunity to simultaneously deliver plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Many characteristics of biochar materials indicate that these particles could be conducive as inoculum carriers. This could provide a value-added component for biochar marketing and has an advantage over traditional carrier materials, which can be unsustainable or expensive to produce. Here, we assessed the suitability of 10 biochar types, made from 5 feedstocks at 2 pyrolysis temperatures (300°C and 600°C), to serve as carriers for 2 model PGPR strains, Enterobacter cloacae UW5 and Pseudomonas putida UW4. All biochars were characterized based on BET specific surface area, C-N content, pH, EC, and their abilities to adsorb bacterial cells from a liquid inoculum. Further studies incorporated qPCR to quantify the survival of inoculants after introduction into soils via biochar carriers. The biochars that performed well were further assayed for their influence on PGPR traits, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and auxin production. Peat and vermiculite served as traditional carrier materials to which we compared the biochars. Our findings indicated that biochars varied in their interactions with our model PGPR strains. Based on our analysis several biochar types were able to serve as carriers which were as good, if not better than, the traditional carrier materials. Future work should seek to assess shelf life and varying inoculation methods for the biochar-inoculant complexes.

Hale, Lauren; Crowley, David

2014-05-01

139

Experimental study of bentonite-soil mixtures as anti-seepage materials of constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

In this study, mixtures of different kinds of bentonite and soil were used and tested in order to find a cheap alternative to current anti-seepage materials for constructed wetlands. The anti-seepage layer of constructed wetlands was simulated in the experimental study and the permeability coefficient of the mixed materials was determined in order to evaluate the anti-seepage effect of mixtures. The main results are as follows: (i) The minimum mass ratio of bentonite to soil is 10%; (ii) Within a certain range, the more compact and higher the wet density is, then the better anti-seepage effect is (under the condition of certain moisture content). The permeability coefficient of the mixed materials exponentially increased with the increase of wet density; (iii) At the wet density of 1.83 g/cm(3), corresponding with the optimum compactness, the mixture of natural sodium bentonite produced in Wyoming, USA and soil from Cangzhou, Hebei province showed the best anti-seepage performance; (iv) The impermeability of the mixture with smaller particle sizes of bentonite was far better than that with the bigger particle sizes; (v) The hydration effect of bentonite changed the structure of the mixture materials into a special structure that is similar to that of pure bentonite. The particles of the mixture became expanded under SEM investigation and the mixture became more compact, which could have the same or similar effect as pure bentonite for anti-seepage. PMID:21644149

Chen, Jing; Li, Zifu; Zhao, Xin; Li, Haihan

2011-01-01

140

Orientation Booklet for Parents Enrolled in Parent Education Cooperative Groups. Columbia Basin College Parent Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides parents with information to help them get the most from their enrollment in parent education cooperative groups. Orientation information is presented for both the Parent Walkabout/Parent Toddler Programs and the Parent Cooperative Preschool Programs at Columbia Basin College (CBC), Washington. Informative material on the…

Debban, Barbara, Comp.; And Others

141

Digital Soil Mapping - An Introductory Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Real soil-landscapes are complex,consisting of aninextricable mix of patterns and noise varying continuously in the space-time continuum. Soils and parent material show gradual variations in the horizontal and verticalplanes forming 3D bodies that are commonly,anisotropic. There is no real beginning ,and ,end ,point in soil-landscapes because ,environmental ,conditions are dynamically changed through water flow, biogeochemical processes, and human activities.

P. Lagacherie; A. B. McBratney; M. Voltz; S. Grunwald; V. Ramasundaram; N. B. Comerford; C. M. Bliss

142

Biochemical properties of vineyard soils in Galicia, Spain.  

PubMed

In the present study we investigated changes in soil biochemical activity in vineyard soils. With this aim, soil samples (0-10 cm) from 15 vineyard soils developed on diverse parent materials were collected during winter. All soil samples were analysed for a large number of both general and specific biochemical properties. The values of all of the biochemical parameters analysed were extremely low, between 3 and 39% of the usual values obtained for native Galician soils under climax vegetation. To estimate the level of biochemical quality of vineyard soils, while avoiding the problem of comparing soils with totally different organic matter contents, a biochemical equilibrium equation was used. The results showed that vineyard soils are highly degraded soils, for which in the most extreme cases, the value of the biochemical equilibrium index was 13%, i.e. almost 8 times lower that in high quality soils such as climax soils. PMID:17316764

Miguéns, Tamara; Leirós, M A Carmen; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

2007-05-25

143

Electrokinetic removal of charged contaminant species from soil and other media using moderately conductive adsorptive materials  

DOEpatents

Method for collecting and concentrating charged species, specifically, contaminant species in a medium, preferably soil. The method utilizes electrokinesis to drive contaminant species into and through a bed adjacent to a drive electrode. The bed comprises a moderately electrically conductive adsorbent material which is porous and is infused with water or other solvent capable of conducting electrical current. The bed material, preferably activated carbon, is easily removed and disposed of. Preferably, where activated carbon is used, after contaminant species are collected and concentrated, the mixture of activated carbon and contaminant species is removed and burned to form a stable and easily disposable waste product.

Lindgren, Eric R. (Albuquerque, NM); Mattson, Earl D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2001-01-01

144

Singletree influences on soil properties in agroforestry: lessons from natural forest and savanna ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate, organisms, topographic relief, and parent material interacting through time are the dominant factors that control\\u000a processes of soil formation and determine soil properties. In both forest and savanna ecosystems, trees affect soil properties\\u000a through several pathways. Trees alter inputs to the soil system by increasing capture of wetfall and dryfall and by adding\\u000a to soil N via N2-fixation. They

C. C. Rhoades

1996-01-01

145

Phosphorus Sorption-Desorption Characteristics of Selected Acid Upland Soils in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) sorption-desorption isotherms were studied in several acid upland soils developed from different parent materials in Indonesia. The soils varied in their chemical and physical properties. P sorption characteristics were satisfactorily described by the Langmuir equation, which was used to determine P sorption maxima and bonding energies. The soils varied widely in their capacity to sorb P. P sorption

Arief Hartono; Shinya Funakawa; Takashi Kosaki

2005-01-01

146

Trace element geochemistry of soils and plants in Kenyan conservation areas and implications for wildlife nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace element concentrations in soils, plants and animals in National Parks and Wildlife Reserves in Kenya are assessed using geochemical mapping techniques. Soil trace element concentrations are shown to be related to soil parent material and possibly to pedological and hydrological factors. At Lake Nakuru National Park, plant trace element concentrations vary with plant species and the geochemical conditions that

John Maskall; Iain Thornton

1991-01-01

147

Pedogenesis in a soil catena on serpentinite in north-western Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serpentinite is a fairly common parent material for soils of the Alps and Apennines in Italy. In the Apennines these soils may show very different degrees of development even over small areas. This work was undertaken to study the pedogenesis on a soil catena occurring on a very small hill, with a particular attention to the clay mineral transformations. The

E. Bonifacio; E. Zanini; V. Boero; M. Franchini-Angela

1997-01-01

148

The Effectiveness of Audiovisual Self-Instructional Materials in Teaching ChildCare Skills to Parents with Intellectual Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children of parents with intellectual disabilities are at risk for neglectful care due to parenting skill deficiencies. Previous studies have shown that parents with intellectual disabilities can improve child-care skills with intensive behavioral training, but self-instruction has not been explored. We evaluated the efficacy of self-instructional pictorial child-care manuals with and without accompanying audiotaped instruction using a multielement design with

Maurice A. Feldman; Laurie Case

1997-01-01

149

Parents' Regulation and Self-Regulation and Performance in Children with Intellectual Disability in Problem-Solving Using Physical Materials or Computers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared mothers and fathers' regulation with respect to 29 children with intellectual disability (ID) and 30 typically developing (TD) children, matched on their mental age (MA), as they solved eight tasks using physical materials and computers. Seven parents' regulatory strategies were coded as they supported their child's…

Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Lefevre, Nathalie

2012-01-01

150

Rehabilitating acid soils for increasing crop productivity through low-cost liming material.  

PubMed

Productivity of red and lateritic soils is low because of their acidity and deficiencies in few essential nutrients viz., nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, boron, molybdenum etc. We compared the effectiveness of basic slag, a low-cost liming material, with that of calcite as an ameliorant for these soils using mustard followed by rice as test crops. Experiments were conducted with three levels of each of basic slag and calcite along with a control on farmers' fields at 14 different locations. Influence of farmyard manure (FYM) and poultry manure (PM) on the effectiveness of the slag was also tested. On an average, basic slag performed better than calcite in increasing yields of both mustard and rice and left over higher amounts of available Ca, Si and Zn in residual soils. The slag also improved N, P, K and Ca nutrition of mustard and Si and Zn nutrition of rice with a favorable benefit:cost (B:C) ratio over the calcite (4.82 vs. 1.44). Effectiveness of the basic slag improved when it was applied in combination with FYM or PM (B:C, 5.83 and 6.27). Basic slag can, therefore, be advocated for use in the acidic red and lateritic soils for economically improving their productivity. PMID:20659758

Bhat, Javid Ahmad; Kundu, Manik Chandra; Hazra, Gora Chand; Santra, Gour Hari; Mandal, Biswapati

2010-09-15

151

Mass Transport within Soils  

SciTech Connect

Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated zone with three major horizons, the saturated zone can be further divided into other zones based on hydraulic and geologic conditions. Wetland soils are a special and important class in which near-saturation conditions exist most of the time. When a contaminant is added to or formed in a soil column, there are several mechanisms by which it can be dispersed, transported out of the soil column to other parts of the environment, destroyed, or transformed into some other species. Thus, to evaluate or manage any contaminant introduced to the soil column, one must determine whether and how that substance will (1) remain or accumulate within the soil column, (2) be transported by dispersion or advection within the soil column, (3) be physically, chemically, or biologically transformed within the soil (i.e., by hydrolysis, oxidation, etc.), or (4) be transported out of the soil column to another part of the environment through a cross-media transfer (i.e., volatilization, runoff, ground water infiltration, etc.). These competing processes impact the fate of physical, chemical, or biological contaminants found in soils. In order to capture these mechanisms in mass transfer models, we must develop mass-transfer coefficients (MTCs) specific to soil layers. That is the goal of this chapter. The reader is referred to other chapters in this Handbook that address related transport processes, namely Chapter 13 on bioturbation, Chapter 15 on transport in near-surface geological formations, and Chapter 17 on soil resuspention. This chapter addresses the following issues: the nature of soil pollution, composition of soil, transport processes and transport parameters in soil, transformation processes in soil, mass-balance models, and MTCs in soils. We show that to address vertical heterogeneity in soils in is necessary to define a characteristic scaling depth and use this to establish process-based expressions for soil MTCs. The scaling depth in soil and the corresponding MTCs depend strongly on (1) the composition of the soil and physical state of the soil, (2) the chemical and physic

McKone, Thomas E.

2009-03-01

152

Serpentine Soil Redness, Differences among Peridotite and Serpentinite Materials, Klamath Mountains, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peridotite soils were perceived to be redder than serpentinite soils. These redness differences were confirmed by relating soil redness to bedrock specific gravities and to heavy mineral concentrations in fine sand fractions of soils. The redness differences are explained by mineralogical differences between peridotite and serpentinite. Soil redness in well-drained soils of the Klamath Mountains is closely related to free

E. B. Alexander

2004-01-01

153

A soil-inventory of agricultural used soils of Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of UNFCCC reports for greenhouse gas emissions of land use and land use change also soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes of have to be reported. Since 1990 a forest soil inventory exists for Germany, but similar data are still missing for agricultural land. Up till now, a very rough estimation of the soil organic carbon stocks based on the soil map of Germany at the scale of 1:1,000,000 and estimated soil organic carbon contents and bulk densities have been used for the national inventory reports. Now we are starting an extended agricultural soil inventory for Germany which is explicitly designed to detect soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes. We will use a grid of 8x8 km, like it was used for the forest soil inventory. In order to extrapolate from point data and perform regionalisations, not only soil type, soil parent material and basic climate parameters will be taken into account, but under agricultural land use different agricultural management practices will be considered. Management data, like crop rotation, depth and intensity of soil tillage and application of fertilizers, manure and composts are collected from farmers during the inventory via questionnaires. It was shown that those data are essential to estimate and extrapolate point data to report soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes on regional scale. The concept of this soil carbon inventory will be presented.

Siebner, Clemens; Gensior, Andreas; Evertsbusch, Sven; Freibauer, Annette; Flessa, Heiner

2010-05-01

154

Development of construction materials like concrete from lunar soils without water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of construction materials such as concrete from lunar soils without the use of water requires a different methodology than that used for conventional terrestrial concrete. A unique approach is attempted that utilizes factors such as initial vacuum and then cyclic loading to enhance the mechanical properties of dry materials similar to those available on the moon. The application of such factors is expected to allow reorientation, and coming together, of particles of the materials toward the maximum theoretical density. If such a density can provide deformation and strength properties for even a limited type of construction, the approach can have significant application potential, although other factors such as heat and chemicals may be needed for specific construction objectives.

Desai, Chandra S.; Saadatmanesh, H.; Frantziskonis, G.

1989-01-01

155

Reflectance and Mossbauer spectroscopy of ferrihydrite-montmorillonite assemblages as Mars soil analog materials.  

PubMed

Spectroscopic analyses show that Fe(3+)-doped smectites prepared in the laboratory exhibit important similarities to the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite has been identified as the interlayer ferric component in Fe(3+)-doped smectites by a low quadrupole splitting and magnetic field strength of approximately 48 tesla in Mossbauer spectra measured at 4.2 K, as well as a crystal field transition at 0.92 micrometer. Ferrihydrite in these smectites explains features in the visible-near infrared region that resemble the energies and band strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. Clay silicates have met resistance in the past as Mars soil analogs because terrestrial clay silicates exhibit prominent hydrous spectral features at 1.4, 1.9, and 2.2 micrometers; and these are observed weakly, if at all, in reflectance spectra of Mars. However, several mechanisms can weaken or compress these features, including desiccation under low-humidity conditions. The hydration properties of the interlayer cations also effect band strengths, such that a ferrihydrite-bearing smectite in the Martian environment would exhibit a 1.9 micrometers H2O absorption that is even weaker than the 2.2 micrometers structural OH absorption. Mixing experiments demonstrate that infrared spectral features of clays can be significantly suppressed and that the reflectance can be significantly darkened by mixing with only a few percent of a strongly absorbing opaque material. Therefore, the absolute reflectance of a soil on Mars may be disproportionately sensitive to a minor component. For this reason, the shape and position of spectral features and the chemical composition of potential analogs are of utmost importance in assessing the composition of the soil on Mars. Given the remarkable similarity between visible-infrared reflectance spectra of soils in bright regions on Mars and Fe(3+)-doped montmorillonites, coupled with recent observations of smectites in SNC meteorites and a weak 2.2 micrometers absorption in some Mars soils, ferrihydrite-bearing smectites warrant serious consideration as a Mars soil analog. PMID:11539454

Bishop, J L; Pieters, C M; Burns, R G

1993-01-01

156

Soil and building material as main sources of indoor radon in B?i?a-?tei radon prone area (Romania).  

PubMed

Radon contributes to over than 50% of the natural radiation dose received by people. In radon risk areas this contribution can be as high as 90-95%, leading to an exposure to natural radiation 5-10 times higher than normal. This work presents results from radon measurements (indoor, soil and exhalation from building materials) in B?i?a-?tei, a former uranium exploitation area in NW Romania. In this region, indoor radon concentrations found were as high as 5000 Bq m(-3) and soil radon levels ranged from 20 to 500 kBq m(-3). An important contribution from building materials to indoor radon was also observed. Our results indicate two independent sources of indoor radon in the surveyed houses of this region. One source is coming from the soil and regular building materials, and the second source being uranium waste and local radium reached material used in building construction. The soil as source of indoor radon shows high radon potential in 80% of the investigated area. Some local building materials reveal high radon exhalation rate (up to 80 mBq kg(-1) h(-1) from a sandy-gravel material, ten times higher than normal material). These measurements were used for the radon risk classification of this area by combining the radon potential of the soil with the additional component from building materials. Our results indicate that B?i?a-?tei area can be categorized as a radon prone area. PMID:23164693

Cosma, Constantin; Cuco?-Dinu, Alexandra; Papp, Botond; Begy, Robert; Sainz, Carlos

2013-02-01

157

Particle-size effect on the rate of nitrification of nitrogen fertilizer materials, with special reference to ammonium-fixing soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under favourable moisture and temperature conditions most arable soils have the capacity to nitrify the ammonium form of nitrogen, which is either formed on the microbial break-down of the soil organic matter or is added to the soil with fertilizing materials. The rate of this enzymatic reaction may vary considerably, however. Among the ecological factors the pH of the soil,

Hans Nõmmik

1966-01-01

158

Soils, time, and primate paleoenvironments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils are the skin of the earth. From both poles to the equator, wherever rocks or sediment are exposed at the surface, soils are forming through the physical and chemical action of climate and living organisms. The physical attributes (color, texture, thickness) and chemical makeup of soils vary considerably, depending on the composition of the parent material and other variables: temperature, rainfall and soil moisture, vegetation, soil fauna, and the length of time that soil-forming processes have been at work. United States soil scientists1 have classified modern soils into ten major groups and numerous subgroups, each reflecting the composition and architecture of the soils and, to some extent, the processes that led to their formation. The physical and chemical processes of soil formation have been active throughout geologic time; the organic processes have been active at least since the Ordovician.2 Consequently, nearly all sedimentary rocks that were deposited in nonmarine settings and exposed to the elements contain a record of ancient, buried soils or paleosols. A sequence of these rocks, such as most ancient fluvial (stream) deposits, provides a record of soil paleoenvironments through time. Paleosols are also repositories of the fossils of organisms (body fossils) and the traces of those organisms burrowing, food-seeking, and dwelling activities (ichnofossils). Indeed, most fossil primates are found in paleosols. Careful study of ancient soils gives new, valuable insights into the correct temporal reconstruction of the primate fossil record and the nature of primate paleoenvironments. ?? 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Bown, T. M.; Kraus, M. J.

1993-01-01

159

[Parenting Renewal. Leaflet and Lessons for Parents of Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional materials on parenting skills for parents of adolescents are provided, with teaching guides for extension service agents. Organized as a series of five leaflets followed by five corresponding lessons, leaflets for parents concern: (1) a review of parenting skills and an overview of the course of instruction; (2) evolution:…

Clemson Univ., SC. Cooperative Extension Service.

160

Investigation on relationships between soil, plant and geomorphology units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil is a function of factors such as relief, climate, parent material, vegetation and time. Geomorphology as a complex of items such as slope, height and aspect has a high relationship with vegetation. An area of about 82,605 hectars was chosen in southern slope of Albors Mountains in Damghan. To study the relationship between soil, vegetation cover and geomorphologic units

AZARNIVAND Hossein

161

Sorption/desorption reversibility of phenanthrene in soils and carbonaceous materials  

SciTech Connect

Sorption/desorption of phenanthrene in two soil samples and carbonaceous materials was found to yield co-incident equilibrium isotherms and no significant hysteresis was observed. Additionally, release of native phenanthrene was investigated. Equilibrium sorption and desorption isotherms were determined using pulverized samples of Pahokee peat, lignite, and high-volatile bituminous coal, a mineral soil, and an anthropogenic soil. Instead of the conventional decant-and-refill batch method, sorption/desorption was driven by temperature changes using consistent samples. Sorption started at 77{sup o}C and was increased by reducing the temperature stepwise to 46, 20, and finally 4{sup o}C. For desorption the temperature was increased stepwise again until 77{sup o}C was reached. Besides the co-incident sorption and desorption isotherms at each temperature step, the solubility-normalized sorption/desorption isotherms of all different temperatures collapse to unique overall isotherms. Leaching of native phenanthrene occurred at much lower concentrations but was well predicted by extrapolation of the spiked sorption isotherms indicating that the release of native phenanthrene involves the same sorption/desorption mechanisms as those for newly added phenanthrene. 35 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Guohui Wang; Sybille Kleineidam; Peter Grathwohl [University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany). Center for Applied Geoscience

2007-02-15

162

Mineral materials as feasible amendments to stabilize heavy metals in polluted urban soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four minerals, agricultural limestone (AL), rock phosphate (RP), palygorskite (PG), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), were evaluated by means of chemical fractions of heavy metals in soils and concentrations of heavy metals in leachates from columns to determine their ability to stabilize heavy metals in polluted urban soils. Two urban soils (calcareous soil and acidic soil) polluted with cadmium, copper,

Mingkui Zhang; Jincheng Pu

2011-01-01

163

Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

Horner, John R.

164

Soil Textural Contrast as a Geofactor in Soil Formation, Bogowonto Watershed, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological aspect is considered crucial among the other factors in soil formation. Weathered rock as a geofactor will contribute much in forming the soil. Weathered rock is able to affect the basic characteristics of soil. One of the basic soil characteristics that would be intensively discussed here is soil texture. The presence of textural contrast in a soil profile implicates that there is a weathering activity. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyze the function of different rocks (lithology) related to soil textural contrast as a geofactor in soil formation. Jebol sub-catchment is one of water dividing in Bogowonto watershed. It is strongly influenced by 6 geological formations. They are old-andesitic formation, andesitic intrusion, halang formation, old Sumbing volcano formation, young Sumbing volcano formation, and alluvium. Different geological formation results different weathered rock. The focus in this research was on old-Sumbing volcano formation (Qsmo). Volcanic activities produced pyroclastic deposit. Multi-layer of old volcano materials provided specific parent material for soils. The methods applied in this research are fieldwork and laboratory analysis. All of the analysis was based on the common traditional concept of vertical texture contrast (VTC) in pedology. Direct assessment of soil texture was conducted during the field. Laboratory analysis, then, was considered to verify the field results. Five soil samples were taken for investigating. Each soil sample was expected as a representative of each rock. They were developed from volcanic air fall deposition (ash & lapilli), laharic sediment, and andesitic intrusion. The results showed that: (1) the soil profile was strongly provided by typical parent material from weathered rock. In multiple layers of parent material, the most-upper deposition would become parent material for soil; (2) volcanic air fall deposition was dominated by silty soil; (3) laharic sediment formed sandy soil; (4) intrusion rock resulted loamy and clay soil; (5) the soil texture variability in a profile is mostly emphasized by operating downwards of water percolation. The relative texture contrast in various horizons of the profile increased with clay illuviation process.

Pulungan, Nur Ainun Harlin Jennie; Geitner, Clemens; Stötter, Johann; Sartohadi, Junun

2014-05-01

165

Biotic carbon feedbacks in a materially closed soil-vegetation-atmosphere system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude and direction of the coupled feedbacks between the biotic and abiotic components of the terrestrial carbon cycle is a major source of uncertainty in coupled climate-carbon-cycle models. Materially closed, energetically open biological systems continuously and simultaneously allow the two-way feedback loop between the biotic and abiotic components to take place, but so far have not been used to their full potential in ecological research, owing to the challenge of achieving sustainable model systems. We show that using materially closed soil-vegetation-atmosphere systems with pro rata carbon amounts for the main terrestrial carbon pools enables the establishment of conditions that balance plant carbon assimilation, and autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration fluxes over periods suitable to investigate short-term biotic carbon feedbacks. Using this approach, we tested an alternative way of assessing the impact of increased CO2 and temperature on biotic carbon feedbacks. The results show that without nutrient and water limitations, the short-term biotic responses could potentially buffer a temperature increase of 2.3°C without significant positive feedbacks to atmospheric CO2. We argue that such closed-system research represents an important test-bed platform for model validation and parameterization of plant and soil biotic responses to environmental changes.

Milcu, Alexandru; Lukac, Martin; Subke, Jens-Arne; Manning, Pete; Heinemeyer, Andreas; Wildman, Dennis; Anderson, Robert; Ineson, Phil

2012-04-01

166

The nature and composition of amorphous material and free oxides in some temperate region and tropical soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amorphous clay separated from pedons of a highly weathered soil previously classified as Oxisol and an Ultisol of the Southern States and, from the surface horizons of an Oxisol and two Andepts of the tropics were studied by chemical, DTA, infrared and X?ray analysis.Considerable amounts of amorphous material, 20–37% in temperate region and 29–40% in tropical soils, were extracted by

K. H. Tan; H. F. Perkins; R. A. McCreery

1970-01-01

167

Isotopic evidence for the eolian origin of quartz and mica in soils developed on volcanic materials in the Canary Archipelago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quartz and mica contents of soils developed on volcanic materials in the Canary Archipelago (Lanzarote, Tenerife, Gomera and La Palma islands), off western Africa are often higher in surficial horizons with higher rainfall and older landscape age. The soil quartz particles are fine-grained (less than 53 ?m in diameter) and well-sorted. The oxygen isotopic abundance (?18OSMOW) of fine aerosol-sized quartz

Chitoshi Mizota; Yukihiro Matsuhisa

1995-01-01

168

Parent Soup  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Parent Soup is an online community for parents. It dubs itself the "neighborhood's favorite kitchen table" where parents can exchange views in discussion groups or talk with one another in the chat room. The concept of a virtual community can be seen in the Parents' Pick area where parents share their opinions on books, baby products, toys, computers, web sites and movies. Parent Soup members can find other Parent Soupers who share their interests, hobbies and concerns through personal profiles posted on "cyberfridges." The site also features a parenting library with information in sixteen major topics and a Baby Name Finder with information on more than 5,000 names.

169

Influence of soil aggregation on slope stability in the Oregon Coast Ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major cohesionless soil series of the central Coast Ranges of Oregon were examined for soil and hydrologic properties.\\u000a Although derived from different parent material, the Bohannon and Klickitat series exhibited nearly identical values of soil\\u000a and hydrologic properties. Aggregation in both soils was found to be the most important property, for it influences shear\\u000a strength and subsurface water movement,

Carlton S. Yee; R. Dennis Harr

1977-01-01

170

A framework for assessing ecological risks of petroleum-derived materials in soil  

SciTech Connect

Ecological risk assessment estimates the nature and likelihood of effects of human actions on nonhuman organisms, populations, and ecosystems. It is intended to be clearer and more rigorous in its approach to estimation of effects and uncertainties than previously employed methods of ecological assessment. Ecological risk assessment is characterized by a standard paradigm that includes problem formulation, analysis of exposure and effects, risk characterization, and communication with a risk manager. This report provides a framework that applies the paradigm to the specific problem of assessing the ecological risks of petroleum in soil. This type of approach requires that assessments be performed in phases: (1) a scoping assessment to determine whether there is a potential route of exposure for potentially significant ecological receptors; (2) a screening assessment to determine whether exposures could potentially reach toxic levels; and (3) a definitive assessment to estimate the nature, magnitude, and extent of risks. The principal technical issue addressed is the chemically complex nature of petroleum--a complexity that may be dealt with by assessing risks on the basis of properties of the whole material, properties of individual chemicals that are representative of chemical classes, distributions of properties of the constituents of chemical classes, properties of chemicals detected in the soil, and properties of indicator chemicals. The advantages and feasibility of these alternatives are discussed. The report concludes with research recommendations for improving each stage in the assessment process.

Suter, G.W. II

1997-05-01

171

Reclamation with recovery of radionuclides and toxic metals from contaminated materials, soils, and wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites. In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded, and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (polyuranate) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

Francis, A. J.; Dodge, C. J.

1993-01-01

172

Effect of Soil Solid-Phase Material Migration on Soil Properties within a Small Watershed Detected Using the Magnetic Tracer Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed detailed studies of the lateral migration of the solid soil material and the soil cover within a small catchment area (Russia, Tula region, Lokna river basin). The main goal of this work is to characterize the migration and accumulation features of the soil solid-phase material within a small watershed and to analyze the effect of the lateral mass transfer on the crucial soil fertility-related properties in the catchment basin under study. The total area of the catchment and the ravine network elements is 96 ha. The catchment basin is drop-shaped; it slightly curves and is latitudinally oriented. The catchment basin's slopes are of southern, eastern, northern, and intermediate exposures with average inclination of 1,5-5 degrees. The magnetic tracer method was used to assess the volumes and rates of the lateral migration of the solid-phase soil material on the selected territory. This method is based on the investigation of the spherical magnetic particles (SMPs), which fall onto the soil cover from the atmosphere, where they arrive at the burning of coals and some other fuels, mostly in steam locomotives. The period of the most intensive emission of SMPs into the soil in the territory of Russia corresponds to the last 100-150 years [1]. The reserve of SMPs in the 0- to 25-cm layer is estimated to be 3.8 g/m2on the least eroded sub-horizontal surface. The zones with the concentration of SMPs lower than their average content on the least eroded surface were characterized as dispersion zones. The zones of the basin with significant exceeding the value of 3.8 g/m2 were marked as accumulation zones of the soil solid-phase material. Dispersion zones are found in the middle part of the ridge in the north-eastern area, in the middle part of a longslope in the south-western area of the catchment basin, and other [2]. Accumulation zones are observed in a cup-shaped depression on the plowed slope adjacent to the ravine's head, on steep unplowed slopes of the ravine adjacent to its bottom, on the ravine's bottom, and other [2]. The genesis of these zones is result of the summary effect of the exposure, the inclination, and the slope's length, the spatial interference of the zones, the variability of the carrying capacity of the water flow, etc. The total area of the revealed dispersion zones makes up 35% of the catchment basin; the accumulation zones occupy 26% of the catchment area. The transit-buffer area occupies 39% of the catchment basin. The area proportions of the different functional zones characterize the specific migration structure of the small watershed. [1] Olson K., Gennadiyev A., Zhidkin A., Markelov M., Golosov V., and Lang J. Use of magnetic tracer and radio-cesium methods to determine past cropland soil erosion amounts and rates. Catena 104 (2013), 103-110. [2] Gennadiev A., Koshovskii T., Zhidkin A., and Kovach R. Lateral migration of soil solid-phase material within a landscape-geochemical arena detected using the magnetic tracer method. Eurasian Soil Science 46, 10 (2013), 983-993.

Koshovskii, Timur; Gennadiev, Alexander; Zhidkin, Andrei

2014-05-01

173

Nonassociative plasticity model for cohesionless materials and its implementation in soil-structure interaction  

SciTech Connect

A constitutive model based on rate-independent elastoplasticity concepts is developed and used to simulate the behavior of geologic materials under arbitrary three-dimensional stress paths. The model accounts for various factors such as friction, stress path, and stress history that influence the behavior of geologic materials. A hierarchical approach is adopted whereby models of progressively increasing sophistication are developed from a basic isotropic-hardening associate model. Nonassociativeness is introduced as correction or perturbation to the basic model. Deviation of normality of the plastic-strain increments to the yield surface F is captured through nonassociativeness. The plastic potential Q is obtained by applying a correction to F. This simplified approach restricts the number of extra parameters required to define the plastic potential Q. The material constants associated with the model are identified, and they are evaluated for three different sands (Leighton Buzzard, Munich and McCormick Ranch). The model is then verified by comparing predictions with laboratory tests from which the constants were found, and typical tests not used for finding the constants. Based on the above findings, a soil-footing system is analyzed using finite-element techniques.

Hashmi, Q.S.E.

1987-01-01

174

MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPORT EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC MATERIALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the formulation, numerical development, and use of a multiphase, multicomponent, biodegradation model designed to simulate physical, chemical, and biological interactions occurring primarily in field scale soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (B...

175

Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements (i.e., As, B, and Se), i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation, and/or rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material is applied to soil. Three FGD materials collected from two power plants were used. Our results show Hg released into the air and uptake in grass from all FGD material-treated soils were all higher (P < 0.1) than the amounts observed from untreated soil. Hg in the soil amended with the FGD material collected from a natural oxidation wet scrubber (i.e., SNO) was more readily released to air compared to the other two FGD materials collected from the synthetic gypsum dewatering vacuum belt (i.e., AFO-gypsum) and the waste water treatment plant (i.e., AFO-CPS) of a forced oxidation FGD system. No Hg was detected in the leachates collected during the only 3-hour, 1-inch rainfall event that occurred throughout the 4-week testing period. For every kilogram of FGD material applied to soil, AFO-CPS released the highest amount of Hg, B, and Se, followed by SNO, and AFO gypsum. Based on the same energy production rate, the land application of SNO FGD material from Plant S released higher amounts of Hg and B into ambient air and/or grass than the amounts released when AFO-gypsum from Plant A was used. Using FGD material with lower concentration levels of Hg and other elements of concern does not necessary post a lower environmental risk. In addition, this study demonstrates that considering only the amounts of trace elements uptake in surface vegetation may under estimate the overall release of the trace elements from FGD material-amended soils. It also shows, under the same soil amendment conditions, the mobility of trace elements varies when FGD materials produced from different processes are used. PMID:22442930

Cheng, Chin-Min; Chang, Yung-Nan; Sistani, Karamat R; Wang, Yen-Wen; Lu, Wen-Chieh; Lin, Chia-Wei; Dong, Jing-Hong; Hu, Chih-Chung; Pan, Wei-Ping

2012-02-01

176

Parent Resources Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide provides an annotated bibliography of 101 articles and newsletters of interest to parents and teachers of children in preschool through grade 3. The bibliography contains the titles and short descriptions of materials, selected with the assistance of parents and teachers from across Alberta (Canada), on a wide range of topics…

Alberta Education Response Centre, Edmonton.

177

Forest-Pasture Soils of the Tara, Zlatibor, Povlen and Maljen Mountains (Sumsko-Pasnjacka Zemljista Tare, Zlatibora, Povlena i Maljena).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The soils of the Tara, Zlatibor, Maljen and Povlen Mountains are described. The dominant factors in the formation of the soils of this highland region are the parent materials and climate. Soils on serpentine differ in depth and skeletal content. They are...

V. Nikodijevic Z. Aleksic

1974-01-01

178

Diffusion of iodine and Technetium-99 through waste encasement concrete and unsaturated soil fill material  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of long-term performance of low level waste-enclosing cement grouts requires diffusivity data for radionuclide species such as, 129I and 99Tc. The diffusivity of radionuclides in soil and concrete media was collected by conducting soil-soil and concrete-soil half-cell experiments. The soil diffusivity coefficients for iodide were 7.03 x 10-8 cm2/s and 2.42 x 10-7 cm2/s for soils at 4% and 7% moisture contents, respectively. Iodide diffusivity in soil is a function of moisture content and is about an order of magnitude slower at lower moisture content. The soil diffusivity coefficients for 99Tc were 5.89 {+-} 0.80 x 10-8 cm2/s (4% moisture content) and 2.04 {+-} 0.57 x 10-7 cm2/s (7% moisture content), respectively. The soil diffusivity of iodide and 99Tc were similar in magnitude at both water contents, indicating that these ions have similar diffusion mechanisms in unsaturated coarse-textured Hanford soil. The diffusivity of iodide in concrete ranged from 2.07 x 10-14 cm2/s (4% soil moisture content) to 1.31 x 10-12 cm2/s (7% soil moisture content), indicating that under unsaturated soil moisture conditions, iodide diffusivity is highly sensitive to changing soil moisture conditions. Depending on the soil moisture content, the diffusivity of 99Tc in concrete ranged from 4.54 x 10-13 cm2/s to 8.02 x 10-12 cm2/s. At 4% soil moisture content, iodide diffused about 20 times more slowly than 99Tc, and at 7% soil moisture content, iodide in concrete diffused about 6 times slower than 99Tc.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Wood, Marcus I.; John M. Hanchar, Simcha Stores-Gascoyne, Lauren Browning

2004-10-30

179

Production of root-derived material and associated microbial growth in soil at different nutrient levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize plants were grown for 42 days in a sandy soil at two different mineral nutrient levels, in an atmosphere containing 14CO2. The 14C and total carbon contents of shoots, roots, soil and soil microbial biomass were measured 28, 35 and 42 days after germination. Relative growth rates of shoots and roots decreased after 35 days at the lower nutrient

R. Merckx; A. Dijkstra; A. den Hartog; J. A. Veen

1987-01-01

180

Effects of coarse-grained material on hydraulic properties and shear strength of top soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sidewalk failures associated with top soil of low shear strength are a common problem in urban areas. Mixing top soil with granite chips can be used to increase its permeability and shear strength. The effects of mixing granite chips with top soils on the hydraulic properties and shear strength under saturated and unsaturated conditions were investigated in this study. The

H. Rahardjo; I. G. B. Indrawan; E. C. Leong; W. K. Yong

2008-01-01

181

Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements (i.e., As, B, and Se), i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation, and\\/or rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material is applied to soil. Three FGD materials collected from two power plants were used. Our results show Hg released into

Chin-Min Cheng; Yung-Nan Chang; Karamat R. Sistani; Yen-Wen Wang; Wen-Chieh Lu; Chia-Wei Lin; Jing-Hong Dong; Chih-Chung Hu; Wei-Ping Pan

2012-01-01

182

The Stress Corrosion Resistance and the Cryogenic Temperature Mechanical Behavior of 18-3 Mn (Nitronic 33) Stainless Steel Parent and Welded Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ambient and cryogenic temperature mechanical properties and the ambient temperature stress corrosion results of 18-3 Mn (Nitronic 33)stainless steel, longitudinal and transverse, as received and as welded (TIG) material specimens manufactured from 0.063 inch thick sheet material, were described. The tensile test results indicate an increase in ultimate tensile and yield strengths with decreasing temperature. The elongation remained fairly constant to -200 F, but below that temperature the elongation decreased to less than 6.0% at liquid hydrogen temperature. The notched tensile strength (NTS) for the parent metal increased with decreasing temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature. Below -320 F the NTS decreased rapidly. The notched/unnotched (N/U) tensile ratio of the parent material specimens remained above 0.9 from ambient to -200 F, and decreased to approximately 0.65 and 0.62, respectively, for the longitudinal and transverse directions at liquid hydrogen temperature. After 180 days of testing, only those specimens exposed to the salt spray indicated pitting and some degradation of mechanical properties.

Montano, J. W.

1976-01-01

183

The Remote Identification of Terrain Features and Materials at Pennsylvania Test Sites: An Investigative Study of Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the collection, processing and analysis of multispectral imagery gathered in the spring of 1969 in airborne mapping of site in Pennsylvania. The specific objective was to automatically classify soils of different parent materials fro...

F. G. Sadowski T. W. Wagner P. G. Hasell F. J. Thomson

1974-01-01

184

Soil magnetic susceptibility reflects soil moisture regimes and the adaptability of tree species to these regimes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flooded, saturated or poorly drained soils are frequently anaerobic, leading to dissolution of the strongly magnetic minerals, magnetite and maghemite, and a corresponding decrease in soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). In this study of five temperate deciduous forests in east-central Illinois, USA, mean surface soil MS was significantly higher adjacent to upland tree species (31 ?? 10-5 SI) than adjacent to floodplain or lowland tree species (17 ?? 10-5 SI), when comparing regional soils with similar parent material of loessal silt. Although the sites differ in average soil MS for each tree species, the relative order of soil MS means for associated tree species at different locations is similar. Lowland tree species, Celtis occidentalis L., Ulmus americana L., Acer saccharinum L., Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. were associated with the lowest measured soil MS mean values overall and at each site. Tree species' flood tolerance rankings increased significantly, as soil MS values declined, the published rankings having significant correlations with soil MS values for the same species groups. The three published classifications of tree species' flood tolerance were significantly correlated with associated soil MS values at all sites, but most strongly at Allerton Park, the site with the widest range of soil drainage classes and MS values. Using soil MS measurements in forests with soil parent material containing similar initial levels of strongly magnetic minerals can provide a simple, rapid and quantitative method to classify soils according to hydric regimes, including dry conditions, and associated plant composition. Soil MS values thus have the capacity to quantify the continuum of hydric tolerances of tree species and guide tree species selection for reforestation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang, J. -S.; Grimley, D. A.; Xu, C.; Dawson, J. O.

2008-01-01

185

Soil-forming intervals caused by eolian sediment pulses in the Lahontan basin, northwestern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied a series of Toyeh (post-Isotope Stage 2: <12 ka) soil profiles on high shoreline features in the Lake Lahontan area, selected to provide a transact from upwind to downwind of the Carson Sink, a major postpluvial source of dust. At two localities we also studied Churchill (post-Isotope Stage 6: <130 ka) soil profiles on identical parent materials.

Oliver A. Chadwick; Jonathan O. Davis

1990-01-01

186

Quantitative Relationships Between Net Volume Change and Fabric Properties During Soil Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of soil evolution can be charted by net long-term volume and elemental mass changes for individual horizons compared with parent material. Volume collapse or dilation depends on relative elemental mass fluxes associated with losses form or additions to soil horizons.

Chadwick, O. A.; Nettleton, W. D.

1993-01-01

187

Role of apparent cohesion in the stability of Dominician allophane soil slopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of loss of apparent cohesion from rainwater infiltration upon the stability of partly saturated, allophanic soil slopes of Dominica (West Indies). The parent material of the Dominican allophanic soils are the andesitic and dacitic volcanic rocks from ten volcanic centres of mainly Pleistocene age. Although simplifying assumptions are made to assess the depth of wetting

Sudhakar M. Rao

1996-01-01

188

Parenting Multiples  

MedlinePLUS

... to take care of your babies. Back Continue Parenting Issues With Multiples It can be impossible to ... on it's apparent that their relationship is special. Parenting multiples has its challenges, but the rewards are ...

189

Teen Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... Teen > Dating & Sex > Teen Parents Ages & Stages Listen Teen Parents Article Body A girl who has decided ... prenatal vitamins and iron is so important. Preparing Teens For Parenthood Fears about the future are common ...

190

Continental-scale patterns in soil geochemistry and mineralogy: results from two transects across the United States and Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) initiated a pilot study that involved collection of more than 1500 soil samples from 221 sites along two continental transects across Canada and the United States. The pilot study was designed to test and refine protocols for a soil geochemical survey of North America. The two transects crossed a wide array of soil parent materials, soil ages, climatic conditions, landforms, land covers and land uses. Sample sites were selected randomly at approximately 40-km intervals from a population defined as all soils of the continent. At each site, soils representing 0 to 5 cm depth, and the O, A, and C horizons, if present, were collected and analyzed for their near-total content of over 40 major and trace elements. Soils from 0–5 cm depth were also collected for analysis of organic compounds. Results from the transects confirm that soil samples collected at a 40-km spacing reveal coherent, continental- to subcontinental-scale geochemical and mineralogical patterns that can be correlated to aspects of underlying soil parent material, soil age and climate influence. The geochemical data also demonstrate that at the continental-scale the dominance of any of these major factors that control soil geochemistry can change across the landscape. Along both transects, soil mineralogy and geochemistry change abruptly with changes in soil parent materials. However, the chemical influence of a soil’s parent material can be obscured by changing climatic conditions. For the transects, increasing precipitation from west to east and increasing temperature from north to south affect both soil mineralogy and geochemistry because of climate effects on soil weathering and leaching, and plant productivity. Regional anomalous metal concentrations can be linked to natural variations in soil parent materials, such as high Ni and Cr in soils developed on ultramafic rocks in California or high P in soils formed on weathered Ordovician limestones in central Kentucky. On local scales, anomalous metal concentrations recognized in soil profiles, such as high P in soils from animal confinement sites, are consistent with local anthropogenic disturbances. At a larger scale, the distribution of Hg across the west to east transect demonstrates that it can be difficult to distinguish between natural or anthropogenic contributions and that many factors can contribute to an element’s spatial distribution. Only three samples in a subset of seventy-three 0–5 cm depth soil samples from the north to south transect had organochlorine pesticides values above the method detection limit, apparently related to historic usage of the pesticides DDT and dieldrin.

Woodruff, L. G.; Cannon, W. F.; Eberl, D. D.; Smith, D. B.; Kilburn, J. E.; Horton, J. D.; Garrett, R. G.; Klassen, R. A.

2009-01-01

191

Conserving Soil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as enrichment materials for grades six through nine, this program is an interdisciplinary study of soils. As part of the program students: (1) examine soil organisms; (2) research history of local Native Americans to see how they and others have used the land and its soils; (3) investigate how soils are degraded and how they are conserved…

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

192

Parenting Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parenting is a subject about which people typically hold strong opinions, but about which too little solid information or considered reflection exists. And clearly critical questions about parenting abound. Moreover, the family generally, and parenting specifically, are today in a greater state of flux, question, and re-definition than perhaps…

Bornstein, Marc H.

2005-01-01

193

Valuing Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on the role of parents in the education of their gifted children contains two feature articles. "'Pushy and Domineering': A Stigma Placed on Parents of Gifted Children," by Lynn C. Cole and Roxana M. DellaVecchia, examines how parents are perceived as "pushy and domineering" when they strongly advocate for appropriate education…

Silverman, Linda Kreger, Ed.

1993-01-01

194

Contribution of technic materials to the mobile fraction of metals in urban soils in Marrakech (Morocco)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  In urban areas, soils are often dramatically altered by anthropogenic activity and these modifications distinguish these soils\\u000a (Anthrosols, Technosols) from those in natural systems. In urban environments, they receive considerable pollution from industry,\\u000a traffic and refuse. Since contaminated soil particles can be easily inhaled or ingested, there is a potential transfer of\\u000a toxic pollutants to humans. Risk

Hicham El Khalil; Christophe Schwartz; Ouafae Elhamiani; Jochen Kubiniok; Jean Louis Morel; Ali Boularbah

2008-01-01

195

Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western U.S.A. III. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plant uptake of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from mine soils was assessed using alfalfa Medicago sativa, sainfoin Onobrychis viciaefolia, smooth brome Bromus inermis, crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum, slender wheatgrass A. trachycaulum and intermediate wheatgrass A. intermedium; mine soil (cover-soil and spoil material) samples were collected from rehabilitated areas of 11 western US surface-coal mines in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Correlations between metals in plants and DTPA-extractable metals from mine soils were generally not statistically significant and showed no consistent patterns for a single metal or for a single plant species. Metal uptake by plants, relative to amounts in DTPA extracts of mine soil, was positively related to mine soil organic matter content or negatively related to mine soil pH. DTPA-extractable metal levels were significantly correlated with mine soil pH and organic-matter content.-from Authors

Severson, R. C.; Gough, L. P.

1984-01-01

196

Comparison of American Society of Testing Materials and Soil Science Society of America Hydrometer Methods for Particle-Size Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Particle-size analysis (PSA) is widely used in both soil science and geo-engineering. Soil classification schemes are built on PSA values while recent developments in pedotransfer functions rely on PSA to estimate soil hydraulic properties. Because PSA is method dependent, the standardization of experimental procedures is important for the comparison of reported results. A study was conducted to compare the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) hydrometer method (D422) for particle-size analysis with the hydrometer method published by the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). Tests on soils ranging in texture from sand to a sandy clay loam were conducted at temperatures ranging from 20 C to 30 C. The main difference between methods is the temperature correction, with the ASTM method relying on an empirical correction and the SSSA method using a blank hydrometer reading. Identical texture estimates for all but one sample was observed between methods. Percent fines, silt, and clay demonstrated relatively consistent values between methods. D50 and D30 showed reasonable agreement between methods, with differences of less than 4 percent and 8 percent. For D10 values, the agreement was less satisfactory, with uncertainties of as much as 10 percent. The results suggest that ASTM and SSSA methods can be used interchangeably for textural analysis.

Keller, Jason M.; Gee, Glendon W.

2006-05-31

197

Biodegradation of ? and ? Endosulfan in Soil as Influenced by Application of Different Organic Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of amending soil with four different sources of organic matter on the degradation rate of ? and ? endosulfan isomers. Poultry by-product meal, poultry manure, dairy manure, and municipal solid waste compost were cured, dried, ground (<1 mm) and thoroughly mixed with a calcareous soil at a rate of 2% and

Raghed M. Al-Hassan; Isam I. Bashour; Nasri S. Kawar

2004-01-01

198

Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available

Ingke Rachor; Julia Gebert; Alexander Groengroeft; Eva-Maria Pfeiffer

2011-01-01

199

Heavy Metals and Benzo[a]pyrene in Soils from Construction and Demolition Rubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rubble is an important component in urban soils worldwide, especially in Europe. In Berlin, Germany, rubble composed soils cover about 17% of the total city area and 60% of the inner city. This study assesses the contamination status of rubble soil, particularly for heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The results of 164 soil surveys from Berlin, including more than 2000 analyzed soil samples of topsoils, rubble subsoils, and parent material have been analyzed for typical contamination patterns. The concentrations of all contaminants range over several orders of magnitude and follow negatively skewed log-normal distribution functions. For rubble containing subsoils a proportion of 34, 71, 67, 68, 74, and 61% of the analyzed samples exceed precautionary values of the German Soil Conservation Act, regarding Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg and B[a]P respectively. Similar results were found for topsoils. A minor part of the soils is contaminated with Cd, while Pb and Hg are the most typical contaminants of rubble material. In contrast to topsoils and rubble containing subsoils, the majority of the parent subsoil material is not contaminated. Only low to moderate positive correlations were found between the contaminants. Compared to parent soil material, rubble containing soils show clearly elevated concentrations of heavy metals and B[a]P. As the most characteristic contaminants for rubble are Pb and Hg, these heavy metals should first be analyzed as proxy contaminants.

Abel, Stefan; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd

2014-05-01

200

Comparison of the results of soil profiles' diagnostics performed in three classification systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three soil classification systems—the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), Soil Taxonomy, and the recent Russian system—were used for the identification of 17 soil profiles in southwestern Poland; all the systems put emphasis on the soil properties as diagnostic criteria. Different soils developed on glaciofluvial plains, loessic uplands, and in the Sudetes Mountains were classified. The best correlation between the classification decisions in the different systems was obtained for the most widespread soils owing to the similarity of the diagnostic criteria, which were essentially close although not coinciding. The most prominent divergence between the systems in both the names and the taxonomic categories of the soils was found for the polygenetic soils and for the soils developing from the lithologically discontinuous parent materials. It was also found that the diagnostic elements differ in terms of their taxonomic importance among the classification systems.

Gerasimova, M. I.; Khitrov, N. B.

2012-12-01

201

Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the New Brunswick Site, Middlesex County, New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the New Brunswick Site, located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides of concern and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the New Brunswick Site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. The guidelines derived in this report are intended to apply to the remediation of these remaining residual radioactive materials at the site. The primary radionuclides of concern in these remaining materials are expected to be radium-226 and, to a lesser extent, natural uranium and thorium. The DOE has established generic cleanup guidelines for radium and thorium in soil; however, cleanup guidelines for other radionuclides must be derived on a site-specific basis.

Dunning, D.; Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

1996-02-01

202

Selection of permeable reactive barrier materials for treating acidic groundwater in acid sulphate soil terrains based on laboratory column tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shoalhaven region of NSW experiences environmental acidification due to acid sulphate soils (ASS). In order to trial an\\u000a environmental engineering solution to groundwater remediation involving a permeable reactive barrier (PRB), comprehensive\\u000a site characterisation and laboratory-based batch and column tests of reactive materials were conducted. The PRB is designed\\u000a to perform in situ remediation of the acidic groundwater (pH 3)

Alexandra N. Golab; Mark A. Peterson; Buddhima Indraratna

2009-01-01

203

Production of methyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide from soil-incorporated plant materials and implications for controlling soilborne pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil-incorporated plant materials have been associated with reduction in soilborne pathogens and diseases. Mechanisms of the\\u000a biocidal actions are complex and not well understood. A glasshouse experiment, a non replicated field demonstration, and a\\u000a field experiment were conducted to determine volatile compounds after incorporation of various plant species and their effect\\u000a on pest control. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea), canola (Brassica rapa),

D. Wang; C. Rosen; L. Kinkel; A. Cao; N. Tharayil; J. Gerik

2009-01-01

204

Aspects of the chemical structure of soil organic materials as revealed by solid-state13C NMR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state cross-polarisation\\/magic-angle-spinning3C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP\\/MAS13C NMR) spectroscopy was used to characterise semi-quantitatively the organic materials contained in particle size and density fractions isolated from five different mineral soils: two Mollisols, two Oxisols and an Andosol. The acquired spectra were analysed to determine the relative proportion of carboxyl, aromatic, O-alkyl and alkyl carbon contained in each fraction. Although similar types

J. A. Baldock; J. M. Oades; A. G. Waters; X. Peng; A. M. Vassallo; M. A. Wilson

1992-01-01

205

[Parenting styles].  

PubMed

Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices. PMID:18206067

Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes

2008-02-01

206

Interplay between physical movements of soils and mineral grains and chemical weathering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most soil biogeochemistry studies treat the soils and their inorganic and organic constituents as physically immobile. Those soil materials, however, are in perpetual motion due to the conversion of bedrock to soils, colluvial transport, and vertical mixing by various biophysical perturbations of the soils. Subsequently, a soil is continuously replaced by the materials from the neighboring soils and the underlying parent material, while its individual horizons are gradually mixed with the materials in the neighboring horizons. The movements of bulk soil materials are ultimately driven by moving individual mineral grains. While rarely appreciated, these physical movements of soil's mineral components operate in the presence of strong vertical and topographic gradients of the rates of mineral dissolution and leaching. The result is that the physical movement of soil constituents affects chemical weathering. The fluxes of soil materials (via physical movements and solute fluxes) in and out of a soil system defined by a researcher determine the time length that the materials reside in the system. The residence time, together with the system-specific rates of chemical weathering, determine the degree of weathering of the materials within the system. This presentation provides a new mathematical framework to consistently quantify the residence times of minerals, individual soil horizons, soil profiles, and an entire soil within a watershed boundary. Soil age, which is equivalent of the time length since the cessation of erosion or deposition on level grounds, becomes a special case of the residence time. The model is combined with empirical data to quantitatively illustrate the impacts that the physical motion of soil constituents have on the rates of chemical weathering. The data are drawn from ongoing field and laboratory studies focusing on the impact of river incision, colluvial flux, bioturbation, and agricultural tillage on the vertical and lateral variation of elemental composition within the soils.

Yoo, K.

2007-12-01

207

Fractional composition of redox systems in the soils of coal mine dumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific features of the development of redox systems in the soils of coal mine dumps in Kemerovo oblast were studied. The quantitative characteristics of the fractional composition of the oxidized and reduced components in these soils were obtained, and their heterogeneity was shown. Distribution patterns of the reduced and oxidized components in the parent material of these specific technogenic landscapes in the course of soil evolution were revealed.

Androkhanov, V. A.; Sokolov, D. A.

2012-04-01

208

Method for recovery of hydrocarbons form contaminated soil or refuse materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is provided for separating an inert solid substantially inorganic fraction comprising sand or soil from a tarry or oily organic matter in a feedstock. The feedstock may be contaminated soil or tarry waste. The feedstock is combined with pulverized coal and water. The ratio (oil or tar to dry weight of coal) of about 1.0:10 to about 4.0:10

Teresa Ignasiak; Ali A. Turak; Wanda Pawlak; Boleslaw L. Ignasiak; Carlos R. Guerra; Melvin L. Zwillenberg

1991-01-01

209

Geotechnical characteristics of residual soils  

SciTech Connect

Residual soils are products of chemical weathering and thus their characteristics are dependent upon environmental factors of climate, parent material, topography and drainage, and age. These conditions are optimized in the tropics where well-drained regions produce reddish lateritic soils rich in iron and aluminum sesquioxides and kaolinitic clays. Conversely, poorly drained areas tend towards montmorillonitic expansive black clays. Andosols develop over volcanic ash and rock regions and are rich in allophane (amorphous silica) and metastable halloysite. The geological origins greatly affect the resulting engineering characteristics. Both lateritic soils and andosols are susceptible to property changes upon drying, and exhibit compaction and strength properties not indicative of their classification limits. Both soils have been used successfully in earth dam construction, but attention must be given to seepage control through the weathered rock. Conversely, black soils are unpopular for embankments. Lateritic soils respond to cement stabilization and, in some cases, lime stabilization. Andosols should also respond to lime treatment and cement treatments if proper mixing can be achieved. Black expansive residual soils respond to lime treatment by demonstrating strength gains and decreased expansiveness. Rainfall induced landslides are typical of residual soil deposits.

Townsend, F.C.

1985-01-01

210

Immobilization of Cu, Pb and Zn in mine-contaminated soils using reactive materials.  

PubMed

Immobilization processes were used to chemically stabilize soil contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn from mine tailings and industrial impoundments. We examined the effectiveness of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), phosphoric acid and MgO at immobilizing Cu, Pb and Zn in soil contaminated by either mine tailings or industrial and mine wastes. The effectiveness was evaluated using column leaching experiments and geochemical modelling, in which we assessed possible mechanisms for metal immobilization using PHREEQC and Medusa numerical codes. Experimental results showed that Cu was mobilized in all the experiments, whereas Pb immobilization with H(3)PO(4) may have been related to the precipitation of chloropyromorphite. Thus, the Pb concentrations of leachates of pure mining and industrial contaminated soils (32-410 ?g/l and 430-1000 ?g/l, respectively) were reduced to 1-60 and 3-360 ?g/l, respectively, in the phosphoric acid experiment. The mobilization of Pb at high alkaline conditions, when Pb(OH)(4)(-) is the most stable species, may be the main obstacle to the use of OPC and MgO in the immobilization of this metal. In the mining- and industry-contaminated soil, Zn was retained by OPC but removed by MgO. The experiments with OPC showed the Zn decrease in the leachates of mining soil from 226-1960 ?g/l to 92-121 ?g/l. In the industrial contaminated soil, the Zn decrease in the leachates was most elevated, showing >2500 ?g/l in the leachates of contaminated soil and 76-173 ?g/l in the OPC experiment. Finally, when H(3)PO(4) was added, Zn was mobilized. PMID:21190796

Navarro, Andrés; Cardellach, Esteve; Corbella, Mercé

2011-02-28

211

Valuing Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, a young faculty member commented that e-mail and inexpensive long distance rates were hampering her first-year students' development by making it too easy for them to stay in touch with their parents. Similarly, Judith Shapiro, president of Barnard College, argued in her August 22, 2002, New York Times op-ed piece, "Keeping Parents Off…

Gerdes, Eugenia Proctor

2004-01-01

212

Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials from Simulated Composition of Lunar and Martian Soils: Selected Properties and Potential Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In-situ resource processing and utilization on planetary bodies is an important and integral part of NASA's space exploration program. Within this scope and context, our general effort is primarily aimed at developing glass and glass-ceramic type materials using lunar and martian soils, and exploring various applications of these materials for planetary surface operations. Our preliminary work to date have demonstrated that glasses can be successfully prepared from melts of the simulated composition of both lunar and martian soils, and the melts have a viscosity-temperature window appropriate for drawing continuous glass fibers. The glasses are shown to have the potential for immobilizing certain types of nuclear wastes without deteriorating their chemical durability and thermal stability. This has a direct impact on successfully and economically disposing nuclear waste generated from a nuclear power plant on a planetary surface. In addition, these materials display characteristics that can be manipulated using appropriate processing protocols to develop glassy or glass-ceramic magnets. Also discussed in this presentation are other potential applications along with a few selected thermal, chemical, and structural properties as evaluated up to this time for these materials.

Ray, C. S.; Sen, S.; Reis, S. T.; Kim, C. W.

2005-01-01

213

Suppression of Boride Formation in Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Pairings of Parent Superalloy Materials with Different Compositions and Grain Structures and Resulting Mechanical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Ni-based superalloys, columnar grained Alloy 247 and single-crystal PWA1483, are joined by transient liquid phase bonding using an amorphous brazing foil containing boron as a melting point depressant. At lower brazing temperatures, two different morphologies of borides develop in both base materials: plate-like and globular ones. Their ratio to each other is temperature dependent. With very high brazing temperatures, the deleterious boride formation in Alloy 247 can be totally avoided, probably because the three-phase-field moves to higher alloying element contents. For the superalloy PWA1483, the formation of borides cannot be completely avoided at high brazing temperatures as incipient melting occurs. During subsequent solidification of these areas, Chinese-script-like borides precipitate. The mechanical properties (tensile tests at room and elevated temperatures and short-term creep rupture tests at elevated temperatures) for brazed samples without boride precipitation are very promising. Tensile strengths and creep times to 1 pct strain are comparable, respectively, higher than the ones of the weaker parent material for all tested temperatures and creep conditions (from 90 to 100 pct rsp. 175 to 250 pct).

Steuer, Susanne; Singer, Robert F.

2014-04-01

214

Suppression of Boride Formation in Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Pairings of Parent Superalloy Materials with Different Compositions and Grain Structures and Resulting Mechanical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Ni-based superalloys, columnar grained Alloy 247 and single-crystal PWA1483, are joined by transient liquid phase bonding using an amorphous brazing foil containing boron as a melting point depressant. At lower brazing temperatures, two different morphologies of borides develop in both base materials: plate-like and globular ones. Their ratio to each other is temperature dependent. With very high brazing temperatures, the deleterious boride formation in Alloy 247 can be totally avoided, probably because the three-phase-field moves to higher alloying element contents. For the superalloy PWA1483, the formation of borides cannot be completely avoided at high brazing temperatures as incipient melting occurs. During subsequent solidification of these areas, Chinese-script-like borides precipitate. The mechanical properties (tensile tests at room and elevated temperatures and short-term creep rupture tests at elevated temperatures) for brazed samples without boride precipitation are very promising. Tensile strengths and creep times to 1 pct strain are comparable, respectively, higher than the ones of the weaker parent material for all tested temperatures and creep conditions (from 90 to 100 pct rsp. 175 to 250 pct).

Steuer, Susanne; Singer, Robert F.

2014-07-01

215

Soil Investigations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the basics about soil, including its formation through the cycling of the Earth's materials, as well as its characteristics and importance. They are also introduced to soil profiles and how engineers conduct site investigations to learn about soil quality for development, contamination transport, and assessing the general environmental health of an area.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

216

Multilayer Perceptron Classifier Combination for Identification of Materials on Noisy Soil Science Multispectral Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classifier combination experiments using the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) were carried out using noisy soil science multispectral images, which were obtained using a Tomograph scanner. Using few units in the MLP hidden layer, images were classified using a single classifier. Later we used classifier combining techniques as Bagging, Decision Templates (DT) and Dempster-Shafer (DS), in order to improve the performance of

Fabricio A. Breve; Moacir P. Ponti-junior; Nelson D. A. Mascarenhas

2007-01-01

217

PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF WOOD STRAND EROSION CONTROL MATERIALS AMONG VARYING SLOPES, SOIL TEXTURES AND COVER AMOUNTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two blends of manufactured wood strands with different lengths were tested for effectiveness in controlling erosion. Wood strand blends were tested on two soils, two slope steepnesses, and at three coverage amounts. Laboratory rainfall simulations were conducted to evaluate runoff and sediment loss. Wood strands were effective in delaying runoff, reducing runoff volume, and reducing sediment loss. There was no

Kristina Anne Yanosek; Randy Bruce Foltz; James Henry Dooley

218

ENHANCED ANIMAL WASTE MANAGEMENT THROUGH APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS TO SOIL MATERIAL: LABORATORY FEASIBILITY TESTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory testing was conducted to determine the feasibility of using surfactants to enhance soil performance with regard to animal waste management at feedlot and dairy sites. Three surfactants, one anionic (sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate) and two cationic (polyoxypropylene methyl diethyl ammonium chloride and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide), were tested on a sandy loam. The best surfactants are those capable of

B. Allred; G. O. Brown; L. A. Brandvold

219

Element Concentrations in Soils and Other Surficial Materials of the Conterminous United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of soils or other regoliths, taken at a depth of approximately 20 cm from locations about 80 km apart throughout the conterminous United States, were analyzed for their content of elements. In this manner, 1,318 sampling sites were chosen, and the...

H. T. Shacklette J. G. Boerngen

1984-01-01

220

Particle size analysis of sediments, soils and related particulate materials for forensic purposes using laser granulometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle size is a fundamental property of any sediment, soil or dust deposit which can provide important clues to nature and provenance. For forensic work, the particle size distribution of sometimes very small samples requires precise determination using a rapid and reliable method with a high resolution. The Coulter™ LS230 laser granulometer offers rapid and accurate sizing of particles in

Kenneth Pye; Simon J Blott

2004-01-01

221

Comparison of 3He and BF3 neutron detectors used to detect hydrogenous material buried in soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal neutrons detectors have been used for a long time and continue to be used to detect hydrogenous material. In this work, BF3 and 3He detectors ability have been compared with each other to detect Polyethylene (PE) sample that was buried in soil. It was found that neither BF3 nor 3He could detect PE sample without shields. This research shows that a thickness of 5 cm graphite is suitable shield for 3He detector that has been used to detect buried PE sample.

Rezaei-Ochbelagh, D.

2012-04-01

222

Installation of supply/exhaust ventilation as a remedial action against radon from soil and/or building materials.  

PubMed

Installation of supply/exhaust ventilation systems is a possible remedial action against excessive concentration of radon. Installations in some 15 one-family houses in Sweden have been evaluated regarding effectiveness, costs and impact on energy demand. This remedial action is most suitable when exhalation from the structure itself is the major source of radon. The resulting decrease in concentration of radon can be estimated from dilution in the increased flow of air through the building. The exhalation from the building materials is constant and unaffected by ventilation rate. When the radon originates from the soil subjacent to the building the inflow of radon is a function of untightness and pressure difference between soil and indoor air. The result of retrofitting a ventilation system will then be the combined effect of dilution and a possible change in pressure difference. The defects in these buildings are normally remedied by more cost-effective action based on sealing the route of entry or depressurising/ventilating the subjacent soil. If a ventilation system is installed, it should preferentially be a balanced supply/exhaust system in order to give a minimal negative pressure indoors. PMID:4081752

Ericson, S O; Schmied, H

1985-10-01

223

Soil experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil experiment with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil experiment without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.

Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim

1987-01-01

224

Map Scale in the Context of Progress in Soil Geography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation, we review historical soil maps from a geographical perspective, in contrast to the more traditional temporal perspective. Our geographical perspective is operationalized by comparing soil maps based on their scale and classification system. To analyze the connection between scale in historical soil maps and their associated classification systems, we place soil maps into three categories of cartographic scale. We then examine how categories of cartographic scale correspond to the selection of environmental soil predictors used to initially create the maps, as reflected by the maps' legend. Previous analyses of soil mapping from the temporal perspective have concluded that soil classification systems have co-evolved with gains in soil knowledge. We conclude that paradigm shifts in soil mapping and classification can be better explained by their correlation to historical improvements in scientific understanding, differences in purpose for mapping, and advancement in geographic technologies. We observe that, throughout history, small cartographic scale maps have tended to emphasize climate-vegetation zonation. Medium cartographic scale maps have put more emphasis on parent material as a variable to explain soil distributions. And finally, soil maps at large cartographic scales have relied more on topography as a predictive factor. Importantly, a key characteristic of modern soil classification systems is their multi-scale approach, which incorporates these phenomena scales within their classification hierarchies. Although most modern soil classification systems are based on soil properties, the soil map remains a model, the purpose of which is to predict the spatial distributions of those properties. Hence, multi-scale classification systems still tend to be organized, at least in part, by this observed spatial hierarchy. Although the hierarchy observed in this study is generally known in pedology today, it also represents a new view on the evolution of soil science. Increased recognition of this hierarchy may also help to more holistically combine soil formation factors with soil geography and pattern, particularly in the context of digital soil mapping.

Miller, Bradley; Schaetzl, Randall

2014-05-01

225

Does the feedstock origin of pyrolyzed materials influence the leaching quality and quantity of dissolved organic carbon from soils?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils play a major role in the global C cycle and can be both a source of C emissions to the atmosphere and also a C sink. In order to sequester vast quantities of C and increase soil C stocks, which may be used to partly offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the future, new technologies are needed. Recently, there has been an abundance of interest in the use of pyrolyzed biomass C, termed biochar, as an amendment to terrestrial ecosystems to provide a large and long term sink of C. However, the stability and permanence of this black C source in soil is still relatively unknown and the uncertainty surrounding its turnover time may have implications for both C sequestration and the fate and transport of dissolved organic C leached to nearby water resources. Biochar can be derived from a multitude of feed stocks (e.g. walnut shells, wood chippings, poultry litter) and under a variety of pyrolysis conditions (e.g. high temperature or low temperatures); each process and feed stock can yield very different materials that has many different physical (e.g. surface area) and chemical (e.g. CEC, C and N content) properties. Each feed stock and pyrolysis condition may consequently contribute to a distinct recalcitrance in soil. Therefore, we undertook a pot trial to evaluate the chemical characteristics of leachate from soils incubated with biochars derived from 15 different feed stocks. Using optical property parameters such as SUVA, chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) slope parameter and fluorescence characteristics, we were able to determine the C leaching potential of each feedstock. Preliminary data suggests that there are distinct variations in optical properties with feed stock origin, for example an algae digestate showed a lower absorbance at 350 nm (a350) (25.7 m-1) and a steeper spectral slope at 290-350 nm (S290-350 x10-3) (17.7 nm-1) indicative of the presence of lower molecular weight compounds compared to control treatment with a signature typical of SOC (a350 = 29.2 m-1; S290-350 = 16.8 nm-1). The ramifications for the transport of both the quantity and quality of C to aquatic systems will be discussed, especially in light of the popularity of "designer" biochars that could be used as a soil amendment in the future

Suddick, E.; Spencer, R. G.; Pereira, E. I.; Six, J. W.

2011-12-01

226

Method for recovery of hydrocarbons form contaminated soil or refuse materials  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for separating an inert solid substantially inorganic fraction comprising sand or soil from a tarry or oily organic matter in a feedstock. The feedstock may be contaminated soil or tarry waste. The feedstock is combined with pulverized coal and water. The ratio (oil or tar to dry weight of coal) of about 1.0:10 to about 4.0:10 at a temperature in the range of 60.degree.-95.degree. C. The mixture is agitated, the coarse particles are removed, and up to about 0.10% by weight (based on weight of coal) of a frothing agent is added. The mixture is then subjected to flotation, and the froth is removed from the mixture.

Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (407 Saddleback Road, #203, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (10967 34 A Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Guerra, Carlos R. (6050 Boulevard E., West New York, NJ 07093); Zwillenberg, Melvin L. (475 Richmond Ave., Maplewood, NJ 07040)

1991-01-01

227

Biodegradation of alpha and beta endosulfan in soil as influenced by application of different organic materials.  

PubMed

A laboratory pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of amending soil with four different sources of organic matter on the degradation rate of alpha and beta endosulfan isomers. Poultry by-product meal, poultry manure, dairy manure, and municipal solid waste compost were cured, dried, ground (<1 mm) and thoroughly mixed with a calcareous soil at a rate of 2% and placed in plastic pots. Endosulfan was added at the rate of 20 mg kg(-1). The moisture level was kept near field capacity and the pots were kept at room temperature. Soil sub-samples, 100 g each, were collected from every pot at days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, and 57 for the measurement of endosulfan isomers. Endosulfan residues were extracted from the soil samples with acetone. The supernatant was filtered through anhydrous sodium sulphate, 5 mL aliquot was diluted to 25 mL with hexane, mixed well, and then two sub-samples from the filtrates were analyzed for alpha and beta endosulfan isomers by gas chromatography. The results indicated that the half-life (T(1/2)) of alpha-endosulfan in the poultry by-product meal treatment was 15 days compared to about 22 days in the other treatments. The T(1/2) of beta-endosulfan was 22 days in the poultry by-product meal treatment and followed a bi-phasic pattern, 57 days in the municipal solid waste compost treatment and the extrapolated T(1/2) was about 115 days for the other three treatments. PMID:15620084

Al-Hassan, Raghed M; Bashour, Isam I; Kawar, Nasri S

2004-01-01

228

Sample pre-treatment and the determination of some chemical properties of acid sulfate soil materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a systematic analysis of the effect of common acid sulfate soil (ASS) sample pre-treatments (namely freezing, oven drying, and grinding) on chromium-reducible sulfur (SCR) and water-soluble sulfate determinations. The results show that oven drying and hand grinding of the samples prior to analysis resulted in a decrease in SCR (i.e. up to 20% compared to those of

Crystal A. Maher; Leigh A. Sullivan; Nicholas J. Ward

2004-01-01

229

The determination of adsorbable organically bound halogens (AOX) in soil: interlaboratory comparisons and reference materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interlaboratory variability in the quantification of adsorbable organically bound halogens (AOX) in industrially contaminated\\u000a soil is presented. Three consecutive rounds of a proficiency testing scheme, in which between 88 and 119 routine laboratories\\u000a participated, yielded relative reproducibility standard deviations between 7 and 20% at AOX contents between 10.9 and 268 mg\\u000a kg?1. Nineteen laboratories with established proficiency were invited to

R. Becker; H.-G. Buge; I. Nehls

2007-01-01

230

Influence of surface printing materials on the degradability of biodegradable plastic films in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of surface printing on the biodegradability of plastic films was studied. Biodegradable films (polybutylene-succinate (PBS)) printed with four kinds of gravure inks were placed in soil for 1 year. The inks consisted of carbon black-pigment with four kinds of resins: poly-(?-caprolactone) (PCL), nitrocellulose-polyamide blended resin (NT), polyvinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymer (V), and nitrocellulose (NC). Degradation of film specimens printed

Akira Hoshino; Shinzou Kanao; Kenji Fukushima; Shigeichi Sakai; Makoto Kimura

2003-01-01

231

RCRA materials analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Detection limits in soils  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) that this report supports is research, development, testing and evaluation of a portable analyzer for RCRA and other metals. The instrumentation to be built will be used for field-screening of soils. Data quality is expected to be suitable for this purpose. The data presented in this report were acquired to demonstrate the detection limits for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of soils using instrument parameters suitable for fieldable instrumentation. The data are not expected to be the best achievable with the high pulse energies available in laboratory lasers. The report presents work to date on the detection limits for several elements in soils using LIBS. The elements targeted in the Technical Task Plan are antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, selenium, and zirconium. Data for these elements are presented in this report. Also included are other data of interest to potential customers for the portable LIBS apparatus. These data are for barium, mercury, cesium and strontium. Data for uranium and thorium will be acquired during the tasks geared toward mixed waste characterization.

Koskelo, A.; Cremers, D.A.

1994-09-01

232

Parenting perceptions and behaviors of preschool parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions and behaviors of parents of young preschoolers is a subject that has not been extensively researched. Many studies have explored global parenting styles and child developmental outcomes, rather than the way parents conceptualize their roles. Further, most research considers parenting typical children. However, parenting special needs children is challenging. When children with special needs are young, parents are faced

Shoshana Sperling

2003-01-01

233

Raising Girlyboys: A Parent's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of children are expressing themselves in gender-expansive or gender-variant ways. A subgroup of those children are girlyboys: boys who accept themselves as boys but cross culturally defined gender lines in their attitudes, behaviors, and desires. Using clinical material, written accounts, and personal observations, this paper investigates the experience of parents raising these boys. Facilitative parenting is differentiated

Diane Ehrensaft

2007-01-01

234

The Toxicological Geochemistry of Dusts, Soils, and Other Earth Materials: Insights From In Vitro Physiologically-based Geochemical Leach Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to mineral dusts, soils, and other earth materials results in chemical reactions between the materials and different body fluids that include, depending upon the exposure route, lung fluids, gastrointestinal fluids, and perspiration. In vitro physiologically-based geochemical leach tests provide useful insights into these chemical reactions and their potential toxicological implications. We have conducted such leach tests on a variety of earth materials, including asbestos, volcanic ash, dusts from dry lake beds, mine wastes, wastes left from the roasting of mercury ores, mineral processing wastes, coal dusts and coal fly ash, various soils, and complex dusts generated by the World Trade Center collapse. Size-fractionated samples of earth materials that have been well-characterized mineralogically and chemically are reacted at body temperature (37 C) for periods from 2 hours up to multiple days with various proportions of simulated lung, gastric, intestinal, and/or plasma-based fluids. Results indicate that different earth materials may have quite different solubility and dissolution behavior in vivo, depending upon a) the mineralogic makeup of the material, and b) the exposure route. For example, biodurable minerals such as asbestos and volcanic ash particles, whose health effects result because they dissolve very slowly in vivo, bleed off low levels of trace metals into the simulated lung fluids; these include metals such as Fe and Cr that are suspected by health scientists of contributing to the generation of reactive oxygen species and resulting DNA damage in vivo. In contrast, dry lake bed dusts and concrete-rich dusts are highly alkaline and bioreactive, and cause substantial pH increases and other chemical changes in the simulated body fluids. Many of the earth materials tested contain a variety of metals that can be quite soluble (bioaccessible), depending upon the material and the simulated body fluid composition. For example, due to their acidic pH and high chloride concentrations, simulated gastric fluids are most efficient at solubilizing metals such as Hg, Pb, Zn, and others that form strong chloride complexes; although these metals tend to partially reprecipitate in the near-neutral simulated intestinal fluids, complexes with organic ligands (i.e., amino and carboxylic acids) enhance their solubility. These metals are also quite soluble in near-neutral, protein-rich plasma-based fluids because they form strong complexes with the proteins. In contrast, metalloids that form oxyanion species (such as As, Cr, Mo, W) are commonly more soluble in near-neutral pH simulated lung fluids than in simulated gastric fluids.

Plumlee, G. S.; Ziegler, T. L.; Lamothe, P.; Meeker, G. P.; Sutley, S.

2003-12-01

235

The Systems Mapping of Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil, together with rocks, waters, air, and living organisms, is one of the natural elements, which make up landscapes. At the same time soil is a unique (derivative) natural element because only it originates from the interaction of all the other (basic) natural elements. Reasoning from this fact, soil maps must be unique too - fundamentally different from geological, geomorphological, natural vegetation, and other thematic maps of the basic natural elements. It is suggested creating conceptually new soil maps, namely the systems soil maps, which are derived from the systems landscape maps. Legends of such maps are based on hierarchical classification of natural landscapes-systems. The last-mentioned are regarded as elementary structural units of the Earth's landscape envelope comprised of interacting landscape elements. The landscapes-systems step by step are divided into divisions and subdivisions of different hierarchical levels unless reaching separate and isolated landscapes-systems, which can not be divided further because of their homogeneity. Criteria used to differentiate between landscapes-systems include the most prominent properties of natural landscape elements, for instance: sequence of the elements, range of altitudes and slopes, zonal vegetation types associated with effective heat sum and precipitation ratio, the main genetic soil horizons, genetic types and forms of relief, lithology of parent materials, depth of humus horizons, chemical composition of ground waters, and so forth. Levels at which criteria of classification are soil properties are named the "soil" one; they are the lowest one in each scale range. The systems soil maps are produced for "soil" levels and show certain soil properties in connection with those properties of the basic natural elements, which cause these soil properties. In GIS environment the systems soil maps are produced automatically from an integrated polygon layer created manually on the basis of expert analysis of the maximum possible quantity of thematic, mainly paper, maps, and texts. The hierarchy of the natural landscapes, as well as hierarchy of the properties of their elements, is displayed with the help of an additional line layer containing information about rank-ordered natural boundaries. Currently, polygon systems maps of Saratov oblast in GIS format and paper systems maps of the Nechernozemnaya Zone of the European Russia have been created. Scale of the main topographic maps, which were used, is 1:1,500,000. The systems soil mapping is regarded as a pathway to development of a global soil data infrastructure and universal soil classification system.

Nikiforova, Alexandra; Fleis, Maria; Borisov, Mickail

2013-04-01

236

Parenting Your Adopted Teenager  

MedlinePLUS

... Care Stay Connected Home » Parenting Your Adopted Teenager Parenting Your Adopted Teenager Email Print (PDF 325 KB) ... For expectant parents considering adoption and birth parents Parenting after adoption Postplacement casework Search & reunion Adoption Month ...

237

Parent role characteristics: Parents' perceptions of their parent role  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has widely examined the various beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions held by parents. However, few have formally examined parents' perceptions of their role or the characteristics that encompass this role, even though many have argued that the job of parent is most difficult. This study utilized the Parent Role Questionnaire (PRQ), developed by Mowder in 1990, to examine how parents

Rose Anne Turiano

2001-01-01

238

Aggregating available soil water holding capacity data for crop yield models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.

Seubert, C. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Holt, D. A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

1984-01-01

239

Major soil element (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Al, Fe) distribution along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tibetan Plateau (TP), which has been called the third polar region, is the highest plateau in the world. There are a series of special soils present in the TP, which are extremely important in soil sciences for their particularities. Soil chemical composition is one of the necessary indices of soil characteristics. The major element content of the soil, such as Ca, Mg, K, Na, not only can affect the soil pH value and soil fertility but also are the main drivers of soil geochemical processes. It is helpful to understand the TP environmental characteristics, to study the major soil element content.The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) is the highest-elevation and the longest highland railway on earth. There are nearly all types of TP soil along the QTR. Most of the areas along the QTR are in fairly pristine condition. This offers a good platform to study the natural environmental characteristics of the soil. This study selected 240 soil samples from 28 sample areas along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, and the aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium content in the soil were measured with ICP-AES. The results indicated: (1) Compared with the national soil background values, the Ca content in soil was higher along the QTR and Al was lower; but the Fe, Mg, K and Na contents were similar. (2) Along the whole QTR, the soil Al, Fe and Mg content showed a decreasing trend from Xining to Lhasa, the changes in K and Na values were relatively complex, and the distribution of Ca could be divided three sections. (3) The soil element contents varied with different soil types and parent materials. Most of the six elements content was minimum in soil, which derived from debris materials for ice and water, and the elements content was maximum in soil, which evolved from debris for flood, and the content of soil Ca developed from debris for lake was maximum. The amount of each element present in the Hapli-Cryic Aridosols and Calci-Cryic Aridosols was relatively higher than that in other type soil. The element content of the Matti-Gelic Cambosols was relatively lower, except for K. (4) The differences in parent materials and soil types may be the reasons for the spatial distribution of major soil elements observed. Key words: Tibetan Plateau, Qinghai-Tibet Railway, soil element, spatial distribution Foundation: National Basic Research Program of China, No. 2005CB422006 and 2010CB951704; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 90202012 and 40801042.

Wang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Ding, M.; Lin, X.

2011-12-01

240

Physiochemical, site, and bidirectional reflectance factor characteristics of uniformly moist soils. [Brazil, Spain and the United States of America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The bidirectional reflectance factor (0.5 micron to 2.3 micron wavelength interval) and physiochemical properties of over 500 soils from 39 states, Brazil and Spain were measured. Site characteristics of soil temperature regime and moisture zone were used as selection criteria. Parent material and internal drainage were noted for each soil. At least five general types of soil reflectance curves were identified based primarily on the presence or absence of ferric iron absorption bands, organic matter content, and soil drainage characteristics. Reflectance in 10 bands across the spectrum was found to be negatively correlated with the natural log of organic matter content.

Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

241

Soil magnetic susceptibility: A quantitative proxy of soil drainage for use in ecological restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flooded, saturated, or poorly drained soils are commonly anaerobic, leading to microbially induced magnetite/maghemite dissolution and decreased soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). Thus, MS is considerably higher in well-drained soils (MS typically 40-80 ?? 10-5 standard international [SI]) compared to poorly drained soils (MS typically 10-25 ?? 10-5 SI) in Illinois, other soil-forming factors being equal. Following calibration to standard soil probings, MS values can be used to rapidly and precisely delineate hydric from nonhydric soils in areas with relatively uniform parent material. Furthermore, soil MS has a moderate to strong association with individual tree species' distribution across soil moisture regimes, correlating inversely with independently reported rankings of a tree species' flood tolerance. Soil MS mapping can thus provide a simple, rapid, and quantitative means for precisely guiding reforestation with respect to plant species' adaptations to soil drainage classes. For instance, in native woodlands of east-central Illinois, Quercus alba , Prunus serotina, and Liriodendron tulipifera predominantly occur in moderately well-drained soils (MS 40-60 ?? 10-5 SI), whereas Acer saccharinum, Carya laciniosa, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica predominantly occur in poorly drained soils (MS <20 ?? 10-5 SI). Using a similar method, an MS contour map was used to guide restoration of mesic, wet mesic, and wet prairie species to pre-settlement distributions at Meadowbrook Park (Urbana, IL, U.S.A.). Through use of soil MS maps calibrated to soil drainage class and native vegetation occurrence, restoration efforts can be conducted more successfully and species distributions more accurately reconstructed at the microecosystem level. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

Grimley, D. A.; Wang, J. -S.; Liebert, D. A.; Dawson, J. O.

2008-01-01

242

SATURATED - UNSATURATED HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF SUBBASE COURSE MATERIAL AND SUBGRADE SOIL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to evaluate the rainwate r storage and infiltration properties of the permeable pavement by unsaturated seepage analysis or gas-liquid two-phase flow analysis, it is important to know the unsaturated hydraulic properties of materials wh ich constitute the pavement. For this reason, we showed the unsaturated hydraulic properties of porous asphalt material s but we have not clarified the relation between the performance of the permeable pavement and the properties of all constituti on materials. In this paper, we try to determine the unsaturated hydraulic properties of subbase course and subgrade materials that greatly affect the rainwater storage and infiltration properties of the permeable pavement. We show from experiments that water retention characteristic and the un saturated hydraulic properties of subbase course and subgrade materials well match the van Genuchten model and the Irmay model.

Yano, Takao; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Nakashima, Shin-Ichiro; Moriishi, Kazushi; Ohnishi, Yuzo

243

Soil water conservation and yield of winter sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) as influenced by tillage, organic materials and nitrogen fertilizer in semi-arid tropical India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil water and nutrients play an important role in increasing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) yields in the Vertisols of semi-arid tropics during post-rainy season. The effects of tillage practices, organic materials and nitrogen fertilizer on soil properties, water conservation and yield of sorghum were evaluated during winter seasons of 1994–1995 and 1995–1996 on deep Vertisols at Bijapur in the

S. L. Patil; M. N. Sheelavantar

2006-01-01

244

The Background of Soil Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Soil Structure, its Agricultural Value and Methods for its Determination; The Adhesion of Soil Particles; The Crumbling of Soil Material into Structural Units; Rise of Water Stability in a Soil Aggregate; Microbiological Factors in the Formation...

P. V. Vershinin

1971-01-01

245

MOELCULAR SIZE EXCLUSION BY SOIL ORGANIC MATERIALS ESTIMATED FROM THEIR SWELLING IN ORGANIC SOLVENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A published method previously developed to measure the swelling characteristics of pow dered coal samples has been adapted for swelling measurements on various peat, pollen, chain, and cellulose samples The swelling of these macromolecular materials is the volumetric manifestatio...

246

Total Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins…

Smith, Richard

2010-01-01

247

Parental Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescence is a developmental period during which many youth experiment with risk practices. This paper examined the association of parental monitoring with a range of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use behaviors among high-risk youth, while controlling for other demographic and environmental variables previously found to be associated with AOD…

Shillington, Audrey M.; Lehman, Stephanie; Clapp, John; Hovell, Melbourne; Sipan, Carol; Blumberg, Elaine

2005-01-01

248

Constructive Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book turns important research and theory into essential, easy-to-follow guidelines for new parents and child care providers to help them focus on the critical first 3 years of life to build a strong foundation for the future. All the key areas of child development are covered, including self-esteem, and cognitive, motor and social…

Goldberg, Sally

249

Parental Power and Adolescents' Parental Identification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combines McDonald's social power of parental identification with sex-linked models of parental identification to account for the identification of daughters (N=199) and sons (N=147) with their parents. Found that because of a halo effect, a gain in identification with one parent is not at the other parent's expense. (JAC)

Acock, Alan C.; Yang, Wen Shan

1984-01-01

250

Variability of organic material in surface horizons of the hyper-arid Mars-like soils of the Atacama Desert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work was to investigate the variability of surface organic carbon within the hyper-arid Yungay region of the Atacama Desert. The fraction of Labile Organic Carbon (LOC) in these samples varied from 2 to 73 ?g per gram of soil with a bi-modal distribution with average content of 17 ± 9 ?g LOC and 69 ± 3 ?g LOC for "low" and "high" samples, respectively. Interestingly, there was no relation between organic levels and geomorphologic shapes. While organics are deposited and distributed in these soils via eolic processes, it is suggested that fog is the dynamic mechanism that is responsible for the variability and peaks in organic carbon throughout the area, where a "high" LOC content sample could be indicative of a biological process. It was determined that there was no significant difference between topological feature or geographical position within the hyper-arid samples and LOC. This very curious result has implications for the investigation of run-off gullies on the planet Mars as our work suggests a need for careful consideration of the expectation of increases in concentrations of organic materials associated with following aqueous altered topology.

Fletcher, Lauren E.; Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Perez-Montaño, Saul; Condori-Apaza, Renee M.; Conley, Catharine A.; McKay, Christopher P.

2012-01-01

251

Development of a standard reference material for Cr(vi) in contaminated soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the last several decades, considerable contamination by hexavalent chromium has resulted from the land disposal of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR). COPR contains a number of hexavalent chromium-bearing compounds that were produced in high temperature industrial processes. Concern over the carcinogenic potential of this chromium species, and its environmental mobility, has resulted in efforts to remediate these waste sites. To provide support to analytical measurements of hexavalent chromium, a candidate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material?? (SRM 2701), having a hexavalent chromium content of approximately 500 mg kg -1, has been developed using material collected from a waste site in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. The collection, processing, preparation and preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the material are discussed. A two-phase multi-laboratory testing study was carried out to provide data on material homogeneity and to assess the stability of the material over the duration of the study. The study was designed to incorporate several United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) determinative methods for hexavalent chromium, including Method 6800 which is based on speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), an approach which can account for chromium species inter-conversion during the extraction and measurement sequence. This journal is ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.

Nagourney, S. J.; Wilson, S. A.; Buckley, B.; Kingston, H. M. S.; Yang, S. -Y.; Long, S. E.

2008-01-01

252

Summary of hydrologic and physical properties of rock and soil materials, as analyzed by the hydrologic laboratory of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1948-60  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Hydrologic Laboratory was established in 1948 to serve as the central testing laboratory for the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since then, thousands of samples of rock and soil materials have been analyzed in the laboratory. Analytical data on samples from 42 States and for the period 1948-60 are summarized in this report. The data are presented in a form that allows easy comparison of the physical and hydrologic properties of many sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rock and soil materials. Sedimentary rocks--the principal water-bearing rocks analyzed--are discussed in detail.

Morris, D. A.; Johnson, A. I.

1967-01-01

253

Soils and the 'sponge effect' - what to expect from reforestation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the many salutary effects ascribed to reforestation is the 'sponge effect', the improvement of a soil's macroporosity thanks to replacing whatever land cover with forest. The purported benefits of this improvement include less overland flow and hence less erosion and less variability in stream flow. This view tacitly assumes that some soil traits, such as macroporosity, can only be acquired from the prevailing land cover when, in fact, they can also be inherited from the parent material from which soils form; they can also derive from long-term soil development. In view of this dual aspect of hydrologically relevant soil properties - acquired versus inherited, the notion of a 'sponge effect' that is uniformly beneficial across all soilscapes appears untenable. The 'intermediate-peak hypothesis' for the sponge effect postulates that there exist a set of circumstances under which the 'sponge effect', and hence the effect of reforestation, is optimal, because parent material and soil genesis are less influential than forest cover. Away from this intermediate peak, the former swamp the latter, and the 'sponge effect' is minimal or nonexistent, either because the inherited macroporosity is too large to be significantly affected by land cover, or because inherited soil traits severely limit the effect of land cover. I illustrate this hypothesis with examples from diverse ecoregions and present a simple metric for the 'sponge effect'.

Elsenbeer, H.

2012-12-01

254

MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...

255

Heat Transfer in Soil and Rock in Construction Materials and Fluids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new method for the simultaneous measurements of heat conductivity and diffusivity of non-metallic materials has been developed. Also, heat capacity can be determined. The method is named THS (Transient Hot Strip) method and is based on the study of the ...

S. Gustafsson E. Karawacki A. Lunden

1980-01-01

256

Murderous parents.  

PubMed

This article offers observations regarding some of the major manifestations of family violence, neonaticide, infanticide, and filicide with the purpose of aiding in the early identification of parents at risk. They are discussed within the past and present historical and cultural milieu. A brief review of pertinent literature is presented. Pertinent case studies from the forensic psychiatric practice of the author along with psychodynamic reflections are offered. PMID:12113159

Palermo, George B

2002-04-01

257

A quantitative comparison of Soil Development in four climatic regimes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new quantitative Soil Development Index based on field data has been applied to chronosequences formed under different climatic regimes. The four soil chronosequences, developed primarily on sandy deposits, have some numeric age control and are located in xeric-inland (Merced, Calif.), xeric-coastal (Ventura, Calif.), aridic (Las Cruces, N. Mex.), and udic (Susquehanna Valley, Pa.) soil-moisture regimes. To quantify field properties, points are assigned for developmental increases in soil properties in comparison to the parent material. Currently ten soil-field properties are quantified and normalized for each horizon in a given chronosequence, including two new properties for carbonate-rich soils in addition to the eight properties previously defined. When individual properties or the combined indexes are plotted as a function of numeric age, rates of soil development can be compared in different climates. The results demonstrate that (1) the Soil Development Index can be applied to very different soil types, (2) many field properties develop systematically in different climatic regimes, (3) certain properties appear to have similar rates of development in different climates, and (4) the Profile Index that combines different field properties increases significantly with age and appears to develop at similar rates in different climates. The Soil Development Index can serve as a preliminary guide to soil age where other age control is lacking and can be used to correlate deposits of different geographical and climatic regions. ?? 1983.

Harden, J. W.; Taylor, E. M.

1983-01-01

258

Estimating soil organic carbon stocks and spatial patterns with statistical and GIS-based methods.  

PubMed

Accurately quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) is considered fundamental to studying soil quality, modeling the global carbon cycle, and assessing global climate change. This study evaluated the uncertainties caused by up-scaling of soil properties from the county scale to the provincial scale and from lower-level classification of Soil Species to Soil Group, using four methods: the mean, median, Soil Profile Statistics (SPS), and pedological professional knowledge based (PKB) methods. For the SPS method, SOC stock is calculated at the county scale by multiplying the mean SOC density value of each soil type in a county by its corresponding area. For the mean or median method, SOC density value of each soil type is calculated using provincial arithmetic mean or median. For the PKB method, SOC density value of each soil type is calculated at the county scale considering soil parent materials and spatial locations of all soil profiles. A newly constructed 1?50,000 soil survey geographic database of Zhejiang Province, China, was used for evaluation. Results indicated that with soil classification levels up-scaling from Soil Species to Soil Group, the variation of estimated SOC stocks among different soil classification levels was obviously lower than that among different methods. The difference in the estimated SOC stocks among the four methods was lowest at the Soil Species level. The differences in SOC stocks among the mean, median, and PKB methods for different Soil Groups resulted from the differences in the procedure of aggregating soil profile properties to represent the attributes of one soil type. Compared with the other three estimation methods (i.e., the SPS, mean and median methods), the PKB method holds significant promise for characterizing spatial differences in SOC distribution because spatial locations of all soil profiles are considered during the aggregation procedure. PMID:24840890

Zhi, Junjun; Jing, Changwei; Lin, Shengpan; Zhang, Cao; Liu, Qiankun; DeGloria, Stephen D; Wu, Jiaping

2014-01-01

259

Estimating Soil Organic Carbon Stocks and Spatial Patterns with Statistical and GIS-Based Methods  

PubMed Central

Accurately quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) is considered fundamental to studying soil quality, modeling the global carbon cycle, and assessing global climate change. This study evaluated the uncertainties caused by up-scaling of soil properties from the county scale to the provincial scale and from lower-level classification of Soil Species to Soil Group, using four methods: the mean, median, Soil Profile Statistics (SPS), and pedological professional knowledge based (PKB) methods. For the SPS method, SOC stock is calculated at the county scale by multiplying the mean SOC density value of each soil type in a county by its corresponding area. For the mean or median method, SOC density value of each soil type is calculated using provincial arithmetic mean or median. For the PKB method, SOC density value of each soil type is calculated at the county scale considering soil parent materials and spatial locations of all soil profiles. A newly constructed 1?50,000 soil survey geographic database of Zhejiang Province, China, was used for evaluation. Results indicated that with soil classification levels up-scaling from Soil Species to Soil Group, the variation of estimated SOC stocks among different soil classification levels was obviously lower than that among different methods. The difference in the estimated SOC stocks among the four methods was lowest at the Soil Species level. The differences in SOC stocks among the mean, median, and PKB methods for different Soil Groups resulted from the differences in the procedure of aggregating soil profile properties to represent the attributes of one soil type. Compared with the other three estimation methods (i.e., the SPS, mean and median methods), the PKB method holds significant promise for characterizing spatial differences in SOC distribution because spatial locations of all soil profiles are considered during the aggregation procedure.

Zhi, Junjun; Jing, Changwei; Lin, Shengpan; Zhang, Cao; Liu, Qiankun; DeGloria, Stephen D.; Wu, Jiaping

2014-01-01

260

Titanium Mass-balance Analysis of Paso Robles Soils: Elemental Gains and Losses as Affected by Acid Alteration Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Columbia Hills soils have been exposed to aqueous alteration in alkaline [1] as well as acid conditions [2,3]. The Paso Robles class soils are bright soils that possess the highest S concentration of any soil measured on Mars [2]. Ferric-sulfate detection by Moessbauer analysis indicated that acid solutions were involved in forming these soils [4]. These soils are proposed to have formed by alteration of nearby rock by volcanic hydrothermal or fumarolic activity. The Paso Robles soils consist of the original Paso Robles-disturbed-Pasadena (PR-dist), Paso Robles- PasoLight (PR-PL), Arad-Samra, Arad-Hula, Tyrone- Berker Island1 and Tyrone-MountDarwin [2 ,3. ]Chemical characteristics indicate that the PR-dist and PR-PL soils could be derived from acid weathering of local Wishstone rocks while the Samra and Hula soils are likely derived from local Algonquin-Iroquet rock [3]. The Paso Robles soils were exposed to acidic sulfur bearing fluids; however, little else is known about the chemistry of the alteration fluid and its effects on the alteration of the proposed parent materials. The objectives of this work are to conduct titanium normalized mass-balance analysis to1) assess elemental gains and losses from the parent materials in the formation of the Paso Robles soils and 2) utilize this information to indicate the chemical nature of the alteration fluids.

Sutter, Brad; Ming, Douglas W.

2010-01-01

261

Soil chemical and microbial effects of simulated acid rain on clover and soft chess  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of simulated acid rain, comprised of HNO3 and H2SO4 in the mole ratio of 3:1, at pH 5.6, 4.5, 4.0 and 3.0, were tested on the grass, soft chess (Bromus mollis L.) and on clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. var. Woogenellup) in a sandy soil of granodiorite parent material. Soft chess was grown in unfertilized soil, whereas clover was grown

John G. McColl; Mary K. Firestone

1991-01-01

262

Parenting an Athlete  

MedlinePLUS

... Living > Sports > Parenting an Athlete Healthy Living Listen Parenting an Athlete Article Body What Parents Can Do ... Experiences (Audio) Healthy Children Radio: Dad to Dad: Parenting Like a Pro (Audio) Healthy Children Radio: Stress ...

263

For Parents and Kids  

MedlinePLUS

... A A A Listen En Español For Parents & Kids Diabetes is a disease that affects the whole ... balance between caring and hovering. Explore: For Parents & Kids Parent's Perspective Parents of children with diabetes share ...

264

Comparison of American Society of Testing Materials and Soil Science Society of America Hydrometer Methods for Particle-Size Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle-size analysis (PSA) is widely used in both soil science and geo-engineering. Soil classification schemes are built on PSA values while recent developments in pedotransfer functions rely on PSA to estimate soil hydraulic properties. Because PSA is method dependent, the standardization of experimental procedures is important for the comparison of reported results. A study was conducted to compare the American

Jason M. Keller; Glendon W. Gee

2006-01-01

265

Soils and the soil cover of the arkaim reserve (Steppe Zone of the Trans-Ural Region)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils of the Arkaim Reserve in the area around a unique settlement-fortress of the Bronze Age in Chelyabinsk oblast have been studied. These soils are generally typical of the entire Trans-Ural Plateau. The soil properties are characterized in detail on the basis of factual data on 170 soil pits and four soil catenas. The soil cover of the reserve is specified into six geomorphic groups: (a) denudational surfaces of the low mountains, (b) accumulative-denudational surfaces of the low mountains, (c) denudational-accumulative plain surfaces, (d) lacustrine-alluvial plain surfaces, (e) floodplain surfaces, and (f) slopes and bottoms of the local ravines and hollows. Chernozems occupy about 50% of the reserve; solonetzes and saline soils, 32%; meadow chernozems, 7%; and forest soils, 1%. The soils of the reserve are relatively thin; they have a distinct tonguing of the humus horizon and are often saline and solonetzic. The latter properties are inherited from the parent materials and are preserved in the soils for a long time under the conditions of a dry continental climate. The genetic features of the soils differ in dependence on the composition and age of the parent materials. With respect to the thickness of the soil profiles and the reserves of soil humus, the soils can be arranged into the following lithogenic sequence: the soils developed from the eluvium of igneous rocks-redeposited kaolin clay-montmorillonite-hydromica nonsaline and saline loams and clays. The content of Corg in the upper 20 cm varies from 2.5 to 5.6%, and the reserves of Corg in the layers of 0-0.5 and 0-1.0 m reach 57-265 and 234-375 t/ha, respectively. The soils of pastures subjected to overgrazing occupy two-thirds of the reserve. Their humus content is 10-16% higher in comparison with that in the analogous plowed soils. Another characteristic feature of the humus in the soils of the pastures is its enrichment in the labile fraction (28-40% of Corg).

Prikhod'ko, V. E.; Ivanov, I. V.; Manakhov, D. V.; Manakhova, E. V.

2012-08-01

266

Field corrosion testing and performance of cable shielding materials in soils  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the importance of corrosion resistance in cable-shielding materials, describes the mechanisms of shielding corrosion that occur in buried telephone cable, and evaluates the results of the six-year REA Horry Cooperative buried telephone cable corrosion test. In this study, both active and static cables were included. Withdrawals were made over a six-year period. These cables were evaluated for cable-shielding corrosion. Special attention was paid to the comparative behavior of active and static cables. Results indicate that steel shieldings are most susceptible to the effects of alternating current (AC) in active cables. Results of a wide range of shieldings are presented and evaluated.

Haynes, G.; Baboian, R. (Texas Instruments Inc., Electrochemical and Corrosion Lab., 34 Forest St., Mail Station 10-13, Attleboro, MA (US))

1989-09-01

267

Effects of rainfall on weathering rate, base cation provenance, and Sr isotope composition of Hawaiian soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A climate transect across the Kohala Peninsula, Hawaii provides an ideal opportunity to study soil processes and evolution as a function of rainfall. The parent material is the ?150 ka Hawi alkali basalt aa flow, and median annual precipitation (MAP) changes from ?16 cm along the west coast to ?450 cm in the rain forest near the crest of the

BRIAN W. STEWART; R OSEMARY C. CAPO; OLIVER A. CHADWICK

2001-01-01

268

Influence of inheritance and pedogenesis on heavy metal distribution in soils of Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recognition of the potential health hazards associated with heavy metals has focused attention on the levels and behaviours of these elements both in natural and contaminated environments. Various soil types developed from different parent materials in Sicily, Italy, have been analysed in order to compare heavy metal distribution under different geopedological conditions. Total metal concentrations, metal partitioning and distribution

B Palumbo; M Angelone; A Bellanca; C Dazzi; S Hauser; R Neri; J Wilson

2000-01-01

269

Parents Make a Difference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook discusses the following types of parent involvement in education: (1) decision-making; (2) parents as educators; (3) advocacy; (4) school support; and (5) parent education and support. The benefits of parent involvement are outlined. Examples from New York City's 1987-88 Parent Involvement Program (PIP) demonstrate that parent

Institute for Responsive Education, Boston, MA.

270

About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area, which landscape is characterized by till and limestone plains with thin Quaternary cover, the soil cover is more heterogeneous than in previous area. Kuusiku soil cover is more variegated by the soil texture and as well as by the genesis of soils. In addition to Cambisols, Leptosols, Gleysols and Luvisols may be found here as well. The dominating soils in Olustvere research area, which is situated on wavy upland plateau, are Albeluvisols.

Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

2013-04-01

271

A Brief History of Soil Mapping and Classification in the USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil maps show the distribution of soils across an area but also depict soil science theory and ideas on soil formation and classification at the time the maps were created. The national soil mapping program in the USA was established in 1899. The first nation-wide soil map was published by M. Whitney in 1909 and showed soil provinces that were largely based on geology. In 1912, G.N. Coffey published the first country-wide map based on soil properties. The map showed 5 broad soil units that used parent material, color and drainage as diagnostic criteria. The 1913 national map was produced by C.F. Marbut, H.H. Bennett, J.E. Lapham, and M.H. Lapham and showed broad physiographic units that were further subdivided into soil series, soil classes and soil types. In 1935, Marbut drafted a series of maps based on soil properties, but these maps were replaced as official U.S. soil maps in 1938 with the work of M. Baldwin, C.E. Kellogg, and J. Thorp. A series of soil maps similar to modern USA maps appeared in the 1960s with the 7th Approximation followed by revisions with the 1975 and 1999 editions of Soil Taxonomy. This review has shown that soil maps in the United States produced since the early 1900s moved initially from a geologic-based concept to a pedologic concept of soils. Later changes were from property-based systems to process-based, and then back to property-based. The information in this presentation is based on Brevik and Hartemink (2013). Brevik, E.C., and A.E. Hartemink. 2013. Soil Maps of the United States of America. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77:1117-1132. doi:10.2136/sssaj2012.0390.

Brevik, Eric C.; Hartemink, Alfred E.

2014-05-01

272

Microbial Clogging of Saturated Soils and Aquifer Materials: Evaluation of Mathematical Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial reductions of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of natural porous media appear to be caused by a wide range of mechanisms, few of which have been carefully studied. Nevertheless, a number of mathematical models have been developed in recent years to describe the microbial clogging process, based on the assumption that bacterial cells form impermeable biofilms uniformly covering pore walls. In the present study, two independent sets of experimental data available in the literature are used to test the existing bioclogging models. To broaden the scope of the assessment, an additional model, initially developed to describe the deep filtration of suspended colloids, is also included in the comparisons. Analysis of the experimental data reveals a clear relationship between the texture of a porous medium and the ability of a given level of biomass to reduce its saturated hydraulic conductivity; at equal biomass, clogging is much more pronounced in fine-textured materials than in coarse-textured ones. In addition, the results of the model comparisons suggest that none of the existing models can predict satisfactorily the saturated hydraulic conductivity reductions observed in fine sands, whereas they fare somewhat better in coarser materials. It is argued that this inadequacy of existing models is due to the continuous biofilm assumption on which they are founded. Indeed, a simplistic model that assumes the biomass to be distributed as plugs instead of as continuous biofilms produces quantitatively much improved predictions of the saturated hydraulic conductivity reductions. Reference is made to the consequences of this observation in terms of future research.

Vandevivere, Philippe; Baveye, Philippe; Sanchez de Lozada, Diego; DeLeo, Paul

1995-09-01

273

Effects of land use and geological factors on the spatial variability of soil carbon and nitrogen in the Konya Basin, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The landscape-scale (10s-100s km2) spatial variability of soil properties such as carbon and nitrogen stocks is poorly known in many regions worldwide, especially in semi-arid landscapes with millenial histories of intense land use activities. Characterizing patterns and understanding processes that affect such variability is important for basic research on land use impacts for soils and ecosystems, such as modeling regional-scale ecosystem biogeochemical balances and greenhouse gas emissions, as well as applied research for precision agriculture, soil erosion control, water conservation and carbon accounting. Here, we use geostatistical analyses to study patterns of spatial variability in total carbon (TC), organic carbon (SOC), and total nitrogen (TN) stocks in soils (0-25 cm) of the Konya Basin, Turkey. We hypothesized that land use will have a stronger effect on SOC variability, which will be more tightly linked with vegetation and human management, while parent material will be a more important predictor of TC variability in these arid soils with high carbonate content. We collected a total of 560 samples from 35 sites distributed across three soil parent materials and three classes of land use (agriculture, grazing lands and orchards), using multi-temporal analyses of Landsat data to map land cover and geographic information systems (GIS) to aid selection of field sites. Building on previous research that found parent materials strongly control TC, TN and SOC, we tested whether soil parent materials or land-use practices more strongly explain patterns of spatial variability of soil properties at nested scales, including within field-site (within 35 1-ha field sites) and landscape scales (across 35 sites). Initial results show that spatial patterns of total carbon (TC) are strongly affected by soil parent materials and field sites at landscape scales. Forthcoming analyses will analyze patterns in TN and SOC. Our analyses, which test effects of geological factors and human activities on the spatial variability of soil properties, can inform development of landscape-scale soil sampling schemes for soil carbon and nitrogen accounting so that they are representative of soils at landscape scales in dryland environments. They suggest that in drylands, land management strategies to increase carbon stocks in soils differ based on soil type. Further, they will contribute understanding to what processes varying across spatial scales may be driving soil heterogeneity.

Mayes, M. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Ozdogan, M.; Clayton, M.

2012-12-01

274

Diffusion and Leaching Behavior of Radionuclides in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material – Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed, and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Some of the mobilization scenarios include (1) potential leaching of waste form before permanent closure cover is installed; (2) after the cover installation, long-term diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste form into surrounding fill material; (3) diffusion of radionuclides from contaminated soils into adjoining concrete encasement and clean fill material. Additionally, the rate of diffusion of radionuclides may be affected by the formation of structural cracks in concrete, the carbonation of the buried waste form, and any potential effect of metallic iron (in the form of rebars) on the mobility of radionuclides. The radionuclides iodine-129 ({sup 129}I), technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), and uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) are identified as long-term dose contributors in Category 3 waste (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, and carbonate-complexed {sup 238}U may readily leach into the subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989, 1992a, b, 1993, and 1995). The leachability and/or diffusion of radionuclide species must be measured to assess the long-term performance of waste grouts when contacted with vadose-zone pore water or groundwater. Although significant research has been conducted on the design and performance of cementitious waste forms, the current protocol conducted to assess radionuclide stability within these waste forms has been limited to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Method 1311 Federal Registry (EPA 1992) and ANSI/ANS-16.1 leach test (ANSI 1986). These tests evaluate the performance under water-saturated conditions and do not evaluate the performance of cementitious waste forms within the context of waste repositories which are located within water-deficient vadose zones. Moreover, these tests assess only the diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste forms and neglect evaluating the mechanisms of retention, stability of the waste form, and formation of secondary phases during weathering, which may serve as long-term secondary hosts for immobilization of radionuclides. The results of recent investigations conducted under arid and semi-arid conditions (Al-Khayat et al. 2002; Garrabrants et al. 2002; Garrabrants and Kosson 2003; Garrabrants et al. 2004; Gervais et al. 2004; Sanchez et al. 2002; Sanchez et al. 2003) provide valuable information suggesting structural and chemical changes to concrete waste forms which may affect contaminant containm

Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-08-31

275

Bioaccessibility of trace elements in soils in Northern Ireland.  

PubMed

Assessment of elevated concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTE) in soils and the association with specific soil parent material have been the focus of research for a number of years. Risk-based assessment of potential exposure scenarios to identified elevated PTE concentrations has led to the derivation of site- and contaminant-specific soil guideline values (SGVs), which represent generic assessment criteria (GACs) to identify exceeded levels that may reflect an unacceptable risk to human health. A better understanding of the 'bioavailable' or 'bioaccessible' contaminant concentrations offers an opportunity to better refine contaminant exposure assessments. Utilizing a comprehensive soil geochemical dataset for Northern Ireland provided by the Tellus Survey (GSNI) in conjunction with supplementary bioaccessibility testing of selected soil samples following the Unified BARGE Method, this paper uses exploratory data analysis and geostatistical analysis to investigate the spatial variability of pseudo-total and bioaccessible concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr. Cu, Ni, Pb, U, V and Zn. The paper investigates variations in individual element concentrations as well as cross-element correlations and observed lithological/pedological associations. The analysis of PTE concentrations highlighted exceeded levels of GAC values for V and Cr and exceeded SGV/GAC values for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. UBM testing showed that for some soil parent materials associated with elevated PTE concentrations e.g. the Antrim Lava Group with high Ni concentrations, the measured oral bioaccessible fraction was relatively low. For other soil parent materials with relatively moderate PTE concentrations, measured oral bioaccessible fraction was relatively high (e.g. the Gala Sandstone Group of the Southern Uplands-Down Longford Terrain). These findings have implications for regional human health risk assessments for specific PTEs. PMID:22819891

Barsby, Amy; McKinley, Jennifer M; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Young, Mike; Cave, Mark R; Wragg, Joanna

2012-09-01

276

Evaluation of the March of Dimes Family Support Program with Focus on Parent to Parent Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The March of Dimes NICU Family Support Program provides families with support specialists, educational materials, and community resources to aide in the emotional and physical adaptation to a new life with a premature infant. Parent-to-parent support has been shown to more effective than group support because the new NICU parent is able to connect on a more personal level with

Lynn OConnor

2008-01-01

277

Successful Parenting for School-Age Parents. Teacher's Resource Guide. Student Reference Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher's guide and student reference book presented here were developed as resources to facilitate school-age parenting education. The materials were organized around the nine essential elements for the Parenting Education for School-Age Parents course in Texas. The teacher's guide contains teaching strategies, teaching aids, paper-and-pencil…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

278

Is the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program Acceptable to Parents from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioural parenting programs are an effective intervention for behavioural and emotional problems in children, however these programs have low utilisation rates by culturally diverse parents. We examined the cultural acceptability of program materials, preferences for delivery methods, and barriers to use of the Triple P-Positive Parenting

Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew; Goadby, Elizabeth; Headley, Clea; Hodge, Lauren; McAuliffe, Christine; Pope, Sue; Anderson, Emily

2011-01-01

279

Magnetic susceptibility for use in delineating hydric soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field indicators are used to identify hydric soil boundaries and to delineate wetlands. The most common field indicators may not be seen in some soils with thick, dark, mollic epipedons, and do not form in Fe-poor soils. This study evaluated magnetic susceptibility (MS) meter as a field tool to determine hydric soil boundaries. Five Mollisoldominated sites formed in glacial deposits in Illinois were evaluated along with one Ultisol-dominated site formed in Coastal Plain sediments of North Carolina. Measurements of volumetric MS were made along transects at each site that extended from wetland into upland areas. One created wetland was evaluated. Field indicators were used to identify the hydric soils. Results showed that volumetric MS values were significantly (P 0.15) differences in MS were found for Coastal Plain hydric and nonhydric soils where MS values were low (<10 ?? 10-5 SI). Critical MS values that separated hydric and nonhydric soils varied between 20 ?? 10-5 and 30 ?? 10-5 SI for the loessal soils evaluated in Illinois. Such critical values will have to be determined on site using field indicators until specific values can be defined for hydric soils within a given parent material. With a critical MS value in hand, a wetland delineator can make MS measurements along transects perpendicular to the envisioned hydric soil boundary to quickly and quantitatively identify it.

Grimley, D. A.; Vepraskas, M. J.

2000-01-01

280

Acidification of forest soil in Russia: From 1893 to present  

SciTech Connect

It is commonly believed that fine-textured soils developed on carbonate parent material are well buffered from possible acidification. There are no data, however, that document resistance of such soils to acidic deposition exposure on a timescale longer than 30-40 years. In this paper, we report on directly testing the long-term buffering capacity of nineteenth century forest soils developed on calcareous silt loam. In a chemical analysis comparing archived soils with modern soils collected from the same locations similar to 100 years later, we found varying degrees of forest-soil acidification in the taiga and forest steppe regions. Land-use history, increases in precipitation, and acidic deposition were contributing factors in acidification. The acidification of forest soil was documented through decreases in soil pH and changes in concentrations of exchangeable calcium and aluminum, which corresponded with changes in communities of soil microfauna. Although acidification was found at all three analyzed locations, the trends in soil chemistry were most pronounced where the highest loading of acidic deposition had taken place.

Lapenis, A.G.; Lawrence, G.B.; Andreev, A.A.; Bobrov, A.A.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

2003-01-02

281

Acidification of forest soil in Russia: From 1893 to present  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is commonly believed that fine-textured soils developed on carbonate parent material are well buffered from possible acidification. There are no data, however, that document resistance of such soils to acidic deposition exposure on a timescale longer than 30-40 years. In this paper, we report on directly testing the long-term buffering capacity of nineteenth century forest soils developed on calcareous silt loam. In a chemical analysis comparing archived soils with modern soils collected from the same locations ???100 years later, we found varying degrees of forest-soil acidification in the taiga and forest steppe regions. Land-use history, increases in precipitation, and acidic deposition were contributing factors in acidification. The acidification of forest soil was documented through decreases in soil pH and changes in concentrations of exchangeable calcium and aluminum, which corresponded with changes in communities of soil microfauna. Although acidification was found at all three analyzed locations, the trends in soil chemistry were most pronounced where the highest loading of acidic deposition had taken place. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

Lapenis, A. G.; Lawrence, G. B.; Andreev, A. A.; Bobrov, A. A.; Torn, M. S.; Harden, J. W.

2004-01-01

282

Changes in soil CO2 efflux of organic calcaric soils due to disturbance by wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disturbances such as windthrow or insect infestations are supposed to have a significant influence on the soil carbon balance of affected forests. Increasing soil temperatures and changes in the soil moisture regime, caused by the removed tree layer, are expected to change soil CO2 efflux, also known as soil respiration. Beside an anticipated stimulation of the carbon mineralization, the main part of root allocated CO2 is offset due to the blown down trees. On mountain forest sites of the Northern Limestone Alps, where highly active organic soils above calcareous parent material are characteristic (Folic Histosols and Rendzic Leptosols), an increase of the mineralization rate of carbon may contribute to enormous humus losses. Serious site degradation can be the consequence, especially on south exposed slopes where extreme climatic conditions occur. The present study tries to give insights to disturbance induced changes in temporal and spatial behaviour of soil respiration for a montane mountain forest located in the Northern Limestone Alps of Upper Austria. Soil respiration, soil temperature and volumetric water content were measured on two windthrow areas (blow down dates were 2007 and 2009 respectively) as well as in an adjacent mature mixed forest during the vegetation periods of 2010 and 2011. Soil respiration in both years was mainly driven by soil temperature, which explained up to 90 % of the concerning temporal variation. Volumetric water content had a significant influence as additional temporal driver. After removing the temperature trend, significant differences in basal soil respiration rates were found for the disturbance area and the forest stand. Inter seasonal declines in soil respiration were ascertained for the mature stand as well as for the recent windthrow. Particular decreases are related to drought stress in summer 2011 and a proceeded decomposition of labile soil carbon components at the windthrow site. An interaction between soil type and stratum showed a distinctive decrease in the soil CO2 efflux pattern for organic soils by comparing the recent and old disturbance areas. Such a downward trend was also detected on the more recently disturbed area in the consecutive years. These findings support the assumption that carbon mineralization can account for excessive losses in soil organic carbon after forest disturbance, whereas organic humus soils are supposed to be particularly vulnerable. This study is part of the INTERREG Bayern-Österreich 2007 -2013 project 'SicAlp - Standortssicherung im Kalkalpin' which is funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and national funding.

Mayer, M.; Katzensteiner, K.

2012-04-01

283

A new model for humic materials and their interactions with hydrophobic organic chemicals in soil-water or sediment-water systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A generalized model of humic materials in soils and sediments, which is consistent with their observed properties, is presented. This model provides a means of understanding the interaction of hydrophobic pollutants with humic materials. In this model, it is proposed that the humic materials in soils and sediments consist of a number of different oligomers and simple compounds which result from the partial degradation of plant remains. These degradation products are stabilized by incorporation into humic aggregates bound together by weak bonding mechanisms, such as hydrogen bonding, pi bonding, and hydrophobic interactions. The resulting structures are similar to micelles or membranes, in which the interiors of the structures are hydrophobic and the exteriors are hydrophilic. Hydrophobic compounds will partition into the hydrophobic interiors of the humic micelles or "membrane-like" structures. ?? 1986.

Wershaw, R. L.

1986-01-01

284

Soil morphology of canopy and intercanopy sites in a pinon-Juniper woodland  

SciTech Connect

Pinon-juniper woodlands in the semiarid western USA have expanded as much as fivefold during the last 150 yr, often accompanied by losses of understory vegetation and increasing soil erosion. We conducted this study to determine the differences in soil morphology between canopy and intercanopy locations within a pinon (Pinus edulis Engelm.)-juniper [Juniperus monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg.] woodland with uniform parent material, topography, and climate. The woodland studied, located near Los Alamos, NM, has a mean tree age of 135 yr. We examined soil morphology by augering 135 profiles in a square grid pattern and comparing soils under pinon and juniper canopies with intercanopy soils. Only two of the 17 morphological properties compared showed significant differences. The B horizons make up a slightly greater proportion of total profile thickness in intercanopy soils, and there are higher percentages of coarse fragments in the lower portions of canopy soil profiles. Canopy soils have lower mean pH and higher mean organic C than intercanopy soils. Regression analysis showed that most soil properties did not closely correspond with tree size, but total soil thickness and B horizon thickness are significantly greater under the largest pinon trees, and soil reaction is lower under the largest juniper trees. Our findings suggest that during the period in which pinon-juniper woodlands have been expanding, the trees have had only minor effects on soil morphology. 36 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Davenport, D.W.; Wilcox, B.P.; Breshear, D.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-11-01

285

Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

2006-01-01

286

MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPORT EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC MATERIALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLO-GICAL MATERIAL (EPA/600/SR-97/099)  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...

287

GEMAS - Soil geochemistry and health implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GEMAS Project resulted in a large coherent data set displaying baseline levels of elements in agricultural and grazing land soil, which has a wide variety of applications. Medical geology is an emerging new discipline providing a link between geoscience and medicine by interpreting natural geological factors in relation to human and animal health and their geographical distribution. Medical geology shows not only problems related to harmful health effects of natural geological materials and processes, but also deals with their beneficial aspects. Since the GEMAS project demonstrates the importance of geological factors in geochemical patterns in European soil, this data set can be used in improving our understanding of how the geological processes may affect human health in Europe. The main potential health problems are related to deficiency of nutrients in soil and toxic effects of potentially harmful elements. Deficiency in macro- (e.g., K, Fe, Mg, P) and micro-nutrients (e.g., Se, Zn, Cl) can be responsible for a reduction in crop productivity and certain health issues for livestock and humans. On the other hand, bioavailability of crucial elements depends on soil parameters, e.g., pH; namely, low pH in soil (in northern Europe) makes more micronutrients bioavailable, with the exception of Mo, P and Ca. Rocks underlying the soil layer have a major impact on soil composition, and soil parent material can be a main source of toxic metals, for instance, soil developed on black shale (e.g., Oslo region) shows potentially toxic levels of metals, such as As, Cd, U, Zn and Pb. High content of organic matter is another factor amplifying the toxic levels of metals in soil. Several important topics with health implications can be then addressed using the GEMAS data set, namely, soil properties and element bioavailability, arsenic toxicity, selenium deficiency, potential health effects of liming, uranium in European soil, influence of recent and historical volcanic activity on soil composition and its health consequences. References Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part A: Methodology and interpretation of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 528 pp. Reimann, C., Birke, M., Demetriades, A., Filzmoser, P. & O'Connor, P. (Editors), 2014. Chemistry of Europe's agricultural soils - Part B: General background information and further analysis of the GEMAS data set. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Reihe B), Schweizerbarth, Hannover, 352 pp.

Ernstsen, Vibeke; Ladenberger, Anna; Wragg, Joanna; Gulan, Aleksandra

2014-05-01

288

Soil Response to Global Change: Soil Process Domains and Pedogenic Thresholds (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacity of soil to withstand perturbations, whether driven by climate, land use change, or spread of invasive species, depends on its chemical composition and physical state. The dynamic interplay between stable, well buffered soil process domains and thresholds in soil state and function is a strong determinant of soil response to forcing from global change. In terrestrial ecosystems, edaphic responses are often mediated by availability of water and its flux into and through soils. Water influences soil processes in several ways: it supports biological production, hence proton-donor, electron-donor and complexing-ligand production; it determines the advective removal of dissolution products, and it can promote anoxia that leads microorganisms to utilize alternative electron acceptors. As a consequence climate patterns strongly influence global distribution of soil, although within region variability is governed by other factors such as landscape age, parent material and human land use. By contrast, soil properties can vary greatly among climate regions, variation which is guided by the functioning of a suite of chemical processes that tend to maintain chemical status quo. This soil 'buffering' involves acid-base reactions as minerals weather and oxidation-reduction reactions that are driven by microbial respiration. At the planetary scale, soil pH provides a reasonable indicator of process domains and varies from about 3.5 to10, globally, although most soils lie between about 4.5 and 8.5. Those that are above 7.5 are strongly buffered by the carbonate system, those that are characterized by neutral pH (7.5-6) are buffered by release of non-hydrolyzing cations from primary minerals and colloid surfaces, and those that are <6 are buffered by hydrolytic aluminum on colloidal surfaces. Alkali and alkaline (with the exception of limestone parent material) soils are usually associated with arid and semiarid conditions, neutral pH soils with young soils in both dry and wet environments and acid soils with wet environments. Furthermore acid soils often have lost much of their easily weatherable primary minerals and their soluble (plant nutrient) ions, and thus much of their ability to buffer against acidity introduced by biological respiration and its products. Acid soils are closer to thermodynamic equilibrium with their near-surface environment and are less vulnerable to change compared with soils that contain a substantial supply of weatherable minerals (young soils) or carbonate minerals (dry soils). The impact of changing seasonal and annual rainfall and evapotranspiration patterns associated with climate change depends on how current pedogenic thresholds manifest across the landscape. We expect that humid soils subjected to drying should undergo less change than arid or semi-arid soils subjected to wetter seasonal conditions. Land-use changes can drive differential responses depending on changing chemistry and porosity. Collectively these factors provide the framework from which to predict and map soil sensivity to global change and climate change in particular.

Chadwick, O.; Kramer, M. G.; Chorover, J.

2013-12-01

289

"Lou soil", a fertile anthropogenic soil with thousands of years of cultivating history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese farmers have a very long history of using manures in their fields. Owing to the long-term addition of manures, an anthropogenic layer was formed on the top of original soil profile (drab soil) in Guanzhong Plains on the south edge of the Loess Plateau, North China. This soil is named the Manural Loessial soil (or Lou soil, "Lou" means the different stories of a building in Chinese). The depth of anthropogenic layer is in range of about 30 to 100 cm depth, which has a close relationship with the soil productivity. This fertile agricultural soil has sustained the agriculture in the region for millenniums. We had determined the organic carbon (SOC) in 7 soil profiles, and found that the depths of anthropogenic layer of were in range of 40 to 71 cm (averaging 59 cm). And the anthropogenic layer became shallower as the profile was far from the village due to less manure application. The organic C stocks in this layer accounted for 69% of organic C stocks in 0-100 cm soil profiles. Organic C stocks in Lou soil was higher than that in the newly cultivated soil developed from loess parent materials. Our 30-day incubation experiment found that addition of synthetic N fertilizer significantly increased the decomposition of SOC in the soils. However, The decomposition rate of SOC in the soil added with manure and inorganic fertilizers for 18-yr (MNPK soil) was significantly lower than in the soils added without fertilizer or inorganic fertilizers (NF soil, and NPK soils). The half-life of the organic C in MNPK soils was also slower than the NF soil, and NPK soil. It indicates that long-term combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers improves the stabilization of soil organic C. Long-term cultivation has not only increased organic C stocks, but also stabilization of organic C in soil profile. It provides us a unique sample to study the mechanism of accumulation and stabilization of organic C in soil to balance agricultural production and C sequestration in a warming earth. Our micro-plot experiment with 15N-labeled fertilizer in the long-term fertilizer trial found that the use efficiency of N fertilizer (NUE) in MNPK soil was higher than the NPK soil and NF soil in both wheat-summer fallow and winter wheat and summer corn rotation system. However, the N fertilizer losses in MNPK soil was lower than the NPK soil and NF soil in the two systems. We concluded that the long-term combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers improves N synchrony between the supply and crop demand, and reduces its loss. Since the 1980s, however, the application of manure to arable fields has declined in Guanzhong Plain, and in other parts of China, due to the increasing use of inorganic fertilizers, and labor costs to apply manure. The nutrient input of the arable fields are heavily dependent on inorganic fertilizers. It changes the biogeochemical cycling of the ecosystem, and results in a series of problems, including eutrophication, greenhouse gas emission, and nitrate leaching. Therefore, we need to find the alternatives to solve the problems, to conserve this old anthropogenic soil while producing enough food to feed the growing population.

Zhou, J.; Liang, B.; Yan, J.; Zhao, W.

2012-12-01

290

Organic carbon stocks and sequestration rates of forest soils in Germany.  

PubMed

The National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) provides the Greenhouse Gas Reporting in Germany with a quantitative assessment of organic carbon (C) stocks and changes in forest soils. Carbon stocks of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil (30 cm) were estimated on the basis of ca. 1.800 plots sampled from 1987 to 1992 and resampled from 2006 to 2008 on a nationwide grid of 8 × 8 km. Organic layer C stock estimates were attributed to surveyed forest stands and CORINE land cover data. Mineral soil C stock estimates were linked with the distribution of dominant soil types according to the Soil Map of Germany (1 : 1 000 000) and subsequently related to the forest area. It appears that the C pool of the organic layer was largely depending on tree species and parent material, whereas the C pool of the mineral soil varied among soil groups. We identified the organic layer C pool as stable although C was significantly sequestered under coniferous forest at lowland sites. The mineral soils, however, sequestered 0.41 Mg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) . Carbon pool changes were supposed to depend on stand age and forest transformation as well as an enhanced biomass input. Carbon stock changes were clearly attributed to parent material and soil groups as sandy soils sequestered higher amounts of C, whereas clayey and calcareous soils showed small gains and in some cases even losses of soil C. We further showed that the largest part of the overall sample variance was not explained by fine-earth stock variances, rather by the C concentrations variance. The applied uncertainty analyses in this study link the variability of strata with measurement errors. In accordance to other studies for Central Europe, the results showed that the applied method enabled a reliable nationwide quantification of the soil C pool development for a certain period. PMID:24616061

Grüneberg, Erik; Ziche, Daniel; Wellbrock, Nicole

2014-08-01

291

Mechanics of lunar soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic areas of the mechanics of lunar soils may be stated as: a study of the effect of low-level gravitational accelerations and high vacuum on the properties of mineral grains of various soils; a selection of soils and materials on the earth which may serve as analogs of the lunar soils and investigation of their properties and uses on

I. Io Cherkasov; V. V. Mikheev; V. P. Petrukhin; V. V. Shvarev

1970-01-01

292

Lunar Soil Particle Separator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) beneficiates soil prior to in situ resource utilization (ISRU). It can improve ISRU oxygen yield by boosting the concentration of ilmenite, or other iron-oxide-bearing materials found in lunar soils, which can substantially reduce hydrogen reduction reactor size, as well as drastically decreasing the power input required for soil heating

Berggren, Mark

2010-01-01

293

Parent-Offspring Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

synopsis. When parent-offspring relations in sexually reproducing species are viewed from the standpoint of the offspring as well as the parent, conflict is seen to be an expected feature of such relations. In particular, parent and offspring are expected to disagree over how long the period of parental investment should last, over the amount of parental investment that should be

ROBERT L. TRIVERS

1974-01-01

294

Adolescent Violence toward Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used National Survey of Youth data to examine extent and cause of adolescent assaults on parents. Found adolescents most likely to assault parents had parent-assaulting friends; approved of delinquent and violent behavior; believed low probability of official sanction for parental assault; were weakly attached to parents; and were White.…

Agnew, Robert; Huguley, Sandra

1989-01-01

295

Soil ecology of Coccidioides immitis at Amerindian middens in California.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of coccidioidomycosis and isolation of Coccidioides immitis have been reported from Amerindian middens. This study was undertaken to determine the most important ecological component(s) for the occurrence of C. immitis at archeological sites. Soils from 10 former Indian villages with no prior history of coccidioidal infection were collected and cultured. The physicochemical properties of the midden soils were compared with nonmidden soils and positive soils. The following theories for the sporadic distribution of the pathogen in the soil of the Lower Sonoran Life Zone were considered: (i) the Larrea tridentata (creosote bush) association, (ii) the preference for saline soils, (iii) isolation near rodent burrows, and (iv) animals as possible agents of dispersal. Results showed that a high percentage of the midden soils contained C. immitis, whereas none of the adjacent, nonmidden soils yielded the fungus. Physicochemical analyses revealed that the dark color and alkaline pH of the midden soils were due to past organic contamination. Repeated isolations were made from soils with low to moderate alkalinity. Alkalinity and sandy texture were consistent features of all soils in this study. However, the lack of any reports of nonsandy infested soils possibly indicates that the sandy texture and alkalinity may be factors in the distribution of this fungus. The organic content, soil parent material, and color were not important in the soil ecology. L. tridentata was not significant in the macroflora at the infested sites surveyed. Samples collected without reference to rodent burrows yielded a high percentage of recoveries. Animals, although not the major natural reservoir, cannot be ignored as possible factors in the ecology of C. immitis. PMID:4856715

Lacy, G H; Swatek, F E

1974-02-01

296

New elements in teaching soil-landscape relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A landscape is an area whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors. Landscapes are fundamental spatial units for soil scientists working in the fields of soil survey and soil geography. For these scientists but also for those who use their products (e.g. maps), interrelations between geology, geomorphology, soil formation and derived soil patterns in relation to land use are keys to the understanding of landscape functions. Many of these relations have been documented in aging soil survey reports but these are often difficult to access. As a result, important and unique soil-landscape phenomena remain hidden for other environmental scientists or the general public. In the Netherlands, efforts have been undertaken to aggregate information from soil survey reports and recent scientific insights into a new book with the aim to teach students the basic elements in soil-landscape research and to provide insights into valuable earth phenomena that are in need of preservation and/or careful management. New elements include amongst others: - State-of-the-art graphics to show how basic soil forming factors such as climate (change), parent material and time are interrelated. - Detailed catenas for specific soil-landscape systems, showing the relations between geomorphology and soil genesis. - Combining traditional soil maps with high-resolution DEM data to make soil-landscape relations more explicit. - Indicating the extent and impacts of land use change using maps of land use history. With this approach, current insights into natural patterns of geodiversity and pedodiversity are documented and available as a resource for education but also for policy makers working in the fields of geoheritage.

Sonneveld, M. P. W.

2012-04-01

297

VALIDATION OF SIGNATURE POLARLIPID FATTY ACID BIOMARKERS FOR ALKANE-UTILIZING BACTERIA IN SOILS AND SUBSURFACE AQUIFER MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Extractable cell membrane-derived polarlipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA) obtained from aerated soils gassed with methane or propane and from methane-and propane-oxidizing bacteria isolated from the soils were analyzed by capiliary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. xposure...

298

Games in an Introductory Soil Science Course: A Novel Approach for Increasing Student Involvement with Course Material  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An optional 1-credit recitation course was developed to supplement a traditionally taught 4-credit lecture-plus-laboratory course in soil science at Oregon State University. Popular, competitive games that would be familiar to students were revised to be "soils-based" and were employed in the recitation class. These games were seen as a potential…

Sulzman, Elizabeth W.

2004-01-01

299

Questions about Biological Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... About Biological Parents Family Life Listen Questions About Biological Parents Article Body As you raise your adopted ... to her life—the fact that she has biological parents elsewhere—that may make it necessary for ...

300

The Rights of Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the rights of parents as they relate to the education of their children. Topics include legal sources of parents' rights; parent involvement; freedom of religion, conscience, and expression; and political rights. (DS)

Fischer, Louis; Schimmel, David

1978-01-01

301

Conserving Soil. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book of enrichment materials is an interdisciplinary study of soil designed for students in grades 6-9. The materials are presented in three units. Unit 1 contains eight activities in which students investigate soil science and study the social impact of soil by examining the history of land use by local Native Americans. Unit 2 contains 10…

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

302

Potassium and magnesium in clay minerals of some Brazilian soils as indicated by A sequential extraction procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total contents of potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) in selected Brazilian soils (Oxisols, Ultisols, Inceptsols, and Alfisols) developed from different parent materials were investigated to estimate the contribution of clay minerals to K and Mg reserves. Total K and Mg contents in the Na-saturated clay were determined by HF total digestion. The contribution of each mineral species to the

V. F. Melo; C. E. G. R. Schaefer; R. F. Novais; B. Singh; M. P. F. Fontes

2002-01-01

303

Evaluation of organic carbon oxidation efficiencies of a modified wet combustion and Walkley?black procedures in Nigerian soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic carbon (C) oxidation efficiencies of the Walkley?Black and modified wet combustion procedures were evaluated in soil samples taken from different ecological zones and diverse parent materials in Nigeria. Dry combustion using a C analyzer was the standard to evaluate the efficiency of the modified wet combustion method. The efficiency of the Walkley?Black method was later compared to that

A. Olayinka; A. Adebayo; A. Amusan

1998-01-01

304

Resilient Parenting: Overcoming Poor Parental Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identified groups of mothers with varying patterns of adaptive functioning and bonds with their own parents. These patterns were related to mothers' parenting of their own children to understand how some mothers avoid repeating the cycle of poor parenting. Data from 210 new mothers were analyzed before hospital discharge about bonding…

Travis, Wendy J.; Combs-Orme, Terri

2007-01-01

305

Spatial variability characteristics of soil available N, P, and K and their influencing factors at the county scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial variability, a major feature of soils, was generally influenced by various factors, relative studies on which laid solid foundations for precision agriculture. In this investigation, method of geostatistics combined with GIS was used to analyze the spatial variability characteristics of soil available nitrogen (SAN), soil available phosphorus (SAP) and soil available potassium (SAK) and their influencing factors in Shuangliu county Sichuan province, China. The results showed that, SAP and SAK were normally distributed through naturally logarithmic transformation. Semivariogram analysis revealed that SAN and SAK were highly spatial correlated, while SAP moderately spatial correlated, and the spatially dependent ranges of SAN, SAK and SAP contents were 21590m, 76903m and 23300m, respectively. Through ordinary Kriging interpolation, SAN, SAP and SAK presented different varying tendencies in the study area. SSR test indicated that SAN was significantly different depending on different soil types; SAP was significantly different depending on terrain conditions and soil parental materials; SAK was strongly affected by soil parental materials. The fertilizer application rate at the regions with high soil available N, P and K contents was obviously higher than that with low soil available nutrient contents.

Pang, Su; Li, Tinxuan; Wang, Yongdong; Yu, Haiying

2009-06-01

306

ICP\\/AES Analysis and the Composition of Airborne and Soil Materials in the Vicinity of A Lead\\/Zinc Smelter Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne particulate and soil materials sampled in the vicinity of a lead\\/zinc smelter and subsequently digested In nitric-perchloric acids have been analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP\\/AES). The samples were collected in two communities; a study community situated immediately adjacent to the smelter complex and a control community some 50 kilometers distant. Enrichment of airborne as well

Andrew J. Lynch; Neil R. McQuaker; David F. Brown

1980-01-01

307

Improvement of 13C and 15N CPMAS NMR spectra of bulk soils, particle size fractions and organic material by treatment with 10% hydrofluoric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The small organic matter content of mineral soils makes it difficult to obtain I3C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra with acceptable signal-to-noise ratios. Subjecting such samples to hydrofluoric acid removes mineral matter and leads to a relative increase in organic material. The effect of treatment with 10% hydrofluoric acid on bulk chemical composition and resolution of solid-state

M. W. I. SCHMIDT; H. KNICKER; P. G. HATCHER; I. KOGEL-KNABNER

1997-01-01

308

NMR spectroscopic study of the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of grass-derived pyrogenic organic material during 2.3 years of incubation in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incomplete combustion of vegetation results in pyrogenic organic material (PyOM) which occurs ubiquitously in soils and sediments. To understand the C sequestration potential of PyOM in environmental systems knowledge is required about the respective degradation and humification mechanisms and the stability of the different chemical PyOM structures. The present study focuses on the microbial recalcitrance of PyOM on molecular scale.

André Hilscher; Heike Knicker

2010-01-01

309

Soil Taxonomy and Soil Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 16 papers in this report deal with the following areas: soil taxonomy; an overview; diagnostic soil horizons in soil taxonomy; soil moisture and temperature regimes in soil taxonomy; particle size and mineralogy in soil taxonomy; soil series and soil ...

1977-01-01

310

Soil mineral surfaces of paddy soils are accessible for organic carbon accumulation after decalcification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied organic carbon (OC) accumulation due to organo-mineral associations during soil development on calcareous parent material. Two chronosequences in Zhejiang Province, PR China, were investigated; one under paddy cultivation with a maximum soil age of 2000 years, and the other under upland crops where the oldest soil was 700 years old. Bulk soils and soil fractions of the uppermost A horizons were analyzed for OC concentrations and radio carbon contents. Total pedogenic iron (Fed) concentration was determined by dithionite extraction and the proportion of oxalate extractable iron (Feox) was extracted by using the method of Schwertmann (1964). The specific surface area (SSA) of soil minerals was measured by the BET-N2 method (Brunauer et al., 1938) under four conditions: untreated, after organic matter removal, after iron removal and after removal of both. Within 700/2000 years of pedogenesis, we observed no change in clay mineral composition and no additional formation of the SSA of soil minerals. But the soils differed in the degree of decalcification, OC accumulation and in the formation of iron. Paddy soil management led to an enhanced decalcification and larger OC accumulation. Management-induced redox cycles caused larger proportions of Feox in paddy soils. Their large SSA, added to the surface area of clay minerals, provided additional options for OC covering. Unexpectedly, there was no evidence of formation of secondary minerals during soil development, which could provide new surfaces for OC accumulation. However, the study revealed higher OC coverings of mineral surfaces after decalcification in paddy soils. As carbonate and Ca2+ ions seemed to interconnect clay minerals, making their surface accessible to OC, the faster dissolution of carbonate and leaching of Ca2+ ions in paddy soils made additional clay mineral surfaces available to OC. In contrast, the surface area of minerals in non-paddy soils, in which decalcification was much lower, seemed to be partly inaccessible for OC covering due to strong microaggregation by cementation with carbonate and Ca2+-bridging. The smaller accumulation of mineral-associated SOM in non-paddy soils was additionally confirmed by the retarded replacement of the inherited carbon. The accelerated decalcification of paddy soils led to enhanced accessibility of mineral surfaces for OC covering, which intensified OC accumulation from the early stages of soil formation onward. References Brunauer, S., Emmett, P.H., Teller, E., (1938). Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 60 (2), 309-319. Schwertmann, U., 1964. Differenzierung der Eisenoxide des Bodens durch Extraktion mit Ammoniumoxalat-Lösung. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung, Düngung, Bodenkunde 105 (3), 194-202.

Wissing, Livia

2013-04-01

311

Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materials play an important role in manufactured goods. Materials must possess both acceptable properties for their intended\\u000a applications and a suitable ability to be manufactured. These criteria hold true for micromanufacturing, in which parts have\\u000a overall dimensions of less than 1 mm. This chapter begins by reviewing materials usage in Asian and European research in micromanufacturing,\\u000a categorized by manufacturing process.

David Bourell; Kamlakar Rajurkar

312

The Development and Testing of Parent Involvement in Driver Education.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A driver education program (PAIRED Program) which integrated professional in-class instruction with parent-supervised on-road driving practice was developed in this project. Instructional materials (Parent Handbook, Implementation Guide for Instructors, a...

J. M. Reaser, R. S. McBride, T. Rosen, M. Rimm

1976-01-01

313

Evaluation of the use of soil ion exchange properties for predicting streamwater chemistry in upland catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of soil ion exchange chemistry for predicting streamwater quality is evaluated using soil and streamwater chemical data from ten upland catchments in NE Scotland. The study catchments vary from those dominated by acid hill peats, alpine soils and podzols to those dominated by more base-rich soils, including cambisols and gleysols. Soil and streamwater chemical data combined with precipitation and parent material chemistry are also used to investigate sources and pathways of water movement. In all soils studied, Ca and Mg are the dominant exchangeable base cations in the surface soil horizons. In most soils, Na becomes increasingly important on the exchange complex with depth down the soil profile. Plots of the relative proportions of Na:Ca:Mg in streamwater show that, during periods of high discharge, streamwater chemistry tends to become relatively more Na-rich compared with Ca and Mg. Using triangular diagrams, streamwater chemistry can be described as a mixture of geochemically distinct packages of water derived from precipitation inputs, specific parent materials and key soil horizons, although spatially important soils within catchments may be relatively unimportant in controlling streamwater chemistry. Changes in streamwater chemistry at high flow can be explained by dilution of water derived from groundwater sources or the B/C horizon, either with laterally flowing water from the upper soil horizons, or with precipitation. In conclusion, changes in the relative proportions of Na:Ca:Mg in streamwater during storms suggest that precipitation chemistry may play a greater role than hitherto suggested in modifying solute chemistry during periods of high flow.

Billett, Michael F.; Cresser, Malcolm S.

1996-11-01

314

Data analysis of the 1984 and 1986 soil sampling programs at Materials Disposal Area T in the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

An environmental surveillance program for Materials Disposal Area T (MDA-T) at Los Alamos, New Mexico is described. The waste-use history of this disposal site is described, followed by a description of the materials and methods used to analyze data from two surface soil radionuclide sampling programs performed at this disposal site. The disposal site`s physical features are related to the spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration contours in an attempt to evaluate radionuclide migration mechanisms in and around the site. The usefulness of the data analysis efforts is evaluated and recommendations are made for future studies.

Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.

1993-09-01

315

Soil moisture: Some fundamentals. [agriculture - soil mechanics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief tutorial on soil moisture, as it applies to agriculture, is presented. Information was taken from books and papers considered freshman college level material, and is an attempt to briefly present the basic concept of soil moisture and a minimal understanding of how water interacts with soil.

Milstead, B. W.

1975-01-01

316

Soil stabilization 1982  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven papers cover the following areas: design, construction and performance of lime, fly ash, and slag pavement; evaluation of heavily loaded cement stabilized bases; coal refuse and fly ash compositions; potential highway base course materials; lime soil mixture design considerations for soils of southeastern United States; short term active soil property changes caused by injection of lime and fly ash; soil cement for use in stream channel grade stabilization structures; and reaction products of lime treated southeastern soils.

Barenberg, E. J.; Thompson, M. R.; Tayabji, S. D.; Nussbaum, P. J.; Ciolko, A. T.

317

Distribution and characterization of soils and landform relationships in Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the spatial distribution of soils from the northern part of Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, which is the largest ice-free area of the South Shetlands archipelago, Maritime Antarctica. Physical and chemical characteristics are presented for 23 soil profiles. Soil parent materials vary from marine sedimentary to volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks, intruded by igneous bodies. To assess soil-landscape relationships, twenty-three soil profiles were described and sampled. Soil samples of selected horizons were submitted to chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses. Soil mapping was based on the soil profiles, integrated with the existent topographic map (1:25.000 scale), a digital elevation model, the geological map and a satellite image. Twenty different soil units were identified and mapped. According to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) system, soils were classified as Fluvisols, Regosols, Leptosols or Cryosols, which correspond mostly to Fluvents, Orthents/Psamments, Inceptsols and Gelisols, respectively, according to the Soil Taxonomy. Soils from northern Byers Peninsula are generally shallow and coarse textured, with low organic matter content. Three soils from the rocky platforms of the northern coastal region possess ornithogenic character, with lower pH, higher P, Al3 + and organic C values when compared to soils not influenced by sea birds. In non-ornithogenic soils, the presence of easily weatherable minerals in the clay fraction indicates that physical weathering occurs with limited chemical alteration of primary minerals. The influence of penguin and other birds on coastal soils alters clay mineralogy, with formation of poorly crystalline P-rich phases. A better understanding of the depth of the permafrost table and the spatial distribution of permafrost is necessary for a more conclusive classification of Cryosols or Gelisols.

Moura, Pedro Adnet; Francelino, Marcio R.; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Simas, Felipe N. B.; de Mendonça, Bruno A. F.

2012-06-01

318

Frozen Soil: A Material to Solve Problems in the Construction Industry (Suelo Congelado: Un Material para la So Lucion do Problemas en la Industria de la Construccion).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Digging a well, restoring the foundations of a building or digging a tunnel in the soils of big cities constitute difficult projects due to a large number of already existing pipelines and sewers. When the city has a clayey subsoil with some content of wa...

J. A. Careaga E. R. Mayer

1975-01-01

319

Teenage Parents: A Global Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional packet consists of an essay, a wall poster, and a teacher's guide that provide information and statistics about teenage parents throughout the world. The purpose of these materials is to give junior high and high school students an overview of the health, social, psychological, economic, and demographic effects of teenage…

Crews, Kimberly A.

320

Parenting Workshops on Child Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The parent education materials in this packet are intended for use by professionals, and some paraprofessionals, who work with children from birth through 5 years of age and with their families. Included are guidelines for choosing playthings for children of any age, and lists of suggested toys for children of various ages, and, in particular,…

Warren-Newport Public Library, Gurnee, IL.

321

Parents Teach Reading, Too.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents and teachers need to be involved in teaching children to read and to enjoy reading. There are three planks in a platform that will help all parents become involved in their children's learning to read. First, parents must set the example. If they want their children to read, parents must read around them and to them. Secondly, they must…

Clary, Linda Mixon

322

Parental Bonding Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The view that those with obsessive compulsive disorder or obsessional personality have been exposed to overcontrolling and overcritical parenting is examined. Two measures of obsessionality (the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory and the Leyton Obsessionality Inventory) were completed by 344 nonclinical subjects. They also scored their parents on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), a measure assessing perceived levels of parental care and

L. C. Cavedo; G. Parker

1994-01-01

323

Involving Latino Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes barriers to Latino parent involvement in educational activities, factors to consider when involving Latino parents, and two examples of Latino involvement programs in California: Family Literacy Workshop at James Monroe Elementary School, Madera Unified School District, and Parents Take P.A.R.T. (Parent Assisted Reading Training) at…

Quezada, Reyes L.; Diaz, Delia M.; Sanchez, Maria

2003-01-01

324

School Parent Involvement Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This school parent involvement policy is divided into three sections: (1) Development and Adoption of the Parent Involvement Policy; (2) Contents of the Parent Involvement Policy; and (3) Distributing and Revising the School's Parent Involvement Policy. This paper presents the provision of the Section 1118 of Title I of the No Child Left Behind…

Center for Law and Education (NJ3), 2005

2005-01-01

325

Parents and Youth Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that parents play a critical role in their children's sports and should not be excluded, despite negative press about some "pushy" parents. The paper recommends that youth administrators encourage positive parental involvement in youth sports by acknowledging the important role that each parent plays and empowering them to do the right…

Kanters, Michael

2002-01-01

326

Parent-child Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey investigates 6 major questions: (1) do adolescents and their parents perceive youth as overindulged; (2) are parent-child communication channels open; (3) has understanding between parents and their children broken down; (4) do children identify with their parents; (5) has discipline been permissive; and (6) do adolescents reject the…

Erlich, A. C., Ed.

327

Partners: Parents & Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors of this collection of essays make the major points that parental participation influences student performance, and that time spent with parents by school personnel results in better learning. Ira J. Gordon explains four models of parent-school-community relationships and cites research evidence of long-term effects of parent

Brandt, Ronald S., Ed.

328

Parent Conferences. Beginnings Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents six workshop sessions on parent conferences: (1) "Parents' Perspectives on Conferencing" (R. Duffy); (2) "Three Way Conferences" (G. Zeller); (3) "Conferencing with Parents of Infants" (K. Albrecht); (4) "Conferencing with Parents of School-Agers" (L. G. Miller); (5) "Cross Cultural Conferences" (J. Gonzalez-Mena); and (6) "Working with…

Duffy, Roslyn; And Others

1997-01-01

329

Parents, Children, and Alcohol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on Soviet parents' responses to a 1986 survey concerning parental influence on children and alcohol use. Points out that most parents perceive the link between their own alcohol use and children's drinking but cultural traditions and alcoholic habits often preclude change. Notes parents' opinions on effectiveness of governmental and school…

Levin, Boris Mikhailovich; Levin, Mikhail Borisovich

1990-01-01

330

Habitat Development Field Investigations Windmill Point Marsh Development site James River, Virginia. Appendix E. Environmental Impacts of Marsh Development with Dredged Material: Metals and Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Compounds in Marsh Soils and Vascular Plant Tissues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soil and vascular plant tissue samples were collected in October 1976 from three freshwater marshes located on the James River in Virginia. One marsh known as the Windmill Point marsh development site had been constructed using dredged material during the...

J. D. Lunz

1978-01-01

331

A simple method to determine mineralization of (14) C-labeled compounds in soil.  

PubMed

Degradation of organic compounds in soil is often determined by measuring the decrease of the parent compound and analyzing the occurrence of its metabolites. However, determining carbon species as end products of parent compound dissipation requires using labeled materials that allow more accurate determination of the environmental fate of the compound of interest. The current conventional closed system widely used to monitor degradation of (14) C-labeled compounds in soil is complex and expensive and requires a specialized apparatus and facility. In the present study, the authors describe a simple system that facilitates measurement of mineralization of (14) C-labeled compounds applied to soil samples. In the system, soda lime pellets to trap mineralized (14) C-carbon species, including carbon dioxide, were placed in a cup, which was then inserted above the treated soil sample in a tube. Mineralization of [(14) C]2,4-D applied to soil samples in the simple system was compared with that in the conventional system. The simple system provided an equivalent detection of (14) C-carbon species mineralized from the parent compound. The results demonstrate that this cost- and space-effective simple system is suitable for examining degradation and mineralization of (14) C-labeled compounds in soil and could potentially be used to investigate their mineralization in other biological matrices. PMID:24677225

Myung, Kyung; Madary, Michael W; Satchivi, Norbert M

2014-06-01

332

Cultural Approaches to Parenting  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting.

Bornstein, Marc H.

2012-01-01

333

Games in an Introductory Soil Science Course: A Novel Approach for Increasing Student Involvement with Course Material  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes an optional recitation course that was developed to supplement a traditionally taught lecture-plus-laboratory course in soil science. Popular, competitive games that would be familiar to students were revised to be "soils-based" and were employed in the recitation class. These games were seen as a potential means to use knowledge in an atypical fashion while at the same time generating enthusiasm for the subject. Evaluation of two terms of games implementation showed that these activities increased both student enthusiasm and, potentially, course performance.

Sulzman, Elizabeth

334

Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western USA. I. Chemical characteristics of spoil and replaced cover-soil.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A range of at least one order of magnitude was observed for DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and organic matter content of samples of spoil and cover-soil from eleven western USA surface-coal mines. The observed pH of these samples ranged from 3.9 to 8.9; however, most samples were near-neutral to alkaline in reaction. Most constituent levels were found to be below proposed guidelines for maximum permissible levels in mine soil. -from Authors

Severson, R. C.; Gough, L. P.

1983-01-01

335

Soil development as limiting factor for shrub expansion in southwestern Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern Greenland currently experiences an increase in summer temperatures and a prolonged growing season (Masson-Delmotte et al. 2012), resulting in an increased shrub cover at the boreal - tundra border ecotone (Normand et al. 2013). These findings suggest the beginning of a greener Greenland in which tundra vegetation is transformed to a boreal woody flora. However, vegetation at borderline ecotones is influenced by further ecologic factors than just temperature. In this study, the ecologic conditions at a selection of sites along an elevation gradient near Igaliku in southern Greenland were examined to identify potential factors limiting the expansion of woody vegetation apart from temperature. The sites differ in elevation, topography, shrub density and soil parent material. The three study sites comprise i) well established birch shrubs growing between 50 and 180 m a.s.l., where the parent material origins from the Julianehab granite (Brooks 2012); ii) extended shrub patches at about 250 m a.s.l., where the parent material consists of Gardar Sandstones and Lavas (Brooks 2012) and iii) restricted shrub patches at an elevation of 250 m a.s.l., where the soil parent material originates from the Gardar intrusions (Brooks 2012). The extent of the shrub areas, topography and soil moisture were mapped, additionally soil samples were analyzed for C-and N-content, texture including coarse fraction and pH and used as soil development indicators. Our results show that the topographic setting regulates the existence or absence of soil while the soil parent material is an important limiting factor for soil moisture. According to these findings, we suggest that a high proportion of areas where temperature increase would allow the increase of shrub cover is not suitable for a woody flora. Brooks, Kent. 2012. "A Tale of Two Intrusions—where Familiar Rock Names No Longer Suffice." Geology Today 28 (1): 13-19. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2451.2012.00815.x. Masson-Delmotte, V., D. Swingedouw, A. Landais, M. S. Seidenkrantz, E. Gauthier, V. Bichet, C. Massa, B. Perren, V. Jomelli, and G. Adalgeirsdottir. 2012. "Greenland Climate Change: From the Past to the Future." Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/wcc.186/full. Normand, Signe, Christophe Randin, Ralf Ohlemüller, Christian Bay, Toke T. Høye, Erik D. Kjær, Christian Körner, et al. 2013. "A Greener Greenland? Climatic Potential and Long-Term Constraints on Future Expansions of Trees and Shrubs." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 368 (1624) (August 19): 20120479. doi:10.1098/rstb.2012.0479.

Caviezel, Chatrina; Hunziker, Matthias; Zoller, Oliver; Wüthrich, Christoph; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

2014-05-01

336

Rx for a Parent Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While children are being treated, parents receive relevant information through a variety of media. The article contains information about the program's objectives, planning, audiovisual materials, volunteers, program operation, and evaluation. (STS)

Singarella, Tom

1977-01-01

337

A history of Soil Survey in England and Wales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early soil mapping in Britain was dominated, as in the USA, by soil texture with maps dating back to the early 1900's identifying surface texture and parent rock materials. Only in the 1920's did Dokuchaev's work in Russia involving soil morphology and the development of the soil profile start to gain popularity, drawing in the influence of climate and topography on pedogenesis. Intentions to create a formal body at this time responsible for soil survey were not implemented and progress remained slow. However, in 1939 definite steps were taken to address this and the soil survey was created. In 1947, its activities were transferred from Bangor to the research branch of the Rothamsted experimental station in Hertfordshire under Professor G.W. Robinson. Soon after, a number of regional offices were also established to act as a link with the National Agricultural Advisory Service. At this time a Pedology Department was established at Rothamsted, focussing on petrological, X-ray, spectrographic and chemical analyses. Although not a Rothamsted Department itself, the Survey did fall under the 'Lawes Agricultural Trust'. A Soil Survey Research Advisory Board was also formed to act as a liaison with the Agricultural Field Council. In Scotland by contrast, soil survey activities became centred on the Macaulay Institute in Aberdeen. Developments in the survey of British soils were accompanied in parallel by the development of soil classification systems. In 1930 a Soils Correlation Committee had been formed to ensure consistency in methods and naming of soil series and to ensure the classification was applied uniformly. In England and Wales the zonal system adopted was similar to that used in the USA, where soil series were named after the location where they were first described. American soil scientists such as Veitch and Lee provided stimulus to the development of mapping methods. In Scotland a differing classification was adopted, being similar to that used in Canada, recognising the importance of the soil drainage characteristics within areas of similar parent material. This led to the adoption of the soil catena approach and the usage of soil 'associations'. With Britain entering the Second World War in 1939, there followed the almost complete cessation of survey activities and it was only in the aftermath of that war that recruitment of surveyors could re-commence. The first Soil Survey Field Handbook was published in 1940. Systematic and formal national soil survey activities across both England and Wales can be dated back to 1947 when work commenced to provide a complete picture of the soil resources of the two countries. Mapping at 1:25,000 scale, almost half the land was covered when, in 1979, the survey received instructions, together with the Scottish survey, to complete respective national maps at 1:250,000, which were published in the early 1980s. Attention then turned again to mapping lowland areas in more detail as well as specialised and thematic maps. However, in 1987 systematic survey was terminated and staff of the Soil Survey of England and Wales disbanded to form the Soil Survey and Land Research Centre (SSLRC) at what became Cranfield University - where its successor, the National Soil Resources Institute (NSRI) operates currently.

Hallett, S.; Deeks, L.

2012-04-01

338

Parent Behavior Importance and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaires: Psychometric Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the psychometric characteristics of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire (PBIQ) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire (PBFQ). Both research questionnaires are based on the parent development theory (PDT) and offer parent as well as non-parent respondents the opportunity to rate 38 parenting

Mowder, Barbara A.; Sanders, Michelle

2008-01-01

339

Parenting as measured by the Parenting Behaviors Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between parent behaviors, child development and subsequent child behavior outcomes has been examined. However, few tools have been developed and utilized to assess and quantify parenting behaviors in relationship to parent and child demographic characteristics. This study uses the Parenting Behaviors Questionnaire (PBQ), to examine whether parent and child backgrounds influence parents' perceptions of their parenting. Specifically, the

Penni Morganstein

2006-01-01

340

Parents' Education Levels, Parents' Beliefs, and Child Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between parents' education levels, parents' beliefs concerning children, children's cognitions related to themselves and their relationships, and academic achievement were investigated in a sample of Turkish fourth-grade children and their parents. Structural equations were used in data analysis. Level of parents' education was a significant predictor of parents' beliefs for both parents. Relationships between parents' beliefs and child outcomes

Nuran Hortaçsu

1995-01-01

341

Lead in Vegetation, Forest Floor Material, and Soils of the Spruce-Fir Zone, Great Smoky Mountains National Park.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on a survey during 1982, lead concentrations in vegetation, litter and soils of the spruce-fir zone of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park are generally less than values reported for similar sites in the northeastern United States and western Eu...

M. A. Bogle R. R. Turner

1983-01-01

342

The soil moisture and its effect on the detection of buried hydrogenous material by neutron backscattering technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the available nuclear techniques, the neutron backscattering technique, based on the detection of the produced thermal neutrons, is thought to be the most promising for landmine detections. The results obtained from Monte Carlo simulation were used for selection of BF3 detector and Am-Be neutron source shielding. In addition, soil moisture was discussed as a limitation of the neutron backscattering

D. Rezaei Ochbelagh; H. Miri Hakimabad; R. Izadi Najafabadi

2009-01-01

343

Volatile element depletion and K-39/K-41 fractionation in lunar soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence for selective loss and isotopic fractionation (in the case of K) of volatile elements during formation of agglutinates by micrometeoritic bombardment of lunar soils is presented. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of volatile elements (K, Rb, Pb) and nonvolatile elements (U, Th, Ba, Sr, rare earths) in separates taken from soils 14163, 14259, 15041, 68501, and 71500 are examined. Rayleigh fractionation calculations applied to K-39/K-41 isotopic data indicate ten-fold recycling of bulk soil, to account for observed isotopic anomalies. The lunar soil fines fraction seems to be a site of deposition for volatile or labile Pb produced during agglutination. Local fines (below 75 microns) are viewed as representative of the parent material for agglutinates formed in situ by micrometeoritic impact. Magnetic separation of agglutinates from soil 68501 revealed a bimodal population, with one class comprising welded blocky magnetic glasses.

Church, S. E.; Tilton, G. R.; Wright, J. E.; Lee-Hu, C.-N.

1976-01-01

344

Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions, and Parenting Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play)…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

2011-01-01

345

Parent to Parent: Giftedness with a Twist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discovering that a child is gifted can be both exhilarating and daunting. Parents watch in amazement and awe as their 3-year-old reads a first-grade-level book flawlessly, or they might listen to their preschool child's distress over seeing a homeless person on the street. Parents observe as their 6-year-old dismantles a broken CD player and…

McGee, Christy D.

2012-01-01

346

Reestablishment of suppressiveness to soil- and air-borne diseases by re-inoculation of soil microbial communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the potentials and limitations in restoring soil suppressiveness in disturbed soils. Soils from three sites in UK and Switzerland (STC, REC, THE) differing in their level of suppressiveness to soil-borne and air-borne diseases were ?-irradiated and this soil matrix was re-inoculated with 1% (w\\/w) of either parent native soil or native soil

Barbara Thuerig; Andreas Fließbach; Nicole Berger; Jacques G. Fuchs; Noemy Kraus; Nicole Mahlberg; Bruno Nietlispach; Lucius Tamm

2009-01-01

347

Soil stabilization 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven papers cover the following areas: design, construction and performance of lime, fly ash, and slag pavement; evaluation of heavily loaded cement stabilized bases; coal refuse and fly ash compositions; potential highway base course materials; lime soil mixture design considerations for soils of southeastern United States; short term active soil property changes caused by injection of lime and fly ash;

E. J. Barenberg; M. R. Thompson; S. D. Tayabji; P. J. Nussbaum; A. T. Ciolko

1982-01-01

348

Challenges of Parenting Multiples  

MedlinePLUS

... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Challenges of Parenting Multiples There are many psychological, social, and economic ... the unique challenges and rewards that come from parenting multiples. For more information on the medical aspects ...

349

Growing Pains (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents Are Reading Q&A: Obamacare Finding Affordable Health Care Eating Well & Staying Fit Flu Vaccine: How Many Doses? Connect With Us: Social Media Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Growing Pains KidsHealth > Parents > ...

350

When Your Parents Fight  

MedlinePLUS

... many times when parents disagree, they argue. An argument is a fight using words. Most kids worry ... make kids feel scared , sad , or upset. Even arguments that use silence — like when parents act angry ...

351

Parent's Firearm Safety Checklist  

MedlinePLUS

Parent’s Firearm Safety Checklist IN YOUR HOME ? Before you buy a gun, consider less dangerous ways to keep your family ... window locks, dogs, etc. ? Don't buy a gun unless you have the necessary knowledge to use ...

352

Asperger Syndrome (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... history is), kids may benefit from these treatments: parent education and training specialized educational interventions social skills ... Although AS presents challenges for kids and their parents, you can help your child adjust and offer ...

353

Parents, Kids and TV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three articles offer parents suggestions on how to make television a positive experience for their children. An editorial introduces the following themes basic to all the articles: type and amount of television viewing should be regulated by parents, pare...

M. Gaffney

1983-01-01

354

Parent Outreach Success  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through the Massachusetts Parent Involvement Project (MassPIP), teams of community businesses, service organizations, school personnel, parents, and children joined together and planned and conducted science, mathematics, and technology related activities

Nitzberg, Joel; Sparrow, Judith

2001-11-01

355

The soil moisture and its effect on the detection of buried hydrogenous material by neutron backscattering technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the available nuclear techniques, the neutron backscattering technique, based on the detection of the produced thermal neutrons, is thought to be the most promising for landmine detections.The results obtained from Monte Carlo simulation were used for selection of BF3 detector and Am–Be neutron source shielding. In addition, soil moisture was discussed as a limitation of the neutron backscattering technique.

D. Rezaei Ochbelagh; H. Miri Hakimabad; R. Izadi Najafabadi

2009-01-01

356

The distribution of organic material and its contribution to the micro-topography of particles from wettable and water repellent soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic coatings on mineral particles will mask the physic-chemical properties of the underlying mineral surface. Surface images and force measurements obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM) provide information about the nature of and variability in surfaces properties at the micro- to nano-scale. As AFM technology and data processing advance it is anticipated that a significant amount of information will be obtained simultaneously from individual contacts made at high frequency in non-contact or tapping mode operation. For present purposes the surfaces of model materials (smooth glass surfaces and acid-washed sand (AWS)) provide an indication of the dependency of the so-called AFM phase image on the topographic image (which is obtained synoptically). Pixel wise correlation of these images reveals how the modulation of an AFM probe is affected when topographic features are encountered. Adsorption of soil-derived humic acid (HA) or lecithin (LE), used here as an example for natural organic material, on these surfaces provides a soft and compliant, albeit partial, covering on the mineral which modifies the topography and the response of an AFM tip as it partially indents the soft regions (which contributes depth to the phase image). This produces a broadening on the data domain in the topographic/phase scatter diagram. Two dimensional classifications of these data, together with those obtained from sand particles drawn from water repellent and wettable soils, suggest that these large adsorbate molecules appear to have little preference to attach to particular topographic features or elevations. It appears that they may effectively remain on the surface at the point of initial contact. If organic adsorbates present a hydrophobic outer surface, then it seems possible that elevated features will not be immune from this and provide scope for a local, albeit, small contribution to the expression of super-hydrophobicity. It is therefore speculated here that the water repellency of a soil is the result of not only of particle surface chemistry and soil pore space geometry, but also of the micro-topography generated by organic material adsorbed on particle surfaces.

Bryant, Rob; Cheng, Shuying; Doerr, Stefan H.; Wright, Chris J.; Bayer, Julia V.; Williams, Rhodri P.

2010-05-01

357

ADHD Parents Medication Guide  

MedlinePLUS

... Most doctors recommend that parents and guardians attend parenting classes, particularly those focused on understanding and managing ... PDF: http://www.help4adhd.org/documents/WWK1.pdf Parenting a Child with ADHD HTML: http://www.help4adhd. ...

358

Building Parent Involvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is the rationale behind parent involvement in guidance and educational activities, together with specific suggestions for involving parents with other adults (parent advisory committees, informal coffees, Transactional analysis (groups etc.), with children (story hours, trips, demonstrations, counseling booths, testing, interviewing,…

Nelson, Richard C.; Bloom, John W.

1973-01-01

359

Parental Rights in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chapter 15 in a book on school law summarizes court decisions and legislation concerning the rights of parents in the education of children. On purely educational matters, the interest of the parent normally must yield to the dominant interest of the state. Parental arguments are strongest when they can sincerely rely upon religious beliefs that…

Volz, Marlin M.

360

When Parents Argue  

MedlinePLUS

Chances are you've had an argument or twenty with your parents recently — about clothes, homework, your phone, friends, or pretty much anything. But what's going on when your parents fight with each other? When Parents Disagree All couples argue from ...

361

The Parent Needs Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Parent Needs Inventory" (PNI) is designed to identify needs and concerns of parents of very young handicapped children and to provide an objective measure of program effectiveness. Using the Q-sort process, the PNI compares the parent's "real" and "ideal" perceptions of themselves in three areas--the grieving process, knowledge of child…

DeRosa, Steve

362

Parent Outreach Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the Massachusetts Parent Involvement Project (MassPIP) comprising 59 local community coalitions of businesses, service organizations, school personnel, parents, and children. Describes steps coalitions follow in planning events and presents community success stories. The project developed a set of activities that parents can do at home…

Nitzberg, Joel; Sparrow, Judith

2001-01-01

363

Getting Along with Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... read, you just might grow up carrying a book wherever you go, just like she does. But parents do a lot more than just pass along their hobbies. Moms and dads need to care for their kids from the minute they're born. It's a parent's job to love and guide kids — and most parents ...

364

Parenting Your Adopted Preschooler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parenting an adopted preschooler is very similar to parenting any preschooler. As parents, you should not ignore the fact that your child is adopted or their experiences prior to the adoption. But you need not worry unnecessarily about these issues, eithe...

2009-01-01

365

Relational Responding in Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between parenting stress and relational conditioning. Fourteen students who were not mothers, 14 mothers who reported high parenting stress and 14 mothers with low parenting stress completed two matching-to-sample (MTS) computer tasks, each requiring formation of three 3-member classes. The first MTS task…

Murrell, Amy R.; Wilson, Kelly G.; LaBorde, Cicely T.; Drake, Chad E.; Rogers, Leslie J.

2008-01-01

366

From a Parent's Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The series of articles on parenting compiled in this book bridges the gap between educational theory and the everyday problems parents must deal with. The book's perspective encourages parents to be gentle, flexible, observant, and not too attached to expectations. The first chapter, "Surviving Parenthood," discusses topics such as managing…

Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

367

Parenting by Lying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present set of studies identifies the phenomenon of "parenting by lying", in which parents lie to their children as a means of influencing their emotional states and behaviour. In Study 1, undergraduates (n = 127) reported that their parents had lied to them while maintaining a concurrent emphasis on the importance of honesty. In Study 2 (n =…

Heyman, Gail D.; Luu, Diem H.; Lee, Kang

2009-01-01

368

Parent Abuse: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse). This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily…

Kennair, Nicola; Mellor, David

2007-01-01

369

NYS Foster Parent Manual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed for use in foster parents' day-to-day life with the children in their care. It gives them practical information on topics like medical care, payments, and the role of the court, and also provides guidance on areas like welcoming a child, discipline, and parent visits. The manual emphasizes the role of foster parents in…

McBride, Rebecca

2007-01-01

370

Magnetic properties of agricultural soil in the Pearl River Delta, South China - Spatial distribution and influencing factor analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental magnetism has been widely applied to soil science due to its speediness, non-destructiveness and cost-effectiveness. However, the magnetic investigation of agricultural soil, so closely related to human activity, is limited, most probably because of its complexity. Here we present a magnetic investigation of 301 agricultural soil samples collected from the Pearl River Delta (PRD, 112°E-115°E and 22°N-24°N), China. The results showed that both low and high coercivity magnetic minerals coexist in agricultural soil. The values of concentration-dependent parameters, low-field susceptibility (?lf), anhysteretic remanence magnetization susceptibility (?ARM), and saturation isothermal remanence magnetization (SIRM) were much higher in the PRD plain than in the surrounding areas. The S-ratio (S- 300) showed a similar spatial pattern to the aforementioned parameters. By contrast, frequency-dependent susceptibility (?fd%) and ?ARM/SIRM were higher in the surrounding hilly and mountainous areas than in the PRD plain. Natural and anthropogenic factors such as parent material, soil type and cultivation methods play important roles in determining agricultural soil magnetic properties. Magnetic minerals were coarser grained and overall indicated higher concentrations in soils from river alluvium and deposited materials. Soils which had suffered long-term water submergence have the lowest magnetic mineral concentration, a result consistent with previous studies. The magnetic properties of agricultural soils are strongly influenced by cultivation methods. Other human activities, such as industrial development and concomitant emitted pollutants, might have had an additional impact on the magnetic properties of agricultural soil.

Bian, Yong; Ouyang, Tingping; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Huang, Ningsheng; Wan, Hongfu; Li, Mingkun

2014-08-01

371

Mineral Occurrence, Translocation, and Weathering in Soils Developed on Four Types of Carbonate and Non-carbonate Alluvial Fan Deposits in Mojave Desert, Southeastern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil geomorphology and mineralogy can reveal important clues about Quaternary climate change and geochemical process occurring in desert soils. We investigated (1) the mineral transformation in desert soils developed on four types of alluvial fans (carbonate and non-carbonate) under the same conditions of climate and landscape evolution; and (2) the effects of age, parent materials, and eolian processes on the transformation and translocation of the minerals. Four types of alluvial-fan deposits along the Providence Mountains piedmonts, Mojave Desert, southeastern California, USA were studied: (1) carbonate rocks, primarily limestone and marble (LS), (2) fine-grained rhyodacite and rhyolitic tuff mixed with plutonic and carbonate rocks (VX), (3) fine- to coarse- grained mixed plutonic (PM) rocks, and (4) coarse-grained quartz monzonite (QM). These juxtaposed fan deposits are physically correlated in a small area (about 20 km by 15 km) and experienced the same climatic changes in the late Pleistocene and Holocene. The soils show characteristic mineral compositions of arid/semiarid soils: calcite is present in nearly all of the samples, and a few of the oldest soils contain gypsum and soluble salts. Parent material has profound influence on clay mineral composition of the soils: (1) talc were observed only in soils developed on the volcanic mixture fan deposits, and talc occurs in all horizons; (2) palygorskite occur mainly in the petrocalcic (Bkm) of old soils developed on the LS and VX fan deposits, indicating pedogenic origin; (3) chlorite was observed mainly in soils developed on VX fan deposits (all ages) and on some LS deposits, but it is absent in soils developed on PM and QM fan deposits; and (4) vermiculite was common throughout soils developed on plutonic rock fan deposits. These mineralogical differences suggest that minerals in the soils are primarily inherited from their parent materials and that mineral weathering in this area was weak. Except the abundance of palygorskite, soils developed on alluvial fans with different ages (4,000 to 200,000 yrs old) did not show other distinct mineralogy difference as a function of age or soil development, which supports the weak weathering of the soils. The results suggest that the clays in the argillic horizons are primarily derived from the accumulation of desert dust, and with time, are translocated into subsoil horizons. The pedogenic accumulation of dust is a soil-geomorphic process common to the Mojave Desert, as well as other deserts in the world.

Deng, Y.; McDonald, E. V.

2007-12-01

372

Topographic and soil differences from peridotite to serpentinite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pedologists commonly lump peridotite and serpentinite soils together without reporting differences between them. Peridotite and serpentinite are chemically similar, but mineralogically quite different. A detailed soil survey in which soils with peridotite and serpentinite parent materials were separated in mapping revealed appreciable differences in geomorphic and pedologic features between these two types of ultramafic rocks. In mountainous terrain of the Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon, slopes tend to be steeper on peridotite and the soils redder. More Luvisols (Alfisols) were found on peridotite and more Phaeozems (Mollisols) on serpentinite. Very shallow soils (7% of the area), which are Leptosols (mostly Mollisols and Entisols, few Alfisols), are more common on serpentinite. Sparsely vegetated barrens are commonly fragmental colluvium (talus) on peridotite and erodible, slightly to moderately stony summits and sideslopes on serpentinite. Large landslides are much more extensive in serpentinite terrain. Vegetative cover differences from peridotite to serpentinite are much less pronounced than the topographic and soil differences; the plant differences are obvious only on shallow soils.

Alexander, E. B.; DuShey, J.

2011-12-01

373

Quality soil management or soil quality management : performance versus semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 200 years, soil science has used reductionist research to develop agricultural technologies that have unlocked the hidden potential of earth's natural systems to feed, clothe, and provide raw materials to the human population of over six billion. The soil quality paradigm seeks to change that scientific approach, the nomenclature of soil science, and institutional priorities for soil

R. E Sojka; D. R Upchurch; N. E Borlaug

2003-01-01

374

Parenting Beliefs, Parental Stress, and Social Support Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…

Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee

2012-01-01

375

Personality and Parenting Style in Parents of Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian,…

Huver, Rose M. E.; Otten, Roy; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

2010-01-01

376

Manufactured Soil Screening Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this technical note is to provide a screening test that can be used to evaluate the potential for manufacturing artificial soil using dredged material, cellulose waste materials (e.g., yard waste compost, sawdust, wastepaper), and biosolids...

1999-01-01

377

Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

2006-01-01

378

SOIL INGESTION BY CONSTRUCTION WORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil ingestion is a means by which toxic materials can enter the human body. Soil ingestion is considered to be a potentially important mechanism of exposure, especially for toxic substances that are concentrated in soil and dust. There are very few studies of soil ingestion in...

379

Soil: The Great Decomposer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to understand that soil, under different environmental conditions, plays a role in the decomposition of organic materials. Students use bottle experiments to observe changes in the decomposition of vegetable scraps. Students vary temperature, moisture, and light conditions to determine the conditions that best facilitate the decomposition of organic material in soil.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

380

The causes of soil alkalinization in the Songnen Plain of Northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causes of soil alkalinization in the Songnen Plain of Northeast China were mainly analyzed from two aspects, natural and\\u000a anthropogenic. Natural factors of alkalinization are parent materials, topographic positions, freeze-thaw action, wind conveyance,\\u000a water properties and semi-arid\\/sub-humid climate. Some of them were always being neglected, such as freeze-thaw action and\\u000a wind conveyance. Anthropogenic causes are mainly population pressure, overgrazing

Li Wang; Katsutoshi Seki; T. Miyazaki; Y. Ishihama

2009-01-01

381

Saharan dust in Yucatan soils: Sr isotope and trace element evidence of dust inputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saharan dust transport is an important source of material for soil development in Caribbean islands, and may even be a larger source than the weathering of parent material on calcareous substrates in the Florida Keys and Bahamas. The Yucatan peninsula has similar soils and limestone parent materials, and receives annual Saharan dust inputs, but the importance of long-range dust transport for soil development in the region remains uncertain. Here we find evidence of Saharan dust in soils from a karst landscape in the central Yucatan peninsula using Sr isotopes, trace and rare earth element geochemistry. 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios and trace element concentrations were measured in three soil profiles - an upland mature forest, upland secondary forest and depositional lowland (bajo) mature forest. 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios in the upland mature and secondary forests were close to local limestone bedrock, while the bajo soil profile had higher values than local bedrock or Central American volcanic inputs, indicating the influence of Saharan dust. Trace element concentrations and rare earth element patterns in the upland mature forest and bajo profiles are more similar to values for Saharan dust and Central American volcanic sources than to local limestone bedrock. However, influence from volcanic sources would have lower 87Sr/86Sr values, indicating that Saharan dust influence is more likely. The bajo soil shows higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios and trace element concentrations compared to the upland soils, especially the secondary forest profile, indicating that soil disturbance and transport within the karst landscape influence the fate of eolian inputs and trace element geochemistry of soils in this region. Saharan dust is an important input to soil development at this location, and further work using isotopes and rare earth elements are necessary to quantify long-term dust inputs as a source material for soil development; Plot of Sr isotope ratio vs trace element (Zr/Y) ratio in three soil profiles at El Refugio, central Yucatan peninsula. Values for local limestone bedrock at El Refugio, Saharan dust and Central American volcanic sources are indicated for reference

Das, R.; Pett-Ridge, J. C.; D'Odorico, P.; Lawrence, D.

2012-12-01

382

SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP PRODUCTIVITY OF AN ERODED SOIL AMENDED WITH CATTLE MANURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erosion changes soil properties, especially physical properties, mainly because it removes surface soil rich in organic materials and exposes lower soil layers. In 1988, a study was established to determine the effects of soil erosion and long-term manure applications on selected soil phys­ ical properties and corn (Zea mays L.) production. After 10 years of an­ nual manure applications, soil

Francisco J. Arriaga; Birl Lowery

2003-01-01

383

Variable Charge Soils: Mineralogy and Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

Soils rich in particles with amphoteric surface properties in the Oxisols, Ultisols, Alfisols, Spodosols and Andisols orders (1) are considered variable charge soils (2). The term “variable charge” is used to describe organic and inorganic soil constituents with reactive surface groups whose charge varies with pH, ionic concentration and composition of the soil solution. Such groups are the surface carboxyl, phenolic and amino functional groups of organic materials in soils, and surface hydroxyl groups of Fe and Al oxides, allophane and imogolite. The hydroxyl surface groups are also present on edges of some phyllosilicate minerals such as kaolinite, mica, and hydroxyl-interlayered vermiculite. The variable charge is developed on the surface groups as a result of adsorption or desorption of ions that are constituents of the solid phase, i.e., H+, and the adsorption or desorption of solid-unlike ions that are not constituents of the solid. Highly weathered soils usually undergo isoeletric weathering and reach a “zero net charge” stage during their development. They have a slightly acidic to acidic soil solution pH, which is close to either point of zero net charge (PZNC) (3) or point of zero salt effect (PZSE) (3). They are characterized by high abundances of minerals with a point of zero net proton charge (PZNPC) (3) at neutral and slightly basic pHs; the most important being Fe and Al oxides and allophane. Under acidic conditions, the surfaces of these minerals are net positively charged. In contrast, the surfaces of permanent charge phyllosilicates are negatively charged regardless of ambient conditions. Variable charge soils therefore, are heterogeneous charge systems. The coexistence and interactions of oppositely charged surfaces or particles confers a different pattern of physical and chemical behavior on the soil, relatively to a homogeneously charged system of temperate regions. In some variable charge soils (Oxisols and some Ultisols developed on ferromagnesian-rich parent materials) the surfaces of phyllosilicates are coated to a lesser or greater extent by amorphous or crystalline, oppositely charged nanoparticles of Fe and Al oxides. These coatings exhibit a high reactive surface area and help cementing larger particles with one another. As a result of these electrostatic interactions, stable microaggregates that are difficult to disperse are formed in variable charge soils. Most of highly weathered soils have reached the “advanced stage” of Jackson-Sherman weathering sequence that is characterized by the removal of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe(II), the presence of Fe and Al polymers, and very dilute soil solutions with an ionic strength (IS) of less than 1 mmol L-1. The inter-penetration or overlapping of the diffuse double layers on oppositely charged surfaces may occur in these dilute systems. These diffuse layer interactions may affect the magnitude of the effective charge, i.e., the counter-ion charge (4). In addition, salt adsorption, which is defined as the simultaneous adsorption in equivalent amounts of the cation and anion of an electrolyte with no net release of other ions into the soil solution, appears to be a common phenomenon in these soils. They act as cation- and anion-exchangers and as salt-sorbers. The magnitude of salt adsorption depends strongly on initial IS in the soil solution and the presence in appreciable amounts of oppositely charged surfaces. Among the authors that have made illustrious contributions towards a better understanding of these fascinating soil systems are S. Matson, R.K. Schofield, van Olphen, M.E. Sumner, G.W. Thomas, G.P. Gillman, G. Uehara, B.K.G. Theng, K. Wada, N.J. Barrow, J.W. Bowden, R.J. Hunter and G. Sposito. This entry is mainly based on publications by these authors.

Qafoku, Nik; Van Ranst, Eric; Noble, Andrew; Baert, Geert

2003-11-01

384

Mobility of Soil Contaminants in an Ecosystem of Trees Growing on Dredged Material - The Broekpolder (Rotterdam, The Netherlands).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether or not plant (Cyperus esculentus) and earthworm (Eisenia foetida) bioassays applied to sediments adequately predict the long-term environmental impacts of disposed contaminated dredged material in ...

C. T. Bowmer M. C. Scholten S. H. Kay

1988-01-01

385

[Morphology of soil iron oxides and its correlation with soil-forming process and forming conditions in a karst mountain].  

PubMed

The quantity and morphology of iron oxides are indicators of soil forming-process and forming conditions. In order to analyze the connection between soil iron oxides and soil forming conditions and degenerative process of karst ecosystem, we have chosen 14 soil profiles on the top and middle section of Jinfo Mountain, a typical karst slope in Chongqing, China. Morphology and contents of soil iron oxides were studied by using chemical selective extraction techniques. We draw conclusions: 1) total iron (Fe(t)) is mainly controlled by parent material and lithology. Significant difference of Fe(t) content exists between soils in Top Mountain (51.49 g x kg(-1), mean value from 5 profiles) and soils at the middle sector of North Slope (86.29 g x kg(-1), mean value of 9 profiles); 2) the results show low concentration of F(d) (29.16 g x kg(-1)) and low ratio of Fe(d) to Fe(t)(35.40%) in soil clay under conditions of high elevation and low temperature on Top Mountain. In contrast, the results indicate advanced weathering and soil-forming process at middle slope sites due to high temperature; this is supported by high mean values of Fe(d) (43.92 g x kg(-1)) and ratio of Fe(d)/Fe(t) in clay (60.41%); 3) long humid climatic setting and large numbers of soil organic matter on top of the mountain result in high activation degrees (F(o)/Fe(d)) and high complexation degrees (Fe(p)/Fe(d)); mean values of them are 73.51%, 17.21% respectively, which are higher than that of soils at middle slope sites (13.06%, 0.41%); 4) after degradation or deforestation of secondary forestland (pines massoniana among bushes) at middle section of the hillslope, soil free iron oxides (Fe(d)) and total iron oxides (Fe(t)) decrease as well as soil organic carbon and clay, because of progressively increasing of soil erosion. Average contents of Fe(t) and Fe(d) in clay from 2 shrub profiles are 98.25 g x kg(-1), 50.81 g x kg(-1) respectively. However, the four tillage soils we have studied reveal lower values of Fe(t) (84.52 g x kg(-1)) and Fe(d) in clay (47.86 g x kg(-1)). Soil iron oxides are reliable indicators to estimate degeneration of karst ecosystem and karst rock desertification. PMID:22946190

Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Zhu, Zhang-Xiong; Fu, Wa-Li; Wen, Zhi-Lin

2012-06-01

386

Parent-child relationship and parental well-being of Chinese parents in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of parental characteristics, family attributes, and parent-child relationship (parent-child relational quality and parent-child relational demands) on parental well-being (psychiatric morbidity, midlife crisis symptoms, positive mental health, and perceived health status) in 1501 Chinese parents. Results showed that amongst the various predictors under focus, parent-child relationship variables were found to have the strongest effects on parental

Daniel T. L Shek

1997-01-01

387

A mass-balance model to separate and quantify colloidal and solute redistributions in soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies of weathering and pedogenesis have long used calculations based upon low solubility index elements to determine mass gains and losses in open systems. One of the questions currently unanswered in these settings is the degree to which mass is transferred in solution (solutes) versus suspension (colloids). Here we show that differential mobility of the low solubility, high field strength (HFS) elements Ti and Zr can trace colloidal redistribution, and we present a model for distinguishing between mass transfer in suspension and solution. The model is tested on a well-differentiated granitic catena located in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Ti and Zr ratios from parent material, soil and colloidal material are substituted into a mixing equation to quantify colloidal movement. The results show zones of both colloid removal and augmentation along the catena. Colloidal losses of 110kgm-2 (-5% relative to parent material) are calculated for one eluviated soil profile. A downslope illuviated profile has gained 169kgm-2 (10%) colloidal material. Elemental losses by mobilization in true solution are ubiquitous across the catena, even in zones of colloidal accumulation, and range from 1418kgm-2 (-46%) for an eluviated profile to 195kgm-2 (-23%) at the bottom of the catena. Quantification of simultaneous mass transfers in solution and suspension provide greater specificity on processes within soils and across hillslopes. Additionally, because colloids include both HFS and other elements, the ability to quantify their redistribution has implications for standard calculations of soil mass balances using such index elements. ?? 2011.

Bern, C. R.; Chadwick, O. A.; Hartshorn, A. S.; Khomo, L. M.; Chorover, J.

2011-01-01

388

A Novel Approach to Investigate Soil Organic Matter Development Using Isotopes and Thermal Analysis: C Sourcing from Various Plant Materials and Mineral Influence on Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomolecular input quality and mineral constituents are important factors that regulate turnover and stabilization of natural organic matter. The complexity and variability of natural soil systems might shadow basic mechanisms occurring between organic and mineral components. Utilizing an in vitro model decomposition system allows for control over inputs and turnover time. We created a model soil system with composted plant litter that was enriched with 13-C in order to investigate C use during the formation of stabilized SOM. The litter was subjected to microbially-mediated, aerobic decomposition before pure clays were added and allowed to incubate further. Isotopically labeled organic inputs allowed us to focus on C derived from known plant sources as a qualitative assessment of SOM formation. Thermogravimetry-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TG-DSC) has been used successfully to quantify thermochemical properties of SOM reactivity/stability in three regions of exothermic activity corresponding generally to carbohydrates and lipids (Exo 1; 150-350 C), aromatic and condensed polymers (Exo 2; 400-460 C) and refractory/mineral associated C (Exo 3; 500-550 C). Thermal separation of the organics allows for in-line evolved gas analysis via Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) to measure 13-C isotopic values of those thermally separated organic compound classes. This coupled analysis is ideal in that it is fast, reproducible, and requires no sample pretreatment other than drying/grinding and it provides stability, mass loss, and isotopic data from a single sample. DSC results show the development of a higher temperature, energetically recalcitrant C pool over the course of decomposition in mineral-free litters and its absence in clay-litter mixtures, implicating the influence of mineral surfaces on soil organic matter energetic stability. Preliminary IRMS results indicate that mineral presence influences C sourcing from particular plant materials in some SOM compound classes. For example, in mineral-free treatments containing 13-C enriched woody material, gas evolution from Exo 3 that was enriched in 13-C and was therefore derived from the woody material. However, the presence of montmorillonite clay minerals resulted in gas evolution that was depleted in 13-C and was therefore derived from the non-woody plant inputs present (grass and leaves). This shows a change in mechanism: either the microbial sourcing of C from woody material to produce Exo 3 compounds changed in the presence of the mineral or mineral interaction with the organics altered the thermal reactivity of those wood-derived compounds, causing them to thermally separate differently. We are also exploring the effect of bridging metal interaction with minerals and plant litter as SOM develops. We are able to show that this analytical method is useful for probing mineral influence on SOM stability and differentiation in litter C utilization during decomposition in a single sample. TG-DSC-IRMS analysis can be used for any soil-organic matter investigation, with isotopically enriched or natural abundance materials: applications range from measuring terrestrial C sequestration efforts and organic waste management efficacy to sustainable agricultural practices.

Bower, J.; Horwath, W. R.

2012-12-01

389

Active Parenting Today: For Parents of 2 to 12 Year Olds. Parent's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed for parents participating in discussion groups utilizing the Active Parenting Today video-based parent education program. The book is divided into six chapters, each of which is integrated with a 26-minute video to be shown at a parent meeting. Chapter 1, the Active Parent, discusses the purpose and roles of parents, while…

Popkin, Michael H.

390

Parenting attitudes, foster parenting attitudes, and motivations of adoptive and nonadoptive foster parent trainees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes and motivations of adoptive and nonadoptive foster parent trainees toward parenting and foster parenting. Subjects were 44 adoptive female participants and 149 nonadoptive female trainees. Multivariate Analysis of Covariance revealed significant differences between adoptive and nonadoptive trainees in parenting attitudes, foster parenting attitudes, and motivations for foster parenting. Inspection of adjusted

Renee Gillis-Arnold; Sedahlia Jasper Crase; Dahlia F. Stockdale; Mack C. Shelley

1998-01-01

391

Rare earth elements in soils from selected areas on the Island of Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

Fifty soil samples for the wet, windward (east) side and dry, leeward (west) side of the Island of Hawaii were analyzed for La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, and Lu by neutron activation/gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis. Data on concentrations in each sample are listed and analyzed statistically for soil samples collected from the western slope of Kohala Mountain, the western coastal plain of Mauna Kea, and the Northeastern coastal plain of Maunal Loa. Rare earth element (REE) concentrations are two to six times greater in soils from the western, dry side of the island, and good statistical correlation is exhibited among the samples for pairs of individual REEs. In the organic-rich soils of the east side, correlations are poor but are markedly improved when sample weights are adjusted for weight due to organic matter and water in soil colloids. If the mean compositions of selected rock samples from the Hawaii Reference Suite are representative of the compositions of the parent materials, REEs in the soils are moderately enriched (up to two times, based on oven-dry weights). Rare earth element concentrations in the island's western soils are as much as two times greater than the mean REE values of common sedimentary rocks worldwide; however, they are well within the concentration ranges of soils of continental origin. The eastern soils tend to have less La and Ce, but similar amounts of the middle and heavy REEs.

Barnard, W.M.; Halbig, J.B.

1985-07-01

392

Gamma ray attenuation in the soils of Northern Ireland, with special reference to peat.  

PubMed

This study considers gamma ray attenuation in relation to the soils and bedrock of Northern Ireland using simple theory and data from a high resolution airborne survey. The bedrock is considered as a source of radiogenic material acting as parent to the soil. Attenuation in the near-surface is then controlled by water content in conjunction with the porosity and density of the soil cover. The Total Count radiometric data together with 1:250 k mapping of the soils and bedrock of Northern Ireland are used to perform statistical analyses emphasising the nature of the low count behaviour. Estimations of the bedrock response characteristics are improved by excluding areas covered by low count soils (organic/humic). Equally, estimations of soil response characteristics are improved by excluding areas underlain by low count bedrock (basalt). When the spatial characteristics of the soil-classified data are examined in detail, the low values form spatially-coherent zones (natural clusters) that can potentially be interpreted as areas of increased water content for each soil type. As predicted by theory, the highest attenuation factors are associated with the three organic soil types studied here. Peat, in particular, is remarkably skewed to low count behaviour in its radiometric response. Two detailed studies of blanket bogs reveal the extent to which peat may be mapped by its radiometric response while the intra-peat variations in the observed response may indicate areas of thin cover together with areas of increased water content. PMID:22858640

Beamish, David

2013-01-01

393

Soils of Sub-Antarctic tundras: diversity and basic chemical characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctic peninsula is known as specific part of Antarctica, which is characterizes by humid and relatively warm climate of so-called sub Antarctic (maritime) zone. Annual precipitation and long above zero period provides the possibility of sustainable tundra's ecosystem formation. Therefore, the soil diversity of these tundra landscapes is maximal in the whole Antarctic. Moreover, the thickness of parent material debris's is also highest and achieves a 1 or 2 meters as highest. The presence of higher vascular plants Deshampsia antarctica which is considered as one of the main edificators provides the development of humus accumulation in upper solum. Penguins activity provides an intensive soil fertilization and development of plant communities with increased density. All these factors leads to formation of specific and quite diverse soil cover in sub Antarctic tundra's. These ecosystems are presented by following permafrost affected soils: Leptosols, Lithoosols, Crysols, Gleysols, Peats and Ornhitosols. Also the post Ornhitosols are widely spreaded in subantarcic ecosystems, they forms on the penguin rockeries during the plant succession development, leaching of nutrients and organic matter mineralization. "Amphibious" soils are specific for seasonal lakes, which evaporates in the end if Australian summer. These soils have specific features of bio sediments and soils as well. Soil chemical characteristic as well as organic matter features discussed in comparison with Antacrtic continental soil in presentation.

Abakumov, Evgeny; Vlasov, Dmitry; Mukhametova, Nadezhda

2014-05-01

394

Genetic features of soils on sorted sand deposits of different origins in the Kola Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differences in the chemical composition of soils developed from sorted sands of different origins are revealed. The iron-illuvial podzols on rich glaciofluvial and marine sands are characterized by well-pronounced Al-Fe-humus differentiation of the Si, Al, and Fe in the soil profile. These soils are relatively similar in their bulk elemental composition. The difference between them is seen in the degree of differentiation of the soil profiles; it is stronger in the soils developed from glaciofluvial deposits. This is particularly true with respect to the oxalate-soluble iron and aluminum hydroxides. The deposits derived from the red-colored Tersk sandstone and processed by the sea (in the coastal zone of the White Sea) have the poorest chemical composition. In the soils developed from them, the differentiation of oxalate-soluble compounds is slightly pronounced (for Fe) or completely absent (for Si and Al). These soils can be classified as podzolized ferruginous red-colored psammozems (within the order of poorly developed soils) with the following horizons: O-Ce-Cf-C. The Ce horizon has the features of podzolization, and the Cf horizon has some features attesting to the illuvial accumulation of Fe. The profile of these soils inherits a reddish tint from the parent material.

Pereverzev, V. N.

2009-09-01

395

Parents Come to Class  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you challenged to involve parents in your school's science curriculum? Ridgecrest Elementary School in Hyattsville, Maryland, tackled that issue and found a successful solution in an exciting program called "Playtime Is Science" (Sprung, Froschl, and Colon 1997). This program trains parent volunteers as "coteachers" to help classroom teachers facilitate learning in specific science units and also encourages parental participation in the school at all levels.

Gooden, Kelly

2003-01-01

396

Parent Abuse: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse).\\u000a This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears\\u000a to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily focused on prevalence rates and

Nicola Kennair; David Mellor

2007-01-01

397

Parenting and plasticity  

PubMed Central

As any new parent knows, having a baby provides opportunities for enrichment, learning and stress –experiences known to change the adult brain. Yet surprisingly little is known about the effects of maternal experience, and even less about the effects of paternal experience, on neural circuitry not directly involved in parenting. Here we discuss how caregiving and the accompanying experiential and hormonal changes influence the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, brain regions involved in cognition and mood regulation. A better understanding of how parenting impacts the brain is likely to help in devising strategies for treating parental depression, a condition that can have serious cognitive and mental health consequences for children.

Leuner, Benedetta; Glasper, Erica R.; Gould, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

398

Effect of salinity on the dielectric properties of geological materials: implication for soil moisture detection by means of remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the exploitation of dielectric properties of saline deposits for the detection and mapping of moisture in arid regions on both Earth and Mars. We then present a simulation and experimental study in order to assess the effect of salinity on the permittivity of geological materials and therefore on the radar backscattering coefficient in the [1-7 GHz

Y. Lasne; P. Paillou; G. Ruffle; C. Serradilla; F. Demontoux; A. Freeman; T. Farr; K. McDonald; B. Chapman; J.-M. Malezieux

2007-01-01

399

Tetanus (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... called Clostridium tetani , which is often found in soil. Once the bacteria are in the body, they ... more likely to cause tetanus. Wounds contaminated with soil, saliva, or feces — especially if not properly cleaned — ...

400

Ascariasis (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... of the parasite Ascaris lumbricoides commonly found in soil and human feces are ingested. The eggs can be transmitted from contaminated food, drink, or soil. The roundworms range in size from 5.9 ...

401

Handbook of Parenting. Volume 2: Biology and Ecology of Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned with social settings and correlates of parenting, this volume, the second of four volumes on parenting deals specifically with the biology and the ecology of parenting. The volume consists of 12 chapters as follows: (1) "Hormonal Basis of Parenting in Mammals" (Jay S. Rosenblatt); (2) "Parenting in Primates" (Kim A. Bard); (3)…

Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.

402

Parent Choice and Empowerment: New Roles for Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes New York City initiatives for parent participation in education, including the Parent Involvement Program (PIP), the Parent Orientation Program (POP), and the Parent Leadership Assistance Network (PLAN). These programs incorporate commitment to the family, broadened definitions of parent involvement, varied involvement strategies, and…

Jackson, Barbara L.; Cooper, Bruce S.

1989-01-01

403

Dismay and Disappointment: Parental Involvement of Latino Immigrant Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental involvement in schools has become more popular over the past decade due to Goals 2000 and research suggesting that student academic success increases when parents are included in the education of their children. Although researchers have examined the issue of parents and schools, limited research on parental involvement has been conducted within immigrant communities. Latino immigrant parents within a

A. Y. Fred Ramirez

2003-01-01

404

Personal Health Practices in Single Parent and Two Parent Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the differences in personal health practices by family type--single-parent versus two-parent--and the relationship of family characteristics--socialization practices, extent of social networks, health training efforts by parents, family socioeconomic status to personal health practices in single-parent and two-parent families (N=41).…

Loveland-Cherry, Carol J.

1986-01-01

405

An evaluation of the level of naturally occurring radioactive material in soil samples along the Chao Phraya river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of natural radioactivity in river sediments and riverbank surface soils collected along the Chao Phraya River and its tributaries in Thailand. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in 238U and 232Th decay chains as well as 40K in all samples have been determined by means of a gamma-ray spectrometry system using a hyper-pure germanium detector in a low background configuration. The ranges of specific activity for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found to be 15.2-67.0, 16.8-73.3 and 204.6-656.5 Bq kg -1, respectively. Additionally, evaluations have been made of the absorbed gamma dose rate in air and the annual effective dose equivalent from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation in order to assess any excess radiological risk from agricultural usage of fertilizers. In this study, the absorbed dose rate was observed to vary from 30.5 to 102.6 nGy h -1 and the outdoor annual effective dose equivalent to range from 37.4 to 125.8 ?Sv yr -1.

Santawamaitre, T.; Regan, P. H.; Bradley, D. A.; Matthews, M.; Malain, D.; Al-Sulaiti, H. A.

2010-07-01

406

Heavy metal contents in surface soils along the Upper Scheldt river (Belgium) affected by historical upland disposal of dredged materials.  

PubMed

For several decades, periodical dredging of river sediments has been necessary to allow for shipping traffic on the river Scheldt. Sediments were disposed along the shores in the alluvial plain without concern for the potential presence of contaminants. The aim of this study was to survey the alluvial plains of the Upper Scheldt river in Belgium for the presence of old dredged sediment landfills, and to appraise the heavy metal contamination at these sites. Up to 82% of the areas that were affected by dredged sediment disposal was found to be polluted by at least one of the metals Cd, Cr, Zn or Pb. Concentrations of Cd, Cr and Zn were, in 10% of the cases, higher than 26, 1900 and 2800 mg/kg, respectively. Cu and Ni concentrations were of no environmental concern on any site. Trends in metal concentrations as a function of location and time were explored and discussed. The highest average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in the most downstream quarter of the Upper Scheldt. Contents of Pb and Cu were significantly lower for sediments disposed after 1965, but no indication for improvement of the sediment quality with time was observed for Cd, Cr and Zn. The pollution levels encountered warrant for caution as most of the soils affected by historical dredged sediment disposal are currently in use for agriculture, nature development or forestry. PMID:12083701

Vandecasteele, Bart; De Vos, Bruno; Tack, Filip M G

2002-05-01

407

Fire induced changes in aggregate stability: the interacting effects of soil heating and ash leachate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in runoff and erosion after wildfires are typically attributed to the combined effects of the loss of ground cover, water repellency and surface sealing. Surface sealing in burned areas is caused by raindrop compaction of mineral soils (structural seal formation), the clogging of soil pores by fine soil and ash, or the formation of low conductivity ash crusts (depositional seal formation). Structural sealing is more likely to occur if the fire reduces the aggregate stability of the mineral soil. Soil heating tends to reduce aggregate stability by combusting soil organic matter. Effects due to soil heating may be amplified or reduced by interactions between soil clays and ash leachate, but these effects are poorly understood. We are investigating the interacting effects of soil heating and exposure to ash leachate on the stability of soil aggregates in burned areas. During the 2011 fire season in the Rocky Mountains we collected soil samples (~1000g) from unburned areas adjacent to three recent wildfires. Soils were obtained from areas with sharply contrasting parent materials, leading to differences in the soil mineralogy. High severity ash was collected from within the burned areas. Each soil sample was divided into 6 subsamples with the first subsample acting as a control. The remaining five subsamples were heated to 100, 200, 300, 500, and 700C respectively. After heating, each subsample was split in two. Ash leachate was added to one half and DI water was added to the other half. The ash leachate was prepared by mixing 10 g of ash with 1000 mL of water in accordance with previous studies. All samples were then air dried and analyzed for porosity, bulk density, aggregate size distribution, aggregate stability and water repellency. Initial results suggest that there is an interacting effect of soil heating and exposure to ash leachate on the stability of soil aggregates, but the effect varies depending on the mineralogy of soil clays and the type of cations in the leachate. Thus, in order to predict effects of fire on soil aggregate stability it is necessary to determine not only the intensity of soil heating but also the soil clay mineralogy and the ash cation chemistry.

Balfour, V.; Hatley, D.; Woods, S.

2011-12-01

408

[Spatial variability of soil nutrients and salinity in coastal saline-alkali land based on belt transect method].  

PubMed

A north-south transect was established in the saline-alkali land of Yellow River old course at Diaokou of northern Yellow River Delta, Shandong Province of East China to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics of soil nutrients and salinity and related affecting factors by using geostatistics method. In the study area, the nugget/still of soil organic matter, total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK) contents and soil salinity were 0.38, 0.40, 0.50, 0.32, and 0.34, respectively, which demonstrated that these five parameters were moderately spatial dependence. The soil organic matter and TN contents in this transect had a similar distribution pattern, soil AK content was highly correlated to soil salinity, while soil AP content presented a fluctuated distribution. According to the comprehensive analysis of soil organic matter content and salinity, this transect was classified into three types, i.e., high salinity and low fertility, high salinity and high fertility, and low salinity and high fertility. The spatial distribution pattern of the five soil parameters was closed related to the soil parental material, land use pattern, distance to sea, and road block. PMID:22937640

Wang, Na-Na; Qi, Wei; Wang, Dan; Qin, Tian-Tian; Lu, Chao

2012-06-01

409

In-situ vitrification of soil  

DOEpatents

A method of vitrifying soil at or below a soil surface location. Two or more conductive electrodes are inserted into the soil for heating of the soil mass between them to a temperature above its melting temperature. Materials in the soil, such as buried waste, can thereby be effectively immobilized.

Brouns, Richard A. (Kennewick, WA); Buelt, James L. (Richland, WA); Bonner, William F. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

410

Teaching with Moodle in Soil Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil is a 3-dimensional body with properties that reflect the impact of climate, vegetation, fauna, man and topography on the soil's parent material over a variable time span. Therefore, soil is integral to many ecological and social systems and it holds potential solutions for many of the world's economic and scientific problems as climate change or scarcity of food and water. The teaching of Soil Science, as a natural science in its own right, requires principles that reflect the unique features and behaviour of soil and the practices of soil scientists. It could be argued that a unique set of teaching practices applies to Soil Science; however specific teaching practices are scarce in literature. The present work was triggered by the need to develop new techniques of teaching to speed up the learning process and to experiment with new methods of teaching. For such, it is necessary to adopt virtual learning environment to new learning requirements regarding Soil Science. This paper proposes a set of e-teaching techniques (as questionnaires, chats as well as forums) introduced in Moodle virtual learning Environment in order to increase student motivation and interest in Soil Science. Such technologies can be used to: a)Increase the amount of time a teacher allots for student reflection after asking a question and before a student responds (wait-time). This practice increases the quantity and quality of students' answers. The students give longer responses, students give more evidence for their ideas and conclusions, students speculate and hypothesize more and more students participated in responding. Furthermore, students ask more questions and talk more to other students. b)Improve active learning, an essential paradigm in education. In contrast to learning-before-doing, we propose to focus on learning-in-doing, a model where learners are increasingly involved in the authentic practices of communities through learning conversations and activities involving expert practitioners, educators and peers. c)Introduce the specific specialised technical language (jargon) gradually. The excessive use of Soil Science jargon confuses students and frequently put obstacles in the way of learning. d)Encourage the students to take responsibility for their learning, continuous assessment with direct error correction and content feedback and peer review with comments sent to forum. The student interest to learn using e-project is clearly strong.

Roca, Núria

2014-05-01

411

Parenting by Automatic Pilot.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide on parenting suggests ideas and methods to build self-esteem, courage, decision-making, and loving which are so important to child success and happiness. The introduction notes that this book is written for what seems to be the majority of parents who, despite the availability of much writing and other information on the subject of…

O'Callaghan, J. Brien