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1

Allelic association between marker loci  

PubMed Central

Allelic association has proven useful to refine the location of major genes prior to positional cloning, but it is of uncertain value for genome scans in complex inheritance. We have extended kinship theory to give information content for linkage and allelic association. Application to pairs of closely linked markers as a surrogate for marker × oligogene pairs indicates that association is largely determined by regional founders, with little effect of subsequent demography. Sub-Saharan Africa has the least allelic association, consistent with settlement of other regions by small numbers of founders. Recent speculation about substantial advantages of isolates over large populations, of constant size over expansion, and of F1 hybrids over incrosses is not supported by theory or data. On the contrary, fewer affected cases, less opportunity for replication, and more stochastic variation tend to make isolates less informative for allelic association, as they are for linkage. PMID:9990074

Lonjou, C.; Collins, A.; Morton, N. E.

1999-01-01

2

Evaluation of linkage disequilibrium measures between multi-allelic markers as predictors of linkage disequilibrium between markers and QTL.  

PubMed

Effectiveness of marker-assisted selection (MAS) and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping using population-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) between markers and QTL depends on the extent of LD and how it declines with distance in a population. Because marker-QTL LD cannot be observed directly, the objective of this study was to evaluate alternative measures of observable LD between multi-allelic markers as predictors of usable LD of multi-allelic markers with presumed biallelic QTL. Observable LD between marker pairs was evaluated using eight existing measures and one new measure. These consisted of two pooled and standardized measures of LD between pairs of alleles at two markers based on Lewontin's LD measure, two pooled measures of squared correlations between alleles, one standardized measure using Hardy-Weinberg heterozygosities, and four measures based on the chi-square statistic for testing for association between alleles at two loci. In simulated populations with a range of LD generated by drift and a range of marker polymorphism, marker-marker LD measured by a standardized chi-square statistic (denoted chi(2')) was found to be the best predictor of useable marker-QTL LD for a group of multi-allelic markers. Estimates of the level and decline of marker-marker LD with distance obtained from chi(2') were linearly and highly correlated with usable LD of those markers with QTL across population structures and marker polymorphism. Corresponding relationships were poorer for the other marker-marker LD measures. Therefore, when LD is generated by drift, chi(2') is recommended to quantify the amount and extent of usable LD in a population for QTL mapping and MAS based on multi-allelic markers. PMID:16181525

Zhao, H; Nettleton, D; Soller, M; Dekkers, J C M

2005-08-01

3

Allele-Specific H3K79 Di- versus Trimethylation Distinguishes Opposite Parental Alleles at Imprinted Regions? †  

PubMed Central

Imprinted gene expression corresponds to parental allele-specific DNA CpG methylation and chromatin composition. Histone tail covalent modifications have been extensively studied, but it is not known whether modifications in the histone globular domains can also discriminate between the parental alleles. Using multiplex chromatin immunoprecipitation-single nucleotide primer extension (ChIP-SNuPE) assays, we measured the allele-specific enrichment of H3K79 methylation and H4K91 acetylation along the H19/Igf2 imprinted domain. Whereas H3K79me1, H3K79me2, and H4K91ac displayed a paternal-specific enrichment at the paternally expressed Igf2 locus, H3K79me3 was paternally biased at the maternally expressed H19 locus, including the paternally methylated imprinting control region (ICR). We found that these allele-specific differences depended on CTCF binding in the maternal ICR allele. We analyzed an additional 11 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and found that, in general, H3K79me3 was associated with the CpG-methylated alleles, whereas H3K79me1, H3K79me2, and H4K91ac enrichment was specific to the unmethylated alleles. Our data suggest that allele-specific differences in the globular histone domains may constitute a layer of the “histone code” at imprinted genes. PMID:20351169

Singh, Purnima; Han, Li; Rivas, Guillermo E.; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Nicholson, Thomas B.; Larson, Garrett P.; Chen, Taiping; Szabo, Piroska E.

2010-01-01

4

Imputation of Microsatellite Alleles from Dense SNP Genotypes for Parental Verification  

PubMed Central

Microsatellite (MS) markers have recently been used for parental verification and are still the international standard despite higher cost, error rate, and turnaround time compared with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP)-based assays. Despite domestic and international interest from producers and research communities, no viable means currently exist to verify parentage for an individual unless all familial connections were analyzed using the same DNA marker type (MS or SNP). A simple and cost-effective method was devised to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes within breeds. For some MS, imputation results may allow inference across breeds. A total of 347 dairy cattle representing four dairy breeds (Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey) were used to generate reference haplotypes. This approach has been verified (>98% accurate) for imputing the International Society of Animal Genetics recommended panel of 12 MS for cattle parentage verification across a validation set of 1,307 dairy animals. Implementation of this method will allow producers and breed associations to transition to SNP-based parentage verification utilizing MS genotypes from historical data on parents where SNP genotypes are missing. This approach may be applicable to additional cattle breeds and other species that wish to migrate from MS- to SNP-based parental verification. PMID:22912645

McClure, Matthew; Sonstegard, Tad; Wiggans, George; Van Tassell, Curtis P

2012-01-01

5

Parental allelic variation at COL6A1 and congenital heart defects in trisomy 21  

SciTech Connect

Overt congenital heart defects (CHD) affect over 40% of newborns with Down syndrome. On the hypothesis that genetic variation on chromosome 21 determines this clinical variability, we studied a CHD candidate locus (COL6A1) on 21q22.3. We studied three RFLP loci in COL6A1 in 37 families of known British/Irish population of ancestral origin, and in population-matched controls. Each family had a child with trisomy 21 with or without accompanying congenital heart defect (CHD). Parental and meiotic origin of nondisjunction were determined using peri-centromeric markers. For the analysis, we considered groups of families with trisomic children with and without CHD, and subsets of nondisjoining and disjoining parents. Parental genotypes at nine control RFLP loci on chromosome 21 showed no association with CHD in the trisomic child. By contrast, parental genotypes at all three individual RFLP loci within COL6A1 showed statistically significant association with the trisomic child`s CHD status. Pairwise consideration of these loci in groups of families of trisomic children with and without CHD showed subsets of nondisjoining and disjoining parents to have different linkage disequilibrium patterns at these loci than population-matched controls. This suggests that the COL6A1 alleles of the parents are not representative of the population as a whole. Consideration of all three loci together as haplotypes supports this conclusion. Four results suggest that a functional mutation within, or in linkage disequilibrium with COL6A1 influences CHD outcome in trisomy 21.

Kessling, A.M.; Howard, C.M.; Farrer, M.J. [St. Mary`s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

1994-09-01

6

A combined analysis of D22S278 marker alleles in affected sib-pairs: Support for a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia at chromosome 22q12  

SciTech Connect

Several groups have reported weak evidence for linkage between schizophrenia and genetic markers located on chromosome 22q using the lod score method of analysis. However these findings involved different genetic markers and methods of analysis, and so were not directly comparable. To resolve this issue we have performed a combined analysis of genotypic data from the marker D22S278 in multiply affected schizophrenic families derived from 11 independent research groups worldwide. This marker was chosen because it showed maximum evidence for linkage in three independent datasets. Using the affected sib-pair method as implemented by the program ESPA, the combined dataset showed 252 alleles shared compared with 188 alleles not shared (chi-square 9.31, 1df, P = 0.001) where parental genotype data was completely known. When sib-pairs for whom parental data was assigned according to probability were included the number of alleles shared was 514.1 compared with 437.8 not shared (chi-square 6.12, 1df, P = 0.006). Similar results were obtained when a likelihood ratio method for sib-pair analysis was used. These results indicate that there may be a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia at 22q12. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

Gill, M.; Vallada, H.; Collier, D. [Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom); and others

1996-02-16

7

Testing parental imprinting in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus by the marker-association-segregation-chi 2 method.  

PubMed Central

Among patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), an excess of DR3 and DR4 alleles is classically described when compared with the general population. In addition, an excess of maternal DR3 and paternal DR4 alleles among patients (DR3DR4) is observed. In order to explain these observations, two alternative hypotheses can be tested: maternal effect and parental imprinting. Maternal effect has been tested and not rejected on a sample of 416 caucasians affected with IDDM. Under this hypothesis, the children of a DR3 mother are expected to have an earlier exposure and, hence, an earlier age at onset. However, we did not observe such a difference in age at onset in this data set. Using the marker-association-segregation-chi 2 method, we have tested four hypotheses with different parental effects of two susceptibility alleles, alpha 0 and beta 0, at two different closely linked loci. Under the hypothesis that best fitted the data, the probability of being affected depended on the parental inheritance of the susceptibility alleles, suggesting parental imprinting (i.e., differential role of maternal and paternal allele), without evidence for a cis-trans effect. We conclude that parental imprinting on a specific allelic combination may explain the observations on the HLA genotypes of the patients and their relatives. PMID:7726162

Margaritte-Jeannin, P; Clerget-Darpoux, F; Hors, J; Deschamps, I

1995-01-01

8

Chromosome-Wide Analysis of Parental Allele-Specific Chromatin and DNA Methylation ? §  

PubMed Central

To reveal the extent of domain-wide epigenetic features at imprinted gene clusters, we performed a high-resolution allele-specific chromatin analysis of over 100 megabases along the maternally or paternally duplicated distal chromosome 7 (Chr7) and Chr15 in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). We found that reciprocal allele-specific features are limited to imprinted genes and their differentially methylated regions (DMRs), whereas broad local enrichment of H3K27me3 (BLOC) is a domain-wide feature at imprinted clusters. We uncovered novel allele-specific features of BLOCs. A maternally biased BLOC was found along the H19-Igf2 domain. A paternal allele-specific gap was found along Kcnq1ot1, interrupting a biallelic BLOC in the Kcnq1-Cdkn1c domain. We report novel allele-specific chromatin marks at the Peg13 and Slc38a4 DMRs, Cdkn1c upstream region, and Inpp5f_v2 DMR and paternal allele-specific CTCF binding at the Peg13 DMR. Additionally, we derived an imprinted gene predictor algorithm based on our allele-specific chromatin mapping data. The binary predictor H3K9ac and CTCF or H3K4me3 in one allele and H3K9me3 in the reciprocal allele, using a sliding-window approach, recognized with precision the parental allele specificity of known imprinted genes, H19, Igf2, Igf2as, Cdkn1c, Kcnq1ot1, and Inpp5f_v2 on Chr7 and Peg13 and Slc38a4 on Chr15. Chromatin features, therefore, can unequivocally identify genes with imprinted expression. PMID:21321082

Singh, Purnima; Wu, Xiwei; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Li, Arthur X.; Rauch, Tibor A.; Pfeifer, Gerd P.; Mann, Jeffrey R.; Szabo, Piroska E.

2011-01-01

9

[29] Detecting Differential Expression of Parental or Progenitor Alleles in Genetic Hybrids and Allopolyploids  

E-print Network

. Jeffrey Chen Abstract Three assays useful for detecting specific RNA transcripts are primer extension, S1[29] Detecting Differential Expression of Parental or Progenitor Alleles in Genetic Hybrids not possible by RNA blot (northern blot) hybridization. In this chapter, we describe how the primer extension

Pikaard, Craig

10

Understanding allele shift using SSR markers in pedigree, modified bulk, and SSD breeding methods in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

needs to be maintained or increased in the selected progenies and the favorite genes from the donor parents should be increased. Comparative studies on different breeding methods using DNA markers are not well established. In this study, three breeding procedures—pedigree, SSD, and modified bulk—were used to advance the materials derived from a cross between divergent rice parents Moroberekan and IR20

A. Kanbar; N Pirany; A Al-Ouda; HE Shashidhar

2009-01-01

11

A and MdMYB1 allele-specific markers controlling apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) skin color and suitability for marker-assisted selection.  

PubMed

Pre-selection for fruit skin color at the seedling stage would be highly advantageous, with marker-assisted selection offering a potential method for apple pre-selection. A and MdMYB1 alleles are allele-specific DNA markers that are potentially associated with apple skin color, and co-segregate with the Rf and Rni loci, respectively. Here, we assessed the potential application of these 2 alleles for marker-assisted breeding across 30 diverse cultivars and 2 apple seedling progenies. The red skin color phenotype was usually associated with the MdMYB1-1 allele and A(1) allele, respectively, while the 2 molecular markers provided approximately 91% predictability in the 'Fuji' x 'Cripps Pink' and 'Fuji' x 'Gala' progenies. The results obtained from the 30 cultivars and 2 progenies were consistent for the 2 molecular markers. Hence, the results supported that Rf and Rni could be located in a gene cluster, or even correspond to alleles of the same gene. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that red/yellow dimorphism is controlled by a monogenic system, with the presence of the red anthocyanin pigmentation being dominant. In addition, our results supported that the practical utilization of the 2 function markers to efficiently and accurately select red-skinned apple cultivars in apple scion breeding programs. PMID:25366802

Zhang, X J; Wang, L X; Chen, X X; Liu, Y L; Meng, R; Wang, Y J; Zhao, Z Y

2014-01-01

12

Parent of origin effect and allelic expression imbalance of the serotonin transporter in bipolar disorder and suicidal behaviour.  

PubMed

Suicide and suicidal behaviour are a major health concern worldwide particularly in patients with mood disorders. Family, adoption and twin studies show that genetics influences suicidal behaviour. The serotonin transporter (5HTT) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and may also be involved in suicidal behaviour since 5HTT binding is decreased in the brain of suicide completers. Because the effect of genomic imprinting in the 5HTT gene on suicidal behaviour has not been investigated, we analysed the parent-of-origin effect (POE) of four 5HTT markers and the differential expression of the 5HTT G2651T (rs1042173) alleles in suicide attempters affected by bipolar disorder. We performed a family based association study and ETDT/QTDT analyses of the rs25531, HTTLPR, VNTR-2 and G2651T polymorphisms in 312 nuclear families with at least one subject affected by bipolar disorder. The main outcomes investigated in this study are bipolar disorder diagnosis, suicide attempts, suicidal behaviour severity and age at onset of bipolar disorder. We also compared the allele-specific mRNA levels in lymphoblastoid cells from 13 bipolar suicide attempters and 8 bipolar non-suicide attempters. Allele 2651T was transmitted significantly more often to bipolar patients (P = 0.042). There was no significant difference between maternal and paternal transmission ratios. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the ratio of T/G-specific mRNA expression between bipolar attempters and non-attempters. These data do not support a role for differential allelic expression of 5HTT for suicidal behaviour in bipolar disorder. Small sample size and the fact that RNA was obtained from lymphoblastoid cell lines were some of the limitations of this study. PMID:21290142

Pinto, Crystal; Souza, Renan P; Lioult, Diane; Semeralul, Mawahib; Kennedy, James L; Warsh, Jerry J; Wong, Albert H; Luca, Vincenzo De

2011-12-01

13

High-Resolution Analysis of Parent-of-Origin Allelic Expression in the Arabidopsis Endosperm  

PubMed Central

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon leading to parent-of-origin specific differential expression of maternally and paternally inherited alleles. In plants, genomic imprinting has mainly been observed in the endosperm, an ephemeral triploid tissue derived after fertilization of the diploid central cell with a haploid sperm cell. In an effort to identify novel imprinted genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, we generated deep sequencing RNA profiles of F1 hybrid seeds derived after reciprocal crosses of Arabidopsis Col-0 and Bur-0 accessions. Using polymorphic sites to quantify allele-specific expression levels, we could identify more than 60 genes with potential parent-of-origin specific expression. By analyzing the distribution of DNA methylation and epigenetic marks established by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins using publicly available datasets, we suggest that for maternally expressed genes (MEGs) repression of the paternally inherited alleles largely depends on DNA methylation or PcG-mediated repression, whereas repression of the maternal alleles of paternally expressed genes (PEGs) predominantly depends on PcG proteins. While maternal alleles of MEGs are also targeted by PcG proteins, such targeting does not cause complete repression. Candidate MEGs and PEGs are enriched for cis-proximal transposons, suggesting that transposons might be a driving force for the evolution of imprinted genes in Arabidopsis. In addition, we find that MEGs and PEGs are significantly faster evolving when compared to other genes in the genome. In contrast to the predominant location of mammalian imprinted genes in clusters, cluster formation was only detected for few MEGs and PEGs, suggesting that clustering is not a major requirement for imprinted gene regulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:21698132

Roszak, Pawel; Beisel, Christian; Donoghue, Mark T. A.; Spillane, Charles; Nordborg, Magnus; Rehmsmeier, Marc; Kohler, Claudia

2011-01-01

14

Frequency Finder: a multi-source web application for collection of public allele frequencies of SNP markers.  

PubMed

Publicly available single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele frequencies are an important resource for the selection of genetic markers that may be most useful for gene mapping and association studies. Data mining these allele frequencies through disparate public databases and Websites is time consuming and can result in inconsistent findings. We have developed a web-based software tool, Frequency Finder, to acquire SNP allele frequencies from multiple public data sources and return a summarized result to the user. Our software optimizes and automates the search of candidate markers, decreasing the amount of time it would take to extract pertinent data manually. We have included several methods to output the data, including on-screen and as a compressed text file. We show that Frequency Finder accurately retrieves available frequency data from the available sources. Using this tool, we detect significant differences between Asian, African and Caucasian populations in the allele frequency spectra of 246 097 SNPs. While limited to public databases that provide web-based access to allele frequencies, Frequency Finder provides a single, user-friendly interface for retrieving allele frequencies for large batches of SNPs from multiple data sources. PMID:14960477

Nguyen, Tu H; Liu, Chunyu; Gershon, Elliot S; McMahon, Francis J

2004-02-12

15

Surfactant protein gene A, B, and D marker alleles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of a Mexican population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surfactant protein gene A, B, and D marker alleles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of a Mexican population. X. Guo, H-M. Lin, Z. Lin, M. Montano, R. Sansores, G. Wang, S. DiAngelo, A. Pardo, M. Selman, J. Floros. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation. It is most likely the result of

X. Guo; H. M. Lin; Z. Lin; M. Montaño; R. Sansores; G. Wang; S. Diangelo; A. Pardoz; M. Selman; J. Floros

2001-01-01

16

Genetic Diversity Analysis of Sugarcane Parents in Chinese Breeding Programmes Using gSSR Markers  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane is the most important sugar and bioenergy crop in the world. The selection and combination of parents for crossing rely on an understanding of their genetic structures and molecular diversity. In the present study, 115 sugarcane genotypes used for parental crossing were genotyped based on five genomic simple sequence repeat marker (gSSR) loci and 88 polymorphic alleles of loci (100%) as detected by capillary electrophoresis. The values of genetic diversity parameters across the populations indicate that the genetic variation intrapopulation (90.5%) was much larger than that of interpopulation (9.5%). Cluster analysis revealed that there were three groups termed as groups I, II, and III within the 115 genotypes. The genotypes released by each breeding programme showed closer genetic relationships, except the YC series released by Hainan sugarcane breeding station. Using principle component analysis (PCA), the first and second principal components accounted for a cumulative 76% of the total variances, in which 43% were for common parents and 33% were for new parents, respectively. The knowledge obtained in this study should be useful to future breeding programs for increasing genetic diversity of sugarcane varieties and cultivars to meet the demand of sugarcane cultivation for sugar and bioenergy use. PMID:23990759

You, Qian; Xu, Liping; Zheng, Yifeng; Que, Youxiong

2013-01-01

17

Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche.  

PubMed

Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P?parent-of-origin-specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and ?-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signalling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition. PMID:25231870

Perry, John R B; Day, Felix; Elks, Cathy E; Sulem, Patrick; Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, Tõnu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J; Byrne, Enda M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Hua Zhao, Jing; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Buring, Julie E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Jinhui; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Collée, J Margriet; Couch, Fergus J; Couper, David; Coviello, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D'adamo, Adamo Pio; Davey Smith, George; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Dunning, Alison M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Foroud, Tatiana; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Geller, Frank; de Geus, Eco E J; Giles, Graham G; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Suiqun; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Haring, Robin; Hartman, Catharina A; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lai, Sandra; Lambrechts, Diether; Lindblom, Annika; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G; Masson, Gisli; McArdle, Patrick F; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nohr, Ellen A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peacock, Munro; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D P; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Ring, Susan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rudolph, Anja; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Southey, Mellissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir J; Stöckl, Doris; Storniolo, Anna M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Visser, Jenny A; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Waeber, Gerard; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wang, Qin; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Econs, Michael J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Loos, Ruth J F; McCarthy, Mark I; Montgomery, Grant W; Rice, John P; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zygmunt, Marek; Murray, Anna; Easton, Douglas F; Stefansson, Kari; Murabito, Joanne M; Ong, Ken K

2014-10-01

18

Genetic mapping, marker assisted selection and allelic relationships for the Pu 6 gene conferring rust resistance in sunflower.  

PubMed

Rust resistance in the sunflower line P386 is controlled by Pu 6 , a gene which was reported to segregate independently from other rust resistant genes, such as R 4 . The objectives of this work were to map Pu 6 , to provide and validate molecular tools for its identification, and to determine the linkage relationship of Pu 6 and R 4 . Genetic mapping of Pu 6 with six markers covered 24.8 cM of genetic distance on the lower end of linkage Group 13 of the sunflower consensus map. The marker most closely linked to Pu 6 was ORS316 at 2.5 cM in the distal position. ORS316 presented five alleles when was assayed with a representative set of resistant and susceptible lines. Allelism test between Pu 6 and R 4 indicated that both genes are linked at a genetic distance of 6.25 cM. This is the first confirmation based on an allelism test that at least two members of the R adv /R 4 /R 11 / R 13a /R 13b /Pu 6 cluster of genes are at different loci. A fine elucidation of the architecture of this complex locus will allow designing and constructing completely new genomic regions combining genes from different resistant sources and the elimination of the linkage drag around each resistant gene. PMID:25320555

Bulos, Mariano; Vergani, Pablo Nicolas; Altieri, Emiliano

2014-09-01

19

Genetic mapping, marker assisted selection and allelic relationships for the Pu6 gene conferring rust resistance in sunflower  

PubMed Central

Rust resistance in the sunflower line P386 is controlled by Pu6, a gene which was reported to segregate independently from other rust resistant genes, such as R4. The objectives of this work were to map Pu6, to provide and validate molecular tools for its identification, and to determine the linkage relationship of Pu6 and R4. Genetic mapping of Pu6 with six markers covered 24.8 cM of genetic distance on the lower end of linkage Group 13 of the sunflower consensus map. The marker most closely linked to Pu6 was ORS316 at 2.5 cM in the distal position. ORS316 presented five alleles when was assayed with a representative set of resistant and susceptible lines. Allelism test between Pu6 and R4 indicated that both genes are linked at a genetic distance of 6.25 cM. This is the first confirmation based on an allelism test that at least two members of the Radv/R4/R11/ R13a/R13b/Pu6 cluster of genes are at different loci. A fine elucidation of the architecture of this complex locus will allow designing and constructing completely new genomic regions combining genes from different resistant sources and the elimination of the linkage drag around each resistant gene. PMID:25320555

Bulos, Mariano; Vergani, Pablo Nicolas; Altieri, Emiliano

2014-01-01

20

Allelic database and accession divergence of a Brazilian mango collection based on microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Allelic patterns and genetic distances were examined in a collection of 103 foreign and Brazilian mango (Mangifera indica) accessions in order to develop a reference database to support cultivar protection and breeding programs. An UPGMA dendrogram was generated using Jaccard's coefficients from a distance matrix based on 50 alleles of 12 microsatellite loci. The base pair number was estimated by the method of inverse mobility. The cophenetic correlation was 0.8. The accessions had a coefficient of similarity from 30 to 100%, which reflects high genetic variability. Three groups were observed in the UPGMA dendrogram; the first group was formed predominantly by foreign accessions, the second group was formed by Brazilian accessions, and the Dashehari accession was isolated from the others. The 50 microsatellite alleles did not separate all 103 accessions, indicating that there are duplicates in this mango collection. These 12 microsatellites need to be validated in order to establish a reliable set to identify mango cultivars. PMID:23096906

Dos Santos Ribeiro, I C N; Lima Neto, F P; Santos, C A F

2012-01-01

21

Allelic diversity and phylogeny of homB, a novel co-virulence marker of Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Background The homB gene is a Helicobacter pylori disease-marker candidate, strongly associated with peptic ulcer disease, while homA, its paralogue gene with 90% sequence identity, is correlated with non-ulcer dyspepsia. The HomB encoded outer membrane protein was shown to contribute to the proinflammatory properties of H. pylori and also to be involved in bacterial adherence. This study investigated the distribution of homB and homA genes in 455 H. pylori strains from East Asian and Western countries, and carried out sequence comparison and phylogenetic analyses. Results Both homB and homA genes were heterogeneously distributed worldwide, with a marked difference between East Asian and Western strains. Analysis of homB and homA sequences revealed diversity regarding the number of copies and their genomic localization, with East Asian and Western strains presenting different genotypes. Moreover, homB and homA sequence analysis suggests regulation by phase variation. It also indicates possible recombination events, leading to gene duplication or homB/homA conversion which may as well be implicated in the regulation of these genes. Phylogenetic reconstruction of homB and homA revealed clustering according to the geographic origin of strains. Allelic diversity in the middle region of the genes was observed for both homB and homA, although there was no correlation between any allele and disease. For each gene, a dominant worldwide allele was detected, suggesting that homB/homA allelic variants were independent of the geographical origin of the strain. Moreover, all alleles were demonstrated to be expressed in vivo. Conclusion Overall, these results suggest that homB and homA genes are good candidates to be part of the pool of H. pylori OMPs implicated in host-bacteria interface and also contributing to the generation of antigenic variability, and thus involved in H. pylori persistence. PMID:19954539

2009-01-01

22

HLA-B*5801 allele as a genetic marker for severe cutaneous adverse reactions caused by allopurinol.  

PubMed

Allopurinol, a commonly prescribed medication for gout and hyperuricemia, is a frequent cause of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR), which include the drug hypersensitivity syndrome, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. The adverse events are unpredictable and carry significant morbidity and mortality. To identify genetic markers for allopurinol-SCAR, we carried out a case-control association study. We enrolled 51 patients with allopurinol-SCAR and 228 control individuals (135 allopurinol-tolerant subjects and 93 healthy subjects from the general population), and genotyped for 823 SNPs in genes related to drug metabolism and immune response. The initial screen revealed strong association between allopurinol-SCAR and SNPs in the MHC region, including BAT3 (encoding HLA-B associated transcript 3), MSH5 (mutS homolog 5), and MICB (MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B) (P < 10(-7)). We then determined the alleles of HLA loci A, B, C, and DRB1. The HLA-B*5801 allele was present in all (100%) 51 patients with allopurinol-SCAR, but only in 20 (15%) of 135 tolerant patients [odds ratio 580.3 (95% confidence interval, 34.4-9780.9); corrected P value = 4.7 x 10(-24)] and in 19 (20%) of 93 of healthy subjects [393.51 (23.23-6665.26); corrected P value = 8.1 x 10(-18)]. HLA alleles A*3303, Cw*0302, and DRB1*0301 were in linkage disequilibrium and formed an extended haplotype with HLA-B*5801. Our results indicated that allopurinol-SCAR is strongly associated with a genetic predisposition in Han Chinese. In particular, HLA-B*5801 allele is an important genetic risk factor for this life-threatening condition. PMID:15743917

Hung, Shuen-Iu; Chung, Wen-Hung; Liou, Lieh-Bang; Chu, Chen-Chung; Lin, Marie; Huang, Hsien-Ping; Lin, Yen-Ling; Lan, Joung-Liang; Yang, Li-Cheng; Hong, Hong-Shang; Chen, Ming-Jing; Lai, Ping-Chin; Wu, Mai-Szu; Chu, Chia-Yu; Wang, Kuo-Hsien; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Fann, Cathy S J; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

2005-03-15

23

LAPTM4B Allele *2 Is a Marker of Poor Prognosis for Gallbladder Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 beta (LAPTM4B) is a novel cancer-related gene which has two alleles designated LAPTM4B*1 and LAPTM4B*2. In this study we investigated the correlation of LAPTM4B genotype with prognosis and clinicopathologic features in patients who had undergone curative resection for gallbladder carcinoma (GBC). Methodology/Principal Findings PCR assay was performed to determine the LAPTM4B genotype in 85 patients. The correlation of LAPTM4B genotype with clinicopathologic parameters was assessed with the Chi-squared test. Differences in patient survival were determined by the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was carried out with Cox regression analysis. Patients with LAPTM4B *2 had both significantly shorter overall survival (OS) and shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (both P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that LAPTM4B genotype is a prognostic factor for OS and DFS (both P<0.001). Conclusions/Significance LAPTM4B allele *2 is a risk factor associated with poor prognosis in patients with resected GBC, and LAPTM4B status may be therefore be useful preoperatively as an adjunct in evaluation of the operability of GBC. PMID:22984631

Zhai, Guojun; Yan, Kaowen; Ji, Xiaoxu; Xu, Wenrui; Yang, Jiuling; Xiong, Fuxia; Su, Jing; McNutt, Michael A.; Yang, Hua

2012-01-01

24

Functional study of a genetic marker allele associated with resistance to Ascaris suum in pigs.  

PubMed

Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP TXNIP and SNP ARNT), both on chromosome 4, have been reported to be associated with roundworm (Ascaris suum) burden in pigs. In the present study, we selected pigs with two SNP TXNIP genotypes (AA; n = 24 and AB; n = 24), trickle-infected them with A. suum from 8 weeks of age until necropsy 8 weeks later, and tested the hypothesis that pigs with the AA genotype would have higher levels of resistance than pigs of AB genotype. We used different indicators of resistance (worm burden, fecal egg counts (FEC), number of liver white spots and A. suum-specific serum IgG antibody levels). Pigs of the AA genotype had lower mean macroscopic worm burden (2.4 vs 19.3; P = 0.06), lower mean total worm burden (26.5 vs 70.1; P = 0.09) and excreted fewer A. suum eggs at week 8 PI (mean number of eggs/g feces: 238 vs 1259; P = 0.14) than pigs of the AB genotype, as expected based on prior associations. The pigs were also genotyped at another locus (SNP ARNT) which showed a similar trend. This study provides suggestive evidence that resistant pigs may be selected using a genetic marker, TXNIP, and provides further support to the quantitative trait locus on chromosome 4. PMID:24709292

Skallerup, Per; Thamsborg, Stig M; Jørgensen, Claus B; Enemark, Heidi L; Yoshida, Ayako; Göring, Harald H H; Fredholm, Merete; Nejsum, Peter

2014-05-01

25

Sib-parentage testing using molecular markers when parents are unknown.  

PubMed

The formulae for computing the so-called Sib Index using codominant alleles for (1) full-sib and (2) half-sib parentage are given. Hypothesis testing is based on the distribution of conditional likelihood ratio or Bayes' factor. Thresholds for rejecting the null hypothesis and P-values were obtained in function of the number of alleles and their frequency distributions. Simulations showed that a relatively low number of marker systems (e.g. 20) are enough to accept the hypothesis of sib parentage with a reasonable power for usual significance levels, but that a higher number would be necessary if full-sib against half-sib parentage is the contrast to be carried out. The effect of sampling variation on the allele frequencies on power calculations is also analysed. PMID:12354145

García, D; Carleos, C; Parra, D; Cañón, J

2002-10-01

26

Failure to confirm allelic and haplotypic association between markers at the chromosome 6p22.3 dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) locus and schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Previous linkage and association studies may have implicated the Dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) gene locus or a gene in linkage disequilibrium with DTNBP1 on chromosome 6p22.3 in genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia. Methods We used the case control design to test for of allelic and haplotypic association with schizophrenia in a sample of four hundred and fifty research subjects with schizophrenia and four hundred and fifty ancestrally matched supernormal controls. We genotyped the SNP markers previously found to be significantly associated with schizophrenia in the original study and also other markers found to be positive in subsequent studies. Results We could find no evidence of allelic, genotypic or haplotypic association with schizophrenia in our UK sample. Conclusion The results suggest that the DTNBP1 gene contribution to schizophrenia must be rare or absent in our sample. The discrepant allelic association results in previous studies of association between DTNBP1 and schizophrenia could be due population admixture. However, even positive studies of European populations do not show any consistent DTNBP1 alleles or haplotypes associated with schizophrenia. Further research is needed to resolve these issues. The possible confounding of linkage with association in family samples already showing linkage at 6p22.3 might be revealed by testing genes closely linked to DTNBP1 for allelic association and by restricting family based tests of association to only one case per family. PMID:17888175

Datta, Susmita R; McQuillin, Andrew; Puri, Vinay; Choudhury, Khalid; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Lawrence, Jacob; Pimm, Jonathan; Bass, Nicholas; Lamb, Graham; Moorey, Helen; Morgan, Jenny; Punukollu, Bhaskar; Kandasami, Gomathinayagam; Kirwin, Simon; Sule, Akeem; Quested, Digby; Curtis, David; Gurling, Hugh MD

2007-01-01

27

GATA C4 allele 17 as a marker for sub-Saharan origin of Y-chromosome lineages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1020 males out of 13 population samples from Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Macao, Mozambique, Portugal and Spain, GATA allele 17 was found exclusively in Mozambique [Forensic Sci. Int. 135 (2003) 158]. In the present work, allele 17 was further observed in samples from Angola (9.33%), Mozambique (10.79%) and S. Tomé e Pr??ncipe (3.53%). This allele differs by at least

Leonor Gusmão; Paula Sánchez-Diz; C??ntia Alves; Maria Brión; Sandra Beleza; Lu??sa Pereira; Alejandro Blanco; Maria João Prata; Angel Carracedo; António Amorim

2004-01-01

28

Molecular analysis of GAA repeats and four linked bi-allelic markers in and around the frataxin gene in patients and normal populations from India.  

PubMed

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), the most common type of ataxia worldwide, is an autosomal recessive disease. Homozygous expansion of GAA repeats in the first intron of the frataxin gene constitute the major type of mutation that causes the disease. The prevalence of FRDA in diverse ethnic populations of India has not been widely studied. We have studied the distribution of polymorphic GAA repeats in the frataxin gene among 6 clinically diagnosed patients and 160 ethnically matched normal individuals, to gather information on the prevalence of FRDA in the eastern part of India. Homozygous expansion in the range of 250-730 GAA repeats was detected among the patients. Among normal individuals, we observed a unimodal distribution of GAA repeats, consisting of 10 different alleles ranging from 7 to 16 GAA repeats, where the 9 repeat allele had maximal frequency. Only 5.9% of all chromosomes were found to harbour >12 GAA repeats. Haplotype analysis using closely linked four bi-allelic markers in and around the frataxin gene indicated that 66.7% of the expanded alleles harbour the ATCC haplotype that has been reported worldwide. This haplotype was present in 53.3% of the chromosomes with >12 GAA repeats, and accounted for only 3.8% of chromosomes with 7 to 12 GAA repeats. We found one novel haplotype, ACCT, among the expanded alleles as well as among normal individuals, though at low frequency; this haplotype may be characteristic of Indian populations. PMID:15180699

Chattopadhyay, B; Gupta, S; Gangopadhyay, P K; Das, S K; Roy, T; Mukherjee, S C; Sinha, K K; Singhal, B S; Bhattacharyya, N P

2004-05-01

29

Use of RFLP markers for the identification of alleles of the Pm3 locus conferring powdery mildew resistance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers linked to genes for resistance to powdery mildew (Pm) in wheat using a series of ‘Chancellor’ near-isogenic-lines (NILs), each having one powdery mildew resistance gene. A total of 210 probes were screened for their ability to detect polymorphism between the NILs and the recurrent parent. One of these restriction fragment

L. Hartl; H. Weiss; F. J. Zeller; A. Jahoor

1993-01-01

30

Applicability of major histocompatibility complex DRB1 alleles as markers to detect vertebrate hybridization: a case study from Iberian ibex × domestic goat in southern Spain  

PubMed Central

Background Hybridization between closely related wild and domestic species is of great concern because it can alter the evolutionary integrity of the affected populations. The high allelic variability of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) loci usually excludes them from being used in studies to detect hybridization events. However, if a) the parental species don’t share alleles, and b) one of the parental species possesses an exceptionally low number of alleles (to facilitate analysis), then even MHC loci have the potential to detect hybrids. Results By genotyping the exon2 of the MHC class II DRB1 locus, we were able to detect hybridization between domestic goats (Capra hircus) and free-ranging Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) by molecular means. Conclusions This is the first documentation of a Capra pyrenaica × Capra hircus hybridization, which presented us the opportunity to test the applicability of MHC loci as new, simple, cost-effective, and time-saving approach to detect hybridization between wild species and their domesticated relatives, thus adding value to MHC genes role in animal conservation and management. PMID:23006678

2012-01-01

31

RNA-seq analysis of allele-specific expression, hybrid effects, and regulatory divergence in hybrids compared with their parents from natural populations.  

PubMed

Hybridization is a prominent process among natural plant populations that can result in phenotypic novelty, heterosis, and changes in gene expression. The effects of intraspecific hybridization on F1 hybrid gene expression were investigated using parents from divergent, natural populations of Cirsium arvense, an invasive Compositae weed. Using an RNA-seq approach, the expression of 68,746 unigenes was quantified in parents and hybrids. The expression levels of 51% of transcripts differed between parents, a majority of which had less than 1.25× fold-changes. More unigenes had higher expression in the invasive parent (P1) than the noninvasive parent (P2). Of those that were divergently expressed between parents, 10% showed additive and 81% showed nonadditive (transgressive or dominant) modes of gene action in the hybrids. A majority of the dominant cases had P2-like expression patterns in the hybrids. Comparisons of allele-specific expression also enabled a survey of cis- and trans-regulatory effects. Cis- and trans-regulatory divergence was found at 70% and 68% of 62,281 informative single-nucleotide polymorphism sites, respectively. Of the 17% of sites exhibiting both cis- and trans-effects, a majority (70%) had antagonistic regulatory interactions (cis x trans); trans-divergence tended to drive higher expression of the P1 allele, whereas cis-divergence tended to increase P2 transcript abundance. Trans-effects correlated more highly than cis with parental expression divergence and accounted for a greater proportion of the regulatory divergence at sites with additive compared with nonadditive inheritance patterns. This study explores the nature of, and types of mechanisms underlying, expression changes that occur in upon intraspecific hybridization in natural populations. PMID:23677938

Bell, Graeme D M; Kane, Nolan C; Rieseberg, Loren H; Adams, Keith L

2013-01-01

32

RNA-Seq Analysis of Allele-Specific Expression, Hybrid Effects, and Regulatory Divergence in Hybrids Compared with Their Parents from Natural Populations  

PubMed Central

Hybridization is a prominent process among natural plant populations that can result in phenotypic novelty, heterosis, and changes in gene expression. The effects of intraspecific hybridization on F1 hybrid gene expression were investigated using parents from divergent, natural populations of Cirsium arvense, an invasive Compositae weed. Using an RNA-seq approach, the expression of 68,746 unigenes was quantified in parents and hybrids. The expression levels of 51% of transcripts differed between parents, a majority of which had less than 1.25× fold-changes. More unigenes had higher expression in the invasive parent (P1) than the noninvasive parent (P2). Of those that were divergently expressed between parents, 10% showed additive and 81% showed nonadditive (transgressive or dominant) modes of gene action in the hybrids. A majority of the dominant cases had P2-like expression patterns in the hybrids. Comparisons of allele-specific expression also enabled a survey of cis- and trans-regulatory effects. Cis- and trans-regulatory divergence was found at 70% and 68% of 62,281 informative single-nucleotide polymorphism sites, respectively. Of the 17% of sites exhibiting both cis- and trans-effects, a majority (70%) had antagonistic regulatory interactions (cis x trans); trans-divergence tended to drive higher expression of the P1 allele, whereas cis-divergence tended to increase P2 transcript abundance. Trans-effects correlated more highly than cis with parental expression divergence and accounted for a greater proportion of the regulatory divergence at sites with additive compared with nonadditive inheritance patterns. This study explores the nature of, and types of mechanisms underlying, expression changes that occur in upon intraspecific hybridization in natural populations. PMID:23677938

Bell, Graeme D.M.; Kane, Nolan C.; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Adams, Keith L.

2013-01-01

33

Sibs with atopy and asthma share marker alleles at 11q13, but not at 7q31 or 14q32  

SciTech Connect

We studied allele sharing in 26 sib-pairs affected with atopy and asthma, recruited through a pediatric pulmonology department. Inclusion criteria were a positive score (2 symptoms or more) on a modified Dutch version of the MRC/ECCS questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and positive IgE tests (specific IgE 0.35 PRU/ml or more; total serum IgE for children under 10 years as described by Kjellmann et al., 1976; for older children 100 U/ml or over). Twenty-six sibpairs fulfilled these criteria. The microsatellites and polymorphic markers used in the analysis were 17bTA (an intragenic marker in the cystic fibrosis gene on 7q31); D11S534, D11S527, D11S97, PYGM, D11S480, Fc{epsilon}RI (all on 11q13, ordered from telomere to centromere) and D14S51 (a CA repeat close to the {alpha}-1-antitrypsin gene). We observed no sharing with the markers on 7q31 and 14q32, but significant sharing with markers on chromosome 11q13, especially D11S97, PYGM and D11S480. Sharing patterns were consistent with the existence of a dominant gene involved in the pathogenesis of atopic asthma on chromosome 11.

Kate, L.P. ten; Collee, J.M. [Free Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vries, H.G. de [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)] [and others

1994-09-01

34

Detection and molecular characterization of two FAD3 genes controlling linolenic acid content and development of allele-specific markers in yellow mustard (Sinapis alba).  

PubMed

Development of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) with superior quality traits (low erucic and linolenic acid contents, and low glucosinolate content) can make this species as a potential oilseed crop. We have recently isolated three inbred lines Y1127, Y514 and Y1035 with low (3.8%), medium (12.3%) and high (20.8%) linolenic acid (C18?3) content, respectively, in this species. Inheritance studies detected two fatty acid desaturase 3 (FAD3) gene loci controlling the variation of C18?3 content. QTL mapping revealed that the two FAD3 gene loci responsible for 73.0% and 23.4% of the total variation and were located on the linkage groups Sal02 and Sal10, respectively. The FAD3 gene on Sal02 was referred to as SalFAD3.LA1 and that on Sal10 as SalFAD3.LA2. The dominant and recessive alleles were designated as LA1 and la1 for SalFAD3.LA1, and LA2 and la2 for SalFAD3.LA2. Cloning and alignment of the coding and genomic DNA sequences revealed that the SalFAD3.LA1 and SalFAD3.LA2 genes each contained 8 exons and 7 introns. LA1 had a coding DNA sequence (CDS) of 1143 bp encoding a polypeptide of 380 amino acids, whereas la1 was a loss-of-function allele due to an insertion of 584 bp in exon 3. Both LA2 and la2 had a CDS of 1152 bp encoding a polypeptide of 383 amino acids. Allele-specific markers for LA1, la1, LA2 and la2 co-segregated with the C18?3 content in the F2 populations and will be useful for improving fatty acid composition through marker assisted selection in yellow mustard breeding. PMID:24823372

Tian, Entang; Zeng, Fangqin; MacKay, Kimberly; Roslinsky, Vicky; Cheng, Bifang

2014-01-01

35

Detection and Molecular Characterization of Two FAD3 Genes Controlling Linolenic Acid Content and Development of Allele-Specific Markers in Yellow Mustard (Sinapis alba)  

PubMed Central

Development of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) with superior quality traits (low erucic and linolenic acid contents, and low glucosinolate content) can make this species as a potential oilseed crop. We have recently isolated three inbred lines Y1127, Y514 and Y1035 with low (3.8%), medium (12.3%) and high (20.8%) linolenic acid (C18?3) content, respectively, in this species. Inheritance studies detected two fatty acid desaturase 3 (FAD3) gene loci controlling the variation of C18?3 content. QTL mapping revealed that the two FAD3 gene loci responsible for 73.0% and 23.4% of the total variation and were located on the linkage groups Sal02 and Sal10, respectively. The FAD3 gene on Sal02 was referred to as SalFAD3.LA1 and that on Sal10 as SalFAD3.LA2. The dominant and recessive alleles were designated as LA1 and la1 for SalFAD3.LA1, and LA2 and la2 for SalFAD3.LA2. Cloning and alignment of the coding and genomic DNA sequences revealed that the SalFAD3.LA1 and SalFAD3.LA2 genes each contained 8 exons and 7 introns. LA1 had a coding DNA sequence (CDS) of 1143 bp encoding a polypeptide of 380 amino acids, whereas la1 was a loss-of-function allele due to an insertion of 584 bp in exon 3. Both LA2 and la2 had a CDS of 1152 bp encoding a polypeptide of 383 amino acids. Allele-specific markers for LA1, la1, LA2 and la2 co-segregated with the C18?3 content in the F2 populations and will be useful for improving fatty acid composition through marker assisted selection in yellow mustard breeding. PMID:24823372

Tian, Entang; Zeng, Fangqin; MacKay, Kimberly; Roslinsky, Vicky; Cheng, Bifang

2014-01-01

36

Potential of Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers for DNA fingerprinting of newly synthesized tritordeums and their respective parents.  

PubMed

Hexaploid tritordeum (H(ch)H(ch)AABB; 2n?=?42) results from the cross between Hordeum chilense (H(ch)H(ch); 2n?=?14) and cultivated durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (AABB; 2n?=?28). Morphologically, tritordeum resembles the wheat parent, showing promise for agriculture and wheat breeding. Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) polymorphism is a recently developed technique that generates gene-targeted markers. Thus, we considered it interesting to evaluate its potential for the DNA fingerprinting of newly synthesized hexaploid tritordeums and their respective parents. In this study, 60 SCoT primers were tested, and 18 and 19 of them revealed SCoT polymorphisms in the newly synthesized tritordeum lines HT27 and HT22, respectively, and their parents. An analysis of the presence/absence of bands among tritordeums and their parents revealed three types of polymorphic markers: (i) shared by tritordeums and one of their parents, (ii) exclusively amplified in tritordeums, and (iii) exclusively amplified in the parents. No polymorphism was detected among individuals of each parental species. Three SCoT markers were exclusively amplified in tritordeums of lines HT22 and HT27, being considered as polyploidization-induced rearrangements. About 70% of the SCoT markers of H. chilense origin were not transmitted to the allopolyploids of both lines, and most of the SCoTs scored in the newly synthesized allopolyploids originated from wheat, reinforcing the potential use of tritordeum as an alternative crop. PMID:24733248

Cabo, Sandra; Ferreira, Luciana; Carvalho, Ana; Martins-Lopes, Paula; Martín, António; Lima-Brito, José Eduardo

2014-08-01

37

LAPTM4B Allele *2 Is a Marker of Poor Prognosis Following Hepatic Tumor Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 beta (LAPTM4B) is a gene related to hepatocellular carcinoma that has two alleles designated LAPTM4B*1 and LAPTM4B*2. This study aimed to investigate the correlation of LAPTM4B genotype with prognosis and clinicopathologic features in patients who have undergone resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methodology/Principal Findings The LAPTM4B genotype was analyzed by PCR in 68 patients who had undergone curative hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. The correlation of LAPTM4B genotype with clinicopathologic parameters was assessed with the Chi-squared test. Differences in patient survival were determined by the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was carried out with Cox regression analysis. Patients with LAPTM4B *2 had both significantly shorter overall survival (OS) and shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (both P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that LAPTM4B genotype is an independent prognostic factor for OS and DFS (both P<0.001). Conclusions/Significance Allele *2 of LAPTM4B is a risk factor associated with poor prognosis in patients with resected HCC. LAPTM4B status may be useful preoperatively as an adjunct in evaluation of the operability of HCC. PMID:22509374

Yang, Hua; Zhai, Guojun; Ji, Xiaoxu; Xiong, Fuxia; Su, Jing; McNutt, Michael A.

2012-01-01

38

Identification of FAD2 and FAD3 genes in Brassica napus genome and development of allele-specific markers for high oleic and low linolenic acid contents.  

PubMed

Modification of oleic acid (C18:1) and linolenic acid (C18:3) contents in seeds is one of the major goals for quality breeding after removal of erucic acid in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The fatty acid desaturase genes FAD2 and FAD3 have been shown as the major genes for the control of C18:1 and C18:3 contents. However, the genome structure and locus distributions of the two gene families in amphidiploid B. napus are still not completely understood to date. In the present study, all copies of FAD2 and FAD3 genes in the A- and C-genome of B. napus and its two diploid progenitor species, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, were identified through bioinformatic analysis and extensive molecular cloning. Two FAD2 genes exist in B. rapa and B. oleracea, and four copies of FAD2 genes exist in B. napus. Three and six copies of FAD3 genes were identified in diploid species and amphidiploid species, respectively. The genetic control of high C18:1 and low C18:3 contents in a double haploid population was investigated through mapping of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the traits and the molecular cloning of the underlying genes. One major QTL of BnaA.FAD2.a located on A5 chromosome was responsible for the high C18:1 content. A deleted mutation in the BnaA.FAD2.a locus was uncovered, which represented a previously unidentified allele for the high oleic variation in B. napus species. Two major QTLs on A4 and C4 chromosomes were found to be responsible for the low C18:3 content in the DH population as well as in SW Hickory. Furthermore, several single base pair changes in BnaA.FAD3.b and BnaC.FAD3.b were identified to cause the phenotype of low C18:3 content. Based on the results of genetic mapping and identified sequences, allele-specific markers were developed for FAD2 and FAD3 genes. Particularly, single-nucleotide amplified polymorphisms markers for FAD3 alleles were demonstrated to be a reliable type of SNP markers for unambiguous identification of genotypes with different content of C18:3 in amphidiploid B. napus. PMID:22534790

Yang, Qingyong; Fan, Chuchuan; Guo, Zhenhua; Qin, Jie; Wu, Jianzhong; Li, Qingyuan; Fu, Tingdong; Zhou, Yongming

2012-08-01

39

Chromosome Instability and Oxidative Stress Markers in Patients with Ataxia Telangiectasia and Their Parents  

PubMed Central

Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder, inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Total blood samples were collected from 20 patients with AT, 13 parents of patients, and 17 healthy volunteers. This study aimed at evaluating the frequency of chromosomal breaks in spontaneous cultures, induced by bleomycin and ionizing radiation, and further evaluated the rates of oxidative stress in AT patients and in their parents, compared to a control group. Three cell cultures were performed to each individual: the first culture did not receive induction to chromosomal instability, the second was exposed to bleomycin, and the last culture was exposed to ionizing radiation. To evaluate the rates of oxidative stress, the markers superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) were utilized. Significant differences were observed between the three kinds of culture treatments (spontaneous, bleomycin, and radiation induced) and the breaks and chromosomal aberrations in the different groups. The oxidative stress showed no significant differences between the markers. This study showed that techniques of chromosomal instability after the induction of ionizing radiation and bleomycin are efficient in the identification of syndrome patients, with the ionizing radiation being the most effective. PMID:23936845

Bitelo Ludwig, Luciane; Valiati, Victor Hugo; Palazzo, Roberta Passos; Jardim, Laura Bannach; da Rosa, Darlan Pase; Bona, Silvia; Rodrigues, Graziela; Marroni, Norma Possa; Pra, Daniel; Maluf, Sharbel Weidner

2013-01-01

40

Effects of sample size, number of markers, and allelic richness on the detection of spatial genetic pattern  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The influence of study design on the ability to detect the effects of landscape pattern on gene flow is one of the most pressing methodological gaps in landscape genetic research. To investigate the effect of study design on landscape genetics inference, we used a spatially-explicit, individual-based program to simulate gene flow in a spatially continuous population inhabiting a landscape with gradual spatial changes in resistance to movement. We simulated a wide range of combinations of number of loci, number of alleles per locus and number of individuals sampled from the population. We assessed how these three aspects of study design influenced the statistical power to successfully identify the generating process among competing hypotheses of isolation-by-distance, isolation-by-barrier, and isolation-by-landscape resistance using a causal modelling approach with partial Mantel tests. We modelled the statistical power to identify the generating process as a response surface for equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions after introduction of isolation-by-landscape resistance. All three variables (loci, alleles and sampled individuals) affect the power of causal modelling, but to different degrees. Stronger partial Mantel r correlations between landscape distances and genetic distances were found when more loci were used and when loci were more variable, which makes comparisons of effect size between studies difficult. Number of individuals did not affect the accuracy through mean equilibrium partial Mantel r, but larger samples decreased the uncertainty (increasing the precision) of equilibrium partial Mantel r estimates. We conclude that amplifying more (and more variable) loci is likely to increase the power of landscape genetic inferences more than increasing number of individuals.

Landguth, Erin L.; Gedy, Bradley C.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Garey, Andrew L.; Emel, Sarah L.; Mumma, Matthew; Wagner, Helene H.; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Cushman, Samuel A.

2012-01-01

41

Effects of sample size, number of markers, and allelic richness on the detection of spatial genetic pattern  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The influence of study design on the ability to detect the effects of landscape pattern on gene flow is one of the most pressing methodological gaps in landscape genetic research. To investigate the effect of study design on landscape genetics inference, we used a spatially-explicit, individual-based program to simulate gene flow in a spatially continuous population inhabiting a landscape with gradual spatial changes in resistance to movement. We simulated a wide range of combinations of number of loci, number of alleles per locus and number of individuals sampled from the population. We assessed how these three aspects of study design influenced the statistical power to successfully identify the generating process among competing hypotheses of isolation-by-distance, isolation-by-barrier, and isolation-by-landscape resistance using a causal modelling approach with partial Mantel tests. We modelled the statistical power to identify the generating process as a response surface for equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions after introduction of isolation-by-landscape resistance. All three variables (loci, alleles and sampled individuals) affect the power of causal modelling, but to different degrees. Stronger partial Mantel r correlations between landscape distances and genetic distances were found when more loci were used and when loci were more variable, which makes comparisons of effect size between studies difficult. Number of individuals did not affect the accuracy through mean equilibrium partial Mantel r, but larger samples decreased the uncertainty (increasing the precision) of equilibrium partial Mantel r estimates. We conclude that amplifying more (and more variable) loci is likely to increase the power of landscape genetic inferences more than increasing number of individuals. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Landguth, E.L.; Fedy, B.C.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.; Garey, A.L.; Emel, S.L.; Mumma, M.; Wagner, H.H.; Fortin, M.-J.; Cushman, S.A.

2012-01-01

42

Mapping and analysis of quantitative trait loci in Lycopersicon (tomato) with the aid of genetic markers using approximate maximum likelihood methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

1691 F-2 progeny of a cross between Lycopersicon esculentum and L pimpinellifolium grown under field conditions were scored for 18 quantitative traits of economic interest and 10 segregating genetic markers. Each parental strain was homozygous for one allele of each marker. Four of the markers were electrophoretic, and six were morphological. Three pairs of the genetic markers were linked. An

J I Weller

1987-01-01

43

Markers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

2011-01-01

44

Parental potentiation of vocalization as a marker for filial bonds in infant animals.  

PubMed

Maternal and paternal potentiation of vocalization are two parts of a promising model of early life social bonds that has been and can be a useful tool in research. Most mammalian infants vocalize when isolated. Interactions with adult females just before isolation have been found to increase vocalizations in several species. Interactions with littermates and other social stimuli do not. In guinea pigs and pigs, the response is specific to the dam. In rats and octagon degus, an unrelated adult female from the colony is sufficient. The presence of an intact adult male in the test chamber with dam-reared pups evokes behavioral inhibition, a fear response. Previous exposure to the male in the home cage, biparental rearing, dramatically transforms the response of the pup. The pup treats the adult male as it does its dam, including potentiation of vocalization during a subsequent isolation. This article outlines the methods, advantages, and disadvantages of parental potentiation as a research tool, as well as a brief review of the evidence supporting its use as a marker for filial attachment. Future research directions are outlined. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 56: 1689-1697, 2014. PMID:24915803

Shair, Harry N

2014-12-01

45

Parenting  

MedlinePLUS

... plenty of suggestions on how to raise your child. From experts to other parents, people are always ... a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and listening to your child ...

46

Development of microsatellite markers for the dwarf bamboo species Sasa cernua and Sasa kurilensis (Poaceae) in northern Japan.  

PubMed

Ten polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from the dwarf bamboo species Sasa cernua and Sasa kurilensis. The applicability of these markers was confirmed by genotyping of open-pollinated seeds and leaf samples from natural populations. Genotypes of seeds from each culm shared at least one allele from the maternal parent without contradiction. All 10 loci were polymorphic in S. cernua with 2-15 alleles (average H(E) ?=?0.532). Eight loci were polymorphic in S. kurilensis with 2-10 alleles (average H(E) ?=?0.532). These markers will be useful in detailing the extent of clonal and sexual reproduction in these species. PMID:21564935

Kitamura, Keiko; Saitoh, Tomoyuki; Matsuo, Ayumi; Suyama, Yoshihisa

2009-11-01

47

Genetic variability of oil palm parental genotypes and performance of its' progenies as revealed by molecular markers and quantitative traits.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to assess the genetic relationships between the parental palms (dura and pisifera) and performance of their progenies based on nine microsatellite markers and 29 quantitative traits. Correlation analyses between genetic distances and hybrids performance were estimated. The coefficients of correlation values of genetic distances with hybrid performance were non-significant, except for mean nut weight and leaf number. However, the correlation coefficient of genetic distances with these characters was low to be used as predicted value. These results indicated that genetic distances based on the microsatellite markers may not be useful for predicting hybrid performance. The genetic distance analysis using UPGMA clustering system generated 5 genetic clusters with coefficient of 1.26 based on quantitative traits of progenies. The genotypes, DP16, DP14, DP4, DP13, DP12, DP15, DP8, DP1 and DP2 belonging to distant clusters and greater genetic distances could be selected for further breeding programs. PMID:21513898

Abdullah, Norziha; Rafii Yusop, Mohd; Ithnin, Maizura; Saleh, Ghizan; Latif, M A

2011-04-01

48

Genome-wide and parental allele-specific analysis of CTCF and cohesin DNA binding in mouse brain reveals a tissue-specific binding pattern and an association with imprinted differentially methylated regions  

PubMed Central

DNA binding factors are essential for regulating gene expression. CTCF and cohesin are DNA binding factors with central roles in chromatin organization and gene expression. We determined the sites of CTCF and cohesin binding to DNA in mouse brain, genome wide and in an allele-specific manner with high read-depth ChIP-seq. By comparing our results with existing data for mouse liver and embryonic stem (ES) cells, we investigated the tissue specificity of CTCF binding sites. ES cells have fewer unique CTCF binding sites occupied than liver and brain, consistent with a ground-state pattern of CTCF binding that is elaborated during differentiation. CTCF binding sites without the canonical consensus motif were highly tissue specific. In brain, a third of CTCF and cohesin binding sites coincide, consistent with the potential for many interactions between cohesin and CTCF but also many instances of independent action. In the context of genomic imprinting, CTCF and/or cohesin bind to a majority but not all differentially methylated regions, with preferential binding to the unmethylated parental allele. Whether the parental allele-specific methylation was established in the parental germlines or post-fertilization in the embryo is not a determinant in CTCF or cohesin binding. These findings link CTCF and cohesin with the control regions of a subset of imprinted genes, supporting the notion that imprinting control is mechanistically diverse. PMID:23804403

Prickett, Adam R.; Barkas, Nikolaos; McCole, Ruth B.; Hughes, Siobhan; Amante, Samuele M.; Schulz, Reiner; Oakey, Rebecca J.

2013-01-01

49

Allele frequencies of intragenic, and 5? and 3? markers of the dystrophin gene in Japanese families afflicted with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Using the polymerase chain reaction method (PCR), we examined the allele frequencies and heterozygosities of 7 polymorphic sites (pERT87, and CA polymorphisms in the 5' and 3' regions) of the dystrophin gene in 20 Japanese Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD or BMD) families consisting of 36 males, including 23 cases of DMD and BMD, and 28

Hiroko Tsukamoto; Koji Inui; Hisao Fukushima; Shintaro Okada

1996-01-01

50

Microsatellite DNA markers for parental assignment in hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of nine polymorphic microsatellites from a genomic library of hybrid striped bass (female Morone chrysops × × × × male Morone saxatilus ) DNA is described. Breeding of hybrid striped bass for aquaculture is based largely on breeding wild fish. Molecular markers such as microsatellites will be useful tools for developing broodstock, estimating heritabil- ity for production traits, and

Kirstin Ross; Xiaoxue Wang; Kathleen G. O'Malley; Delbert M. Gatlin; John R. Gold

2004-01-01

51

Clinic-Referred Mothers' Autobiographical Narratives as Markers of Their Parenting Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty clinic-referred mothers completed questionnaires describing their children's problems and the mothers' parenting styles. In addition, each mother told three stories about their personal experiences in child care and one story about being cared for in their families of origin. Each story was transcribed and rated for coherence on six…

Rowinski, Katherine S.; Wahler, Robert G.

2010-01-01

52

Parental somatic and germ-line mosaicism for a multiexon deletion with unusual endpoints in a type III collagen (COL3Al) allele produces ehlers-danlos syndrome type IV in the heterozygous offspring  

SciTech Connect

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV is a dominantly inherited disorder that results from mutation in the type III collagen gene (COL3A1). The authors studied the structure of the COL3A1 gene of an individual with EDS type IV and that of her phenotypically normal parents. The proband was heterozygous for a 2-kb deletion in COL3A1, while her father was mosaic for the same deletion in somatic and germ cells. In fibroblasts from the father, approximately two-fifths of the COL3A1 alleles carried the deletion, but only 10% of the COL3A1 alleles in white blood cells were of the mutant species. The deletion in the mutant allele extended from intron 7 into intron 11. There was a 12-bp direct repeat in intron 7 and intron 11, the latter about 60 bp 5' to the junction. At the breakpoint there was a duplication of 10 bp from intron 11 separated by an insertion of 4 bp contained within the duplicated sequence. The father was mosaic for the deletion so that the gene rearrangement occurred during his early embryonic development prior to lineage allocation. These findings suggest that at least some of the deletions seen in human genes may occur during replication, rather than as a consequence of meiotic crossing-over, and that they thus have a risk for recurrence when observed de novo. 71 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

McGookey Milewicz, D.; Witz, A.M.; Byers, P.H. (Univ of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Smith, A.C.M.; Manchester, D.K.; Waldstein, G. (Children's Hospital, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-07-01

53

Higher protein diets consumed ad libitum improve cardiovascular risk markers in children of overweight parents from eight European countries.  

PubMed

Dietary strategies to improve early cardiovascular markers in overweight children are needed. We investigated the effect of dietary protein and glycemic index (GI) on cardiovascular markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) scores in 5- to 18-y-old children of overweight/obese parents from 8 European centers. Families were randomized to 1 of 5 diets consumed ad libitum: high protein (HP) or low protein (LP) combined with high GI (HGI) or low GI (LGI), or a control diet. At 6 centers, families received dietary instruction (instruction centers); at 2 centers, free foods were also provided (supermarket centers). Diet, anthropometry, blood pressure, and serum cardiovascular markers (lipid profile, glucose regulation, and inflammation) were measured in 253 children at baseline, 1 mo, and/or 6 mo. Protein intake was higher in the HP groups (19.9 ± 1.3% energy) than in the LP groups at 6 mo (16.8 ± 1.2% energy) (P = 0.001). The GI was 4.0 points lower (95% CI: 2.1, 6.1) in the LGI compared with the HGI groups (P < 0.001). In the supermarket centers, the HP and LP groups differed more in protein intake than did the groups in the instruction centers (P = 0.009), indicating better compliance. The HP diets evoked a 2.7-cm (95% CI: 0.9, 5.1) smaller waist circumference and a 0.25-mmol/L (95% CI: 0.09, 0.41) lower serum LDL cholesterol compared with the LP diets at 6 mo (P < 0.007). In a separate supermarket center analysis, the HP compared with LP diets reduced waist circumference (P = 0.004), blood pressure (P < 0.01), serum insulin (P = 0.013), and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (P = 0.016). In the instruction centers, the HP compared with the LP diets reduced LDL cholesterol (P = 0.004). No consistent effect of GI was seen and the MetS scores were not affected. In conclusion, increased protein intake improved cardiovascular markers in high-risk children, particularly in those undergoing most intensive intervention. PMID:23596158

Damsgaard, Camilla T; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jensen, Signe M; Ritz, Christian; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hlavaty, Petr; Saris, Wim H M; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Andersen, Malene R; Stender, Steen; Larsen, Thomas M; Astrup, Arne; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

2013-06-01

54

Construction of a genetic linkage map in tetraploid species using molecular markers.  

PubMed Central

This article presents methodology for the construction of a linkage map in an autotetraploid species, using either codominant or dominant molecular markers scored on two parents and their full-sib progeny. The steps of the analysis are as follows: identification of parental genotypes from the parental and offspring phenotypes; testing for independent segregation of markers; partition of markers into linkage groups using cluster analysis; maximum-likelihood estimation of the phase, recombination frequency, and LOD score for all pairs of markers in the same linkage group using the EM algorithm; ordering the markers and estimating distances between them; and reconstructing their linkage phases. The information from different marker configurations about the recombination frequency is examined and found to vary considerably, depending on the number of different alleles, the number of alleles shared by the parents, and the phase of the markers. The methods are applied to a simulated data set and to a small set of SSR and AFLP markers scored in a full-sib population of tetraploid potato. PMID:11238421

Luo, Z W; Hackett, C A; Bradshaw, J E; McNicol, J W; Milbourne, D

2001-01-01

55

Rapid Allelic Discrimination by TaqMan PCR for the Detection of the Gilbert's Syndrome Marker UGT1A1*28  

PubMed Central

Gilbert's syndrome causes mild, unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and is present in approximately 10% of the Caucasian population. The basis of the disorder is a 70% reduction in bilirubin glucuronidation catalyzed by the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), which, in Caucasians, is the result of a homozygous TA insertion into the promoter region of the UGT1A1 gene (UGT1A1*28). Homozygous carriers of UGT1A1*28 as well as those with additional UGT1A variants can suffer from severe irinotecan toxicity or jaundice during treatment with the protease inhibitor atazanavir. UGT1A1*28 genotyping identifies patients at risk for drug toxicity and can increase drug safety by dose individualization. Rapid and facile UGT1A1*28 genotyping is therefore of great clinical importance. Two hundred ninety-one patients with suspected Gilbert's syndrome were genotyped using the TaqMan 5?nuclease assay with minor groove binder-non fluorescent quench probes; results were confirmed by direct sequencing. Ninety-six patients (33%) were homozygous for UGT1A1*28, which was verified by direct sequencing of a different PCR product showing 100% concordance with the TaqMan PCR results. We describe a novel UGT1A1*28 genotyping method that employs allelic discrimination by TaqMan PCR. This assay provides a rapid, high-throughput, and cost-effective method for Gilbert's syndrome genotyping, which is of value for pretreatment screening of potential irinotecan toxicity. The method utilizes a technological platform that is widely used in clinical practice and could therefore be easily adapted for routine clinical applications. PMID:18832463

Ehmer, Ursula; Lankisch, Tim O.; Erichsen, Thomas J.; Kalthoff, Sandra; Freiberg, Nicole; Wehmeier, Michael; Manns, Michael P.; Strassburg, Christian P.

2008-01-01

56

Association between AgI-CA alleles and severity of autosomal recessive proximal spina lmuscular atrophy  

SciTech Connect

The gene for autosomal recessive proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has been mapped to an 850-kb interval on 5q11.2-q13.3, between the centromeric D5S823 and telomeric D5S557 markers. We report a new complex marker, Ag1-CA, that lies in this interval, whose primers produce one, two, or rarely three amplification-fragment-length variants (AFLVs) per allele. Class I chromosomes are those which amplify a single AFLV allele, and class II chromosomes are those which amplify an allele with two or three AFLVs. Ag1-CA shows highly significant allelic association with type I SMA in both the French Canadian (Hopital Sainte-Justine (HSJ)) and American (Ohio State University (OSU)) populations (P < .0001). Significant association between the Ag1-CA genotype and disease severity was also observed. Type I patients were predominantly homozygous for class I chromosomes (P = .0003 OSU; P = 0.0012 HSJ), whereas the majority of type II patients were heterozygous for class I and II chromosomes (P = .0014 OSU; P = .001 HSJ). There was no significant difference in Ag1-CA genotype frequencies between type III patients (P = .5 OSU; P = .25 HSJ) and the paired normal chromosomes from both carrier parents. Our results indicate that Ag1-CA is the most closely linked marker to SMA and defines the critical candidate-gene region. Finally, we have proposed a model that should be taken into consideration when screening candidates SMA genes.

DiDonato, C.J.; Carpten, J.D.; Fuerst, P.; Ingraham, S.E.; Mendell, J.R.; Burghes, A.H.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Morgan, K. [McGill Univ. (Canada); Prescott, G.; Simard, L.R. [Hopital Sainte-Justine, Montreal (Canada); McPherson, J.D. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)] [and others

1994-12-01

57

Allelic variation of gene expression in maize hybrids.  

PubMed

Allelic expression variation of nonimprinted autosomal genes has recently been uncovered in mouse hybrids and humans. The allelic expression variation is attributed to differences in noncoding DNA sequences and does not involve epigenetic regulation or gene imprinting. This expression variation is suggested to play important roles in determining phenotypic diversity. Virtually nothing is known about such allele-specific expression variation in a hybrid plant where two alleles are compared in the same genetic context. We examined parental transcript accumulation in maize (Zea mays) hybrids using allele-specific RT-PCR analysis. Among 15 genes analyzed, 11 showed differences at the RNA level, ranging from unequal expression of the two alleles (biallelic) to expression of a single allele (monoallelic). Maternal or paternal transmission had little effect on the allele-specific transcript ratio of nearly all genes analyzed, suggesting that parent-of-origin effect was minimal. We analyzed the allelic difference in genetically contrasting hybrids and hybrids under high planting density and drought stress. Whereas a genetically improved modern hybrid expressed both alleles, a less improved old hybrid frequently showed mono-allelic expression. Furthermore, the two alleles in the hybrid responded differentially to abiotic stresses. The results of allele-specific regulation in different tissues in responding to environment and stress suggest an unequivalent function of the parental alleles in the hybrid, which may have an impact on heterosis. PMID:15194819

Guo, Mei; Rupe, Mary A; Zinselmeier, Christopher; Habben, Jeffrey; Bowen, Benjamin A; Smith, Oscar S

2004-07-01

58

SNaPshot Assay in Quantitative Detection of Allelic Nondisjunction in Down Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Aim: We wished to identify markers associated with allelic nondisjunction in nuclear families with Down syndrome (DS) offspring. Since the GRIK1 and GARS-AIRS-GART genes, mapping to chromosome 21q22.1, may be informative in this regard, we genotyped four single-nucleotide polymorphisms [30952599(A/G) rs363484; 30924733(A/G) rs363506; 34901423(A/G) rs2834235; 34877070(A/G) rs7283354] present in these genes using the SNaPshot™ assay protocol. Results: We have reported 30952599(A/G)-rs363484 to be monomorphic in our sample population. Genotyping revealed 35/65 families to be informative for 34877070(A/G)-rs7283354 (GARS-AIRS-GART), whereas only 25/65 and 11/65 are informative for 34901423(A/G)-rs2834235 (GARS-AIRS-GART) and 30924733(A/G)-rs363506 (GRIK1) polymorphisms, respectively. The parent- and stage-of-origin of nondisjunction could be traced in 48/65 families using at least one polymorphic marker. A single trio provided internal validation for assignment of the parent- and stage-of-origin of nondisjunction whereby the nondisjoining alleles were independently identified as G-rs363506, G-rs2834235, and G-rs7283354, respectively. An enhanced ratio of meiosis-I to meiosis-II errors during maternal or paternal meioses accounts for allelic nondisjunction. Conclusions The SNaPshot assay is quantitative and permits multiplexing for detection of allelic nondisjunction. Inclusion of additional informative chromosome 21-specific markers may aid rapid aneuploidy detection, screening, and prenatal counseling of parents at risk of having babies with DS. PMID:22931243

Ghosh, Debarati; Gochhait, Sailesh; Banerjee, Disha; Chatterjee, Anindita; Sinha, Swagata

2012-01-01

59

Development of polysomic microsatellite markers for characterization of population structuring and phylogeography in the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum is an endangered polyploid fish species for which no nuclear DNA markers previously existed. To address this need, 86 polysomic loci were developed and characterized in 20 A. brevirostrum from five river systems and eight members (parents and six progeny) of a captive-bred family. All markers proved to be polymorphic, polysomic, and demonstrated direct inheritance when tested in a captive family. Eleven loci were included in a range-wide survey of 561 fish sampled from 17 geographic collections. Allelic diversity at these markers ranged from 7 to 24 alleles/locus and averaged 16.5 alleles/locus; sufficient diversity to produce unique multilocus genotypes. In the range-wide survey, a Mantel comparison of an ecological (1-Jaccard’s) and genetic (?PT; an analog to FST) distance metrics, identified a strong positive correlation (r = 0.98, P PT represents a viable metric for assessing genetic relatedness using this class of marker.

Henderson, Anne P.; King, Tim L.

2012-01-01

60

Existing potato markers and marker conversions  

E-print Network

) � Colton et al. 2006 Crop Sci 46:589-594 11 #12;some markers for potato quality traits Dominant allele makes for a good marker? � diagnostic for trait of interest � robust � works even with DNA of poor quality or low quantity � cheap � easy to use � co-dominant � dosage sensitive #12;Agarose Gel

Douches, David S.

61

Marker-trait association analysis of functional gene markers for provitamin A levels across diverse tropical yellow maize inbred lines  

PubMed Central

Background Biofortification of staple crops is a cost effective and sustainable approach that can help combat vitamin A and other micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. PCR -based DNA markers distinguishing alleles of three key genes of maize endosperm carotenoid biosynthesis (PSY1, lcyE and crtRB1) have been developed to facilitate maize provitamin A biofortification via marker assisted selection. Previous studies of these functional DNA markers revealed inconsistent effects. The germplasm previously employed for discovering and validating these functional markers was mainly of temperate origin containing low frequencies of the favourable allele of the most significant polymorphism, crtRB1-5?TE. Here, we investigate the vitamin A biofortification potential of these DNA markers in a germplasm panel of diverse tropical yellow maize inbred lines, with mixed genetic backgrounds of temperate and tropical germplasm to identify the most effective diagnostic markers for vitamin A biofortification. Results The functional DNA markers crtRB1-5?TE and crtRB1-3?TE were consistently and strongly associated with provitamin A content across the tropical maize inbred lines tested. The alleles detected by these two functional markers were in high linkage disequilibrium (R2?=?0.75) and occurred in relatively high frequency (18%). Genotypes combining the favourable alleles at the two loci (N?=?20) displayed a 3.22 fold average increase in ?-carotene content compared to those genotypes lacking the favourable alleles (N?=?106). The PSY1 markers were monomorphic across all of the inbred lines. The functional DNA markers for lcyE were associated with lutein, and with the ratio of carotenoids in the alpha and beta branches, but not with provitamin A levels. However, the combined effects of the two genes were stronger than their individual effects on all carotenoids. Conclusions Tropical maize inbred lines harbouring the favourable alleles of the crtRB1-5?TE and 3?TE functional markers produce higher levels of provitamin A. Such maize lines can be used as donor parents to speed up the development of provitamin A biofortified tropical maize varieties adapted to growing conditions and consumer preferences, providing a route towards mitigation of vitamin A malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24373137

2013-01-01

62

Evidence for a genetic association between alleles of monoamine oxidase A gene and bipolar affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence of a genetic association between bipolar disorder and alleles at 3 monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) markers, but not with alleles of a monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) polymorphism. The 3 MAOA markers, including one associated with low MAOA activity, show strong allelic association with each other but surprisingly not with MAOB. Our results are significantly only for females,

Lionel C. C. Lim; P. Sham; D. Castle; Neil Hunt; Robin Murray; Michael Gill

1995-01-01

63

Mining the Human Phenome Using Allelic Scores That Index Biological Intermediates  

PubMed Central

It is common practice in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to focus on the relationship between disease risk and genetic variants one marker at a time. When relevant genes are identified it is often possible to implicate biological intermediates and pathways likely to be involved in disease aetiology. However, single genetic variants typically explain small amounts of disease risk. Our idea is to construct allelic scores that explain greater proportions of the variance in biological intermediates, and subsequently use these scores to data mine GWAS. To investigate the approach's properties, we indexed three biological intermediates where the results of large GWAS meta-analyses were available: body mass index, C-reactive protein and low density lipoprotein levels. We generated allelic scores in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, and in publicly available data from the first Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. We compared the explanatory ability of allelic scores in terms of their capacity to proxy for the intermediate of interest, and the extent to which they associated with disease. We found that allelic scores derived from known variants and allelic scores derived from hundreds of thousands of genetic markers explained significant portions of the variance in biological intermediates of interest, and many of these scores showed expected correlations with disease. Genome-wide allelic scores however tended to lack specificity suggesting that they should be used with caution and perhaps only to proxy biological intermediates for which there are no known individual variants. Power calculations confirm the feasibility of extending our strategy to the analysis of tens of thousands of molecular phenotypes in large genome-wide meta-analyses. We conclude that our method represents a simple way in which potentially tens of thousands of molecular phenotypes could be screened for causal relationships with disease without having to expensively measure these variables in individual disease collections. PMID:24204319

Paternoster, Lavinia; Kemp, John P.; McMahon, George; Munafo, Marcus; Whitfield, John B.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; St. Pourcain, Beate; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Dehghan, Abbas; Hirschhorn, Joel; Davey Smith, George

2013-01-01

64

Mining the human phenome using allelic scores that index biological intermediates.  

PubMed

It is common practice in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to focus on the relationship between disease risk and genetic variants one marker at a time. When relevant genes are identified it is often possible to implicate biological intermediates and pathways likely to be involved in disease aetiology. However, single genetic variants typically explain small amounts of disease risk. Our idea is to construct allelic scores that explain greater proportions of the variance in biological intermediates, and subsequently use these scores to data mine GWAS. To investigate the approach's properties, we indexed three biological intermediates where the results of large GWAS meta-analyses were available: body mass index, C-reactive protein and low density lipoprotein levels. We generated allelic scores in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, and in publicly available data from the first Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. We compared the explanatory ability of allelic scores in terms of their capacity to proxy for the intermediate of interest, and the extent to which they associated with disease. We found that allelic scores derived from known variants and allelic scores derived from hundreds of thousands of genetic markers explained significant portions of the variance in biological intermediates of interest, and many of these scores showed expected correlations with disease. Genome-wide allelic scores however tended to lack specificity suggesting that they should be used with caution and perhaps only to proxy biological intermediates for which there are no known individual variants. Power calculations confirm the feasibility of extending our strategy to the analysis of tens of thousands of molecular phenotypes in large genome-wide meta-analyses. We conclude that our method represents a simple way in which potentially tens of thousands of molecular phenotypes could be screened for causal relationships with disease without having to expensively measure these variables in individual disease collections. PMID:24204319

Evans, David M; Brion, Marie Jo A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Kemp, John P; McMahon, George; Munafò, Marcus; Whitfield, John B; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Timpson, Nicholas J; St Pourcain, Beate; Lawlor, Debbie A; Martin, Nicholas G; Dehghan, Abbas; Hirschhorn, Joel; Davey Smith, George

2013-10-01

65

Multiple Alleles for Tuber Shape in Diploid Potato Detected by Qualitative and Quantitative Genetic Analysis Using Rflps  

PubMed Central

Tuber shape in potato is commonly regarded as displaying continuous variation, yet at the diploid level phenotypes can be discerned visually, having round or long tubers. Inheritance of qualitative tuber shape can be explained by a single locus Ro, round being dominant to long. With restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) the Ro locus was mapped on chromosome 10. Tuber shape was also studied as a quantitative trait, using the length/width ratio as trait value. The estimated broad sense heritability was h(2) = 0.80. The morphologically mapped Ro locus explained 75% of the genetic variation, indicating the presence of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) at the Ro locus and minor genetic factors. RFLP alleles linked with Ro alleles were used to divide the progeny into four genotypic classes: Ro( &) Ro( &) : Ro( &) ro : roRo( &) : roro = 1 : 1 : 1 : 1. The recessive ro allele is identical by descent in both parents. The significantly different effects (P = 0.0157) of the non-identical alleles Ro( &) and Ro( &) provided evidence for multiallelism at the Ro locus. Linkage mapping of the Ro locus was compared with QTL mapping. Only those markers which are polymorphic in both parents allow accurate QTL mapping when genetic factors segregate from both parents. This finding applies to QTL mapping in all outbreeders without homozygous inbred strains. PMID:7914504

van-Eck, H. J.; Jacobs, JME.; Stam, P.; Ton, J.; Stiekema, W. J.; Jacobsen, E.

1994-01-01

66

Imputation of microsatellite alleles from dense SNP genotypes for parentage verification across multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds  

PubMed Central

To assist cattle producers transition from microsatellite (MS) to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping for parental verification we previously devised an effective and inexpensive method to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes. While the reported method was verified with only a limited data set (N = 479) from Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey cattle, some of the MS-SNP haplotype associations were concordant across these phylogenetically diverse breeds. This implied that some haplotypes predate modern breed formation and remain in strong linkage disequilibrium. To expand the utility of MS allele imputation across breeds, MS and SNP data from more than 8000 animals representing 39 breeds (Bos taurus and B. indicus) were used to predict 9410 SNP haplotypes, incorporating an average of 73 SNPs per haplotype, for which alleles from 12 MS markers could be accurately be imputed. Approximately 25% of the MS-SNP haplotypes were present in multiple breeds (N = 2 to 36 breeds). These shared haplotypes allowed for MS imputation in breeds that were not represented in the reference population with only a small increase in Mendelian inheritance inconsistancies. Our reported reference haplotypes can be used for any cattle breed and the reported methods can be applied to any species to aid the transition from MS to SNP genetic markers. While ~91% of the animals with imputed alleles for 12 MS markers had ?1 Mendelian inheritance conflicts with their parents' reported MS genotypes, this figure was 96% for our reference animals, indicating potential errors in the reported MS genotypes. The workflow we suggest autocorrects for genotyping errors and rare haplotypes, by MS genotyping animals whose imputed MS alleles fail parentage verification, and then incorporating those animals into the reference dataset. PMID:24065982

McClure, Matthew C.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Wiggans, George R.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Weber, Kristina L.; Penedo, Cecilia T.; Berry, Donagh P.; Flynn, John; Garcia, Jose F.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.; Albuquerque, Milla; Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Machado, Marco A.; Coffey, Mike; Moore, Kirsty; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Genestout, Lucie; Mazza, Raffaele; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Simpson, Barry; Marques, Elisa; McEwan, John C.; Cromie, Andrew; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Keele, John W.; Piper, Emily K.; Cook, Jim; Williams, Robert; Van Tassell, Curtis P.

2013-01-01

67

Genetic association mapping based on discordant sib pairs: the discordant-alleles test.  

PubMed Central

Family-based tests of association provide the opportunity to test for an association between a disease and a genetic marker. Such tests avoid false-positive results produced by population stratification, so that evidence for association may be interpreted as evidence for linkage or causation. Several methods that use family-based controls have been proposed, including the haplotype relative risk, the transmission-disequilibrium test, and affected family-based controls. However, because these methods require genotypes on affected individuals and their parents, they are not ideally suited to the study of late-onset diseases. In this paper, we develop several family-based tests of association that use discordant sib pairs (DSPs) in which one sib is affected with a disease and the other sib is not. These tests are based on statistics that compare counts of alleles or genotypes or that test for symmetry in tables of alleles or genotypes. We describe the use of a permutation framework to assess the significance of these statistics. These DSP-based tests provide the same general advantages as parent-offspring trio-based tests, while being applicable to essentially any disease; they may also be tailored to particular hypotheses regarding the genetic model. We compare the statistical properties of our DSP-based tests by computer simulation and illustrate their use with an application to Alzheimer disease and the apolipoprotein E polymorphism. Our results suggest that the discordant-alleles test, which compares the numbers of nonmatching alleles in DSPs, is the most powerful of the tests we considered, for a wide class of disease models and marker types. Finally, we discuss advantages and disadvantages of the DSP design for genetic association mapping. PMID:9529345

Boehnke, M; Langefeld, C D

1998-01-01

68

NUMBER OF SEX ALLELES IN A SAMPLE OF HONEYBEE COLONIES Jean-Marie CORNUET Franck ARIES  

E-print Network

NUMBER OF SEX ALLELES IN A SAMPLE OF HONEYBEE COLONIES Jean-Marie CORNUET Franck ARIES Station of bree- ding work, this paper gives the theoretical distribution of the number of sex alleles in a sample the factors interfering with this trait, there is the possible identity of sex alleles of the workers' parents

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

DRD2 A1 allele and P300 abnormalities in obesity  

SciTech Connect

Obesity is a heterogeneous and prevalent disorder having both inheritable and environmental components. The role of the dopamine system in P300 has been implicated. We genotyped 193 neuropsychiatrically ill patients with and without comorbid drug and alcohol/abuse/dependence and obesity for the prevalence of the A1 allele of the DRD2 gene. We found a significant linear trend ({chi}{sup 2} = 40.4, df=1, p<0.00001) where the percent prevalence of the A1 increased with increasing polysubstance abuse. Where the A1 allele was found in 44% of 40 obese subjects, the A1 allele prevalence was found in as much as 91% of 11 obese subjects with comorbid polysubstance abuse. 53 obese subjects having a mean body weight (BMI) of 34.6{+-}8.2 were mapped for brain electrical activity and compared with 15 controls with a BMI of 22.3{+-}3.0 (P<.001). The P3 amplitude was significantly different (two tailed; t=3.24, df=16.2, P = 0.005), whereas P3 latency was not significant. Preliminarily, we found a significant decreased P3 amplitude correlated with parental polysubstance abuse (p=0.4) with prolongation of P3 latency correlated with the three risk factors of parental substance abuse, chemical dependency and carbohydrate bingeing (P<0.02). Finally, in a small sample, the A1 allele was present in 25% of probands having 0 risk compared to 66% in those obese subjects with any risk. This work represents the first electrophysiological data to implicate P3 abnormalities in a subset of obesity and further confirms an association of the DRD2 gene and a electrophysiological marker previously indicated to have predictive value in vulnerability to addictive behaviors.

Blum, K. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)]|[PATH Foundation, Princeton, NJ (United States); Wood, R.; Sheridan, L.P.J. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

70

Disturbances in reality testing as markers of risk in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: a systematic review from a developmental psychopathology perspective  

PubMed Central

Objectives This comprehensive review examined the prevalence and progression of disturbances in reality testing (DRT), defined as psychotic symptoms, cognitive disruptions, and thought problems, in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (O-BD). Our approach was grounded in a developmental psychopathology perspective and considered a broader phenotype of risk within the bipolar–schizophrenia spectrum as measured by categorical and dimensional assessments of DRT in high-risk youth. Methods Relevant studies were identified from numerous sources (e.g., PubMed, reference sections, and colleagues). Inclusion criteria were: (i) family risk studies published between 1975 and 2012 in which O-BD were contrasted with a comparison group (e.g., offspring of parents who had other psychiatric disorders or were healthy) on DRT outcomes and (ii) results reported for categorical or dimensional assessments of DRT (e.g., schizophrenia, psychotic symptoms, cluster A personality traits, or thought problems), yielding a total of 23 studies. Results Three key findings emerged: (i) categorical approaches of DRT in O-BD produced low incidence base rates and almost no evidence of significant differences in DRT between O-BD and comparison groups, whereas (ii) many studies using dimensional assessments of DRT yielded significant group differences in DRT. Furthermore, (iii) preliminary evidence from dimensional measures suggested that the developmental progression of DRT in O-BD might represent a prodrome of severe psychological impairment. Conclusions Preliminary but promising evidence suggests that DRT is a probable marker of risk for future impairment in O-BD. Methodological strengths and weaknesses, the psychometric properties of primary DRT constructs, and future directions for developmental and longitudinal research with O-BD are discussed. PMID:24034419

Narayan, Angela J; Allen, Timothy A; Cullen, Kathryn R; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

2013-01-01

71

Systematic search for markers linked to insulin-dependent diabetes on chromosome 17  

SciTech Connect

We tested 19 microsatellite markers on chromosome 17 for linkage with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Nuclear families (N = 235) with at least two affected offspring were provided by the British Diabetic Association, Human Biological Data Interchange, and our own lab. The mean interval ({plus_minus}sd) between markers was 8 {plus_minus} 3 cM. For each parent heterozygous at the marker locus being studied, we determined whether the same or different alleles were transmitted to the two affected sibs. The {open_quotes}degree of sharing{close_quotes} for each marker is the frequency with which the same parental allele is transmitted to both affected sibs. Linkage with IDDM susceptibility leads to values higher than 0.50 for degree of sharing. Unlike lods, this approach makes no assumption about mode of inheritance. Mean sharing for the 19 markers was 0.51 (range 0.460 to 0.557; sd = .03). Three markers on 17q (all mutually unlinked) showed sharing of {approximately}0.55. The degree of sharing was 228/414 = 0.551 for D17A807 ({chi}{sup 2} = 4.26, p = .04), 172/309 = 0.557 for D17S784 ({chi}{sup 2} = 3.96, p = .04), and 218/398 = 0.548 for D17S798 ({chi}{sup 2} = 3.63, p =.06). We also looked for evidence of linkage disequilibrium between IDDM and alleles of each of these markers, by means of the transmission/disequilibrium test of Spielman. No significant linkage disequilibrium was found for D17S784 or D17S798. However, allele 6 of D17S807 was transmitted from heterozygous parents to IDDM offspring with frequency 131/230 = 0.57 ({chi}{sup 2} = 4.45, p = .035), supporting linkage with IDDM. We are currently investigating other markers and candidate genes in the region of D17S807.

Williams, S.R.; Shephard, J.M.; Berger, J.S. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

72

Characterization of swine leukocyte antigen alleles and haplotypes on a novel miniature pig line, Microminipig.  

PubMed

Microminipigs are extremely small-sized, novel miniature pigs that were recently developed for medical research. The inbred Microminipigs with defined swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) haplotypes are expected to be useful for allo- and xenotransplantation studies and also for association analyses between SLA haplotypes and immunological traits. To establish SLA-defined Microminipig lines, we characterized the polymorphic SLA alleles for three class I (SLA-1, SLA-2 and SLA-3) and two class II (SLA-DRB1 and SLA-DQB1) genes of 14 parental Microminipigs using a high-resolution nucleotide sequence-based typing method. Eleven class I and II haplotypes, including three recombinant haplotypes, were found in the offspring of the parental Microminipigs. Two class I and class II haplotypes, Hp-31.0 (SLA-1*1502-SLA-3*070102-SLA-2*1601) and Hp-0.37 (SLA-DRB1*0701-SLA-DQB1*0502), are novel and have not so far been reported in other pig breeds. Crossover regions were defined by the analysis of 22 microsatellite markers within the SLA class III region of three recombinant haplotypes. The SLA allele and haplotype information of Microminipigs in this study will be useful to establish SLA homozygous lines including three recombinants for transplantation and immunological studies. PMID:25118109

Ando, A; Imaeda, N; Ohshima, S; Miyamoto, A; Kaneko, N; Takasu, M; Shiina, T; Kulski, J K; Inoko, H; Kitagawa, H

2014-12-01

73

A transgene expression system for the marine microalgae Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101 using a mutant allele of the gene encoding ribosomal protein L44 as a selectable transformation marker for cycloheximide resistance.  

PubMed

In the present study, we established a genetic system for manipulating the oleaginous heterotrophic microalgae Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101, using cycloheximide resistance as the selectable marker. The gene encoding ribosomal protein L44 (RPL44) of Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101 was first identified and characterized. Proline 56 was replaced with glutamine, affording cycloheximide resistance to strains encoding the mutant protein. This resistance served as a novel selection marker. The gene encoding the ?12-fatty acid desaturase of Mortierella alpina, used as a reporter, was successfully introduced into chromosomal DNA of Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101 via 18S rDNA-targeted homologous recombination. Enzymatic conversion of oleic acid (C18:1) to linoleic acid (C18:2) was detected in transformants but not in the wild-type strain. PMID:23504238

Hong, Won-Kyung; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Oh, Baek-Rock; Kim, Chul Ho; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Yang, Ji-Won; Kondo, Akihiko; Seo, Jeong-Woo

2013-09-01

74

Marker assisted introgression of the Compact mutant myostatin allele: Mstn Cmpt-dl1Abc into a mouse line with extreme growth: effects on body composition, muscularity and skeletal muscle cellularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle growth, and mutations in this gene are associated with muscular hypertrophy and reduced fat in mice, humans and cattle. Marker assisted introgression (MAI) was used to introduce a murine myostatin mutation, Mstn Cmpt-dl1Abc (Compact, C), into a high growth mouse line (DUHi) Objective: To investigate the effects of myostatin-deficiency in a high growth

LUTZ BÜNGER; GERHARD OTT; LÁSZLÓ VARGA; WERNER SCHLOTE; JOHN L. WILLIAMS; WILLIAM G. HILL; CHARLOTTE REHFELDT

2005-01-01

75

Testing for association based on excess allele sharing in a sample of related cases and controls.  

PubMed

Samples consisting of a mix of unrelated cases and controls, small pedigrees, and much larger pedigrees present a unique challenge for association studies. Few methods are available for efficient analysis of such a broad spectrum of data structures. In this paper we introduce a new matching statistic that is well suited to complex data structures and compare it with frequency-based methods available in the literature. To investigate and compare the power of these methods we simulate datasets based on complex pedigrees. We examine the influence of various levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) of the disease allele with a marker allele (or equivalently a haplotype). For low frequency marker alleles/haplotypes, frequency-based statistics are more powerful in detecting association. In contrast, for high frequency marker alleles, the matching statistic has greater power. The highest power for frequency-based statistics occurs when the disease allele frequency closely matches the frequency of the linked marker allele. In contrast maximum power of the matching statistic always occurs for intermediate marker allele frequency regardless of the disease allele frequency. Moreover, the matching and frequency-based statistics exhibit little correlation. We conclude that these two approaches can be viewed as complementary in finding possible association between a disease and a marker for many different situations. PMID:17342507

Klei, Lambertus; Roeder, Kathyrn

2007-06-01

76

Trifluoroleucine resistance as a dominant molecular marker in transformation of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from wine.  

PubMed

The resistance to 5,5,5-trifluoro-DL-leucine, encoded by the dominant allele LEU4-1, was used as a selectable marker to transform laboratory and natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains by the lithium acetate procedure. Results of transformation of S. cerevisiae laboratory and wine natural strains showed that trifluoroleucine resistance is a very effective selection marker and can be widely used to transform prototrophic S. cerevisiae strains. The LEU4-1 gene could also be exploited to improve wine flavour, as indicated by the higher isoamyl alcohol content of the transformants compared to the parental strains. PMID:10556716

Bendoni, B; Cavalieri, D; Casalone, E; Polsinelli, M; Barberio, C

1999-11-15

77

Historical events and allelic polymorphism at the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus in Solanaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical migration rate of a species is often difficult to estimate with neutral markers, because the relationship between the turnover time of the markers and the age of the species commonly remains unknown. Compared with neutral markers, the plant self-incompatibility locus (S) provides a much better source of data for migration-rate estimation due to its high allelic polymorphism and

Y Lu

2006-01-01

78

Parental somatic and germ-line mosaicism for a multiexon deletion with unusual endpoints in a type III collagen (COL3Al) allele produces ehlers-danlos syndrome type IV in the heterozygous offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV is a dominantly inherited disorder that results from mutation in the type III collagen gene (COL3A1). The authors studied the structure of the COL3A1 gene of an individual with EDS type IV and that of her phenotypically normal parents. The proband was heterozygous for a 2-kb deletion in COL3A1, while her father was mosaic for

D. McGookey Milewicz; A. M. Witz; P. H. Byers; A. C. M. Smith; D. K. Manchester; G. Waldstein

1993-01-01

79

Stacking Pima S-6 fiber length alleles in a Tamcot 2111 background  

E-print Network

Molecular markers can be used to stack fiber quality alleles among recombinant inbred lines and thus, aid in the development of unique genotypes. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for stacking Gossypium barbadense (Pima S-6...

Souder, Christopher Lee

2012-06-07

80

Risk Alleles for Multiple Sclerosis Identified by a Genomewide Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Multiple sclerosis has a clinically significant heritable component. We conducted a ge- nomewide association study to identify alleles associated with the risk of multiple sclerosis. Methods We used DNA microarray technology to identify common DNA sequence variants in 931 family trios (consisting of an affected child and both parents) and tested them for association. For replication, we genotyped another

David A. Hafler; Alastair Compston; Stephen Sawcer; Eric S. Lander; Mark J. Daly; Philip L. De Jager; Paul I. W. de Bakker; Stacey B. Gabriel; Daniel B. Mirel; Adrian J. Ivinson; Margaret A. Pericak-Vance; Simon G. Gregory; John D. Rioux; Jacob L. McCauley; Jonathan L. Haines; Lisa F. Barcellos; Bruce Cree; Jorge R. Oksen-berg; Stephen L. Hauser

2010-01-01

81

High-throughput analysis of candidate imprinted genes and allele-specific gene expression in the human term placenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Imprinted genes show expression from one parental allele only and are important for development and behaviour. This extreme mode of allelic imbalance has been described for approximately 56 human genes. Imprinting status is often disrupted in cancer and dysmorphic syndromes. More subtle variation of gene expression, that is not parent-of-origin specific, termed 'allele-specific gene expression' (ASE) is more common

Caroline Daelemans; Matthew E Ritchie; Guillaume Smits; Sayeda Abu-Amero; Ian M Sudbery; Matthew S Forrest; Susana Campino; Taane G Clark; Philip Stanier; Dominic Kwiatkowski; Panos Deloukas; Emmanouil T Dermitzakis; Simon Tavaré; Gudrun E Moore; Ian Dunham

2010-01-01

82

Biased Tests of Association: Comparisons of Allele Frequencies when Departing from Hardy-Weinberg Proportions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association studies of genetic markers or candidate genes with disease are often conducted using the traditional case-control design. Cases and controls are sampled from genetically unrelated subjects, and allele frequencies compared between cases and controls using Pearson's chi-square statistic. An assumption of this analysis method is that the two alleles within each subject are statistically independent, at least when no

Daniel J. Schaid; Steven J. Jacobsen

83

SNP genotyping for detecting the 'rare allele phenomenon' in hybrid zones.  

PubMed

Hybrid zones are regions where genetically distinct populations meet, mate and produce offspring. In such zones, genetically less compatible gene combinations are usually generated, resulting in reduced fitness, and hybrid zones are often maintained because of continuous removal of unfit genotypes, balanced by gene flow into the zone from the parental populations (and are then referred to as 'tension zones'). Tension zones often display unexpectedly high frequencies of gene variants that are rare outside the zone. Previous work has shown that this 'rare allele phenomenon' is not the result of intragenic recombination or increased mutation rates. Further understanding of the population genetics of the phenomenon requires an approach in which both the numbers of individuals and the numbers of loci is increased. Here, we report an approach using a combination of Illumina next-generation sequencing and mass spectrophotometer genotyping to identify markers that may be used for genome-wide investigations of the rare allele phenomenon. We test this approach on a hybrid zone in the land snail Albinaria hippolyti from Greece. PMID:23241161

Lammers, Y; Kremer, D; Brakefield, P M; Groenenberg, D S J; Pirovano, W; Schilthuizen, M

2013-03-01

84

Characterisation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) varieties using microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Background Sugar beet is an obligate outcrossing species. Varieties consist of mixtures of plants from various parental combinations. As the number of informative morphological characteristics is limited, this leads to some problems in variety registration research. Results We have developed 25 new microsatellite markers for sugar beet. A selection of 12 markers with high quality patterns was used to characterise 40 diploid and triploid varieties. For each variety 30 individual plants were genotyped. The markers amplified 3-21 different alleles. Varieties had up to 7 different alleles at one marker locus. All varieties could be distinguished. For the diploid varieties, the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.458 to 0.744. The average inbreeding coefficient Fis was 0.282 ± 0.124, but it varied widely among marker loci, from Fis = +0.876 (heterozygote deficiency) to Fis = -0.350 (excess of heterozygotes). The genetic differentiation among diploid varieties was relatively constant among markers (Fst = 0.232 ± 0.027). Among triploid varieties the genetic differentiation was much lower (Fst = 0.100 ± 0.010). The overall genetic differentiation between diploid and triploid varieties was Fst = 0.133 across all loci. Part of this differentiation may coincide with the differentiation among breeders' gene pools, which was Fst = 0.063. Conclusions Based on a combination of scores for individual plants all varieties can be distinguished using the 12 markers developed here. The markers may also be used for mapping and in molecular breeding. In addition, they may be employed in studying gene flow from crop to wild populations. PMID:20482800

2010-01-01

85

RHD allele distribution in Africans of Mali  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aberrant and non-functional RHD alleles are much more frequent in Africans than in Europeans. The DAU cluster of RHD alleles exemplifies that the alleles frequent in Africans have evaded recognition until recently. A comprehensive survey of RHD alleles in any African population was lacking. RESULTS: We surveyed the molecular structure and frequency of RHD alleles in Mali (West Africa)

Franz F Wagner; Joann M Moulds; Anatole Tounkara; Bourema Kouriba; Willy A Flegel

2003-01-01

86

DNA profiling of pineapple cultivars in Japan discriminated by SSR markers  

PubMed Central

We developed 18 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in pineapple (Ananas comosus) by using genomic libraries enriched for GA and CA motifs. The markers were used to genotype 31 pineapple accessions, including seven cultivars and 11 breeding lines from Okinawa Prefecture, 12 foreign accessions and one from a related species. These SSR loci were highly polymorphic: the 31 accessions contained three to seven alleles per locus, with an average of 4.1. The values of expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.09 to 0.76, with an average of 0.52. All 31 accessions could be successfully differentiated by the 18 SSR markers, with the exception of ‘N67-10’ and ‘Hawaiian Smooth Cayenne’. A single combination of three markers TsuAC004, TsuAC010 and TsuAC041, was enough to distinguish all accessions with one exception. A phenogram based on the SSR genotypes did not show any distinct groups, but it suggested that pineapples bred in Japan are genetically diversed. We reconfirmed the parentage of 14 pineapple accessions by comparing the SSR alleles at 17 SSR loci in each accession and its reported parents. The obtained information will contribute substantially to protecting plant breeders’ rights. PMID:23341750

Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Sakiyama, Sumisu; Terakami, Shingo; Hosaka, Fumiko; Shigeta, Narumi; Nishitani, Chikako; Yamamoto, Toshiya

2012-01-01

87

Markers for Mapping by Admixture Linkage Disequilibrium in African American and Hispanic Populations  

PubMed Central

Population linkage disequilibrium occurs as a consequence of mutation, selection, genetic drift, and population substructure produced by admixture of genetically distinct ethnic populations. African American and Hispanic ethnic groups have a history of significant gene flow among parent groups, which can be of value in affecting genome scans for disease-gene discovery in the case-control and transmission/disequilibrium test designs. Disease-gene discovery using mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium (MALD) requires a map of polymorphic markers that differentiate between the founding populations, along with differences in disease-gene allele frequencies. We describe markers appropriate for MALD mapping by assessing allele frequencies of 744 short tandem repeats (STRs) in African Americans, Hispanics, European Americans, and Asians, by choosing STR markers that have large differences in composite ?, log-likelihood ratios, and/or I*(2) for MALD. Additional markers can be added to this MALD map by utilization of the rapidly growing single-nucleotide–polymorphism databases and the literature, to achieve a 3–10-cM scanning scale. The map will be useful for studies of diseases, including prostate and breast cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and end-stage renal disease, that have large differences in incidence between the founding populations of either Hispanics or African Americans. PMID:11590548

Smith, Michael W.; Lautenberger, James A.; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Shrestha, Sadeep; Gilbert, Dennis A.; O'Brien, Stephen J.

2001-01-01

88

Allelic structures at hypervariable minisatellite B6.7 in Japanese show population specificity.  

PubMed

Human minisatellite B6.7 shows extensive allele length and structural variability in north Europeans. We analysed this locus in the Japanese population. Allele size distributions showed that Japanese retain extensive allele length variability but have significantly smaller alleles compared with north Europeans. In contrast, there is very little variation in flanking DNA, with only one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the minisatellite. Ninety-two Japanese alleles were further characterised by minisatellite variant repeat mapping by polymerase chain reaction (MVR-PCR). These alleles showed a wide variety of internal MVR structures, despite their relative shortness, with most alleles observed only once in the sample. The true heterozygosity is estimated at 99.95%, with well in excess of 2000 different alleles existing in the Japanese population. Dot matrix analysis showed that groups of related alleles sharing structural motifs could be identified within Japanese and in north Europeans, and that these groups are population specific with no examples of significant similarity between any Japanese and north European alleles. Minisatellite B6.7 therefore shows huge allele variability and fast repeat turnover in Japanese as well as north European populations, and provides novel lineage markers for exploring very recent events in human population history. PMID:12032590

Mizukoshi, Tsunenori; Tamaki, Keiji; Azumi, Jun-ichi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Imai, Kohzoh; Jeffreys, Alec J

2002-01-01

89

A homozygous mutation in keratin 5 is a fully dominant allele responsible for epidermolysis bullosa simplex  

SciTech Connect

Molecular, ultrastructural, and clinical analysis of a large family with epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) and multiple consanguineous marriages has identified one affected individual who inherited defective keratin 5 genes from both of her affected parents. EBS are skin blistering disorders caused by abnormal keratin filament assembly or function due to a mutation in either of the two structural proteins keratin 5 or keratin 14. Linkage analysis with DNA markers near each keratin gene demonstrated that the defect in this family mapped near keratin 5 (K5) with a LOD score of 7.60, {theta}=0.0 for the proximal marker D12S14. Sequencing of the K5 gene identified an Asn substitution of a highly conserved Lys at codon 173 in the 5{prime} end of the central rod domain. The mutation was found in 33 affected family members but not in 5 unaffected members or 25 unrelated, unaffected individuals. Both linkage and sequence analysis verified that one affected individual was homozygous for the K5 mutation. In this family, clinical examination and analysis of epidermal ultrastructure by electron microscopy were consistent with the Koebner subtype of EBS. Despite the absence of any normal K5 protein in the skin, the clinical and ultrastructural phenotypes of the homozygous individual did not differ significantly from those of affected heteozygous relatives. This K5 mutation is a fully dominant allele.

Stephens, K.; Smith, L.; Ehrlich, P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WI (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

90

Development of linkage map in F2 population of selected parents with respect to Macrophomina phaseolina resistance trait using screened polymorphic RAPD and developed SCAR markers of jute  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two molecular markers (RAPD and simple sequence repeat (SSR)) were applied on 12 Corchorus capsularis jute samples. Two of them were Macrophomina phaseolina-resistant and the remaining eight were M. phaseolina-susceptible accessions. Eleven SSR primer combinations out of 18 gave the polymorphic results between M. phaseolina-resistant and -susceptible accessions. Five pairs of sequence characterised amplified region (SCAR) primers designated as SCP-4,

J. I. Mir; A. Roy; S. K. Ghosh; P. G. Karmakar

2011-01-01

91

Human leptin locus (LEP) alleles and BMI in Samoans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Because of their location in known candidate gene regions for obesity the associations between six microsatellite markers (D2S2170, D2S144, D2S1268, D2S1788, D2S1348 and a tetranucleotide repeat in the 3? UTR of the LEP locus) and body mass index (BMI) were studied in adult Samoans.Design: The study was designed to detect differences in the proportion of alleles at the six

ST McGarvey; W Forrest; G Sun; D Smelser; J Tufa; S Viali; R Deka

2002-01-01

92

A novel linkage map of sugarcane with evidence for clustering of retrotransposon-based markers  

PubMed Central

Background The development of sugarcane as a sustainable crop has unlimited applications. The crop is one of the most economically viable for renewable energy production, and CO2 balance. Linkage maps are valuable tools for understanding genetic and genomic organization, particularly in sugarcane due to its complex polyploid genome of multispecific origins. The overall objective of our study was to construct a novel sugarcane linkage map, compiling AFLP and EST-SSR markers, and to generate data on the distribution of markers anchored to sequences of scIvana_1, a complete sugarcane transposable element, and member of the Copia superfamily. Results The mapping population parents (‘IAC66-6’ and ‘TUC71-7’) contributed equally to polymorphisms, independent of marker type, and generated markers that were distributed into nearly the same number of co-segregation groups (or CGs). Bi-parentally inherited alleles provided the integration of 19 CGs. The marker number per CG ranged from two to 39. The total map length was 4,843.19?cM, with a marker density of 8.87?cM. Markers were assembled into 92 CGs that ranged in length from 1.14 to 404.72?cM, with an estimated average length of 52.64?cM. The greatest distance between two adjacent markers was 48.25?cM. The scIvana_1-based markers (56) were positioned on 21 CGs, but were not regularly distributed. Interestingly, the distance between adjacent scIvana_1-based markers was less than 5?cM, and was observed on five CGs, suggesting a clustered organization. Conclusions Results indicated the use of a NBS-profiling technique was efficient to develop retrotransposon-based markers in sugarcane. The simultaneous maximum-likelihood estimates of linkage and linkage phase based strategies confirmed the suitability of its approach to estimate linkage, and construct the linkage map. Interestingly, using our genetic data it was possible to calculate the number of retrotransposon scIvana_1 (~60) copies in the sugarcane genome, confirming previously reported molecular results. In addition, this research possibly will have indirect implications in crop economics e.g., productivity enhancement via QTL studies, as the mapping population parents differ in response to an important fungal disease. PMID:22742069

2012-01-01

93

Integration of novel SSR and gene-based SNP marker loci in the chickpea genetic map and establishment of new anchor points with Medicago truncatula genome  

PubMed Central

This study presents the development and mapping of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in chickpea. The mapping population is based on an inter-specific cross between domesticated and non-domesticated genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum ICC 4958 × C. reticulatum PI 489777). This same population has been the focus of previous studies, permitting integration of new and legacy genetic markers into a single genetic map. We report a set of 311 novel SSR markers (designated ICCM—ICRISAT chickpea microsatellite), obtained from an SSR-enriched genomic library of ICC 4958. Screening of these SSR markers on a diverse panel of 48 chickpea accessions provided 147 polymorphic markers with 2–21 alleles and polymorphic information content value 0.04–0.92. Fifty-two of these markers were polymorphic between parental genotypes of the inter-specific population. We also analyzed 233 previously published (H-series) SSR markers that provided another set of 52 polymorphic markers. An additional 71 gene-based SNP markers were developed from transcript sequences that are highly conserved between chickpea and its near relative Medicago truncatula. By using these three approaches, 175 new marker loci along with 407 previously reported marker loci were integrated to yield an improved genetic map of chickpea. The integrated map contains 521 loci organized into eight linkage groups that span 2,602 cM, with an average inter-marker distance of 4.99 cM. Gene-based markers provide anchor points for comparing the genomes of Medicago and chickpea, and reveal extended synteny between these two species. The combined set of genetic markers and their integration into an improved genetic map should facilitate chickpea genetics and breeding, as well as translational studies between chickpea and Medicago. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1265-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20098978

Nayak, Spurthi N.; Zhu, Hongyan; Varghese, Nicy; Datta, Subhojit; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Horres, Ralf; Jungling, Ruth; Singh, Jagbir; Kavi Kishor, P. B.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.; Hoisington, Dave A.; Kahl, Gunter; Winter, Peter; Cook, Douglas R.

2010-01-01

94

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Worsens the Profile of Cardiometabolic Risk Markers and Decrease Indexes of Beta-Cell Function Independently of Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Women with a Parental History of Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background. Women with a history of both parental type 2 diabetes (pt2DM) and previous gestational diabetes (pGDM) represent a group at high risk of cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that pGDM changes cardiometabolic risk markers levels as well as theirs associations with glucose indices in nondiabetic pt2DM women. Methods. Anthropometric parameters, glucose regulation (OGTT), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), beta-cell function, lipid levels, parameters of endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation were evaluated in 55 women with pt2DM, 40 with both pt2DM and pGDM 2–24 months postpartum, and 35 controls. Results. Prediabetes was diagnosed more frequently in women with both pt2DM and pGDM in comparison with women with only pt2DM (10 versus 8, P = 0.04). The pGDM group had higher LDL-cholesterol, sICAM-1, tPa Ag, fibrinogen, and lower beta-cell function after adjustment for HOMA-IR, in comparison with pt2DM group. In pt2DM group postchallenge glucose correlated independently with hsCRP and in pGDM group fasting glucose with HOMA-IR. Conclusions. pGDM exerts a combined effect on cardiometabolic risk markers in women with pt2DM. In these women higher LDL-cholesterol, fibrinogen, sICAM-1, tPa Ag levels and decreased beta cell function are associated with pGDM independently of HOMA-IR index value. Fasting glucose is an important cardiometabolic risk marker and is independently associated with HOMA-IR. PMID:25097861

Sokup, Alina; Ruszkowska-Ciastek, Barbara; Walentowicz-Sadlecka, Malgorzata; Grabiec, Marek; Rosc, Danuta

2014-01-01

95

Allele-Dependent Barley Grain ?-Amylase Activity1  

PubMed Central

The wild ancestor of cultivated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) A. & Gr. (H. spontaneum), is a source of wide genetic diversity, including traits that are important for malting quality. A high ?-amylase trait was previously identified in H. spontaneum strains from Israel, and transferred into the backcross progeny of a cross with the domesticated barley cv Adorra. We have used Southern-blot analysis and ?-amy1 gene characterization to demonstrate that the high ?-amylase trait in the backcross line is co-inherited with the ?-amy1 gene from the H. spontaneum parent. We have analyzed the ?-amy1 gene organization in various domesticated and wild-type barley strains and identified three distinct ?-amy1 alleles. Two of these ?-amy1 alleles were present in modern barley, one of which was specifically found in good malting barley cultivars. The third allele, linked with high grain ?-amylase activity, was found only in a H. spontaneum strain from the Judean foothills in Israel. The sequences of three isolated ?-amy1 alleles are compared. The involvement of specific intron III sequences, in particular a 126-bp palindromic insertion, in the allele-dependent expression of ?-amylase activity in barley grain is proposed. PMID:9625721

Erkkila, Maria J.; Leah, Robert; Ahokas, Hannu; Cameron-Mills, Verena

1998-01-01

96

Functionally relevant microsatellite markers from chickpea transcription factor genes for efficient genotyping applications and trait association mapping.  

PubMed

We developed 1108 transcription factor gene-derived microsatellite (TFGMS) and 161 transcription factor functional domain-associated microsatellite (TFFDMS) markers from 707 TFs of chickpea. The robust amplification efficiency (96.5%) and high intra-specific polymorphic potential (34%) detected by markers suggest their immense utilities in efficient large-scale genotyping applications, including construction of both physical and functional transcript maps and understanding population structure. Candidate gene-based association analysis revealed strong genetic association of TFFDMS markers with three major seed and pod traits. Further, TFGMS markers in the 5' untranslated regions of TF genes showing differential expression during seed development had higher trait association potential. The significance of TFFDMS markers was demonstrated by correlating their allelic variation with amino acid sequence expansion/contraction in the functional domain and alteration of secondary protein structure encoded by genes. The seed weight-associated markers were validated through traditional bi-parental genetic mapping. The determination of gene-specific linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns in desi and kabuli based on single nucleotide polymorphism-microsatellite marker haplotypes revealed extended LD decay, enhanced LD resolution and trait association potential of genes. The evolutionary history of a strong seed-size/weight-associated TF based on natural variation and haplotype sharing among desi, kabuli and wild unravelled useful information having implication for seed-size trait evolution during chickpea domestication. PMID:23633531

Kujur, Alice; Bajaj, Deepak; Saxena, Maneesha S; Tripathi, Shailesh; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Gowda, C L L; Singh, Sube; Jain, Mukesh; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

2013-08-01

97

Functionally Relevant Microsatellite Markers From Chickpea Transcription Factor Genes for Efficient Genotyping Applications and Trait Association Mapping  

PubMed Central

We developed 1108 transcription factor gene-derived microsatellite (TFGMS) and 161 transcription factor functional domain-associated microsatellite (TFFDMS) markers from 707 TFs of chickpea. The robust amplification efficiency (96.5%) and high intra-specific polymorphic potential (34%) detected by markers suggest their immense utilities in efficient large-scale genotyping applications, including construction of both physical and functional transcript maps and understanding population structure. Candidate gene-based association analysis revealed strong genetic association of TFFDMS markers with three major seed and pod traits. Further, TFGMS markers in the 5? untranslated regions of TF genes showing differential expression during seed development had higher trait association potential. The significance of TFFDMS markers was demonstrated by correlating their allelic variation with amino acid sequence expansion/contraction in the functional domain and alteration of secondary protein structure encoded by genes. The seed weight-associated markers were validated through traditional bi-parental genetic mapping. The determination of gene-specific linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns in desi and kabuli based on single nucleotide polymorphism-microsatellite marker haplotypes revealed extended LD decay, enhanced LD resolution and trait association potential of genes. The evolutionary history of a strong seed-size/weight-associated TF based on natural variation and haplotype sharing among desi, kabuli and wild unravelled useful information having implication for seed-size trait evolution during chickpea domestication. PMID:23633531

Kujur, Alice; Bajaj, Deepak; Saxena, Maneesha S.; Tripathi, Shailesh; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Gowda, C.L.L.; Singh, Sube; Jain, Mukesh; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

2013-01-01

98

Wheat gene bank accessions as a source of new alleles of the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm3: a large scale allele mining project  

PubMed Central

Background In the last hundred years, the development of improved wheat cultivars has led to the replacement of landraces and traditional varieties by modern cultivars. This has resulted in a decline in the genetic diversity of agriculturally used wheat. However, the diversity lost in the elite material is somewhat preserved in crop gene banks. Therefore, the gene bank accessions provide the basis for genetic improvement of crops for specific traits and and represent rich sources of novel allelic variation. Results We have undertaken large scale molecular allele mining to isolate new alleles of the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm3 from wheat gene bank accessions. The search for new Pm3 alleles was carried out on a geographically diverse set of 733 wheat accessions originating from 20 countries. Pm3 specific molecular tools as well as classical pathogenicity tests were used to characterize the accessions. Two new functional Pm3 alleles were identified out of the eight newly cloned Pm3 sequences. These new resistance alleles were isolated from accessions from China and Nepal. Thus, the repertoire of functional Pm3 alleles now includes 17 genes, making it one of the largest allelic series of plant resistance genes. The combined information on resistant and susceptible Pm3 sequences will allow to study molecular function and specificity of functional Pm3 alleles. Conclusions This study demonstrates that molecular allele mining on geographically defined accessions is a useful strategy to rapidly characterize the diversity of gene bank accessions at a specific genetic locus of agronomical importance. The identified wheat accessions with new resistance specificities can be used for marker-assisted transfer of the Pm3 alleles to modern wheat lines. PMID:20470444

2010-01-01

99

A Powerful Test of Parent-of-Origin Effects for Quantitative Traits Using Haplotypes  

PubMed Central

Imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon where the same alleles have unequal transcriptions and thus contribute differently to a trait depending on their parent of origin. This mechanism has been found to affect a variety of human disorders. Although various methods for testing parent-of-origin effects have been proposed in linkage analysis settings, only a few are available for association analysis and they are usually restricted to small families and particular study designs. In this study, we develop a powerful maximum likelihood test to evaluate the parent-of-origin effects of SNPs on quantitative phenotypes in general family studies. Our method incorporates haplotype distribution to take advantage of inter-marker LD information in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our method also accommodates missing genotypes that often occur in genetic studies. Our simulation studies with various minor allele frequencies, LD structures, family sizes, and missing schemes have uniformly shown that using the new method significantly improves the power of detecting imprinted genes compared with the method using the SNP at the testing locus only. Our simulations suggest that the most efficient strategy to investigate parent-of-origin effects is to recruit one parent and as many offspring as possible under practical constraints. As a demonstration, we applied our method to a dataset from the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) to test the parent-of-origin effects of the SNPs within the PPARGC1A, MTP and FABP2 genes on diabetes-related phenotypes, and found that several SNPs in the MTP gene show parent-of-origin effects on insulin and glucose levels. PMID:22174922

Feng, Rui; Wu, Yinghua; Jang, Gun Ho; Ordovas, Jose M.; Arnett, Donna

2011-01-01

100

Enhanced low-template DNA analysis conditions and investigation of allele dropout patterns.  

PubMed

Forensic DNA analysis applying PCR enables profiling of minute biological samples. Enhanced analysis conditions can be applied to further push the limit of detection, coming with the risk of visualising artefacts and allele imbalances. We have evaluated the consecutive increase of PCR cycles from 30 to 35 to investigate the limitations of low-template (LT) DNA analysis, applying the short tandem repeat (STR) analysis kit PowerPlex ESX 16. Mock crime scene DNA extracts of four different quantities (from around 8-84pg) were tested. All PCR products were analysed using 5, 10 and 20 capillary electrophoresis (CE) injection seconds. Bayesian models describing allele dropout patterns, allele peak heights and heterozygote balance were developed to assess the overall improvements in EPG quality with altered PCR/CE settings. The models were also used to evaluate the impact of amplicon length, STR marker and fluorescent label on the risk for allele dropout. The allele dropout probability decreased for each PCR cycle increment from 30 to 33 PCR cycles. Irrespective of DNA amount, the dropout probability was not affected by further increasing the number of PCR cycles. For the 42 and 84pg samples, mainly complete DNA profiles were generated applying 32 PCR cycles. For the 8 and 17pg samples, the allele dropouts decreased from 100% using 30 cycles to about 75% and 20%, respectively. The results for 33, 34 and 35 PCR cycles indicated that heterozygote balance and stutter ratio were mainly affected by DNA amount, and not directly by PCR cycle number and CE injection settings. We found 32 and 33 PCR cycles with 10 CE injection seconds to be optimal, as 34 and 35 PCR cycles did not improve allele detection and also included CE saturation problems. We find allele dropout probability differences between several STR markers. Markers labelled with the fluorescent dyes CXR-ET (red in electropherogram) and TMR-ET (shown as black) generally have higher dropout risks compared with those labelled with JOE (green) and fluorescein (blue). Overall, the marker D10S1248 has the lowest allele dropout probability and D8S1179 the highest. The marker effect is mainly pronounced for 30-32 PCR cycles. Such effects would not be expected if the amplification efficiencies were identical for all markers. Understanding allele dropout risks and the variability in peak heights and balances is important for correct interpretation of forensic DNA profiles. PMID:25282604

Hedell, Ronny; Dufva, Charlotte; Ansell, Ricky; Mostad, Petter; Hedman, Johannes

2015-01-01

101

Estimating Y-STR allelic drop-out rates and adjusting for interlocus balances.  

PubMed

Y chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are valuable genetic markers in certain areas of forensic case-work. However, when the Y-STR DNA profile is weak, the observed Y-STR profile may not be complete--i.e. locus drop-out may have occurred. Another explanation could be that the stain DNA did not have a Y-STR allele that was detectable with the method used (the allele is a 'null allele'). If the Y-STR profile of a stain is strong, one would be reluctant to consider drop-out as a reasonable explanation of lack of a Y-STR allele and would maybe consider 'null allele' as an explanation. On the other hand, if the signal strengths are weak, one would most likely accept drop-out as a possible explanation. We created a logistic regression model to estimate the probability of allele drop-out with the Life Technologies/Applied Biosystems AmpFlSTR(®) Yfiler(®) kit such that the trade-off between drop-outs and null alleles could be quantified using a statistical model. The model to estimate the probability of drop-out uses information about locus imbalances, signal strength, the number of PCR cycles, and the fragment size of Yfiler. We made two temporarily separated experiments and found no evidence of temporal variation in the probability of drop-out. Using our model, we found that for 30 PCR cycles with a 150 bp allele, the probability of drop-out was 1:5000 corresponding to the average estimate of the probability of Y-STR null alleles at a signal strength of 1249 RFU. This means that the probability of a null allele is higher than that of an allele drop-out at e.g. 4000 RFU and the probability of drop-out is higher than that of a null allele at e.g. 75 RFU. PMID:23453365

Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Olofsson, Jill Katharina; Asplund, Maria; Morling, Niels

2013-05-01

102

Assessing genetic diversity of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm using microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 24 wheat microsatellite markers, representing at least one marker from each chromosome, was used for the assessment of genetic diversity in 998 accessions of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) which originated from 68 countries of five continents. A total of 470 alleles were detected with an average allele number of 18.1 per locus. The highest number

X. Q. Huang; A. Börner; M. S. Röder; M. W. Ganal

2002-01-01

103

Null allele, allelic dropouts or rare sex detection in clonal organisms: simulations and application to real data sets of pathogenic microbes  

PubMed Central

Background Pathogens and their vectors are organisms whose ecology is often only accessible through population genetics tools based on spatio-temporal variability of molecular markers. However, molecular tools may present technical difficulties due to the masking of some alleles (allelic dropouts and/or null alleles), which tends to bias the estimation of heterozygosity and thus the inferences concerning the breeding system of the organism under study. This is especially critical in clonal organisms in which deviation from panmixia, as measured by Wright’s FIS, can, in principle, be used to infer both the extent of clonality and structure in a given population. In particular, null alleles and allelic dropouts are locus specific and likely produce high variance of Wright’s FIS across loci, as rare sex is expected to do. In this paper we propose a tool enabling to discriminate between consequences of these technical problems and those of rare sex. Methods We have performed various simulations of clonal and partially clonal populations. We introduce allelic dropouts and null alleles in clonal data sets and compare the results with those that exhibit increasing rates of sexual recombination. We use the narrow relationship that links Wright’s FIS to genetic diversity in purely clonal populations as assessment criterion, since this relationship disappears faster with sexual recombination than with amplification problems of certain alleles. Results We show that the relevance of our criterion for detecting poorly amplified alleles depends partly on the population structure, the level of homoplasy and/or mutation rate. However, the interpretation of data becomes difficult when the number of poorly amplified alleles is above 50%. The application of this method to reinterpret published data sets of pathogenic clonal microbes (yeast and trypanosomes) confirms its usefulness and allows refining previous estimates concerning important pathogenic agents. Conclusion Our criterion of superimposing between the FIS expected under clonality and the observed FIS, is effective when amplification difficulties occur in low to moderate frequencies (20-30%). PMID:25027508

2014-01-01

104

Genetic Diversity and Relatedness of Sweet Cherry (Prunus Avium L.) Cultivars Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers  

PubMed Central

Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from 3? untranslated regions (UTR) for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars, and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with seven SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3? UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, “Stella” was separated from “Compact Stella.” This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3? UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping, and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry. PMID:22737155

Fernandez i Marti, Angel; Athanson, Blessing; Koepke, Tyson; Font i Forcada, Carolina; Dhingra, Amit; Oraguzie, Nnadozie

2012-01-01

105

Genetic diversity and relatedness of sweet cherry (prunus avium L.) cultivars based on single nucleotide polymorphic markers.  

PubMed

Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from 3' untranslated regions (UTR) for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars, and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with seven SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3' UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, "Stella" was separated from "Compact Stella." This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3' UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping, and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry. PMID:22737155

Fernandez I Marti, Angel; Athanson, Blessing; Koepke, Tyson; Font I Forcada, Carolina; Dhingra, Amit; Oraguzie, Nnadozie

2012-01-01

106

Effective Parenting  

MedlinePLUS

... parents? There is a whole history to your parent-child relationship that began at the moment your youngster was ... effectively, so they will not interfere with your parent-child relationships. For example, if you are like many parents, ...

107

PARENTS' GUIDE WELCOME PARENTS  

E-print Network

step is college itself. Since a very special person in your life is about to leave home and you might to have you as part of the College community as well. Kurt C. Holmes Dean of Students #12;� 2 � PARENTSW PARENTS' GUIDE #12;WELCOME PARENTS Your daughter or son will soon join us as a student

Wilson, Mark A.

108

PARENTS' GUIDE WELCOME PARENTS  

E-print Network

step is college itself. Since a very special person in your life is about to leave home and you might to have you as part of the College community as well. Kurt C. Holmes Dean of Students #12;­ 3 ­ CONTENTSW PARENTS' GUIDE #12;WELCOME PARENTS Your daughter or son will soon join us as a student

Wilson, Mark A.

109

On the allelic spectrum of human disease.  

PubMed

Human disease genes show enormous variation in their allelic spectra; that is, in the number and population frequency of the disease-predisposing alleles at the loci. For some genes, there are a few predominant disease alleles. For others, there is a wide range of disease alleles, each relatively rare. The allelic spectrum is important: disease genes with only a few deleterious alleles can be more readily identified and are more amenable to clinical testing. Here, we weave together strands from the human mutation and population genetics literature to provide a framework for understanding and predicting the allelic spectra of disease genes. The theory does a reasonable job for diseases where the genetic etiology is well understood. It also has bearing on the Common Disease/Common Variants (CD/CV) hypothesis, predicting that at loci where the total frequency of disease alleles is not too small, disease loci will have relatively simple spectra. PMID:11525833

Reich, D E; Lander, E S

2001-09-01

110

Segregation of isozyme markers and cold tolerance in an interspecific backcross of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interspecific backcross was obtained between the cultivated tomato, L. esculentum, and a high-altitude, cold-tolerant L. hirsutum, using the former as the recurrent pistillate parent. An individual plant of L. hirsutum which possessed maximum allelic differences for enzyme loci, with respect to those of L. esculentum, was selected as the staminate parent. Allelic differences were found at seventeen enzyme loci,

C. E. Vallejos; S. D. Tanksley

1983-01-01

111

Allelic Variation in Paralogs of GDP-l-Galactose Phosphorylase Is a Major Determinant of Vitamin C Concentrations in Apple Fruit1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

To identify the genetic factors underlying the regulation of fruit vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid [AsA]) concentrations, quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies were carried out in an F1 progeny derived from a cross between the apple (Malus × domestica) cultivars Telamon and Braeburn over three years. QTL were identified for AsA, glutathione, total antioxidant activity in both flesh and skin tissues, and various quality traits, including flesh browning. Four regions on chromosomes 10, 11, 16, and 17 contained stable fruit AsA-QTL clusters. Mapping of AsA metabolic genes identified colocations between orthologs of GDP-l-galactose phosphorylase (GGP), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and nucleobase-ascorbate transporter within these QTL clusters. Of particular interest are the three paralogs of MdGGP, which all colocated within AsA-QTL clusters. Allelic variants of MdGGP1 and MdGGP3 derived from the cultivar Braeburn parent were also consistently associated with higher fruit total AsA concentrations both within the mapping population (up to 10-fold) and across a range of commercial apple germplasm (up to 6-fold). Striking differences in the expression of the cv Braeburn MdGGP1 allele between fruit from high- and low-AsA genotypes clearly indicate a key role for MdGGP1 in the regulation of fruit AsA concentrations, and this MdGGP allele-specific single-nucleotide polymorphism marker represents an excellent candidate for directed breeding for enhanced fruit AsA concentrations. Interestingly, colocations were also found between MdDHAR3-3 and a stable QTL for browning in the cv Telamon parent, highlighting links between the redox status of the AsA pool and susceptibility to flesh browning. PMID:23001142

Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Chagne, David; Laing, William A.; Keulemans, Johan; Davey, Mark W.

2012-01-01

112

Linkage mapping in tetraploid willows: segregation of molecular markers and estimation of linkage phases support an allotetraploid structure for Salix alba x Salix fragilis interspecific hybrids.  

PubMed

Salix alba-Salix fragilis complex includes closely related dioecious polyploid species, which are obligate outcrossers. Natural populations of these willows and their hybrids are represented by a mixture of highly heterozygous genotypes sharing a common gene pool. Since nothing is known about their genomic constitution, tetraploidy (2n=4x=76) in willow species makes basic and applied genetic studies difficult. We have used a two-way pseudotestcross strategy and single-dose markers (SDMs) to construct the first linkage maps for both pistillate and staminate willows. A total of 242 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 50 selective amplifications of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL) markers, which showed 1:1 segregation in the F(1) mapping populations, were used in linkage analysis. In S. alba, 73 maternal and 48 paternal SDMs were mapped to 19 and 16 linkage groups covering 708 and 339 cM, respectively. In S. fragilis, 13 maternal and 33 paternal SDMs were mapped in six and 14 linkage groups covering 98 and 321 cM, respectively. For most cosegregation groups, a comparable number of markers linked in coupling and repulsion was identified. This finding suggests that most of chromosomes pair preferentially as occurs in allotetraploid species exhibiting disomic inheritance. The detection of 10 pairs of marker alleles from single parents showing codominant inheritance strengthens this hypothesis. The fact that, of the 1122 marker loci identified in the two male and female parents, the vast majority (77.5%) were polymorphic and as few as 22.5% were shared between parental species highlight that S. alba and S. fragilis genotypes are differentiated. The highly difference between S. alba- and S. fragilis-specific markers found in both parental combinations (on average, 65.3 vs 34.7%, respectively) supports the (phylogenetic) hypothesis that S. fragilis is derived from S. alba-like progenitors. PMID:12634824

Barcaccia, G; Meneghetti, S; Albertini, E; Triest, L; Lucchin, M

2003-02-01

113

Novel complex disease allele mutations in cleidocranial dysplasia patients.  

PubMed

This study reports a novel identical complex disease allele harboring two non-synonymous mutations that were identified in two southern Chinese individuals of the same family with cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD). Blood samples were obtained from the proband, his parents, plus 100 matched control subjects. Exons 0 to 7 of the RUNX2 gene were amplified using specific primers and sequenced. Multiple sequence alignment and protein structure modeling was performed using ClustalW2 and MODBASE software while PolyPhen-2 and MutationTaster applications were employed to predict the disease-causing potential of the identified mutations. A complex disease allele in two affected individuals harboring two non-synonymous mutations in a cis-position on exons 4 (D273N) and 5 (P299L) were identified. The identified mutations were in the conserved region and changed the protein structure. PMID:24935264

Anthonappa, Robert P; Yan-Hui, Fan; King, Nigel M; Rabie, Abu Bakr M; You-Qiang, Song

2014-11-01

114

No evidence for allelic association between bipolar disorder and monoamine oxidase A gene polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have tested the hypothesis that DNA markers in the MAOA gene show allelic association with bipolar affective disorder. Eighty-four unrelated Caucasian patients with DSM III-R bipolar disorder and 84 Caucasian controls were typed for three markers in MAOA: a dinucleotide repeat in intron 2, a VNTR in intron 1, and an Fnu4HI RFLP in exon 8. No evidence for

Nick Craddock; Johanna Daniels; Enriqueta Roberts; Mark Rees; Peter McGuffin; Michael J. Owen

1995-01-01

115

Genetic diversity and geographical differentiation of Iranian landrace, cultivars, and exotic chickpea lines as revealed by morphological and microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Assessment of the extent of genetic variability within chickpea is fundamental for chickpea breeding and conservation of genetic resources and is particularly useful as a general guide in the choice of parents for breeding hybrids. To establish genetic diversity among 60 accessions of chickpea comprising landraces, internationally developed improved lines, and cultivars, genetic distances were evaluated using 14 simple sequence repeat markers. These markers showed a high level of polymorphism; a total of 59 different alleles were detected, with a mean of 4.2 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.31 to 0.89. All the markers, with the exception of TAA170, TA110, GA34, and Ts35, were considered to be informative (PIC?>?0.5), indicating their potential usefulness for cultivar identification. Based on the UNJ clustering method, all accessions were clustered in five groups, which indicated the probable origin and region similarity of Iranian landraces over the other cultivars. It also represents a wide diversity among available germplasm. The result has firmly established that introduction of genetic materials from exotic sources has broadened the genetic base of the national chickpea breeding program. As further implications of the findings, this study can be useful for selective breeding for specific traits and in enhancing the genetic base of breeding programs. PMID:24757326

Ghaffari, Parvin; Talebi, Reza; Keshavarzi, Fatemeh

2014-04-01

116

Segregation distortion of T-DNA markers linked to the self-incompatibility (S) locus in Petunia hybrida.  

PubMed Central

In plants with a gametophytic self-incompatibility system the specificity of the pollen is determined by the haploid genotype at the self-incompatibility (S) locus. In certain crosses this can lead to the exclusion of half the gametes from the male parent carrying a particular S-allele. This leads to pronounced segregation distortion for any genetic markers that are linked to the S-locus. We have used this approach to identify T-DNA insertions carrying a maize transposable element that are linked to the S-locus of Petunia hybrida. A total of 83 T-DNA insertions were tested for segregation distortion of the selectable marker used during transformation with Agrobacterium. Segregation distortion was observed for 12 T-DNA insertions and at least 8 of these were shown to be in the same linkage group by intercrossing. This indicates that differential transmission of a single locus (S) is probably responsible for all of these examples of T-DNA segregation distortion. The identification of selectable markers in coupling with a functional S-allele will allow the preselection of recombination events around the S-locus in petunia. Our approach provides a general method for identifying transgenes that are linked to gametophytic self-incompatibility loci and provides an opportunity for transposon tagging of the petunia S-locus. PMID:10757773

Harbord, R M; Napoli, C A; Robbins, T P

2000-01-01

117

Development of AFLP and RAPD markers linked to a locus associated with twisted growth in corkscrew willow (Salix matsudana 'Tortuosa').  

PubMed

Salix matsudana Koidz. cultivar 'Tortuosa' (corkscrew willow) is characterized by extensive stem bending and curling of leaves. To investigate the genetic basis of this trait, controlled crosses were made between a corkscrew female (S. matsudana 'Tortuosa') and a straight-stemmed, wild-type male (Salix alba L. Clone 99010). Seventy-seven seedlings from this family (ID 99270) were grown in the field for phenotypic observation. Among the progeny, 39 had straight stems and leaves and 38 had bent stems and curled leaves, suggesting that a dominant allele at a single locus controls this phenotype. As a first step in characterizing the locus, we searched for amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the tortuosa allele using bulked segregant analysis. Samples of DNA from 10 corkscrew individuals were combined to produce a corkscrew pool, and DNA from 10 straight progeny was combined to make a wild-type pool. Sixty-four AFLP primer combinations and 640 RAPD primers were screened to identify marker bands amplified from the corkscrew parent and progeny pool, but not from the wild-type parent or progeny pool. An AFLP marker and a RAPD marker linked to and flanking the tortuosa locus were placed on a preliminary linkage map constructed based on segregation among the 77 progeny. Sectioning and analysis of shoot tips revealed that the corkscrew phenotype is associated with vascular cell collapse, smaller cell size in regions near the cambium and less developed phloem fibers than in wild-type progeny. Identification of a gene associated with this trait could lead to greater understanding of the control of normal stem development in woody plants. PMID:17669747

Lin, Juan; Gunter, Lee E; Harding, Scott A; Kopp, Richard F; McCord, Rachel P; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Tuskan, Gerald A; Smart, Lawrence B

2007-11-01

118

Paternity testing using microsatellite DNA markers in captive Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae).  

PubMed

We investigated the paternity of 39 Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) hatched at the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium between 1995 and 2005 breeding seasons using microsatellite DNA markers. Among the 13 microsatellite marker loci tested in this study, eight markers amplified and were found to be polymorphic in the colony's founders of the captive population (n?=?26). Multiple marker analysis confirmed that all the hatchlings shared alleles with their social fathers and that none of them were sired by any male (all males ?4 years old in the exhibit tank during each reproductive season; n?=?9-15) other than the one carrying out parental duties, except in the case of two inbred hatchlings whose half-sibling parents shared the same father. These results demonstrated that extra-pair paternity (EPP) did not occur in this captive population and that even if EPP has been detected among them, the probability of excluding all other possible fathers in the exhibit tank is extremely high based on paternity exclusion probabilities across the investigated loci. The paternity exclusion probabilities were almost the same between 1994 and 2005. The probability of identity across the investigated loci declined between the two time points, but was still high. These results are reflected in a very short history of breeding in this captive population. In other words, the parentage analyses using a suite of microsatellite markers will be less effective as generations change in small closed populations, such as zoo and aquarium populations. Zoo Biol. 33:463-470, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc. PMID:25157452

Sakaoka, Ken; Suzuki, Isao; Kasugai, Naeko; Fukumoto, Yohei

2014-09-01

119

Improved Bacterial Mutagenesis by High-Frequency Allele Exchange, Demonstrated in Clostridium difficile and Streptococcus suis  

PubMed Central

Here we show that the frequency of mutant isolation by two-step allele exchange can be improved by increasing the length of homologous DNA and the opportunity for recombination, obviating the need for counterselection markers. These principles are demonstrated in Clostridium difficile and Streptococcus suis but are likely to be generally applicable. PMID:23728809

Wren, Brendan W.

2013-01-01

120

RHD allele distribution in Africans of Mali  

PubMed Central

Background Aberrant and non-functional RHD alleles are much more frequent in Africans than in Europeans. The DAU cluster of RHD alleles exemplifies that the alleles frequent in Africans have evaded recognition until recently. A comprehensive survey of RHD alleles in any African population was lacking. Results We surveyed the molecular structure and frequency of RHD alleles in Mali (West Africa) by evaluating 116 haplotypes. Only 69% could be attributed to standard RHD (55%) or the RHD deletion (14%). The aberrant RHD allele DAU-0 was predicted for 19%, RHD? for 7% and Ccdes for 4% of all haplotypes. DAU-3 and the new RHD allele RHD(L207F), dubbed DMA, were found in one haplotype each. A PCR-RFLP for the detection of the hybrid Rhesus box diagnostic for the RHD deletion in Europeans was false positive in 9 individuals, including all carriers of RHD? . Including two silent mutations and the RHD deletion, a total of 9 alleles could be differentiated. Conclusion Besides standard RHD and the RHD deletion, DAU-0, RHD? and Ccdes are major alleles in Mali. Our survey proved that the most frequent alleles of West Africans have been recognized allowing to devise reliable genotyping and phenotyping strategies. PMID:14505497

Wagner, Franz F; Moulds, Joann M; Tounkara, Anatole; Kouriba, Bourema; Flegel, Willy A

2003-01-01

121

Examining markers in 8q24 to explain differences in evidence for association with cleft lip with/without cleft palate between Asians and Europeans  

PubMed Central

In a recent genome wide association study (GWAS) from an international consortium, evidence of linkage and association in chr8q24 was much stronger among non-syndromic cleft lip/palate (CL/P) case-parent trios of European ancestry than among trios of Asian ancestry. We examined marker information content and haplotype diversity across 13 recruitment sites (from Europe, USA and Asia) separately, and conducted principal components analysis (PCA) on parents. As expected, PCA revealed large genetic distances between Europeans and Asians, and a north-south cline from Korea to Singapore in Asia, with Filipino parents forming a somewhat distinct Southeast Asian cluster. Hierarchical clustering of SNP heterozygosity revealed two major clades consistent with PCA results. All genotyped SNPs giving p<10?6 in the allelic TDT showed higher heterozygosity in Europeans than Asians. On average, European ancestry parents had higher haplotype diversity than Asians. Imputing additional variants across chr8q24 increased the strength of statistical evidence among Europeans and also revealed a significant signal among Asians (although it did not reach genome-wide significance). Tests for SNP-population interaction were negative, indicating the lack of strong signal for 8q24 in families of Asian ancestry was not due to any distinct genetic effect, but could simply reflect low power due to lower allele frequencies in Asians. PMID:22508319

Murray, Tanda; Taub, Margaret A.; Ruczinski, Ingo; Scott, Alan F.; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B.; Schwender, Holger; Patel, Poorav; Zhang, Tian Xiao; Munger, Ronald G.; Wilcox, Allen J.; Ye, Xiaoqian; Wang, Hong; Wu, Tao; Wu-Chou, Yah Huei; Shi, Bing; Jee, Sun Ha; Chong, Samuel; Yeow, Vincent; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Marazita, Mary L.; Beaty, Terri H.

2013-01-01

122

Development of genic-SSR markers by deep transcriptome sequencing in pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh  

PubMed Central

Background Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh], one of the most important food legumes of semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions, has limited genomic resources, particularly expressed sequence based (genic) markers. We report a comprehensive set of validated genic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using deep transcriptome sequencing, and its application in genetic diversity analysis and mapping. Results In this study, 43,324 transcriptome shotgun assembly unigene contigs were assembled from 1.696 million 454 GS-FLX sequence reads of separate pooled cDNA libraries prepared from leaf, root, stem and immature seed of two pigeonpea varieties, Asha and UPAS 120. A total of 3,771 genic-SSR loci, excluding homopolymeric and compound repeats, were identified; of which 2,877 PCR primer pairs were designed for marker development. Dinucleotide was the most common repeat motif with a frequency of 60.41%, followed by tri- (34.52%), hexa- (2.62%), tetra- (1.67%) and pentanucleotide (0.76%) repeat motifs. Primers were synthesized and tested for 772 of these loci with repeat lengths of ?18 bp. Of these, 550 markers were validated for consistent amplification in eight diverse pigeonpea varieties; 71 were found to be polymorphic on agarose gel electrophoresis. Genetic diversity analysis was done on 22 pigeonpea varieties and eight wild species using 20 highly polymorphic genic-SSR markers. The number of alleles at these loci ranged from 4-10 and the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.46 to 0.72. Neighbor-joining dendrogram showed distinct separation of the different groups of pigeonpea cultivars and wild species. Deep transcriptome sequencing of the two parental lines helped in silico identification of polymorphic genic-SSR loci to facilitate the rapid development of an intra-species reference genetic map, a subset of which was validated for expected allelic segregation in the reference mapping population. Conclusion We developed 550 validated genic-SSR markers in pigeonpea using deep transcriptome sequencing. From these, 20 highly polymorphic markers were used to evaluate the genetic relationship among species of the genus Cajanus. A comprehensive set of genic-SSR markers was developed as an important genomic resource for diversity analysis and genetic mapping in pigeonpea. PMID:21251263

2011-01-01

123

Allelic analysis of sheath blight resistance with association mapping in rice.  

PubMed

Sheath blight (ShB) caused by the soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most devastating diseases in rice world-wide. Global attention has focused on examining individual mapping populations for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for ShB resistance, but to date no study has taken advantage of association mapping to examine hundreds of lines for potentially novel QTLs. Our objective was to identify ShB QTLs via association mapping in rice using 217 sub-core entries from the USDA rice core collection, which were phenotyped with a micro-chamber screening method and genotyped with 155 genome-wide markers. Structure analysis divided the mapping panel into five groups, and model comparison revealed that PCA5 with genomic control was the best model for association mapping of ShB. Ten marker loci on seven chromosomes were significantly associated with response to the ShB pathogen. Among multiple alleles in each identified loci, the allele contributing the greatest effect to ShB resistance was named the putative resistant allele. Among 217 entries, entry GSOR 310389 contained the most putative resistant alleles, eight out of ten. The number of putative resistant alleles presented in an entry was highly and significantly correlated with the decrease of ShB rating (r?=?-0.535) or the increase of ShB resistance. Majority of the resistant entries that contained a large number of the putative resistant alleles belonged to indica, which is consistent with a general observation that most ShB resistant accessions are of indica origin. These findings demonstrate the potential to improve breeding efficiency by using marker-assisted selection to pyramid putative resistant alleles from various loci in a cultivar for enhanced ShB resistance in rice. PMID:22427867

Jia, Limeng; Yan, Wengui; Zhu, Chengsong; Agrama, Hesham A; Jackson, Aaron; Yeater, Kathleen; Li, Xiaobai; Huang, Bihu; Hu, Biaolin; McClung, Anna; Wu, Dianxing

2012-01-01

124

Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers from Zizania latifolia Turcz. (Poaceae).  

PubMed

Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and identified in Zizania latifolia Turcz. (Poaceae), a perennial aquatic plant widespread in Eastern Asia. The microsatellite-enriched library was constructed using the fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats method. These markers revealed two to 14 alleles, with an average of 5.6 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.071 to 0.690 and from 0.174 to 0.812, respectively. These markers will be useful for studying of gene flow and evaluating the genetic diversity of the Zizania latifolia population. PMID:21564779

Quan, Zhiwu; Pan, Lei; Ke, Weidong; Liu, Yiman; Ding, Yi

2009-05-01

125

Transgene- and locus-dependent imprinting reveals allele-specific chromosome conformations.  

PubMed

When positioned into the integrin ?-6 gene, an Hoxd9lacZ reporter transgene displayed parental imprinting in mouse embryos. While the expression from the paternal allele was comparable with patterns seen for the same transgene when present at the neighboring HoxD locus, almost no signal was scored at this integration site when the transgene was inherited from the mother, although the Itga6 locus itself is not imprinted. The transgene exhibited maternal allele-specific DNA hypermethylation acquired during oogenesis, and its expression silencing was reversible on passage through the male germ line. Histone modifications also corresponded to profiles described at known imprinted loci. Chromosome conformation analyses revealed distinct chromatin microarchitectures, with a more compact structure characterizing the maternally inherited repressed allele. Such genetic analyses of well-characterized transgene insertions associated with a de novo-induced parental imprint may help us understand the molecular determinants of imprinting. PMID:23818637

Lonfat, Nicolas; Montavon, Thomas; Jebb, David; Tschopp, Patrick; Nguyen Huynh, Thi Hanh; Zakany, Jozsef; Duboule, Denis

2013-07-16

126

The identification and characterisation of alleles of sucrose phosphate synthase gene family III in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the extent of allelic diversity of genes in the complex polyploid, sugarcane. Using sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) Gene (SPS) Family III as an example, we have amplified and sequenced a 400 nt region from this gene from two sugarcane lines that are parents of a mapping population. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified within the 400 nt

C. L. McIntyre; M. Jackson; G. M. Cordeiro; O. Amouyal; S. Hermann; K. S. Aitken; F. Eliott; R. J. Henry; R. E. Casu; G. D. Bonnett

2006-01-01

127

Inheritance and dominance of self-incompatibility alleles in polyploid Arabidopsis lyrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural populations of diploid Arabidopsis lyrata exhibit the sporophytic type of self-incompatibility system characteristic of Brassicaceae, in which complicated dominance interactions among alleles in the diploid parent determine self-recognition phenotypes of both pollen and stigma. The purpose of this study was to investigate how polyploidy affects this already complex system. One tetraploid population (Arabidopsis lyrata ssp kawasakiana from Japan) showed

B K Mable; J Beland; C Di Berardo

2004-01-01

128

SNP-specific array-based allele-specific expression analysis  

PubMed Central

We have developed an optimized array-based approach for customizable allele-specific gene expression (ASE) analysis. The central features of the approach are the ability to select SNPs at will for detection, and the absence of need to PCR amplify the target. A surprisingly long probe length (39–49 nt) was needed for allelic discrimination. Reconstitution experiments demonstrate linearity of ASE over a broad range. Using this approach, we have discovered at least two novel imprinted genes, NLRP2, which encodes a member of the inflammasome, and OSBPL1A, which encodes a presumed oxysterol-binding protein, were both preferentially expressed from the maternal allele. In contrast, ERAP2, which encodes an aminopeptidase, did not show preferential parent-of-origin expression, but rather, cis-acting nonimprinted differential allelic control. The approach is scalable to the whole genome and can be used for discovery of functional epigenetic modifications in patient samples. PMID:18369178

Bjornsson, Hans T.; Albert, Thomas J.; Ladd-Acosta, Christine M.; Green, Roland D.; Rongione, Michael A.; Middle, Christina M.; Irizarry, Rafael A.; Broman, Karl W.; Feinberg, Andrew P.

2008-01-01

129

Laurie Marker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Laurie Marker founded the Cheetah Conservation Fund in Namibia so that she, along with the help of other scientists, can research, breed, protect, live with, and lecture about the highly endangered cheetah.

Tv, Agonfly

130

PPC: an algorithm for accurate estimation of SNP allele frequencies in small equimolar pools of DNA using data from high density microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust estimation of allele frequencies in pools of DNA has the potential to reduce genotyping costs and\\/or increase the number of individuals contribut- ing to a study where hundreds of thousands of genetic markers need to be genotyped in very large popula- tions sample sets, such as genome wide association studies. In order to make accurate allele frequency estimations from

Jesper Brohede; Rob Dunne; James D. McKay; Garry N. Hannan

2005-01-01

131

A powerful likelihood method for the analysis of linkage disequilibrium between trait loci and one or more polymorphic marker loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, most methods for detecting linkage disequilibrium were designed for use with diallelic marker loci, for which the analysis is straightforward. With the advent of polymorphic markers with many alleles, the normal approach to their analysis has been either to extend the methodology for two-allele systems (leading to an increase in df and to a corresponding loss of power) or

Jd Terwilliger

1995-01-01

132

Genetic analysis and molecular characterization of Chinese sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars using Insertion-Deletion (InDel) and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers  

PubMed Central

Background Sesame is an important and ancient oil crop in tropical and subtropical areas. China is one of the most important sesame producing countries with many germplasm accessions and excellent cultivars. Domestication and modern plant breeding have presumably narrowed the genetic basis of cultivated sesame. Several modern sesame cultivars were bred with a limited number of landrace cultivars in their pedigree. The genetic variation was subsequently reduced by genetic drift and selection. Characterization of genetic diversity of these cultivars by molecular markers is of great value to assist parental line selection and breeding strategy design. Results Three hundred and forty nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 79 insertion-deletion (InDel) markers were developed from cDNA library and reduced-representation sequencing of a sesame cultivar Zhongzhi 14, respectively. Combined with previously published SSR markers, 88 polymorphic markers were used to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships, population structure, and allele distribution among 130 Chinese sesame accessions including 82 cultivars, 44 landraces and 4 wild germplasm accessions. A total of 325 alleles were detected, with the average gene diversity of 0.432. Model-based structure analysis revealed the presence of five subgroups belonging to two main groups, which were consistent with the results from principal coordinate analysis (PCA), phylogenetic clustering and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Several missing or unique alleles were identified from particular types, subgroups or families, even though they share one or both parental/progenitor lines. Conclusions This report presented a by far most comprehensive characterization of the molecular and genetic diversity of sesame cultivars in China. InDels are more polymorphic than SSRs, but their ability for deciphering genetic diversity compared to the later. Improved sesame cultivars have narrower genetic basis than landraces, reflecting the effect of genetic drift or selection during breeding processes. Comparative analysis of allele distribution revealed genetic divergence between improved cultivars and landraces, as well as between cultivars released in different years. These results will be useful for assessing cultivars and for marker-assisted breeding in sesame. PMID:24641723

2014-01-01

133

Expression and loss of alleles in cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts and stem cells carrying allelic fluorescent protein genes  

PubMed Central

Background Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) contributes to many cancers, but the rate at which these events occur in normal cells of the body is not clear. LOH would be detectable in diverse cell types in the body if this event were to confer an obvious cellular phenotype. Mice that carry two different fluorescent protein genes as alleles of a locus would seem to be a useful tool for addressing this issue because LOH would change a cell's phenotype from dichromatic to monochromatic. In addition, LOH caused by mitotic crossing over might be discernable in tissues because this event produces a pair of neighboring monochromatic cells that are different colors. Results As a step in assessing the utility of this approach, we derived primary embryonic fibroblast populations and embryonic stem cell lines from mice that carried two different fluorescent protein genes as alleles at the chromosome 6 locus, ROSA26. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) showed that the vast majority of cells in each line expressed the two marker proteins at similar levels, and that populations exhibited expression noise similar to that seen in bacteria and yeast. Cells with a monochromatic phenotype were present at frequencies on the order of 10-4 and appeared to be produced at a rate of approximately 10-5 variant cells per mitosis. 45 of 45 stably monochromatic ES cell clones exhibited loss of the expected allele at the ROSA26 locus. More than half of these clones retained heterozygosity at a locus between ROSA26 and the centromere. Other clones exhibited LOH near the centromere, but were disomic for chromosome 6. Conclusion Allelic fluorescent markers allowed LOH at the ROSA26 locus to be detected by FACS. LOH at this locus was usually not accompanied by LOH near the centromere, suggesting that mitotic recombination was the major cause of ROSA26 LOH. Dichromatic mouse embryonic cells provide a novel system for studying genetic/karyotypic stability and factors influencing expression from allelic genes. Similar approaches will allow these phenomena to be studied in tissues. PMID:17042952

Larson, Jon S; Yin, Moying; Fischer, Jared M; Stringer, Saundra L; Stringer, James R

2006-01-01

134

Inferring selection intensity and allele age from multilocus haplotype structure.  

PubMed

It is a challenging task to infer selection intensity and allele age from population genetic data. Here we present a method that can efficiently estimate selection intensity and allele age from the multilocus haplotype structure in the vicinity of a segregating mutant under positive selection. We use a structured-coalescent approach to model the effect of directional selection on the gene genealogies of neutral markers linked to the selected mutant. The frequency trajectory of the selected allele follows the Wright-Fisher model. Given the position of the selected mutant, we propose a simplified multilocus haplotype model that can efficiently model the dynamics of the ancestral haplotypes under the joint influence of selection and recombination. This model approximates the ancestral genealogies of the sample, which reduces the number of states from an exponential function of the number of single-nucleotide polymorphism loci to a quadratic function. That allows parameter inference from data covering DNA regions as large as several hundred kilo-bases. Importance sampling algorithms are adopted to evaluate the probability of a sample by exploring the space of both allele frequency trajectories of the selected mutation and gene genealogies of the linked sites. We demonstrate by simulation that the method can accurately estimate selection intensity for moderate and strong positive selection. We apply the method to a data set of the G6PD gene in an African population and obtain an estimate of 0.0456 (95% confidence interval 0.0144-0.0769) for the selection intensity. The proposed method is novel in jointly modeling the multilocus haplotype pattern caused by recombination and mutation, allowing the analysis of haplotype data in recombining regions. Moreover, the method is applicable to data from populations under exponential growth and a variety of other demographic histories. PMID:23797107

Chen, Hua; Slatkin, Montgomery

2013-08-01

135

Allelic exchange in Mycobacterium tuberculosis with long linear recombination substrates.  

PubMed Central

Genetic studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been greatly hampered by the inability to introduce specific chromosomal mutations. Whereas the ability to perform allelic exchanges has provided a useful method of gene disruption in other organisms, in the clinically important species of mycobacteria, such as M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis, similar approaches have thus far been unsuccessful. In this communication, we report the development of a shuttle mutagenesis strategy that involves the use of long linear recombination substrates to reproducibly obtain recombinants by allelic exchange in M. tuberculosis. Long linear recombination substrates, approximately 40 to 50 kb in length, were generated by constructing libraries in the excisable cosmid vector pYUB328. The cosmid vector could be readily excised from the recombinant cosmids by digestion with PacI, a restriction endonuclease for which there exist few, if any, sites in mycobacterial genomes. A cosmid containing the mycobacterial leuD gene was isolated, and a selectable marker conferring resistance to kanamycin was inserted into the leuD gene in the recombinant cosmid by interplasmid recombination in Escherichia coli. A long linear recombination substrate containing the insertionally mutated leuD gene was generated by PacI digestion. Electroporation of this recombination substrate containing the insertionally mutated leuD allele resulted in the generation of leucine auxotrophic mutants by homologous recombination in 6% of the kanamycin-resistant transformants for both the Erdman and H37Rv strains of M. tuberculosis. The ability to perform allelic exchanges provides an important approach for investigating the biology of this pathogen as well as developing new live-cell M. tuberculosis-based vaccines. PMID:8550428

Balasubramanian, V; Pavelka, M S; Bardarov, S S; Martin, J; Weisbrod, T R; McAdam, R A; Bloom, B R; Jacobs, W R

1996-01-01

136

A novel measurement of allele discrimination for assessment of allele-specific silencing by RNA interference.  

PubMed

Allele-specific silencing by RNA interference (ASP-RNAi) is an atypical RNAi that is capable of discriminating target alleles from non-target alleles, and may be therapeutically useful for specific inhibition of disease-causing alleles without affecting their corresponding normal alleles. However, it is difficult to design and select small interfering RNA (siRNAs) that confer ASP-RNAi. A major problem is that there are few appropriate measures in determining optimal allele-specific siRNAs. Here we show two novel formulas for calculating a new measure of allele-discrimination, named "ASP-score". The formulas and ASP-score allow for an unbiased determination of optimal siRNAs, and may contribute to characterizing such allele-specific siRNAs. PMID:25037272

Takahashi, Masaki; Hohjoh, Hirohiko

2014-11-01

137

The use of microsatellite markers for the detection of genetic similarity among winter bread wheat lines for chromosome 3A.  

PubMed

Previous studies with chromosome substitution and recombinant inbred chromosome lines identified that chromosome 3A of wheat cv. Wichita contains alleles that influence grain yield, yield components and agronomic performance traits relative to alleles on chromosome 3A of Cheyenne, a cultivar believed to be the founder parent of many Nebraska developed cultivars. This study was carried out to examine the genetic similarity among wheat cultivars based on the variation in chromosome 3A. Forty-eight cultivars, two promising lines and four substitution lines (in duplicate) were included in the study. Thirty-six chromosome 3A-specific and 12 group-3 barley simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs were used. A total of 106 polymorphic bands were scored. Transferability of barley microsatellite markers to wheat was 73%. The coefficient of genetic distance (D) among the genotypes ranged from 0.40 to 0.91 and averaged D=0.66. Cluster analysis by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages showed one large and one small cluster with eight minor clusters in the large cluster. Several known pedigree relationships largely corresponded with the results of SSR clusters and principal coordinate analysis. Cluster analysis was also carried out by using 22 alleles that separate Wichita 3A from Cheyenne 3A, and three clusters were identified (a small cluster related to Cheyenne of mainly western Nebraska wheat cultivars; a larger, intermediate cluster with many modern Nebraska wheat cultivars; a large cluster related to Wichita with many modern high-yielding or Kansas wheat cultivars). Using three SSR markers that identify known agronomically important quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions, we again separated the cultivars into three main clusters that were related to Cheyenne or Wichita, or had a different 3A lineage. These results suggest that SSR markers linked to agronomically important QTLs are a valuable asset for estimating both genetic similarity for chromosome 3A and how the chromosome has been used in cultivar improvement. PMID:15290051

Mahmood, A; Baenziger, P S; Budak, H; Gill, K S; Dweikat, I

2004-11-01

138

Gay parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper formulates some propositions about gay parents (mostly lesbians) as taken from research studies and personal accounts. To many people, the idea of a person being both homosexual and a parent is inherently inconsistent. The exact numbers are unknown, but a large percentage of homosexuals do have children. More lesbian parents than gay male parents have legal custody. The

Anne Hopkins Fishel

1983-01-01

139

Cost-effective genome-wide estimation of allele frequencies from pooled DNA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)  

PubMed Central

Background New sequencing technologies have tremendously increased the number of known molecular markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) in a variety of species. Concurrently, improvements to genotyping technology have now made it possible to efficiently genotype large numbers of genome-wide distributed SNPs enabling genome wide association studies (GWAS). However, genotyping significant numbers of individuals with large number of SNPs remains prohibitively expensive for many research groups. A possible solution to this problem is to determine allele frequencies from pooled DNA samples, such ‘allelotyping’ has been presented as a cost-effective alternative to individual genotyping and has become popular in human GWAS. In this article we have tested the effectiveness of DNA pooling to obtain accurate allele frequency estimates for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations using an Illumina SNP-chip. Results In total, 56 Atlantic salmon DNA pools from 14 populations were analyzed on an Atlantic salmon SNP-chip containing probes for 5568 SNP markers, 3928 of which were bi-allelic. We developed an efficient quality control filter which enables exclusion of loci showing high error rate and minor allele frequency (MAF) close to zero. After applying multiple quality control filters we obtained allele frequency estimates for 3631 bi-allelic loci. We observed high concordance (r > 0.99) between allele frequency estimates derived from individual genotyping and DNA pools. Our results also indicate that even relatively small DNA pools (35 individuals) can provide accurate allele frequency estimates for a given sample. Conclusions Despite of higher level of variation associated with array replicates compared to pool construction, we suggest that both sources of variation should be taken into account. This study demonstrates that DNA pooling allows fast and high-throughput determination of allele frequencies in Atlantic salmon enabling cost-efficient identification of informative markers for discrimination of populations at various geographical scales, as well as identification of loci controlling ecologically and economically important traits. PMID:23324082

2013-01-01

140

Estimating the probability of allelic drop-out of STR alleles in forensic genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In crime cases with available DNA evidence, the amount of DNA is often sparse due to the setting of the crime. In such cases, allelic drop-out of one or more true alleles in STR typing is possible. We present a statistical model for estimating the per locus and overall probability of allelic drop-out using the results of all STR loci

Torben Tvedebrink; Poul Svante Eriksen; Helle Smidt Mogensen; Niels Morling

2009-01-01

141

Alleles for Longevity Kenneth W. Wachter  

E-print Network

Alleles for Longevity Kenneth W. Wachter Departments of Demography and Statistics University of California at Berkeley Demography Brown-Bag Luncheon Talk 1 September 2010 Kenneth W. Wachter Alleles Signalling Pathways Human Forkhead Box 03A Gene: FOX03A Bradley J. Willcox et al. (2008) FOXO3A genotype

Wachter, Kenneth W.

142

Historical events and allelic polymorphism at the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus in Solanaceae.  

PubMed

The historical migration rate of a species is often difficult to estimate with neutral markers, because the relationship between the turnover time of the markers and the age of the species commonly remains unknown. Compared with neutral markers, the plant self-incompatibility locus (S) provides a much better source of data for migration-rate estimation due to its high allelic polymorphism and antiquity. Here, the results from extensive surveys of S alleles in two wild solanaceous species, Solanum carolinense and Physalis longifolia, indicate that historical migration rates have differed significantly between the species; the higher migration rate found in S. carolinense appears to have interacted with the balancing selection at the S locus to result in fewer S alleles being maintained in the species. Historical population growth rates estimated via a modified coalescent approach also suggest a faster growing population for S. carolinense than for P. longifolia, which would have further widened their interspecific difference in S-allelle polymorphism. These historical factors may have reduced the probability of new S alleles to prevailing in S. carolinense, leaving old ones segregating at the S locus with little signature of positive selection being currently detectable. PMID:16189546

Lu, Y

2006-01-01

143

Allelic variation in a willow warbler genomic region is associated with climate clines.  

PubMed

Local adaptation is an important process contributing to population differentiation which can occur in continuous or isolated populations connected by various amounts of gene flow. The willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) is one of the most common songbirds in Fennoscandia. It has a continuous breeding distribution where it is found in all forested habitats from sea level to the tree line and therefore constitutes an ideal species for the study of locally adapted genes associated with environmental gradients. Previous studies in this species identified a genetic marker (AFLP-WW1) that showed a steep north-south cline in central Sweden with one allele associated with coastal lowland habitats and the other with mountainous habitats. It was further demonstrated that this marker is embedded in a highly differentiated chromosome region that spans several megabases. In the present study, we sampled 2,355 individuals at 128 sites across all of Fennoscandia to study the geographic and climatic variables associated with the allele frequency distributions of WW1. Our results demonstrate that 1) allele frequency patterns significantly differ between mountain and lowland populations, 2) these allele differences coincide with extreme temperature conditions and the short growing season in the mountains, and milder conditions in coastal areas, and 3) the northern-allele or "altitude variant" of WW1 occurs in willow warblers that occupy mountainous habitat regardless of subspecies. Finally these results suggest that climate may exert selection on the genomic region associated with these alleles and would allow us to develop testable predictions for the distribution of the genetic marker based on climate change scenarios. PMID:24788148

Larson, Keith W; Liedvogel, Miriam; Addison, Brianne; Kleven, Oddmund; Laskemoen, Terje; Lifjeld, Jan T; Lundberg, Max; Akesson, Susanne; Bensch, Staffan

2014-01-01

144

Allelic Variation in a Willow Warbler Genomic Region Is Associated with Climate Clines  

PubMed Central

Local adaptation is an important process contributing to population differentiation which can occur in continuous or isolated populations connected by various amounts of gene flow. The willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) is one of the most common songbirds in Fennoscandia. It has a continuous breeding distribution where it is found in all forested habitats from sea level to the tree line and therefore constitutes an ideal species for the study of locally adapted genes associated with environmental gradients. Previous studies in this species identified a genetic marker (AFLP-WW1) that showed a steep north-south cline in central Sweden with one allele associated with coastal lowland habitats and the other with mountainous habitats. It was further demonstrated that this marker is embedded in a highly differentiated chromosome region that spans several megabases. In the present study, we sampled 2,355 individuals at 128 sites across all of Fennoscandia to study the geographic and climatic variables associated with the allele frequency distributions of WW1. Our results demonstrate that 1) allele frequency patterns significantly differ between mountain and lowland populations, 2) these allele differences coincide with extreme temperature conditions and the short growing season in the mountains, and milder conditions in coastal areas, and 3) the northern-allele or “altitude variant” of WW1 occurs in willow warblers that occupy mountainous habitat regardless of subspecies. Finally these results suggest that climate may exert selection on the genomic region associated with these alleles and would allow us to develop testable predictions for the distribution of the genetic marker based on climate change scenarios. PMID:24788148

Larson, Keith W.; Liedvogel, Miriam; Addison, BriAnne; Kleven, Oddmund; Laskemoen, Terje; Lifjeld, Jan T.; Lundberg, Max; Akesson, Susanne; Bensch, Staffan

2014-01-01

145

Development of molecular markers linked to the 'Fiesta' linkage group 7 major QTL for fire blight resistance and their application for marker-assisted selection.  

PubMed

A fire blight resistance QTL explaining 34.3%-46.6% of the phenotypic variation was recently identified on linkage group 7 of apple cultivar 'Fiesta' (F7). However, markers flanking this QTL were AFLP and RAPD markers unsuitable for marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two RAPD markers bracketing the QTL have been transformed into SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) markers, and an SSR marker specific for the region was developed. Pedigree analysis of 'Fiesta' with these markers enabled tracking of the F7 QTL allele back to 'Cox's Orange Pippin'. Stability of the effect of this QTL allele in different backgrounds was analyzed by inoculating progeny plants of a cross between 'Milwa', a susceptible cultivar, and '1217', a moderately resistant cultivar, and a set of cultivars that carry or lack the allele conferring increased fire blight resistance. Progenies and cultivars that carried both markers were significantly more resistant than those that did not carry both markers, indicating high stability of the F7 QTL allele in different backgrounds. This stability and the availability of reproducible markers bracketing the QTL make this locus promising for use in MAS. PMID:17632578

Khan, Muhammad A; Durel, Charles-Eric; Duffy, Brion; Drouet, Damien; Kellerhals, Markus; Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

2007-06-01

146

Identification of repeat sequence heterogeneity at the polymorphic short tandem repeat locus HUMTH01[AATG][sub n] and reassignment of alleles in population analysis by using a locus-specific allelic ladder  

SciTech Connect

An allelic ladder containing amplified sequences of seven alleles of the polymorphic human tyrosine hydroxylase locus, HUMTH01, was constructed and employed as a standard marker. Sequence analysis of each ladder component indicates that fragments differ by integral multiples of the AATG core repeat sequence characteristic of this locus. Individual alles are designated [open quotes]5[close quotes] through [open quotes]11,[close quotes] according to the number of complete reiterations of the core repeat contained within them. Comparison of the HUMTH01 allelic ladder with DNA samples amplified at this locus revealed core repeat length heterogeneity (i.e., deletions or insertions shorter than one core repeat) within the human population. In particular, a common allele was identified which migrates more quickly than allele 10, but more slowly than allele 9, on electrophoresis through a denaturing polyacrylamide gel. Sequence analysis of this allele, designated [open quotes]10-1,[close quotes] reveals lack of a single adenine normally present in the seventh copy of the AATG. The allelic ladder was used to reevaluate previously published population data. Results of testing for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and population substructure were not altered significantly by these modifications. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Puers, C. (Institute for Forensic Medicine, Muenster (Germany)); Schumm, J.W. (Promega Corp., Madison, WI (United States)); Hammond, H.A.; Caskey, C.T.; Jin, L.

1993-10-01

147

Characterization of the treefrog null allele, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Spring peeper (Hyla crucifer) tadpoles collected from the waste storage area during the Biological and Ecological Site Characterization of the Feed Materials Production Center (FEMP) in 1986 and 1987 appeared to be unique. A null (inactive) allele was found at the glucose phosphate isomerase enzyme locus in significant frequencies (approximately 20%) each year; this allele did not appear to occur in the offsite sample collected approximately 15km from the FEMP. Null alleles at this locus have not been reported in other amphibian populations; when they have been found in other organisms they have invariably been lethal in the homozygous condition.

Guttman, S.I. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Dept. of Zoology)

1992-04-01

148

Characterization of the treefrog null allele  

SciTech Connect

As part of the authors intensive year-long baseline ecological study, they characterized the degree of genetic polymorphism and heterozygosity in selected Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) populations using electrophoretic techniques. These data are being used as an indicator of stress by comparing populations on and off the FMPC site. The current study was initiated to determine whether this GPI null allele is lethal, when homozygous, in spring peepers. Also, a sampling protocol was implemented to determine whether a linear effect occurs relative to the frequency of the null allele offsite and to determine the origination site of the null allele. 18 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Guttman, S.I. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (USA). Dept. of Zoology)

1990-12-01

149

[Inheritance analysis and molecular marker selection of genes for wheat spindle streak mosaic disease resistance].  

PubMed

Three wheat spindle streak mosaic viruses (WSSMV) resistant cultivars ('Yining Xiaomai', 'Xu87-633', and 'Xifeng') and one susceptible cultivar ('Zhen9523') were used as parents of 3 crosses in this experiment. WSSMV resistance of the parents, F1, and F2 was evaluated under field condition. Based on the segregation ratios of resistant and susceptible plants in F, and F2 populations, it was deduced that the resistance to WSSMV was dominant and the inheritable factors controlling WSSMV resistance were encoded by the nuclear genome. WSSMV resistances in 'Yining Xiaomai' and 'Xifeng' were controlled by two pairs of alleles, which showed complementary effects. However the resistance in 'Xu-87633' was controlled by a single dominant gene. 266 pairs of SSR primers located on 21 wheat chromosomes were used for polymorphic analysis of the two resistant and the susceptible parents 'Yining Xiaomai' and 'Zhen9523', and 108 of them amplified polymorphic DNA products. By Bulk Segregant Analysis of resistant and susceptible pools, one pair of primer located on chromosome arm 2DS, Xgwm261, were found being linked to WSSMV resistance. The 224 F2 individuals were then amplified with marker Xgwm261. The statistic genetic distance between Xgwm261 and the resistance locus was calculated to be 22.9 cM using the software Mapmaker 3.0. PMID:16078742

Zhang, Qing-Ping; Wang, Xiu-E; Wang, Yao-Nan; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hai-Yan; Wang, Su-Ling; Chen, Pei-Du

2005-07-01

150

Parent Involvement  

E-print Network

To be successful, a 4-H program must have parent involvement. Although 4-H leaders and Extension agents may interest young people in becoming members, they need the parents' goodwill and support to keep them interested, enthusiastic and active. Here...

Howard, Jeff W.

2005-05-10

151

A new ENU-induced allele of mouse quaking causes severe CNS dysmyelination.  

PubMed

The mutant allelic series of the mouse quaking gene consists of the spontaneous quaking(viable) (qk(v)) allele, which is homozygous viable with a dysmyelination phenotype, and four ENU-induced alleles (qk(kt 1), qk(k2), qk(kt3/4), and qk(l-1)), which are homozygous embryonic lethal. Here we report the isolation of qk(e5), the first ENU-induced viable allele of quaking. Unlike qk(v)/qk(v), qk(e5)/qk(e5) animals have early-onset seizures, severe ataxia, and a dramatically reduced lifespan. Ultrastructural analysis of qk(e5)/qk(e5) brains reveals severe dysmyelination when compared with both wild-type and qk(v)/qk(v) brains. In addition, Calbindin detection in young adult qk(e5)/qk(e5) mice reveals Purkinje cell axonal swellings indicative of neurodegeneration , which is not seen in young adult qk(v)/qk(v) mice. Although the molecular defect in the qk(e5) allele is not evident by sequencing, protein expression studies show that qk(e5)/qk(e5) postnatal oligodendrocytes lack the QKI-6 and QKI-7 isoforms and have reduced QKI-5 levels. The oligodendrocyte developmental markers PDGF alpha R, NG 2, O4, CNP, and MBP are also present in the qk(e5)/qk(e5) postnatal brain although CNP and MBP levels are considerably reduced. Because the qk(v) allele is a large deletion that affects the expression of three genes, the new neurologic qk(e5) allele is an important addition to this allelic series. PMID:16245024

Noveroske, Janice K; Hardy, Rebecca; Dapper, Jason D; Vogel, Hannes; Justice, Monica J

2005-09-01

152

Power for Genetic Association Studies with Random Allele Frequencies and Genotype Distributions  

PubMed Central

One of the first and most important steps in planning a genetic association study is the accurate estimation of the statistical power under a proposed study design and sample size. In association studies for candidate genes or in fine-mapping applications, allele and genotype frequencies are often assumed to be known when, in fact, they are unknown (i.e., random variables from some distribution). For example, if we consider a diallelic marker with allele frequencies of 0.5 and 0.5 and Hardy-Weinberg proportions, the three genotype frequencies are often assumed to be 0.25, 0.50, and 0.25, and the statistical power is calculated. Unfortunately, ignoring this source of variation can inflate the estimated power of the study. In the present article, we propose averaging the estimates of power over the distribution of the genotype frequencies to calculate the true estimate of power for a fixed allele frequency. For the usual situation, in which allele frequencies in a population are not known, we propose placing a prior distribution on the allele frequency, taking advantage of any available genotype information. This Bayesian approach provides a more accurate estimate of power. We present examples for quantitative and qualitative traits in cohort studies of unrelated individuals and results from an extensive series of examples that show that ignoring the uncertainty in allele frequencies can inflate the estimated power of the study. We also present the results from case-control studies and show that standard methods may also overestimate power. As discussed in this article, the approach of fixing allele frequencies even if they are not known is the common approach to power calculations. We show that ignoring the sources of variation in allele frequencies tends to result in overestimates of power and, consequently, in studies that are underpowered. Software in C is available at http://www.ambrosius.net/Power/. PMID:15024689

Ambrosius, Walter T.; Lange, Ethan M.; Langefeld, Carl D.

2004-01-01

153

Evidence of cryptic introgression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) based on wild tomato species alleles  

PubMed Central

Background Many highly beneficial traits (e.g. disease or abiotic stress resistance) have been transferred into crops through crosses with their wild relatives. The 13 recognized species of tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) are closely related to each other and wild species genes have been extensively used for improvement of the crop, Solanum lycopersicum L. In addition, the lack of geographical barriers has permitted natural hybridization between S. lycopersicum and its closest wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium in Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile. In order to better understand patterns of S. lycopersicum diversity, we sequenced 47 markers ranging in length from 130 to 1200?bp (total of 24?kb) in genotypes of S. lycopersicum and wild tomato species S. pimpinellifolium, Solanum arcanum, Solanum peruvianum, Solanum pennellii and Solanum habrochaites. Between six and twelve genotypes were comparatively analyzed per marker. Several of the markers had previously been hypothesized as carrying wild species alleles within S. lycopersicum, i.e., cryptic introgressions. Results Each marker was mapped with high confidence (e<1 x 10-30) to a single genomic location using BLASTN against tomato whole genome shotgun chromosomes (SL2.40) database. Neighbor-joining trees showed high mean bootstrap support (86.8 ± 2.34%) for distinguishing red-fruited from green-fruited taxa for 38 of the markers. Hybridization and parsimony splits networks, genomic map positions of markers relative to documented introgressions, and historical origins of accessions were used to interpret evolutionary patterns at nine markers with putatively introgressed alleles. Conclusion Of the 47 genetic markers surveyed in this study, four were involved in linkage drag on chromosome 9 during introgression breeding, while alleles at five markers apparently originated from natural hybridization with S. pimpinellifolium and were associated with primitive genotypes of S. lycopersicum. The positive identification of introgressed genes within crop species such as S. lycopersicum will help inform conservation and utilization of crop germplasm diversity, for example, facilitating the purging of undesirable linkage drag or the exploitation of novel, favorable alleles. PMID:22871151

2012-01-01

154

Development of simple sequence repeat markers for the soybean rust fungus, Phakopsora pachyrhizi.  

PubMed

Twenty-four simple sequence repeat markers were developed for Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a fungal pathogen of soybean (Glycine max) and other legumes. All 24 of the loci were evaluated on 28 isolates of P. pachyrhizi. Twenty-one loci were polymorphic, with allelic diversity ranging from two to eight alleles, and null alleles were observed for eight of the 24 loci. A preliminary screen with the closely related species, P. meibomiae, indicated that these primer pairs are specific to P. pachyrhizi. PMID:21586030

Anderson, Sharon J; Stone, Christine L; Posada-Buitrago, Martha Lucia; Boore, Jeffrey L; Neelam, Beena A; Stephens, Robert M; Luster, Douglas G; Frederick, Reid D; Pedley, Kerry F

2008-11-01

155

Rapid fixation of non-native alleles revealed by genome-wide SNP analysis of hybrid tiger salamanders  

PubMed Central

Background Hybrid zones represent valuable opportunities to observe evolution in systems that are unusually dynamic and where the potential for the origin of novelty and rapid adaptation co-occur with the potential for dysfunction. Recently initiated hybrid zones are particularly exciting evolutionary experiments because ongoing natural selection on novel genetic combinations can be studied in ecological time. Moreover, when hybrid zones involve native and introduced species, complex genetic patterns present important challenges for conservation policy. To assess variation of admixture dynamics, we scored a large panel of markers in five wild hybrid populations formed when Barred Tiger Salamanders were introduced into the range of California Tiger Salamanders. Results At three of 64 markers, introduced alleles have largely displaced native alleles within the hybrid populations. Another marker (GNAT1) showed consistent heterozygote deficits in the wild, and this marker was associated with embryonic mortality in laboratory F2's. Other deviations from equilibrium expectations were idiosyncratic among breeding ponds, consistent with highly stochastic demographic effects. Conclusion While most markers retain native and introduced alleles in expected proportions, strong selection appears to be eliminating native alleles at a smaller set of loci. Such rapid fixation of alleles is detectable only in recently formed hybrid zones, though it might be representative of dynamics that frequently occur in nature. These results underscore the variable and mosaic nature of hybrid genomes and illustrate the potency of recombination and selection in promoting variable, and often unpredictable genetic outcomes. Introgression of a few, strongly selected introduced alleles should not necessarily affect the conservation status of California Tiger Salamanders, but suggests that genetically pure populations of this endangered species will be difficult to maintain. PMID:19630983

Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M; Johnson, Jarrett R; Kump, D Kevin; Shaffer, H Bradley; Smith, Jeramiah J; Voss, S Randal

2009-01-01

156

Analysis of forensically used autosomal short tandem repeat markers in Polish and neighboring populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the homogeneity of Polish populations with respect to STRs chosen as core markers of the Polish Forensic National DNA Intelligence Database, and to provide reference allele frequencies and to explore the genetic interrelationship between Poland and neighboring countries. The allele frequency distribution of 10 STRs included in the SGMplus kit was analyzed

Ireneusz Soltyszewski; Andrzej Plocienniczak; Hans Åke Fabricius; Igor Kornienko; Dmitrij Vodolazhsky; Walther Parson; Roman Hradil; Hermann Schmitter; Pavel Ivanov; Piotr Kuzniar; Boris A. Malyarchuk; Tomasz Grzybowski; Marcin Wo?niak; J?rgen Henke; Lotte Henke; Sergiv Olkhovets; Vladimir Voitenko; Vita Lagus; Andrej Ficek; Gabriel Minárik; Peter de Knijff; Krzysztof R?ba?a; Joanna Wysocka; Ewa Kapi?ska; Lidia Cybulska; Alexei I. Mikulich; Iosif S. Tsybovsky; Zofia Szczerkowska; Pawe? Krajewski; Rafa? Ploski

2008-01-01

157

Assessment of genetic diversity in broomcorn millet ( Panicum miliaceum L.) using SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity of 118 accessions of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), collected from various ecological areas, wasanalyzed. Using 46 SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) polymorphic markers from rice, wheat, oat and barley, a total of 226 alleles werefound, which exhibited moderate level of diversity. The number of alleles per primer ranged from two to nine, with an average of 4.91.

Xingyu Hu; Jianfei Wang; Ping Lu; Hongsheng Zhang

2009-01-01

158

Allelic association at the D14S43 locus in early onset Alzheimer`s disease  

SciTech Connect

The D14S43 marker is closely linked to the major gene for early onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer`s disease on chromosome 14. Allelic frequencies at the D14S43 locus were compared in 113 familial and isolated cases of early onset Alzheimer`s disease (<60 years of age at onset) (EOAD) and 109 unaffected individuals of the same geographic origin. Allele 7 was significantly (P = 0.033) more frequent in type 1 EOAD patients (13.2%), defined by the presence of at least another first degree relative with EOAD, than in controls (4.1%). Since an autosomal dominant gene is probably responsible for type 1 patients, allelic association may reflect linkage disequilibrium at the D14S43 locus. This would mean that some patients share a common ancestral mutation. However, since multiple tests were carried out, this result must be interpreted with caution, and needs confirmation in an independent sample. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

Brice, A.; Tardieu, S.; Campion, D.; Martinez, M. [and others

1995-04-24

159

Global RNA sequencing reveals that genotype-dependent allele-specific expression contributes to differential expression in rice F1 hybrids  

PubMed Central

Background Extensive studies on heterosis in plants using transcriptome analysis have identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in F1 hybrids. However, it is not clear why yield in heterozygotes is superior to that of the homozygous parents or how DEGs are produced. Global allele-specific expression analysis in hybrid rice has the potential to answer these questions. Results We report a genome-wide allele-specific expression analysis using RNA-sequencing technology of 3,637–3,824 genes from three rice F1 hybrids. Of the expressed genes, 3.7% exhibited an unexpected type of monoallelic expression and 23.8% showed preferential allelic expression that was genotype-dependent in reciprocal crosses. Those genes exhibiting allele-specific expression comprised 42.4% of the genes differentially expressed between F1 hybrids and their parents. Allele-specific expression accounted for 79.8% of the genes displaying more than a 10-fold expression level difference between an F1 and its parents, and almost all (97.3%) of the genes expressed in F1, but non-expressed in one parent. Significant allelic complementary effects were detected in the F1 hybrids of rice. Conclusions Analysis of the allelic expression profiles of genes at the critical stage for highest biomass production from the leaves of three different rice F1 hybrids identified genotype-dependent allele-specific expression genes. A cis-regulatory mechanism was identified that contributes to allele-specific expression, leading to differential gene expression and allelic complementary effects in F1 hybrids. PMID:24358981

2013-01-01

160

Most parsimonious haplotype allele sharing determination  

PubMed Central

Background The "common disease – common variant" hypothesis and genome-wide association studies have achieved numerous successes in the last three years, particularly in genetic mapping in human diseases. Nevertheless, the power of the association study methods are still low, in particular on quantitative traits, and the description of the full allelic spectrum is deemed still far from reach. Given increasing density of single nucleotide polymorphisms available and suggested by the block-like structure of the human genome, a popular and prosperous strategy is to use haplotypes to try to capture the correlation structure of SNPs in regions of little recombination. The key to the success of this strategy is thus the ability to unambiguously determine the haplotype allele sharing status among the members. The association studies based on haplotype sharing status would have significantly reduced degrees of freedom and be able to capture the combined effects of tightly linked causal variants. Results For pedigree genotype datasets of medium density of SNPs, we present two methods for haplotype allele sharing status determination among the pedigree members. Extensive simulation study showed that both methods performed nearly perfectly on breakpoint discovery, mutation haplotype allele discovery, and shared chromosomal region discovery. Conclusion For pedigree genotype datasets, the haplotype allele sharing status among the members can be deterministically, efficiently, and accurately determined, even for very small pedigrees. Given their excellent performance, the presented haplotype allele sharing status determination programs can be useful in many downstream applications including haplotype based association studies. PMID:19379528

Cai, Zhipeng; Sabaa, Hadi; Wang, Yining; Goebel, Randy; Wang, Zhiquan; Xu, Jiaofen; Stothard, Paul; Lin, Guohui

2009-01-01

161

Microsatellite markers for Lycium ruthenicum (Solananeae).  

PubMed

We developed microsatellite markers in Lycium ruthenicum, a desert plant widely distributed in northwestern China. In order to investigate its population genetic structure, genetic diversity, and its evolutionary history, we have isolated 11 novel microsatellite loci primers and characterized them in 24 individuals from 3 populations of L. ruthenicum using the combined biotin capture technique. For these microsatellites, one to seven alleles per locus were identified. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.958, meanwhile the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.841. These microsatellite markers could be first useful for population level studies like genetic diversity and structure in this species. PMID:25028267

Chen, Hai-Kui; Zhong, Yang

2014-09-01

162

High-efficiency genome editing and allele replacement in prototrophic and wild strains of Saccharomyces.  

PubMed

Current genome editing techniques available for Saccharomyces yeast species rely on auxotrophic markers, limiting their use in wild and industrial strains and species. Taking advantage of the ancient loss of thymidine kinase in the fungal kingdom, we have developed the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene as a selectable and counterselectable marker that forms the core of novel genome engineering tools called the H: aploid E: ngineering and R: eplacement P: rotocol (HERP) cassettes. Here we show that these cassettes allow a researcher to rapidly generate heterogeneous populations of cells with thousands of independent chromosomal allele replacements using mixed PCR products. We further show that the high efficiency of this approach enables the simultaneous replacement of both alleles in diploid cells. Using these new techniques, many of the most powerful yeast genetic manipulation strategies are now available in wild, industrial, and other prototrophic strains from across the diverse Saccharomyces genus. PMID:25209147

Alexander, William G; Doering, Drew T; Hittinger, Chris Todd

2014-11-01

163

Identification of SNPs and development of allele-specific PCR markers for ?-gliadin alleles in Triticum aestivum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coding regions of 28 entries of hexaploid wheat n-gliadin genes, gene fragments or pseudogenes in GenBank were used for nucleotide alignment. These sequences could be divided into nine subgroups based on nucleotide variation. The chromosomal locations of five of the seven unassigned subgroups were identified through subgroup-specific polymerase chain reactions (PCR) using Chinese Spring group-1 nulli-tetrasomic lines. Multiple single

W. Zhang; M. C. Gianibelli; W. Ma; L. Rampling; K. R. Gale

2003-01-01

164

Analyses of a multi-parent population derived from two diverse alfalfa germplasms: testcross evaluations and phenotype-DNA associations.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we showed that the genetic variation present in the Medicago sativa subsp. sativa Peruvian and M. sativa subsp. falcata WISFAL germplasms could be used to improve forage yields when favorable alleles were recombined and used in hybrid combination with cultivated alfalfa. In this paper, we present testcross forage yield and fall growth data for two seasons of a C0 population generated after intermating the Peruvian x WISFAL population for several generations. In addition, we conducted marker-trait association analysis as an attempt to identify Peruvian and WISFAL genomics regions affecting the targeted traits. Five and seven genomic regions were found significantly associated with forage yield and fall growth, respectively. In the case of fall growth, alleles from both accessions were positively associated with plant height. However, more alleles from WISFAL were positively associated with forage yield than from Peruvian. WISFAL is known for its winter hardiness and genomic regions with large effects on winter survival may have masked the effect of forage yield from Peruvian. The fact that most of the genomic regions discovered in this study have been previously associated with traits involved in winter hardiness validates our findings and suggests that associations between DNA fragments and agronomic traits can be detected without the necessity of developing bi-parental mapping populations. PMID:17676305

Maureira-Butler, I J; Udall, J A; Osborn, T C

2007-10-01

165

Nuclear gene phylogeography using PHASE: dealing with unresolved genotypes, lost alleles, and systematic bias in parameter estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A widely-used approach for screening nuclear DNA markers is to obtain sequence data and use bioinformatic algorithms to estimate which two alleles are present in heterozygous individuals. It is common practice to omit unresolved genotypes from downstream analyses, but the implications of this have not been investigated. We evaluated the haplotype reconstruction method implemented by PHASE in the context

Ryan C Garrick; Paul Sunnucks; Rodney J Dyer

2010-01-01

166

Allelic associations of two polymorphic microsatellites in intron 40 of the human von Willebrand factor gene  

SciTech Connect

At intron 40 of the von Willebrand factor (vWF) gene, two GATA-repeat polymorphic sites exist that are physically separated by 212 bp. At the first site (vWF1 locus), seven segregating repeat alleles were observed in a Brazilian Caucasian population, and at the second (vWF2 locus) there were eight alleles, detected through PCR amplifications of this DNA region. Haplotype analysis of individuals revealed 36 different haplotypes in a sample of 338 chromosomes examined. Allele frequencies between generations and gender at each locus were not significantly different, and the genotype frequencies were consistent with their Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Linkage disequilibrium between loci is highly significant with positive allele size association; that is, large alleles at the loci tend to occur together, and so do the same alleles. Variability at each locus appeared to have arisen in a stepwise fashion, suggesting replication slippage as a possible mechanism of production of new alleles. However, the authors observed an increased number of haplotypes, in contrast with the predictions of a stepwise production of variation in the entire region, suggesting some form of cooperative changes between loci that could be due to either gene conversion, or a common control mechanism of production of new variation at these repeat polymorphism sites. The high degree of polymorphism (gene diversity values of 72% and 78% at vWF1 and vWF2, respectively, and of 93% at the haplotype level) makes these markers informative for paternity testing, genetic counseling, and individual-identification purposes.

Pena, S.D.J.; De Souza, K.T. (Nucleo de Genetica Medica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)); De Andrade, M.; Chakraborty, R. (Univ. of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX (United States))

1994-01-18

167

Functional analysis of 11 novel GBA alleles.  

PubMed

Gaucher disease is the most frequent lysosomal storage disorder due to the deficiency of the acid ?-glucosidase, encoded by the GBA gene. In this study, we report the structural and functional characterization of 11 novel GBA alleles. Seven single missense alleles, P159S, N188I, E235K, P245T, W312S, S366R and W381C, and two alleles carrying in cis mutations, (N188S; G265R) and (E326K; D380N), were studied for enzyme activity in transiently transfected cells. All mutants were inactive except the P159S, which retained 15% of wild-type activity. To further characterize the alleles carrying two in cis mutations, we expressed constructs bearing singly each mutation. The presence of G265R or D380N mutations completely abolished enzyme activity, while N188S and E326K mutants retained 25 and 54% of wild-type activity, respectively. Two mutations, affecting the acceptor splice site of introns 5 (c.589-1G>A) and 9 (c.1389-1G>A), led to the synthesis of aberrant mRNA. Unpredictably, family studies showed that two alleles resulted from germline or 'de novo' mutations. These results strengthen the importance of performing a complete and accurate molecular analysis of the GBA gene in order to avoid misleading conclusions and provide a comprehensive functional analysis of new GBA mutations. PMID:24022302

Malini, Erika; Grossi, Serena; Deganuto, Marta; Rosano, Camillo; Parini, Rossella; Dominisini, Silvia; Cariati, Roberta; Zampieri, Stefania; Bembi, Bruno; Filocamo, Mirella; Dardis, Andrea

2014-04-01

168

Molecular analysis of chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-associated alleles in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Nicaragua.  

PubMed

Chloroquine (CQ) is used as a first-line therapy for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Nicaragua. We investigated the prevalence of molecular markers associated with CQ and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in P. falciparum isolates obtained from the North Atlantic Autonomous Region of Nicaragua. Blood spots for this study were made available from a CQ and SP drug efficacy trial conducted in 2005 and also from a surveillance study performed in 2011. Polymorphisms in P. falciparum CQ resistance transporter, dihydrofolate reductase, and dihydropteroate synthase gene loci that are associated with resistance to CQ, pyrimethamine, and sulfadoxine, respectively, were detected by DNA sequencing. In the 2005 dataset, only 2 of 53 isolates had a CQ resistance allele (CVIET), 2 of 52 had a pyrimethamine resistance allele, and 1 of 49 had a sulfadoxine resistance allele. In the 2011 dataset, none of 45 isolates analyzed had CQ or SP resistance alleles. PMID:24615126

Sridaran, Sankar; Rodriguez, Betzabe; Soto, Aida Mercedes; Macedo De Oliveira, Alexandre; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

2014-05-01

169

Allelic ladder characterization of the short tandem repeat polymorphism located in the 5{prime} flanking region to the human coagulation factor XIII A subunit gene  

SciTech Connect

The short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism present within the 5{prime} untranslated region of the human coagulation factor XIII A subunit gene, HUM-F13A01 [AAAG]{sub n}, was evaluated using an allelic ladder, i.e., a standard size marker consisting of amplified alleles from the locus. The allelic ladder was constructed by pooling 12 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified alleles identified by their differential migration in denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This standard marker was used to distinguish 14 different alleles observed at this locus. Sequence analyses indicate that 13 of the alleles contain 4 through 16 iterations of the tandemly repeated AAAG sequence, respectively. The remaining allele carries four repeats and displays a deletion of two consecutive nucleotides (GT), one base distal to the repeat region. The allelic ladder was employed to type 326 F13A01 chromosomes rapidly and reliably in representatives of a German Caucasian population. Population data were analyzed with respect to Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) and compared with those of a previously studied Houston, Texas, Caucasian population. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Puers, C. [Promega Corp., Madison, WI (United States)] [Promega Corp., Madison, WI (United States); [Institute for Forensic Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Lins, A.M.; Sprecher, C.J. [Promega Corp., Madison, WI (United States)] [and others] [Promega Corp., Madison, WI (United States); and others

1994-09-01

170

ALFREDthe ALlele FREquency Database ALFRED is a free, web-accessible, curated compilation of allele frequency  

E-print Network

ALFREDthe ALlele FREquency Database ALFRED is a free, web-accessible, curated compilation of allele publication or source as well as to molecular and ethnographic databases. ALFRED is supported by a grant from position Populations by geographic region Versatile Keyword search Published SNP and STRP sets of forensic

Lee, Daeyeol

171

Genome Destabilizing Mutator Alleles Drive Specific Mutational Trajectories in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

In addition to environmental factors and intrinsic variations in base substitution rates, specific genome-destabilizing mutations can shape the mutational trajectory of genomes. How specific alleles influence the nature and position of accumulated mutations in a genomic context is largely unknown. Understanding the impact of genome-destabilizing alleles is particularly relevant to cancer genomes where biased mutational signatures are identifiable. We first created a more complete picture of cellular pathways that impact mutation rate using a primary screen to identify essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene mutations that cause mutator phenotypes. Drawing primarily on new alleles identified in this resource, we measure the impact of diverse mutator alleles on mutation patterns directly by whole-genome sequencing of 68 mutation-accumulation strains derived from wild-type and 11 parental mutator genotypes. The accumulated mutations differ across mutator strains, displaying base-substitution biases, allele-specific mutation hotspots, and break-associated mutation clustering. For example, in mutants of POL? and the Cdc13–Stn1–Ten1 complex, we find a distinct subtelomeric bias for mutations that we show is independent of the target sequence. Together our data suggest that specific genome-instability mutations are sufficient to drive discrete mutational signatures, some of which share properties with mutation patterns seen in tumors. Thus, in a population of cells, genome-instability mutations could influence clonal evolution by establishing discrete mutational trajectories for genomes. PMID:24336748

Stirling, Peter C.; Shen, Yaoqing; Corbett, Richard; Jones, Steven J. M.; Hieter, Philip

2014-01-01

172

Microsatellite markers for Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia; Elaeagnaceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for the plant species Elaeagnus angustifolia to assist in future investigations of genetic variability in its native and invasive ranges and the precise origins of the United States/Canada invasion. • Methods and Results: Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed. The number of alleles observed for each locus ranged from three to 11. • Conclusions: These microsatellites have sufficient potential variability to define population structure and origins of the Russian olive invasion. PMID:25202584

Gaskin, John F.; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.

2013-01-01

173

Exploring of tri-allelic SNPs using pyrosequencing and the SNaPshot methods for forensic application.  

PubMed

Tri-allelic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are potential forensic markers for DNA analysis. Currently, only a limited number of tri-allelic SNP loci have been proved to be fit for forensic application. In this study, we aimed to develop an effective method to select and genotype tri-allelic SNPs based on both Pyrosequencing (PSQ) and the SNaPshot methods. 50 candidate SNPs were chosen from NCBI's dbSNP database and were analyzed by PSQ. The results revealed that 20 SNPs were tri-allelic and were located on 16 autosomal chromosomes. Then 20 SNP loci were combined in one multiplex polymerase chain reaction to develop a single base extension (SBE)-based SNP-typing assay. A total of 100 unrelated Chinese individuals were genotyped by this assay and allele frequencies were estimated. The total discrimination power was 0.999999999975 and the cumulative probability of exclusion was 0.9937. These data demonstrated that the strategy is a rapid and effective method for seeking and typing tri-allelic SNPs. In addition, the 20 tri-allelic SNP multiplex typing assay may be used to supplement paternity testing and human identification. PMID:22522538

Zha, Lagabaiyila; Yun, Libing; Chen, Pengyu; Luo, Haibo; Yan, Jing; Hou, Yiping

2012-03-01

174

STRait Razor: a length-based forensic STR allele-calling tool for use with second generation sequencing data.  

PubMed

Recent studies have demonstrated the capability of second generation sequencing (SGS) to provide coverage of short tandem repeats (STRs) found within the human genome. However, there are relatively few bioinformatic software packages capable of detecting these markers in the raw sequence data. The extant STR-calling tools are sophisticated, but are not always applicable to the analysis of the STR loci commonly used in forensic analyses. STRait Razor is a newly developed Perl-based software tool that runs on the Linux/Unix operating system and is designed to detect forensically-relevant STR alleles in FASTQ sequence data, based on allelic length. It is capable of analyzing STR loci with repeat motifs ranging from simple to complex without the need for extensive allelic sequence data. STRait Razor is designed to interpret both single-end and paired-end data and relies on intelligent parallel processing to reduce analysis time. Users are presented with a number of customization options, including variable mismatch detection parameters, as well as the ability to easily allow for the detection of alleles at new loci. In its current state, the software detects alleles for 44 autosomal and Y-chromosome STR loci. The study described herein demonstrates that STRait Razor is capable of detecting STR alleles in data generated by multiple library preparation methods and two Illumina(®) sequencing instruments, with 100% concordance. The data also reveal noteworthy concepts related to the effect of different preparation chemistries and sequencing parameters on the bioinformatic detection of STR alleles. PMID:23768312

Warshauer, David H; Lin, David; Hari, Kumar; Jain, Ravi; Davis, Carey; Larue, Bobby; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce

2013-07-01

175

Copyright 2000 by the Genetics Society of America Evolutionary Dynamics of Self-Incompatibility Alleles in Brassica  

E-print Network

-Incompatibility Alleles in Brassica Marcy K. Uyenoyama Department of Zoology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina-incompatibility in Brassica entails the rejection of pollen grains that express specificities held in common with the seed parent. In Brassica, pollen specificity is encoded at the multipartite S-locus, a complex region

Uyenoyama, Marcy K

176

Parentage and kinship studies in an obligate brood parasitic bird, the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), using microsatellite DNA markers.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that single-locus microsatellite DNA markers have the potential to unambiguously resolve parentage among individuals in natural populations where maternity is known. However, their power for determining parentage when neither parent is known is unclear. Here we investigate the usefulness of microsatellite DNA markers to determine parentage in a brood parasitic bird, the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), where, for a given offspring, no a priori knowledge of either parent is available. Seven polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers isolated from brown-headed cowbirds and yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) were used to genetically characterize an individually marked breeding population of male and female cowbirds at Delta Marsh, Manitoba. Forty-four males, 21 females, and 61 cowbird chicks were genotyped at seven loci using DNA amplified from blood and tissue samples. The mean exclusion probabilities pooled across all seven loci were 0.9964 for males and 0.9948 for females. Two null (non-amplifying) alleles at one locus were discovered and accounted for by constructing alternate nonoverlapping primer sets. Exclusion analyses performed using all individuals determined both paternity and maternity for 43 chicks and paternity only for 4 chicks. Another microsatellite locus was then used to determine paternity for three additional chicks. Relatedness analyses placed 12 of the 18 remaining chicks not assigned both maternity and paternity into four unique full sibling groups. Overall, 90.16% (55 of 61) of all offspring examined were placed into distinct parent/sibling groups, demonstrating that this marker set is extremely useful for parentage studies in this species. PMID:9987928

Alderson, G W; Gibbs, H L; Sealy, S G

1999-01-01

177

Sources of bias in measures of allele-specific expression derived from RNA-seq data aligned to a single reference genome  

PubMed Central

Background RNA-seq can be used to measure allele-specific expression (ASE) by assigning sequence reads to individual alleles; however, relative ASE is systematically biased when sequence reads are aligned to a single reference genome. Aligning sequence reads to both parental genomes can eliminate this bias, but this approach is not always practical, especially for non-model organisms. To improve accuracy of ASE measured using a single reference genome, we identified properties of differentiating sites responsible for biased measures of relative ASE. Results We found that clusters of differentiating sites prevented sequence reads from an alternate allele from aligning to the reference genome, causing a bias in relative ASE favoring the reference allele. This bias increased with greater sequence divergence between alleles. Increasing the number of mismatches allowed when aligning sequence reads to the reference genome and restricting analysis to genomic regions with fewer differentiating sites than the number of mismatches allowed almost completely eliminated this systematic bias. Accuracy of allelic abundance was increased further by excluding differentiating sites within sequence reads that could not be aligned uniquely within the genome (imperfect mappability) and reads that overlapped one or more insertions or deletions (indels) between alleles. Conclusions After aligning sequence reads to a single reference genome, excluding differentiating sites with at least as many neighboring differentiating sites as the number of mismatches allowed, imperfect mappability, and/or an indel(s) nearby resulted in measures of allelic abundance comparable to those derived from aligning sequence reads to both parental genomes. PMID:23919664

2013-01-01

178

Quantitative threefold allele-specific PCR (QuanTAS-PCR) for highly sensitive JAK2 V617F mutant allele detection  

PubMed Central

Background The JAK2 V617F mutation is the most frequent somatic change in myeloproliferative neoplasms, making it an important tumour-specific marker for diagnostic purposes and for the detection of minimal residual disease. Sensitive quantitative assays are required for both applications, particularly for the monitoring of minimal residual disease, which requires not only high sensitivity but also very high specificity. Methods We developed a highly sensitive probe-free quantitative mutant-allele detection method, Quantitative Threefold Allele-Specific PCR (QuanTAS-PCR), that is performed in a closed-tube system, thus eliminating the manipulation of PCR products. QuantTAS-PCR uses a threefold approach to ensure allele-specific amplification of the mutant sequence: (i) a mutant allele-specific primer, (ii) a 3?dideoxy blocker to suppress false-positive amplification from the wild-type template and (iii) a PCR specificity enhancer, also to suppress false-positive amplification from the wild-type template. Mutant alleles were quantified relative to exon 9 of JAK2. Results We showed that the addition of the 3?dideoxy blocker suppressed but did not eliminate false-positive amplification from the wild-type template. However, the addition of the PCR specificity enhancer near eliminated false-positive amplification from the wild-type allele. Further discrimination between true and false positives was enabled by using the quantification cycle (Cq) value of a single mutant template as a cut-off point, thus enabling robust distinction between true and false positives. As 10,000 JAK2 templates were used per replicate, the assay had a sensitivity of 1/10-4 per replicate. Greater sensitivity could be reached by increasing the number of replicates analysed. Variation in replicates when low mutant-allele templates were present necessitated the use of a statistics-based approach to estimate the load of mutant JAK2 copies. QuanTAS-PCR showed comparable quantitative results when validated against a commercial assay. Conclusions QuanTAS-PCR is a simple, cost-efficient, closed-tube method for JAK2 V617F mutation quantification that can detect very low levels of the mutant allele, thus enabling analysis of minimal residual disease. The approach can be extended to the detection of other recurrent single nucleotide somatic changes in cancer. PMID:23617802

2013-01-01

179

Perspectives on Parenting  

E-print Network

Parents' Perspectives on Parenting Styles and Disciplining Children The National Children's Strategy Research Series #12;#12;Parents' Perspectives on Parenting Styles and Disciplining Children 2010 Intergenerational transmission of discipline strategies 3 Parenting styles 3 Parental attitudes to physical

O'Mahony, Donal E.

180

Perspectives on Parenting Styles  

E-print Network

Children's Perspectives on Parenting Styles and Discipline: A Developmental Approach The National Children's Strategy Research Series #12;#12;Children's Perspectives on Parenting Styles and Discipline's development 12 Parental responsiveness 12 Parental control 12 Parenting styles 13 Parental discipline 14

O'Mahony, Donal E.

181

Parent Express.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by parents of infants and toddlers, this series of 27 8-page month-by-month newsletters provides research-based information on infant and child development and care from 0 to 36 months. Topics in the series for infants include: becoming a parent; getting ready for child birth; the newborn child; and characteristics of the child at…

Kazanjian, Elise, Ed.

1988-01-01

182

Genetic diversity analysis in valencia peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L) is an important source of oil and protein. Considerable variation has been recorded for morphological, physiological and agronomic traits, whereas few molecular variations have been recorded for this crop. The identification and understanding of molecular genetic diversity in cultivated peanut types will help in effective genetic conservation along with efficient breeding programs in this crop. The New Mexico breeding program has embarked upon a program of improvement of Valencia peanut (belonging to the sub species fastigiata), because efforts to improve the yield potential are lacking due to lack of identified divergent exotic types. For the first time, this study has shown molecular diversity using microsatellite markers in the cultivated Valencia peanut (sub spp. fastigiata) from around the globe. In this investigation, 48 cultivated Valencia peanut genotypes have been selected and analyzed using 18 fluorescently labeled SSR (f-SSR) primer pairs. These primer pairs amplified 120 polymorphic loci among the genotypes screened and amplified from 3 to 19 alleles with an average of 6.9 allele per primer pair. The f-SSR marker data was further analyzed using cluster algorithms and principal component analysis. The results indicated that (1) considerable genetic variations were discovered among the analyzed genotypes; (2) The f-SSR based clustering could identify the putative pedigree types of the present Valencia types of diverse origins, and (3) The f-SSR in general is sufficient to obtain estimates of genetic divergence for the material in study. The results are being utilized in our breeding program for parental selection and linkage map construction. PMID:15647791

Krishna, Girish Kumar; Zhang, Jinfa; Burow, Mark; Pittman, Roy N; Delikostadinov, Stanko G; Lu, Yingzhi; Puppala, Naveen

2004-01-01

183

Exploring the Distribution of Genetic Markers of Pharmacogenomics Relevance in Brazilian and Mexican Populations  

PubMed Central

Studies of pharmacogenomics-related traits are increasingly being performed to identify loci that affect either drug response or susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. However, the effect of the polymorphisms can differ in magnitude or be absent depending on the population being assessed. We used the Affymetrix Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters (DMET) Plus array to characterize the distribution of polymorphisms of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx) relevance in two samples from the most populous Latin American countries, Brazil and Mexico. The sample from Brazil included 268 individuals from the southeastern state of Rio de Janeiro, and was stratified into census categories. The sample from Mexico comprised 45 Native American Zapotecas and 224 self-identified Mestizo individuals from 5 states located in geographically distant regions in Mexico. We evaluated the admixture proportions in the Brazilian and Mexican samples using a panel of Ancestry Informative Markers extracted from the DMET array, which was validated with genome-wide data. A substantial variation in ancestral proportions across census categories in Brazil, and geographic regions in Mexico was identified. We evaluated the extent of genetic differentiation (measured as FST values) of the genetic markers of the DMET Plus array between the relevant parental populations. Although the average levels of genetic differentiation are low, there is a long tail of markers showing large frequency differences, including markers located in genes belonging to the Cytochrome P450, Solute Carrier (SLC) and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT) families as well as other genes of PGx relevance such as ABCC8, ADH1A, CHST3, PON1, PPARD, PPARG, and VKORC1. We show how differences in admixture history may have an important impact in the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies at the population level. PMID:25419701

Bonifaz-Peña, Vania; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Roela, Rosimeire A.; Furuya-Mazzotti, Tatiane K.; Chammas, Roger; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Gómez-Vázquez, María José; McLeod, Howard L.; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo

2014-01-01

184

Rapid deoxyribonucleic acid analysis by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for detection of mutations in the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene  

SciTech Connect

Rapid DNA analysis based on allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mutation site-specific primers was developed to detect mutations in the CYP21 gene known to cause steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. In contrast to the previous method, in which PCR of genomic DNA was followed by dot blot analysis with radio active probes and multiple rounds of stripping and reprobing for each of the 8 most common mutation sites, the results using this new method were immediately visualized after the PCR run by ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel electrophoresis. Using allele-specific PCR, mutation(s) were identified on 148 affected chromosomes out of 160 tested. Although mutation(s) were identified on only one chromosome of 11 of these patients, their parents showed a consistent pattern on DNA analysis. The only exception was that in one family, in which the parents each had a detectable mutation, a mutation was detected on only one allele of the patient. Most likely there is a mutation in the patient`s other allele that could have arisen de novo or was inherited from the parent and was not evident in the transmitting parent`s phenotype. When compared with the dot blot procedure, allele-specific PCR is more rapid, less labor-intensive, and avoids the use of radioactivity. 26 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Wilson, R.C.; Wei, J.Q.; Cheng, K.C. [New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, NY (United States)] [and others] [New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, NY (United States); and others

1995-05-01

185

A standardized microsatellite marker panel for parentage and kinship analyses in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.  

PubMed

This research was designed to produce a standardized set of microsatellite loci for parentage and kinship analyses in channel catfish, the leading species of US aquaculture. Three panels of five to six markers each were developed that contained a total of two dinucleotide-, eight trinucleotide- and seven tetranucleotide-microsatellite loci respectively. The loci had a range of nine to 31 alleles per locus in an outbred population. Based on the allele frequencies measured in commercial randomly bred broodstock, the combined probability of non-exclusion of an unrelated candidate parent pair was 5.36e-18. The combined probability of non-exclusion of unrelated identical genotypes was 2.58e-08. The microsatellite panels were validated by parentage and kinship evaluation in three populations. A total of 697 spawns were collected from matings of outbred broodstock over three spawning seasons, and parents were determined unambiguously for all but three spawns. Genotype analysis also enabled the identification of half-sibling and full-sibling families produced by pond spawning. In a second experiment, parentage was unambiguously determined in nine spawns from a population consisting of broodstock derived from only four families. A third experiment demonstrated that all but one of 374 individuals from 10 full-sibling families could be assigned to a family after coculture in an earthen pond for 1 year. The standardized microsatellite panels enable the development of pedigreed catfish populations and large-scale performance evaluations in common environments to support the genetic improvement of cultured catfish through selective breeding. PMID:23216371

Waldbieser, G C; Bosworth, B G

2013-08-01

186

Original article Marker assisted selection using best linear  

E-print Network

genetic mark- ers with the potential to identify a large number of genetic polymorphisms (Soller *Author algorithm is developed to obtain the covariance matrix of the effects of MQTL alleles. A simple method-assisted selection - best linear unbasied prediction - genetic marker Résumé - Sélection assistée par un marqueur

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

187

Overcoming Allelic Specificity by Immunization with Five Allelic Forms of Plasmodium falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen 1  

PubMed Central

Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is a leading vaccine candidate, but the allelic polymorphism is a stumbling block for vaccine development. We previously showed that a global set of AMA1 haplotypes could be grouped into six genetic populations. Using this information, six recombinant AMA1 proteins representing each population were produced. Rabbits were immunized with either a single recombinant AMA1 protein or mixtures of recombinant AMA1 proteins (mixtures of 4, 5, or 6 AMA1 proteins). Antibody levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and purified IgG from each rabbit was used for growth inhibition assay (GIA) with 12 different clones of parasites (a total of 108 immunogen-parasite combinations). Levels of antibodies to all six AMA1 proteins were similar when the antibodies were tested against homologous antigens. When the percent inhibitions in GIA were plotted against the number of ELISA units measured with homologous AMA1, all data points followed a sigmoid curve, regardless of the immunogen. In homologous combinations, there were no differences in the percent inhibition between the single-allele and allele mixture groups. However, all allele mixture groups showed significantly higher percent inhibition than the single-allele groups in heterologous combinations. The 5-allele-mixture group showed significantly higher inhibition to heterologous parasites than the 4-allele-mixture group. On the other hand, there was no difference between the 5- and 6-allele-mixture groups. These data indicate that mixtures with a limited number of alleles may cover a majority of the parasite population. In addition, using the data from 72 immunogen-parasite combinations, we mathematically identified 13 amino acid polymorphic sites which significantly impact GIA activities. These results could be a foundation for the rational design of a future AMA1 vaccine. PMID:23429537

Herrera, Raul; Diouf, Ababacar; Zhou, Hong; Mu, Jianbing; Hu, Zonghui; MacDonald, Nicholas J.; Reiter, Karine; Nguyen, Vu; Shimp, Richard L.; Singh, Kavita; Narum, David L.; Long, Carole A.; Miller, Louis H.

2013-01-01

188

RHD alleles in the Tunisian population  

PubMed Central

Background: A comprehensive survey of RHD alleles in Tunisia population was lacking. The aim of this study was to use a multiplex RHD typing assay for simultaneous detection of partial D especially with RHD/RHCE deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence exchange mechanism and some weak D alleles. Materials and Methods: Six RHD specific primer sets were designed to amplify RHD exons 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9. DNA from 2000 blood donors (1777 D+ and 223 D-) from several regions was selected for RHD genotyping using a PCR multiplex assay. Further molecular investigations were done to characterize the RHD variants that were identified by the PCR multiplex assay. Results: In the 1777 D+ samples, only 10 individuals showed the absence of amplification of exons 4 and 5 that were subsequently identified by PCR-SSP as weak D type 4 variants. No hybrid allele was detected. In the 223 D-, RHD amplification of some exons was observed only in 5 samples: 4 individuals expressed only RHD exon 9, and one subject lacking exons 4 and 5. These samples were then screened by PCR-SSPs on d(C) ces and weak D type 4, respectively. Conclusion: The weak D type 4 appears to be the most common D variant allele. We have not found any partial D variant. Findings also indicated that RHD gene deletion is the most prevalent cause of the D- phenotype in the Tunisian population. PMID:24014941

Ouchari, Mouna; Jemni-Yaacoub, Saloua; Chakroun, Taher; Abdelkefi, Saida; Houissa, Batoul; Hmida, Slama

2013-01-01

189

Paternity analysis using microsatellite markers to identify pollen donors in an olive grove.  

PubMed

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a wind-pollinated, allogamous species that is generally not considered to be self-compatible. In addition, cross-incompatibilities exist between cultivars that can result in low fruit set if compatible pollinisers are not planted nearby. In this study, microsatellite markers were used to identify 17 genotypes that were potential pollen donors in a commercial olive orchard. DNA typing with the same primers was also applied to 800 olive embryos collected from five cultivars in the grove over 2 years of study. Pollen donors for the cultivars Barnea, Corregiola, Kalamata, Koroneiki, and Mission were estimated by paternity analysis, based on the parental contribution of alleles in the genotypes of the embryos. The exclusion probability for the marker set was 0.998 and paternity was assigned on the basis of the 'most likely method'. Different pollen donors were identified for each of the maternal cultivars indicating that cross-compatibilities and incompatibilities varied between the genotypes studied. Cross-pollination was the principal method of fertilization, as selfing was only observed in two of the embryos studied and both of these were from the cultivar Mission. This is the first report where these techniques have been applied to survey the pollination patterns in an olive grove. The results indicate that careful planning in orchard design is required for efficient pollination between olive cultivars. PMID:16133312

Mookerjee, Sonali; Guerin, Jenny; Collins, Graham; Ford, Chris; Sedgley, Margaret

2005-10-01

190

Estimating the probability of allelic drop-out of STR alleles in forensic genetics.  

PubMed

In crime cases with available DNA evidence, the amount of DNA is often sparse due to the setting of the crime. In such cases, allelic drop-out of one or more true alleles in STR typing is possible. We present a statistical model for estimating the per locus and overall probability of allelic drop-out using the results of all STR loci in the case sample as reference. The methodology of logistic regression is appropriate for this analysis, and we demonstrate how to incorporate this in a forensic genetic framework. PMID:19647706

Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Morling, Niels

2009-09-01

191

A review on SNP and other types of molecular markers and their use in animal genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last ten years, the use of molecular markers, revealing polymorphism at the DNA level, has been playing an increasing part in animal genetics studies. Amongst others, the microsatellite DNA marker has been the most widely used, due to its easy use by simple PCR, followed by a denaturing gel electrophoresis for allele size determination, and to the high

Alain Vignal; Denis Milan; Magali SanCristobal; André Eggen

2002-01-01

192

Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers for paternity analysis in the pectoral sandpiper, Calidris melanotos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated for the pectoral sandpiper, Calidris melanotos. The number of alleles observed in a sample of 149 presumably unrelated adults ranged from nine to 23 with an observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.79 to 0.92. The set of markers described here will prove useful for accurately determining paternity and therefore elucidate the hitherto unknown mating

K. L. CARTER; B. KEMPENAERS

2007-01-01

193

Using linked markers to infer the age of a mutation.  

PubMed

Advances in sequencing and genotyping technologies over the last decade have enabled geneticists to easily characterize genetic variation at the nucleotide level. Hundreds of genes harboring mutations associated with genetic disease have now been identified by positional cloning. Using variation at closely linked genetic markers, it is possible to predict the times in the past at which particular mutations arose. Such studies suggest that many of the rare mutations underlying human genetic disorders are relatively young. Studies of variation at genetic markers linked to particular mutations can provide insights into human geographic history, and historical patterns of natural selection and disease, that are not available from other sources. We review two approaches for estimating allele age using variation at linked genetic markers. A phylogenetic approach aims to reconstruct the gene tree underlying a sample of chromosomes carrying a particular mutation, obtaining a "direct" estimate of allele age from the age of the root of this tree. A population genetic approach relies on models of demography, mutation, and/or recombination to estimate allele age without explicitly reconstructing the gene tree. Phylogenetic methods are best suited for studies of ancient mutations, while population genetic methods are better suited for studies of recent mutations. Methods that rely on recombination to infer the ages of alleles can be fine-tuned by choosing linked markers at optimal map distances to maximize the information available about allele age. A limitation of methods that rely on recombination is the frequent lack of a fine-scale linkage map. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods for estimating allele age that rely on intensive numerical computation are described, as well as "composite" likelihood and moment-based methods that lead to simple estimators. The former provide more accurate estimates (particularly for large samples of chromosomes) and should be employed if computationally practical. PMID:11462233

Rannala, B; Bertorelle, G

2001-08-01

194

The Interplay between Parental Monitoring and the Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene in Adolescent Cannabis Use  

PubMed Central

Background Both environmental risk and genetic variation is believed to play a role in substance use. A candidate environmental variable is parenting. Recent studies have found support for the idea that the dopamine system affects the susceptibility to environmental influences. In the present study we will examine the interplay between effects of parental monitoring and the presence of the DRD4 7-repeat allele in adolescent lifetime cannabis use and the developmental course of cannabis use. Methods A total of 311 adolescents participated in a five-wave longitudinal design. First, we conducted logistic regression analyses to examine the prospective associations between parental monitoring, the DRD4 polymorphism, their interaction and lifetime cannabis use. Second, individual growth parameters were calculated for frequency of cannabis use. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between parental monitoring, the DRD4 polymorphism, their interaction, and the frequency of cannabis use. Results There were no significant main effects of parental monitoring or the DRD4 polymorphism. However, both analyses showed that over a period of four years, a) when experiencing low levels of parental monitoring, individuals with the 7-repeat allele were more likely to show lifetime cannabis use and a stronger increase in frequency of cannabis use than individuals without this allele; b) when experiencing high levels of parental monitoring, individuals with the 7-repeat allele were less likely to show lifetime cannabis use and they showed a smaller increase in frequency of cannabis use than individuals without the 7-repeat allele. Conclusions This study shows that carriers of the DRD4 7-repeat allele are disproportionally affected by the negative and positive effects of parental monitoring such that carriers of the DRD4 7-repeat allele, as compared to non-carriers, are more likely to use cannabis when levels of parental monitoring are low, and less likely to use cannabis when parental monitoring levels are high. PMID:23209577

Otten, Roy; Barker, Edward D.; Huizink, Anja C.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

2012-01-01

195

Determination of the HUMTH01 alleles by the APLP method.  

PubMed

We present a simple and rapid technique for determination of alleles at the HUMTH01 locus. The amplified product length polymorphism (APLP) method using two primers different in length, permits the differentiation between allele 9.3 and other alleles. The primers were designed to have an allele-specific nucleotide at the 3' terminal and 11 non-complementary nucleotides were added to the 5' terminal of one of the primers for the allele 9.3. The amplified fragment sizes for the alleles 9.3 and 10 were 80 bp and 70 bp, respectively. This method has proved to be very useful for forensic applications. PMID:10048673

Watanabe, G; Umetsu, K; Suzuki, T

1999-01-01

196

The allelic spectra of common diseases may resemble the allelic spectrum of the full genome.  

PubMed

Identification of the genes responsible for common human diseases promises to be one of the most significant advances in medical knowledge and treatment. To date, the numerous attempts to identify the genes responsible for complex and multi-factorial common diseases have met with only a handful of successes. The key to calculating the optimal effort and ideal approach to successful identifications lies with understanding the likely allelic spectrum of the target disease. The allelic spectrum describes the number of disease loci and the frequency of each disease allele. It has been implicitly assumed that disease spectra are biased towards either commonness or rareness relative to the allelic spectrum of the overall human genome. We present a hypothesis that the allelic spectra of common diseases are generally similar to the spectrum that characterizes the entire genome. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that only a few loci have major significance to familial disease risks and that there may be many disease loci which each make a minor contribution to a disease. Additionally, although relatively few alleles of the human genome have been examined for disease involvement, current estimates of the number of disease genes are very high. Because selection will have been operating only weakly and for a relatively short time on most of the alleles associated with complex diseases, spectra that are characteristic of near-neutral selection may well apply. We thus propose that the hitherto neglected hypothesis that puts the likely allelic spectra of common diseases in the middle ground between the prevailing hypotheses of spectral skew towards rareness or commonness is the most likely. By using this hypothesis as the null, research resources may be optimally allocated and greater success in identifying disease genes may be achieved. PMID:15325027

Wang, William Y S; Pike, Nathan

2004-01-01

197

Genetic Exchange of Fimbrial Alleles Exemplifies the Adaptive Virulence Strategy of Porphyromonas gingivalis  

PubMed Central

Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram–negative anaerobic bacterium, a member of the human oral microbiome, and a proposed “keystone” pathogen in the development of chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the gingiva. P. gingivalis is a genetically diverse species, and is able to exchange chromosomal DNA between strains by natural competence and conjugation. In this study, we investigate the role of horizontal DNA transfer as an adaptive process to modify behavior, using the major fimbriae as our model system, due to their critical role in mediating interactions with the host environment. We show that P. gingivalis is able to exchange fimbrial allele types I and IV into four distinct strain backgrounds via natural competence. In all recombinants, we detected a complete exchange of the entire fimA allele, and the rate of exchange varies between the different strain backgrounds. In addition, gene exchange within other regions of the fimbrial genetic locus was identified. To measure the biological implications of these allele swaps we compared three genotypes of fimA in an isogenic background, strain ATCC 33277. We demonstrate that exchange of fimbrial allele type results in profound phenotypic changes, including the quantity of fimbriae elaborated, membrane blebbing, auto-aggregation and other virulence-associated phenotypes. Replacement of the type I allele with either the type III or IV allele resulted in increased invasion of gingival fibroblast cells relative to the isogenic parent strain. While genetic variability is known to impact host-microbiome interactions, this is the first study to quantitatively assess the adaptive effect of exchanging genes within the pan genome cloud. This is significant as it presents a potential mechanism by which opportunistic pathogens may acquire the traits necessary to modify host-microbial interactions. PMID:24626479

Kerr, Jennifer E.; Abramian, Jared R.; Dao, Doan-Hieu V.; Rigney, Todd W.; Fritz, Jamie; Pham, Tan; Gay, Isabel; Parthasarathy, Kavitha; Wang, Bing-yan; Zhang, Wenjian; Tribble, Gena D.

2014-01-01

198

Estimating African American admixture proportions by use of population-specific alleles.  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the European genetic contribution to 10 populations of African descent in the United States (Maywood, Illinois; Detroit; New York; Philadelphia; Pittsburgh; Baltimore; Charleston, South Carolina; New Orleans; and Houston) and in Jamaica, using nine autosomal DNA markers. These markers either are population-specific or show frequency differences >45% between the parental populations and are thus especially informative for admixture. European genetic ancestry ranged from 6.8% (Jamaica) to 22.5% (New Orleans). The unique utility of these markers is reflected in the low variance associated with these admixture estimates (SEM 1.3%-2.7%). We also estimated the male and female European contribution to African Americans, on the basis of informative mtDNA (haplogroups H and L) and Y Alu polymorphic markers. Results indicate a sex-biased gene flow from Europeans, the male contribution being substantially greater than the female contribution. mtDNA haplogroups analysis shows no evidence of a significant maternal Amerindian contribution to any of the 10 populations. We detected significant nonrandom association between two markers located 22 cM apart (FY-null and AT3), most likely due to admixture linkage disequilibrium created in the interbreeding of the two parental populations. The strength of this association and the substantial genetic distance between FY and AT3 emphasize the importance of admixed populations as a useful resource for mapping traits with different prevalence in two parental populations. PMID:9837836

Parra, E J; Marcini, A; Akey, J; Martinson, J; Batzer, M A; Cooper, R; Forrester, T; Allison, D B; Deka, R; Ferrell, R E; Shriver, M D

1998-01-01

199

Marker Removal in Staphylococci via Cre Recombinase and Different lox Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allelic replacement in staphylococci is frequently aided by antibiotic resistance markers that replace the gene(s) of interest. In multiply modified strains, the number of mutated genes usually correlates with the number of selection markers in the strain's chromosome. Site-specific recombination systems are capable of eliminating such markers, if they are flanked by recombinase recognition sites. In this study, a Cre-lox

Martina Leibig; Bernhard Krismer; Martina Kolb; Alexandra Friede; Friedrich Gotz; Ralph Bertram

2008-01-01

200

Body for Parents (Girls)  

MedlinePLUS

... Illness & disability Drugs, alcohol & smoking Your feelings Relationships Bullying Safety Your future Environmental health Skip section navigation ( ... parents Girls' feelings for parents Relationships for parents Bullying for parents Safety for parents The future for ...

201

Generation of conditional Cited2 null alleles.  

PubMed

Cited2 is a transcriptional co-factor that is widely expressed in both embryonic and extraembryonic cells during early development. It is essential for embryonic development with Cited2 null embryos showing abnormal development of organs including heart, neural tube, adrenal glands, and placenta (both in trophoblast derivatives and invading fetal vasculature), as well as having defects in the establishment of the left-right body axis. We report the generation of two conditional null alleles allowing Cre-recombinase-mediated somatic cell gene inactivation. Mice heterozygous or homozygous for these alleles are viable and fertile. Crossing conditional mutants with CMV-Cre transgenic mice produces an embryonic-lethal phenotype in the offspring indistinguishable from germline null mutants. We also demonstrate that conditional deletion results in lacZ expression under the control of the Cited2 promoter. These alleles are therefore useful genetic tools for dissecting the functions of Cited2 in the formation of different organs and patterning of the developing embryo. genesis PMID:17133411

Preis, Jost I; Wise, Natalie; Solloway, Mark J; Harvey, Richard P; Sparrow, Duncan B; Dunwoodie, Sally L

2006-12-01

202

Evaluation of Allele-Specific Somatic Changes of Genome-Wide Association Study Susceptibility Alleles in Human Colorectal Cancers  

PubMed Central

Background Tumors frequently exhibit loss of tumor suppressor genes or allelic gains of activated oncogenes. A significant proportion of cancer susceptibility loci in the mouse show somatic losses or gains consistent with the presence of a tumor susceptibility or resistance allele. Thus, allele-specific somatic gains or losses at loci may demarcate the presence of resistance or susceptibility alleles. The goal of this study was to determine if previously mapped susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer show evidence of allele-specific somatic events in colon tumors. Methods We performed quantitative genotyping of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing statistically significant association with colorectal cancer in published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We genotyped 194 paired normal and colorectal tumor DNA samples and 296 paired validation samples to investigate these SNPs for allele-specific somatic gains and losses. We combined analysis of our data with published data for seven of these SNPs. Results No statistically significant evidence for allele-specific somatic selection was observed for the tested polymorphisms in the discovery set. The rs6983267 variant, which has shown preferential loss of the non-risk T allele and relative gain of the risk G allele in previous studies, favored relative gain of the G allele in the combined discovery and validation samples (corrected p-value?=?0.03). When we combined our data with published allele-specific imbalance data for this SNP, the G allele of rs6983267 showed statistically significant evidence of relative retention (p-value?=?2.06×10?4). Conclusions Our results suggest that the majority of variants identified as colon cancer susceptibility alleles through GWAS do not exhibit somatic allele-specific imbalance in colon tumors. Our data confirm previously published results showing allele-specific imbalance for rs6983267. These results indicate that allele-specific imbalance of cancer susceptibility alleles may not be a common phenomenon in colon cancer. PMID:22629442

Gerber, Madelyn M.; Hampel, Heather; Schulz, Nathan P.; Fernandez, Soledad; Wei, Lai; Zhou, Xiao-Ping; de la Chapelle, Albert; Toland, Amanda Ewart

2012-01-01

203

Mutant maize variety containing the glt1-1 allele  

DOEpatents

A maize plant has in its genome a non-mutable form of a mutant allele designated vitX-8132. The allele is located at a locus designated as glt which conditions kernels having an altered starch characteristic. Maize plants including such a mutant allele produce a starch that does not increase in viscosity on cooling, after heating. 2 figs.

Nelson, O.E.; Pan, D.

1994-07-19

204

Tracking human migrations by the analysis of the distribution of HLA alleles, lineages and haplotypes in closed and open populations  

PubMed Central

The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) system shows extensive variation in the number and function of loci and the number of alleles present at any one locus. Allele distribution has been analysed in many populations through the course of several decades, and the implementation of molecular typing has significantly increased the level of diversity revealing that many serotypes have multiple functional variants. While the degree of diversity in many populations is equivalent and may result from functional polymorphism(s) in peptide presentation, homogeneous and heterogeneous populations present contrasting numbers of alleles and lineages at the loci with high-density expression products. In spite of these differences, the homozygosity levels are comparable in almost all of them. The balanced distribution of HLA alleles is consistent with overdominant selection. The genetic distances between outbred populations correlate with their geographical locations; the formal genetic distance measurements are larger than expected between inbred populations in the same region. The latter present many unique alleles grouped in a few lineages consistent with limited founder polymorphism in which any novel allele may have been positively selected to enlarge the communal peptide-binding repertoire of a given population. On the other hand, it has been observed that some alleles are found in multiple populations with distinctive haplotypic associations suggesting that convergent evolution events may have taken place as well. It appears that the HLA system has been under strong selection, probably owing to its fundamental role in varying immune responses. Therefore, allelic diversity in HLA should be analysed in conjunction with other genetic markers to accurately track the migrations of modern humans. PMID:22312049

Vina, Marcelo A. Fernandez; Hollenbach, Jill A.; Lyke, Kirsten E.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Maiers, Martin; Klitz, William; Cano, Pedro; Mack, Steven; Single, Richard; Brautbar, Chaim; Israel, Shosahna; Raimondi, Eduardo; Khoriaty, Evelyne; Inati, Adlette; Andreani, Marco; Testi, Manuela; Moraes, Maria Elisa; Thomson, Glenys; Stastny, Peter; Cao, Kai

2012-01-01

205

Patterns of allelic loss at the BRCA1 locus in Arabic women with breast cancer.  

PubMed

Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of BRCA1, a tumor suppressor gene, is one mechanism of genetic inactivation in both sporadic and familial forms of breast cancer. Studies reported in breast cancers from women of Northern European descent have shown LOH in 30-50% of sporadic tumors. Microsatellite instability (MSI) has served as evidence for involvement of DNA repair genes. This study investigates the extent of allelic imbalance at the BRCA1 region in Arabic women with breast cancer. Paired normal and tumor tissue were available for DNA analysis in 13 cases. Results using fluorescent tagged primers to microsatellite markers D17S1323, D17S1325 and D17S855 intragenic to BRCA1 were analyzed using an ABI 310 DNA sequencer. As compared to normal DNA, MSI and LOH were recognized as a gain and a loss, respectively, of one signal in one allele in the tumor DNA. Microsatellite analyses showed 12 of 13 (92%) cases with LOH or MSI or both. Three cases demonstrated LOH alone, 3 cases with MSI alone. Six cases indicated both LOH and MSI; 2 cases with either LOH or MSI in separate markers. The combined finding of LOH and MSI in the same marker was detected only with D17S1325 in 4/6 cases. The proportion of aberrant findings of the BRCA1 locus in breast cancer appears to be higher in Arabic women than in other populations studied to date. PMID:11029525

Rouba, A; Kaisi, N; Al-Chaty, E; Badin, R; Pals, G; Young, C; Worsham, M J

2000-11-01

206

Analysis of genomic imprinting by quantitative allele-specific expression by Pyrosequencing(®).  

PubMed

Genomic imprinting is a parent-of-origin phenomenon whereby gene expression is restricted to the allele inherited from either the maternal or paternal parent. It has been described from flowering plants and eutherian mammals and may have evolved due to parental conflicts over resource allocation. In mammals, imprinted genes are responsible for ensuring correct rates of embryo development and for preventing parthenogenesis. The molecular basis of imprinting depends upon the presence of differential epigenetic marks on the alleles inherited from each parent, although in plants the exact mechanisms that control imprinting are still unclear in many cases. Recent studies have identified large numbers of candidate imprinted genes from Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants (see Chap. 7 by Köhler and colleagues elsewhere in this volume) providing the tools for more thorough investigation into how imprinted gene networks (IGNs) are regulated. Analysis of genomic imprinting in animals has revealed important information on how IGNs are regulated during development, which often involves intermediate levels of imprinting. In some instances, small but significant changes in the degree of parental bias in gene expression have been linked to developmental traits, livestock phenotypes, and human disease. As some of the imprinted genes recently reported from plants show differential rather than complete (binary) imprinting, there is a clear need for tools that can quantify the degree of allelic expression bias occurring at a transcribed locus. In this chapter, we describe the use of Quantification of Allele-Specific Expression by Pyrosequencing(®) (QUASEP) as a tool suitable for this challenge. We describe in detail the factors which ensure that a Pyrosequencing(®) assay will be suitable for giving robust QUASEP and the problems which may be encountered during the study of imprinted genes by Pyrosequencing(®), with particular reference to our work in A. thaliana and in cattle. We also discuss some considerations with respect to the statistical analysis of the resulting data. Finally, we provide a brief overview of the future possibility of adapting Pyrosequencing(®) for analyzing other aspects of imprinting including the analysis of methylated regions. PMID:24478009

McKeown, Peter C; Fort, Antoine; Spillane, Charles

2014-01-01

207

Molecular analysis of new mutations for Huntington's disease: intermediate alleles and sex of origin effects.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with expansion of a CAG repeat in a novel gene. We have assessed 21 sporadic cases of HD to investigate sequential events underlying HD. We show the existence of an intermediate allele (IA) in parental alleles of 30-38 CAG repeats in the HD gene which is greater than usually seen in the general population but below the range seen in patients with HD. These IAs are meiotically unstable and in the sporadic cases, expand to the full mutation associated with the phenotype of HD. This expansion has been shown to occur only during transmission through the male germline and is associated with advanced paternal age. These findings suggest that new mutations for HD are more frequent than prior estimates and indicate a previously unrecognized risk of inheriting HD to siblings of sporadic cases of HD and their children. PMID:8252043

Goldberg, Y P; Kremer, B; Andrew, S E; Theilmann, J; Graham, R K; Squitieri, F; Telenius, H; Adam, S; Sajoo, A; Starr, E

1993-10-01

208

Microsatellite markers for the diploid basidiomycete fungus Armillaria mellea.  

PubMed

We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite markers for two North American populations (California, Pennsylvania) of Armillaria mellea, a fungal pathogen responsible for Armillaria root disease of numerous woody plants. Allele frequency ranged from two to nine alleles per locus, and gene diversity ranged from 0.05 to 0.86. Of the 12 loci, eight loci were polymorphic in the California and Pennsylvania populations, and showed no evidence of heterozygote deficiencies or severe linkage disequilibrium. Our results suggest that we have isolated and characterized variable loci to estimate genotypic diversity, gene flow and migration, and to determine population structure of North American A. mellea. PMID:21564799

Baumgartner, K; Grubisha, L C; Fujiyoshi, P; Garbelotto, M; Bergemann, S E

2009-05-01

209

Rifampin resistance, Beijing-W clade-single nucleotide polymorphism cluster group 2 phylogeny, and the Rv2629 191-C allele in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.  

PubMed

Rifampin resistance is a key prognostic marker for treatment success in tuberculosis patients. Recently, Wang et al. demonstrated that Rv2629 A191C mutations were present in 99.1% of rifampin-resistant and 0% of rifampin-susceptible clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and that overexpression of the Rv2629 191C allele in Mycobacterium smegmatis produced an eightfold increase in rifampin resistance. These results suggested that Rv2629 could be a cause of rifampin resistance and a valuable target for rifampin resistance detection assays. We developed a molecular-beacon assay to study the association between Rv2629 191 alleles and rifampin resistance in 246 geographically and phylogenetically diverse clinical M. tuberculosis isolates. The 191C allele was present in 30/98 (30.6%) rifampin-resistant isolates and 25/148 (16.9%) rifampin-susceptible isolates and was more common in isolates from Asia. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated complete overlap between the 191C allele and single nucleotide polymorphism cluster group 2 (SCG-2), a phylogenetic lineage that corresponds to the Beijing-W clade of M. tuberculosis. All 55 (100%) 191C isolates were SCG-2, while none of the 191 191A isolates were SCG-2 (P < 0.001). No association was found between the 191C allele and rifampin resistance in an analysis that included the SCG type (P = 1.0). Also, in contrast to the findings of Wang et al., we found that overexpression of either Rv2629 191 allele in M. smegmatis did not produce an increase in rifampin resistance. We conclude that the Rv2629 191C allele is not associated with rifampin resistance and that the allele cannot be used as a molecular target to detect rifampin resistance. The allele appears to be an excellent marker for the Beijing-W clade/SCG-2 phylogenetic group. PMID:18550732

Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Aladegbami, Bola; Motiwala, Alifiya S; Dai, Yang; Safi, Hassan; Brimacombe, Michael; Helb, Danica; Alland, David

2008-08-01

210

Total Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins…

Smith, Richard

2010-01-01

211

Perceived Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contingent self-esteem (i.e., the degree to which one's self-esteem is dependent on meeting particular conditions) has been shown to predict a wide range of psychosocial and academic problems. This study extends previous research on contingent self-esteem by examining the predictive role of perceived parenting dimensions in a sample of early…

Wouters, Sofie; Doumen, Sarah; Germeijs, Veerle; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine

2013-01-01

212

Parent Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains information for parents whose children are enrolled in the Child Development Laboratory (CDL), a university-based preschool and child care program operated by the Department of Human and Community Development on the campus of the University of Illinois. The program provides half-day preschool for 2- to 4-year-old children and…

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Child Development Lab.

213

Constructive Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book turns important research and theory into essential, easy-to-follow guidelines for new parents and child care providers to help them focus on the critical first 3 years of life to build a strong foundation for the future. All the key areas of child development are covered, including self-esteem, and cognitive, motor and social…

Goldberg, Sally

214

Template mixing: a method of enhancing detection and interpretation of codominant RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten codominant RAPD markers, ranging in size from about 300 to about 1350 bp, were identified in mapping populations of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.). A distinguishing feature of all ten markers, and perhaps of codominant RAPD markers in general, was the presence in heterozygous individuals of a non-parental, heteroduplex band migrating more slowly than

T. M. Davis; H. Yu; K. M. Haigis; P. J. McGowan

1995-01-01

215

Confidence in Parenting: Is Parent Education Working?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined parents' feelings of confidence in their parenting ability among 56 individuals enrolled in 5 parent education programs in Mississippi, hypothesizing that there would be significant correlations between personal authority in the family system and a parent's confidence in performing the various roles of parenting. Based on…

Stanberry, J. Phillip; Stanberry, Anne M.

216

Biased gene conversion skews allele frequencies in human populations, increasing the disease burden of recessive alleles.  

PubMed

Gene conversion results in the nonreciprocal transfer of genetic information between two recombining sequences, and there is evidence that this process is biased toward G and C alleles. However, the strength of GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) in human populations and its effects on hereditary disease have yet to be assessed on a genomic scale. Using high-coverage whole-genome sequences of African hunter-gatherers, agricultural populations, and primate outgroups, we quantified the effects of GC-biased gene conversion on population genomic data sets. We find that genetic distances (FST and population branch statistics) are modified by gBGC. In addition, the site frequency spectrum is left-shifted when ancestral alleles are favored by gBGC and right-shifted when derived alleles are favored by gBGC. Allele frequency shifts due to gBGC mimic the effects of natural selection. As expected, these effects are strongest in high-recombination regions of the human genome. By comparing the relative rates of fixation of unbiased and biased sites, the strength of gene conversion was estimated to be on the order of Nb ? 0.05 to 0.09. We also find that derived alleles favored by gBGC are much more likely to be homozygous than derived alleles at unbiased SNPs (+42.2% to 62.8%). This results in a curse of the converted, whereby gBGC causes substantial increases in hereditary disease risks. Taken together, our findings reveal that GC-biased gene conversion has important population genetic and public health implications. PMID:25279983

Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah A

2014-10-01

217

Cycle pattern of a R allelic variation. Progress report, 1 November 1978-31 January 1980  

SciTech Connect

Two R alleles vary in cycle fashion. The original, intensely pigmenting forms change to weakly acting ones which revert in turn to the original. Neither direction of change is correlated with recombination of flanking markers. The reversion frequencies do not differ from the respective frequencies of change in the forward direction. The changes are restricted in the life cycle to about the time of meiosis. Modifying tthe incidence of crossing over in the R region altered the frequency of reversion proportionately. These features of instability could result from switching by intrachromosomal recombination between alternative arrangements of an R segment associated with an inverted duplication.

Kermicle, J.L.

1980-01-01

218

Combining Markers into Haplotypes Can Improve Population Structure Inference  

PubMed Central

High-throughput genotyping and sequencing technologies can generate dense sets of genetic markers for large numbers of individuals. For most species, these data will contain many markers in linkage disequilibrium (LD). To utilize such data for population structure inference, we investigate the use of haplotypes constructed by combining the alleles at single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We introduce a statistic derived from information theory, the gain of informativeness for assignment (GIA), which quantifies the additional information for assigning individuals to populations using haplotype data compared to using individual loci separately. Using a two-loci–two-allele model, we demonstrate that combining markers in linkage equilibrium into haplotypes always leads to nonpositive GIA, suggesting that combining the two markers is not advantageous for ancestry inference. However, for loci in LD, GIA is often positive, suggesting that assignment can be improved by combining markers into haplotypes. Using GIA as a criterion for combining markers into haplotypes, we demonstrate for simulated data a significant improvement of assigning individuals to candidate populations. For the many cases that we investigate, incorrect assignment was reduced between 26% and 97% using haplotype data. For empirical data from French and German individuals, the incorrectly assigned individuals can, for example, be decreased by 73% using haplotypes. Our results can be useful for challenging population structure and assignment problems, in particular for studies where large-scale population–genomic data are available. PMID:21868606

Gattepaille, Lucie M.; Jakobsson, Mattias

2012-01-01

219

Quantification of the paternal allele bias for new germline mutations in the retinoblastoma gene  

SciTech Connect

New germline mutations in the human retinoblastoma gene preferentially arise on a paternally derived allele. In nonhereditary retinoblastoma, the initial somatic mutation seems to have no such bias. The few previous reports of these phenomena included relatively few cases (less than a dozen new germline or initial somatic mutations), so that the magnitude of the paternal allele bias for new germline mutations is not known. Knowledge of the magnitude of the bias is valuable for genetic counseling, since, for example, patients with new germline mutations who reproduce transmit risk for retinoblastoma according to the risk that the transmitted allele has a germline mutation. We sought to quantitate the paternal allele bias and to determine whether paternal age is a factor possibly accounting for it. We studied 311 families with retinoblastoma (261 simplex, 50 multiplex) that underwent clinical genetic testing and 5 informative families recruited from earlier research. Using RFLPs and polymorphic microsatellites in the retinoblastoma gene, we could determine the parental origin of 45 new germline mutations and 44 probable initial somatic mutations. Thirty-seven of the 45 new germline mutations, or 82%, arose on a paternal allele while only 24 of the 44 initial somatic mutations (55%) did so. Increased paternal age does not appear to account for the excess of new paternal germline mutations, since the average age of fathers of children with new germline mutations (29.4 years, n=26, incomplete records on 11) was not significantly different from the average age of fathers of children with maternal germline mutations or somatic initial mutations (29.8 years, n=35, incomplete records on 17).

Morrow, J.F.; Rapaport, J.M.; Dryia, T.P. [Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA (United States)

1994-09-01

220

High-throughput analysis of candidate imprinted genes and allele-specific gene expression in the human term placenta  

PubMed Central

Background Imprinted genes show expression from one parental allele only and are important for development and behaviour. This extreme mode of allelic imbalance has been described for approximately 56 human genes. Imprinting status is often disrupted in cancer and dysmorphic syndromes. More subtle variation of gene expression, that is not parent-of-origin specific, termed 'allele-specific gene expression' (ASE) is more common and may give rise to milder phenotypic differences. Using two allele-specific high-throughput technologies alongside bioinformatics predictions, normal term human placenta was screened to find new imprinted genes and to ascertain the extent of ASE in this tissue. Results Twenty-three family trios of placental cDNA, placental genomic DNA (gDNA) and gDNA from both parents were tested for 130 candidate genes with the Sequenom MassArray system. Six genes were found differentially expressed but none imprinted. The Illumina ASE BeadArray platform was then used to test 1536 SNPs in 932 genes. The array was enriched for the human orthologues of 124 mouse candidate genes from bioinformatics predictions and 10 human candidate imprinted genes from EST database mining. After quality control pruning, a total of 261 informative SNPs (214 genes) remained for analysis. Imprinting with maternal expression was demonstrated for the lymphocyte imprinted gene ZNF331 in human placenta. Two potential differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were found in the vicinity of ZNF331. None of the bioinformatically predicted candidates tested showed imprinting except for a skewed allelic expression in a parent-specific manner observed for PHACTR2, a neighbour of the imprinted PLAGL1 gene. ASE was detected for two or more individuals in 39 candidate genes (18%). Conclusions Both Sequenom and Illumina assays were sensitive enough to study imprinting and strong allelic bias. Previous bioinformatics approaches were not predictive of new imprinted genes in the human term placenta. ZNF331 is imprinted in human term placenta and might be a new ubiquitously imprinted gene, part of a primate-specific locus. Demonstration of partial imprinting of PHACTR2 calls for re-evaluation of the allelic pattern of expression for the PHACTR2-PLAGL1 locus. ASE was common in human term placenta. PMID:20403199

2010-01-01

221

Molecular analysis of eight SFB alleles and a new SFB -like gene in Prunus pseudocerasus and Prunus speciosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identified eight S-haplotype-specific F-box genes (SFB alleles) and one S-haplotype-specific F-box-like gene (SFB-like gene) from genomic DNA by PCR combined with cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers in Prunus pseudocerasus and Prunus speciosa. The unknown sequences of C-termini were obtained by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. The whole nucleotide sequences of\\u000a these genes were submitted to the EMBL\\/GenBank database. The

Chao Gu; Jun Wu; Shu-Jun Zhang; Ya-Nan Yang; Hua-Qing Wu; M Awais Khan; Shao-Ling Zhang; Qing-Zhong Liu

222

Parents in Reading: Parents' Booklet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for parents, this booklet offers advice and suggestions for developing a child's self-expression and providing a supportive environment for reading experiences at home. Various sections of the book discuss the following: (1) giving love and warmth to your child, (2) reading with your child, (3) listening to your child, (4) talking with…

Truby, Roy

223

Exquisite allele discrimination by toehold hairpin primers  

PubMed Central

The ability to detect and monitor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biological samples is an enabling research and clinical tool. We have developed a surprising, inexpensive primer design method that provides exquisite discrimination between SNPs. The field of DNA computation is largely reliant on using so-called toeholds to initiate strand displacement reactions, leading to the execution of kinetically trapped circuits. We have now similarly found that the short toehold sequence to a target of interest can initiate both strand displacement within the hairpin and extension of the primer by a polymerase, both of which will further stabilize the primer:template complex. However, if the short toehold does not bind, neither of these events can readily occur and thus amplification should not occur. Toehold hairpin primers were used to detect drug resistance alleles in two genes, rpoB and katG, in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, and ten alleles in the Escherichia coli genome. During real-time PCR, the primers discriminate between mismatched templates with Cq delays that are frequently so large that the presence or absence of mismatches is essentially a ‘yes/no’ answer. PMID:24990378

Byrom, Michelle; Bhadra, Sanchita; Jiang, Yu Sherry; Ellington, Andrew D.

2014-01-01

224

Demography can favour female-advantageous alleles.  

PubMed

When female fecundity is relatively independent of male abundance, while male reproduction is proportional to female abundance, females have a larger effect on population dynamics than males (i.e. female demographic dominance). This population dynamic phenomenon might not appear to influence evolution, because male and female genomes still contribute equally much to the next generation. However, here we examine two evolutionary scenarios to provide a proof of principle that spatial structure can make female demographic dominance matter. Our two simulation models combine dispersal evolution with local adaptation subjected to intralocus sexual conflict and environmentally driven sex ratio biases, respectively. Both models have equilibria where one environment (without being intrinsically poorer) has so few reproductive females that trait evolution becomes disproportionately determined by those environments where females survive better (intralocus sexual conflict model), or where daughters are overproduced (environmental sex determination model). Surprisingly, however, the two facts that selection favours alleles that benefit females, and population growth is improved when female fitness is high, together do not imply that all measures of population performance are improved. The sex-specificity of the source-sink dynamics predicts that populations can evolve to fail to persist in habitats where alleles do poorly when expressed in females. PMID:25056617

Harts, Anna M F; Schwanz, Lisa E; Kokko, Hanna

2014-09-01

225

Allelic disequilibrium and allele frequency distribution as a function of social and demographic history.  

PubMed Central

Allelic disequilibrium between closely linked genes is a common observation in human populations and often gives rise to speculation concerning the role of selective forces. In a previous treatment, we have developed a population model of the expected distribution of rare variants (including private polymorphisms) in Amerindians and have argued that, because of the great expansion of Amerindian numbers with the advent of agriculture, most of these rare variants are of relatively recent origin. Many other populations have similar histories of striking recent expansions. In this treatment, we demonstrate that, in consequence of this fact, a high degree of linkage disequilibrium between two nonhomologous alleles <0.5 cM apart is the "normal" expectation, even in the absence of selection. This expectation is enhanced by the previous subdivision of human populations into relatively isolated tribes characterized by a high level of endogamy and inbreeding. We also demonstrate that the alleles associated with a recessive disease phenotype are expected to exist in a population in very variable frequencies: there is no need to postulate positive selection with respect to the more common disease-associated alleles for such entities as phenylketonuria or cystic fibrosis. PMID:8981963

Thompson, E A; Neel, J V

1997-01-01

226

Allele frequencies of a SNP and a 27-bp deletion that are the determinant of earwax type in the ABCC11 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allele frequencies for a SNP (rs17822931) and a 27-bp deletion that are the determinant of earwax type in the ABCC11 gene were investigated in seven Japanese, one Korean, and one German populations. The SNP will be useful as one of ancestry information markers, because it showed marked difference in frequencies between Asian and European populations.

Takashi Kitano; Isao Yuasa; Kentaro Yamazaki; Nori Nakayashiki; Aya Miyoshi; Kyung Sook Park; Kazuo Umetsu

2008-01-01

227

Mutation and haplotype analysis of phenylalanine hydroxylase alleles in classical PKU patients from the Czech Republic: identification of four novel mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations, haplotypes, and other polymorphic markers in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene were analysed in 133 unrelated Czech families with classical phenylketonuria (PKU). Almost 95% of all mutant alleles were identified, using a combination of PCR and restriction analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and sequencing. A total of 30 different mutations, 16 various RFLP\\/VNTR haplotypes, and four polymorphisms were

L Kozák; M Blazková; V Kuhrová; A Pijácková; S R?zicková; S Stastná

1997-01-01

228

Becoming Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-six lesbian adoptive parents were part of a cross-sectional study to explore their adoption experiences, specifically focusing on their sources of consultation\\/information and possible bias, adoption timeframes and costs, and their satisfaction with the adoption experience. Questions within each of these domains were tested for significant differences across international, private domestic and child welfare adoption venues. While their overall experiences

Scott Ryan; Courtney Whitlock

2008-01-01

229

Allele and haplotype diversity of X-chromosomal STRs in Ivory Coast.  

PubMed

Twenty-one X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, including the six clusters of linked markers DXS10148-DXS10135-DXS8378 (Xp22), DXS7132-DXS10079-DXS10074 (Xq12), DXS6801-DXS6809-DXS6789 (Xq21), DXS7424-DXS101 (Xq22), DXS10103-HPRTB-DXS10101 (Xq26), DXS8377-DXS10146-DXS10134-DXS7423 (Xq28) and the loci DXS6800, GATA172D05 and DXS10011 were typed in a population sample from Ivory Coast (n=125; 51 men and 74 women). Allele and haplotype frequencies as well as linkage disequilibrium data for kinship calculations are provided. On the whole, no significant differences in the genetic variability of X-STR markers were observed between Ivorians and other sub-Saharan African populations belonging to the Niger-Kordofanian linguistic group. PMID:21717153

Pasino, Serena; Caratti, Stefano; Del Pero, Massimiliano; Santovito, Alfredo; Torre, Carlo; Robino, Carlo

2011-09-01

230

Determination of knockdown resistance allele frequencies in global human head louse populations using the serial invasive signal amplification reaction  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Pediculosis is the most prevalent parasitic infestation of humans. Resistance to pyrethrin- and pyrethroid-based pediculicides is due to knockdown (kdr)-type point mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel ?-subunit gene. Early detection of resistance is crucial for the selection of effective management strategies. RESULTS Kdr allele frequencies of lice from 14 countries were determined using serial invasive signal amplification reaction. Lice collected from Uruguay, UK and Australia had kdr allele frequencies of 100% while lice from Ecuador, Papua New Guinea, South Korea and Thailand had kdr allele frequencies of 0%. The remaining 7 countries investigated, including seven US populations, two Argentina, Brazil, Denmark, Czech Republic, Egypt and Israel, displayed variable kdr allele frequencies, ranging from 11% to 97%. CONCLUSION The newly developed and validated SISAR method is suitable for accurate monitoring of kdr allele frequencies in head lice. Proactive management is needed where kdr-type resistance is not yet saturated. Based on sodium channel insensitivity and its occurrence in louse populations resistant to pyrethrin- and pyrethroid-based pediculicides, the T917I mutation appears a key marker for resistance. Results from the Egyptian population, however, indicate that phenotypic resistance of lice with single or double mutations (M815I and/or L920F) should also be determined. PMID:20564731

Hodgdon, Hilliary E.; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Previte, Domenic J.; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Aboelghar, Gamal E.; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J. Marshall

2010-01-01

231

Construction and Application of a Korean Reference Panel for Imputing Classical Alleles and Amino Acids of Human Leukocyte Antigen Genes  

PubMed Central

Genetic variations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus are strongly associated with disease susceptibility and prognosis for many diseases, including many autoimmune diseases. In this study, we developed a Korean HLA reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acid residues of several HLA genes. An HLA reference panel has potential for use in identifying and fine-mapping disease associations with the MHC locus in East Asian populations, including Koreans. A total of 413 unrelated Korean subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the MHC locus and six HLA genes, including HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DPB1, and -DQB1. The HLA reference panel was constructed by phasing the 5,858 MHC SNPs, 233 classical HLA alleles, and 1,387 amino acid residue markers from 1,025 amino acid positions as binary variables. The imputation accuracy of the HLA reference panel was assessed by measuring concordance rates between imputed and genotyped alleles of the HLA genes from a subset of the study subjects and East Asian HapMap individuals. Average concordance rates were 95.6% and 91.1% at 2-digit and 4-digit allele resolutions, respectively. The imputation accuracy was minimally affected by SNP density of a test dataset for imputation. In conclusion, the Korean HLA reference panel we developed was highly suitable for imputing HLA alleles and amino acids from MHC SNPs in East Asians, including Koreans. PMID:25398076

Kim, Kwangwoo; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Bae, Sang-Cheol

2014-01-01

232

A series of eIF4E alleles at the Bc-3 locus are associated with recessive resistance to Clover yellow vein virus in common bean.  

PubMed

Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) is capable of causing severe damage to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide. The snap bean market class is particularly vulnerable because infection may lead to distortion and necrosis of the fresh green pods and rejection of the harvest. Three putatively independent recessive genes (cyv, desc, bc-3) have been reported to condition resistance to ClYVV; however, their allelic relationships have not been resolved. We identified, evaluated, and characterized the phenotypic and molecular genetic variation present in 21 informative common bean genotypes for resistance to ClYVV. Allelism testing phenotypes from multiple populations provided clear evidence that the three genes were a series of recessive alleles at the Bc-3 locus that condition unique potyvirus strain- and species-specific resistance spectra. Candidate gene analysis revealed complete association between the recessive resistance alleles and unique patterns of predicted amino acid substitutions in P. vulgaris eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (PveIF4E). This led to the discovery and characterization of two novel PveIF4E alleles associated with resistance to ClYVV, PveIF4E (3) , and PveIF4E (4) . We developed KASPar allele-specific SNP genotyping assays and demonstrated their ability to accurately detect and differentiate all of the PveIF4E haplotypes present in the germplasm, allelism testing, and in three separate segregating populations. The results contribute to an enhanced understanding and accessibility of the important potyvirus resistance conditioned by recessive alleles at Bc-3. The KASPar assays should be useful to further enable germplasm exploration, allelic discrimination, and marker-assisted introgression of bc-3 alleles in common bean. PMID:23933781

Hart, John P; Griffiths, Phillip D

2013-11-01

233

Identification of cattle carrying alleles associated with resistance and susceptibility to the Bovine Leukemia Virus progression by real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown a significant association between polymorphisms of the BoLA DRB3 gene and Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) infection profile. The presence of allele *1501 has been associated with high proviral load in peripheral blood while allele *0902 has been associated with low proviral load. The purpose of this study was to develop allele-specific real-time PCRs to identify cattle carrying alleles associated with resistance (BoLA DRB3*0902) or susceptibility (BoLA DRB3*1501) to the BLV progression. Specific primers were designed and differential amplification was carried out by real-time PCR and monitored by SYBR® Green dye in DNA samples from peripheral blood. Conditions were also adjusted for traditional PCR amplification (end point amplification). These methods are rapid, simple and suitable for high throughput screening, and could aid in marker-assisted selection of BLV-resistant and susceptible cattle. PMID:23958404

Forletti, A; Juliarena, M A; Ceriani, C; Amadio, A F; Esteban, E; Gutiérrez, S E

2013-12-01

234

Putative resistance gene markers associated with quantitative trait loci for fire blight resistance in Malus 'Robusta 5' accessions  

PubMed Central

Background Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fire blight resistance has been reported on linkage group 3 of Malus ‘Robusta 5’. In this study we identified markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes associated with the QTL by integrating further genetic mapping studies with bioinformatics analysis of transcript profiling data and genome sequence databases. Results When several defined E.amylovora strains were used to inoculate three progenies from international breeding programs, all with ‘Robusta 5’ as a common parent, two distinct QTLs were detected on linkage group 3, where only one had previously been mapped. In the New Zealand ‘Malling 9’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora ICMP11176, the proximal QTL co-located with SNP markers derived from a leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like protein ( MxdRLP1) and a closely linked class 3 peroxidase gene. While the QTL detected in the German ‘Idared’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea222_JKI or ICMP11176 was approximately 6?cM distal to this, directly below a SNP marker derived from a heat shock 90 family protein gene ( HSP90). In the US ‘Otawa3’ X ‘Robusta5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea273 or E2002a, the position of the LOD score peak on linkage group 3 was dependent upon the pathogen strains used for inoculation. One of the five MxdRLP1 alleles identified in fire blight resistant and susceptible cultivars was genetically associated with resistance and used to develop a high resolution melting PCR marker. A resistance QTL detected on linkage group 7 of the US population co-located with another HSP90 gene-family member and a WRKY transcription factor previously associated with fire blight resistance. However, this QTL was not observed in the New Zealand or German populations. Conclusions The results suggest that the upper region of ‘Robusta 5’ linkage group 3 contains multiple genes contributing to fire blight resistance and that their contributions to resistance can vary depending upon pathogen virulence and other factors. Mapping markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes has proved a useful aid in defining these QTLs and developing markers for marker-assisted breeding of fire blight resistance. PMID:22471693

2012-01-01

235

Genic Microsatellite Markers in Brassica rapa: Development, Characterization, Mapping, and Their Utility in Other Cultivated and Wild Brassica Relatives  

PubMed Central

Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species. PMID:21768136

Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

2011-01-01

236

Construction of Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) Hal01 Locus Allelic Ladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allelic ladders contain all the alleles at a given locus and since the components of the allelic ladder and the sample fragments have the same length and sequence, sizing is very accurate when conducted with an allelic ladder. Allelic ladders are therefore very useful in population genetics studies. For this study, an allelic ladder for the Bald Eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus,

Manali Patel

2012-01-01

237

Becoming Lesbian Adoptive Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legal, public policy, and social biases make the process of becoming a family difficult for lesbian and gay parents. Currently Massachusetts prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation against individuals who apply to become adoptive parents, and allows second parent adoptions enabling adults to adopt a partner's child. We surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents

Lynn M. Shelley-Sireci; Claudia Ciano-Boyce

2002-01-01

238

Excess of transmission of the G allele of the -1438A/G polymorphism of the 5-HT2A receptor gene in patients with schizophrenia responsive to antipsychotics  

PubMed Central

Background The -1438A/G polymorphism of the 5-HT2A gene has been found to be associated with clinical response to clozapine and other second generation antipsychotics. Testing the impact of this marker on response to first generation antipsychotics (which have a lower affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor) provides the opportunity to help disentangling the two different roles that this polymorphism might have. A psychopharmacogenetic role should be detected only for antipsychotics with high affinity to the 5-HT2A receptor (therefore to second generation antipsychotics). An alternative role would imply tagging a subgroup of patients responsive to any antipsychotic, whatever their affinity, meaning that the association is more depending on non pharmacological charaterictics, such as clinical specificities. Methods A family-based sample of 100 Algerian patients with schizophrenia (according to DSM-IV criteria) and their 200 biological parents was recruited, in order to avoid stratification biases. Patients were all treated, or have been treated, by conventional antipsychotics (mainly haloperidol) for at least four weeks, at appropriate dosage. May and Dencker scale was used to distinguish responders and non responders. Results No allele of the -1438A/G polymorphism of the 5-HT2A gene was transmitted in excess (50 transmitted for 38 untransmitted) in the whole sample of patients with schizophrenia (p = .90). In contrast, a significant excess of transmission of the G allele was observed (p = .02) in the subgroup of patients with good treatment response (17 transmitted for 6 untransmitted). Conclusion Using a TDT approach, we showed that the G allele of the -1438A/G polymorphism of the gene coding for the 5-HT2A receptor was associated to schizophrenia with good response to conventional antipsychotics, although this conclusion is based on 88 informative patients only. Because previous data showed the same result with atypical antipsychotics, it can be concluded that the G allele tags a subgroup of schizophrenic patients with greater chance of improvement with antipsychotics of either type. PMID:18513383

Benmessaoud, Dalila; Hamdani, Nora; Boni, Claudette; Ramoz, Nicolas; Hamon, Michel; Kacha, Farid; Gorwood, Philip

2008-01-01

239

Genetic Variability and Distribution of Mating Type Alleles in Field Populations of Leptosphaeria maculans from France  

PubMed Central

Leptosphaeria maculans is the most ubiquitous fungal pathogen of Brassica crops and causes the devastating stem canker disease of oilseed rape worldwide. We used minisatellite markers to determine the genetic structure of L. maculans in four field populations from France. Isolates were collected at three different spatial scales (leaf, 2-m2 field plot, and field) enabling the evaluation of spatial distribution of the mating type alleles and of genetic variability within and among field populations. Within each field population, no gametic disequilibrium between the minisatellite loci was detected and the mating type alleles were present at equal frequencies. Both sexual and asexual reproduction occur in the field, but the genetic structure of these populations is consistent with annual cycles of randomly mating sexual reproduction. All L. maculans field populations had a high level of gene diversity (H = 0.68 to 0.75) and genotypic diversity. Within each field population, the number of genotypes often was very close to the number of isolates. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that >99.5% of the total genetic variability was distributed at a small spatial scale, i.e., within 2-m2 field plots. Population differentiation among the four field populations was low (GST < 0.02), suggesting a high degree of gene exchange between these populations. The high gene flow evidenced here in French populations of L. maculans suggests a rapid countrywide diffusion of novel virulence alleles whenever novel resistance sources are used. PMID:16391041

Gout, Lilian; Eckert, Maria; Rouxel, Thierry; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène

2006-01-01

240

Four novel PEPD alleles causing prolidase deficiency  

SciTech Connect

Mutations at the PEPD locus cause prolidase (an enzyme specific for proline- and hydroxyproline-terminated dipeptides) deficiency (McKusick 170100), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by iminodipeptiduria, skin ulcers, mental retardation, and recurrent infections. Four PEPD mutations from five severely affected individuals were characterized by analysis of reverse-transcribed, PCR-amplified (RT-PCR) cDNA. The authors used SSCP analysis on four overlapping cDNA fragments covering the entire coding region of the PEPD gene and detected abnormal SSCP bands for the fragments spanning all or part of exons 13-15 in three of the probands. Direct sequencing of the mutant cDNAs showed a G[yields]A, 1342 substitution (G448R) in two patients and a 3-bp deletion ([Delta]E452 or [Delta]E453) in another. In the other two probands the amplified products were of reduced size. Direct sequencing of these mutant cDNAs revealed a deletion of exon 5 in one patient and of exon 7 in the other. Intronic sequences flanking exons 5 and 7 were identified using inverse PCR followed by direct sequencing. Conventional PCR and direct sequencing then established the intron-exon borders of the mutant genomic DNA revealing two splice acceptor mutations: a G[yields]C substitution at position -1 of intron 4 and an A[yields]G substitution at position -2 of intron 6. The results indicate that the severe form of prolidase deficiency is caused by multiple PEPD alleles. In this report the authors attempt to begin the process of describing these alleles and cataloging their phenotype expression. 31 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Ledoux, P.; Scriver, C.; Hechtman, P. (McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada))

1994-06-01

241

Development of microsatellite markers for Isodon longitubus (Lamiaceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for Isodon longitubus to study the natural hybridization of the species and its congeners. • Methods and Results: A total of 10 primer sets were developed for I. longitubus. From the initial screening, all of 10 loci were polymorphic with five to 19 alleles per locus in the Mt. Ishizuchi population, whereas nine loci were polymorphic with two to 12 alleles per loci in the Toon population. Although one locus was monomorphic at one population, the observed and expected heterozygosity values estimated from 34 I. longitubus samples ranged from 0.273 to 1.000 and from 0.483 to 0.918, respectively. Six primer sets could amplify all three species examined in this study (I. inflexus, I. japonicus, and I. shikokianus). • Conclusions: The 10 microsatellite markers developed here will be useful in analyzing the population genetic structure of I. longitubus and in studying the natural hybridization between Isodon species.

Yamashiro, Tadashi; Yamashiro, Asuka; Dohzono, Ikumi; Maki, Masayuki

2013-01-01

242

Can one learn history from the allelic spectrum?  

PubMed

It is well known that the neutral allelic frequency spectrum of a population is affected by the history of population size. A number of authors have used this fact to infer history given observed allele frequency data. We ask whether perfect information concerning the spectrum allows precise recovery of the history, and with an explicit example show that the answer is in the negative. This implies some limitations on how informative allelic spectra can be. PMID:18321552

Myers, Simon; Fefferman, Charles; Patterson, Nick

2008-05-01

243

Characterisation of novel S- alleles from cherry ( Prunus avium L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plant populations exhibiting gametophytic self-incompatibility, individuals harbouring rare S alleles are likely to have a reproductive advantage over individuals having more common alleles. Consequently, determination\\u000a of the self-incompatibility haplotype of individuals is essential for genetic studies and the development of informed management\\u000a strategies. This study characterises six new S alleles identified in wild cherry (Prunus avium L.). Investigations to

S. P. Vaughan; R. I. Boškovi?; A. Gisbert-Climent; K. Russell; K. R. Tobutt

2008-01-01

244

Isolation and characterization of 21 microsatellite markers in the barn owl (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

We report 21 new polymorphic microsatellite markers in the European barn owl (Tyto alba). The polymorphism of the reported markers was evaluated in a population situated in western Switzerland and in another from Tenerife, Canary Islands. The number of alleles per locus varies between two and 31, and expected heterozygosity per population ranges from 0.16 to 0.95. All loci are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no linkage disequilibrium was detected. Two loci exhibit a null allele in the Tenerife population. PMID:21585946

Burri, R; Antoniazza, S; Siverio, F; Klein, A; Roulin, A; Fumagalli, L

2008-09-01

245

Genographic: Permanent Markers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, the second in a set of lessons exploring migration, genetic markers, markers in context, and the Genographic Project (a five-year study of human origins and migration based on genetic markers), students will review background information about the basics of DNA and chromosomal structure. They will then explore the Genographic Project and the work of lead scientist Dr. Spencer Wells. Using a hands-on simulation activity, they will learn how genetic markers are passed from generation to generation and haplogroups are formed. Finally, they will use the Atlas of the Human Journey to track one genetic marker over time.

246

Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting

Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

247

Development of EST-based new SSR markers in seabuckthorn.  

PubMed

EST-based SSR markers were developed by screening a collection of 1584 clustered ESTs of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides). PCR primers were designed for the amplification of 30 microsatellite loci. Two to five allelic bands were displayed by nine primer pairs in H. rhamnoides genotypes and by eleven primer pairs in H. salicifolia genotypes. None of the thirty primer pairs detected polymorphism in H. tibetana genotypes. Considering the high polymorphism detected in the tested genotypes and their direct origin from the genic regions, these EST-SSR markers hold immense promise in seabuckthorn genome analysis, molecular breeding and population genetics. PMID:23572988

Jain, Ankit; Ghangal, Rajesh; Grover, Atul; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Sharma, Prakash C

2010-12-01

248

Mutated tumor alleles are expressed according to their DNA frequency  

PubMed Central

The transcription of tumor mutations from DNA into RNA has implications for biology, epigenetics and clinical practice. It is not clear if mutations are in general transcribed and, if so, at what proportion to the wild-type allele. Here, we examined the correlation between DNA mutation allele frequency and RNA mutation allele frequency. We sequenced the exome and transcriptome of tumor cell lines with large copy number variations, identified heterozygous single nucleotide mutations and absolute DNA copy number, and determined the corresponding DNA and RNA mutation allele fraction. We found that 99% of the DNA mutations in expressed genes are expressed as RNA. Moreover, we found a high correlation between the DNA and RNA mutation allele frequency. Exceptions are mutations that cause premature termination codons and therefore activate nonsense-mediated decay. Beyond this, we did not find evidence of any wide-scale mechanism, such as allele-specific epigenetic silencing, preferentially promoting mutated or wild-type alleles. In conclusion, our data strongly suggest that genes are equally transcribed from all alleles, mutated and wild-type, and thus transcribed in proportion to their DNA allele frequency. PMID:24752137

Castle, John C.; Loewer, Martin; Boegel, Sebastian; Tadmor, Arbel D.; Boisguerin, Valesca; de Graaf, Jos; Paret, Claudia; Diken, Mustafa; Kreiter, Sebastian; Tureci, Ozlem; Sahin, Ugur

2014-01-01

249

High-density Integrated Linkage Map Based on SSR Markers in Soybean  

PubMed Central

A well-saturated molecular linkage map is a prerequisite for modern plant breeding. Several genetic maps have been developed for soybean with various types of molecular markers. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are single-locus markers with high allelic variation and are widely applicable to different genotypes. We have now mapped 1810 SSR or sequence-tagged site markers in one or more of three recombinant inbred populations of soybean (the US cultivar ‘Jack’ × the Japanese cultivar ‘Fukuyutaka’, the Chinese cultivar ‘Peking’ × the Japanese cultivar ‘Akita’, and the Japanese cultivar ‘Misuzudaizu’ × the Chinese breeding line ‘Moshidou Gong 503’) and have aligned these markers with the 20 consensus linkage groups (LGs). The total length of the integrated linkage map was 2442.9 cM, and the average number of molecular markers was 90.5 (range of 70–114) for the 20 LGs. We examined allelic diversity for 1238 of the SSR markers among 23 soybean cultivars or lines and a wild accession. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, with an average of 2.8. Our high-density linkage map should facilitate ongoing and future genomic research such as analysis of quantitative trait loci and positional cloning in addition to marker-assisted selection in soybean breeding. PMID:19531560

Hwang, Tae-Young; Sayama, Takashi; Takahashi, Masakazu; Takada, Yoshitake; Nakamoto, Yumi; Funatsuki, Hideyuki; Hisano, Hiroshi; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Kono, Izumi; Hoshi, Masako; Hanawa, Masayoshi; Yano, Chizuru; Xia, Zhengjun; Harada, Kyuya; Kitamura, Keisuke; Ishimoto, Masao

2009-01-01

250

Development of EST-based new SSR markers in seabuckthorn  

Microsoft Academic Search

EST-based SSR markers were developed by screening a collection of 1584 clustered ESTs of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides). PCR primers were designed for the amplification of 30 microsatellite loci. Two to five allelic bands were displayed by\\u000a nine primer pairs in H. rhamnoides genotypes and by eleven primer pairs in H. salicifolia genotypes. None of the thirty primer pairs detected polymorphism

Ankit Jain; Rajesh Ghangal; Atul Grover; Saurabh Raghuvanshi; Prakash C. Sharma

2010-01-01

251

Power of Daughter and Granddaughter Designs for Determining Linkage Between Marker Loci and Quantitative Trait Loci in Dairy Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT There is considerable interest in bo- vine DNA-level polymorphic marker loci as a means of mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) of economic,importance in cattle. Progeny of a sire heterozygous for both a marker locus and a linked QTL, which,inherit different alleles for the marker, will have different trait means. Based on this, power to detect QTL, as , grandsire

J. I. Weller; Y. Kashi; M. Soller

1990-01-01

252

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF SEX-DETERMINING ALLELES IN HONEY BEES AND SELF-INCOMPATIBILITY ALLELES IN PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical theories of the population dynamics of sex-determining alleles in honey bees are developed. It is shown that in an infinitely large population the equilibrium frequency of a sex allele is l\\/n, where n is the number of alleles in the population, and the asymptotic rate of approach to this equilibrium is 2\\/(3n) per generation. Formulae for the distribution of

SHOZO YOKOYAMA; MASATOSHI NET

253

Carbamazepine-induced cutaneous reactions: A simple assay to identify patients carrying the HLA-A*31:01 allele.  

PubMed

Abstract Aims. Treatment with the first-line antiepileptic drug, carbamazepine (CBZ), is associated with adverse cutaneous reactions in up to 10% of patients. One predisposition to these side-effects has been linked to the HLA-A*31:01 allele. HLA-typing is costly and time-consuming. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs1061235A > T) has been suggested as a marker for the HLA-A*31:01 allele. We sought to develop and validate a simple, fast and inexpensive assay for rs1061235 to apply in the Norwegian population. Methods. We designed a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay for the SNP and tested it on a set of 16 samples with known HLA-A alleles. Results. The assay identified all HLA-A*31:01 alleles present, but also marked for HLA-A*33:03. In a second set of 204 samples from Norwegian epilepsy patients with unknown HLA alleles, nine samples heterozygous for the rs1061235 were found. Subsequent HLA-typing showed that one sample was HLA-A*33:01, whereas the other eight were identified as HLA-A*31:01. The remaining 195 samples were correctly identified as neither carrying the rs1061235 SNP nor HLA-A*31:01. The sensitivity and specificity of the rs1061235 SNP test was 100% and 99.5%, respectively. Misinterpretation of the rare HLA-A*33 variants as HLA-A*31:01 has minor consequence, as it only would result in choosing an alternative drug to CBZ. Conclusion. We have designed and validated a simple, fast and inexpensive test for the rs1061235A> T SNP as a marker for HLA-A*31:01 in the Norwegian population for potential use in a personalized treatment approach to patients planned to receive CBZ. PMID:24882392

Thorstensen, Ketil; Kvitland, Mona; Shirzadi, Maryam; Helde, Grethe; Moen, Torolf; Brodtkorb, Eylert

2014-10-01

254

Genetic Introgression and Species Boundary of Two Geographically Overlapping Pine Species Revealed by Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

Gene introgression and hybrid barriers have long been a major focus of studies of geographically overlapping species. Two pine species, Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis, are frequently observed growing adjacent to each other, where they overlap in a narrow hybrid zone. As a consequence, these species constitute an ideal system for studying genetic introgression and reproductive barriers between naturally hybridizing, adjacently distributed species. In this study, we sampled 270 pine trees along an elevation gradient in Anhui Province, China and analyzed these samples using EST-SSR markers. The molecular data revealed that direct gene flow between the two species was fairly low, and that the majority of gene introgression was intermediated by backcrossing. On the basis of empirical observation, the on-site distribution of pines was divided into a P. massoniana zone, a hybrid zone, and a P. hwangshanensis zone. STRUCTURE analysis revealed the existence of a distinct species boundary between the two pine species. The genetic boundary of the hybrid zone, on the other hand, was indistinct owing to intensive backcrossing with parental species. Compared with P. massoniana, P. hwangshanensis was found to backcross with the hybrids more intensively, consistent with the observation that morphological and anatomical characteristics of trees in the contact zone were biased towards P. hwangshanensis. The introgression ability of amplified alleles varied across species, with some being completely blocked from interspecific introgression. Our study has provided a living example to help explain the persistence of adjacently distributed species coexisting with their interfertile hybrids. PMID:24977711

Dai, Xiaogang; Xu, Jin; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

2014-01-01

255

Favorable QTL Alleles for Yield and Its Components Identified by Association Mapping in Chinese Upland Cotton Cultivars  

PubMed Central

Linkage disequilibrium based association mapping is a powerful tool for dissecting the genetic basis underlying complex traits. In this study, an association mapping panel consisting of 356 representative Upland cotton cultivars was constructed, evaluated in three environments and genotyped using 381 SSRs to detect molecular markers associated with lint yield and its components. The results showed that abundant phenotypic and moderate genetic diversities existed within this germplasm panel. The population could be divided into two subpopulations, and weak relatedness was detected between pair-wise accessions. LD decayed to the background (r2?=?0.1182, P?0.01), r2?=?0.1 and r2?=?0.2 level within 12–13 cM, 17–18 cM and 3–4 cM, respectively, providing the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in Chinese Upland cotton. A total of 55 marker-trait associations were detected between 26 SSRs and seven lint yield traits, based on a mixed linear model (MLM) and Bonferroni correction (P?0.05/145, ?log10P?3.46). Of which 41 could be detected in more than one environment and 17 markers were simultaneously associated with two or more traits. Many associations were consistent with QTLs identified by linkage mapping in previous reports. Phenotypic values of alleles of each loci in 41 stably detected associations were compared, and 23 favorable alleles were identified. Population frequency of each favorable allele in historically released cultivar groups was also evaluated. The QTLs detected in this study will be helpful in further understanding the genetic basis of lint yield and its components, and the favorable alleles may facilitate future high-yield breeding by genomic selection in Upland cotton. PMID:24386089

Mei, Hongxian; Zhu, Xiefei; Zhang, Tianzhen

2013-01-01

256

Genetic Anthropology of the Colorectal Cancer-Susceptibility Allele APC I1307K: Evidence of Genetic Drift within the Ashkenazim  

PubMed Central

The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) I1307K allele is found in 6% of the Ashkenazi Jewish population and in 1%–2% of Sephardi Jews; it confers a relative risk of 1.5–2.0 for colorectal cancer (CRC) on all carriers. Within the Ashkenazim, the existence of numerous high-prevalence mutations, including I1307K, has sparked controversy over whether genetic drift or selection is the underlying cause. For the present population-based case-control study of CRC in Israel, we tested whether selection has operated at I1307K. We also estimated the age of the I1307K allele, to understand its origin in the context of the Jewish diasporas and subsequent founder events. We genotyped 83 matched pairs, in which one or both members of the pair carried I1307K, at three microsatellites and two SNPs. Haplotypes were statistically constructed using PHASE software. Single-marker age estimates for I1307K were calculated using the approach described by Risch et al. A common progenitor haplotype spanned across APC I1307K from the centromeric marker D5S135 to the telomeric marker D5S346 and was observed in individuals of Ashkenazi, Sephardi, and Arab descent. The ancestor of modern I1307K alleles existed 87.9–118 generations ago (?2,200–2,950 years ago). This age estimate indicates that I1307K existed at about the time of the beginning of the Jewish diaspora, explaining its presence in non-Ashkenazi populations. Our data do not indicate that selection operated at I1307K (D5S346, P=.114; D5S135, P=.373), providing compelling evidence that the high frequency of disease-susceptibility alleles in the Ashkenazim is due to genetic drift, not selection. This research underscores the importance of the migratory patterns of ancestral populations in the ethnic and geographic distribution of APC I1307K. PMID:14624392

Niell, Bethany L.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Rennert, Gad; Gruber, Stephen B.

2003-01-01

257

Inheritance and interactions of incompatibility alleles in the tetraploid sour cherry.  

PubMed

Three progenies of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) were analysed to correlate self-(in)compatibility status with S-RNase phenotype in this allotetraploid hybrid of sweet and ground cherry. Self-(in)compatibility was assessed in the field and by monitoring pollen tube growth after selfing. The S-RNase phenotypes were determined by isoelectric focusing of stylar proteins and staining for RNase activity and, for the parents, confirmed by PCR. Seedling phenotypes were generally consistent with disomic segregation of S-RNase alleles. The genetic arrangements of the parents were deduced to be 'Köröser' (self-incompatible) S1S4.S(B) S(D), 'Schattenmorelle' (self-compatible) S6S13.S(B)S(B), and clone 43.87 (self-compatible) S4S13.S(B)S(B), where "." separates the two homologous genomes. The presence of S4 and S6 alleles at the same locus led to self-incompatibility, whereas S13 and S(B) at homologous loci led to self-compatibility. The failure of certain heteroallelic genotypes in the three crosses or in the self-incompatible seedlings indicates that S4 and S6 are dominant to S(B). However, the success of S13S(B) pollen on styles expressing corresponding S-RNases indicates competitive interaction or lack of pollen-S components. In general, the universal compatibility of S13S(B) pollen may explain the frequent occurrence of S13 and S(B) together in sour cherry cultivars. Alleles S(B) and S(D), that are presumed to derive from ground cherry, and S13, presumably from sweet cherry, were sequenced. Our findings contribute to an understanding of inheritance of self-(in)compatibility, facilitate screening of progenies for self-compatibility and provide a basis for studying molecular interactions in heteroallelic pollen. PMID:16307228

Boskovi?, R I; Wolfram, B; Tobutt, K R; Cerovi?, R; Sonneveld, T

2006-01-01

258

Allele-Specific Amplification in Cancer Revealed by SNP Array Analysis  

PubMed Central

Amplification, deletion, and loss of heterozygosity of genomic DNA are hallmarks of cancer. In recent years a variety of studies have emerged measuring total chromosomal copy number at increasingly high resolution. Similarly, loss-of-heterozygosity events have been finely mapped using high-throughput genotyping technologies. We have developed a probe-level allele-specific quantitation procedure that extracts both copy number and allelotype information from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data to arrive at allele-specific copy number across the genome. Our approach applies an expectation-maximization algorithm to a model derived from a novel classification of SNP array probes. This method is the first to our knowledge that is able to (a) determine the generalized genotype of aberrant samples at each SNP site (e.g., CCCCT at an amplified site), and (b) infer the copy number of each parental chromosome across the genome. With this method, we are able to determine not just where amplifications and deletions occur, but also the haplotype of the region being amplified or deleted. The merit of our model and general approach is demonstrated by very precise genotyping of normal samples, and our allele-specific copy number inferences are validated using PCR experiments. Applying our method to a collection of lung cancer samples, we are able to conclude that amplification is essentially monoallelic, as would be expected under the mechanisms currently believed responsible for gene amplification. This suggests that a specific parental chromosome may be targeted for amplification, whether because of germ line or somatic variation. An R software package containing the methods described in this paper is freely available at http://genome.dfci.harvard.edu/~tlaframb/PLASQ. PMID:16322765

2005-01-01

259

Methylation Allelic Polymorphism (MAP) in Chorionic Gonadotropin ?5 (CGB5) and Its Association with Pregnancy Success  

PubMed Central

Context: Increased epigenetic variability in the placenta may have evolved in response to its role in mediating the conflicting demands of the mother and fetus. One essential guardian of early pregnancy maintenance is the placental hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Objective: Among the four primate-specific duplicate HCG?-coding genes, chorionic gonadotropin-?8 (CGB8) and chorionic gonadotropin-?5 (CGB5) jointly contribute 62–82% of the total HCG? transcript pool. Because these genes share common features with known imprinted placenta-expressed loci, we addressed the role of epigenetic mechanisms affecting their action. Design and Subjects: Parental origin of CGB5 and CGB8 transcripts and promoter methylation patterns were addressed in trophoblastic tissues from 23 mother-offspring duos and nine mother-father-offspring trios including the following: 1) third-trimester normal delivery at term (n = 14), 2) first-trimester elective termination of uncomplicated pregnancy (n = 10), and 3) first-trimester recurrent (?3) miscarriage (n = 8). Results: A normal uncomplicated pregnancy was characterized by balanced, biallelic expression of CGB5 and CGB8. However, in three (two recurrent miscarriage and one early elective termination of uncomplicated pregnancy) of nine genetically informative cases of CGB5, monoallelic expression of maternal alleles and hemimethylated gene promoters were identified. Conclusion: Our finding may represent a novel methylation allelic polymorphism or gain of imprinting in CGB5 promoter leading to expressional silencing of paternal alleles and increasing susceptibility to pregnancy loss. Aberrant methylation patterns in placenta may result from random reprogramming defects affecting normal implantation process. Alternatively, methylation allelic polymorphism in the placenta favoring the failure of pregnancy may arise as a response to cellular stress caused by, in general, aneuploidy or conditions in placental-maternal interface. PMID:20962020

Uuskula, Liis; Rull, Kristiina; Nagirnaja, Liina; Laan, Maris

2011-01-01

260

Genetic diversity in European pigs utilizing amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.  

PubMed

The use of DNA markers to evaluate genetic diversity is an important component of the management of animal genetic resources. The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) has published a list of recommended microsatellite markers for such studies; however, other markers are potential alternatives. This paper describes results obtained with a set of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers as part of a genetic diversity study of European pig breeds that also utilized microsatellite markers. Data from 148 AFLP markers genotyped across samples from 58 European and one Chinese breed were analysed. The results were compared with previous analyses of data from 50 microsatellite markers genotyped on the same animals. The AFLP markers had an average within-breed heterozygosity of 0.124 but there was wide variation, with individual markers being monomorphic in 3-98% of the populations. The biallelic and dominant nature of AFLP markers creates a challenge for their use in genetic diversity studies as each individual marker contains limited information and AFLPs only provide indirect estimates of the allelic frequencies that are needed to estimate genetic distances. Nonetheless, AFLP marker-based characterization of genetic distances was consistent with expectations based on breed and regional distributions and produced a similar pattern to that obtained with microsatellites. Thus, data from AFLP markers can be combined with microsatellite data for measuring genetic diversity. PMID:16734682

SanCristobal, M; Chevalet, C; Peleman, J; Heuven, H; Brugmans, B; van Schriek, M; Joosten, R; Rattink, A P; Harlizius, B; Groenen, M A M; Amigues, Y; Boscher, M-Y; Russell, G; Law, A; Davoli, R; Russo, V; Dèsautés, C; Alderson, L; Fimland, E; Bagga, M; Delgado, J V; Vega-Pla, J L; Martinez, A M; Ramos, M; Glodek, P; Meyer, J N; Gandini, G; Matassino, D; Siggens, K; Laval, G; Archibald, A; Milan, D; Hammond, K; Cardellino, R; Haley, C; Plastow, G

2006-06-01

261

Microsatellite DNA markers for delineating population structure and kinship among the endangered Kirtland's warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We document the isolation and characterization of 23 microsatellite DNA markers for the endangered Kirtland's warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii), a Nearctic/Neotropical migrant passerine. This suite of markers revealed moderate to high levels of allelic diversity (averaging 7.7 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 72%). Genotypic frequencies at 22 of 23 (95%) markers conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations, and no linkage disequilibrium was observed in blood samples taken from 14 warblers found on the wintering grounds in the Bahamas archipelago. Multilocus genotypes resulting from this suite of markers should reduce the amount of resources required for initiating new genetic studies assessing breeding structure, parentage, demographics, and individual-level ecological interactions for D. kirtlandii. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

King, T.L.; Eackles, M.S.; Henderson, A.P.; Bocetti, C.I.; Currie, D.; Wunderle, J.M., Jr.

2005-01-01

262

Characterization of fungus-specific microsatellite markers in the lichen fungus Usnea subfloridana (Parmeliaceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the haploid lichenized fungal species Usnea subfloridana to study its population subdivision and the species’ response to forest disturbance, fragmentation, and environmental pollution. • Methods and Results: We developed 14 polymorphic microsatellite markers using 454 pyrosequencing data of U. subfloridana. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 15, and Nei’s unbiased gene diversity averaged over nine markers without null alleles ranged from 0.64 to 0.67. Evaluation of the cross-species amplification in U. glabrescens and U. wasmuthii indicates that these markers are also informative in other Usnea species. • Conclusions: These markers will allow us to investigate the effects of forest management and environmental pollution on genetic population structure of U. subfloridana and closely related species. Moreover, they will help facilitate phylogeographic studies of U. subfloridana across the species’ distribution area in Europe. PMID:25202640

Torra, Tiiu; Cornejo, Carolina; Cheenacharoen, Saran; Dal Grande, Francesco; Marmor, Liis; Scheidegger, Christoph

2014-01-01

263

QTL Analysis for Transgressive Resistance to Root-Knot Nematode in Interspecific Cotton (Gossypium spp.) Progeny Derived from Susceptible Parents  

PubMed Central

The southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a major soil-inhabiting plant parasite that causes significant yield losses in cotton (Gossypium spp.). Progeny from crosses between cotton genotypes susceptible to RKN produced segregants in subsequent populations which were highly resistant to this parasite. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 138 lines developed from a cross between Upland cotton TM-1 (G. hirsutum L.) and Pima 3–79 (G. barbadense L.), both susceptible to RKN, was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) determining responses to RKN in greenhouse infection assays with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Compared to both parents, 53.6% and 52.1% of RILs showed less (P<0.05) root-galling index (GI) and had lower (P<0.05) nematode egg production (eggs per gram root, EGR). Highly resistant lines (transgressive segregants) were identified in this RIL population for GI and/or EGR in two greenhouse experiments. QTLs were identified using the single-marker analysis nonparametric mapping Kruskal-Wallis test. Four major QTLs located on chromosomes 3, 4, 11, and 17 were identified to account for 8.0 to 12.3% of the phenotypic variance (R2) in root-galling. Two major QTLs accounting for 9.7% and 10.6% of EGR variance were identified on chromosomes 14 and 23 (P<0.005), respectively. In addition, 19 putative QTLs (P<0.05) accounted for 4.5–7.7% of phenotypic variance (R2) in GI, and 15 QTLs accounted for 4.2–7.3% of phenotypic variance in EGR. In lines with alleles positive for resistance contributed by both parents in combinations of two to four QTLs, dramatic reductions of >50% in both GI and EGR were observed. The transgressive segregants with epistatic effects derived from susceptible parents indicate that high levels of nematode resistance in cotton may be attained by pyramiding positive alleles using a QTL mapping approach. PMID:22514682

Wang, Congli; Ulloa, Mauricio; Mullens, Teresa R.; Yu, John Z.; Roberts, Philip A.

2012-01-01

264

Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

2006-01-01

265

Development of Microsatellite Markers in Pungtungia herzi Using Next-Generation Sequencing and Cross-Species Amplification in the Genus Pseudopungtungia  

PubMed Central

Nuclear microsatellite markers for Pungtungia herzi were developed using a combination of next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. One hundred primer sets in the flanking region of dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeat motifs were designed and tested for efficiency in polymerase chain reaction amplification. Of these primer sets, 16 new markers (16%) were successfully amplified with unambiguous polymorphic alleles in 16 individuals of Pungtungia herzi. Cross-species amplification with these markers was then examined in two related species, Pseudopungtungia nigra and Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa. Fifteen and 11 primer pairs resulted in successful amplification in Pseudopungtungia nigra and Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa, respectively, with various polymorphisms, ranging from one allele (monomorphic) to 11 alleles per marker. These results indicated that developing microsatellite markers for cross-amplification from a species that is abundant and phylogenetically close to the species of interest is a good alternative when tissue samples of an endangered species are insufficient to develop microsatellites. PMID:24084733

Yun, Young-Eun; Yu, Jeong-Nam; Kim, Sang Ki; Hwang, Ui Wook; Kwak, Myounghai

2013-01-01

266

Effects of parental number and duration of the breeding period on the effective population size and genetic diversity of a captive population of the endangered Tokyo bitterling Tanakia tanago (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

The maintenance of genetic diversity is one of the chief concerns in the captive breeding of endangered species. Using microsatellite and mtDNA markers, we examined the effects of two key variables (parental number and duration of breeding period) on effective population size (N(e) ) and genetic diversity of offspring in an experimental breeding program for the endangered Tokyo bitterling, Tanakia tanago. Average heterozygosity and number of alleles of offspring estimated from microsatellite data increased with parental number in a breeding aquarium, and exhibited higher values for a long breeding period treatment (9 weeks) compared with a short breeding period (3 weeks). Haplotype diversity in mtDNA of offspring decreased with the reduction in parental number, and this tendency was greater for the short breeding period treatment. Genetic estimates of N(e) obtained with two single-sample estimation methods were consistently higher for the long breeding period treatment with the same number of parental fish. Average N(e) /N ratios were ranged from 0.5 to 1.4, and were high especially in the long breeding period with small and medium parental number treatments. Our results suggest that the spawning intervals of females and alternative mating behaviors of males influence the effective size and genetic diversity of offspring in bitterling. To maintain the genetic diversity of captive T. tanago, we recommend that captive breeding programs should be conducted for a sufficiently long period with an optimal level of parental density, as well as using an adequate number of parents. PMID:22052781

Kubota, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Katsutoshi

2012-01-01

267

Case-control study of allele frequencies of 15 short tandem repeat loci in males with impulsive violent behavior  

PubMed Central

Background Analysis of genetic polymorphisms in short tandem repeats (STRs) is an accepted method for detecting associations between genotype and phenotype but it has not previously been used in the study of the genetics of impulsive violent behavior. Objective Compare the prevalence of different polymorphisms in 15 STR loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA) between men with a history of impulsive violence and male control subjects without a history of impulsive violence. Methods The distributions of the alleles of the 15 STR loci were compared between 407 cases with impulsive violent behavior and 415 controls using AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ kits. Results Compared to controls, the average frequencies of the following alleles were significantly lower in individuals with a history of violent behavior: allele 10 of TH01 (OR=0.29, 95%CI=0.16-0.52, p<0.0001,), allele 8 of TPOX (OR=0.71, 95%CI=0.58-0.86, p=0.0005), allele 9 of TPOX (OR=0.65, 95%CI=0.47-0.89, p=0.0072) and allele 14 of CSF1PO (OR=0.27, 95%CI=0.11-0.68, p=0.0035). One allele was significantly higher in cases than controls: allele 11 of TPOX (OR=1.79, 95%CI=1.45-2.22, p<0.0001). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first behavioral genetic study that clearly demonstrates a close relationship between specific genetic markers and impulsive aggression in non-psychiatric offenders. Further prospective work will be needed to determine whether or not the alleles identified can be considered risk factors for impulsive aggression and, if so, the underlying mechanisms that result in this relationship. PMID:24991178

Yang, Chun; Ba, Huajie; Gao, Zhiqin; Zhao, Hanqing; Yu, Haiying; Guo, Wei

2013-01-01

268

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access MHC allele frequency distributions under  

E-print Network

immune response [5]. Para- sites are under evolutionary pressure to evade detection by the host immune in recognition of non-self oligopeptides, is thought to result from a pressure exerted by parasites because, having hundreds of alleles in human populations and, generally, dozens of alleles in other vertebrate

Richner, Heinz

269

Continuity in Parent-Child Relationships from Infancy to Middle Childhood and Relations with Friendship Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined continuity in parent-child relationships in a sample of German families. Traced connections between individual differences in a composite of markers of the parent-child attachment relationship system and later parent-child communications. Found that the composite modestly predicted variability in children's competence in forming…

Freitag, Milam K.; And Others

1996-01-01

270

Identification of parents of F1 hybrids through SSR profiling of maternal and hybrid tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of maternally inherited pericarp tissue to be useful as a source from which molecular marker profiles of the inbred\\u000a parents can be generated was investigated, using pericarp and kernel tissue from reciprocal crosses of five maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids and their parental inbred lines. Genotypes were examined using ten SSR loci for each hybrid and their parents.

J. Wang; G. Y. Zhong; E. C. L. Chin; J. C. Register; R. D. Riley; W. S. Niebur; J. S. C. Smith

2002-01-01

271

Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) for chickpea Fusarium oxysporum wilt resistant genotypes using PCR based molecular markers.  

PubMed

The exploration of genetically superior accessions is the key source of germplasm conservation and potential breeding material for the future. To meet the demand of better yielding chickpea cultivars in Pakistan the present study was organized to select more stable and resistant lines from indigenous as well as exotic chickpea germplasm obtained from Plant Genetic Resource Institute (PGRI), National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. For the identification and evaluation of chickpea wilt resistant lines against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Schlechtends), the germplasm was tested in the field for the selection of wilt resistant lines and the PCR based molecular markers were investigated to use Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) for selection of the desirable cultivars. In field trial, 70 % accessions were resistant to wilt disease, while the remaining 30 % have shown susceptibility to the disease. A total of 5 RAPD and 15 SSR markers were screened for molecular based characterization of wilt response. The data of molecular markers were scored by the presence (1) and absence (0) of allele and subjected to statistical analysis. The analysis was based on coefficient of molecular similarity using UPGMA and sorted the germplasm into two groups based on disease response. Among the total used RAPD/SSR primers, only TA194 SSR marker showed linkage to wilt resistant locus at 85 % probability. The linkage of a marker was reconfirmed by receiver operating characteristic curve. The use of the sorted wilt resistant genotypes through SSR marker TA194 can make available ample prospect in MAS breeding for yield improvement of the crop in Pakistan. PMID:25017202

Ahmad, Zakia; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad; Ghafoor, Abdul; Ali, Amjad; Nisar, Mohammad

2014-10-01

272

Statistical Studies on Protein Polymorphism in Natural Populations. III. Distribution of Allele Frequencies and the Number of Alleles per Locus  

PubMed Central

With the aim of understanding the mechanism of maintenance of protein polymorphism, we have studied the properties of allele frequency distribution and the number of alleles per locus, using gene-frequency data from a wide range of organisms (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, Drosophila and non-Drosophila invertebrates) in which 20 or more loci with at least 100 genes were sampled. The observed distribution of allele frequencies was U-shaped in all of the 138 populations (mostly species or subspecies) examined and generally agreed with the theoretical distribution expected under the mutation-drift hypothesis, though there was a significant excess of rare alleles (gene frequency, 0 ? 0.05) in about a quarter of the populations. The agreement between the mutation-drift theory and observed data was quite satisfactory for the numbers of polymorphic (gene frequency, 0.05 ? 0.95) and monomorphic (0.95 ? 1.0) alleles.—The observed pattern of allele-frequency distribution was incompatible with the prediction from the overdominance hypothesis. The observed correlations of the numbers of rare alleles, polymorphic alleles and monomorphic alleles with heterozygosity were of the order of magnitude that was expected under the mutation-drift hypothesis. Our results did not support the view that intracistronic recombination is an important source of genetic variation. The total number of alleles per locus was positively correlated with molecular weight in most of the species examined, and the magnitude of the correlation was consistent with the theoretical prediction from mutation-drift hypothesis. The correlation between molecular weight and the number of alleles was generally higher than the correlation between molecular weight and heterozygosity, as expected. PMID:17249018

Chakraborty, Ranajit; Fuerst, Paul A.; Nei, Masatoshi

1980-01-01

273

Analysis of HLA class II haplotypes in the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador: a novel DRB1 allele reveals evidence for convergent evolution and balancing selection at position 86.  

PubMed Central

PCR amplification, oligonucleotide probe typing, and sequencing were used to analyze the HLA class II loci (DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1) of an isolated South Amerindian tribe. Here we report HLA class II variation, including the identification of a new DRB1 allele, several novel DR/DQ haplotypes, and an unusual distribution of DPB1 alleles, among the Cayapa Indians (N = 100) of Ecuador. A general reduction of HLA class II allelic variation in the Cayapa is consistent with a population bottle-neck during the colonization of the Americas. The new Cayapa DRB1 allele, DRB1*08042, which arose by a G-->T point mutation in the parental DRB1*0802, contains a novel Val codon (GTT) at position 86. The generation of DRB1*08042 (Val-86) from DRB1*0802 (Gly-86) in the Cayapa, by a different mechanism than the (GT-->TG) change in the creation of DRB1*08041 (Val-86) from DRB1*0802 in Africa, implicates selection in the convergent evolution of position 86 DR beta variants. The DRB1*08042 allele has not been found in > 1,800 Amerindian haplotypes and thus presumably arose after the Cayapa separated from other South American Amerindians. Selection pressure for increased haplotype diversity can be inferred in the generation and maintenance of three new DRB1*08042 haplotypes and several novel DR/DQ haplotypes in this population. The DPB1 allelic distribution in the Cayapa is also extraordinary, with two alleles, DPB1*1401, a very rare allele in North American Amerindian populations, and DPB1*0402, the most common Amerindian DPB1 allele, constituting 89% of the Cayapa DPB1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8023844

Titus-Trachtenberg, E. A.; Rickards, O.; De Stefano, G. F.; Erlich, H. A.

1994-01-01

274

Involving Divorced Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In divorced families, the noncustodial parent is usually as important to the child as the residential parent. Schools should avoid actions that cause parental conflict, place one parent in a sole decision-making role, or deny a parent's access to information or involvement. School responsibilities governing routine correspondence, cyclical and…

Tarriff, Harold M.; Levine, Valerie

1993-01-01

275

Discipline: Parents' and  

E-print Network

Parenting Styles and Discipline: Parents' and Children's Perspectives SUMMARY REPORT The National Children's Strategy Research Series #12;#12;Parenting Styles and Discipline: Parents' Perspectives SUMMARY national survey of parenting styles and discipline in Ireland. A large body of research literature

O'Mahony, Donal E.

276

Bone markers in osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current biological markers of bone turnover have proven useful in improving fracture risk assessment and monitoring treatment\\u000a efficacy in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recent developments in the field of bone markers include 1) identification of new\\u000a biochemical markers providing additional information on the complex pathways leading to bone fragility; 2) application of\\u000a novel technologies such as proteomics for the discovery of novel

Patrick Garnero

2009-01-01

277

Isolation and characterization of new microsatellite markers for rose bitterlings, Rhodeus ocellatus.  

PubMed

The Japanese rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus kurumeus) is facing imminent extinction because of hybridization and competition from an invasive alien subspecies (Rhodeus ocellatus ocellatus). Eleven new microsatellite markers for the two subspecies were developed using dinucleotide repeat specific polymerase chain reaction. The number of alleles per locus and the heterozygosity in R. o. kurumeus were lower than those in R. o. ocellatus. Most of these microsatellite markers were successfully cross-amplified in three Acheilognathinae species. PMID:21564829

Shirai, Y; Ikeda, S; Tajima, S

2009-05-01

278

Characterization of 29 polymorphic artiodactyl microsatellite markers for the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of a cross-species amplification test of 156 bovine, ovine and cervid micro- satellite markers in a wild population of mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus , inhabiting Caw Ridge, Alberta, Canada. Twenty-nine markers were found to be low to moderately poly- morphic with between two to nine alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.14 to 0.85 for

JULIEN MAINGUY; AMY S. LLEWELLYN; KIRSTY WORLEY; STEEVE D. COTE; DAVID W. COLTMAN

2005-01-01

279

Association of BoLA-DRB3 alleles with tick-borne disease tolerance in dairy cattle in a tropical environment.  

PubMed

Tick-borne disease is one of the most harmful tropical diseases in dairy production. Selection of dairy cows for tolerance to tick-borne disease is a challenging concept for dairy breeders in the tropics. The objectives of this study were (1) to detect specific tick-borne pathogen in cattle of different genetics and (2) to examine the polymorphisms of DRB3.2 alleles in Thai dairy cattle and find the allelic association with tick-borne disease tolerance. Specific primers to Anaplasma marginale (AM), Babesia bigemina (BG) and Babesia bovis (BB) were used to detect the infections by PCR. The results showed that the high proportion of infections were found in Bos indicus (Sahiwal, n=95) and crossbred Holstein × Zebu (75:25 Holstein:Zebu, n=101), compared to high Holstein fraction crossbreed (? 87.5% Holstein, n=187). The proportion of triple infections was also highly found in high Holstein fractions crossbreed. This study confirmed that Zebuine (Bos indicus) had a higher degree of tolerance, even when infected by tick-borne pathogens, compared to high Holstein fraction crossbred. The associated alleles of DRB3.2 for tick-borne pathogen infection tolerance were found: DRB3*14 and *41 were found to be tolerant to A. marginale; *14 to B. bovis; and *10 and *51 to B. bigemina. These tolerance alleles could be used as potential markers for selection in dairy genetic evaluation. The associated alleles for susceptibility were also found: *2 was found to be susceptible to A. marginale; *3 and *16 to B. bovis; and *20 to B. bigemina. These susceptibility alleles could be used as markers for culling, and selection favoring susceptibility alleles should be considered to maintain heterozygote advantage and pathogen-specific memories in the herd. PMID:23571121

Duangjinda, M; Jindatajak, Y; Tipvong, W; Sriwarothai, J; Pattarajinda, V; Katawatin, S; Boonkum, W

2013-09-23

280

Characterization of phenylalanine hydroxylase alleles in untreated phenylketonuria patients from Victoria, Australia: origin of alleles and haplotypes.  

PubMed

Mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene were identified in a group of untreated phenylketonuria patients from Victoria, Australia. Ninety-eight percent of the alleles were identified, and a total of 26 different mutations were detected on 83 independent chromosomes. The three most prevalent mutations--R408W, I65T, and IVS12nt1--together accounted for 54% of the alleles. A number of alleles were demonstrated, by genealogical studies, to be of Irish or Scottish origin, including a newly described mutation 1197/1198 del A. The distribution and relative frequencies of the more common alleles in this population parallel observed frequencies in the British Isles and are consistent with the known history of Caucasian settlement of this region of Australia. We have analyzed the haplotype and polymorphic short tandem-repeat allele of the mutant chromosomes and describe a number of new associations. PMID:7726156

Ramus, S J; Treacy, E P; Cotton, R G

1995-05-01

281

Characterization of phenylalanine hydroxylase alleles in untreated phenylketonuria patients from Victoria, Australia: origin of alleles and haplotypes.  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene were identified in a group of untreated phenylketonuria patients from Victoria, Australia. Ninety-eight percent of the alleles were identified, and a total of 26 different mutations were detected on 83 independent chromosomes. The three most prevalent mutations--R408W, I65T, and IVS12nt1--together accounted for 54% of the alleles. A number of alleles were demonstrated, by genealogical studies, to be of Irish or Scottish origin, including a newly described mutation 1197/1198 del A. The distribution and relative frequencies of the more common alleles in this population parallel observed frequencies in the British Isles and are consistent with the known history of Caucasian settlement of this region of Australia. We have analyzed the haplotype and polymorphic short tandem-repeat allele of the mutant chromosomes and describe a number of new associations. Images Figure 2 PMID:7726156

Ramus, S J; Treacy, E P; Cotton, R G

1995-01-01

282

CGG allele size somatic mosaicism and methylation in FMR1 premutation alleles  

PubMed Central

Background Greater than 200 CGG repeats in the 5?UTR of the FMR1 gene leads to epigenetic silencing and lack of the FMR1 protein, causing Fragile X Syndrome. Individuals carriers of a premutation (PM) allele with 55–200 CGG repeats are typically unmethylated and can present with clinical features defined as FMR1 associated conditions. Methods Blood samples from 17 male PM carriers were assessed clinically and molecularly by Southern Blot, Western Blot, PCR and QRT-PCR. Blood and brain tissue from additional 18 PM males were also similarly examined. Continuous outcomes were modeled using linear regression and binary outcomes were modeled using logistic regression. Results Methylated alleles were detected in different fractions of blood cells in all PM cases (n= 17). CGG repeat numbers correlated with percent of methylation and mRNA levels and, especially in the upper PM range, with greater number of clinical involvements. Inter/intra- tissue somatic instability and differences in percent methylation were observed between blood and fibroblasts (n=4) and also observed between blood and different brain regions in three of the 18 premutation cases examined. CGG repeat lengths in lymphocytes remained unchanged over a period of time ranging from 2–6 years, three cases for whom multiple samples were available. Conclusion In addition to CGG size instability, individuals with a PM expanded alleles can exhibit methylation and display more clinical features likely due to RNA toxicity and/or FMR1 silencing. The observed association between CGG repeat length and percent of methylation with the severity of the clinical phenotypes underscores the potential value of methylation in affected PM to further understand penetrance, inform diagnosis and to expand treatment options. PMID:24591415

Pretto, Dalyir I.; Mendoza-Morales, Guadalupe; Lo, Joyce; Cao, Ru; Hadd, Andrew; Latham, Gary J.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Hagerman, Randi; Tassone, Flora

2014-01-01

283

Parenting while Being Homeless  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

2014-01-01

284

The Parent Care Pavilion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes operation of the Parent Care Pavilion of the J. W. Riley Children's Hospital in Indianapolis, which encourages active parent involvement in care of hospitalized children on a 24-hour basis. Benefits to children, parents and staff are described. (BF)

Green, Morris; Green, Janice G.

1977-01-01

285

Questions about Biological Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... About Biological Parents Family Life Listen Questions About Biological Parents Article Body As you raise your adopted ... to her life—the fact that she has biological parents elsewhere—that may make it necessary for ...

286

Molecular Markers Allow to Remove Introgressed Genetic Background: A Simulation Study  

PubMed Central

The maintenance of genetically differentiated populations can be important for several reasons (whether for wild species or domestic breeds of economic interest). When those populations are introgressed by foreign individuals, methods to eliminate the exogenous alleles can be implemented to recover the native genetic background. This study used computer simulations to explore the usefulness of several molecular based diagnostic approaches to recover of a native population after suffering an introgression event where some exogenous alleles were admixed for a few generations. To remove the exogenous alleles, different types of molecular markers were used in order to decide which of the available individuals contributed descendants to next generation and their number of offspring. Recovery was most efficient using diagnostic markers (i.e., with private alleles) and least efficient when using alleles present in both native and exogenous populations at different frequencies. The increased inbreeding was a side-effect of the management strategy. Both values (% of native alleles and inbreeding) were largely dependent on the amount of exogenous individuals entering the population and the number of generations of admixture that occurred prior to management. PMID:23152901

Amador, Carmen; Toro, Miguel Angel; Fernandez, Jesus

2012-01-01

287

Association of HLA-DQB1*05:02 and DRB1*16 Alleles with Late-Onset, Nonthymomatous, AChR-Ab-Positive Myasthenia Gravis  

PubMed Central

An association of several HLA alleles with myasthenia gravis (MG) has been reported. Aim of this work was to analyze the HLA allele profile in a survey of 76 unselected Italian MG patients and in a subgroup characterized by disease onset after the age of 50 years, absence of thymoma, and presence of antiacetylcholine receptor antibodies. We defined this subgroup by the acronym LOAb. Typing was performed at low resolution for HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 loci with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (PCR-SSO); at high resolution for HLA-DQB1 locus by PCR with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSPS). HLA allele frequencies were compared with 100 healthy controls. No correlation was observed between MG and the studied HLA class I alleles. On the contrary, a strong positive association was found for the HLA class II alleles DQB1?05:02 (Pc = 0.00768) and DRB1?16 (Pc = 0.0211) in the LOAb subgroup (n = 27) of MG patients. Association between DQB1?05:02 and some subtypes of MG has been previously reported but not in patients with the LOAb characteristics. Therefore, the HLA allele DQB1?05:02 might be considered as a susceptibility marker for LOAb among Italians. PMID:23091703

Testi, Manuela; Terracciano, Chiara; Guagnano, Annalisa; Testa, Giuseppe; Marfia, Girolama A.; Pompeo, Eugenio; Andreani, Marco; Massa, Roberto

2012-01-01

288

Allelic sequence heterozygosity in single Giardia parasites  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic heterogeneity has become a major inconvenience in the genotyping and molecular epidemiology of the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis, in particular for the major human infecting genotype, assemblage B. Sequence-based genotyping of assemblage B Giardia from patient fecal samples, where one or several of the commonly used genotyping loci (beta-giardin, triosephosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase) are implemented, is often hampered due to the presence of sequence heterogeneity in the sequencing chromatograms. This can be due to allelic sequence heterozygosity (ASH) and /or co-infections with parasites of different assemblage B sub-genotypes. Thus, two important questions have arisen; i) does ASH occur at the single cell level, and/or ii) do multiple sub-genotype infections commonly occur in patients infected with assemblage B, G. intestinalis isolates? Results We used micromanipulation in order to isolate single Giardia intestinalis, assemblage B trophozoites (GS isolate) and cysts from human patients. Molecular analysis at the tpi loci of trophozoites from the GS lineage indicated that ASH is present at the single cell level. Analyses of assemblage B Giardia cysts from clinical samples at the bg and tpi loci also indicated ASH at the single cell level. Additionally, alignment of sequence data from several different cysts that originated from the same patient yielded different sequence patterns, thus suggesting the presence of multiple sub-assemblage infections in congruence with ASH within the same patient. Conclusions Our results conclusively show that ASH does occur at the single cell level in assemblage B Giardia. Furthermore, sequence heterogeneity generated during sequence-based genotyping of assemblage B isolates may possess the complexity of single cell ASH in concurrence with co-infections of different assemblage B sub-genotypes. These findings explain the high abundance of sequence heterogeneity commonly found when performing sequence based genotyping of assemblage B Giardia, and illuminates the necessity of developing new G. intestinalis genotyping tools. PMID:22554281

2012-01-01

289

Imprinted chromosomal domains revealed by allele-specific replication timing of the GABRB3 and GABRA5 genes  

SciTech Connect

The GABRB3 and GABRA5 genes are organized as a cluster in chromosome 15q11-q13. The genes are separated by around 100 kb and arranged in opposite transcriptional orientations. The GABA{sub A} receptor cluster lies near the Angelman and Prader-Willi loci and displays asynchronous DNA replication, suggesting that this region is subject to parental imprinting. In order to further study the association between DNA replication and imprinting, allele-specific replication was assayed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with {lambda}-phage probes from the GABRB3/A5 region and a D15Z1 satellite probe to identify the parental origin of each chromosome. The replication kinetics of each allele was determined by using a flow sorter to fractionate mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes on the basis of cell cycle progression prior to FISH analysis. These kinetic studies reveal a 50-150 kb chromosomal domain extending from the middle of the GABRB3/A5 intergenic region into the GABRA5 5{prime}-UTR which displays maternal replication in early S with paternal replication delayed until the end of S. In contrast, genomic regions on either side of this maternal early replication domain exhibit the opposite pattern with paternal before maternal replication and both alleles replicating in the latter half of S. These results indicate that the GABRB3/A5 region is divided into domains in which replication timing is determined by parental origin. In addition to a loss of asynchronous replication, organization into replication timing domains is also lost in lymphocytes from maternal and paternal uniparental disomy 15 patients suggesting that a chromosome contribution from both parents is required for the establishment of the imprinted replication domains.

LaSalle, J.; Flint, A.; Lalande, M. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

290

Parenting and Child DRD4 Genotype Interact to Predict Children’s Early Emerging Effortful Control  

PubMed Central

Effortful control (EC), or the trait-like capacity to regulate dominant responses, has important implications for children’s development. Although genetic factors and parenting likely influence EC, few studies have examined whether they interact to predict its development. The current study examined whether the DRD4 exon III variable number tandem repeat polymorphism moderated the relationship between parenting and children’s EC. A total of 382 three-year-olds and primary caregivers completed behavioural tasks assessing children’s EC and parenting. Children’s DRD4 genotypes moderated the relationship between parenting and EC: children with at least one 7-repeat allele displayed lower EC in the context of negative parenting than children without this allele. These findings suggest opportunities for modifying early risk for low EC. PMID:22862680

Smith, Heather J.; Sheikh, Haroon I.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Laptook, Rebecca S.; Durbin, C. Emily; Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Singh, Shiva M.; Klein, Daniel N.

2012-01-01

291

Parenting and Child DRD4 Genotype Interact to Predict Children's Early Emerging Effortful Control.  

PubMed

Effortful control (EC), or the trait-like capacity to regulate dominant responses, has important implications for children's development. Although genetic factors and parenting likely influence EC, few studies have examined whether they interact to predict its development. This study examined whether the DRD4 exon III variable number tandem repeat polymorphism moderated the relation between parenting and children's EC. Three hundred and eighty-two 3-year-olds and primary caregivers completed behavioral tasks assessing children's EC and parenting. Children's DRD4 genotypes moderated the relation between parenting and EC: Children with at least one 7-repeat allele displayed lower EC in the context of negative parenting than children without this allele. These findings suggest opportunities for modifying early risk for low EC. PMID:22862680

Smith, Heather J; Sheikh, Haroon I; Dyson, Margaret W; Olino, Thomas M; Laptook, Rebecca S; Durbin, C Emily; Hayden, Elizabeth P; Singh, Shiva M; Klein, Daniel N

2012-11-01

292

Punitive parenting practices of contemporary young parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To describe the punitive parenting practices of a cohort of young (<25 years) New Zealand parents and to examine the life course risk factors that placed these parents at increased risk of severe child physical punishment\\/abuse. Methods The data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study. At age 25, all respondents who had become a

Lianne J Woodward; David M Fergusson; Anna Chesney; L John Horwood

293

Cell Surface Markers Group  

Cancer.gov

Posted: 09/22/2014 Posted: 09/22/2014 Cell Surface Markers Group Dr. Gordon Whiteley, Cell Surface Markers Group Lead Contact Dr. Gordon Whiteley301-228-4347whiteleg@mail.nih.gov Current Work Protein drugs (such as antibodies) are among the most effective

294

Variable allelic expression of imprinted genes in human pluripotent stem cells during differentiation into specialized cell types in vitro.  

PubMed

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon by which a subset of genes is asymmetrically expressed in a parent-of-origin manner. However, little is known regarding the epigenetic behaviors of imprinted genes during human development. Here, we show dynamic epigenetic changes in imprinted genes in hESCs during in vitro differentiation into specialized cell types. Out of 9 imprinted genes with single nucleotide polymorphisms, mono-allelic expression for three imprinted genes (H19, KCNQ1OT1, and IPW), and bi- or partial-allelic expression for three imprinted genes (OSBPL5, PPP1R9A, and RTL1) were stably retained in H9-hESCs throughout differentiation, representing imprinting stability. Three imprinted genes (KCNK9, ATP10A, and SLC22A3) showed a loss and a gain of imprinting in a lineage-specific manner during differentiation. Changes in allelic expression of imprinted genes were observed in another hESC line during in vitro differentiation. These findings indicate that the allelic expression of imprinted genes may be vulnerable in a lineage-specific manner in human pluripotent stem cells during differentiation. PMID:24613840

Park, Sang-Wook; Kim, Jihoon; Park, Jong-Lyul; Ko, Ji-Yun; Im, Ilkyun; Do, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Hyemin; Tran, Ngoc-Tung; Lee, Sang-Hun; Kim, Yong Sung; Cho, Yee Sook; Lee, Dong Ryul; Han, Yong-Mahn

2014-04-01

295

Fostered and left behind alleles in peanut: interspecific QTL mapping reveals footprints of domestication and useful natural variation for breeding  

PubMed Central

Background Polyploidy can result in genetic bottlenecks, especially for species of monophyletic origin. Cultivated peanut is an allotetraploid harbouring limited genetic diversity, likely resulting from the combined effects of its single origin and domestication. Peanut wild relatives represent an important source of novel alleles that could be used to broaden the genetic basis of the cultigen. Using an advanced backcross population developed with a synthetic amphidiploid as donor of wild alleles, under two water regimes, we conducted a detailed QTL study for several traits involved in peanut productivity and adaptation as well as domestication. Results A total of 95 QTLs were mapped in the two water treatments. About half of the QTL positive effects were associated with alleles of the wild parent and several QTLs involved in yield components were specific to the water-limited treatment. QTLs detected for the same trait mapped to non-homeologous genomic regions, suggesting differential control in subgenomes as a consequence of polyploidization. The noteworthy clustering of QTLs for traits involved in seed and pod size and in plant and pod morphology suggests, as in many crops, that a small number of loci have contributed to peanut domestication. Conclusion In our study, we have identified QTLs that differentiated cultivated peanut from its wild relatives as well as wild alleles that contributed positive variation to several traits involved in peanut productivity and adaptation. These findings offer novel opportunities for peanut improvement using wild relatives. PMID:22340522

2012-01-01

296

[Peripheral markers, future perspectives].  

PubMed

Four of the recently described peripheral markers of alcohol abuse have been reviewed. The acetaldehyde adducts allow to detect an alcohol abuse lasting for several weeks, even after a recent alcohol withdrawal. Inversely, 5-hydroxytryptophol (5-HTOL) reflects the alcohol consumption of the last 24 hours. Its detection is possible after the blood alcohol concentration has disappeared. Its measurement is run in urine samples, thus without invasive sampling. The hyaluronic acid and the activity of beta-hexosaminidase are markers of hepatobiliary alcohol induced disorders more than direct markers of alcohol intake. Acetaldehyde adducts could be used as markers of long term alcohol abuse, CDT as a marker of the recent alcohol abuse, and 5-HTOL the detection of alcohol abuse of the past day. PMID:11762142

Schellenberg, F; Nalpas, B

2001-11-01

297

Identification of 24 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus).  

PubMed

Twenty-four polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus). The number of alleles ranged from two to 13 and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.032 to 0.871. The use of these loci should enable researchers and biologists to learn more about the population structure and ecology of this species. PMID:21564869

Fike, Jennifer A; Devault, Travis L; Rhodes, Olin E

2009-07-01

298

Identification of 24 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the double-crested cormorant ( Phalacrocorax auritus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus). The number of alleles ranged from two to 13 and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.032 to 0.871. The use of these loci should enable researchers and biologists to learn more about the population structure and ecology of this species.

JENNIFER A. FIKE; TRAVIS L. DEVAULT; OLIN E. RHODES

2009-01-01

299

The Effect of Marker Heterozygosity on the Power to Detect Linkage Disequilibrium  

PubMed Central

The relationship between marker heterozygosity and the power to detect linkage disequilibrium is examined through the analysis of an example and through a simulation study. The analysis suggests that, despite the penalties for multiple testing incurred with multiple alleles, greater heterozygosity results in greater power. The results of the simulation study are in accord with those of the analysis. PMID:9335624

Ott, J.; Rabinowitz, D.

1997-01-01

300

Genetic diversity and relationships of lotus ( Nelumbo) cultivars based on allozyme and ISSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity and genetic relationships of lotus (Nelumbo Adanson) cultivars were evaluated using allozyme and ISSR markers. The samples used covered 11 accessions of possible hybrids between Nelumbo nucifera and Nelumbo lutea and 92 accessions of N. nucifera including 69 flower lotus, 13 rhizome lotus, 5 seed lotus and 5 wild lotus. For allozyme studies, a total of 31 alleles

Hong-Li Tian; Jian-Hua Xue; Jun Wen; Grant Mitchell; Shi-Liang Zhou

2008-01-01

301

Development and characterization of twenty-five new polymorphic microsatellite markers in proso millet ( Panicum miliaceum L .)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millets such as proso millet have excellent nutritional properties and could become a basic resource for crop breeding programs\\u000a and food diversification. In this study, 25 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed and characterized through construction\\u000a of an SSR-enriched library from genomic DNA of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.). In total, 110 alleles were detected, with an average of 4.4 alleles

Young-Il Cho; Jong-Wook Chung; Gi-An Lee; Kyung-Ho Ma; Anupam Dixit; Jae-Gyun Gwag; Yong-Jin Park

2010-01-01

302

Analysis of maize brittle-1 alleles and a defective Suppressor-mutator-induced mutable allele.  

PubMed Central

A mutant allele of the maize brittle-1 (bt1) locus, brittle-1-mutable (bt1-m), was shown genetically and molecularly to result from the insertion of a defective Suppressor-mutator (dSpm) transposable element. An Spm-hybridizing restriction enzyme fragment, which cosegregates with the bt1-m allele and is absent from wild-type revertants of bt1-m, was identified and cloned. Non-Spm portions of it were used as probes to identify wild-type (Bt1) cDNAs in an endosperm library. The 4.3-kb bt1-m genomic clone contains a 3.3-kb dSpm, which is inserted in an exon and is composed of Spm termini flanking non-Spm sequences. RNA gel blot analyses, using a cloned Bt1 cDNA probe, indicated that Bt1 mRNA is present in the endosperm of developing kernels and is absent from embryo or leaf tissues. Several transcripts are produced by bt1-m. The deduced translation product from a 1.7-kb Bt1 cDNA clone has an apparent plastid transit peptide at its amino terminus and sequence similarity to several mitochondrial inner-envelope translocator proteins, suggesting a possible role in amyloplast membrane transport. PMID:1668652

Sullivan, T D; Strelow, L I; Illingworth, C A; Phillips, R L; Nelson, O E

1991-01-01

303

On the power of experimental designs for the detection of linkage between marker loci and quantitative loci in crosses between inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power of experiments aimed at detecting linkage between a quantitative locus and a marker locus, both segregating in the backross or F2 generation of a cross between two inbred lines, is examined. Given that the two lines are close to fixation for alternative alleles of both marker locus and quantitative locus, it is concluded that experiments involving a few

M. Soller; T. Brody; A. Genizi

1976-01-01

304

Characterization of new microsatellite markers of Siganus fuscescens (Siganidae).  

PubMed

Siganus fuscescens, which is a small commercially important marine fish, is wildly distributed in shallow waters throughout the tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific and Eastern Mediterranean regions. It is part of a group known as rabbitfish. Fifteen new polymorphic microsatellite markers for S. fuscescens were identified, and 32 wild individuals were used to evaluate the degree of polymorphism of these markers. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 12, and the polymorphism information content ranged from 0.210 to 0.849. The observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.142-0.808 and 0.225-0.853, respectively. Although significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected at 2 loci (Sf1-37-2 and Sf1-47), no significant deviations were detected at the other 13 loci. These microsatellite markers will provide a useful tool for studies on genetic diversity and differentiation of S. fuscescens. PMID:23979899

Li, Q H; Li, Z B; Dai, G; Chen, X J; Chen, L N; Cao, Y Y; Shangguan, J B; Ning, Y F

2013-01-01

305

Functional association of CTCF with the insulator upstream of the H19 gene is parent of origin-specific and methylation-sensitive  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, a subset of genes inherit gametic marks that establish parent of origin-dependent expression patterns in the soma ([1] and references therein). The currently most extensively studied examples of this phenomenon, termed genomic imprinting, are the physically linked Igf2 (insulin-like growth factor II) and H19 genes, which are expressed mono-allelically from opposite parental alleles [1,2]. The repressed status of

Chandrasekhar Kanduri; Vinod Pant; Dmitri Loukinov; Elena Pugacheva; Chen-Feng Qi; Alan Wolffe; Rolf Ohlsson; Victor V. Lobanenkov

2000-01-01

306

A new classification of HLA-DRB1 alleles differentiates predisposing and protective alleles for autoantibody production in rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

The HLA-DRB1 gene was reported to be associated with anticitrullinated protein/peptide autoantibody (ACPA) production in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. A new classification of HLA-DRB1 alleles, reshaping the shared epitope (SE) hypothesis, was recently found relevant in terms of RA susceptibility and structural severity. We investigated the relevance of this new classification of HLA-DRB1 SE+ alleles in terms of rheumatoid factor (RF) and ACPA production in a sample of French RA patients. We studied 160 early RA patients included in a prospective longitudinal cohort of French Caucasian patients with recent-onset arthritis. RF, anticyclic citrullinated peptide 2 (anti-CCP2) and antideiminated human fibrinogen autoantibodies (AhFibA) were assessed in all patients at inclusion. The HLA-DRB1 gene was typed by PCR-sequence specific oligonucleotides probes (PCR-SSOP), and SE+ alleles were classified into four groups (S1, S2, S3P, S3D) according to the new classification. The new classification of HLA-DRB1 SE+ alleles distinguishes predisposing and protective alleles for RF, anti-CCP2 or AhFibA production. The presence of S2 or S3P alleles is associated with both RF, anti-CCP2 or AhFibA positivity, whereas the presence of S3D or S1 alleles appears to be protective for RF, anti-CCP2 or AhFibA positivity. The new classification of HLA-DRB1 SE+ alleles is relevant in terms of autoantibody production in early RA patients by differentiating predisposing and protective alleles for RF or ACPA production. PMID:17328818

Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Dieude, Philippe; Boyer, Jean-Frederic; Nogueira, Leonor; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Mazieres, Bernard; Cornelis, Francois; Serre, Guy; Cantagrel, Alain; Constantin, Arnaud

2007-01-01

307

Allelic exclusion of immunoglobulin genes: models and mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Summary The allelic exclusion of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes is one of the most evolutionarily conserved features of the adaptive immune system and underlies the monospecificity of B cells. While much has been learned about how Ig allelic exclusion is established during B-cell development, the relevance of monospecificity to B-cell function remains enigmatic. Here, we review the theoretical models that have been proposed to explain the establishment of Ig allelic exclusion and focus on the molecular mechanisms utilized by developing B cells to ensure the monoallelic expression of Ig? and Ig? light chain genes. We also discuss the physiological consequences of Ig allelic exclusion and speculate on the importance of monospecificity of B cells for immune recognition. PMID:20727027

Vettermann, Christian; Schlissel, Mark S.

2010-01-01

308

Differential and limited expression of mutant alleles in multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

Recent work has delineated mutational profiles in multiple myeloma and reported a median of 52 mutations per patient, as well as a set of commonly mutated genes across multiple patients. In this study, we have used deep sequencing of RNA from a subset of these patients to evaluate the proportion of expressed mutations. We find that the majority of previously identified mutations occur within genes with very low or no detectable expression. On average, 27% (range, 11% to 47%) of mutated alleles are found to be expressed, and among mutated genes that are expressed, there often is allele-specific expression where either the mutant or wild-type allele is suppressed. Even in the absence of an overall change in gene expression, the presence of differential allelic expression within malignant cells highlights the important contribution of RNA-sequencing in identifying clinically significant mutational changes relevant to our understanding of myeloma biology and also for therapeutic applications. PMID:25237203

Rashid, Naim U; Sperling, Adam S; Bolli, Niccolo; Wedge, David C; Van Loo, Peter; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Shammas, Masood A; Fulciniti, Mariateresa; Samur, Mehmet K; Richardson, Paul G; Magrangeas, Florence; Minvielle, Stephane; Futreal, P Andrew; Anderson, Kenneth C; Avet-Loiseau, Herve; Campbell, Peter J; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Munshi, Nikhil C

2014-11-13

309

Are ‘Endurance’ Alleles ‘Survival’ Alleles? Insights from the ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Exercise phenotypes have played a key role for ensuring survival over human evolution. We speculated that some genetic variants that influence exercise phenotypes could be associated with exceptional survival (i.e. reaching ?100years of age). Owing to its effects on muscle structure/function, a potential candidate is the Arg(R)577Ter(X) polymorphism (rs1815739) in ACTN3, the structural gene encoding the skeletal muscle protein ?-actinin-3. We compared the ACTN3 R577X genotype/allele frequencies between the following groups of ethnically-matched (Spanish) individuals: centenarians (cases, n?=?64; 57 female; age range: 100–108 years), young healthy controls (n?=?283, 67 females, 216 males; 21±2 years), and humans who are at the two end-points of exercise capacity phenotypes, i.e. muscle endurance (50 male professional road cyclists) and muscle power (63 male jumpers/sprinters). Although there were no differences in genotype/allele frequencies between centenarians (RR:28.8%; RX:47.5%; XX:23.7%), and controls (RR:31.8%; RX:49.8%; XX:18.4%) or endurance athletes (RR:28.0%; RX:46%; XX:26.0%), we observed a significantly higher frequency of the X allele (P?=?0.019) and XX genotype (P?=?0.011) in centenarians compared with power athletes (RR:47.6%; RX:36.5%;XX:15.9%). Notably, the frequency of the null XX (?-actinin-3 deficient) genotype in centenarians was the highest ever reported in non-athletic Caucasian populations. In conclusion, despite there were no significant differences with the younger, control population, overall the ACTN3 genotype of centenarians resembles that of world-class elite endurance athletes and differs from that of elite power athletes. Our preliminary data would suggest a certain ‘survival’ advantage brought about by ?-actinin-3 deficiency and the ‘endurance’/oxidative muscle phenotype that is commonly associated with this condition. PMID:21407828

Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Santiago, Catalina; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Yvert, Thomas; Cano-Nieto, Amalia; Garatachea, Nuria

2011-01-01

310

Microsatellite markers for the hybridizing tiger swallowtails, Papilio glaucus and P. canadensis, and their applicability to historic specimens and congeneric species.  

PubMed

We report the development of microsatellite markers for the sister species Papilio glaucus and P. canadensis (Papilionidae: Lepidoptera). All 16 markers displayed a high degree of variation in both species, ranging from eight to 24 alleles per locus. Substantial heterozygote deficits were observed for several loci, indicating the presence of null alleles. All markers were successfully used to genotype dried samples from a historical collection. Cross-species amplification with six additional Papilio species showed that most loci can be used to study genetic variation in other closely related species of tiger swallowtails. PMID:21564748

Nowak, Carsten; Brown, Christian M; Hellmann, Jessica J

2009-05-01

311

Development and characterization of nine polymorphic microsatellite markers for Mexican spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata) with cross-amplification in Plains spadefoot toads (S. bombifrons).  

PubMed

We developed nine polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Mexican spadefoot toad, Spea multiplicata. Allele numbers range from five to 12, with observed heterozygosities from 0.48 to 0.87. Because two loci are in linkage disequilibrium, these nine loci provide eight independent markers. Three loci exhibit departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, possibly resulting from null alleles or population admixture. These markers will be useful for assessing population structure and relatedness in S. multiplicata. Based on our success at cross-amplification in the Plains spadefoot toad (Spea bombifrons), these loci also may be useful in this species with additional optimization. PMID:21586053

Rice, A M; Pearse, D E; Becker, T; Newman, R A; Lebonville, C; Harper, G R; Pfennig, K S

2008-11-01

312

Parental Rights in Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parental rights in schooling, which protect parents' entitlement to provide for the education of their children, are discussed in this chapter. The courts and legislatures are being forced to deal with these rights. Further, churches, schools, and parents are pressed to define and better protect parental rights, because of the following…

Ball, William Bentley

313

Codependency and Parenting Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between the parent-child relationship (as perceived by late adolescent-early adult children) and the adolescent's codependency. College students 17through 22 years of age (N = 175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father (via ratings of perceived parental support and coercive control) and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style

Judith L. Fischer; Duane W. Crawford

1992-01-01

314

Customizing Parenting Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors of this article discuss customizing parent education which requires customized assessment. At Auburn University, Kreg Edgmon and Wally Goddard developed a parent assessment based on the National Extension Parent Education Model (NEPEM) (Smith, Cudaback, Goddard, & Myers-Walls, 1994). All items in the parent assessment were tested with…

Goddard, H. Wallace; Dennis, Steven A.

2004-01-01

315

Parent Hearing Aid Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

2012-01-01

316

Gay and Lesbian Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anonymous survey of 23 gay and lesbian parents and 16 heterosexual single parents was conducted in order to see whether the parents' homosexuality created special problems or benefits or both, for their children. Both sets of parents reported relatively few serious problems and generally positive relationships with their children, with only a minority encouraging sex-types toys, activities, and playmates.

Mary B. Harris; Pauline H. Turner

1986-01-01

317

Parents, Kids and TV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three articles offer parents suggestions on how to make television a positive experience for their children. An editorial introduces the following themes basic to all the articles: type and amount of television viewing should be regulated by parents, parents should discuss television with their children, and parents must become aware of the…

Gaffney, Maureen, Ed.

1983-01-01

318

A Chance to Parent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While parents with disabilities may face big challenges, with appropriate supports, many can be great parents. Just like other parents, they do not have to be responsible for every part of childrearing all by themselves. All parents rely on supports to help raise their children, such as day care, carpools, schools, babysitting co-ops, or advice…

Yuan, Susan; Brillhart, Lindsay; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

319

Children of Incarcerated Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The arrest and imprisonment of a parent is significant trauma for children, and children of incarcerated parents are at high risk for juvenile delinquency. This book for social workers, psychologists, and others who work with children whose parents are incarcerated examines parental incarceration, its impact on children, care and placement of…

Gabel, Katherine, Ed.; Johnston, Denise, Ed.

320

Partners: Parents & Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors of this collection of essays make the major points that parental participation influences student performance, and that time spent with parents by school personnel results in better learning. Ira J. Gordon explains four models of parent-school-community relationships and cites research evidence of long-term effects of parent

Brandt, Ronald S., Ed.

321

Parents' Conceptions of Giftedness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study of a parent with an intellectually gifted child illustrates the five categories of influence on parents' conceptions of giftedness: the parents' value systems, their roles as parents, their involvement with the school system, their families of origin, and their understanding of their own giftedness. (Contains references.) (CR)

Solow, Razel

2001-01-01

322

Single Parent Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet attempts to reassure single parents that they can raise healthy, happy children and provides some suggestions for parents' specific questions and concerns. The first section discusses the emotional stages children pass through when they lose a parent, ways to explain to children the loss of a parent, and ways to handle children's…

Ryan, Patricia

323

Parent Conferences. Beginnings Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents six workshop sessions on parent conferences: (1) "Parents' Perspectives on Conferencing" (R. Duffy); (2) "Three Way Conferences" (G. Zeller); (3) "Conferencing with Parents of Infants" (K. Albrecht); (4) "Conferencing with Parents of School-Agers" (L. G. Miller); (5) "Cross Cultural Conferences" (J. Gonzalez-Mena); and (6) "Working with…

Duffy, Roslyn; And Others

1997-01-01

324

II. Mobilizing the Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools can increase their outreach to get parents involved. Once parents are involved, the schools must be careful that students don't use education to escape the community and their parents, and that education does not result in making children ashamed of their parents. (Author/IRT)

Haskins, Kenneth

1978-01-01

325

Parents and the media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we analysed the effects of parental social background and family composition on various types of parental media socialization. We employed the Family Survey Dutch Population 1998, 2000 and 2003 (N=2608), and analysed respondents’ reports of socialization practices in their parental home. Respondents from high-status families report more extensive parental media socialization in all highbrow and guidance activities.

Natascha Notten; Gerbert Kraaykamp

2009-01-01

326

Robust Identification of Local Adaptation from Allele Frequencies  

PubMed Central

Comparing allele frequencies among populations that differ in environment has long been a tool for detecting loci involved in local adaptation. However, such analyses are complicated by an imperfect knowledge of population allele frequencies and neutral correlations of allele frequencies among populations due to shared population history and gene flow. Here we develop a set of methods to robustly test for unusual allele frequency patterns and correlations between environmental variables and allele frequencies while accounting for these complications based on a Bayesian model previously implemented in the software Bayenv. Using this model, we calculate a set of “standardized allele frequencies” that allows investigators to apply tests of their choice to multiple populations while accounting for sampling and covariance due to population history. We illustrate this first by showing that these standardized frequencies can be used to detect nonparametric correlations with environmental variables; these correlations are also less prone to spurious results due to outlier populations. We then demonstrate how these standardized allele frequencies can be used to construct a test to detect SNPs that deviate strongly from neutral population structure. This test is conceptually related to FST and is shown to be more powerful, as we account for population history. We also extend the model to next-generation sequencing of population pools—a cost-efficient way to estimate population allele frequencies, but one that introduces an additional level of sampling noise. The utility of these methods is demonstrated in simulations and by reanalyzing human SNP data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel populations and pooled next-generation sequencing data from Atlantic herring. An implementation of our method is available from http://gcbias.org. PMID:23821598

Gunther, Torsten; Coop, Graham

2013-01-01

327

Identification of incompatibility alleles in the tetraploid species sour cherry.  

PubMed

The incompatibility genetics of sour cherry ( Prunus cerasus), an allotetraploid species thought to be derived from sweet cherry (diploid) and ground cherry (tetraploid), were investigated by test crossing and by analysis of stylar ribonucleases which are known to be the products of incompatibility alleles in sweet cherry. Stylar extracts of 36 accessions of sour cherry were separated electrophoretically and stained for ribonuclease activity. The zymograms of most accessions showed three bands, some two or four. Of the ten bands seen, six co-migrated with bands that in sweet cherry are attributed to the incompatibility alleles S(1), S(3), S(4), S(6, ) S(9) and S(13). 'Cacanski Rubin', 'Erdi Botermo B', 'Koros' and 'Ujfehertoi Furtos', which showed bands apparently corresponding to S(1) and S(4), were test pollinated with the sweet cherry 'Merton Late' ( S(1) S(4)). Monitoring pollen tube growth, and, in one case, fruit set, showed that these crosses were incompatible and that the four sour cherries indeed have the alleles S(1) and S(4). Likewise, test pollination of 'Marasca Piemonte', 'Marasca Savena' and 'Morello, Dutch' with 'Noble' ( S(6) S(13)) showed that these three sour cherries have the alleles S(6) and S(13). S(13) was very frequent in sour cherry cultivars, but is rare in sweet cherry cultivars, whereas with S(3) the situation is reversed. It was suggested that the other four bands are derived from ground cherry and one of these, provisionally attributed to S(B), occurred frequently in a small set of ground cherry accessions surveyed. Analysing some progenies from sour by sweet crosses by S allele-specific PCR and monitoring the success of some sweet by sour crosses were informative. They indicated mostly disomic inheritance, with sweet cherry S alleles belonging to one locus and, presumably, the ground cherry alleles to the other, and helped clarify the genomic arrangement of the alleles and the interactions in heteroallelic pollen. PMID:14689184

Tobutt, K R; Boskovi?, R; Cerovi?, R; Sonneveld, T; Ruzi?, D

2004-03-01

328

DRD4 dopamine receptor allelic diversity in various primate species  

SciTech Connect

The DRD4 dopamine receptor is uniquely characterized by a 48 bp repeating segment within the coding region, located in exon III. Different DRD4 alleles are produced by the presence of additional 48 bp repeats, each of which adds 16 amino acids to the length of the 3rd intracytoplasmic loop of the receptor. The DRD4 receptor is therefore an intriguing candidate gene for behaviors which are influenced by dopamine function. In several human populations, DRD4 alleles with 2-8 and 10 repeats have previously been identified, and the 4 and 7 repeat alleles are the most abundant. We have determined DRD4 genotypes in the following nonhuman primate species: chimpanzee N=2, pygmy chimpanzee N=2, gorilla N=4, siamang N=2, Gelada baboon N=1, gibbon N=1, orangutan (Bornean and Sumatran) N=62, spider monkey N=4, owl monkey N=1, Colobus monkey N=1, Patas monkey N=1, ruffed lemur N=1, rhesus macaque N=8, and vervet monkey N=28. The degree of DRD4 polymorphism and which DRD4 alleles were present both showed considerable variation across primate species. In contrast to the human, rhesus macaque monkeys were monomorphic. The 4 and 7 repeat allels, highly abundant in the human, may not be present in certain other primates. For example, the four spider monkeys we studied showed the 7, 8 and 9 repeat length alleles and the only gibbon we analyzed was homozygous for the 9 repeat allele (thus far not observed in the human). Genotyping of other primate species and sequencing of the individual DRD4 repeat alleles in different species may help us determine the ancestral DRD4 repeat length and identify connections between DRD4 genotype and phenotype.

Adamson, M.; Higley, D. [NIAAA, Rockville, MD (United States); O`Brien, S. [NCI, Frederick, MD (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

329

A molecular marker of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria.  

PubMed

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives in southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination activities worldwide. To monitor the spread of artemisinin resistance, a molecular marker is urgently needed. Here, using whole-genome sequencing of an artemisinin-resistant parasite line from Africa and clinical parasite isolates from Cambodia, we associate mutations in the PF3D7_1343700 kelch propeller domain ('K13-propeller') with artemisinin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Mutant K13-propeller alleles cluster in Cambodian provinces where resistance is prevalent, and the increasing frequency of a dominant mutant K13-propeller allele correlates with the recent spread of resistance in western Cambodia. Strong correlations between the presence of a mutant allele, in vitro parasite survival rates and in vivo parasite clearance rates indicate that K13-propeller mutations are important determinants of artemisinin resistance. K13-propeller polymorphism constitutes a useful molecular marker for large-scale surveillance efforts to contain artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Subregion and prevent its global spread. PMID:24352242

Ariey, Frédéric; Witkowski, Benoit; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Beghain, Johann; Langlois, Anne-Claire; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Duru, Valentine; Bouchier, Christiane; Ma, Laurence; Lim, Pharath; Leang, Rithea; Duong, Socheat; Sreng, Sokunthea; Suon, Seila; Chuor, Char Meng; Bout, Denis Mey; Ménard, Sandie; Rogers, William O; Genton, Blaise; Fandeur, Thierry; Miotto, Olivo; Ringwald, Pascal; Le Bras, Jacques; Berry, Antoine; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Fairhurst, Rick M; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Ménard, Didier

2014-01-01

330

Parenting asthmatic children: identification of parenting challenges.  

PubMed

Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood, affecting up to 14% of children. Poor asthma management and non-adherence to treatment regimens are a pervasive problem in this population and are related to exacerbation of symptoms. Effective management of pediatric asthma involves a complex set of interactions between the parent and child, yet there is a paucity of literature examining these interactions. The main purpose of this study was to identify the child behavior and asthma management tasks parents experience difficulty with. It was hypothesized that the more asthma behavior problems reported, the more problems parents experience in asthma management tasks. Participants in this study were 255 parents of 2-to 10-year-old asthmatic children, recruited via an advertisement placed in school newsletters throughout Australia. Results indicated that the most problematic child asthma behaviors were oppositional behavior, hyperactivity, and aggression, and anxiety was also identified by parents as a concern. The main problematic asthma parenting tasks were entrusting the school, entrusting caregivers, identifying unique symptoms, and identifying and avoiding triggers. More problem asthma behaviors were associated with higher levels of parenting difficulty and more general levels of behavior problems. Parents who reported more dysfunctional parenting styles reported more difficulties with their child's asthma behavior. Based on the results it is suggested that an appropriate parenting intervention program would target basic behavioral management skills, in addition to applying these behavior management principles to asthma management. PMID:18612898

Morawska, Alina; Stelzer, Jennifer; Burgess, Scott

2008-08-01

331

'Overgrowth' mutants in barley and wheat: new alleles and phenotypes of the 'Green Revolution' DELLA gene.  

PubMed

A suppressor screen using dwarf mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) led to the isolation of 'overgrowth' derivatives, which retained the original dwarfing gene but grew at a faster rate because of a new mutation. The new mutations were in the Slender1 (Sln1) gene (11/13 cases), which encodes the DELLA protein central to gibberellin (GA) signalling, showed 100% genetic linkage to Sln1 (1/13), or were in the Spindly1 (Spy1) gene (1/13), which encodes another protein involved in GA signalling. The overgrowth mutants were characterized by increased GA signalling, although the extent still depended on the background GA biosynthesis capacity, GA receptor function, and DELLA activity. A comparison between two GA responses, ?-amylase production and leaf growth rate, revealed degrees of specificity for both the overgrowth allele and the GA response under consideration. Many overgrowth mutants were also isolated in a dwarf line of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 19 new alleles were identified in the Rht-B1 gene, one of the 'Green Revolution' semi-dwarfing genes and the orthologue of Sln1. The sites of amino acid substitutions in the DELLA proteins of both species provide insight into DELLA function, and included examples where identical but independent substitutions were observed. In both species, the starting lines were too dwarfed to be directly useful in breeding programmes, but new overgrowth derivatives with semidwarf heights have now been characterized. The variation they exhibit in GA-influenced traits identifies novel alleles with perfect markers that are of potential use in breeding. PMID:23382550

Chandler, Peter Michael; Harding, Carol Anne

2013-04-01

332

Implication of HLA-C and KIR Alleles in Human Papillomavirus Infection and Associated Cervical Lesions.  

PubMed

Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV) regulation of host immune response leads to cervical lesions. In particular, natural killer (NK) cells are crucial for HPV control. Since specific HLA-I/KIR interactions modify NK cell activation, we analyzed HLA-C and KIR alleles in HPV infection and lesion development in 150 controls, 33 condyloma acuminatum, and 111 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) patients. We showed an increase in HLA-C1/KIR2DL2 and HLA-C1/KIR2DL3 pairs in HPV high-risk infected patients (OR 3.05, 3.24) with ICC (OR 1.33, 3.68). These data suggest HLA-C and KIR typing as risk marker for HPV infection and lesion evolution. PMID:25188020

Rizzo, Roberta; Gentili, Valentina; Rotola, Antonella; Bortolotti, Daria; Cassai, Enzo; Di Luca, Dario

2014-11-01

333

Allele-specific Silencing of Mutant Myh6 Allele in Mice Suppresses Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Dominant mutations in sarcomere proteins such as the myosin heavy chains (MHC) are the leading genetic causes of human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Here we demonstrate that expression of the HCM cardiac MHC gene (Myh6) R403Q mutation in mice can be selectively silenced by an RNAi cassette delivered by an adeno-associated virus vector. RNAi-transduced MHC403/+ mice had neither hypertrophy or myocardial fibrosis, the pathologic manifestations of HCM for at least 6 months. As inhibition of HCM was achieved by only a 25% reduction in the levels of the mutant transcripts, we suggest that the variable clinical phenotype in HCM patients reflects allelic-specific expression and that partial silencing of mutant transcripts may have therapeutic benefit. PMID:24092743

Jiang, Jianming; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Seidman, J. G.; Seidman, Christine E.

2014-01-01

334

Nuclear gene phylogeography using PHASE: dealing with unresolved genotypes, lost alleles, and systematic bias in parameter estimation  

PubMed Central

Background A widely-used approach for screening nuclear DNA markers is to obtain sequence data and use bioinformatic algorithms to estimate which two alleles are present in heterozygous individuals. It is common practice to omit unresolved genotypes from downstream analyses, but the implications of this have not been investigated. We evaluated the haplotype reconstruction method implemented by PHASE in the context of phylogeographic applications. Empirical sequence datasets from five non-coding nuclear loci with gametic phase ascribed by molecular approaches were coupled with simulated datasets to investigate three key issues: (1) haplotype reconstruction error rates and the nature of inference errors, (2) dataset features and genotypic configurations that drive haplotype reconstruction uncertainty, and (3) impacts of omitting unresolved genotypes on levels of observed phylogenetic diversity and the accuracy of downstream phylogeographic analyses. Results We found that PHASE usually had very low false-positives (i.e., a low rate of confidently inferring haplotype pairs that were incorrect). The majority of genotypes that could not be resolved with high confidence included an allele occurring only once in a dataset, and genotypic configurations involving two low-frequency alleles were disproportionately represented in the pool of unresolved genotypes. The standard practice of omitting unresolved genotypes from downstream analyses can lead to considerable reductions in overall phylogenetic diversity that is skewed towards the loss of alleles with larger-than-average pairwise sequence divergences, and in turn, this causes systematic bias in estimates of important population genetic parameters. Conclusions A combination of experimental and computational approaches for resolving phase of segregating sites in phylogeographic applications is essential. We outline practical approaches to mitigating potential impacts of computational haplotype reconstruction on phylogeographic inferences. With targeted application of laboratory procedures that enable unambiguous phase determination via physical isolation of alleles from diploid PCR products, relatively little investment of time and effort is needed to overcome the observed biases. PMID:20429950

2010-01-01

335

MOLECULAR MARKERS IN WILD TURKEY  

E-print Network

and conservation of wildlife species. In the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), these markers have been used, hybridization, Meleagris gallopavo, micro- satellite, mitochondrial, molecular marker, population, subspecies

Latch, Emily K.

336

Reconceptualizing Parent Involvement: Parent as Accomplice or Parent as Partner?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policy statements of the last two decades have directed schools to enter into partnerships with parents to enhance the social, emotional, and academic growth of their children. However, in practice and scholarship, parental involvement has been constructed as attendance to school-based activities and needs. This article draws on data from an…

Stitt, Nichole M.; Brooks, Nancy J.

2014-01-01

337

Identification and characterization of high-molecular-weight glutenin genes in Polish triticale cultivars by PCR-based DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular markers were used to identify the allele\\/gene composition of complex lociGlu-A1 andGlu-B1 of high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits in triticale cultivars. Forty-six Polish cultivars of both winter and spring\\u000a triticale were analysed with 7 PCR-based markers. Amplified DNA fragments of HMW gluteninGlu-1 genes were separated by agarose slab-gel electrophoresis. Differences between all 3 alleles at the locusGlu-A1 [Glu-A1a (encoding Ax1),1b

Boles?aw P. Salmanowicz; Monika Dylewicz

2007-01-01

338

Cultural Approaches to Parenting  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting. PMID:22962544

Bornstein, Marc H.

2012-01-01

339

Severe ?-1 antitrypsin deficiency caused by Q0(Ourém) allele: clinical features, haplotype characterization and history.  

PubMed

?-1 Antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) caused by null alleles is associated with the total lack of protein and generally it translates into more severe clinical features of pulmonary disease. This is the case of Q0(Ourém) , a rare variant found in several families of Central Portugal caused by the L353fsX376 mutation. A total of 41 patients carrying at least one copy of Q0(Ourém) were evaluated for SERPINA1 levels, respiratory function values and lung parenchyma status (chest X-ray and computerized tomography scan). Q0(Ourém) haplotype background was characterized using seven microsatellites flanking SERPINA1 and Q0(Ourém) age was estimated by a statistical method relying on the decay of haplotype sharing at linked markers (DHSMAP). Homozygous patients showed a compromised lung function and extensive emphysema. SQ0(Ourém) , although having serum levels below the 11 µM threshold, did not necessarily result in signs of disease. MQ0(Ourém) were found to be a heterogeneous group, mainly composed of normal individuals. Eight Q0(Ourém) haplotypes were identified and the allele was estimated to have arisen 650 years ago. Q0(Ourém) was associated with mild to severe AATD and has a single origin, probably linked to the major Ourém settlements where the occurrence of severe AATD may not be explained by recent consanguinity. PMID:21457231

Vaz Rodrigues, L; Costa, F; Marques, P; Mendonça, C; Rocha, J; Seixas, S

2012-05-01

340

The fate of chromosomes and alleles in an allohexaploid brassica population.  

PubMed

Production of allohexaploid Brassica (2n = AABBCC) is a promising goal for plant breeders due to the potential for hybrid heterosis and useful allelic contributions from all three of the Brassica genomes present in the cultivated diploid (2n = AA, 2n = BB, 2n = CC) and allotetraploid (2n = AABB, 2n = AACC, and 2n = BBCC) crop species (canola, cabbages, mustards). We used high-throughput SNP molecular marker assays, flow cytometry, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to characterize a population of putative allohexaploids derived from self-pollination of a hybrid from the novel cross (B. napus × B. carinata) × B. juncea to investigate whether fertile, stable allohexaploid Brassica can be produced. Allelic segregation in the A and C genomes generally followed Mendelian expectations for an F2 population, with minimal nonhomologous chromosome pairing. However, we detected no strong selection for complete 2n = AABBCC chromosome complements, with weak correlations between DNA content and fertility (r(2) = 0.11) and no correlation between missing chromosomes or chromosome segments and fertility. Investigation of next-generation progeny resulting from one highly fertile F2 plant using FISH revealed general maintenance of high chromosome numbers but severe distortions in karyotype, as evidenced by recombinant chromosomes and putative loss/duplication of A- and C-genome chromosome pairs. Our results show promise for the development of meiotically stable allohexaploid lines, but highlight the necessity of selection for 2n = AABBCC karyotypes. PMID:24558262

Mason, Annaliese S; Nelson, Matthew N; Takahira, Junko; Cowling, Wallace A; Alves, Gustavo Moreira; Chaudhuri, Arkaprava; Chen, Ning; Ragu, Mohana E; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Coriton, Olivier; Huteau, Virginie; Eber, Frédérique; Chèvre, Anne-Marie; Batley, Jacqueline

2014-05-01

341

Allelic discrimination of genetic human prion diseases by real-time PCR genotyping  

PubMed Central

The complete molecular characterization of human genetic prion diseases from different backgrounds is important for clinical diagnosis and epidemiological classification. The characterization of the PRNP gene should always include the description of the pathogenic mutation, as well as the status at each allele of the polymorphic codon 129 (M129V), a well-established susceptibility marker and phenotypic variability factor for different types of human prion diseases. Indeed, the phenotypical expression of two of the most common mutations in the human PRNP gene associated with genetic prion diseases, D178N and E200K, is clearly modulated by the codon 129 polymorphism. Here, we describe two simple, fast, cost-effective and suited for high-throughput protocols to resolve cis-trans ambiguities between these mutations respect the M129V polymorphism. This methodology is based on differential amplification by allele-specific primers using Real-time PCR monitored by SYBR® Green dye. The main advantages of these protocols are their relative simplicity and the reduced cost compared to other methods such as cloning protocols, and that it may be readily applicable to the characterization of other mutations with codon 129-dependent expression, e.g., P102L. PMID:19684471

Calero, Olga; Hortiguela, Rafael; Albo, Carmen; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesus

2009-01-01

342

Marker-Assisted Selection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A method of selecting desirable individuals in a breeding scheme based on DNA molecular marker patterns instead of, or in addition to, their trait values.A tool that can help plant breeders select more efficiently for desirable crop traits.

343

Defining a personal, allele-specific, and single-molecule long-read transcriptome.  

PubMed

Personal transcriptomes in which all of an individual's genetic variants (e.g., single nucleotide variants) and transcript isoforms (transcription start sites, splice sites, and polyA sites) are defined and quantified for full-length transcripts are expected to be important for understanding individual biology and disease, but have not been described previously. To obtain such transcriptomes, we sequenced the lymphoblastoid transcriptomes of three family members (GM12878 and the parents GM12891 and GM12892) by using a Pacific Biosciences long-read approach complemented with Illumina 101-bp sequencing and made the following observations. First, we found that reads representing all splice sites of a transcript are evident for most sufficiently expressed genes ?3 kb and often for genes longer than that. Second, we added and quantified previously unidentified splicing isoforms to an existing annotation, thus creating the first personalized annotation to our knowledge. Third, we determined SNVs in a de novo manner and connected them to RNA haplotypes, including HLA haplotypes, thereby assigning single full-length RNA molecules to their transcribed allele, and demonstrated Mendelian inheritance of RNA molecules. Fourth, we show how RNA molecules can be linked to personal variants on a one-by-one basis, which allows us to assess differential allelic expression (DAE) and differential allelic isoforms (DAI) from the phased full-length isoform reads. The DAI method is largely independent of the distance between exon and SNV--in contrast to fragmentation-based methods. Overall, in addition to improving eukaryotic transcriptome annotation, these results describe, to our knowledge, the first large-scale and full-length personal transcriptome. PMID:24961374

Tilgner, Hagen; Grubert, Fabian; Sharon, Donald; Snyder, Michael P

2014-07-01

344

Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions and Parenting Practices  

PubMed Central

A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the Five-Factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the five personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process. PMID:21443335

Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

2011-01-01

345

[Serological markers of fibrosis].  

PubMed

Liver biopsy has classically been considered the gold standard to evaluate the degree of fibrosis, since it allows direct measurement of this entity. However, this technique carries an inherent risk of complications and observer variability and technical limitations can provoke sampling errors, all of which has prompted the search for alternative, noninvasive methods. The use of routine clinical laboratory tests has been investigated and various indexes that combine indirect serological markers have been developed and validated. These indexes are useful, low-cost, noninvasive tests to detect significant fibrosis or cirrhosis. Direct serological markers are those that reflect changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix. Several studies have analyzed the utility of these markers (either individually or combined with other direct and indirect markers) in the detection of the severity and progression of liver fibrosis and in the follow-up of changes related to antiviral therapy. In the last few years, imaging tests based on the measurement of liver stiffness, such as FibroScan or acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI), have been found to be rapid and reproducible methods to evaluate liver fibrosis. Recently, the results obtained by combining distinct serological markers and imaging techniques have shown a higher diagnostic yield and this strategy seems promising. The present article reviews the most widely discussed noninvasive markers, the most recent alternatives, and the perspectives for their use in clinical practice. PMID:23298654

Fernández-Varo, Guillermo

2012-12-01

346

Genetic diversity of androdioecious Osmanthus fragrans (Oleaceae) cultivars using microsatellite markers1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: For cultivar classification, identification, and genetic improvement, microsatellite markers were developed to analyze the genetic diversity of androdioecious Osmanthus fragrans cultivars. • Methods and Results: Fifteen microsatellite markers were developed from sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information, which included two with null alleles. These primers were screened on 62 typical androdioecious O. fragrans cultivars belonging to four groups (Asiaticus, Albus, Luteus, and Aurantiacus). The number of alleles ranged from two to six, with a mean of 3.7 per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1000 to 0.9091 and from 0.1287 to 0.9167, respectively. Results from structure analyses indicated that Asiaticus and Albus were genetically mixed, and Luteus and Aurantiacus were partially genetically differentiated. • Conclusions: These markers will be useful for genetic study of androdioecious O. fragrans cultivars and facilitate cultivar classification, particularly for the cultivar groups Luteus and Aurantiacus.

Duan, Yifan; Wang, Xianrong; Xiang, Qibai; Liang, Lili; Li, Xuexia; Liu, Yulian; Li, Meng

2013-01-01

347

Maternal inheritance of an inactive type III deiodinase gene allele affects mouse pancreatic ?-cells and disrupts glucose homeostasis.  

PubMed

Dio3 is the most distal gene of the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 gene locus and is expressed according to parental origin. Dio3 encodes the type 3 deiodinase (D3), a thioredoxin-fold like containing selenoenzyme that inactivates thyroid hormone and dampens thyroid hormone signaling. Here we used heterozygous animals with disruption of the Dio3 gene to study the allelic expression pattern of Dio3 in pancreatic ?-cells and the metabolic phenotype resulting from its inactivation. Adult heterozygous mice with disruption of the Dio3 gene with maternal inheritance of the inactive Dio3 allele exhibited a total loss of D3 activity in isolated pancreatic islets, approximately 30% reduction in total pancreatic islet area, a marked decrease in insulin2 mRNA and in vivo glucose intolerance. In contrast, inheritance of the inactive Dio3 allele from the father did not affect D3 activity in isolated pancreatic islets and did not result in a pancreatic phenotype. Furthermore, exposure of pancreatic explants, D3-expressing MIN6-C3 cells or isolated pancreatic islets to 100 nM T3 for 24 hours reduced insulin2 mRNA by approximately 50% and the peak of glucose-induced insulin secretion. An unbiased analysis of T3-treated pancreatic islets revealed the down-regulation of 21 gene sets (false discovery rate q value < 25%) involved in nucleolar function and transcription of rRNA, ribonucleotide binding, mRNA translation, and membrane organization. We conclude that the Dio3 gene is preferentially expressed from the maternal allele in pancreatic islets and that the inactivation of this allele is sufficient to disrupt glucose homeostasis by reducing the pancreatic islet area, insulin2 gene expression, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. PMID:24885572

Medina, Mayrin C; Fonesca, Tatiana L; Molina, Judith; Fachado, Alberto; Castillo, Melany; Dong, Liping; Soares, Renata; Hernández, Arturo; Caicedo, Alejandro; Bianco, Antonio C

2014-08-01

348

Allelic recombination between distinct genomic locations generates copy number diversity in human ?-defensins  

PubMed Central

?-Defensins are small secreted antimicrobial and signaling peptides involved in the innate immune response of vertebrates. In humans, a cluster of at least 7 of these genes shows extensive copy number variation, with a diploid copy number commonly ranging between 2 and 7. Using a genetic mapping approach, we show that this cluster is at not 1 but 2 distinct genomic loci ?5 Mb apart on chromosome band 8p23.1, contradicting the most recent genome assembly. We also demonstrate that the predominant mechanism of change in ?-defensin copy number is simple allelic recombination occurring in the interval between the 2 distinct genomic loci for these genes. In 416 meiotic transmissions, we observe 3 events creating a haplotype copy number not found in the parent, equivalent to a germ-line rate of copy number change of ?0.7% per gamete. This places it among the fastest-changing copy number variants currently known. PMID:19131514

Bakar, Suhaili Abu; Hollox, Edward J.; Armour, John A. L.

2009-01-01

349

Chromosome-mediated transfer of murine alleles for hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) and ouabain resistance into human cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic drug-resistance markers were transferred via purified metaphase chromosomes from mouse L cells into the human fibrosarcoma line HT1080 and HeLa S3 cells. Interspecific chromosome-mediated transfer of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT; EC 2.4.2.8) from mouse L cells into HGPRT- HT1080 cells occurred at a frequency of approximately 1×10-7. The presence of the mouse allele for HGPRT in transferent isolates was

Tracy Gross Lugo; Raymond M. Baker

1985-01-01

350

Amodiaquine and Artemether-Lumefantrine Select Distinct Alleles of the Plasmodium falciparum mdr1 Gene in Tanzanian Children Treated for Uncomplicated Malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The artemisinin-based combination therapies artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and amodiaquine (AQ) plus artesunate have been adopted for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in many African countries. Molecular markers of parasite resistance suitable for surveillance have not been established for any of the component drugs in either of these combinations. We assessed P. falciparum mdr1 (Pfmdr1) alleles present in 300 Tanzanian children presenting

G. S. Humphreys; I. Merinopoulos; J. Ahmed; C. J. M. Whitty; T. K. Mutabingwa; C. J. Sutherland; R. L. Hallett

2007-01-01

351

Rifampin Resistance, Beijing-W Clade-Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Cluster Group 2 Phylogeny, and the Rv2629 191-C Allele in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rifampin resistance is a key prognostic marker for treatment success in tuberculosis patients. Recently, Wang et al. demonstrated that Rv2629 A191C mutations were present in 99.1% of rifampin-resistant and 0% of rifampin-susceptible clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and that overexpression of the Rv2629 191C allele in Mycobacterium smegmatis produced an eightfold increase in rifampin resistance. These results sug- gested that Rv2629

Soumitesh Chakravorty; Bola Aladegbami; Alifiya S. Motiwala; Yang Dai; Hassan Safi; Michael Brimacombe; Danica Helb; David Alland; Ruy V. Lourenco

2008-01-01

352

Allele frequencies of the new European Standard Set (ESS) loci in a population of Apulia (Southern Italy).  

PubMed

Allele frequencies of five miniSTRs loci (D1S1656, D2S441, D12S391, D10S1248 and D22S1045) included in the new European Standard Set (ESS) were calculated from a sample of 150 unrelated individuals from Apulia, a Region of Southern Italy. Two different PCR Amplification Kits were used, in order to evaluate the concordance of the genotypes. The results obtained with the two kits showed no differences in all genotype profiles. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was detected at either locus. Moreover genetic analysis using Fst estimation showed no evidence for differentiation at the five new loci between Apulia and Italian populations. The high levels of polymorphisms of the analyzed markers in the Apulian population allow to confirm that these markers are useful tools in paternity and forensic analysis from degraded DNA samples. PMID:23127759

Piglionica, M; Baldassarra, S Lonero; Giardina, E; Tonino Marsella, L; Resta, N; Dell'Erba, A

2013-02-01

353

Effects of Favorable Alleles for Water-Soluble Carbohydrates at Grain Filling on Grain Weight under Drought and Heat Stresses in Wheat  

PubMed Central

Drought, heat and other abiotic stresses during grain filling can result in reductions in grain weight. Conserved water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) at early grain filling play an important role in partial compensation of reduced carbon supply. A diverse population of 262 historical winter wheat accessions was used in the present study. There were significant correlations between 1000-grain weight (TGW) and four types of WSC, viz. (1) total WSC at the mid-grain filling stage (14 days after flowering) produced by leaves and non-leaf organs; (2) WSC contributed by current leaf assimilation during the mid-grain filling; (3) WSC in non-leaf organs at the mid-grain filling, excluding the current leaf assimilation; and (4) WSC used for respiration and remobilization during the mid-grain filling. Association and favorable allele analyses of 209 genome-wide SSR markers and the four types of WSC were conducted using a mixed linear model. Seven novel favorable WSC alleles exhibited positive individual contributions to TGW, which were verified under 16 environments. Dosage effects of pyramided favorable WSC alleles and significantly linear correlations between the number of favorable WSC alleles and TGW were observed. Our results suggested that pyramiding more favorable WSC alleles was effective for improving both WSC and grain weight in future wheat breeding programs. PMID:25036550

Chang, Xiaoping; Li, Runzhi; Jing, Ruilian

2014-01-01

354

Mutation and haplotype analysis of phenylalanine hydroxylase alleles in classical PKU patients from the Czech Republic: identification of four novel mutations.  

PubMed Central

Mutations, haplotypes, and other polymorphic markers in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene were analysed in 133 unrelated Czech families with classical phenylketonuria (PKU). Almost 95% of all mutant alleles were identified, using a combination of PCR and restriction analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and sequencing. A total of 30 different mutations, 16 various RFLP/VNTR haplotypes, and four polymorphisms were detected on 266 independent mutant chromosomes. The most common molecular defect observed in the Czech population was R408W (54.9%). Each of the other 29 mutations was present in no more than 5% of alleles and 13 mutations were found in only one PKU allele each (0.4%). Four novel mutations G239A, R270fsdel5bp, A342P, and IVS11nt-8g-->a were identified. In 14 (5.1%) alleles, linked to four different RFLP/VNTR haplotypes, the sequence alterations still remain unknown. Our results confirm that PKU is a heterogeneous disorder at the molecular level. Since there is evidence for the gene flow coming from northern, western, and southern parts of Europe into our Slavic population, it is clear that human migration has been the most important factor in the spread of PKU alleles in Europe. Images PMID:9391881

Kozak, L; Blazkova, M; Kuhrova, V; Pijackova, A; Ruzickova, S; St'astna, S

1997-01-01

355

Mutation and haplotype analysis of phenylalanine hydroxylase alleles in classical PKU patients from the Czech Republic: identification of four novel mutations.  

PubMed

Mutations, haplotypes, and other polymorphic markers in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene were analysed in 133 unrelated Czech families with classical phenylketonuria (PKU). Almost 95% of all mutant alleles were identified, using a combination of PCR and restriction analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and sequencing. A total of 30 different mutations, 16 various RFLP/VNTR haplotypes, and four polymorphisms were detected on 266 independent mutant chromosomes. The most common molecular defect observed in the Czech population was R408W (54.9%). Each of the other 29 mutations was present in no more than 5% of alleles and 13 mutations were found in only one PKU allele each (0.4%). Four novel mutations G239A, R270fsdel5bp, A342P, and IVS11nt-8g-->a were identified. In 14 (5.1%) alleles, linked to four different RFLP/VNTR haplotypes, the sequence alterations still remain unknown. Our results confirm that PKU is a heterogeneous disorder at the molecular level. Since there is evidence for the gene flow coming from northern, western, and southern parts of Europe into our Slavic population, it is clear that human migration has been the most important factor in the spread of PKU alleles in Europe. PMID:9391881

Kozák, L; Blazková, M; Kuhrová, V; Pijácková, A; R?zicková, S; St'astná, S

1997-11-01

356

Refinement of single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping methods on human genomic DNA: amplifluor allele-specific polymerase chain reaction versus ligation detection reaction-TaqMan.  

PubMed

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have proven to be powerful genetic markers for a variety of genetic applications, e.g., association studies leading to dissection of both monogenetic and complex diseases. However, no single SNP genotyping method has been broadly accepted. In the present study, we compared and refined two promising methods with potential for research and for diagnostic SNP genotyping: Amplifluor allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligation detection reaction (LDR)-TaqMan. The methods are based on allele-specific primer extension and allele-specific ligation, respectively. Since LDR-TaqMan had previously been tested on just Arabidopsis thaliana, we adjusted the method for the more complex human genome. Amplifluor allele-specific PCR has a single-step and closed-tube format, whereas the LDR-TaqMan assay comprises two simple steps. Contrary to the primer-extension-based method, the ligation-based method can be multiplexed. Refining the LDR-TaqMan technique, we successfully replaced a previously suggested three-step multiplexing procedure with a less laborious two-step approach. Comparing refined LDR-TaqMan with Amplifluor allele-specific PCR in a family-based study, both techniques appeared similar with respect to high robustness and accuracy. As both approaches utilize primers with common tails, all SNPs can be assayed with the same couple of fluorescence reporting reagents, ensuring low establishing and running expenses. PMID:15203335

Rickert, Andreas M; Borodina, Tatiana A; Kuhn, Eckehard J; Lehrach, Hans; Sperling, Silke

2004-07-15

357

Isolation and Characterization of 13 New Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Common Bean) Genome  

PubMed Central

In this study, 13 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean) by using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence COntaining Repeats (FIASCO) protocol. These markers revealed two to seven alleles, with an average of 3.64 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.055 to 0.721 over 13 loci, with a mean value of 0.492, and 7 loci having PIC greater than 0.5. The expected heterozygosity (HE) and observed heterozygosity (HO) levels ranged from 0.057 to 0.814 and from 0.026 to 0.531, respectively. Cross-species amplification of the 13 prime pairs was performed in its related specie of Vigna unguiculata L. Seven out of all these markers showed cross-species transferability. These markers will be useful for future genetic diversity and population genetics studies for this agricultural specie and its related species. PMID:23109846

Wang, Aihua; Ding, Yi; Hu, Zhenhua; Lin, Chufa; Wang, Shuzhen; Wang, Bingcai; Zhang, Hongyuan; Zhou, Guolin

2012-01-01

358

Differentiating Plasmodium falciparum alleles by transforming Cartesian X,Y data to polar coordinates  

PubMed Central

Background Diagnosis of infectious diseases now benefits from advancing technology to perform multiplex analysis of a growing number of variables. These advances enable simultaneous surveillance of markers characterizing species and strain complexity, mutations associated with drug susceptibility, and antigen-based polymorphisms in relation to evaluation of vaccine effectiveness. We have recently developed assays detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P. falciparum genome that take advantage of post-PCR ligation detection reaction and fluorescent microsphere labeling strategies. Data from these assays produce a spectrum of outcomes showing that infections result from single to multiple strains. Traditional methods for distinguishing true positive signal from background can cause false positive diagnoses leading to incorrect interpretation of outcomes associated with disease treatment. Results Following analysis of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase SNPs associated with resistance to a commonly used antimalarial drug, Fansidar (Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine), and presumably neutral SNPs for parasite strain differentiation, we first evaluated our data after setting a background signal based on the mean plus three standard deviations for known negative control samples. Our analysis of single allelic controls suggested that background for the absent allele increased as the concentration of the target allele increased. To address this problem, we introduced a simple change of variables from customary (X,Y) (Cartesian) coordinates to planar polar coordinates (X = rcos(?), Y = rsin(?)). Classification of multidimensional fluorescence signals based on histograms of angular and radial data distributions proved more effective than classification based on Cartesian thresholds. Comparison with known diallelic dilution controls suggests that histogram-based classification is effective for major:minor allele concentration ratios as high as 10:1. Conclusion We have observed that the diallelic SNP data resulting from analysis of P. falciparum mutations is more accurately diagnosed when a simple polar transform of the (X,Y) data into (r,?) is used. The development of high through-put methods for genotyping P. falciparum SNPs and the refinement of analytical approaches for evaluating these molecular diagnostic results significantly advance the evaluation of parasite population diversity and antimalarial drug resistance. PMID:20587031

2010-01-01

359

Markers of erectile dysfunction  

PubMed Central

With the development and marketing of oral pharmacotherapy that is both noninvasive and successful in treating erectile dysfunction (ED), the quest to identify markers of organic ED lost ground. Indeed, the multi-factorial nature of ED may have led many researchers to conclude that searching for a universal marker of ED was futile. However, the realization that ED is strongly correlated with the overall health of men, and may act as a predictor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes, has stimulated interest in identifying genes that can distinguish organic ED. In addition, the potential ability to suggest to the patient that ED is reversible (i.e., psychogenic) with a simple test would be of significance to both the physician and patient, as well as for reimbursement issues for therapy by insurance companies. Such a marker may also act as a non-subjective measure of the degree of ED and the efficacy of treatment. This review discusses the importance of identifying such markers and recent work identifying potential markers in human patients. PMID:19468461

Davies, Kelvin P.; Melman, Arnold

2008-01-01

360

Use of an interspecific hybrid in identifying a new allelic specificity generated at the self-incompatibility locus after inbreeding in Lycopersicon peruvianum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interspecific hybrid between Lycopersicon esculentum (?) and L. peruvianum has been raised by embryo rescue in vitro and used to confirm the presence of a new S-allelic specificity in its inbred L. peruvianum parent, a plant derived by enforced bud self-pollination of a self-incompatible clone with the genotype S1S2. The inbred plant showed breeding behavior characteristic of both S2

G. Maheswaran; T. Perryman; E. G. Williams

1986-01-01

361

Trends in Population Sex Ratios May be Explained by Changes in the Frequencies of Polymorphic Alleles of a Sex Ratio Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test for heritability of the sex ratio in human genealogical data is reported here, with the finding that there is significant\\u000a heritability of the parental sex ratio by male, but not female offspring. A population genetic model was used to examine the\\u000a hypothesis that this is the result of an autosomal gene with polymorphic alleles, which affects the sex

Corry Gellatly

2009-01-01

362

Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions, and Parenting Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play)…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

2011-01-01

363

Parenting Curriculum for Language Minority Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum consists of a workbook for language minority parents learning English as a Second Language and parenting skills, and a teaching activities guide for instructors. The guide, developed for both literate and non-literate adults, serves three purposes: (1) as a visual aid for the classroom, with pictures introducing English in…

Holt, Grace D.

364

Uniparental genetic markers in South Amerindians  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive review of uniparental systems in South Amerindians was undertaken. Variability in the Y-chromosome haplogroups were assessed in 68 populations and 1,814 individuals whereas that of Y-STR markers was assessed in 29 populations and 590 subjects. Variability in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup was examined in 108 populations and 6,697 persons, and sequencing studies used either the complete mtDNA genome or the highly variable segments 1 and 2. The diversity of the markers made it difficult to establish a general picture of Y-chromosome variability in the populations studied. However, haplogroup Q1a3a* was almost always the most prevalent whereas Q1a3* occurred equally in all regions, which suggested its prevalence among the early colonizers. The STR allele frequencies were used to derive a possible ancient Native American Q-clade chromosome haplotype and five of six STR loci showed significant geographic variation. Geographic and linguistic factors moderately influenced the mtDNA distributions (6% and 7%, respectively) and mtDNA haplogroups A and D correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with latitude. The data analyzed here provide rich material for understanding the biological history of South Amerindians and can serve as a basis for comparative studies involving other types of data, such as cultural data. PMID:22888284

Bisso-Machado, Rafael; Bortolini, Maria Catira; Salzano, Francisco Mauro

2012-01-01

365

Design III with Marker Loci  

PubMed Central

Design III is an experimental design originally proposed by R. E. COMSTOCK and H. F. ROBINSON for estimating genetic variances and the average degree of dominance for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and has recently been extended for mapping QTL. In this paper, we first extend COMSTOCK and ROBINSON's analysis of variance to include linkage, two-locus epistasis and the use of F(3) parents. Then we develop the theory and statistical analysis of orthogonal contrasts and contrast X environment interaction for a single marker locus to characterize the effects of QTL. The methods are applied to the maize data of C. W. STUBER. The analyses strongly suggest that there are multiple linked QTL in many chromosomes for several traits examined. QTL effects are largely environment-independent for grain yield, ear height, plant height and ear leaf area and largely environment dependent for days to tassel, grain moisture and ear number. There is significant QTL epistasis. The results are generally in favor of the hypothesis of dominance of favorable genes to explain the observed heterosis in grain yield and other traits, although epistasis could also play an important role and overdominance at individual QTL level can not be ruled out. PMID:8807314

Cockerham, C. C.; Zeng, Z. B.

1996-01-01

366

Twenty-nine new HLA-B alleles associated with antigens in the 5C CREG.  

PubMed

This paper describes 29 novel HLA-B locus alleles identified during low-resolution typing. The majority of the novel alleles carry new patterns of previously known polymorphic motifs or codons. Three alleles carry alterations in the Bw4/Bw6 epitope. Five alleles carry novel substitutions. PMID:11556976

Steiner, N K; Kosman, C; Jones, P F; Gans, C P; Rodriguez-Marino, S G; Rizzuto, G; Baldassarre, L A; Edson, S; Koester, R; Sese, D; Mitton, W; Ng, J; Hartzman, R J; Hurley, C K

2001-05-01

367

Molecular analysis of Hurler syndrome in Druze and Muslim Arab patients in Israel: Multiple allelic mutations of the IDUA gene in a small geographic area  

SciTech Connect

The mutations underlying Hurler syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis IH) in Druze and Muslim Israeli Arab patients have been characterized. Four alleles were identified, using a combination of (a) PCR amplification of reverse-transcribed RNA or genomic DNA segments, (b) cycle sequencing of PCR products, and (c) restriction-enzyme analysis. One allele has two amino acid substitutions, Gly[sub 409][yields]Arg in exon 9 and Ter[yields]Cys in exon 14. The other three alleles have mutations in exon 2 (Tyr[sub 64][yields]Ter), exon 7 (Gln[sub 310][yields]Ter), or exon 8 (Thr[sub 366][yields]Pro). Transfection of mutagenized cDNAs into Cos-1 cells showed that two missense mutations, Thr[sub 366][yields]Pro and Ter[yields]Cys, permitted the expression of only trace amounts of [alpha]-L-iduronidase activity, whereas Gly[sub 409][yields]Arg permitted the expression of 60% as much enzyme as did the normal cDNA. The nonsense mutations were associated with abnormalities of RNA processing: (1) both a very low level of mRNA and skipping of exon 2 for Tyr[sub 64][yields]Ter and (2) utilization of a cryptic splice site for Gln[sub 310][yields]Ter. In all instances, the probands were found homozygous, and the parents heterozygous, for the mutant alleles, as anticipated from the consanguinity in each family. The two-mutation allele was identified in a family from Gaza; the other three alleles were found in seven families, five of them Druze, residing in a very small area of northern Israel. Since such clustering suggests a classic founder effect, the presence of three mutant alleles of the IDUA gene was unexpected. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Bach, G. (Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem (Israel)); Moskowitz, S.M.; Tieu, P.T.; Matynia, A.; Neufeld, E.F. (Univ. of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (United States))

1993-08-01

368

Soybean seed lipoxygenase genes: molecular characterization and development of molecular marker assays.  

PubMed

Soybean seeds contain three lipoxygenase (Lox) enzymes that are controlled by separate genes, Lox1, Lox2 and Lox3. Lipoxygenases play a role in the development of unpleasant flavors in foods containing soybean by oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Null alleles for all three enzymes have been identified, lox1, lox2 and lox3, and are known to be inherited as simple recessive alleles. Previous studies determined that a missense mutation rendered Lox2 inactive; however, the genetic cause of either lox1 or lox3 mutation was not known. The objectives of this study were the molecular characterization of both lox1 and lox3 mutant alleles and the development of molecular markers to accelerate breeding for Lox-free soybean varieties. We identified two independent mutant alleles as the genetic causes of the lack of Lox1 in seeds of two lox1 mutant soybean lines. Similarly, a mutant allele that truncates Lox3 in a lox3 mutant soybean line was identified. Molecular markers were designed and confirmed to distinguish mutant, wild type, and heterozygous individuals for Lox1, Lox2 and Lox3 genes. Genotype and Lox phenotype analysis showed a perfect association between the inheritance of homozygous lox mutant alleles and the lack of Lox activity. Molecular characterization of a seed-lipoxygenase-free soybean line led to the discovery that an induced recombination event within the Lox1 gene was responsible for breaking the tight linkage in repulsion phase between mutant alleles at the Lox1 and Lox2 loci. The molecular resources developed in this work should accelerate the inclusion of the lipoxygenase-free trait in soybean varieties. PMID:20058147

Lenis, Julian M; Gillman, Jason D; Lee, Jeong Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Bilyeu, Kristin D

2010-04-01

369

Allele frequency distribution for 15 autosomal STR loci in two Muslim populations of Tamilnadu, India.  

PubMed

Allele frequencies of the 15 autosomal STR loci: D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D3S1358, THO1, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D5S818, and FGA were determined in two endogamous Muslim populations (Dawoodi Bohra Muslims from Shiite Muslims and Sunni Muslims) residing in Tamilnadu, India. The Loci D7S820, CSF1PO, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D13S317, D16S539, D5S818, and FGA in Dawoodi Bohra Muslims from Shiite Muslims, and CSF1PO, D19S433, TPOX, and D16S539 in Sunni Muslims were found to deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The power of discrimination of the analyzed markers was found to be high for the populations, thereby facilitating the validation and efficiency of these STR markers in human identification. PMID:17616419

Eaaswarkhanth, M; Roy, Soma; Haque, Ikramul

2007-11-01

370

Understanding Depression (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... changes in mood from depression to mania. Continue Causes of Depression Depression usually isn't caused by one event ... on with their kids, but parents don't cause depression. However, it is true that parental separation, illness, ...

371

Tips for Divorcing Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... Continue Getting Help Figure out how to reduce stress in your life to help your family. Support from friends, relatives, church and religious groups, and organizations such as Parents Without Partners can help parents ...

372

Night Terrors (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Free Health Lessons Social Media: Connect With Us Night Terrors KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Sleep Disorders > Night Terrors ... Night Terrors? Coping With Night Terrors What Are Night Terrors? Most parents have comforted their child after the ...

373

Parent Outreach Success  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through the Massachusetts Parent Involvement Project (MassPIP), teams of community businesses, service organizations, school personnel, parents, and children joined together and planned and conducted science, mathematics, and technology related activities

Nitzberg, Joel; Sparrow, Judith

2001-11-01

374

Multidimensionality of parental monitoring  

E-print Network

This study explored the construct of parental monitoring and its relation to antisocial behavior in children. The factor structure of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire Poor Monitoring/Supervision Scale (Frick, 1991) was examined to determine...

Secrest, Laura A

2012-06-07

375

Human allelic variation: perspective from protein function, structure, and evolution.  

PubMed

It is widely anticipated that the coming year will be marked by the complete characterization of DNA sequence of protein-coding regions of thousands of human individuals. A number of existing computational methods use comparative protein sequence analysis and analysis of protein structure to predict the functional effect of coding human alleles. Functional and structural analysis of coding allelic variants can inform various aspects of research on human genetic variation. In population and evolutionary genetics it helps estimate the strength of purifying selection against deleterious missense mutations and study the imprint of demographic history on deleterious genetic variation. In medical genetics it may assist in the interpretation of uncharacterized mutations in genes involved in monogenic and oligogenic diseases. It has a potential to facilitate medical sequencing studies searching for genes underlying Mendelian diseases or harboring rare alleles involved in complex traits. PMID:20399638

Jordan, Daniel M; Ramensky, Vasily E; Sunyaev, Shamil R

2010-06-01

376

Generation and characterization of an analog-sensitive PERK allele.  

PubMed

Restriction of nutrients and oxygen in the tumor microenvironment disrupts ER homeostasis and adaptation to such stress is mediated by the key UPR effector PERK. Given its pro-tumorigenic activity, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie PERK function. Chemical-genetic approaches have recently proven instrumental in pathway mapping and interrogating kinase function. To enable a detailed study of PERK signaling we have generated an analog-sensitive PERK allele that accepts N(6)-alkylated ATP analogs. We find that this allele can be regulated by bulky ATP-competitive inhibitors, confirming the identity of the PERK gatekeeper residue as methionine 886. Furthermore, this analog-sensitive allele can be used to specifically label substrates with thiophosphate both in vitro and in cells. These data highlight the potential for using chemical-genetic techniques to identify novel PERK substrates, thereby providing an expanded view of PERK function and further definition of its signaling networks. PMID:24846185

Maas, Nancy L; Singh, Nickpreet; Diehl, J Alan

2014-08-01

377

Marker evaluation of human breast and bladder cancers  

SciTech Connect

We are investigating multiple markers in human breast and bladder cancers. Our aim is to identify markers that are clinically relevant and that contribute to our understanding of the disease process in individual patients. Good markers accurately assess the malignant potential of a cancer in an individual patient. Thus, they help identify those cancers that will recur, and they may be used to predict more accurately time to recurrence, response to treatment, and overall prognosis. Therapy and patient management may then be optimized to the individual patient. Relevant markers reflect the underlying pathobiology of individual tumors. As a tissue undergoes transformation from benign to malignant, the cells lose their differentiated phenotype. As a generalization, the more the cellular phenotype, cellular proliferation and cellular genotype depart from normal, the more advanced is the tumor in its biological evolution and the more likely it is that the patient has a poor prognosis. We use three studies to illustrate our investigation of potential tumor markers. Breast cancers are labeled in vivo with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) to give a direct measure of the tumor labeling index. Bladder cancers are analyzed immunocytochemically using an antibody against proliferation. Finally, the techniques of molecular genetics are used to detect allelic loss in breast cancers. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Mayall, B.H.; Carroll, P.R.; Chen, Ling-Chun; Cohen, M.B.; Goodson, W.H. III; Smith, H.S.; Waldman, F.M. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (USA))

1990-11-02

378

Characterization of microsatellite DNA markers for the alligator snapping turtle, Macrochelys temminckii: Primer note  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two trinucleotide and seven tetranucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated from an alligator snapping turtle Macrochelys temminckii. To assess the degree of variability in these nine microsatellite loci, we genotyped 174 individuals collected from eight river drainage basins in the southeastern USA. These markers revealed a moderate degree of allelic diversity (six to 16 alleles per locus) and observed heterozygosity (0.166-0.686). These polymorphic microsatellite loci provide powerful tools for population genetic studies for a species that is afforded some level of conservation protection in every state in which it occurs. ?? 2006 The Authors.

Hackler, J.C.; Van Den, Bussche, R. A.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.

2007-01-01

379

A novel polymorphic AP-1 binding element of the GFAP promoter is associated with different allelic transcriptional activities.  

PubMed

The Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) gene encodes a cytoskeletal protein belonging to the intermediate filament family whose expression is considered as a marker of astrocytes differentiation. GFAP expression, shown to be upregulated as a consequence of brain gliosis, depends on hormones, growth factors, cytokine, and transcription factors and, among these latters, activator protein 1 (AP-1) has been demonstrated to play a crucial role. In this study, we have focused on a 2.2 kb sequence of the regulatory region located upstream of the GFAP gene, searching in a panel of control individuals for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could modulate GFAP transcription. Among four SNPs of the GFAP promoter whose alleles have been predicted by in silico analysis to induce differences in the pattern of binding transcription factors, we have identified a new AP-1 binding site lying at -250 bp upstream from the GFAP transcriptional start site. The two alleles of this polymorphic locus have shown to bind the AP-1 complex to different extents, thus promoting variable transcriptional activities of the GFAP promoter. Therefore, these SNP alleles may, among others, mediate the effects of GFAP mutations, thus explaining the phenotypic heterogeneity of Alexander disease. PMID:20946255

Bachetti, Tiziana; Di Zanni, Eleonora; Lantieri, Francesca; Caroli, Francesco; Regis, Stefano; Filocamo, Mirella; Rainero, Innocenzo; Gallone, Salvatore; Cilia, Roberto; Romano, Silvia; Savoiardo, Mario; Pareyson, Davide; Biancheri, Roberta; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Ceccherini, Isabella

2010-11-01

380

Incarcerated mothers and parenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes as a primary prevention strategy, a parent-education program aimed at enhancing the parenting skills and knowledge of incarcerated women (the majority of whom were mothers). Data are presented which describe changes in program participants' self-evaluations, parenting attitudes, and expectations of children. Upon completing of the parenting program, few differences were observed for the various pre- and post-test

Dorothy C. Howze Browne

1989-01-01

381

MHC class II DR allelic diversity in bighorn sheep.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that decreased diversity and/or unique polymorphisms in MHC class II alleles of bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are responsible for lower titer of antibodies against Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin, in comparison to domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries). To test this hypothesis, DRA and DRB transcripts from 24 captive BHS (Ovca-DRA and Ovca-DRB) were sequenced. Based on exon 2 (?1 domain) sequences, eight different Ovca-DRB cDNA sequences were identified in BHS. Six of them were 100% identical to previously reported Ovca-DRB genomic DNA sequences. The new alleles DRB*23 and DRB*24, were closely related to two other Ovca-DRB exon 2 genomic DNA sequences. Nineteen out of 24 BHS (79%) Ovca-DRB exon 3 (?2 domain) sequences were 100% identical to exon 3 sequence of DRB1 of DS (Ovar-DRB1). Ovca-DRA full length cDNA sequences exhibited >99% identity. Based upon exon 2 sequences, this BHS herd yielded higher Ovca-DRB allelic diversity than that reported in the previous study. Positively selected amino acid positions were identified in the peptide-binding groove of BHS and DS, but BHS showed more such sites. This highlights differing population histories, and may suggest differing needs for DR peptide-binding specificities. Presence of glutamine at position 52 (52Q) in some of the desert and captive BHS is predicted to alter the efficiency of DR dimerization, which may influence antigen presentation and T(h) cell activation. Functional assays with unique alleles should reveal whether the presentation of M. haemolytica leukotoxin peptides to T(h) cells by Ovca-DRB alleles is equivalent to that of Ovar-DRB1 alleles. PMID:22750296

Subramaniam, Renuka; White, Stephen N; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

2012-09-10

382

Enhancement of Allele Discrimination by Introduction of Nucleotide Mismatches into siRNA in Allele-Specific Gene Silencing by RNAi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allele-specific gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is therapeutically useful for specifically inhibiting the expression of disease-associated alleles without suppressing the expression of corresponding wild-type alleles. To realize such allele-specific RNAi (ASP-RNAi), the design and assessment of small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes conferring ASP-RNAi is vital; however, it is also difficult. In a previous study, we developed an assay system

Yusuke Ohnishi; Yoshiko Tamura; Mariko Yoshida; Katsushi Tokunaga; Hirohiko Hohjoh; Luis M. Corrochano

2008-01-01

383

Reexamination of Culex pipiens Hybridization Zone in the Eastern United States by Ribosomal DNA-Based Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers  

PubMed Central

Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex are important vectors of several disease-causing pathogens, including West Nile virus. In North America, the complex consists of Cx. pipiens pipiens form pipiens, Cx. pipiens pipiens form molestus, Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus, and their hybrids that exhibit substantial diversity in physiology, behavior, and geographic range. Hybridization among these mosquitoes is of concern because of potential implications for disease transmission. Currently, several morphological and molecular markers exist for differentiating members of the Cx. pipiens complex; however, these markers have specific limitations. We report here two highly reliable ribosomal DNA-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, CxpG2T and CxpA2d, for detecting Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes containing Cx. p. quinquefasciatus alleles. Both CxpG2T and CxpA2d contain one allele that is present in all members of the Cx. pipiens complex, and the other allele is specific to Cx. p. quinquefasciatus. Testing of field populations from the eastern United States showed that these two SNP markers are capable of identifying a south to north gradient of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and hybrids. The northern limit of detection of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus alleles in this study was in Fort Totten, NY (40.79°N), whereas the southern boundary was determined between Atlanta, GA (33.81°N) and Gainesville, FL (29.64°N). CxpG2T and CxpA2d were more accurate than the ACE-2 marker, and they may conceivably provide comparable resolution with microsatellite markers for detecting Cx. p. quinquefasciatus alleles. PMID:21896800

Huang, Shaoming; Molaei, Goudarz; Andreadis, Theodore G.

2011-01-01

384

Twenty-five novel HLA-B alleles.  

PubMed

Twenty-five novel HLA-B alleles are described in this paper: B*0729, B*1309, B*1814, B*1815, B*2724, B*2725, B*3539, B*3926, B*4037, B*4040, B*4042, B*4043, B*4044, B*4204, B*440203, B*4428, B*4429, B*4430, B*4505, B*5308, B*5309, B*5510, B*5511, B*570102, and B*5709. Most of the variants are single nucleotide substitutions. Two involve variants at the Bw4/Bw6 epitope. Two alleles carry substitutions of conserved amino acids. PMID:12956882

Steiner, N K; Gans, C; Baldassarre, L; Bradshaw, D; Rizzo, M; Divekar, S; Koester, R; Ng, J; Hartzman, R J; Hurley, C K

2003-09-01

385

A common allele on chromosome 9 associated with coronary heartdisease  

SciTech Connect

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of death in Western countries. Here we used genome-wide association scanning to identify a 58 kb interval on chromosome 9 that was consistently associated with CHD in six independent samples. The interval contains no annotated genes and is not associated with established CHD risk factors such as plasma lipoproteins, hypertension or diabetes. Homozygotes for the risk allele comprise 20-25% of Caucasians and have a {approx}30-40% increased risk of CHD. These data indicate that the susceptibility allele acts through a novel mechanism to increase CHD risk in a large fraction of the population.

McPherson, Ruth; Pertsemlidis, Alexander; Kavaslar, Nihan; Stewart, Alexandre; Roberts, Robert; Cox, David R.; Hinds, David; Pennachio, Len; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Folsom, Aaron R.; Boerwinkle,Eric; Hobbs, Helen H.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

2007-03-01

386

Parenting: The Underdeveloped Skill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This parent education curriculum contains a variety of materials designed to help local Parent Teacher Associations (PTAs) hold meetings for parents on child rearing. The materials help organizers plan meetings on topics such as dating, drugs, and careers. The unit contains a leader's guide, which contains a description of how to plan meetings,…

National PTA, Chicago, IL.

387

From a Parent's Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The series of articles on parenting compiled in this book bridges the gap between educational theory and the everyday problems parents must deal with. The book's perspective encourages parents to be gentle, flexible, observant, and not too attached to expectations. The first chapter, "Surviving Parenthood," discusses topics such as managing…

Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

388

The Parent Loan Trap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the cost of college has spiraled ever upward and median family income has fallen, the loan program, called Parent PLUS, has become indispensable for increasing numbers of parents desperate to make their children's college plans work. Last year the government disbursed $10.6-billion in Parent PLUS loans to just under a million families. Even…

Wang, Marian; Supiano, Beckie; Fuller, Andrea

2012-01-01

389

Parenting by Lying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present set of studies identifies the phenomenon of "parenting by lying", in which parents lie to their children as a means of influencing their emotional states and behaviour. In Study 1, undergraduates (n = 127) reported that their parents had lied to them while maintaining a concurrent emphasis on the importance of honesty. In Study 2 (n =…

Heyman, Gail D.; Luu, Diem H.; Lee, Kang

2009-01-01

390

NYS Foster Parent Manual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed for use in foster parents' day-to-day life with the children in their care. It gives them practical information on topics like medical care, payments, and the role of the court, and also provides guidance on areas like welcoming a child, discipline, and parent visits. The manual emphasizes the role of foster parents in…

McBride, Rebecca

2007-01-01

391

Opening Doors to Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supporting parental-involvement research findings, Congress in 1995 appropriated $10 million to fund 28 parent information and resource centers in 27 states and Washington, D.C. In 1999, 58 more were funded. Centers communicate personably with parents via newsletters, referral networks, websites, cable TV, and toll-free numbers. (MLH)

Black, Susan

2001-01-01

392

Parenting after Infertility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

Olshansky, Ellen

2009-01-01

393

A powerful likelihood method for the analysis of linkage disequilibrium between trait loci and one or more polymorphic marker loci  

SciTech Connect

Historically, most methods for detecting linkage disequilibrium were designed for use with diallelic marker loci, for which the analysis is straightforward. With the advent of polymorphic markers with many alleles, the normal approach to their analysis has been either to extend the methodology for two-allele systems (leading to an increase in df and to a corresponding loss of power) or to select the allele believed to be associated and then collapse the other alleles, reducing, in a biased way, the locus to a diallelic system. I propose a likelihood-based approach to testing for linkage disequilibrium, an approach that becomes more conservative as the number of alleles increases, and as the number of markers considered jointly increases in a multipoint test for linkage disequilibrium, while maintaining high power. Properties of this method for detecting associations and fine mapping the location of disease traits are investigated. It is found to be, in general, more powerful than conventional methods, and it provides a tractable framework for the fine mapping of new disease loci. Application to the cystic fibrosis data of Kerem et al. is included to illustrate the method. 12 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Terwilliger, J.D. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

1995-03-01

394

Allele-specific PCR detection of sweet cherry self-incompatibility (S) alleles S1 to S16 using consensus and allele-specific primers  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR-based identification of all 13 known self-incompatibility ( S) alleles of sweet cherry is reported. Two pairs of consensus primers were designed from our previously published cDNA sequences of S 1 to S 6 S-RNases, the stylar components of self-incompatibility, to reveal length variation of the first and the second introns. With the exception of the first intron of S

T. Sonneveld; K. R. Tobutt; T. P. Robbins

2003-01-01

395

The role of serum erythropoietin level and jak2 v617f allele burden in the diagnosis of polycythaemia vera.  

PubMed

Low serum erythropoietin (EPO) is a minor criterion of Polycythaemia Vera (PV) but its diagnostic usefulness relies on studies performed before the discovery of JAK2 V617F mutation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of serum EPO and JAK2 V617F allele burden as markers of PV as well as the combination of different diagnostic criteria in 287 patients (99 with PV, 137 with Essential Thrombocythaemia and 51 with non-clonal erythrocytosis). Low EPO showed good diagnostic accuracy as a marker for PV, with the area under the curve (AUC) of the chemiluminescent-enhanced enzyme immunoassay (CEIA) being better than that of radioimmunoassay (RIA) (0·87 and 0·76 for CEIA and RIA, respectively). JAK2 V617F quantification displayed an excellent diagnostic accuracy, with an AUC of 0·95. A haematocrit >52% (males) or >48% (females) plus the presence of the JAK2 V617F mutation had a sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 97%, respectively. Adding low EPO or the JAK2 V617F allele burden did not improve the diagnostic accuracy for PV whereas the inclusion of both improved the sensitivity up to 83% and maintaining 96% specificity. Haematocrit and qualitative JAK2 V617F mutation allow a reliable diagnosis of PV. Incorporation of EPO and/or JAK2 V617F mutant load does not improve the diagnostic accuracy. PMID:25040297

Ancochea, Agueda; Alvarez-Larrán, Alberto; Morales-Indiano, Cristian; García-Pallarols, Francesc; Martínez-Avilés, Luz; Angona, Anna; Senín, Alicia; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carles

2014-11-01

396

Allele frequencies for 40 autosomal SNP loci typed for US population samples using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Aim To type a set of 194 US African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic samples (self-declared ancestry) for 40 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers intended for human identification purposes. Methods Genotyping was performed on an automated commercial electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, the PLEX-ID. The 40 SNP markers were amplified in eight unique 5plex PCRs, desalted, and resolved based on amplicon mass. For each of the three US sample groups statistical analyses were performed on the resulting genotypes. Results The assay was found to be robust and capable of genotyping the 40 SNP markers consuming approximately 4 nanograms of template per sample. The combined random match probabilities for the 40 SNP assay ranged from 10?16 to 10?21. Conclusion The multiplex PLEX-ID SNP-40 assay is the first fully automated genotyping method capable of typing a panel of 40 forensically relevant autosomal SNP markers on a mass spectrometry platform. The data produced provided the first allele frequencies estimates for these 40 SNPs in a National Institute of Standards and Technology US population sample set. No population bias was detected although one locus deviated from its expected level of heterozygosity. PMID:23771752

Kiesler, Kevin M.; Vallone, Peter M.

2013-01-01

397

Characterization of 215 simple sequence repeat markers in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.).  

PubMed

Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is a versatile, cross-pollinated, temperate and perennial turfgrass species. It occurs naturally in a wide variety of habitats and is also cultivated on golf courses, bowling greens and tennis courts worldwide. Isozymes and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) have been used to determine genetic diversity, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) were used to construct a genetic linkage map of this species. In the current report, we developed and characterized 215 unique genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in creeping bentgrass. The SSRs reported here are the first available markers in creeping bentgrass to date. Eight hundred and eighteen alleles were amplified by 215 SSR loci, an average of 3.72 alleles per locus. Fifty-nine per cent of those alleles segregated in a 1:1 Mendelian fashion (P > 0.05). Twenty-two per cent had a distorted segregation ratio (P ? 0.05). These SSR markers will be useful for assessing genetic diversity in creeping bentgrass and will be important for the development of genetic linkage maps and identifying quantitative trait loci. These markers could enhance breeding programmes by improving the efficiency of selection techniques. PMID:21843299

Kubik, Christine; Honig, Joshua; Bonos, Stacy A

2011-09-01

398

Utility of RAPD markers in identifying genetic linkages to genes of economic interest in peach.  

PubMed

The identification of molecular markers linked to economically important traits for use in crop improvement is very important in long-lived perennial species. Three-hundred-and-sixty RAPD primers were used with bulked segregant analysis to identify markers linked to loci of specific interest in peach [(Prunus persica) L. Batch] and peach x alm