Sample records for parental marker alleles

  1. Development of ?-Carotene Rich Maize Hybrids through Marker-Assisted Introgression of ?-carotene hydroxylase Allele

    PubMed Central

    Muthusamy, Vignesh; Hossain, Firoz; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Choudhary, Mukesh; Saha, Supradip; Bhat, Jayant S.; Prasanna, Boddupalli M.; Gupta, Hari S.

    2014-01-01

    Development of vitamin A-rich cereals can help in alleviating the widespread problem of vitamin A deficiency. We report here significant enhancement of kernel ?-carotene in elite maize genotypes through accelerated marker-assisted backcross breeding. A favourable allele (543 bp) of the ?-carotene hydroxylase (crtRB1) gene was introgressed in the seven elite inbred parents, which were low (1.4 µg/g) in kernel ?-carotene, by using a crtRB1-specific DNA marker for foreground selection. About 90% of the recurrent parent genome was recovered in the selected progenies within two backcross generations. Concentration of ?-carotene among the crtRB1-introgressed inbreds varied from 8.6 to 17.5 µg/g - a maximum increase up to 12.6-fold over recurrent parent. The reconstituted hybrids developed from improved parental inbreds also showed enhanced kernel ?-carotene as high as 21.7 µg/g, compared to 2.6 µg/g in the original hybrid. The reconstituted hybrids evaluated at two locations possessed similar grain yield to that of original hybrids. These ?-carotene enriched high yielding hybrids can be effectively utilized in the maize biofortification programs across the globe. PMID:25486271

  2. Imputation of Microsatellite Alleles from Dense SNP Genotypes for Parental Verification

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Matthew; Sonstegard, Tad; Wiggans, George; Van Tassell, Curtis P

    2012-01-01

    Microsatellite (MS) markers have recently been used for parental verification and are still the international standard despite higher cost, error rate, and turnaround time compared with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP)-based assays. Despite domestic and international interest from producers and research communities, no viable means currently exist to verify parentage for an individual unless all familial connections were analyzed using the same DNA marker type (MS or SNP). A simple and cost-effective method was devised to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes within breeds. For some MS, imputation results may allow inference across breeds. A total of 347 dairy cattle representing four dairy breeds (Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey) were used to generate reference haplotypes. This approach has been verified (>98% accurate) for imputing the International Society of Animal Genetics recommended panel of 12 MS for cattle parentage verification across a validation set of 1,307 dairy animals. Implementation of this method will allow producers and breed associations to transition to SNP-based parentage verification utilizing MS genotypes from historical data on parents where SNP genotypes are missing. This approach may be applicable to additional cattle breeds and other species that wish to migrate from MS- to SNP-based parental verification. PMID:22912645

  3. Correlation in chicken between the marker LEI0258 alleles and Major Histocompatibility Complex sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olympe Chazara; Helle Risdahl Juul-Madsen; Chi-Sheng Chang; Michele Tixier-Boichard; Bertrand Bed’hom

    2011-01-01

    Background  The LEI0258 marker is located within the B region of the chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), and is surprisingly\\u000a well associated with serology. Therefore, the correlation between the LEI0258 alleles and the MHC class I and the class II\\u000a alleles at the level of sequences is worth investigating in chickens. Here we describe to which extent the LEI0258 alleles\\u000a are

  4. Allelic divergence and cultivar-specific SSR alleles revealed by capillary electrophoresis using fluorescence-labeled SSR markers in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amaresh; Grisham, Michael P; Pan, Yong-Bao

    2014-06-01

    Though sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp. hybrids) are complex aneupolyploid hybrids, genetic evaluation and tracking of clone- or cultivar-specific alleles become possible through capillary electrophoresis (CE) using fluorescence-labeled SSR markers. Twenty-four sugarcane cultivars, 12 each from India and the USA, were genetically assessed using 21 fluorescence-labeled polymorphic SSR markers. These markers primed the amplification of 213 alleles. Of these alleles, 161 were common to both Indian and US cultivars, 25 were specific to the Indian cultivars, and 27 were observed only in the US cultivars. Only 10 alleles were monomorphic. A high level of heterozygosity was observed in both Indian (82.4%) and US (91.1%) cultivars resulting in average polymorphism information content (PIC) values of 0.66 and 0.77 and marker index (MI) values of 5.07 and 5.58, respectively. Pearson correlation between PIC and MI was significant in both sets of cultivars (r = 0.58 and 0.69). UPGMA clustering separated cultivars into three distinct clusters at 59% homology level. These results propose the potential utility of six Indian cultivar-specific SSR alleles (mSSCIR3_182, SMC486CG_229, SMC36BUQ_125, mSSCIR74_216, SMC334BS_154, and mSSCIR43_238) in sugarcane breeding, vis a vis transporting CE-based evaluation in clone or variety identity testing, cross fidelity assessments, and genetic relatedness among species of the genus Saccharum and related genera. PMID:25247737

  5. Parental allelic variation at COL6A1 and congenital heart defects in trisomy 21

    SciTech Connect

    Kessling, A.M.; Howard, C.M.; Farrer, M.J. [St. Mary`s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Overt congenital heart defects (CHD) affect over 40% of newborns with Down syndrome. On the hypothesis that genetic variation on chromosome 21 determines this clinical variability, we studied a CHD candidate locus (COL6A1) on 21q22.3. We studied three RFLP loci in COL6A1 in 37 families of known British/Irish population of ancestral origin, and in population-matched controls. Each family had a child with trisomy 21 with or without accompanying congenital heart defect (CHD). Parental and meiotic origin of nondisjunction were determined using peri-centromeric markers. For the analysis, we considered groups of families with trisomic children with and without CHD, and subsets of nondisjoining and disjoining parents. Parental genotypes at nine control RFLP loci on chromosome 21 showed no association with CHD in the trisomic child. By contrast, parental genotypes at all three individual RFLP loci within COL6A1 showed statistically significant association with the trisomic child`s CHD status. Pairwise consideration of these loci in groups of families of trisomic children with and without CHD showed subsets of nondisjoining and disjoining parents to have different linkage disequilibrium patterns at these loci than population-matched controls. This suggests that the COL6A1 alleles of the parents are not representative of the population as a whole. Consideration of all three loci together as haplotypes supports this conclusion. Four results suggest that a functional mutation within, or in linkage disequilibrium with COL6A1 influences CHD outcome in trisomy 21.

  6. Allelic association between the D10S1423 marker and Alzheimer's disease in a German population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Majores; Metin Bagli; Andreas Papassotiropoulos; Sybille G Schwab; Frank Jessen; Marie Luise Rao; Wolfgang Maier; Reinhard Heun

    2000-01-01

    Recently a full genome survey detected an allelic association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the D10S1423 marker on chromosome 10p12-14 (40 cM from the telomere). In this study we examined the D10S1423 marker in an ethnically homogeneous German population of 80 AD patients and two groups of controls, 168 healthy subjects and 149 depressed patients. The 234-bp allele of the

  7. Distinct physiological and behavioural functions for parental alleles of imprinted Grb10

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, Alastair S.; Cowley, Michael; Smith, Florentia M.; Moorwood, Kim; Stewart-Cox, Joanne E.; Gilroy, Kerry; Baker, Sian; Xia, Jing; Dalley, Jeffrey W.; Hurst, Laurence D.; Wilkinson, Lawrence S.; Isles, Anthony R.; Ward, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Imprinted genes, defined by their preferential expression of a single parental allele, represent a subset of the mammalian genome and often have key roles in embryonic development1, but also post-natal functions including energy homeostasis2 and behaviour3, 4. When the two parental alleles are unequally represented within a social group (when there is sex-bias in dispersal and/or variance in reproductive success)5, 6, imprinted genes may evolve to modulate social behaviour, although to date no such instance is known. Predominantly expressed from the maternal allele during embryogenesis, Grb10 encodes an intracellular adapter protein that can interact with a number of receptor tyrosine kinases and downstream signalling molecules7. Here we demonstrate that within the brain Grb10 is expressed from the paternal allele from fetal life into adulthood and that ablation of this expression engenders increased social dominance specifically among other aspects of social behaviour, a finding supported by the observed increase in allogrooming by paternal Grb10 deficient animals. Grb10 is, therefore, the first example of an imprinted gene that regulates social behaviour. It is also currently alone in exhibiting imprinted expression from each of the parental alleles in a tissue specific manner, as loss of the peripherally expressed maternal allele leads to significant fetal and placental overgrowth. Thus, Grb10 is to date a unique imprinted gene, able to influence distinct physiological processes, fetal growth and adult behaviour, due to actions of the two parental alleles in different tissues. PMID:21270893

  8. Allele-specific parental imprinting of dzr1, a posttranscriptional regulator of zein accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, S; Messing, J

    1994-01-01

    Parental imprinting describes the phenomenon of unequivalent gene function based on transmission from the female or male parent. We have discovered parental imprinting of an allele of the dzr1 locus that posttranscriptionally regulates the accumulation of 10-kDa zein in the maize endosperm. The imprinted allele of MO17 inbred origin, dzr1 + MO17, conditions low accumulation of the 10-kDa zein and is dominant when transmitted through the female but recessive when transmitted through the male. Analyzing endosperms with equal parental contributions of dzr1 + MO17 ruled out the possibility that the unequivalent phenotype of dzr1 + MO17 was due to parental dosage imbalance in the triploid endosperm. Second-generation studies show that the dominant or recessive phenotype of dzr1 + MO17 is determined at every generation based on immediate parental origin with no grandparental effect. Images PMID:8197149

  9. On coding genotypes for genetic markers with multiple alleles in genetic association study of quantitative traits

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In genetic association study of quantitative traits using F? models, how to code the marker genotypes and interpret the model parameters appropriately is important for constructing hypothesis tests and making statistical inferences. Currently, the coding of marker genotypes in building F? models has mainly focused on the biallelic case. A thorough work on the coding of marker genotypes and interpretation of model parameters for F? models is needed especially for genetic markers with multiple alleles. Results In this study, we will formulate F? genetic models under various regression model frameworks and introduce three genotype coding schemes for genetic markers with multiple alleles. Starting from an allele-based modeling strategy, we first describe a regression framework to model the expected genotypic values at given markers. Then, as extension from the biallelic case, we introduce three coding schemes for constructing fully parameterized one-locus F? models and discuss the relationships between the model parameters and the expected genotypic values. Next, under a simplified modeling framework for the expected genotypic values, we consider several reduced one-locus F? models from the three coding schemes on the estimability and interpretation of their model parameters. Finally, we explore some extensions of the one-locus F? models to two loci. Several fully parameterized as well as reduced two-locus F? models are addressed. Conclusions The genotype coding schemes provide different ways to construct F? models for association testing of multi-allele genetic markers with quantitative traits. Which coding scheme should be applied depends on how convenient it can provide the statistical inferences on the parameters of our research interests. Based on these F? models, the standard regression model fitting tools can be used to estimate and test for various genetic effects through statistical contrasts with the adjustment for environmental factors. PMID:21936918

  10. Snapshots of Selection: Changes in SNP Allele Frequencies during Phenotypic, Marker-Assisted, and Genomewide Selection in Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in allele frequencies underlie improvements in mean performance for quantitative traits. Limited published information is available on how genomewide marker-allele frequencies change during phenotypic and marker-based selection for multiple traits in applied breeding programs. Here we descri...

  11. A 19-allele polymorphic marker within the centromere of human chromosome 5.

    PubMed

    Prades, C; Laurent, A M; Yurov, Y; Puechberty, J; Roizès, G

    1996-01-01

    We have detected and characterized a highly polymorphic marker that maps to the centromere of human chromosome 5. The localization was established by both linkage analysis within the CEPH reference families and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The marker consists of a sequence of five nucleotides, (CCTTT)n. Nineteen alleles have been detected in 46 unrelated individuals from 12 CEPH families, with a calculated heterozygosity of 0.91. This is the first truly centromeric, highly polymorphic genetic marker described so far. PMID:8565639

  12. A combined analysis of D22S278 marker alleles in affected sib-pairs: Support for a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia at chromosome 22q12

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, M.; Vallada, H.; Collier, D. [Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom); and others

    1996-02-16

    Several groups have reported weak evidence for linkage between schizophrenia and genetic markers located on chromosome 22q using the lod score method of analysis. However these findings involved different genetic markers and methods of analysis, and so were not directly comparable. To resolve this issue we have performed a combined analysis of genotypic data from the marker D22S278 in multiply affected schizophrenic families derived from 11 independent research groups worldwide. This marker was chosen because it showed maximum evidence for linkage in three independent datasets. Using the affected sib-pair method as implemented by the program ESPA, the combined dataset showed 252 alleles shared compared with 188 alleles not shared (chi-square 9.31, 1df, P = 0.001) where parental genotype data was completely known. When sib-pairs for whom parental data was assigned according to probability were included the number of alleles shared was 514.1 compared with 437.8 not shared (chi-square 6.12, 1df, P = 0.006). Similar results were obtained when a likelihood ratio method for sib-pair analysis was used. These results indicate that there may be a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia at 22q12. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Development of a co-dominant, PCR-based marker for allelic selection of the pink trait in onions (Allium cepa), based on the insertion mutation in the promoter of the anthocyanidin synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Yoo, Kil-Sun; Pike, Leonard M

    2005-02-01

    Bulb color in onions (Allium cepa) is an important trait and is inherited in a complex manner. However, the mechanism of color inheritance is poorly understood at the molecular level. A previous study showed that pink bulb color in onions is inherited as a single recessive trait. This trait is attributable to a significantly reduced transcription of the anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) gene. In this study, we developed a PCR-based marker for an allelic selection of the ANS gene to avoid the laborious progeny tests traditionally employed. To identify polymorphisms between pink and red alleles of the ANS gene, promoter sequences of both alleles were isolated. There was 97% nucleotide sequence identity between the promoter sequences of the two alleles. A 390-bp insertion was identified 632 bp upstream from the putative transcription start site in the pink allele. A pair of primers was designed on the flanking sequences of the inserted region and utilized as a PCR-based marker for allelic selection of the ANS gene. The reliability of the marker was tested using parents, F1 hybrids, and F3 lines whose genotypes had been identified by progeny tests. The marker was also used to evaluate the distribution of the pink allele in white and yellow breeding lines. The results indicated that a majority of the breeding lines tested were homozygous recessive. PMID:15660238

  14. Development of a codominant PCR-based marker for allelic selection of the pink trait in onions (Allium cepa), based on the insertion mutation in the promoter of the anthocyanidin synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Yoo, Kil-Sun; Pike, Leonard M

    2005-02-01

    Bulb color in onions (Allium cepa) is an important trait and is inherited in a complex manner. However, the mechanism of color inheritance is poorly understood at the molecular level. A previous study showed that pink bulb color in onions is inherited as a single recessive trait. This trait is attributable to a significantly reduced transcription of the anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) gene. In this study, we developed a PCR-based marker for an allelic selection of the ANS gene to avoid the laborious progeny tests traditionally employed. To identify polymorphisms between pink and red alleles of the ANS gene, promoter sequences of both alleles were isolated. There was 97% nucleotide sequence identity between the promoter sequences of the two alleles. A 390-bp insertion was identified 632 bp upstream from the putative transcription start site in the pink allele. A pair of primers was designed on the flanking sequences of the inserted region and utilized as a PCR-based marker for allelic selection of the ANS gene. The reliability of the marker was tested using parents, F1 hybrids, and F3 lines whose genotypes had been identified by progeny tests. The marker was also used to evaluate the distribution of the pink allele in white and yellow breeding lines. The results indicated that a majority of the breeding lines tested were homozygous recessive. PMID:15650815

  15. A and MdMYB1 allele-specific markers controlling apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) skin color and suitability for marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X J; Wang, L X; Chen, X X; Liu, Y L; Meng, R; Wang, Y J; Zhao, Z Y

    2014-01-01

    Pre-selection for fruit skin color at the seedling stage would be highly advantageous, with marker-assisted selection offering a potential method for apple pre-selection. A and MdMYB1 alleles are allele-specific DNA markers that are potentially associated with apple skin color, and co-segregate with the Rf and Rni loci, respectively. Here, we assessed the potential application of these 2 alleles for marker-assisted breeding across 30 diverse cultivars and 2 apple seedling progenies. The red skin color phenotype was usually associated with the MdMYB1-1 allele and A(1) allele, respectively, while the 2 molecular markers provided approximately 91% predictability in the 'Fuji' x 'Cripps Pink' and 'Fuji' x 'Gala' progenies. The results obtained from the 30 cultivars and 2 progenies were consistent for the 2 molecular markers. Hence, the results supported that Rf and Rni could be located in a gene cluster, or even correspond to alleles of the same gene. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that red/yellow dimorphism is controlled by a monogenic system, with the presence of the red anthocyanin pigmentation being dominant. In addition, our results supported that the practical utilization of the 2 function markers to efficiently and accurately select red-skinned apple cultivars in apple scion breeding programs. PMID:25366802

  16. Analysis of simple tandem repeat (STR) marker allele distributions in a Balinese population

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, R.; Ashler, J.H.; Friedman, T.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Genotypes for 53 simple tandem repeat (STR) markers distributed at greater than 39 cM intervals throughout the genome were determined for 46 individuals from the village of Bengkala, Bali. This village dates to at least the thirteenth century, has approximately 2,200 individuals and has an oral and written tradition suggesting genetic bottlenecks. The allele frequency distributions in Bengkala were compared with distributions obtained by typing individuals in the CEPH data base using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov two sample test. Twenty-eight of the 53 markers showed differences (p<0.05) in distribution between the two populations. Allele frequencies of tetranucleotide STRs were much more similar between the two populations than were those of dinucleotide STRs (p < 0.0043). This may be due to the higher mutation rate of tetranucleotide STRs, combining with selection on repeat lengths, to produce a {open_quotes}stable{close_quotes} allele distribution. Population heterogeneity in Bengkala was indicated by an excess of observed homozygosity, deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at seven loci, and significant genotypic disequilibrium between physically unlinked loci. These analyses serve as a resource to map a gene causing non-syndromal autosomal recessive deafness in Bengkala, and to corroborate the anthropological study of the history and social structure of the village.

  17. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Sugarcane Parents in Chinese Breeding Programmes Using gSSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    You, Qian; Xu, Liping; Zheng, Yifeng; Que, Youxiong

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane is the most important sugar and bioenergy crop in the world. The selection and combination of parents for crossing rely on an understanding of their genetic structures and molecular diversity. In the present study, 115 sugarcane genotypes used for parental crossing were genotyped based on five genomic simple sequence repeat marker (gSSR) loci and 88 polymorphic alleles of loci (100%) as detected by capillary electrophoresis. The values of genetic diversity parameters across the populations indicate that the genetic variation intrapopulation (90.5%) was much larger than that of interpopulation (9.5%). Cluster analysis revealed that there were three groups termed as groups I, II, and III within the 115 genotypes. The genotypes released by each breeding programme showed closer genetic relationships, except the YC series released by Hainan sugarcane breeding station. Using principle component analysis (PCA), the first and second principal components accounted for a cumulative 76% of the total variances, in which 43% were for common parents and 33% were for new parents, respectively. The knowledge obtained in this study should be useful to future breeding programs for increasing genetic diversity of sugarcane varieties and cultivars to meet the demand of sugarcane cultivation for sugar and bioenergy use. PMID:23990759

  18. Genetic diversity analysis of sugarcane parents in Chinese breeding programmes using gSSR markers.

    PubMed

    You, Qian; Xu, Liping; Zheng, Yifeng; Que, Youxiong

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane is the most important sugar and bioenergy crop in the world. The selection and combination of parents for crossing rely on an understanding of their genetic structures and molecular diversity. In the present study, 115 sugarcane genotypes used for parental crossing were genotyped based on five genomic simple sequence repeat marker (gSSR) loci and 88 polymorphic alleles of loci (100%) as detected by capillary electrophoresis. The values of genetic diversity parameters across the populations indicate that the genetic variation intrapopulation (90.5%) was much larger than that of interpopulation (9.5%). Cluster analysis revealed that there were three groups termed as groups I, II, and III within the 115 genotypes. The genotypes released by each breeding programme showed closer genetic relationships, except the YC series released by Hainan sugarcane breeding station. Using principle component analysis (PCA), the first and second principal components accounted for a cumulative 76% of the total variances, in which 43% were for common parents and 33% were for new parents, respectively. The knowledge obtained in this study should be useful to future breeding programs for increasing genetic diversity of sugarcane varieties and cultivars to meet the demand of sugarcane cultivation for sugar and bioenergy use. PMID:23990759

  19. Retrospective selection of elite parent trees using paternity testing with microsatellite markers: an alternative short term breeding tactic for Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Grattapaglia, D; Ribeiro, V J; Rezende, G D S P

    2004-06-01

    The conventional way to drive modifications in old forest tree seed orchards is to establish progeny trials involving each parent tree and then evaluate its contribution to the performance of the progeny by estimating its general and specific combining ability (GCA and SCA). In this work, we successfully applied an alternative parent selection tactic based on paternity testing of superior offspring derived from a hybrid seed orchard established with a single Eucalyptus grandis seed parents and six E. urophylla pollen parents. A battery of 14 microsatellite markers was used to carry out parentage tests of 256 progeny individuals including two independent samples of selected trees and one control unselected sample, all derived from 6-year-old forest stands in eastern Brazil. Paternity determination was carried out for all progeny individuals by a sequential paternity exclusion procedure. Exclusion was declared only when the obligatory paternal allele in the progeny tree was not present in the alleged parent tree for at least four independent markers to avoid false exclusions due to mutation or null alleles. After maternity checks to identify seed mixtures and selfed individuals, the paternity tests revealed that approximately 29% of the offspring was sired by pollen parents outside the orchard. No selfed progeny were found in the selected samples. Three pollen parents were found to have sired essentially all of the offspring in the samples of selected and non-selected progeny individuals. One of these three parents sired significantly more selected progeny than unselected ones ( P< or =0.0002 in a Fisher exact test). Based on these results, low-reproductive-successful parents were culled from the orchard, and management procedures were adopted to minimize external pollen contamination. A significant difference ( P<0.01) in mean annual increment was observed between forest stands produced with seed from the orchard before and after selection of parents and revitalization of the orchard. An average realized gain of 24.3% in volume growth was obtained from the selection of parents as measured in forest stands at age 2-4 years. The marker-assisted tree-breeding tactic presented herein efficiently identified top parents in a seed orchard and resulted in an improved seed variety. It should be applicable for rapidly improving the output quality of seed orchards, especially when an emergency demand for improved seed is faced by the breeder. PMID:15004676

  20. Allelic divergence and cultivar-specific SSR alleles revealed by capillary electrophoresis using fluorescence-labeled SSR markers in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp. hybrids) are complex aneu-polyploid hybrids, genetic evaluation and tracking of clone- or cultivar-specific alleles become possible due to capillary electrophoregrams (CE) using fluorescence-labeled SSR primer pairs. Twenty-four sugarcane cultivars, 12 each...

  1. Allele frequencies of 15 STR loci of three main ethnic populations in Singapore using an in-house marker panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Y. Y Yong; L. T Aw; E. P. H Yap

    2004-01-01

    Allele frequency data for 15 Short Tandem Repeat (STR) loci was studied for the three main ethnic groups residing in Singapore, namely Chinese, Malay and Indian. An in-house STR marker panel was employed, consisting all 13 tetranucleaotide STR listed in CODIS (Combined DNA Index System, USA) and two pentanucleaotide STR, Penta D and Penta E. This represents a comprehensive report

  2. Effects of sample size, number of markers, and allelic richness on the detection of spatial genetic pattern

    E-print Network

    Fortin, Marie Josee

    Effects of sample size, number of markers, and allelic richness on the detection of spatial genetic genetic research. To investigate the effect of study design on landscape genetics inference, we used the statistical power to identify the generating process as a response surface for equilibrium and non-equilibrium

  3. Parent-child concordance of Taq1 A1 allele predicts similarity of parent-child weight loss in behavioral family-based treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Dearing, Kelly K; Erbe, Richard W

    2010-10-01

    Family-based treatments show positive relationships between parent and child weight losses. One mechanism for similar parent-child changes may be a common genetic predisposition to respond similarly to a structured weight loss program. We examined whether concordance of the Taq1 A1 allele of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) predicts similarities in zBMI change in 26 families with obese parents and overweight/obese 8-12-year-old children. Results showed a relationship between parent and child zBMI change over 6 and 12 months (rs=.69, .77, ps<0.001), and concordance for the number of Taq1 A1 alleles predicted the similarity in parent and child weight loss at 6 (p=0.003) and 12 (p=0.025) months. These results show concordance of the Taq1 A1 allele of the DRD2 between parents and children may be one mechanism for the similar response to family-based treatments within families. PMID:20561550

  4. Parent-of-origin specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, Tõnu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J; Byrne, Enda M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Buring, Julie E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Jinhui; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Collée, J. Margriet; Couch, Fergus J; Couper, David; Coveillo, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D’adamo, Adamo Pio; Smith, George Davey; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Dunning, Alison M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Foroud, Tatiana; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Geller, Frank; de Geus, Eco EJ; Giles, Graham G; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Suiqun; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Haring, Robin; Hartman, Catharina A; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lai, Sandra; Lambrechts, Diether; Lindblom, Annika; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G; Masson, Gisli; McArdle, Patrick F; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nohr, Ellen A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peacock, Munro; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul DP; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Ring, Susan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rudolph, Anja; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Southey, Mellissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir J; Stöckl, Doris; Storniolo, Anna M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Visser, Jenny A; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Waeber, Gerard; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wang, Qin; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce HR; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Econs, Michael J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Loos, Ruth JF; McCarthy, Mark I; Montgomery, Grant W; Rice, John P; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zygmunt, Marek; Murray, Anna; Easton, Douglas F

    2014-01-01

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality1. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation2,3, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P<5×10?8) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1/WDR25, MKRN3/MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signaling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition. PMID:25231870

  5. Parental allele specific methylation of the human insulin-like growth factor II gene and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Schneid, H; Seurin, D; Vazquez, M P; Gourmelen, M; Cabrol, S; Le Bouc, Y

    1993-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate the role of methylation in parental imprinting at the IGF-II gene locus, for which imprinting has already been described in the mouse, we undertook an allele specific methylation study of the human IGF-II gene (mapped to 11p15.5) in a control population and in patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. In control leucocyte DNA (16 unrelated adults and eight families), the maternal allele of the IGF-II gene was specifically hypomethylated, whereas no such allele specific methylation was found for either the insulin or the calcitonin genes which are located in 11p15.5 and 11p15.1, respectively. Furthermore, the IGF-II gene specific hypomethylation was localised on the 5' portion of exon 9. In the patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome in which the IGF-II gene is thought to be involved and where paternal isodisomy has been described, hypomethylation of the maternal allele was conserved in leucocyte DNA, but abnormal methylation was detected in malformed tissues where the paternal allele was also demethylated. Some specific mechanism linked to methylation therefore seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Images PMID:8320696

  6. Improvement of marker-based predictability of Apparent Amylose Content in japonica rice through GBSSI allele mining

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Apparent Amylose Content (AAC), regulated by the Waxy gene, represents the key determinant of rice cooking properties. In occidental countries high AAC rice represents the most requested market class but the availability of molecular markers allowing specific selection of high AAC varieties is limited. Results In this study, the effectiveness of available molecular markers in predicting AAC was evaluated in a collection of 127 rice accessions (125 japonica ssp. and 2 indica ssp.) characterized by AAC values from glutinous to 26%. The analyses highlighted the presence of several different allelic patterns identifiable by a few molecular markers, and two of them, i.e., the SNPs at intron1 and exon 6, were able to explain a maximum of 79.5% of AAC variation. However, the available molecular markers haplotypes did not provide tools for predicting accessions with AAC higher than 24.5%. To identify additional polymorphisms, the re-sequencing of the Waxy gene and 1kbp of the putative upstream regulatory region was performed in 21 genotypes representing all the AAC classes identified. Several previously un-characterized SNPs were identified and four of them were used to develop dCAPS markers. Conclusions The addition of the SNPs newly identified slightly increased the AAC explained variation and allowed the identification of a haplotype almost unequivocally associated to AAC higher than 24.5%. Haplotypes at the waxy locus were also associated to grain length and length/width (L/W) ratio. In particular, the SNP at the first intron, which identifies the Wx a and Wx b alleles, was associated with differences in the width of the grain, the L/W ratio and the length of the kernel, most likely as a result of human selection. PMID:24383761

  7. Allelic divergence in sugarcane cultivars revealed through capillary electrophoregrams of fluorescence-labeled microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp. hybrids) are complex aneu-polyploid hybrids, genetic evaluation and tracking of clone- or cultivar-specific alleles become possible due to capillary electerophoregrams (CE) using fluorescence-labeled SSR primer pairs. Twenty-four sugarcane cultivars, 12 eac...

  8. Global analysis of Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ exchanger (pfnhe-1) allele polymorphism and its usefulness as a marker of in vitro resistance to quinine

    PubMed Central

    Ménard, Didier; Andriantsoanirina, Valérie; Khim, Nimol; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Witkowski, Benoit; Benedet, Christophe; Canier, Lydie; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Durand, Rémy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the worldwide genetic polymorphism of ms4760 alleles of the pfnhe-1 gene and to discuss their usefulness as molecular marker of quinine resistance (QNR). A new numbering of ms4760 allele, classification grouping ms4760 alleles according to the number of DNNND and DDNHNDNHNND repeat motifs in blocks II and V was also proposed. A total of 1508 ms4760 sequences from isolates, culture-adapted parasites or reference strains from various geographical regions were retrieved from GenBank (last update on 15th June 2012) or from publications and were used for genetic analyses. The association of different alleles of pfnhe-1 with resistance to quinoline antimalarial drugs showed marked geographic disparities. The validity and reliability of candidate polymorphisms in pfnhe-1 gene as molecular markers of QNR appeared restricted to endemic areas from South Asia or possibly East African countries and needs to be confirmed. PMID:24533289

  9. DXS10011: studies on structure, allele distribution in three populations and genetic linkage to further q-telomeric chromosome X markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Hering; Nicola Brundirs; Eberhard Kuhlisch; Jeanett Edelmann; Ines Plate; Mark Benecke; Pham Hung Van; Matthias Michael; Reinhard Szibor

    2004-01-01

    The hypervariable tetranucleotide STR polymorphism DXS10011 is a powerful marker for forensic purposes. Investigation of this STR led to an allele nomenclature which is in consensus with the ISFG recommendations. DXS10011 is located at Xq28 and genetically closely linked to DXS7423 and DXS8377 but is unlinked to HPRTB and more distant X-chromosomal STRs. DXS10011 is a very complex marker exhibiting

  10. Investigator HDplex markers: allele frequencies and mutational events in a North Italian population.

    PubMed

    Turrina, Stefania; Ferrian, Melissa; Caratti, Stefano; De Leo, Domenico

    2014-09-10

    Autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) analysis represents the method of election in forensic genetics and up to now, 23 STRs are available for these purposes. However, in particular circumstances such as human identification or complex kinship cases, examination of additional STRs may be required in order to obtain reliable conclusions. For this purpose, a new multiplex STR system, namely Investigator® HDplex kit (QIAGEN) that coamplifies a set of 12 autosomal loci, 9 of which, represents novel supplementary STRs, was recently developed. A population sample of 359 unrelated healthy subjects residing in North Italy was typed to determine allele frequencies, forensic parameters and genetic distances among European populations. Furthermore, to evaluate the suitability of the HDplex kit as an auxiliary tool for paternity testing, mutation rates were estimated on 84 confirmed family trios. The 12 loci resulted highly informative with a combined power of discrimination of 0.999998 and no departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed with the sole exception of locus D4S2366. From the comparison of our population sample and European reference populations, a single significant difference was revealed with the Poland population at D4S2366 locus. With regard to the mutation rate study, on a total of 2,016 meioses considered, six single-step mutational events were observed and the average mutation rate calculated was of 2.94?×?10(-3) per locus per generation (95 % confidence interval, 1.08?×?10(-3)-6.39?×?10(-3)). PMID:25205546

  11. Allelic database and divergence among Psidium accessions by using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    da Costa, S R; Santos, C A F

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the genetic variability among guava accessions and wild Psidium species of the Embrapa Semiárido germplasm collection by using microsatellite loci to guide genetic resources and breeding programs, emphasizing crosses between guava and other Psidium species. DNA was extracted using the 2X CTAB method, and polymerase chain reaction products were analyzed on 6% denatured polyacrylamide gels stained with silver nitrate. The unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic average dendrogram generated from the distance matrix of the Jaccard coefficient for 183 alleles of 13 microsatellite loci was used for visualization of genetic similarity. The number of base pairs was estimated using inverse mobility method based on the regression of known-size products. Analysis of molecular variance was performed using total decomposition between and within guava accessions. The accessions showed similarity from 0.75 to 1.00, with the dendrogram presenting cophenetic value of 0.85. Five groups were observed: the first included guava accessions; the second, P. guineense accessions; the third, one accession of P. friedrichsthalianum; and the last 2 groups, P. cattleianum. The genetic similarity among P. guineense and some guava accessions were above 80%, suggesting greater possibility to obtain interspecies hybrids between these 2 species. The genetic variability between the accessions was considered to be high (?ST = 0.238), indicating that guava genetic variability is not uniformly distributed among the 9 Brazilian states from where the accession were obtained. Obtaining a greater number of accessions by Brazilian states is recommended in order to have greater diversity among the species. PMID:24391028

  12. Personality traits as potential susceptibility markers: differential susceptibility to support among parents.

    PubMed

    Slagt, Meike; Dubas, Judith Semon; Denissen, Jaap J A; Dekovi?, Maja; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we examined whether parents are differentially susceptible to support from their spouse and adolescent child depending on their personality traits, and whether differences in susceptibility to support among parents, in turn, are linked to the quality of support parents give to their children. Participants in this three-wave longitudinal study were 288 two-parent Dutch families with an adolescent child. Fathers were on average 43.9 years old (SD?=?3.7 years), mothers were 41.7 years old (SD?=?3.3 years), and adolescents (50% girls) were 14.5 years old (SD?=?0.8 years). We found that the association between support from children toward their parents and subsequent support from parents toward their children was more pronounced for parents high on Openness, for better and for worse. Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Emotional Stability did not emerge as markers of differences in susceptibility. Also, parents did not differ in their susceptibility to support from their spouse, nor were differences in susceptibility found a year later when using data from a third wave. We found very modest support for differential susceptibility, only for Openness, and depending on the source of perceived support and on the timing of measurement. PMID:24471708

  13. Dominance and parent-of-origin effects of coding and non-coding alleles at the acylCoA-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase (DGAT1) gene on milk production traits in German Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Christa; Edel, Christian; Weikard, Rosemarie; Thaller, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Background Substantial gene substitution effects on milk production traits have formerly been reported for alleles at the K232A and the promoter VNTR loci in the bovine acylCoA-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene by using data sets including sires with accumulated phenotypic observations of daughters (breeding values, daughter yield deviations). However, these data sets prevented analyses with respect to dominance or parent-of-origin effects, although an increasing number of reports in the literature outlined the relevance of non-additive gene effects on quantitative traits. Results Based on a data set comprising German Holstein cows with direct trait measurements, we first confirmed the previously reported association of DGAT1 promoter VNTR alleles with milk production traits. We detected a dominant mode of effects for the DGAT1 K232A and promoter VNTR alleles. Namely, the contrasts between the effects of heterozygous individuals at the DGAT1 loci differed significantly from the midpoint between the effects for the two homozygous genotypes for several milk production traits, thus indicating the presence of dominance. Furthermore, we identified differences in the magnitude of effects between paternally and maternally inherited DGAT1 promoter VNTR – K232A haplotypes indicating parent-of-origin effects on milk production traits. Conclusion Non-additive effects like those identified at the bovine DGAT1 locus have to be accounted for in more specific QTL detection models as well as in marker assisted selection schemes. The DGAT1 alleles in cattle will be a useful model for further investigations on the biological background of non-additive effects in mammals due to the magnitude and consistency of their effects on milk production traits. PMID:17892573

  14. Parent-of-Origin Transmission of Thrombophilic Alleles to Intrauterine Growth Restricted Newborns and Transmission-Ratio Distortion in Unaffected Newborns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Infante-Rivard; Clarice R. Weinberg

    2005-01-01

    Findings on the role of thrombophilic polymorphisms in adverse pregnancy outcomes, particularly intrauterine growth restriction, are inconsistent. Such inconsistencies may be partly due to two types of effects which have not been considered before with regard to thrombophilic genes: parent-of-origin effects (imprinting) and transmission- ratio distortion effects (allele transmission differing from that expected in unaffected subjects). In this study of

  15. Early Markers of Language and Attention: Mutual Contributions and the Impact of Parent–Infant Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria A. Gartstein; Jennifer Crawford; Christopher D. Robertson

    2008-01-01

    This study of was conducted to explore the contribution of attentional skills to early language, and the influence of early\\u000a language markers on the development of attention, simultaneously examining the impact of parent–child interaction factors\\u000a (reciprocity\\/synchrony and sensitivity\\/responsivity), including their potential moderator effects. All children were between\\u000a 6 months and 12 months of age, and about equally distributed between genders (33 males,

  16. Enrichment of an intraspecific genetic map of upland cotton by developing markers using parental RAD sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hantao; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Beibei; Shen, Chao; Lin, Zhongxu

    2015-04-01

    RAD sequencing was performed using DH962 and Jimian5 as upland cotton mapping parents. Sequencing data for DH962 and Jimian5 were assembled into the genome sequences of ?55.27 and ?57.06 Mb, respectively. Analysing genome sequences of the two parents, 1,323 SSR, 3,838 insertion/deletion (InDel), and 9,366 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) primer pairs were developed. All of the SSRs, 121 InDels, 441 SNPs, and other 6,747 primer pairs were screened in the two parents, and a total of 535 new polymorphic loci were identified. A genetic map including 1,013 loci was constructed using these results and 506 loci previously published for this population. Twenty-seven new QTLs for yield and fibre quality were identified, indicating that the efficiency of QTL detection was greatly improved by the increase in map density. Comparative genomics showed there to be considerable homology and collinearity between the AT and A2 genomes and between the DT and D5 genomes, although there were a few exchanges and introgressions among the chromosomes of the A2 genome. Here, the development of markers using parental RAD sequencing was effective, and a high-density intraspecific genetic map was constructed. This map can be used for molecular marker-assisted selection in cotton. PMID:25656006

  17. Use of RFLP markers for the identification of alleles of the Pm3 locus conferring powdery mildew resistance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Hartl; H. Weiss; F. J. Zeller; A. Jahoor

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers linked to genes for resistance to powdery mildew (Pm) in wheat using a series of ‘Chancellor’ near-isogenic-lines (NILs), each having one powdery mildew resistance gene. A total of 210 probes were screened for their ability to detect polymorphism between the NILs and the recurrent parent. One of these restriction fragment

  18. RNA-seq analysis of allele-specific expression, hybrid effects, and regulatory divergence in hybrids compared with their parents from natural populations.

    PubMed

    Bell, Graeme D M; Kane, Nolan C; Rieseberg, Loren H; Adams, Keith L

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization is a prominent process among natural plant populations that can result in phenotypic novelty, heterosis, and changes in gene expression. The effects of intraspecific hybridization on F1 hybrid gene expression were investigated using parents from divergent, natural populations of Cirsium arvense, an invasive Compositae weed. Using an RNA-seq approach, the expression of 68,746 unigenes was quantified in parents and hybrids. The expression levels of 51% of transcripts differed between parents, a majority of which had less than 1.25× fold-changes. More unigenes had higher expression in the invasive parent (P1) than the noninvasive parent (P2). Of those that were divergently expressed between parents, 10% showed additive and 81% showed nonadditive (transgressive or dominant) modes of gene action in the hybrids. A majority of the dominant cases had P2-like expression patterns in the hybrids. Comparisons of allele-specific expression also enabled a survey of cis- and trans-regulatory effects. Cis- and trans-regulatory divergence was found at 70% and 68% of 62,281 informative single-nucleotide polymorphism sites, respectively. Of the 17% of sites exhibiting both cis- and trans-effects, a majority (70%) had antagonistic regulatory interactions (cis x trans); trans-divergence tended to drive higher expression of the P1 allele, whereas cis-divergence tended to increase P2 transcript abundance. Trans-effects correlated more highly than cis with parental expression divergence and accounted for a greater proportion of the regulatory divergence at sites with additive compared with nonadditive inheritance patterns. This study explores the nature of, and types of mechanisms underlying, expression changes that occur in upon intraspecific hybridization in natural populations. PMID:23677938

  19. RNA-Seq Analysis of Allele-Specific Expression, Hybrid Effects, and Regulatory Divergence in Hybrids Compared with Their Parents from Natural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Graeme D.M.; Kane, Nolan C.; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Adams, Keith L.

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization is a prominent process among natural plant populations that can result in phenotypic novelty, heterosis, and changes in gene expression. The effects of intraspecific hybridization on F1 hybrid gene expression were investigated using parents from divergent, natural populations of Cirsium arvense, an invasive Compositae weed. Using an RNA-seq approach, the expression of 68,746 unigenes was quantified in parents and hybrids. The expression levels of 51% of transcripts differed between parents, a majority of which had less than 1.25× fold-changes. More unigenes had higher expression in the invasive parent (P1) than the noninvasive parent (P2). Of those that were divergently expressed between parents, 10% showed additive and 81% showed nonadditive (transgressive or dominant) modes of gene action in the hybrids. A majority of the dominant cases had P2-like expression patterns in the hybrids. Comparisons of allele-specific expression also enabled a survey of cis- and trans-regulatory effects. Cis- and trans-regulatory divergence was found at 70% and 68% of 62,281 informative single-nucleotide polymorphism sites, respectively. Of the 17% of sites exhibiting both cis- and trans-effects, a majority (70%) had antagonistic regulatory interactions (cis x trans); trans-divergence tended to drive higher expression of the P1 allele, whereas cis-divergence tended to increase P2 transcript abundance. Trans-effects correlated more highly than cis with parental expression divergence and accounted for a greater proportion of the regulatory divergence at sites with additive compared with nonadditive inheritance patterns. This study explores the nature of, and types of mechanisms underlying, expression changes that occur in upon intraspecific hybridization in natural populations. PMID:23677938

  20. Potential of Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers for DNA fingerprinting of newly synthesized tritordeums and their respective parents.

    PubMed

    Cabo, Sandra; Ferreira, Luciana; Carvalho, Ana; Martins-Lopes, Paula; Martín, António; Lima-Brito, José Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    Hexaploid tritordeum (H(ch)H(ch)AABB; 2n?=?42) results from the cross between Hordeum chilense (H(ch)H(ch); 2n?=?14) and cultivated durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (AABB; 2n?=?28). Morphologically, tritordeum resembles the wheat parent, showing promise for agriculture and wheat breeding. Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) polymorphism is a recently developed technique that generates gene-targeted markers. Thus, we considered it interesting to evaluate its potential for the DNA fingerprinting of newly synthesized hexaploid tritordeums and their respective parents. In this study, 60 SCoT primers were tested, and 18 and 19 of them revealed SCoT polymorphisms in the newly synthesized tritordeum lines HT27 and HT22, respectively, and their parents. An analysis of the presence/absence of bands among tritordeums and their parents revealed three types of polymorphic markers: (i) shared by tritordeums and one of their parents, (ii) exclusively amplified in tritordeums, and (iii) exclusively amplified in the parents. No polymorphism was detected among individuals of each parental species. Three SCoT markers were exclusively amplified in tritordeums of lines HT22 and HT27, being considered as polyploidization-induced rearrangements. About 70% of the SCoT markers of H. chilense origin were not transmitted to the allopolyploids of both lines, and most of the SCoTs scored in the newly synthesized allopolyploids originated from wheat, reinforcing the potential use of tritordeum as an alternative crop. PMID:24733248

  1. SSR markers for Quercus suber tree identification and embryo analysis.

    PubMed

    Gómez, A; Pintos, B; Aguiriano, E; Manzanera, J A; Bueno, M A

    2001-01-01

    Three Quercus simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from nuclear DNA extracts of trees and in vitro-induced haploid embryos from anther cultures of Quercus suber L. These markers were sufficiently polymorphic to identify 10 of 12 trees located in two Spanish natural areas. The same loci have been analyzed in anther-derived haploid embryos showing the parental tree allele segregation. All the alleles were present in the haploid progeny. The presence of diverse alleles in embryos derived from the same anther demonstrated that they were induced on multiple microspores or pollen grains and they were not clonally propagated. Also, diploid cultures and mixtures of haploid-diploid tissues were obtained. The origin of such cultures, either somatic or gametic, was elucidated by SSR markers. All the embryos showed only one allele, corroborating a haploid origin. Allelic composition of the haploid progeny permitted parental identification among all analyzed trees. PMID:11447251

  2. Recurrent parent genome recovery analysis in a marker-assisted backcrossing program of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Puteh, Adam B; Rahim, Harun A; Latif, Mohammad A

    2015-02-01

    Backcross breeding is the most commonly used method for incorporating a blast resistance gene into a rice cultivar. Linkage between the resistance gene and undesirable units can persist for many generations of backcrossing. Marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) along with marker-assisted selection (MAS) contributes immensely to overcome the main limitation of the conventional breeding and accelerates recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery. The MABC approach was employed to incorporate (a) blast resistance gene(s) from the donor parent Pongsu Seribu 1, the blast-resistant local variety in Malaysia, into the genetic background of MR219, a popular high-yielding rice variety that is blast susceptible, to develop a blast-resistant MR219 improved variety. In this perspective, the recurrent parent genome recovery was analyzed in early generations of backcrossing using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Out of 375 SSR markers, 70 markers were found polymorphic between the parents, and these markers were used to evaluate the plants in subsequent generations. Background analysis revealed that the extent of RPG recovery ranged from 75.40% to 91.3% and from 80.40% to 96.70% in BC1F1 and BC2F1 generations, respectively. In this study, the recurrent parent genome content in the selected BC2F2 lines ranged from 92.7% to 97.7%. The average proportion of the recurrent parent in the selected improved line was 95.98%. MAS allowed identification of the plants that are more similar to the recurrent parent for the loci evaluated in backcross generations. The application of MAS with the MABC breeding program accelerated the recovery of the RP genome, reducing the number of generations and the time for incorporating resistance against rice blast. PMID:25553855

  3. Allele diversity for abiotic stress responsive candidate genes in chickpea reference set using gene based SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Roorkiwal, Manish; Nayak, Spurthi N; Thudi, Mahendar; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Brunel, Dominique; Mournet, Pierre; This, Dominique; Sharma, Prakash C; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume crop for the semi-arid regions, however, its productivity is adversely affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Identification of candidate genes associated with abiotic stress response will help breeding efforts aiming to enhance its productivity. With this objective, 10 abiotic stress responsive candidate genes were selected on the basis of prior knowledge of this complex trait. These 10 genes were subjected to allele specific sequencing across a chickpea reference set comprising 300 genotypes including 211 genotypes of chickpea mini core collection. A total of 1.3 Mbp sequence data were generated. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) revealed 79 SNPs and 41 indels in nine genes while the CAP2 gene was found to be conserved across all the genotypes. Among 10 candidate genes, the maximum number of SNPs (34) was observed in abscisic acid stress and ripening (ASR) gene including 22 transitions, 11 transversions and one tri-allelic SNP. Nucleotide diversity varied from 0.0004 to 0.0029 while polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.01 (AKIN gene) to 0.43 (CAP2 promoter). Haplotype analysis revealed that alleles were represented by more than two haplotype blocks, except alleles of the CAP2 and sucrose synthase (SuSy) gene, where only one haplotype was identified. These genes can be used for association analysis and if validated, may be useful for enhancing abiotic stress, including drought tolerance, through molecular breeding. PMID:24926299

  4. Sibs with atopy and asthma share marker alleles at 11q13, but not at 7q31 or 14q32

    SciTech Connect

    Kate, L.P. ten; Collee, J.M. [Free Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vries, H.G. de [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We studied allele sharing in 26 sib-pairs affected with atopy and asthma, recruited through a pediatric pulmonology department. Inclusion criteria were a positive score (2 symptoms or more) on a modified Dutch version of the MRC/ECCS questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and positive IgE tests (specific IgE 0.35 PRU/ml or more; total serum IgE for children under 10 years as described by Kjellmann et al., 1976; for older children 100 U/ml or over). Twenty-six sibpairs fulfilled these criteria. The microsatellites and polymorphic markers used in the analysis were 17bTA (an intragenic marker in the cystic fibrosis gene on 7q31); D11S534, D11S527, D11S97, PYGM, D11S480, Fc{epsilon}RI (all on 11q13, ordered from telomere to centromere) and D14S51 (a CA repeat close to the {alpha}-1-antitrypsin gene). We observed no sharing with the markers on 7q31 and 14q32, but significant sharing with markers on chromosome 11q13, especially D11S97, PYGM and D11S480. Sharing patterns were consistent with the existence of a dominant gene involved in the pathogenesis of atopic asthma on chromosome 11.

  5. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Two FAD3 Genes Controlling Linolenic Acid Content and Development of Allele-Specific Markers in Yellow Mustard (Sinapis alba)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Entang; Zeng, Fangqin; MacKay, Kimberly; Roslinsky, Vicky; Cheng, Bifang

    2014-01-01

    Development of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) with superior quality traits (low erucic and linolenic acid contents, and low glucosinolate content) can make this species as a potential oilseed crop. We have recently isolated three inbred lines Y1127, Y514 and Y1035 with low (3.8%), medium (12.3%) and high (20.8%) linolenic acid (C18?3) content, respectively, in this species. Inheritance studies detected two fatty acid desaturase 3 (FAD3) gene loci controlling the variation of C18?3 content. QTL mapping revealed that the two FAD3 gene loci responsible for 73.0% and 23.4% of the total variation and were located on the linkage groups Sal02 and Sal10, respectively. The FAD3 gene on Sal02 was referred to as SalFAD3.LA1 and that on Sal10 as SalFAD3.LA2. The dominant and recessive alleles were designated as LA1 and la1 for SalFAD3.LA1, and LA2 and la2 for SalFAD3.LA2. Cloning and alignment of the coding and genomic DNA sequences revealed that the SalFAD3.LA1 and SalFAD3.LA2 genes each contained 8 exons and 7 introns. LA1 had a coding DNA sequence (CDS) of 1143 bp encoding a polypeptide of 380 amino acids, whereas la1 was a loss-of-function allele due to an insertion of 584 bp in exon 3. Both LA2 and la2 had a CDS of 1152 bp encoding a polypeptide of 383 amino acids. Allele-specific markers for LA1, la1, LA2 and la2 co-segregated with the C18?3 content in the F2 populations and will be useful for improving fatty acid composition through marker assisted selection in yellow mustard breeding. PMID:24823372

  6. Linkage Disequilibrium Inflates Type I Error Rates in Multipoint Linkage Analysis when Parental Genotypes Are Missing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abee L. Boyles; William K. Scott; Eden R. Martin; Silke Schmidt; Yi-Ju Li; Allison Ashley-Koch; Meredyth P. Bass; Michael Schmidt; Margaret A. Pericak-Vance; Marcy C. Speer; Elizabeth R. Hauser

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Describe the inflation in nonparametric multipoint LOD scores due to inter-marker linkage disequilibrium (LD) across many markers with varied allele frequencies. Method: Using simulated two-generation families with and without parents, we conducted nonparametric multipoint linkage analysis with 2 to 10 markers with minor allele frequencies (MAF) of 0.5 and 0.1. Results: Misspecification of population haplotype frequencies by assuming linkage

  7. Using microsatellite DNA markers to determine the genetic identity of parental clones used in the Louisiana sugarcane breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane propagates asexually through vegetative cuttings. To validate the genetic identity of sugarcane clones during shipping and handling, we produced molecular fingerprints based on 21 microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers for 116 Louisiana parental clones that were included in the crossing program...

  8. Relationship between progeny growth performance and molecular marker-based genetic distances in Eucommia ulmoides parental genotypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Wei, Y C; Li, Z Q; Wang, S H; Chang, L

    2014-01-01

    Progeny performances, variations and combining abilities for growth traits were evaluated in a factorial mating design of Eucommia ulmoides. Three marker systems, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and inter-simple sequence repeat, were used to determine genetic distances between parents. Correlations of genetic distances with progeny performances, within-family coefficients of variation and specific-combining abilities were established for height and basal diameter traits. Significant positive correlations were found between progeny performances of growth traits and genetic distances of parents based on sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers or a combination of all 3 marker systems. This revealed that crosses between genetically distant parents produced progenies with excellent growth performances. The lack of correlations between parental genetic distances and within-family coefficients of variation or specific-combining abilities suggested that these characteristics were unpredictable. The results of this study represent a potential criterion to predict progeny performances and choose parents in the breeding program. PMID:25062409

  9. Effects of sample size, number of markers, and allelic richness on the detection of spatial genetic pattern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landguth, Erin L.; Gedy, Bradley C.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Garey, Andrew L.; Emel, Sarah L.; Mumma, Matthew; Wagner, Helene H.; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Cushman, Samuel A.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of study design on the ability to detect the effects of landscape pattern on gene flow is one of the most pressing methodological gaps in landscape genetic research. To investigate the effect of study design on landscape genetics inference, we used a spatially-explicit, individual-based program to simulate gene flow in a spatially continuous population inhabiting a landscape with gradual spatial changes in resistance to movement. We simulated a wide range of combinations of number of loci, number of alleles per locus and number of individuals sampled from the population. We assessed how these three aspects of study design influenced the statistical power to successfully identify the generating process among competing hypotheses of isolation-by-distance, isolation-by-barrier, and isolation-by-landscape resistance using a causal modelling approach with partial Mantel tests. We modelled the statistical power to identify the generating process as a response surface for equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions after introduction of isolation-by-landscape resistance. All three variables (loci, alleles and sampled individuals) affect the power of causal modelling, but to different degrees. Stronger partial Mantel r correlations between landscape distances and genetic distances were found when more loci were used and when loci were more variable, which makes comparisons of effect size between studies difficult. Number of individuals did not affect the accuracy through mean equilibrium partial Mantel r, but larger samples decreased the uncertainty (increasing the precision) of equilibrium partial Mantel r estimates. We conclude that amplifying more (and more variable) loci is likely to increase the power of landscape genetic inferences more than increasing number of individuals.

  10. Effects of sample size, number of markers, and allelic richness on the detection of spatial genetic pattern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landguth, E.L.; Fedy, B.C.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.; Garey, A.L.; Emel, S.L.; Mumma, M.; Wagner, H.H.; Fortin, M.-J.; Cushman, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of study design on the ability to detect the effects of landscape pattern on gene flow is one of the most pressing methodological gaps in landscape genetic research. To investigate the effect of study design on landscape genetics inference, we used a spatially-explicit, individual-based program to simulate gene flow in a spatially continuous population inhabiting a landscape with gradual spatial changes in resistance to movement. We simulated a wide range of combinations of number of loci, number of alleles per locus and number of individuals sampled from the population. We assessed how these three aspects of study design influenced the statistical power to successfully identify the generating process among competing hypotheses of isolation-by-distance, isolation-by-barrier, and isolation-by-landscape resistance using a causal modelling approach with partial Mantel tests. We modelled the statistical power to identify the generating process as a response surface for equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions after introduction of isolation-by-landscape resistance. All three variables (loci, alleles and sampled individuals) affect the power of causal modelling, but to different degrees. Stronger partial Mantel r correlations between landscape distances and genetic distances were found when more loci were used and when loci were more variable, which makes comparisons of effect size between studies difficult. Number of individuals did not affect the accuracy through mean equilibrium partial Mantel r, but larger samples decreased the uncertainty (increasing the precision) of equilibrium partial Mantel r estimates. We conclude that amplifying more (and more variable) loci is likely to increase the power of landscape genetic inferences more than increasing number of individuals. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Genetic diversity and stability of the porA allele as a genetic marker in human Campylobacter infection.

    PubMed

    Cody, A J; Maiden, M J C; Dingle, K E

    2009-12-01

    The major outer-membrane protein (MOMP) of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, encoded by the porA gene, is extremely genetically diverse. Conformational MOMP epitopes are important in host immunity, and variation in surface-exposed regions probably occurs as a result of positive immune selection during infection. porA diversity has been exploited in genotyping studies using highly discriminatory nucleotide sequences to identify potentially epidemiologically linked cases of human campylobacteriosis. To understand the overall nature and extent of porA diversity and stability in C. jejuni and C. coli we investigated sequences in isolates (n=584) obtained from a defined human population (approx. 600,000) over a defined time period (1 year). A total of 196 distinct porA variants were identified. Regions encoding putative extracellular loops were the most variable in both nucleotide sequence and length. Phylogenetic analysis identified three porA allele clusters that originated in (i) predominantly C. jejuni and a few C. coli, (ii) solely C. jejuni or (iii) predominantly C. coli and a few C. jejuni. The stability of porA within an individual human host was investigated using isolates cultured longitudinally from 64 sporadic cases, 27 of which had prolonged infection lasting between 5 and 98 days (the remainder having illness of normal duration, 0-4 days), and 20 cases from family outbreaks. Evidence of mutation was detected in two patients with prolonged illness. Despite demonstrable positive immune selection in these two unusual cases, the persistence of numerous variants within the population indicated that the porA allele is a valuable tool for use in extended typing schemes. PMID:19744989

  12. Utility testing of an apple skin color MdMYB1 marker in two progenies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A reported allele-specific dCAP PCR marker associated with apple fruit red skin color was tested in 18 elite breeding parents and two apple cross populations. Among all tested cultivars except one, a consistent relationship was observed between red fruit color and the presence of allele. In both pop...

  13. Psychosocial and Biological Markers of Daily Lives of Midlife Parents of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Almeida, David M.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Savla, Jyoti; Stawski, Robert S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Taylor, Julie Lounds

    2009-01-01

    Using daily telephone interviews, 82 midlife parents (mean age = 57.4) of children with disabilities (mean age = 29.9) were compared with a closely matched sample of unaffected parents (N = 82) to elucidate the daily experience of non-normative parenting. In addition, salivary cortisol samples were obtained to examine whether parents of children…

  14. Paternity identification in sugarcane polycrosses by using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Xavier, M A; Pinto, L R; Fávero, T M; Perecin, D; Carlini-Garcia, L A; Landell, M G A

    2014-01-01

    Although polycrosses have been used to test the potential of cross-combination of a large number of sugarcane parents, the male parent of the half-sib progenies produced is unknown. The present study aimed to integrate the molecular marker technology to the sugarcane polycross approach by the application of microsatellite markers to identify the male parent of 41 elite clones derived from polycross families. Ten microsatellite [single sequence repeats (SSRs)] primer pairs were used to identify the most likely male parent considering markers present in the selected clone but absent in the female parent. The number of alleles generated by the 10 microsatellite primer pairs ranged from 102 (cross-pollination lantern 4) to 120 (cross-pollination lantern 2) with an average of 113.25 alleles per SSR. The average genetic similarity among the involved parents in the polycrosses was 45.9%. The results of the analysis of the SSR markers absent in the female parent and present only in the selected clone as well as the genetic similarity values allowed the identification of the most likely male parent in 73% of the total clones evaluated and also to detect probable contaminations. The obtained results highlight the importance of using molecular marker technology in the identification and confirmation of the male parent of high-performance clones derived from polycrosses in the sugarcane breeding programs. PMID:24737475

  15. Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  16. Identification of Coupling and Repulsion Phase DNA Marker Associated With an Allele of a Gene Conferring Host Plant Resistance to Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV) in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.)

    PubMed Central

    Daspute, Abhijit; Fakrudin, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigeonpea Sterility Mosaic Disease (PSMD) is an important foliar disease caused by Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV) which is transmitted by eriophyid mites (Aceria cajani Channabasavanna). In present study, a F2 mapping population comprising 325 individuals was developed by crossing PSMD susceptible genotype (Gullyal white) and PSMD resistant genotype (BSMR 736). We identified a set of 32 out of 300 short decamer random DNA markers that showed polymorphism between Gullyal white and BSMR 736 parents. Among them, eleven DNA markers showed polymorphism including coupling and repulsion phase type of polymorphism across the parents. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA), revealed that the DNA marker, IABTPPN7, produced a single coupling phase marker (IABTPPN7414) and a repulsion phase marker (IABTPPN7983) co-segregating with PSMD reaction. Screening of 325 F2 population using IABTPPN7 revealed that the repulsion phase marker, IABTPPN7983, was co-segregating with the PSMD responsive SV1 at a distance of 23.9 cM for Bidar PPSMV isolate. On the other hand, the coupling phase marker IABTPPN7414 did not show any linkage with PSMD resistance. Additionally, single marker analysis both IABTPPN7983 (P<0.0001) and IABTPPN 7414 (P<0.0001) recorded a significant association with the PSMD resistance and explained a phenotypic variance of 31 and 36% respectively in F2 population. The repulsion phase marker, IABTPPN7983, could be of use in Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in the PPSMV resistance breeding programmes of pigeonpea. PMID:25774108

  17. Nonword Repetition – A Clinical Marker for Specific Language Impairment in Swedish Associated with Parents’ Language-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Kalnak, Nelli; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Forssberg, Hans; Sahlén, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    First, we explore the performance of nonword repetition (NWR) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing children (TD) in order to investigate the accuracy of NWR as a clinical marker for SLI in Swedish-speaking school-age children. Second, we examine the relationship between NWR, family aggregation, and parental level of education in children with SLI. A sample of 61 children with SLI, and 86 children with TD, aged 8–12 years, were administered an NWR test. Family aggregation, measured as the prevalence of language and/or literacy problems (LLP) in parents of the children with SLI, was based on family history interviews. The sensitivity and specificity of nonword repetition was analyzed in a binary logistic regression, cut-off values were established with ROC curves, and positive and negative likelihood ratios reported. Results from the present study show that NWR distinguishes well between Swedish-speaking school-children with and without SLI. We found 90.2% sensitivity and 97.7% specificity at a cut-off level of ?2 standard deviations for binary scoring of nonwords. Differences between the SLI and TD groups showed large effect sizes for the two scoring measures binary (d?=?2.11) and percent correct consonants (PCC) (d?=?1.79). The children with SLI were split into two subgroups: those with no parents affected with LLP (n?=?12), and those with one or both parents affected (n?=?49). The subgroup consisting of affected parents had a significantly lower score on NWR binary (p?=?.037), and there was a great difference between the subgroups (d?=?0.7). When compared to the TD group, the difference from the subgroup with affected parents was almost one standard deviation larger (d?=?2.47) than the difference from the TD to the subgroup consisting of non-affected parents (d?=?1.57). Our study calls for further exploration of the complex interaction between family aggregation, language input, and phenotypes of SLI. PMID:24586859

  18. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziff, Barry, Ed.; Hostettler, Karen, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The newsletter of the California Association for the Gifted includes the following brief articles on parenting: "Your Challenge, Their Lives" (Barry Ziff); "Courage to Be Who I Am, Unafraid" (Elizabeth Meckstroth); "Attribution: A Key to Encouraging More Responsible Behavior in the Gifted" (Saundra Sparling); "A Parent's Perspective" (Carolyn…

  19. Microsatellite DNA markers for parental assignment in hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirstin Ross; Xiaoxue Wang; Kathleen G. O'Malley; Delbert M. Gatlin; John R. Gold

    2004-01-01

    Development of nine polymorphic microsatellites from a genomic library of hybrid striped bass (female Morone chrysops × × × × male Morone saxatilus ) DNA is described. Breeding of hybrid striped bass for aquaculture is based largely on breeding wild fish. Molecular markers such as microsatellites will be useful tools for developing broodstock, estimating heritabil- ity for production traits, and

  20. Clinic-Referred Mothers' Autobiographical Narratives as Markers of Their Parenting Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowinski, Katherine S.; Wahler, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Forty clinic-referred mothers completed questionnaires describing their children's problems and the mothers' parenting styles. In addition, each mother told three stories about their personal experiences in child care and one story about being cared for in their families of origin. Each story was transcribed and rated for coherence on six…

  1. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spock, Benjamin; And Others

    Various aspects of child-rearing are covered in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Authors of current popular books on parenting are interviewed. Benjamin Spock discusses changes (including sex role revisions) in his "Baby and Child Care" since the 1946 first edition. Eda…

  2. Construction of a genetic linkage map in tetraploid species using molecular markers.

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Z W; Hackett, C A; Bradshaw, J E; McNicol, J W; Milbourne, D

    2001-01-01

    This article presents methodology for the construction of a linkage map in an autotetraploid species, using either codominant or dominant molecular markers scored on two parents and their full-sib progeny. The steps of the analysis are as follows: identification of parental genotypes from the parental and offspring phenotypes; testing for independent segregation of markers; partition of markers into linkage groups using cluster analysis; maximum-likelihood estimation of the phase, recombination frequency, and LOD score for all pairs of markers in the same linkage group using the EM algorithm; ordering the markers and estimating distances between them; and reconstructing their linkage phases. The information from different marker configurations about the recombination frequency is examined and found to vary considerably, depending on the number of different alleles, the number of alleles shared by the parents, and the phase of the markers. The methods are applied to a simulated data set and to a small set of SSR and AFLP markers scored in a full-sib population of tetraploid potato. PMID:11238421

  3. IDDM2 - VNTR -encoded Susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes: Dominant Protection and Parental Transmission of Alleles of the Insulin Gene-linked Minisatellite Locus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon T. Bennett; Amanda J. Wilson; Francesco Cucca; Jørn Nerup; Flemming Pociot; Patricia A. McKinney; Anthony H. Barnett; Stephen C. Bain; John A. Todd

    1996-01-01

    IDDM2-encoded predisposition to type 1 diabetes has recently been mapped to the minisatellite or variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) locus upstream of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor II genes on human chromosome 11p15.5. In a UK case-control study (n=228 sporadic diabetics;n=441 healthy controls), we show here that the genotype homozygous for VNTR class I alleles is predisposing to

  4. Genetic linkage of IgA deficiency to the major histocompatibility complex: evidence for allele segregation distortion, parent-of-origin penetrance differences, and the role of anti-IgA antibodies in disease predisposition.

    PubMed Central

    Vorechovský, I; Webster, A D; Plebani, A; Hammarström, L

    1999-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency (IgAD) is characterized by a defect of terminal lymphocyte differentiation, leading to a lack of IgA in serum and mucosal secretions. Familial clustering, variable population prevalence in different ethnic groups, and a predominant inheritance pattern suggest a strong genetic predisposition to IgAD. The genetic susceptibility to IgAD is shared with a less prevalent, but more profound, defect called "common variable immunodeficiency" (CVID). Here we show an increased allele sharing at 6p21 in affected members of 83 multiplex IgAD/CVID pedigrees and demonstrate, using transmission/diseqilibrium tests, family-based associations indicating the presence of a predisposing locus, designated "IGAD1," in the proximal part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The recurrence risk of IgAD was found to depend on the sex of parents transmitting the defect: affected mothers were more likely to produce offspring with IgAD than were affected fathers. Carrier mothers but not carrier fathers transmitted IGAD1 alleles more frequently to the affected offspring than would be expected under random segregation. The differential parent-of-origin penetrance is proposed to reflect a maternal effect mediated by the production of anti-IgA antibodies tentatively linked to IGAD1. This is supported by higher frequency of anti-IgA-positive females transmitting the disorder to children, in comparison with female IgAD nontransmitters, and by linkage data in the former group. Such pathogenic mechanisms may be shared by other MHC-linked complex traits associated with the production of specific autoantibodies, parental effects, and a particular MHC haplotype. PMID:10090895

  5. Rapid pyramiding major resistance genes into parental lines in tomato hybrid breeding employing marker-assisted backcrossing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The success of marker-assisted pyramiding major resistance genes depends upon several factors, including the closeness between the markers and the target gene, the number of target genes to be pyramided, the kind of molecular markers to be used, and available technical facilities. This talk will dis...

  6. Association between AgI-CA alleles and severity of autosomal recessive proximal spina lmuscular atrophy

    SciTech Connect

    DiDonato, C.J.; Carpten, J.D.; Fuerst, P.; Ingraham, S.E.; Mendell, J.R.; Burghes, A.H.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Morgan, K. [McGill Univ. (Canada); Prescott, G.; Simard, L.R. [Hopital Sainte-Justine, Montreal (Canada); McPherson, J.D. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    The gene for autosomal recessive proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has been mapped to an 850-kb interval on 5q11.2-q13.3, between the centromeric D5S823 and telomeric D5S557 markers. We report a new complex marker, Ag1-CA, that lies in this interval, whose primers produce one, two, or rarely three amplification-fragment-length variants (AFLVs) per allele. Class I chromosomes are those which amplify a single AFLV allele, and class II chromosomes are those which amplify an allele with two or three AFLVs. Ag1-CA shows highly significant allelic association with type I SMA in both the French Canadian (Hopital Sainte-Justine (HSJ)) and American (Ohio State University (OSU)) populations (P < .0001). Significant association between the Ag1-CA genotype and disease severity was also observed. Type I patients were predominantly homozygous for class I chromosomes (P = .0003 OSU; P = 0.0012 HSJ), whereas the majority of type II patients were heterozygous for class I and II chromosomes (P = .0014 OSU; P = .001 HSJ). There was no significant difference in Ag1-CA genotype frequencies between type III patients (P = .5 OSU; P = .25 HSJ) and the paired normal chromosomes from both carrier parents. Our results indicate that Ag1-CA is the most closely linked marker to SMA and defines the critical candidate-gene region. Finally, we have proposed a model that should be taken into consideration when screening candidates SMA genes.

  7. Development of polysomic microsatellite markers for characterization of population structuring and phylogeography in the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, Anne P.; King, Tim L.

    2012-01-01

    Shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum is an endangered polyploid fish species for which no nuclear DNA markers previously existed. To address this need, 86 polysomic loci were developed and characterized in 20 A. brevirostrum from five river systems and eight members (parents and six progeny) of a captive-bred family. All markers proved to be polymorphic, polysomic, and demonstrated direct inheritance when tested in a captive family. Eleven loci were included in a range-wide survey of 561 fish sampled from 17 geographic collections. Allelic diversity at these markers ranged from 7 to 24 alleles/locus and averaged 16.5 alleles/locus; sufficient diversity to produce unique multilocus genotypes. In the range-wide survey, a Mantel comparison of an ecological (1-Jaccard’s) and genetic (?PT; an analog to FST) distance metrics, identified a strong positive correlation (r = 0.98, P PT represents a viable metric for assessing genetic relatedness using this class of marker.

  8. Genetic variation in the functional ENG allele inherited from the non-affected parent associates with presence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia 1 (HHT1) and may influence expression of PTPN14

    PubMed Central

    Letteboer, Tom G. W.; Benzinou, Michael; Merrick, Christopher B.; Quigley, David A.; Zhau, Kechen; Kim, Il-Jin; To, Minh D.; Jablons, David M.; van Amstel, Johannes K. P.; Westermann, Cornelius J. J.; Giraud, Sophie; Dupuis-Girod, Sophie; Lesca, Gaetan; Berg, Jonathan H.; Balmain, Allan; Akhurst, Rosemary J.

    2015-01-01

    HHT shows clinical variability within and between families. Organ site and prevalence of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) depend on the HHT causative gene and on environmental and genetic modifiers. We tested whether variation in the functional ENG allele, inherited from the unaffected parent, alters risk for pulmonary AVM in HHT1 mutation carriers who are ENG haploinsufficient. Genetic association was found between rs10987746 of the wild type ENG allele and presence of pulmonary AVM [relative risk = 1.3 (1.0018–1.7424)]. The rs10987746-C at-risk allele associated with lower expression of ENG RNA in a panel of human lymphoblastoid cell lines (P = 0.004). Moreover, in angiogenically active human lung adenocarcinoma tissue, but not in uninvolved quiescent lung, rs10987746-C was correlated with expression of PTPN14 (P = 0.004), another modifier of HHT. Quantitative TAQMAN expression analysis in a panel of normal lung tissues from 69 genetically heterogeneous inter-specific backcross mice, demonstrated strong correlation between expression levels of Eng, Acvrl1, and Ptpn14 (r2 = 0.75–0.9, P < 1 × 10?12), further suggesting a direct or indirect interaction between these three genes in lung in vivo. Our data indicate that genetic variation within the single functional ENG gene influences quantitative and/or qualitative differences in ENG expression that contribute to risk of pulmonary AVM in HHT1, and provide correlative support for PTPN14 involvement in endoglin/ALK1 lung biology in vivo. PTPN14 has been shown to be a negative regulator of Yap/Taz signaling, which is implicated in mechanotransduction, providing a possible molecular link between endoglin/ALK1 signaling and mechanical stress. EMILIN2, which showed suggestive genetic association with pulmonary AVM, is also reported to interact with Taz in angiogenesis. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms regulating these interactions in endothelial cells may ultimately provide more rational choices for HHT therapy. PMID:25815003

  9. Genetic variation in the functional ENG allele inherited from the non-affected parent associates with presence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia 1 (HHT1) and may influence expression of PTPN14.

    PubMed

    Letteboer, Tom G W; Benzinou, Michael; Merrick, Christopher B; Quigley, David A; Zhau, Kechen; Kim, Il-Jin; To, Minh D; Jablons, David M; van Amstel, Johannes K P; Westermann, Cornelius J J; Giraud, Sophie; Dupuis-Girod, Sophie; Lesca, Gaetan; Berg, Jonathan H; Balmain, Allan; Akhurst, Rosemary J

    2015-01-01

    HHT shows clinical variability within and between families. Organ site and prevalence of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) depend on the HHT causative gene and on environmental and genetic modifiers. We tested whether variation in the functional ENG allele, inherited from the unaffected parent, alters risk for pulmonary AVM in HHT1 mutation carriers who are ENG haploinsufficient. Genetic association was found between rs10987746 of the wild type ENG allele and presence of pulmonary AVM [relative risk = 1.3 (1.0018-1.7424)]. The rs10987746-C at-risk allele associated with lower expression of ENG RNA in a panel of human lymphoblastoid cell lines (P = 0.004). Moreover, in angiogenically active human lung adenocarcinoma tissue, but not in uninvolved quiescent lung, rs10987746-C was correlated with expression of PTPN14 (P = 0.004), another modifier of HHT. Quantitative TAQMAN expression analysis in a panel of normal lung tissues from 69 genetically heterogeneous inter-specific backcross mice, demonstrated strong correlation between expression levels of Eng, Acvrl1, and Ptpn14 (r2 = 0.75-0.9, P < 1 × 10(-12)), further suggesting a direct or indirect interaction between these three genes in lung in vivo. Our data indicate that genetic variation within the single functional ENG gene influences quantitative and/or qualitative differences in ENG expression that contribute to risk of pulmonary AVM in HHT1, and provide correlative support for PTPN14 involvement in endoglin/ALK1 lung biology in vivo. PTPN14 has been shown to be a negative regulator of Yap/Taz signaling, which is implicated in mechanotransduction, providing a possible molecular link between endoglin/ALK1 signaling and mechanical stress. EMILIN2, which showed suggestive genetic association with pulmonary AVM, is also reported to interact with Taz in angiogenesis. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms regulating these interactions in endothelial cells may ultimately provide more rational choices for HHT therapy. PMID:25815003

  10. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genome components of Solanum tuberosum + S. chacoense somatic hybrids and three SSR alleles related to bacterial wilt resistance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Guo, Xianpu; Xie, Conghua; He, Li; Cai, Xingkui; Tian, Lingli; Song, Botao; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-01

    The somatic hybrids were derived previously from protoplast fusion between Solanum tuberosum and S. chacoense to gain the bacterial wilt resistance from the wild species. The genome components analysis in the present research was to clarify the nuclear and cytoplasmic composition of the hybrids, to explore the molecular markers associated with the resistance, and provide information for better use of these hybrids in potato breeding. One hundred and eight nuclear SSR markers and five cytoplasmic specific primers polymorphic between the fusion parents were used to detect the genome components of 44 somatic hybrids. The bacterial wilt resistance was assessed thrice by inoculating the in vitro plants with a bacterial suspension of race 1. The disease index, relative disease index, and resistance level were assigned to each hybrid, which were further analyzed in relation to the molecular markers for elucidating the potential genetic base of the resistance. All of the 317 parental unique nuclear SSR alleles appeared in the somatic hybrids with some variations in the number of bands detected. Nearly 80 % of the hybrids randomly showed the chloroplast pattern of one parent, and most of the hybrids exhibited a fused mitochondrial DNA pattern. One hundred and nine specific SSR alleles of S. chacoense were analyzed for their relationship with the disease index of the hybrids, and three alleles were identified to be significantly associated with the resistance. Selection for the resistant SSR alleles of S. chacoense may increase the possibility of producing resistant pedigrees. PMID:23580089

  11. Increasing long term response by selecting for favorable minor alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term response of genomic selection can be improved by considering allele frequencies of selected markers or quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A previous formula to weight allele frequency of favorable minor alleles was tested, and 2 new formulas were developed. The previous formula used nonlinear...

  12. Existing potato markers and marker conversions

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    ) ­ Kasai et al. 2000 Genome 43:1-8 allele specific amplification of a diagnostic product - potatoes progeny #12;How do CAPS markers work? (CAPS = cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence) 7 1. Amplify all Eco RI reference: Konieczny A, Ausubel FM. Plant J 1993 4(2):403-410 #12;an unpublished marker linked

  13. Development and genetic mapping of SSR markers in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.].

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoping; Zhang, Zhongbao; Liu, Yinghui; Zhang, Chengwei; Shi, Yunsu; Song, Yanchun; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Yu

    2009-02-01

    SSR markers are desirable markers in analysis of genetic diversity, quantitative trait loci mapping and gene locating. In this study, SSR markers were developed from two genomic libraries enriched for (GA)n and (CA)n of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.], a crop of historical importance in China. A total of 100 SSR markers among the 193 primer pairs detected polymorphism between two mapping parents of an F(2) population, i.e. "B100" of cultivated S. italica and "A10" of wild S. viridis. Excluding 14 markers with unclear amplifications, and five markers unlinked with any linkage group, a foxtail millet SSR linkage map was constructed by integrating 81 new developed SSR markers with 20 RFLP anchored markers. The 81 SSRs covered nine chromosomes of foxtail millet. The length of the map was 1,654 cM, with an average interval distance between markers of 16.4 cM. The 81 SSR markers were not evenly distributed throughout the nine chromosomes, with Ch.8 harbouring the least (3 markers) and Ch.9 harbouring the most (18 markers). To verify the usefulness of the SSR markers developed, 37 SSR markers were randomly chosen to analyze genetic diversity of 40 foxtail millet accessions. Totally 228 alleles were detected, with an average 6.16 alleles per locus. Polymorphism information content (PIC) value for each locus ranged from 0.413 to 0.847, with an average of 0.697. A positive correlation between PIC and number of alleles and between PIC and number of repeat unit were found [0.802 and 0.429, respectively (P < 0.01)]. UPGMA analysis revealed that the 40 foxtail millet cultivars could be grouped into five clusters in which the landraces' grouping was largely consistent with ecotypes while the breeding varieties from different provinces in China tended to be grouped together. PMID:19139840

  14. Combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium QTL mapping in multiple families of maize (Zea mays L.) line crosses highlights complementarities between models based on parental haplotype and single locus polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Bardol, N; Ventelon, M; Mangin, B; Jasson, S; Loywick, V; Couton, F; Derue, C; Blanchard, P; Charcosset, A; Moreau, Laurence

    2013-11-01

    Advancements in genotyping are rapidly decreasing marker costs and increasing marker density. This opens new possibilities for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL), in particular by combining linkage disequilibrium information and linkage analysis (LDLA). In this study, we compared different approaches to detect QTL for four traits of agronomical importance in two large multi-parental datasets of maize (Zea mays L.) of 895 and 928 testcross progenies composed of 7 and 21 biparental families, respectively, and genotyped with 491 markers. We compared to traditional linkage-based methods two LDLA models relying on the dense genotyping of parental lines with 17,728 SNP: one based on a clustering approach of parental line segments into ancestral alleles and one based on single marker information. The two LDLA models generally identified more QTL (60 and 52 QTL in total) than classical linkage models (49 and 44 QTL in total). However, they performed inconsistently over datasets and traits suggesting that a compromise must be found between the reduction of allele number for increasing statistical power and the adequacy of the model to potentially complex allelic variation. For some QTL, the model exclusively based on linkage analysis, which assumed that each parental line carried a different QTL allele, was able to capture remaining variation not explained by LDLA models. These complementarities between models clearly suggest that the different QTL mapping approaches must be considered to capture the different levels of allelic variation at QTL involved in complex traits. PMID:23975245

  15. Allele Workbench: transcriptome pipeline and interactive graphics for allele-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Soderlund, Carol A; Nelson, William M; Goff, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing the transcriptome can answer various questions such as determining the transcripts expressed in a given species for a specific tissue or condition, evaluating differential expression, discovering variants, and evaluating allele-specific expression. Differential expression evaluates the expression differences between different strains, tissues, and conditions. Allele-specific expression evaluates expression differences between parental alleles. Both differential expression and allele-specific expression have been studied for heterosis (hybrid vigor), where the hybrid has improved performance over the parents for one or more traits. The Allele Workbench software was developed for a heterosis study that evaluated allele-specific expression for a mouse F1 hybrid using libraries from multiple tissues with biological replicates. This software has been made into a distributable package, which includes a pipeline, a Java interface to build the database, and a Java interface for query and display of the results. The required input is a reference genome, annotation file, and one or more RNA-Seq libraries with optional replicates. It evaluates allelic imbalance at the SNP and transcript level and flags transcripts with significant opposite directional allele-specific expression. The Java interface allows the user to view data from libraries, replicates, genes, transcripts, exons, and variants, including queries on allele imbalance for selected libraries. To determine the impact of allele-specific SNPs on protein folding, variants are annotated with their effect (e.g., missense), and the parental protein sequences may be exported for protein folding analysis. The Allele Workbench processing results in transcript files and read counts that can be used as input to the previously published Transcriptome Computational Workbench, which has a new algorithm for determining a trimmed set of gene ontology terms. The software with demo files is available from https://code.google.com/p/allele-workbench. Additionally, all software is ready for immediate use from an Atmosphere Virtual Machine Image available from the iPlant Collaborative (www.iplantcollaborative.org). PMID:25541944

  16. Allele Workbench: Transcriptome Pipeline and Interactive Graphics for Allele-Specific Expression

    PubMed Central

    Soderlund, Carol A.; Nelson, William M.; Goff, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing the transcriptome can answer various questions such as determining the transcripts expressed in a given species for a specific tissue or condition, evaluating differential expression, discovering variants, and evaluating allele-specific expression. Differential expression evaluates the expression differences between different strains, tissues, and conditions. Allele-specific expression evaluates expression differences between parental alleles. Both differential expression and allele-specific expression have been studied for heterosis (hybrid vigor), where the hybrid has improved performance over the parents for one or more traits. The Allele Workbench software was developed for a heterosis study that evaluated allele-specific expression for a mouse F1 hybrid using libraries from multiple tissues with biological replicates. This software has been made into a distributable package, which includes a pipeline, a Java interface to build the database, and a Java interface for query and display of the results. The required input is a reference genome, annotation file, and one or more RNA-Seq libraries with optional replicates. It evaluates allelic imbalance at the SNP and transcript level and flags transcripts with significant opposite directional allele-specific expression. The Java interface allows the user to view data from libraries, replicates, genes, transcripts, exons, and variants, including queries on allele imbalance for selected libraries. To determine the impact of allele-specific SNPs on protein folding, variants are annotated with their effect (e.g., missense), and the parental protein sequences may be exported for protein folding analysis. The Allele Workbench processing results in transcript files and read counts that can be used as input to the previously published Transcriptome Computational Workbench, which has a new algorithm for determining a trimmed set of gene ontology terms. The software with demo files is available from https://code.google.com/p/allele-workbench. Additionally, all software is ready for immediate use from an Atmosphere Virtual Machine Image available from the iPlant Collaborative (www.iplantcollaborative.org). PMID:25541944

  17. Mining the human phenome using allelic scores that index biological intermediates.

    PubMed

    Evans, David M; Brion, Marie Jo A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Kemp, John P; McMahon, George; Munafò, Marcus; Whitfield, John B; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Timpson, Nicholas J; St Pourcain, Beate; Lawlor, Debbie A; Martin, Nicholas G; Dehghan, Abbas; Hirschhorn, Joel; Davey Smith, George

    2013-10-01

    It is common practice in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to focus on the relationship between disease risk and genetic variants one marker at a time. When relevant genes are identified it is often possible to implicate biological intermediates and pathways likely to be involved in disease aetiology. However, single genetic variants typically explain small amounts of disease risk. Our idea is to construct allelic scores that explain greater proportions of the variance in biological intermediates, and subsequently use these scores to data mine GWAS. To investigate the approach's properties, we indexed three biological intermediates where the results of large GWAS meta-analyses were available: body mass index, C-reactive protein and low density lipoprotein levels. We generated allelic scores in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, and in publicly available data from the first Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. We compared the explanatory ability of allelic scores in terms of their capacity to proxy for the intermediate of interest, and the extent to which they associated with disease. We found that allelic scores derived from known variants and allelic scores derived from hundreds of thousands of genetic markers explained significant portions of the variance in biological intermediates of interest, and many of these scores showed expected correlations with disease. Genome-wide allelic scores however tended to lack specificity suggesting that they should be used with caution and perhaps only to proxy biological intermediates for which there are no known individual variants. Power calculations confirm the feasibility of extending our strategy to the analysis of tens of thousands of molecular phenotypes in large genome-wide meta-analyses. We conclude that our method represents a simple way in which potentially tens of thousands of molecular phenotypes could be screened for causal relationships with disease without having to expensively measure these variables in individual disease collections. PMID:24204319

  18. Analysis of rice blast resistance in rice breeding parents from USA using molecular markers and pathogenicity assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease is caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. The Pi-ta gene in rice is effective in preventing infections by strains of M. oryzae that carry AVR-Pita1 in a gene for gene specificity. In the present study, two dominant markers YL153/YL154 and YL155/YL87 derived from diffe...

  19. High-Density Linkage Maps and Sex-Linked Markers for the Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    PubMed Central

    Staelens, Jan; Rombaut, Debbie; Vercauteren, Ilse; Argue, Brad; Benzie, John; Vuylsteke, Marnik

    2008-01-01

    We report on the construction of sex-specific high-density linkage maps and identification of sex-linked markers for the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Overall, we identified 44 male and 43 female linkage groups (2n = 88) from the analysis of 2306 AFLP markers segregating in three full-sib families, covering 2378 and 2362 cM, respectively. Twenty-one putatively homologous linkage groups, including the sex-linkage groups, were identified between the female and male linkage maps. Six sex-linked AFLP marker alleles were inherited from female parents in the three families, suggesting that the P. monodon adopts a WZ–ZZ sex-determining system. Two sex-linked AFLP markers, one of which we converted into an allele-specific assay, confirmed their association with sex in a panel of 52 genetically unrelated animals. PMID:18558652

  20. Identification of AFLP markers linked to a resistance gene against pine needle gall midge in Japanese black pine.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, E; Kondo, T; Terada, K; Kuramoto, N; Kawasaki, S

    2004-04-01

    Bulked segregant and AFLP analyses of two mapping populations (R17 x S6 and R17 x S1) were used to identify markers linked to Rpgm, the only known gene responsible for resistance to pine needle gall midge in Pinus thunbergii Parl. Rpgm was found to be bracketed by ACCC/CCTTT(190) on one side at a distance of 6.6 cM and ACGT/CCCGC(250) at 15.3 cM on the other side. The segregation of these markers was analyzed in two other families in order to determine their phase and transferability. One of the two additional resistant parents carried ACCC/CCTTT(190) in the homozygous state while the marker was in coupling (plus marker allele linked with an R allele) in a resistant parent, R17. The marker ACGT/CCCGC(250) was in a repulsion phase in R17 and was not detected in the other two resistant pine trees. Out of four AFLP markers identified, only ACGT/CCAAT(290) was transferable in all resistant trees tested, although its phase was opposite for different trees. These results indicate that in applying those markers to select resistant trees, the phase state of the markers in each resistant tree with respect to Rpgm needs to be considered. PMID:15067405

  1. Genetic association mapping based on discordant sib pairs: the discordant-alleles test.

    PubMed Central

    Boehnke, M; Langefeld, C D

    1998-01-01

    Family-based tests of association provide the opportunity to test for an association between a disease and a genetic marker. Such tests avoid false-positive results produced by population stratification, so that evidence for association may be interpreted as evidence for linkage or causation. Several methods that use family-based controls have been proposed, including the haplotype relative risk, the transmission-disequilibrium test, and affected family-based controls. However, because these methods require genotypes on affected individuals and their parents, they are not ideally suited to the study of late-onset diseases. In this paper, we develop several family-based tests of association that use discordant sib pairs (DSPs) in which one sib is affected with a disease and the other sib is not. These tests are based on statistics that compare counts of alleles or genotypes or that test for symmetry in tables of alleles or genotypes. We describe the use of a permutation framework to assess the significance of these statistics. These DSP-based tests provide the same general advantages as parent-offspring trio-based tests, while being applicable to essentially any disease; they may also be tailored to particular hypotheses regarding the genetic model. We compare the statistical properties of our DSP-based tests by computer simulation and illustrate their use with an application to Alzheimer disease and the apolipoprotein E polymorphism. Our results suggest that the discordant-alleles test, which compares the numbers of nonmatching alleles in DSPs, is the most powerful of the tests we considered, for a wide class of disease models and marker types. Finally, we discuss advantages and disadvantages of the DSP design for genetic association mapping. PMID:9529345

  2. Haploid Origin of Cork Oak Anther Embryos Detected by Enzyme and RAPD Gene Markers.

    PubMed

    Bueno; Agundez; Gomez; Carrascosa; Manzanera

    2000-05-01

    In vitro-induced cork oak (Quercus suber L.) embryos from anther cultures proved to be of haploid origin both by enzyme and RAPD gene marker analysis. The problem considered was to ascertain if embryo cultures originated either from a single haploid cell, from a microspore, or from multiple haploid cells. Therefore, a heterozygotic gene was searched for in the parent tree. The gene coding for shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH1) proved to be heterozygous in the parental tree, and subsequently, these allozymes were screened for the embryos induced in anther cultures from the same tree. Only haploid embryos were found, confirming the microspore origin. Different genotypes were not identified inside each anther by isozyme analysis, probably because of selective pressure for one embryo early in development, but both parental SKDH1 alleles were found in the embryos of different anthers. The banding patterns detected by RAPD markers permitted the identification of multiple microspore origins inside each anther. PMID:10817971

  3. Sequence structure and population data of two X-linked markers: DXS7423 and DXS8377

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María T. Zarrabeitia; Teresa Amigo; Carolina Sañudo; Marian Martínez de Pancorbo; José A. Riancho

    2002-01-01

    DXS7423 and DXS8377 are two microsatellite markers located in the q28 band of chromosome X. We developed a protocol to amplify both markers in a single reaction, sequenced the most common alleles and studied allele frequencies in a Spanish population sample. DXS7423 allele variability was due to different numbers of (TCCA) repeats and five different alleles were found with apparent

  4. Increasing long-term response by selecting for favorable minor alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term response of genomic selection can be improved by considering allele frequencies of selected markers or quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A previous formula to weight allele frequency of favorable minor alleles was tested, and 2 new formulas were developed. The previous formula used nonlinear...

  5. Complex arylsulfatase A alleles causing metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kappler, J; Sommerlade, H J; von Figura, K; Gieselmann, V

    1994-01-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of arylsulfatase A. Sequencing of the arylsulfatase A genes of a patient affected with late infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy revealed that the patient is a compound heterozygote of two alleles carrying two deleterious mutation each. One allele bears a splice donor site mutation together with two polymorphisms and an additional missense mutation (Gly122 > Ser). The splice donor site mutation and the Gly122 > Ser substitution have been described recently but on different alleles. The other allele carries two missense mutations causing a Gly154 > Asp and a Pro167 > Arg substitution. When arylsulfatase A cDNAs carrying these mutations separately or in combination were transfected into baby hamster kidney cells expression of arylsulfatase A activity could not be detected. Linkage of mutations was verified by sequencing of the parental DNAs. Biosynthesis studies performed with the patients' fibroblasts show that the enzyme carrying both mutations is synthesized in almost normal amounts but is rapidly degraded in an early biosynthetic compartment. The occurence of two disease causing mutations on the same allele is a novel phenomenon in metachromatic leukodystrophy and as far as lysosomal storage diseases are concerned have so far only been described in Fabry disease and in the complex glucocerebrosidase alleles associated with Gaucher disease. PMID:7981715

  6. DRD2 A1 allele and P300 abnormalities in obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, K. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)]|[PATH Foundation, Princeton, NJ (United States); Wood, R.; Sheridan, L.P.J. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous and prevalent disorder having both inheritable and environmental components. The role of the dopamine system in P300 has been implicated. We genotyped 193 neuropsychiatrically ill patients with and without comorbid drug and alcohol/abuse/dependence and obesity for the prevalence of the A1 allele of the DRD2 gene. We found a significant linear trend ({chi}{sup 2} = 40.4, df=1, p<0.00001) where the percent prevalence of the A1 increased with increasing polysubstance abuse. Where the A1 allele was found in 44% of 40 obese subjects, the A1 allele prevalence was found in as much as 91% of 11 obese subjects with comorbid polysubstance abuse. 53 obese subjects having a mean body weight (BMI) of 34.6{+-}8.2 were mapped for brain electrical activity and compared with 15 controls with a BMI of 22.3{+-}3.0 (P<.001). The P3 amplitude was significantly different (two tailed; t=3.24, df=16.2, P = 0.005), whereas P3 latency was not significant. Preliminarily, we found a significant decreased P3 amplitude correlated with parental polysubstance abuse (p=0.4) with prolongation of P3 latency correlated with the three risk factors of parental substance abuse, chemical dependency and carbohydrate bingeing (P<0.02). Finally, in a small sample, the A1 allele was present in 25% of probands having 0 risk compared to 66% in those obese subjects with any risk. This work represents the first electrophysiological data to implicate P3 abnormalities in a subset of obesity and further confirms an association of the DRD2 gene and a electrophysiological marker previously indicated to have predictive value in vulnerability to addictive behaviors.

  7. Systematic search for markers linked to insulin-dependent diabetes on chromosome 17

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S.R.; Shephard, J.M.; Berger, J.S. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We tested 19 microsatellite markers on chromosome 17 for linkage with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Nuclear families (N = 235) with at least two affected offspring were provided by the British Diabetic Association, Human Biological Data Interchange, and our own lab. The mean interval ({plus_minus}sd) between markers was 8 {plus_minus} 3 cM. For each parent heterozygous at the marker locus being studied, we determined whether the same or different alleles were transmitted to the two affected sibs. The {open_quotes}degree of sharing{close_quotes} for each marker is the frequency with which the same parental allele is transmitted to both affected sibs. Linkage with IDDM susceptibility leads to values higher than 0.50 for degree of sharing. Unlike lods, this approach makes no assumption about mode of inheritance. Mean sharing for the 19 markers was 0.51 (range 0.460 to 0.557; sd = .03). Three markers on 17q (all mutually unlinked) showed sharing of {approximately}0.55. The degree of sharing was 228/414 = 0.551 for D17A807 ({chi}{sup 2} = 4.26, p = .04), 172/309 = 0.557 for D17S784 ({chi}{sup 2} = 3.96, p = .04), and 218/398 = 0.548 for D17S798 ({chi}{sup 2} = 3.63, p =.06). We also looked for evidence of linkage disequilibrium between IDDM and alleles of each of these markers, by means of the transmission/disequilibrium test of Spielman. No significant linkage disequilibrium was found for D17S784 or D17S798. However, allele 6 of D17S807 was transmitted from heterozygous parents to IDDM offspring with frequency 131/230 = 0.57 ({chi}{sup 2} = 4.45, p = .035), supporting linkage with IDDM. We are currently investigating other markers and candidate genes in the region of D17S807.

  8. Determining the linkage of quantitative trait loci to RFLP markers using extreme phenotypes of recombinant inbreds of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.).

    PubMed

    Mansur, L M; Orf, J; Lark, K G

    1993-09-01

    An experimental test is described for linkages between RFLP markers and quantitative trait loci (QTL). Two hundred and eighty-four F7-derived recombinant inbred lines (RIL) obtained from crossing the soybean cultivars (Glycine max L. Merr.) 'Minsoy' and 'Noir 1' were evaluated for maturity, plant height, lodging, and seed yield. RIL exhibiting an extreme phenotype for each trait (earliest and latest plants for maturity, etc.) were selected, and two bulked DNA samples were prepared for each trait. A Southern transfer of the digested bulked DNA was hybridized with restriction fragement length polymorphism (RFLP) probes, and linkages with QTL were established by quantitating the amount of radioactive probe that bound to fragments defining alternative parental RFLP alleles. When an RFLP marker was linked to a QTL, one parental allele predominated in the bulked DNA from a particular phenotype; the other allele was associated with the opposite phenotype. When linkage was absent, radioactivity was associated equally with both alleles for a given phenotype (or with both phenotypes for a given allele). These results confirmed RFLP-QTL associations previously discovered by interval mapping on a smaller segregating population from the same cross. New linkages to QTL were also verified. PMID:24193997

  9. Mapping genes that underlie ethnic differences in disease risk: methods for detecting linkage in admixed populations, by conditioning on parental admixture.

    PubMed

    McKeigue, P M

    1998-07-01

    Genes that underlie ethnic differences in disease risk can be mapped in affected individuals of mixed descent if the ancestry of the alleles at each marker locus can be assigned to one of the two founding populations. Linkage can be detected by testing for association of the disease with the ancestry of alleles at the marker locus, by conditioning on the admixture (defined as the proportion of genes that have ancestry from the high-risk population) of both parents. With regard to exploiting the effects of admixture, this test is more flexible and powerful than the transmission-disequilibrium test. Under the assumption of a multiplicative model, the statistical power for a given sample size depends only on parental admixture and the risk ratio r between populations that is generated by the locus. The most informative families are those in which mean parental admixture is .2-.7 and in which admixture is similar in both parents. The number of markers required for a genome search depends on the number of generations since admixture and on the information content for ancestry (f) of the markers, defined as a function of allele frequencies in the two founding populations. Simulations using a hidden Markov model suggest that, when admixture has occurred 2-10 generations earlier, a multipoint analysis using 2,000 biallelic markers, with f values of 30%, can extract 70%-90% of the ancestry information for each locus. Sets of such markers could be selected from libraries of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, when these become available. PMID:9634509

  10. No evidence for allelic association between bipolar disorder and monoamine oxidase A gene polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Craddock, N.; Daniels, J.; Roberts, E. [Univ. of Wales, College of Medicine, Cardiff (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-08-14

    We have tested the hypothesis that DNA markers in the MAOA gene show allelic association with bipolar affective disorder. Eighty-four unrelated Caucasian patients with DSM III-R bipolar disorder and 84 Caucasian controls were typed for three markers in MAOA: a dinucleotide repeat in intron 2, a VNTR in intron 1, and an Fnu4HI RFLP in exon 8. No evidence for allelic association was observed between any of the markers and bipolar disorder. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Tight Clustering and Hemizygosity of Apomixis-Linked Molecular Markers in Pennisetum squamulatum Implies Genetic Control of Apospory by a Divergent Locus that may have no Allelic Form in Sexual Genotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peggy Ozias-Akins; Dominique Roche; Wayne W. Hanna

    1998-01-01

    Apomixis is a naturally occurring mode of reproduction that results in embryo formation without the involvement of meiosis or fertilization of the egg. Seed-derived progeny of an apomictic plant are genetically identical to the maternal parent. We are studying a form of apomixis called apospory that occurs in the genus Pennisetum, a taxon in the grass family. A cultivated member

  12. Identification of a codominant amplified polymorphic DNA marker linked to the verticillium wilt resistance gene in tomato.

    PubMed

    Kawchuk, L M; Lynch, D R; Hachey, J; Bains, P S; Kulcsar, F

    1994-11-01

    Resistance to verticillium wilt, a vascular disease causing yield losses in many crops, is conferred in tomato by a single dominant allele, Ve. A population segregating for the Ve allele was generated using near-isogenic tomato lines. Analysis of the parental tomato DNA using the polymerase chain reaction and 400 random primers, each 10 deoxyribonucleotides in length, produced 1,880 amplified DNA fragments. Of the four polymorphisms observed between the resistant and susceptible parental genotypes, only one was linked to the Ve gene. No recombination was observed between this DNA marker and the Ve locus, indicating that the linkage is less than 3.5±2.7 cM. The marker detected both the susceptible and resistant alleles, producing amplified DNA fragments of approximately 1,300 and 1,350 bp, respectively. The sequence of the primer, determined from cloned amplified products, was 5' CTCACATGCA 3' instead of the expected 5' CTCACATGCC 3'. The marker will be of value to tomato breeding programs because of the tight linkage, Codominant nature, and analytical procedure utilized. PMID:24178007

  13. Heteroduplex molecules formed between allelic sequences cause nonparental RAPD bands.

    PubMed Central

    Ayliffe, M A; Lawrence, G J; Ellis, J G; Pryor, A J

    1994-01-01

    Primers (10-mers) of random sequence were used to amplify RAPD bands from genomic DNA of an F1 strain of flax rust (Melampsora lini) and its two parent strains. One primer out of 160 tested was unusual in that it amplified a product from F1 DNA that was not amplified from either parental DNAs. The same primer also generated two RAPD bands that segregated as codominant alleles amongst F2 progeny. The nonparental band was only generated from DNAs of F2 individuals that were heterozygous for these two allelic sequences. Sequence analysis of the two RAPD alleles demonstrated greater than 99% sequence identity, although the larger allele possessed an additional 38bp relative to the smaller. Mixing of the two allelic sequences followed by denaturation and annealing in the absence of polymerase activity resulted in the formation of the nonparental band. Thus the nonparental band present in some RAPD reactions consisted of a heteroduplex molecule formed between two allelic sequences of different size. These data demonstrate that heteroduplex molecules formed between allelic RAPD products are a potential source of artifactual polymorphism that can arise during RAPD analysis. Images PMID:8202363

  14. Historical events and allelic polymorphism at the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus in Solanaceae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Lu

    2006-01-01

    The historical migration rate of a species is often difficult to estimate with neutral markers, because the relationship between the turnover time of the markers and the age of the species commonly remains unknown. Compared with neutral markers, the plant self-incompatibility locus (S) provides a much better source of data for migration-rate estimation due to its high allelic polymorphism and

  15. The relationship between parental genetic or phenotypic divergence and progeny variation in the maize nested association mapping population

    PubMed Central

    Hung, H-Y; Browne, C; Guill, K; Coles, N; Eller, M; Garcia, A; Lepak, N; Melia-Hancock, S; Oropeza-Rosas, M; Salvo, S; Upadyayula, N; Buckler, E S; Flint-Garcia, S; McMullen, M D; Rocheford, T R; Holland, J B

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate selection of parents for the development of mapping populations is pivotal to maximizing the power of quantitative trait loci detection. Trait genotypic variation within a family is indicative of the family's informativeness for genetic studies. Accurate prediction of the most useful parental combinations within a species would help guide quantitative genetics studies. We tested the reliability of genotypic and phenotypic distance estimators between pairs of maize inbred lines to predict genotypic variation for quantitative traits within families derived from biparental crosses. We developed 25 families composed of ?200 random recombinant inbred lines each from crosses between a common reference parent inbred, B73, and 25 diverse maize inbreds. Parents and families were evaluated for 19 quantitative traits across up to 11 environments. Genetic distances (GDs) among parents were estimated with 44 simple sequence repeat and 2303 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers. GDs among parents had no predictive value for progeny variation, which is most likely due to the choice of neutral markers. In contrast, we observed for about half of the traits measured a positive correlation between phenotypic parental distances and within-family genetic variance estimates. Consequently, the choice of promising segregating populations can be based on selecting phenotypically diverse parents. These results are congruent with models of genetic architecture that posit numerous genes affecting quantitative traits, each segregating for allelic series, with dispersal of allelic effects across diverse genetic material. This architecture, common to many quantitative traits in maize, limits the predictive value of parental genotypic or phenotypic values on progeny variance. PMID:22027895

  16. RNA-Seq Identifies SNP Markers for Growth Traits in Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mohamed; Vallejo, Roger L.; Leeds, Timothy D.; Palti, Yniv; Liu, Sixin; Sabbagh, Annas; Rexroad, Caird E.; Yao, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    Fast growth is an important and highly desired trait, which affects the profitability of food animal production, with feed costs accounting for the largest proportion of production costs. Traditional phenotype-based selection is typically used to select for growth traits; however, genetic improvement is slow over generations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) explain 90% of the genetic differences between individuals; therefore, they are most suitable for genetic evaluation and strategies that employ molecular genetics for selective breeding. SNPs found within or near a coding sequence are of particular interest because they are more likely to alter the biological function of a protein. We aimed to use SNPs to identify markers and genes associated with genetic variation in growth. RNA-Seq whole-transcriptome analysis of pooled cDNA samples from a population of rainbow trout selected for improved growth versus unselected genetic cohorts (10 fish from 1 full-sib family each) identified SNP markers associated with growth-rate. The allelic imbalances (the ratio between the allele frequencies of the fast growing sample and that of the slow growing sample) were considered at scores >5.0 as an amplification and <0.2 as loss of heterozygosity. A subset of SNPs (n?=?54) were validated and evaluated for association with growth traits in 778 individuals of a three-generation parent/offspring panel representing 40 families. Twenty-two SNP markers and one mitochondrial haplotype were significantly associated with growth traits. Polymorphism of 48 of the markers was confirmed in other commercially important aquaculture stocks. Many markers were clustered into genes of metabolic energy production pathways and are suitable candidates for genetic selection. The study demonstrates that RNA-Seq at low sequence coverage of divergent populations is a fast and effective means of identifying SNPs, with allelic imbalances between phenotypes. This technique is suitable for marker development in non-model species lacking complete and well-annotated genome reference sequences. PMID:22574143

  17. Admixture as a tool for finding linked genes and detecting that difference from allelic association between loci.

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, R; Weiss, K M

    1988-01-01

    Admixture between genetically different populations may produce gametic association between gene loci as a function of the genetic difference between parental populations and the admixture rate. This association decays as a function of time since admixture and the recombination rate between the loci. Admixture between genetically long-separated human populations has been frequent in the centuries since the age of exploration and colonization, resulting in numerous hybrid descendant populations today, as in the Americas. This represents a natural experiment for genetic epidemiology and anthropology, in which to use polymorphic marker loci (e.g., restriction fragment length polymorphisms) and disequilibrium to infer a genetic basis for traits of interest. In this paper we show that substantial disequilibrium remains today under widely applicable situations, which can be detected without requiring inordinately close linkage between trait and marker loci. Very disparate parental allele frequencies produce large disequilibrium, but the sample size needed to detect such levels of disequilibrium can be large due to the skewed haplotype frequency distribution in the admixed population. Such situations, however, provide power to differentiate between disequilibrium due just to population mixing from that due to physical linkage of loci--i.e., to help map the genetic locus of the trait. A gradient of admixture levels between the same parental populations may be used to test genetic models by relating admixture to disequilibrium levels. PMID:3194414

  18. QTL alleles for improved fiber quality from a wild Hawaiian cotton, Gossypium tomentosum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengsheng; Rong, Junkang; Waghmare, Vijay N; Chee, Peng W; May, O Lloyd; Wright, Robert J; Gannaway, John R; Paterson, Andrew H

    2011-11-01

    Seventeen backcross-self families from crosses between two Gossypium hirsutum recurrent parent lines (CA3084, CA3093) and G. tomentosum were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling fiber quality traits. A total of 28 QTLs for fiber quality traits were identified (P < 0.001), including four for fiber elongation, eight for fiber fineness, four for fiber length, four for fiber strength, six for fiber uniformity, one for boll weight, and one for boll number. Three statistically significant marker-trait associations for lint yield were found in a single environment, but need further validation. Two-way analysis of variance revealed one locus with significant genotype × family interaction (P < 0.001) for fiber strength and a second locus with significant genotype × environment interaction (P < 0.001) in the CA3084 background, and two loci with significant genotype × background interaction (P < 0.001) for the 28 common markers segregating in both of the two recurrent backgrounds. Co-location of many QTLs for fiber quality traits partially explained correlations among these traits. Some G. tomentosum alleles were associated with multiple favorable effects, offering the possibility of rapid genetic gain by introgression. Many G. tomentosum alleles were recalcitrant to homozygosity, suggesting that they might be most effectively deployed in hybrid cottons. DNA markers linked to G. tomentosum QTLs identified in the present study promise to assist breeders in transferring and maintaining valuable traits from this exotic source during Upland cotton cultivar development. This study also adds further evidence to prior studies indicating that the majority of genetic variation associated with fiber quality in tetraploid cotton traces to the D-subgenome from a diploid ancestor that does not produce spinnable fiber. PMID:21735234

  19. SSR allelic variation in almond ( Prunus dulcis Mill.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Xie; Yi Sui; Feng-Qi Chang; Yong Xu; Rong-Cai Ma

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen SSR markers including eight EST-SSR and eight genomic SSRs were used for genetic diversity analysis of 23 Chinese\\u000a and 15 international almond cultivars. EST- and genomic SSR markers previously reported in species of Prunus, mainly peach, proved to be useful for almond genetic analysis. DNA sequences of 117 alleles of six of the 16 SSR loci were\\u000a analysed to

  20. Parents Handbook Parents Office

    E-print Network

    Raina, Ramesh

    and Intervention 40 Substance Abuse Prevention 42 Sexual Violence Prevention and Victim Support 43 Campus Map 44Parents Handbook 2011 Parents Office 228F Schine Student Center Syracuse, NY 13244-1120 315-443-1200 parents.syr.edu #12;#12;1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Message from the Director of the Parents Office 4 Message from

  1. Evidence for linkage of bipolar disorder to chromosome 18 with a parent-of-origin effect

    SciTech Connect

    Stine, O.C.; Xu, Jianfeng; McMahon, F.J. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    A susceptibility gene on chromosome18 and a parent-of-origin effect have been suggested for bipolar affective disorder (BPAD). We have studied 28 nuclear families selected for apparent unilineal transmission of the BPAD phenotype, by using 31 polymorphic markers spanning chromosome 18. Evidence for linkage was tested with affected-sib-pair and LOD score methods under two definitions of the affected phenotype. The affected-sib-pair analyses indicated excess allele sharing for markers on 18p within the region reported previously. The greatest sharing was at D18S37: 64% in bipolar and recurrent unipolar (RUP) sib pairs (P = .0006). In addition, excess sharing of the paternally, but not maternally, transmitted alleles was observed at three markers on 18q: at D18S41, 51 bipolar and RUP sib pairs were concordant for paternally transmitted alleles, and 21 pairs were discordant (P = .0004). The evidence for linkage to loci on both 18p and 18q was strongest in the 11 paternal pedigrees, i.e., those in which the father or one of the father`s sibs is affected. In these pedigrees, the greatest allele sharing (81%; P = .00002) and the highest LOD score (3.51; {theta} = 0.0) were observed at D18S41. Our results provide further support for linkage of BPAD to chromosome 18 and the first molecular evidence for a parent-of-origin effect operating in this disorder. The number of loci involved, and their precise location, require further study. 49 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Identification of the third/extra allele for forensic application in cases with TPOX tri-allelic pattern.

    PubMed

    Picanço, Juliane Bentes; Raimann, Paulo Eduardo; Motta, Carlos Henrique Ares Silveira da; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Gusmão, Leonor; Alho, Clarice Sampaio

    2015-05-01

    Genotyping of polymorphic short tandem repeats (STRs) loci is widely used in forensic DNA analysis. STR loci eventually present tri-allelic pattern as a genotyping irregularity and, in that situation, the doubt about the tri-allele locus frequency calculation can reduce the analysis strength. In the TPOX human STR locus, tri-allelic genotypes have been reported with a widely varied frequency among human populations. We investigate whether there is a single extra allele (the third allele) in the TPOX tri-allelic pattern, what it is, and where it is, aiming to understand its genomic anatomy and to propose the knowledge of this TPOX extra allele from genetic profile, thus preserving the two standard TPOX alleles in forensic analyses. We looked for TPOX tri-allelic subjects in 75,113 Brazilian families. Considering only the parental generation (mother+father) we had 150,226 unrelated subjects evaluated. From this total, we found 88 unrelated subjects with tri-allelic pattern in the TPOX locus (0.06%; 88/150,226). Seventy three of these 88 subjects (73/88; 83%) had the Clayton's original Type 2 tri-allelic pattern (three peaks of even intensity). The remaining 17% (15/88) show a new Type 2 derived category with heterozygote peak imbalance (one double dose peak plus one regular sized peak). In this paper we present detailed data from 66 trios (mother+father+child) with true biological relationships. In 39 of these families (39/66; 59%) the extra TPOX allele was transmitted either from the mother or from the father to the child. Evidences indicated the allele 10 as the extra TPOX allele, and it is on the X chromosome. The present data, which support the previous Lane hypothesis, improve the knowledge about tri-allelic pattern of TPOX CODIS' locus allowing the use of TPOX profile in forensic analyses even when with tri-allelic pattern. This evaluation is now available for different forensic applications. PMID:25549886

  3. Powerful Allele Sharing Statistics for Nonparametric Linkage Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethan M. Lange; Kenneth Lange

    2004-01-01

    Nonparametric linkage analysis is widely used to map susceptibility genes for complex diseases. This paper introduces six nonparametric statistics for measuring marker allele sharing among the affected members of a pedigree. We compare the power of these new statistics and three previous statistics to detect linkage with Mendelian diseases having recessive, additive, and dominant modes of inheritance. The nine statistics

  4. Allelic Loss and the Progression of Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane M. Radford; Nancy J. Phillips; Ken L. Fair; Jon H. Ritter; Matthew Holt; Helen Donis-Keller

    To study geneticchangesand the evolutionof breastcancer,we assayed for loss of heterozygosity(LOH) in 12 sets of synchronouscarcinomain situ (CIS) and invasive cancer, compared to normal control DNA. Micro satellite markers were used, which map to each nonacrocentric autosomal arm. Eight tumor sets demonstrated LOH of the same allele in both concurrent invasive cancer and ductal OS, for a total of 18

  5. Risk Alleles for Multiple Sclerosis Identified by a Genomewide Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Hafler; Alastair Compston; Stephen Sawcer; Eric S. Lander; Mark J. Daly; Philip L. De Jager; Paul I. W. de Bakker; Stacey B. Gabriel; Daniel B. Mirel; Adrian J. Ivinson; Margaret A. Pericak-Vance; Simon G. Gregory; John D. Rioux; Jacob L. McCauley; Jonathan L. Haines; Lisa F. Barcellos; Bruce Cree; Jorge R. Oksen-berg; Stephen L. Hauser

    2010-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis has a clinically significant heritable component. We conducted a ge- nomewide association study to identify alleles associated with the risk of multiple sclerosis. Methods We used DNA microarray technology to identify common DNA sequence variants in 931 family trios (consisting of an affected child and both parents) and tested them for association. For replication, we genotyped another

  6. Homoeologous GSL-ELONG gene replacement for manipulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in Brassica rapa L. by marker assisted selection

    PubMed Central

    Hirani, Arvind H.; Zelmer, Carla D.; McVetty, Peter B. E.; Daayf, Fouad; Li, Genyi

    2013-01-01

    Aliphatic glucosinolates are the predominant sulfur-rich plant secondary metabolites in economically important Brassica crops. Glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products are involved in plant–microbe, plant–insect, plant–animal, and plant–human interactions. It is, therefore, important to manipulate glucosinolate profiles and contents in Brassica species. In this study, aliphatic glucosinolates were genetically manipulated through homoeologous recombination in backcross lines followed by marker assisted selection in B. rapa. A resynthesized B. napus line, from a cross between B. rapa and B. oleracea, was backcrossed with Chinese cabbage doubled haploid line, RI16. Marker assisted selection for non-functional gene was performed in each backcross generations. Advanced backcross progenies (BC3F2) were developed to identify homoeologous gene replacement and/or introgression. Reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates (gluconapoleiferin, glucoalyssin, and glucobrassicanapin) was observed in BC3F2 progenies of the recurrent parent that carried the GSL-ELONG- gene. The GSL-ELONG- positive backcross progenies were also screened by the A-genome and BraGSL-ELONG gene specific marker, which linked with 5C aliphatic glucosinolates. The A-genome specific marker was absent in the plants of advanced backcross progenies which showed reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates. The results suggest that the functional allele had been replaced by the non-functional GSL-ELONG- allele from B. oleracea. Some advanced backcross progenies (BC3F2) positive for the GSL-ELONG- allele and the A-genome specific SCAR marker BraMAM1-1 did not show reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates, suggesting that GSL-ELONG- allele is recessive. Replacement of the functional locus in the A-genome by non-functional counterpart in the C-genome reduced the content of 5C aliphatic glucosinolates in B. rapa seeds with 20 ?mol/g. PMID:23532458

  7. Multiple mating and reproductive skew in parental and introgressed females of the live-bearing fish Xiphophorus birchmanni.

    PubMed

    Paczolt, Kimberly A; Passow, Courtney N; Delclos, Pablo J; Kindsvater, Holly K; Jones, Adam G; Rosenthal, Gil G

    2015-01-01

    Just as mating patterns can promote speciation or hybridization, the presence of hybridization can shape mating patterns within a population. In this study, we characterized patterns of multiple mating and reproductive skew in a naturally hybridizing swordtail fish species, Xiphophorus birchmanni. We quantified multiple mating using microsatellite markers to genotype embryos from 43 females collected from 2 wild populations. We also used a suite of single-nucleotide polymorphism markers to categorize females and their inferred mates as either parental X. birchmanni or as introgressed individuals, which carried alleles from a sister species, X. malinche. We found that parental and introgressed X. birchmanni females mated multiply with both parental and introgressed males. We found no difference in mating patterns or reproductive skew between parental and introgressed X. birchmanni females. However, nonintrogressed X. birchmanni males mated more often with large, fecund females. These females also had the greatest levels of skew in fertilization success of males. Thus, our results show that X. birchmanni has a polygynandrous mating system and that introgression of X. malinche alleles has only subtle effects on mating patterns in this species. PMID:25433083

  8. Biased Tests of Association: Comparisons of Allele Frequencies when Departing from Hardy-Weinberg Proportions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Schaid; Steven J. Jacobsen

    Association studies of genetic markers or candidate genes with disease are often conducted using the traditional case-control design. Cases and controls are sampled from genetically unrelated subjects, and allele frequencies compared between cases and controls using Pearson's chi-square statistic. An assumption of this analysis method is that the two alleles within each subject are statistically independent, at least when no

  9. Characterisation of microsatellite markers from sugarcane (Saccharum sp.), a highly polyploid species.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro; Taylor; Henry

    2000-06-29

    Cultivated sugarcane varieties (Saccharum spp) are derived from complex interspecific hybridisations between the species S. spontaneum (2n=40-128) and S. officinarum (2n=60 or 80). To analyse this complex genome, the potential of microsatellite repeats as genetic markers in sugarcane with respect to their abundance, variability and ability to detect polymorphisms was investigated. A set of microsatellite markers for genome analysis in cultivated sugarcane was identified from an enriched genomic DNA library constructed from Saccharum sp. cv Q124. Sequencing of 798 sugarcane genomic DNA clones from an enriched microsatellite library, yielded 457 inserts containing microsatellite repeat motifs. Just over 84% of the microsatellites contained dinucleotide or trinucleotide repeats averaging 15 and 13 repeat motifs, respectively. Primer sets were designed and synthesised for over 100 microsatellite sequences and tested on a set of five sugarcane cultivars. Both, heterozygosity as witnessed by the number of alleles, and length polymorphisms as seen in the differences in PCR product size for a particular allele were observed. Microsatellite markers are likely to have many applications in sugarcane genetics and breeding including germplasm analysis, cultivar identification, parent evaluation and marker assisted breeding. PMID:10814819

  10. Integration of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers into a molecular linkage map of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, K; Park, S J; Poysa, V; Gepts, P

    2000-01-01

    Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have been successfully used for genomic mapping, DNA fingerprinting, and marker-assisted selection in many plant species. Here we report the first successful assignment of 15 SSR markers to the Phaseolus vulgaris molecular linkage map. A total of 37 SSR primer pairs were developed and tested for amplification and product-length polymorphism with BAT93 and Jalo EEP558, the parental lines of an F7 recombinant inbred (RI) population previously used for the construction of a common bean molecular linkage map. Sixteen of the SSRs polymorphic to the parental lines were analyzed for segregation and 15 of them were assigned to seven different linkage groups, indicating a widespread distribution throughout the bean genome. Map positions for genes coding for DNAJ-like protein, pathogenesis-related protein 3, plastid-located glutamine synthetase, endochitinase, sn-glycerol-3 phosphate acyltransferase, NADP-dependent malic enzyme, and protein kinase were determined for the first time. Addition of three SSR loci to linkage group B4 brought two separated smaller linkage groups together to form a larger linkage group. Analysis of allele segregation in the F7 RI population revealed that all 16 SSRs segregated in the expected 1:1 ratio. These SSR markers were stable and easy to assay by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). They should be useful markers for genetic mapping, genotype identification, and marker-assisted selection of common beans. PMID:11218079

  11. Allelic Expression Changes in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) Hybrids between Inbred Strains Derived from Genetically Distant Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiko Murata; Shoji Oda; Hiroshi Mitani

    2012-01-01

    Variations in allele expressions between genetically distant populations are one of the most important factors which affects their morphological and physiological variations. These variations are caused by natural mutations accumulated in their habitats. It has been reported that allelic expression differences in the hybrids of genetically distant populations are different from parental strains. In that case, there is a possibility

  12. Allelic Diversity and Its Implications for the Rate of Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Armando; García-Dorado, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation is usually estimated empirically from statistics based on population gene frequencies, but alternative statistics based on allelic diversity (number of allelic types) can provide complementary information. There is a lack of knowledge, however, on the evolutionary implications attached to allelic-diversity measures, particularly in structured populations. In this article we simulated multiple scenarios of single and structured populations in which a quantitative trait subject to stabilizing selection is adapted to different fitness optima. By forcing a global change in the optima we evaluated which diversity variables are more strongly correlated with both short- and long-term adaptation to the new optima. We found that quantitative genetic variance components for the trait and gene-frequency-diversity measures are generally more strongly correlated with short-term response to selection, whereas allelic-diversity measures are more correlated with long-term and total response to selection. Thus, allelic-diversity variables are better predictors of long-term adaptation than gene-frequency variables. This observation is also extended to unlinked neutral markers as a result of the information they convey on the demographic population history. Diffusion approximations for the allelic-diversity measures in a finite island model under the infinite-allele neutral mutation model are also provided. PMID:24121776

  13. Allelic variation and environmental lead exposure in urban children.

    PubMed

    Long, Jacquelyn; Covington, Chandice; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Nordstrom, Beth

    2002-11-01

    The advent of the Human Genome Project has allowed for increased understanding and sophistication in diagnosis, treatment methods, and overall care planning on the part of healthcare providers for children with genetic disorders. Genetics research dealing with polymorphic changes within a genome has opened the door to awareness of how dormant genetic alleles may become active when coupled with certain environmental insults. Such genetic aberrations may place a child at a higher risk for health disparities when exposed to environmental toxins. It has been posited that such exposure in children with an arylsulfatase-A (ASA) allelic variation is associated with increased risk for neurodevelopmental damage. This initial study contributes to this new field and supports development of finer-tuned methods to prevent ominous outcomes of lead exposure. The purpose of this study was to explore the incidence of children in a representative sample from a Midwest metropolitan city with positive test results for the ASA allelic variation who have been exposed to the environmental toxin lead. In this corollary study of 107 children, part of a parent study on the behavior of African American children prenatally exposed to cocaine, 45% were found to be heterozygous, 11% mutant homozygous, and 44% normal in terms of ASA allele or alleles. Further studies on neurodeficiencies, low-level exposure to environmental toxins, and allelic variations must be conducted before a relation between ASA allelic variance and environmental lead can be determined. PMID:12473917

  14. Assessment of biodiversity in Chilean cattle using the distribution of major histocompatibility complex class II BoLA-DRB3 allele.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, S-N; Miyasaka, T; Matsumoto, Y; Xue, G; Diaz, V de la Barra; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Giovambattista, G; Ortiz, M; Oltra, J; Kanemaki, M; Onuma, M; Aida, Y

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) are used extensively as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. In this study, we estimated BoLA-DRB3 allele frequencies using 888 cattle from 10 groups, including seven cattle breeds and three crossbreeds: 99 Red Angus, 100 Black Angus, 81 Chilean Wagyu, 49 Hereford, 95 Hereford × Angus, 71 Hereford × Jersey, 20 Hereford × Overo Colorado, 113 Holstein, 136 Overo Colorado, and 124 Overo Negro cattle. Forty-six BoLA-DRB3 alleles were identified, and each group had between 12 and 29 different BoLA-DRB3 alleles. Overo Negro had the highest number of alleles (29); this breed is considered in Chile to be an 'Old type' European Holstein Friesian descendant. By contrast, we detected 21 alleles in Holstein cattle, which are considered to be a 'Present type' Holstein Friesian cattle. Chilean cattle groups and four Japanese breeds were compared by neighbor-joining trees and a principal component analysis (PCA). The phylogenetic tree showed that Red Angus and Black Angus cattle were in the same clade, crossbreeds were closely related to their parent breeds, and Holstein cattle from Chile were closely related to Holstein cattle in Japan. Overall, the tree provided a thorough description of breed history. It also showed that the Overo Negro breed was closely related to the Holstein breed, consistent with historical data indicating that Overo Negro is an 'Old type' Holstein Friesian cattle. This allelic information will be important for investigating the relationship between major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and disease. PMID:25430590

  15. Allelic loss in colorectal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, S.E.; Fearon, E.R.; Tersmette, K.W.F.; Enterline, J.P.; Vogelstein, B.; Hamilton, S.R. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA)); Leppert, M.; Nakamura, Yusuke; White, R. (Univ. of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City (USA))

    1989-06-02

    Clinical and pathological associations with molecular genetic alterations were studied in colorectal carcinomas from 83 patients. Fractional allelic loss, a measure of allelic deletions throughout the genome, and allelic deletions of specific chromosomal arms (the short arm of 17 and long arm of 18) each provided independent prognostic information by multivariate analysis when considered individually with Dukes' classification. Distant metastasis was significantly associated with high fractional allelic loss and with deletions of 17p and 18q. Mutations of ras proto-oncogenes and deletions of 5q had no prognostic importance. Statistically significant associations were also found between allelic losses and a family history of cancer, left-sided tumor location, and absence of extracellular tumor mucin. Allelic deletion analysis thus identified subsets of colorectal carcinoma with increased predilection for distant metastasis and cancer-related death. Further studies may define a subset of genetic alterations that can be used clinically to help assess prognosis.

  16. Assessment of genetic variability of olive varieties by microsatellite and AFLP markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dunja Bandelj; Jernej Jakše; Branka Javornik

    2004-01-01

    Fourteen developed microsatellite markers were characterized for their use in genotyping and diversity studies of olive varieties.\\u000a After optimisation of microsatellite assay and allele sizing, ninety-six alleles were found in nineteen varieties, with an\\u000a average of 6.8 alleles per locus. The characteristics of the microsatellite markers were used to identify markers that can\\u000a be reliably applied for variety genotyping. Such

  17. A novel linkage map of sugarcane with evidence for clustering of retrotransposon-based markers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of sugarcane as a sustainable crop has unlimited applications. The crop is one of the most economically viable for renewable energy production, and CO2 balance. Linkage maps are valuable tools for understanding genetic and genomic organization, particularly in sugarcane due to its complex polyploid genome of multispecific origins. The overall objective of our study was to construct a novel sugarcane linkage map, compiling AFLP and EST-SSR markers, and to generate data on the distribution of markers anchored to sequences of scIvana_1, a complete sugarcane transposable element, and member of the Copia superfamily. Results The mapping population parents (‘IAC66-6’ and ‘TUC71-7’) contributed equally to polymorphisms, independent of marker type, and generated markers that were distributed into nearly the same number of co-segregation groups (or CGs). Bi-parentally inherited alleles provided the integration of 19 CGs. The marker number per CG ranged from two to 39. The total map length was 4,843.19?cM, with a marker density of 8.87?cM. Markers were assembled into 92 CGs that ranged in length from 1.14 to 404.72?cM, with an estimated average length of 52.64?cM. The greatest distance between two adjacent markers was 48.25?cM. The scIvana_1-based markers (56) were positioned on 21 CGs, but were not regularly distributed. Interestingly, the distance between adjacent scIvana_1-based markers was less than 5?cM, and was observed on five CGs, suggesting a clustered organization. Conclusions Results indicated the use of a NBS-profiling technique was efficient to develop retrotransposon-based markers in sugarcane. The simultaneous maximum-likelihood estimates of linkage and linkage phase based strategies confirmed the suitability of its approach to estimate linkage, and construct the linkage map. Interestingly, using our genetic data it was possible to calculate the number of retrotransposon scIvana_1 (~60) copies in the sugarcane genome, confirming previously reported molecular results. In addition, this research possibly will have indirect implications in crop economics e.g., productivity enhancement via QTL studies, as the mapping population parents differ in response to an important fungal disease. PMID:22742069

  18. Integration of novel SSR and gene-based SNP marker loci in the chickpea genetic map and establishment of new anchor points with Medicago truncatula genome

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Spurthi N.; Zhu, Hongyan; Varghese, Nicy; Datta, Subhojit; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Horres, Ralf; Jüngling, Ruth; Singh, Jagbir; Kavi Kishor, P. B.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.; Hoisington, Dave A.; Kahl, Günter; Winter, Peter; Cook, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the development and mapping of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in chickpea. The mapping population is based on an inter-specific cross between domesticated and non-domesticated genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum ICC 4958 × C. reticulatum PI 489777). This same population has been the focus of previous studies, permitting integration of new and legacy genetic markers into a single genetic map. We report a set of 311 novel SSR markers (designated ICCM—ICRISAT chickpea microsatellite), obtained from an SSR-enriched genomic library of ICC 4958. Screening of these SSR markers on a diverse panel of 48 chickpea accessions provided 147 polymorphic markers with 2–21 alleles and polymorphic information content value 0.04–0.92. Fifty-two of these markers were polymorphic between parental genotypes of the inter-specific population. We also analyzed 233 previously published (H-series) SSR markers that provided another set of 52 polymorphic markers. An additional 71 gene-based SNP markers were developed from transcript sequences that are highly conserved between chickpea and its near relative Medicago truncatula. By using these three approaches, 175 new marker loci along with 407 previously reported marker loci were integrated to yield an improved genetic map of chickpea. The integrated map contains 521 loci organized into eight linkage groups that span 2,602 cM, with an average inter-marker distance of 4.99 cM. Gene-based markers provide anchor points for comparing the genomes of Medicago and chickpea, and reveal extended synteny between these two species. The combined set of genetic markers and their integration into an improved genetic map should facilitate chickpea genetics and breeding, as well as translational studies between chickpea and Medicago. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1265-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20098978

  19. Haptoglobin genotyping of Vietnamese: global distribution of HP del, complete deletion allele of the HP gene.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Mikiko; Agusa, Tetsuro; Iwata, Hisato; Fujihara, Junko; Kunito, Takashi; Takeshita, Haruo; Lan, Vi Thi Mai; Minh, Tu Binh; Takahashi, Shin; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Koda, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    The haptoglobin (HP) gene deletion allele (HP(del)) is responsible for anhaptoglobinemia and a genetic risk factor for anaphylaxis reaction after transfusion due to production of the anti-HP antibody. The distribution of this allele has been explored by several groups including ours. Here, we studied the frequency of HP(del) in addition to the distribution of common HP genotypes in 293 Vietnamese. The HP(del) was encountered with the frequency of 0.020. The present result suggested that this deletion allele is restricted to East and Southeast Asians. Thus, this allele seems to be a potential ancestry informative marker for these populations. PMID:25212669

  20. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Worsens the Profile of Cardiometabolic Risk Markers and Decrease Indexes of Beta-Cell Function Independently of Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Women with a Parental History of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sokup, Alina; Ruszkowska-Ciastek, Barbara; Walentowicz-Sad?ecka, Ma?gorzata; Grabiec, Marek; Ro??, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Background. Women with a history of both parental type 2 diabetes (pt2DM) and previous gestational diabetes (pGDM) represent a group at high risk of cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that pGDM changes cardiometabolic risk markers levels as well as theirs associations with glucose indices in nondiabetic pt2DM women. Methods. Anthropometric parameters, glucose regulation (OGTT), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), beta-cell function, lipid levels, parameters of endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation were evaluated in 55 women with pt2DM, 40 with both pt2DM and pGDM 2–24 months postpartum, and 35 controls. Results. Prediabetes was diagnosed more frequently in women with both pt2DM and pGDM in comparison with women with only pt2DM (10 versus 8, P = 0.04). The pGDM group had higher LDL-cholesterol, sICAM-1, tPa Ag, fibrinogen, and lower beta-cell function after adjustment for HOMA-IR, in comparison with pt2DM group. In pt2DM group postchallenge glucose correlated independently with hsCRP and in pGDM group fasting glucose with HOMA-IR. Conclusions. pGDM exerts a combined effect on cardiometabolic risk markers in women with pt2DM. In these women higher LDL-cholesterol, fibrinogen, sICAM-1, tPa Ag levels and decreased beta cell function are associated with pGDM independently of HOMA-IR index value. Fasting glucose is an important cardiometabolic risk marker and is independently associated with HOMA-IR. PMID:25097861

  1. Effects of allele frequency estimation on genomic predictions and inbreeding coefficients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic calculations often require estimating allele frequencies, which differ across time due to selection and drift. Data were 50,000 simulated markers and 39,985 actual markers for 2391 genotyped Holstein bulls. Gene content of relatives and gene frequencies in the base (founder) population were ...

  2. Identification of flanking SSR markers for a major rice gall midge resistance gene Gm1 and their validation.

    PubMed

    Biradar, S K; Sundaram, R M; Thirumurugan, T; Bentur, J S; Amudhan, S; Shenoy, V V; Mishra, B; Bennett, J; Sarma, N P

    2004-11-01

    Host-plant resistance is the preferred strategy for management of Asian rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae), a serious pest in many rice-growing countries. The deployment of molecular markers linked to gall midge resistance genes in breeding programmes can accelerate the development of resistant cultivars. In the present study, we have tagged and mapped a dominant gall midge resistance gene, Gm1, from the Oryza sativa cv. W1263 on chromosome 9, using SSR markers. A progeny-tested F2 mapping population derived from the cross W1263/TN1 was used for analysis. To map the gene locus, initially a subset of the F2 mapping population consisting of 20 homozygous resistant and susceptible lines each was screened with 63 parental polymorphic SSR markers. The SSR markers RM316, RM444 and RM219, located on chromosome 9, are linked to Gm1 at genetic distances of 8.0, 4.9 and 5.9 cM, respectively, and flank the gene locus. Further, gene/marker order was also determined. The utility of the co-segregating SSR markers was tested in a backcross population derived from the cross Swarna/W1263//Swarna, and allelic profiles of these markers were analysed in a set of donor rice genotypes possessing Gm1 and in a few gall midge-susceptible, elite rice varieties. PMID:15278284

  3. Functionally Relevant Microsatellite Markers From Chickpea Transcription Factor Genes for Efficient Genotyping Applications and Trait Association Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Kujur, Alice; Bajaj, Deepak; Saxena, Maneesha S.; Tripathi, Shailesh; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Gowda, C.L.L.; Singh, Sube; Jain, Mukesh; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2013-01-01

    We developed 1108 transcription factor gene-derived microsatellite (TFGMS) and 161 transcription factor functional domain-associated microsatellite (TFFDMS) markers from 707 TFs of chickpea. The robust amplification efficiency (96.5%) and high intra-specific polymorphic potential (34%) detected by markers suggest their immense utilities in efficient large-scale genotyping applications, including construction of both physical and functional transcript maps and understanding population structure. Candidate gene-based association analysis revealed strong genetic association of TFFDMS markers with three major seed and pod traits. Further, TFGMS markers in the 5? untranslated regions of TF genes showing differential expression during seed development had higher trait association potential. The significance of TFFDMS markers was demonstrated by correlating their allelic variation with amino acid sequence expansion/contraction in the functional domain and alteration of secondary protein structure encoded by genes. The seed weight-associated markers were validated through traditional bi-parental genetic mapping. The determination of gene-specific linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns in desi and kabuli based on single nucleotide polymorphism-microsatellite marker haplotypes revealed extended LD decay, enhanced LD resolution and trait association potential of genes. The evolutionary history of a strong seed-size/weight-associated TF based on natural variation and haplotype sharing among desi, kabuli and wild unravelled useful information having implication for seed-size trait evolution during chickpea domestication. PMID:23633531

  4. Genetic Diversity Among Wheat Cultivars Using Molecular Markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babak Abdollahi Mandoulakani; Ali-Akbar Shahnejat-Bushehri; Badredin Ebrahim Sayed Tabatabaei; Sepideh Torabi; Alireza Mohammadi Hajiabad

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) marker systems for estimating genetic diversity among 13 Iranian wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars through average expected heterozygosity (Hav), sum of effective number of alleles (SENA), and marker index (MI). The AFLP markers had the highest values

  5. Distribution of FMR-1 and associated microsatellite alleles in a normal Chinese population

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, N.; Houck, G.E. Jr.; Li, S.; Dobkin, C.; Brown, W.T. [New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States); Xixian Liu; Shen Gou [Tongji Medical Univ., Wuhan (China)

    1994-07-15

    The CGG repeat size distribution of the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR-1) was studied in a population of normal Chinese X chromosomes along with that of two proximal microsatellite polymorphic markers: FRAXAC1 and DXS548. The most common CGG repeat allele was 29 (47.2%) with 30 being second most common (26%). This distribution was different from that seen in Caucasian controls, where the most common allele was 30 repeats. Other differences with Caucasian controls included a secondary model peak at 36 repeats and the absence of peaks at 20 or 23 repeats. There were only two FRAXAC1 and five DXS548 alleles found in the Chinese sample. A striking linkage disequilibrium of FMR-1 alleles with FRAXAC1 alleles was observed, in that 90% of the 29 CGG repeat alleles but only 41% of the 30 CGG repeat alleles had the FRAXAC1 152 bp allele (18 AC repeats). This disequilibrium suggests that slippage between the closely spaced normal CGG repeat alleles, 29 and 30, and between 152 and 154 FRAXAC1 alleles is very rare. This study lays the groundwork for an understanding of founder chromosome effects in comparing Asian and Caucasian populations. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. What Is a Recessive Allele?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Presents four misconceptions students have concerning the concepts of recessive and dominant alleles. Discusses the spectrum of dominant-recessive relationships, different levels of analysis between phenotype and genotype, possible causes of dominance, and an example involving wrinkled peas. (MDH)

  7. Population estimators or progeny tests: what is the best method to assess null allele frequencies at SSR loci?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie Oddou-Muratorio; Giovanni G. Vendramin; Joukje Buiteveld; Bruno Fady

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear SSRs are notorious for having relatively high frequencies of null alleles, i.e. alleles that fail to amplify and are\\u000a thus recessive and undetected in heterozygotes. In this paper, we compare two kinds of approaches for estimating null allele\\u000a frequencies at seven nuclear microsatellite markers in three French Fagus sylvatica populations: (1) maximum likelihood methods that compare observed and expected

  8. Allelotyping of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma: Frequent Allelic Losses in Chromosome Arms 7q, 11p, and 22q

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YUTAKA KITAMURA; KAZUO SHIMIZU; KOICHI ITO; SHIGEO TANAKA; MITSURU EMI

    2010-01-01

    The genetic mechanisms involved in development of follicular thyroid carcinoma are poorly understood, although allelic losses (LOH) in this type of tumor have been reported in small panels of follicular thyroid carcinomas examined in earlier studies. To clarify the real frequency of allelic loss we carried out a genome-wide allelotyping study of 66 follicular thyroid carcinomas using 39 microsatellite markers

  9. Identification of parental line specific effects of MLF2 on resistance to coccidiosis in chickens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background MLF2 was the candidate gene associated with coccidiosis resistance in chickens. Although single marker analysis supported the association between MLF2 and coccidiosis resistance, causative mutation relevant to coccidiosis was not identified yet. Thus, this study suggested segregation analysis of MLF2 haplotype and the association test of the other candidate genes using improved data transformation. Results A haplotype probably originated from one parental line was found out of 4 major haplotypes of MLF2. Frequency of this haplotype was 0.2 in parental chickens and its offspring in 12 families. Allele substitution effect of the MLF2 haplotype originated from a specific line was associated with increased body weight and fecal egg count explaining coccidiosis resistance. Nevertheless Box-Cox transformation was able to improve normality; association test did not produce obvious different results compared with analysis with log transformed phenotype. Conclusion Allele substitution effect analysis and classification of MLF2 haplotype identified the segregation of haplotype associated with coccidiosis resistance. The haplotype originated from a specific parental line was associated with improving disease resistance. Estimating effect of MLF2 haplotype on coccidiosis resistance will provide useful information for selecting animals or lines for future study. PMID:21645301

  10. Genetic Diversity and Relatedness of Sweet Cherry (Prunus Avium L.) Cultivars Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez i Marti, Angel; Athanson, Blessing; Koepke, Tyson; Font i Forcada, Carolina; Dhingra, Amit; Oraguzie, Nnadozie

    2012-01-01

    Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from 3? untranslated regions (UTR) for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars, and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with seven SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3? UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, “Stella” was separated from “Compact Stella.” This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3? UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping, and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry. PMID:22737155

  11. Parental origin of sequence variants associated with complex diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir; Gisli Masson; Gudmar Thorleifsson; Patrick Sulem; Soren Besenbacher; Aslaug Jonasdottir; Asgeir Sigurdsson; Kari Th. Kristinsson; Adalbjorg Jonasdottir; Michael L. Frigge; Arnaldur Gylfason; Pall I. Olason; Sigurjon A. Gudjonsson; Sverrir Sverrisson; Simon N. Stacey; Bardur Sigurgeirsson; Kristrun R. Benediktsdottir; Helgi Sigurdsson; Thorvaldur Jonsson; Rafn Benediktsson; Jon H. Olafsson; Oskar Th. Johannsson; Astradur B. Hreidarsson; Gunnar Sigurdsson; Benjamin F. Voight; Laura J. Scott; Christian Dina; Eleftheria Zeggini; Cornelia Huth; Yurii S. Aulchenko; Ryan P. Welch; Laura J. McCulloch; Teresa Ferreira; Harald Grallert; Najaf Amin; Guanming Wu; Cristen J. Willer; Soumya Raychaudhuri; Shaun Purcell; Steve A. McCarroll; Claudia Langenberg; Oliver M. Hoffmann; Josée Dupuis; Lu Qi; Ayellet V. Segrè; Mandy van Hoek; Pau Navarro; Kristin Ardlie; Beverley Balkau; Amanda J. Bennett; Roza Blagieva; Eric Boerwinkle; Lori L. Bonnycastle; Kristina Bengtsson Boström; Bert Bravenboer; Suzannah Bumpstead; Noël P. Burtt; Guillaume Charpentier; Peter S. Chines; Marilyn Cornelis; David J. Couper; Gabe Crawford; Alex S. F. Doney; Katherine S. Elliott; Amanda L. Elliott; Michael R. Erdos; Caroline S. Fox; Christopher S. Franklin; Martha Ganser; Christian Gieger; Niels Grarup; Todd Green; Simon Griffin; Christopher J. Groves; Candace Guiducci; Samy Hadjadj; Neelam Hassanali; Christian Herder; Bo Isomaa; Anne U. Jackson; Paul R. V. Johnson; Torben Jørgensen; Wen H. L. Kao; Norman Klopp; Peter Kraft; Johanna Kuusisto; Torsten Lauritzen; Man Li; Alouisius Lieverse; Cecilia M. Lindgren; Valeriya Lyssenko; Michel Marre; Thomas Meitinger; Kristian Midthjell; Mario A Morken; Narisu Narisu; Peter Nilsson; Katharine R. Owen; Felicity Payne; John R. B. Perry; Ann-Kristin Petersen; Carl Platou; Christine Proença; Inga Prokopenko; Wolfgang Rathmann; N. William Rayner; Neil R. Robertson; Ghislain Rocheleau; Michael Roden; Michael J. Sampson; Richa Saxena; Beverley M. Shields; Peter Shrader; Nicholas Smith; Thomas Sparsø; Klaus Strassburger; Heather M. Stringham; Qi Sun; Amy J. Swift; Barbara Thorand; Jean Tichet; Tiinamaija Tuomi; Rob van Dam; Thijs van Herpt; G. Bragi Walters; Michael N. Weedon; Jacqueline Witteman; Richard N. Bergman; Stephane Cauchi; Francis S. Collins; Anna L. Gloyn; Ulf Gyllensten; Torben Hansen; Winston A. Hide; Graham A. Hitman; Albert Hofman; David Hunter; Kristian Hveem; Markku Laakso; Karen L. Mohlke; Andrew D. Morris; Colin N. A. Palmer; Peter P. Pramstaller; Igor Rudan; Eric Sijbrands; Lincoln D. Stein; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Andre Uitterlinden; Mark Walker; Nicholas J. Wareham; Richard M. Watanabe; Goncalo R. Abecasis; Inês Barroso; Bernhard O. Boehm; Harry Campbell; Mark J. Daly; Jose C. Florez; Timothy M. Frayling; Leif Groop; Andrew T. Hattersley; Frank B. Hu; James B. Meigs; Andrew P. Morris; James S. Pankow; Oluf Pedersen; Rob Sladek; Unnur Thorsteinsdottir; H.-Erich Wichmann; James F. Wilson; Thomas Illig; Philippe Froguel; Cornelia M. van Duijn; David Altshuler; Michael Boehnke; Anne C. Ferguson-Smith; Daniel F. Gudbjartsson; Augustine Kong; Kari Stefansson

    2009-01-01

    Effects of susceptibility variants may depend on from which parent they are inherited. Although many associations between sequence variants and human traits have been discovered through genome-wide associations, the impact of parental origin has largely been ignored. Here we show that for 38,167 Icelanders genotyped using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips, the parental origin of most alleles can be determined.

  12. GENOPROB: COMPUTATION OF GENOTYPE AND GRANDPARENTAL ORIGIN PROBABILITIES IN COMPLEX PEDIGREES WITH MISSING MARKER DATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GenoProb analyzes genetic marker data in complex pedigrees with missing marker data using an iterative allelic peeling algorithm. Its output has been used for QTL detection, marker assisted selection, and identification and correction of errors in marker data and pedigrees. It computes the approxima...

  13. Applicability of bovine microsatellite markers for population genetic studies on African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hooft van W. F; O. Hanotte; P. W. Wenink; A. F. Groen; Y. Sugimoto; H. H. T. Prins; A. Teale

    1999-01-01

    The applicability of bovine autosomal micro- satellite markers for population genetic studies on African buffalo was investigated. A total of 168 microsatellite markers were tested for PCR amplification on a test panel of seven African buffalo. Amplification was observed for 139 markers (83%), and 101 markers were studied further with 91 (90%) being polymorphic. The mean number of alleles per

  14. Assessing genetic diversity of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm using microsatellite markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Q. Huang; A. Börner; M. S. Röder; M. W. Ganal

    2002-01-01

    A set of 24 wheat microsatellite markers, representing at least one marker from each chromosome, was used for the assessment of genetic diversity in 998 accessions of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) which originated from 68 countries of five continents. A total of 470 alleles were detected with an average allele number of 18.1 per locus. The highest number

  15. AGG interruptions and maternal age affect FMR1 CGG repeat allele stability during transmission

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of AGG interruptions in the CGG repeat locus of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene decreases the instability of the allele during transmission from parent to child, and decreases the risk of expansion of a premutation allele to a full mutation allele (the predominant cause of fragile X syndrome) during maternal transmission. Methods To strengthen recent findings on the utility of AGG interruptions in predicting instability or expansion to a full mutation of FMR1 CGG repeat alleles, we assessed the outcomes of 108 intermediate (also named gray zone) and 710 premutation alleles that were transmitted from parent to child, and collected from four international clinical sites. We have used the results to revise our initial model that predicted the risk of a maternal premutation allele expanding to a full mutation during transmission and to test the effect of AGG interruptions on the magnitude of expanded allele instability of intermediate or premutation alleles that did not expand to a full mutation. Results Consistent with previous studies, the number of AGG triplets that interrupts the CGG repeat locus was found to influence the risk of allele instability, including expansion to a full mutation. The total length of the CGG repeat allele remains the best predictor of instability or expansion to a full mutation, but the number of AGG interruptions and, to a much lesser degree, maternal age are also factors when considering the risk of transmission of the premutation allele to a full mutation. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that a model with total CGG length, number of AGG interruptions, and maternal age is recommended for calculating the risk of expansion to a full mutation during maternal transmission. Taken together, the results of this study provide relevant information for the genetic counseling of female premutation carriers, and improve the current predictive models which calculate risk of expansion to a full mutation using only total CGG repeat length. PMID:25110527

  16. Evidence for Mito-Nuclear and Sex-Linked Reproductive Barriers between the Hybrid Italian Sparrow and Its Parent Species

    PubMed Central

    Sætre, Glenn-Peter; Bailey, Richard I.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of reproductive isolation between homoploid hybrid species and their parent species have rarely been carried out. Here we investigate reproductive barriers between a recently recognized hybrid bird species, the Italian sparrow Passer italiae and its parent species, the house sparrow P. domesticus and Spanish sparrow P. hispaniolensis. Reproductive barriers can be difficult to study in hybrid species due to lack of geographical contact between taxa. However, the Italian sparrow lives parapatrically with the house sparrow and both sympatrically and parapatrically with the Spanish sparrow. Through whole-transcriptome sequencing of six individuals of each of the two parent species we identified a set of putatively parent species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. After filtering for coverage, genotyping success (>97%) and multiple SNPs per gene, we retained 86 species-informative, genic, nuclear and mitochondrial SNP markers from 84 genes for analysis of 612 male individuals. We show that a disproportionately large number of sex-linked genes, as well as the mitochondria and nuclear genes with mitochondrial function, exhibit sharp clines at the boundaries between the hybrid and the parent species, suggesting a role for mito-nuclear and sex-linked incompatibilities in forming reproductive barriers. We suggest that genomic conflict via interactions between mitochondria and sex-linked genes with mitochondrial function (“mother's curse”) at one boundary and centromeric drive at the other may best explain our findings. Hybrid speciation in the Italian sparrow may therefore be influenced by mechanisms similar to those involved in non-hybrid speciation, but with the formation of two geographically separated species boundaries instead of one. Spanish sparrow alleles at some loci have spread north to form reproductive barriers with house sparrows, while house sparrow alleles at different loci, including some on the same chromosome, have spread in the opposite direction to form barriers against Spanish sparrows. PMID:24415954

  17. Evidence for a genetic association between alleles of monoamine oxidase A gene and bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, L.C.C.; Sham, P.; Castle, D. [Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-08-14

    We present evidence of a genetic association between bipolar disorder and alleles at 3 monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) markers, but not with alleles of a monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) polymorphism. The 3 MAOA markers, including one associated with low MAOA activity, show strong allelic association with each other but surprisingly not with MAOB. Our results are significantly only for females, though the number of males in our sample is too small to draw any definite conclusions. Our data is consistent with recent reports of reduced MAOA activity in patients with abnormal behavioral phenotypes. The strength of the association is weak, but significant, which suggests that alleles at the MAOA locus contribute to susceptibility to bipolar disorder rather than being a major determinant. 58 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Parent Soup

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Parent Soup is an online community for parents. It dubs itself the "neighborhood's favorite kitchen table" where parents can exchange views in discussion groups or talk with one another in the chat room. The concept of a virtual community can be seen in the Parents' Pick area where parents share their opinions on books, baby products, toys, computers, web sites and movies. Parent Soup members can find other Parent Soupers who share their interests, hobbies and concerns through personal profiles posted on "cyberfridges." The site also features a parenting library with information in sixteen major topics and a Baby Name Finder with information on more than 5,000 names.

  19. PGI*3(Israel), a new, unstable allele in the phosphoglucose isomerase system.

    PubMed

    Bonné-Tamir, B; Papiha, S S; Ashbel, S; Brok-Simoni, F; Kende, G; Ramot, B

    1987-09-01

    Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) and 16 other biochemical genetic markers were studied in an Israeli-Arab family previously described for hereditary deficiency of adenylate kinase (AK) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). In this inbred family a rare PGI*3 allele was observed in 11 of 32 members tested, indicating an autosomal codominant inheritance. The electrophoretic mobility of this allele is similar to that of the PGI*3 allele found in Indian populations, but unlike the Indian allele, it has a very low specific activity and heat stability. This PGI*3 allele, designated PGI*3 (Israel), seems to be a different unstable mutation and along with AK and G6PD deficiencies seems to be associated with severe anaemia. PMID:3476458

  20. Gene-environment interaction and the intergenerational transmission of parenting: testing the differential-susceptibility hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Belsky, Jay

    2012-03-01

    The current study evaluated the differential-susceptibility hypothesis in explaining the intergenerational transmission of parenting, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Exposure to maternal parenting was measured prospectively when respondents were adolescents and parental stress was measured when they were parents themselves, some 14 years later, on average. Cumulative-genetic plasticity was measured by dominantly coding the presence of putative plasticity alleles from four genes: the 10R allele of DAT1, the A1 allele of DRD2, the 7R allele of DRD4, and the short allele of 5HTTLPR. Results showed that the more plasticity alleles individuals carried (range 0-4), the more that parenting experienced in adolescence predicted future parenting experience. Those respondents with the most plasticity alleles not only experienced the highest levels of parental stress when exposed to negative maternal parenting in adolescence but the lowest levels when exposed to positive maternal parenting in adolescence. These results indicate that differential susceptibility is operative in the case of the intergenerational transmission of parenting, which could explain why estimates of such transmission have proven so modest in studies which fail to consider GXE interactions. PMID:21553075

  1. Variations and Transmission of QTL Alleles for Yield and Fiber Qualities in Upland Cotton Cultivars Developed in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianzhen; Qian, Neng; Zhu, Xiefei; Chen, Hong; Wang, Sen; Mei, Hongxian; Zhang, Yuanming

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is the world’s leading cash crop, and genetic improvement of fiber yield and quality is the primary objective of cotton breeding program. In this study, we used various approaches to identify QTLs related to fiber yield and quality. Firstly, we constructed a four-way cross (4WC) mapping population with four base core cultivars, Stoneville 2B, Foster 6, Deltapine 15 and Zhongmiansuo No.7 (CRI 7), as parents in Chinese cotton breeding history and identified 83 QTLs for 11 agronomic and fiber quality traits. Secondly, association mapping of agronomical and fiber quality traits was based on 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using a general linear model (GLM). For this, 81 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions including the four core parents and their derived cultivars were grown in seven diverse environments. Using these approaches, we successfully identified 180 QTLs significantly associated with agronomic and fiber quality traits. Among them were 66 QTLs that were identified via linkage disequilibrium (LD) and 4WC family-based linkage (FBL) mapping and by previously published family-based linkage (FBL) mapping in modern Chinese cotton cultivars. Twenty eight and 44 consistent QTLs were identified by 4WC and LD mapping, and by FBL and LD mapping methods, respectively. Furthermore, transmission and variation of QTL-alleles mapped by LD association in the three breeding periods revealed that some could be detected in almost all Chinese cotton cultivars, suggesting their stable transmission and some identified only in the four base cultivars and not in the modern cultivars, suggesting they were missed in conventional breeding. These results will be useful to conduct genomics-assisted breeding effectively using these existing and novel QTL alleles to improve yield and fiber qualities in cotton. PMID:23468939

  2. Allelic Variation in Paralogs of GDP-l-Galactose Phosphorylase Is a Major Determinant of Vitamin C Concentrations in Apple Fruit1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Chagné, David; Laing, William A.; Keulemans, Johan; Davey, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    To identify the genetic factors underlying the regulation of fruit vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid [AsA]) concentrations, quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies were carried out in an F1 progeny derived from a cross between the apple (Malus × domestica) cultivars Telamon and Braeburn over three years. QTL were identified for AsA, glutathione, total antioxidant activity in both flesh and skin tissues, and various quality traits, including flesh browning. Four regions on chromosomes 10, 11, 16, and 17 contained stable fruit AsA-QTL clusters. Mapping of AsA metabolic genes identified colocations between orthologs of GDP-l-galactose phosphorylase (GGP), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and nucleobase-ascorbate transporter within these QTL clusters. Of particular interest are the three paralogs of MdGGP, which all colocated within AsA-QTL clusters. Allelic variants of MdGGP1 and MdGGP3 derived from the cultivar Braeburn parent were also consistently associated with higher fruit total AsA concentrations both within the mapping population (up to 10-fold) and across a range of commercial apple germplasm (up to 6-fold). Striking differences in the expression of the cv Braeburn MdGGP1 allele between fruit from high- and low-AsA genotypes clearly indicate a key role for MdGGP1 in the regulation of fruit AsA concentrations, and this MdGGP allele-specific single-nucleotide polymorphism marker represents an excellent candidate for directed breeding for enhanced fruit AsA concentrations. Interestingly, colocations were also found between MdDHAR3-3 and a stable QTL for browning in the cv Telamon parent, highlighting links between the redox status of the AsA pool and susceptibility to flesh browning. PMID:23001142

  3. Genetic Tools for Allelic Replacement in Burkholderia Species? †

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Ashley R.; Kang, Yun; Inamasu, Ken S.; Son, Mike S.; Vukovich, Joseph M.; Hoang, Tung T.

    2008-01-01

    Allelic replacement in the Burkholderia genus has been problematic due to the lack of appropriate counter-selectable and selectable markers. The counter-selectable marker sacB, commonly used in gram-negative bacteria, is nonselective on sucrose in many Burkholderia species. In addition, the use of antibiotic resistance markers of clinical importance for the selection of desirable genetic traits is prohibited in the United States for two potential bioterrorism agents, Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Here, we engineered a mutated counter-selectable marker based on the B. pseudomallei PheS (the ?-subunit of phenylalanyl tRNA synthase) protein and tested its effectiveness in three different Burkholderia species. The mutant PheS protein effectively killed 100% of the bacteria in the presence of 0.1% p-chlorophenylalanine. We assembled the mutant pheS on several allelic replacement vectors, in addition to constructing selectable markers based on tellurite (Telr) and trimethoprim (Tpr) resistance that are excisable by flanking unique FLP recombination target (FRT) sequences. As a proof of concept, we utilized one of these gene replacement vectors (pBAKA) and the Telr-FRT cassette to produce a chromosomal mutation in the Burkholderia thailandensis betBA operon, which codes for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase and choline dehydrogenase. Chromosomal resistance markers could be excised by the introduction of pFLP-AB5 (Tpr), which is one of two constructed flp-containing plasmids, pFLP-AB4 (Telr) and pFLP-AB5 (Tpr). These flp-containing plasmids harbor the mutant pheS gene and allow self curing on media that contain p-chlorophenylalanine after Flp-FRT excision. The characterization of the ?betBA::Telr-FRT and ?betBA::FRT mutants indicated a defect in growth with choline as a sole carbon source, while these mutants grew as well as the wild type with succinate and glucose as alternative carbon sources. PMID:18502918

  4. Shannon's equivocation for forensic Y-STR marker selection.

    PubMed

    Siegert, Sabine; Roewer, Lutz; Nothnagel, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) markers are widely and continuously used in forensic applications. However, past research has demonstrated substantial allelic association between STR markers on both autosomes and the X chromosome, leading to partially redundant information that these markers can provide. Here, we quantify the allelic association between Y-chromosomal STR markers that are part of established forensic panels, separately for three different continental groups. We further propose a sequential marker selection procedure that is based on Shannon's equivocation and that accounts for allelic association between STR markers, leading to a maximal gain in independent information. In application to three real-world data sets, we demonstrate the procedure's superior performance when compared to single-locus diversity selection strategies, resulting in the optimal marker set for a given data set in the majority of marker subsets. Noting the inferior performance of the established Y-STR marker panels in a retrospective investigation, we suggest that future forensic marker selection should be guided, besides by other technical selection criteria, by an equivocation-based approach to obtain maximally discriminatory marker sets at minimal cost. PMID:25682312

  5. Genetic diversity analysis among collected purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) accessions using ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Alam, M Amirul; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Rafii, Mohd Yusop; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Arolu, Ibrahim Wasiu; Abdul Latif, M

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships among 45 collected purslane accessions were evaluated using ISSR markers. The 28 primers gave a total of 167 bands, among which 163 were polymorphic (97.6%). The genetic diversity as estimated by Shannon's information index was 0.513, revealing a quite high level of genetic diversity in the germplasm. The average number of observed allele, effective allele, expected heterozygosity, polymorphic information content (PIC) and Nei's index were 5.96, 1.59, 0.43, 0.35 and 0.35, respectively. The UPGMA dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance grouped the whole germplasm into 7 distinct clusters. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 89% of total variation occurred within population, while 11% were found among populations. Based on the constructed dendrogram using ISSR markers those accessions that are far from each other by virtue of genetic origin and diversity index (like Ac1 and Ac42; Ac19 and Ac45; Ac9 and Ac23; Ac18 and A25; Ac24 and Ac18) are strongly recommended to select as parent for future breeding program to develop high yielding and stress tolerant purslane variety in contribution to global food security. PMID:25468001

  6. [Allele structure of polymorphic loci of maize lines and hybrids and its correlation with heterosis level].

    PubMed

    Bukrieieva, N I; Bielousov, A O; Syvolap, Iu M

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphism of parental lines GK26, Mo17 and lines-testers Od221MB, Od308MB, and Od329 was analyzed by SSR-PCR and genotyping of recombinant inbred lines (RIL) from populations F4, F6 was carried out. Ten microsatellite loci allele combinations of parental lines, lines-testers and the best test cross hybrids were established and their molecular-genetic formulas were derived. The microsatellites allele structure of the best for combining ability lines and high-yield hybrids was investigated. PMID:24818506

  7. Parent Power!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sandy

    Parents should admit and articulate their negative feelings about parenting, share feelings of suffering with other parents, and nurture each other. On the basis of a new shared understanding, parents can then organize and work to redefine the nurturing role and humanize society and its institutions so that they better meet human needs. Soell's…

  8. Compassionate Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stosny, Steven

    Noting that parents' response to their children is essentially emotional and keyed almost exclusively to inferences about their children's emotions, this program for parents teaches compassionate parenting, an approach that provides a secure emotional base from which children explore and interact with their environment as parents develop the…

  9. Null allele, allelic dropouts or rare sex detection in clonal organisms: simulations and application to real data sets of pathogenic microbes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pathogens and their vectors are organisms whose ecology is often only accessible through population genetics tools based on spatio-temporal variability of molecular markers. However, molecular tools may present technical difficulties due to the masking of some alleles (allelic dropouts and/or null alleles), which tends to bias the estimation of heterozygosity and thus the inferences concerning the breeding system of the organism under study. This is especially critical in clonal organisms in which deviation from panmixia, as measured by Wright’s FIS, can, in principle, be used to infer both the extent of clonality and structure in a given population. In particular, null alleles and allelic dropouts are locus specific and likely produce high variance of Wright’s FIS across loci, as rare sex is expected to do. In this paper we propose a tool enabling to discriminate between consequences of these technical problems and those of rare sex. Methods We have performed various simulations of clonal and partially clonal populations. We introduce allelic dropouts and null alleles in clonal data sets and compare the results with those that exhibit increasing rates of sexual recombination. We use the narrow relationship that links Wright’s FIS to genetic diversity in purely clonal populations as assessment criterion, since this relationship disappears faster with sexual recombination than with amplification problems of certain alleles. Results We show that the relevance of our criterion for detecting poorly amplified alleles depends partly on the population structure, the level of homoplasy and/or mutation rate. However, the interpretation of data becomes difficult when the number of poorly amplified alleles is above 50%. The application of this method to reinterpret published data sets of pathogenic clonal microbes (yeast and trypanosomes) confirms its usefulness and allows refining previous estimates concerning important pathogenic agents. Conclusion Our criterion of superimposing between the FIS expected under clonality and the observed FIS, is effective when amplification difficulties occur in low to moderate frequencies (20-30%). PMID:25027508

  10. [Identification of sunflower genotypes using microsatellite markers].

    PubMed

    Solodenko, A E; Sanalati?, A V; Sivolap, Iu M

    2004-01-01

    Polymorphism of some DNA microsatellite sequences of sunflower breeding genotypes (inbred lines, hybrids) was investigated. Allelic composition on 8 SSR loci is unique characteristic of every analysed genotype allowing their identification. Microsatellite markers are proposed to be used for definition of line genetic purity and of F1 seeds hybridity range. PMID:15131964

  11. Considerations for marker-assisted selection in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) offers considerable promise but requires careful planning. Among the first DNA markers used for peanut improvement were wild species-derived alleles for nematode resistance, now being combined with the high-oleic trait. These are screened as qualitative traits. Thes...

  12. The effect of wild card designations and rare alleles in forensic DNA database searches.

    PubMed

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Bright, Jo-Anne; Buckleton, John S; Curran, James M; Morling, Niels

    2015-05-01

    Forensic DNA databases are powerful tools used for the identification of persons of interest in criminal investigations. Typically, they consist of two parts: (1) a database containing DNA profiles of known individuals and (2) a database of DNA profiles associated with crime scenes. The risk of adventitious or chance matches between crimes and innocent people increases as the number of profiles within a database grows and more data is shared between various forensic DNA databases, e.g. from different jurisdictions. The DNA profiles obtained from crime scenes are often partial because crime samples may be compromised in quantity or quality. When an individual's profile cannot be resolved from a DNA mixture, ambiguity is introduced. A wild card, F, may be used in place of an allele that has dropped out or when an ambiguous profile is resolved from a DNA mixture. Variant alleles that do not correspond to any marker in the allelic ladder or appear above or below the extent of the allelic ladder range are assigned the allele designation R for rare allele. R alleles are position specific with respect to the observed/unambiguous allele. The F and R designations are made when the exact genotype has not been determined. The F and R designation are treated as wild cards for searching, which results in increased chance of adventitious matches. We investigated the probability of adventitious matches given these two types of wild cards. PMID:25576850

  13. Parental attributions and parental involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stelios N. Georgiou; Anna Tourva

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the existing relation between parental attributions of their child’s achievement, their belief in getting\\u000a involved in the child’s educational process and their actual behavior regarding this involvement. The participating parents\\u000a (N = 313) were asked to complete the Parental Attributions Scale and the Parental Involvement Scale. They were also asked to\\u000a state to what degree they believed that parents

  14. Genetic analysis and molecular characterization of Chinese sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars using Insertion-Deletion (InDel) and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sesame is an important and ancient oil crop in tropical and subtropical areas. China is one of the most important sesame producing countries with many germplasm accessions and excellent cultivars. Domestication and modern plant breeding have presumably narrowed the genetic basis of cultivated sesame. Several modern sesame cultivars were bred with a limited number of landrace cultivars in their pedigree. The genetic variation was subsequently reduced by genetic drift and selection. Characterization of genetic diversity of these cultivars by molecular markers is of great value to assist parental line selection and breeding strategy design. Results Three hundred and forty nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 79 insertion-deletion (InDel) markers were developed from cDNA library and reduced-representation sequencing of a sesame cultivar Zhongzhi 14, respectively. Combined with previously published SSR markers, 88 polymorphic markers were used to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships, population structure, and allele distribution among 130 Chinese sesame accessions including 82 cultivars, 44 landraces and 4 wild germplasm accessions. A total of 325 alleles were detected, with the average gene diversity of 0.432. Model-based structure analysis revealed the presence of five subgroups belonging to two main groups, which were consistent with the results from principal coordinate analysis (PCA), phylogenetic clustering and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Several missing or unique alleles were identified from particular types, subgroups or families, even though they share one or both parental/progenitor lines. Conclusions This report presented a by far most comprehensive characterization of the molecular and genetic diversity of sesame cultivars in China. InDels are more polymorphic than SSRs, but their ability for deciphering genetic diversity compared to the later. Improved sesame cultivars have narrower genetic basis than landraces, reflecting the effect of genetic drift or selection during breeding processes. Comparative analysis of allele distribution revealed genetic divergence between improved cultivars and landraces, as well as between cultivars released in different years. These results will be useful for assessing cultivars and for marker-assisted breeding in sesame. PMID:24641723

  15. Microsatellite markers associated with two Aegilops tauschii-derived greenbug resistance loci in wheat.

    PubMed

    Weng, Y; Li, W; Devkota, R N; Rudd, J C

    2005-02-01

    A new source of greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) resistance derived from Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmal was identified in W7984, a synthetic hexaploid wheat line and one parent of the International Triticeae Mapping Initiative (ITMI) mapping population. Segregation analysis of responses to greenbug feeding in a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) identified a single, dominant gene governing the greenbug resistance in W7984, which was placed in chromosome arm 7DL by linkage analysis with molecular markers in the ITMI population. Allelism tests based on the segregation of responses to greenbug feeding in F2 and testcross plants revealed that the greenbug resistance in W7984 and Largo, another synthetic line carrying the greenbug resistance gene Gb3, was controlled by different but linked loci. Using the ITMI reference map and a target mapping strategy, we have constructed a microsatellite map of Gb3 in a mapping population of 130 F7 RILs from Largo x TAM 107 and identified one marker (Xwmc634) co-segregating with Gb3 and four markers (Xbarc76, Xgwm037, Xgwm428 and Xwmc824) closely linked with Gb3. Deletion mapping of selected microsatellite markers flanking the Gb3 locus placed this resistance gene into the distal 18% region of 7DL. Comparative mapping in the ITMI and Largo x TAM 107 populations using the same set of microsatellite markers provided further evidence that greenbug resistance in W7984 and Largo is conditioned by two different loci. We suggest that the greenbug resistance gene in W7984 be designated Gb7. The microsatellite map of Gb3 constructed from this study should be a valuable tool for marker-assisted selection of Gb3-conferred greenbug resistance in wheat breeding. PMID:15592809

  16. Molecular inversion probe assay for allelic quantitation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hanlee; Welch, Katrina

    2010-01-01

    Molecular inversion probe (MIP) technology has been demonstrated to be a robust platform for large-scale dual genotyping and copy number analysis. Applications in human genomic and genetic studies include the possibility of running dual germline genotyping and combined copy number variation ascertainment. MIPs analyze large numbers of specific genetic target sequences in parallel, relying on interrogation of a barcode tag, rather than direct hybridization of genomic DNA to an array. The MIP approach does not replace, but is complementary to many of the copy number technologies being performed today. Some specific advantages of MIP technology include: Less DNA required (37 ng vs. 250 ng), DNA quality less important, more dynamic range (amplifications detected up to copy number 60), allele specific information “cleaner” (less SNP crosstalk/contamination), and quality of markers better (fewer individual MIPs versus SNPs needed to identify copy number changes). MIPs can be considered a candidate gene (targeted whole genome) approach and can find specific areas of interest that otherwise may be missed with other methods. PMID:19488872

  17. Parent Involvement

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    To be successful, a 4-H program must have parent involvement. Although 4-H leaders and Extension agents may interest young people in becoming members, they need the parents' goodwill and support to keep them interested, enthusiastic and active. Here...

  18. Estimating African American Admixture Proportions by Use of Population-Specific Alleles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esteban J. Parra; Amy Marcini; Joshua Akey; Jeremy Martinson; Mark A. Batzer; Richard Cooper; Terrence Forrester; David B. Allison; Ranjan Deka; Robert E. Ferrell; Mark D. Shriver

    1998-01-01

    Summary We analyzed the European genetic contribution to 10 populations of African descent in the United States (Maywood, Illinois; Detroit; New York; Philadelphia; Pittsburgh; Baltimore; Charleston, South Carolina; New Orleans; and Houston) and in Jamaica, using nine au- tosomal DNA markers. These markers either are pop- ulation-specific or show frequency differences 145% be- tween the parental populations and are thus

  19. Always look on both sides: Phylogenetic information conveyed by simple sequence repeat allele sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are widely used tools for inferences about genetic diversity, phylogeography and spatial genetic structure. Their applications assume that variation among alleles is essentially caused by an expansion or contraction of the number of repeats and that, accessorily,...

  20. Laurie Marker

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dragonfly TV

    Laurie Marker founded the Cheetah Conservation Fund in Namibia so that she, along with the help of other scientists, can research, breed, protect, live with, and lecture about the highly endangered cheetah.

  1. Tumor Markers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Understanding Your Diagnosis » Exams and Test Descriptions » Tumor Markers Share this Page Close Push escape to close ... To Treatment Online Support Communities WhatNext ACS Events Making Strides Against Breast Cancer Walks Coaches vs. Cancer ...

  2. Genomic analysis of hybrid rice varieties reveals numerous superior alleles that contribute to heterosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xuehui; Yang, Shihua; Gong, Junyi; Zhao, Yan; Feng, Qi; Gong, Hao; Li, Wenjun; Zhan, Qilin; Cheng, Benyi; Xia, Junhui; Chen, Neng; Hao, Zhongna; Liu, Kunyan; Zhu, Chuanrang; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Danlin; Zhou, Congcong; Lu, Yiqi; Weng, Qijun; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Li, Jiayang; Han, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of heterosis is one of the most important applications of genetics in agriculture. However, the genetic mechanisms of heterosis are only partly understood, and a global view of heterosis from a representative number of hybrid combinations is lacking. Here we develop an integrated genomic approach to construct a genome map for 1,495 elite hybrid rice varieties and their inbred parental lines. We investigate 38 agronomic traits and identify 130 associated loci. In-depth analyses of the effects of heterozygous genotypes reveal that there are only a few loci with strong overdominance effects in hybrids, but a strong correlation is observed between the yield and the number of superior alleles. While most parental inbred lines have only a small number of superior alleles, high-yielding hybrid varieties have several. We conclude that the accumulation of numerous rare superior alleles with positive dominance is an important contributor to the heterotic phenomena. PMID:25651972

  3. Genomic analysis of hybrid rice varieties reveals numerous superior alleles that contribute to heterosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuehui; Yang, Shihua; Gong, Junyi; Zhao, Yan; Feng, Qi; Gong, Hao; Li, Wenjun; Zhan, Qilin; Cheng, Benyi; Xia, Junhui; Chen, Neng; Hao, Zhongna; Liu, Kunyan; Zhu, Chuanrang; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Danlin; Zhou, Congcong; Lu, Yiqi; Weng, Qijun; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Li, Jiayang; Han, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of heterosis is one of the most important applications of genetics in agriculture. However, the genetic mechanisms of heterosis are only partly understood, and a global view of heterosis from a representative number of hybrid combinations is lacking. Here we develop an integrated genomic approach to construct a genome map for 1,495 elite hybrid rice varieties and their inbred parental lines. We investigate 38 agronomic traits and identify 130 associated loci. In-depth analyses of the effects of heterozygous genotypes reveal that there are only a few loci with strong overdominance effects in hybrids, but a strong correlation is observed between the yield and the number of superior alleles. While most parental inbred lines have only a small number of superior alleles, high-yielding hybrid varieties have several. We conclude that the accumulation of numerous rare superior alleles with positive dominance is an important contributor to the heterotic phenomena. PMID:25651972

  4. [Association of microsatellite loci alleles of the group-5 chromosomes with frost resistance of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Halaieva, M V; Fa?t, V I; Chebotar, S V; Halaiev, O V; Syvolap, Iu M

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of frost resistance and microsatellite analysis of the group-5 chromosomes were performed on parental varieties and recombinant-inbred lines F7 Luzanovka odesskaya/Odesskaya krasnokolosaya. Allelic differences for Xcfd7-5B Xwmc415-5B and Xgwm 182-5D microsatellite loci were associated with the level of frost resistance of the lines. PMID:24228492

  5. Inheritance and dominance of self-incompatibility alleles in polyploid Arabidopsis lyrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B K Mable; J Beland; C Di Berardo

    2004-01-01

    Natural populations of diploid Arabidopsis lyrata exhibit the sporophytic type of self-incompatibility system characteristic of Brassicaceae, in which complicated dominance interactions among alleles in the diploid parent determine self-recognition phenotypes of both pollen and stigma. The purpose of this study was to investigate how polyploidy affects this already complex system. One tetraploid population (Arabidopsis lyrata ssp kawasakiana from Japan) showed

  6. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) Markers for Human Gene Mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuke Nakamura; Mark Leppert; Peter O'Connell; Roger Wolff; Tom Holm; Melanie Culver; Cindy Martin; Esther Fujimoto; Mark Hoff; Erika Kumlin; Ray White

    1987-01-01

    A large collection of good genetic markers is needed to map the genes that cause human genetic diseases. Although nearly 400 polymorphic DNA markers for human chromosomes have been described, the majority have only two alleles and are thus uninformative for analysis of genetic linkage in many families. A few known marker systems, however, detect loci that respond to restriction

  7. Multiple null alleles at a polymorphic SSR-locus in a large-scale population study: Structure and geographic distribution in chum salmon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymorphic DNA markers, e.g. mini- or microsatellite (SSR) loci, are often removed from data analyses if an excess of homozygosity, presumably an indication of null alleles, is observed. However, exclusion of such loci can reduce available information if multiple loci carry null alleles. Because nu...

  8. SNP-specific array-based allele-specific expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bjornsson, Hans T.; Albert, Thomas J.; Ladd-Acosta, Christine M.; Green, Roland D.; Rongione, Michael A.; Middle, Christina M.; Irizarry, Rafael A.; Broman, Karl W.; Feinberg, Andrew P.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an optimized array-based approach for customizable allele-specific gene expression (ASE) analysis. The central features of the approach are the ability to select SNPs at will for detection, and the absence of need to PCR amplify the target. A surprisingly long probe length (39–49 nt) was needed for allelic discrimination. Reconstitution experiments demonstrate linearity of ASE over a broad range. Using this approach, we have discovered at least two novel imprinted genes, NLRP2, which encodes a member of the inflammasome, and OSBPL1A, which encodes a presumed oxysterol-binding protein, were both preferentially expressed from the maternal allele. In contrast, ERAP2, which encodes an aminopeptidase, did not show preferential parent-of-origin expression, but rather, cis-acting nonimprinted differential allelic control. The approach is scalable to the whole genome and can be used for discovery of functional epigenetic modifications in patient samples. PMID:18369178

  9. Published in: Plant Mol. Biol. (2005) 58:295-303 Relationship between allelic state of T-DNA and DNA methylation of

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Published in: Plant Mol. Biol. (2005) 58:295-303 Relationship between allelic state of T that it is correlated with the allelic state of the T-DNA in parental lines. Analysis of the region between the T, and chromatin remodeling appeared to play a key function in epigenetic control in various organisms (Li et al

  10. Maximum likelihood estimation of individual inbreeding coefficients and null allele frequencies.

    PubMed

    Hall, Nathan; Mercer, Laina; Phillips, Daisy; Shaw, Jonathan; Anderson, Amy D

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we developed and compared several expectation-maximization (EM) algorithms to find maximum likelihood estimates of individual inbreeding coefficients using molecular marker information. The first method estimates the inbreeding coefficient for a single individual and assumes that allele frequencies are known without error. The second method jointly estimates inbreeding coefficients and allele frequencies for a set of individuals that have been genotyped at several loci. The third method generalizes the second method to include the case in which null alleles may be present. In particular, it is able to jointly estimate individual inbreeding coefficients and allele frequencies, including the frequencies of null alleles, and accounts for missing data. We compared our methods with several other estimation procedures using simulated data and found that our methods perform well. The maximum likelihood estimators consistently gave among the lowest root-mean-square-error (RMSE) of all the estimators that were compared. Our estimator that accounts for null alleles performed particularly well and was able to tease apart the effects of null alleles, randomly missing genotypes and differing degrees of inbreeding among members of the datasets we analysed. To illustrate the performance of our estimators, we analysed previously published datasets on mice (Mus musculus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). PMID:22805896

  11. Diversity of sequences and expression patterns among alleles of a sugarcane loading stem gene.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Richard L; Birch, Robert G

    2013-07-01

    Modern sugarcane cultivars are highly polyploid and aneuploid hybrids, which are propagated as clones. Their complex genome structure comprises 100-130 chromosomes and 10-13 hom(e)ologous copies of most loci. There is preliminary evidence of very high heterozygosity, with implications for genetic improvement approaches ranging from marker-assisted selection to transgenics. Here, we report that sugarcane cultivar Q200 has at least nine alleles at the Loading Stem Gene (ScLSG) locus. Exon-intron structure is identical and the predicted protein products show at least 92 % identity, across sugarcane alleles and the Sorghum homologue Sb07g027880. There is substantial variation in the 5' UTR and promoter regions including numerous allele-specific nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions and deletions. We developed an allele-specific qRT-PCR method to undertake the first compelling test of allele-specific expression in polyploid sugarcane. Seven alleles distinguished by this method all showed peak expression in the sucrose-loading zone of the stem, but there was apparent variability in expression patterns across other tissues. The ScLSG2 and ScLSG5 alleles appear promising for specificity of expression in stems, relative to leaf, meristem, emerging shoot and root tissues. Within the stem, there was activity in parenchyma, vascular and rind tissues. This expression pattern is of interest in basic research and biotechnology aimed at enhanced sucrose content, engineering value-added products, and manipulation of stem biomass composition. PMID:23546592

  12. Allelic Differences within and among Sister Spores of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus etunicatum Suggest Segregation at Sporulation

    PubMed Central

    St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are root-inhabiting fungi that form mutualistic symbioses with their host plants. AMF are made up of coenocytic networks of hyphae through which nuclei and organelles can freely migrate. In this study, we investigated the possibility of a genetic bottleneck and segregation of allelic variation at sporulation for a low-copy Polymerase1-like gene, PLS. Specifically, our objectives were (1) to estimate what allelic diversity is passed on to a single spore (2) to determine whether this diversity is less than the total amount of variation found in all spores (3) to investigate whether there is any differential segregation of allelic variation. We inoculated three tomato plants with a single spore of Glomus etunicatum each and after six months sampled between two and three daughter spores per tomato plant. Pyrosequencing PLS amplicons in eight spores revealed high levels of allelic diversity; between 43 and 152 alleles per spore. We corroborated the spore pyrosequencing results with Sanger- and pyrosequenced allele distributions from the original parent isolate. Both sequencing methods retrieved the most abundant alleles from the offspring spore allele distributions. Our results indicate that individual spores contain only a subset of the total allelic variation from the pooled spores and parent isolate. Patterns of allele diversity between spores suggest the possibility for segregation of PLS alleles among spores. We conclude that a genetic bottleneck could potentially occur during sporulation in AMF, with resulting differences in genetic variation among sister spores. We suggest that the effects of this bottleneck may be countered by anastomosis (hyphal fusion) between related hyphae. PMID:24386173

  13. Identification of linkage phase by parental genotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenovich, T.I. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-08-01

    The possibility of using the phenotypic characteristics of parents for identifying the linkage phase in offspring is analyzed. It is demonstrated that parents with similar phenotypes (or marker genotypes) carry no information about the gene linkage phase in diheterozygous offspring. The probability of a certain linkage phase remains the same in all informative crossings. It depends on the model of inheritance of the analyzed alternative trait and is similar for di- and polyallelic markers. The frequencies of informative crossings and the probability of the linkage phase for different models of inheritance of the analyzed and marker traits are estimated. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. [Parenting styles].

    PubMed

    Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes

    2008-02-01

    Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices. PMID:18206067

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure among pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars as revealed by simple sequence repeat and novel genic markers.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Ajay; Mamidi, Sujan; McPhee, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important cool season legume crop widely grown around the world. This research provides a basis for selection of pea germplasm across geographical regions in current and future breeding and genetic mapping efforts for pea improvement. Eleven novel genic markers were developed from pea expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences having significant similarity with gene calls from Medicago truncatula spanning at least one intron. In this study, 96 cultivars widely grown or used in breeding programs in the USA and Canada were analyzed for genetic diversity using 31 microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 11 novel EST-derived genic markers. The polymorphic information content varied from 0.01-0.56 among SSR markers and 0.04-0.43 among genic markers. The results showed that SSR and EST-derived genic markers displayed one or more highly reproducible, multi-allelic, and easy to score loci ranging from 200 to 700 bp in size. Genetic diversity was assessed through unweighted neighbor-joining method, and 96 varieties were grouped into three main clusters based on the dissimilarity matrix. Four subpopulations were determined through STRUCTURE analysis with no significant geographic separation of the subpopulations. The findings of the present study can be used to select diverse genotypes to be used as parents of crosses aimed for breeding improved pea cultivars. PMID:24894738

  16. Cost-effective genome-wide estimation of allele frequencies from pooled DNA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background New sequencing technologies have tremendously increased the number of known molecular markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) in a variety of species. Concurrently, improvements to genotyping technology have now made it possible to efficiently genotype large numbers of genome-wide distributed SNPs enabling genome wide association studies (GWAS). However, genotyping significant numbers of individuals with large number of SNPs remains prohibitively expensive for many research groups. A possible solution to this problem is to determine allele frequencies from pooled DNA samples, such ‘allelotyping’ has been presented as a cost-effective alternative to individual genotyping and has become popular in human GWAS. In this article we have tested the effectiveness of DNA pooling to obtain accurate allele frequency estimates for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations using an Illumina SNP-chip. Results In total, 56 Atlantic salmon DNA pools from 14 populations were analyzed on an Atlantic salmon SNP-chip containing probes for 5568 SNP markers, 3928 of which were bi-allelic. We developed an efficient quality control filter which enables exclusion of loci showing high error rate and minor allele frequency (MAF) close to zero. After applying multiple quality control filters we obtained allele frequency estimates for 3631 bi-allelic loci. We observed high concordance (r > 0.99) between allele frequency estimates derived from individual genotyping and DNA pools. Our results also indicate that even relatively small DNA pools (35 individuals) can provide accurate allele frequency estimates for a given sample. Conclusions Despite of higher level of variation associated with array replicates compared to pool construction, we suggest that both sources of variation should be taken into account. This study demonstrates that DNA pooling allows fast and high-throughput determination of allele frequencies in Atlantic salmon enabling cost-efficient identification of informative markers for discrimination of populations at various geographical scales, as well as identification of loci controlling ecologically and economically important traits. PMID:23324082

  17. Multiple Origins of Plasmodium falciparum Dihydropteroate Synthetase Mutant Alleles Associated with Sulfadoxine Resistance in India?†

    PubMed Central

    Lumb, Vanshika; Das, Manoj K.; Singh, Neeru; Dev, Vas; Khan, Wajihullah; Sharma, Yagya D.

    2011-01-01

    With the spread of chloroquine (CQ)-resistant malaria in India, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) alone or in combination with artesunate is used as an alternative antimalarial drug. Due to continuous drug pressure, the Plasmodium falciparum parasite is exhibiting resistance to antifolates because of mutations in candidate genes dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps). Our earlier study on flanking microsatellite markers of dhfr mutant alleles from India had shown a single origin of the pyrimethamine resistance and some minor haplotypes which shared haplotypes with Southeast Asian (Thailand) strains. In the present study, we have analyzed 193 of these Indian P. falciparum isolates for 15 microsatellite loci around dhps to investigate the genetic lineages of the mutant dhps alleles in different parts of the country. Eighty-one of these samples had mutant dhps alleles, of which 62 were from Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the remaining 19 were from mainland India. Of 112 isolates with a wild-type dhps allele, 109 were from mainland India and only 3 were from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Consistent with the model of selection, the mean expected heterozygosity (He) around mutant dhps alleles (He = 0.55; n = 81) associated with sulfadoxine resistance was lower (P ? 0.05) than the mean He around the wild-type dhps allele (He = 0.80; n = 112). There was more genetic diversity in flanking microsatellites of dhps than dhfr among these isolates, which confirms the assertion that dhps mutations are at a very early stage of fixation in the parasite population. Microsatellite haplotypes around various mutant dhps alleles suggest that the resistant dhps alleles have multiple independent origins in India, especially in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Determining the genetic lineages of the resistant dhps alleles on Andaman and Nicobar Islands and mainland India is significant, given the role of Asia in the intercontinental spread of chloroquine- and pyrimethamine-resistant parasites in the past. PMID:21422213

  18. HLA-DRB1*13:01 allele in the genetic susceptibility to colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aureli, Anna; Canossi, Angelica; Del Beato, Tiziana; Franceschilli, Luana; Buonomo, Oreste; Papola, Franco; De Sanctis, Flavio; Lanzilli, Giulia; Sileri, Pierpaolo; Coppola, Andrea; Caratelli, Sara; Arriga, Roberto; Orlandi, Augusto; Lauro, Davide; Rossi, Piero; Sconocchia, Giuseppe

    2015-05-15

    Increasing evidence suggests that HLA-DRB1 alleles reduce or increase the risk of developing ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal carcinoma (CRC) tumors. However, the role of HLA-DRB1 locus on the susceptibility to develop CRC tumor, in the absence of a history of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether HLA-DRB1 alleles are associated with IBD-independent CRC tumor. HLA-DRB1 allele polymorphisms were identified by sequence-based typing method in 53 CRC patients and 57 sex- and age-matched healthy Caucasian controls. Pearson's chi-squared analysis with Yate's correction or Fisher's exact test with Bonferroni's correction, as appropriate, were used to compare the allele frequency (AF) differences of HLA-DRB1 in patients and controls. A total of 29 HLA-DRB1 alleles were recognized. A detailed study of these alleles allowed to identify DRB1*13:01 and DRB1*11:01 alleles that were significantly associated with an increased and reduced risk to develop CRC tumor, respectively. AF of DRB1*13:01, in CRC patients, was significantly higher than that of healthy controls, even following Bonferroni's correction (p?=?0.029). In contrast, the presence of the DRB1*11:01 allele was negatively associated with CRC tumor as evidenced by the significantly lower AF in CRC patients than that of healthy controls (p?=?0.005). However, following Bonferroni's correction, the AF of DRB*11:01 lost its statistical significance. These results suggest that HLA-DRB1*13:01 allele could be a potential marker for predicting genetic susceptibility to CRC tumor. In contrast, the protective role of DRB1*11:01 remains unclear. PMID:25346274

  19. Inferring Selection Intensity and Allele Age from Multilocus Haplotype Structure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    It is a challenging task to infer selection intensity and allele age from population genetic data. Here we present a method that can efficiently estimate selection intensity and allele age from the multilocus haplotype structure in the vicinity of a segregating mutant under positive selection. We use a structured-coalescent approach to model the effect of directional selection on the gene genealogies of neutral markers linked to the selected mutant. The frequency trajectory of the selected allele follows the Wright-Fisher model. Given the position of the selected mutant, we propose a simplified multilocus haplotype model that can efficiently model the dynamics of the ancestral haplotypes under the joint influence of selection and recombination. This model approximates the ancestral genealogies of the sample, which reduces the number of states from an exponential function of the number of single-nucleotide polymorphism loci to a quadratic function. That allows parameter inference from data covering DNA regions as large as several hundred kilo-bases. Importance sampling algorithms are adopted to evaluate the probability of a sample by exploring the space of both allele frequency trajectories of the selected mutation and gene genealogies of the linked sites. We demonstrate by simulation that the method can accurately estimate selection intensity for moderate and strong positive selection. We apply the method to a data set of the G6PD gene in an African population and obtain an estimate of 0.0456 (95% confidence interval 0.0144?0.0769) for the selection intensity. The proposed method is novel in jointly modeling the multilocus haplotype pattern caused by recombination and mutation, allowing the analysis of haplotype data in recombining regions. Moreover, the method is applicable to data from populations under exponential growth and a variety of other demographic histories. PMID:23797107

  20. Analyses of a multi-parent population derived from two diverse alfalfa germplasms: testcross evaluations and phenotype-DNA associations.

    PubMed

    Maureira-Butler, I J; Udall, J A; Osborn, T C

    2007-10-01

    In a previous study, we showed that the genetic variation present in the Medicago sativa subsp. sativa Peruvian and M. sativa subsp. falcata WISFAL germplasms could be used to improve forage yields when favorable alleles were recombined and used in hybrid combination with cultivated alfalfa. In this paper, we present testcross forage yield and fall growth data for two seasons of a C0 population generated after intermating the Peruvian x WISFAL population for several generations. In addition, we conducted marker-trait association analysis as an attempt to identify Peruvian and WISFAL genomics regions affecting the targeted traits. Five and seven genomic regions were found significantly associated with forage yield and fall growth, respectively. In the case of fall growth, alleles from both accessions were positively associated with plant height. However, more alleles from WISFAL were positively associated with forage yield than from Peruvian. WISFAL is known for its winter hardiness and genomic regions with large effects on winter survival may have masked the effect of forage yield from Peruvian. The fact that most of the genomic regions discovered in this study have been previously associated with traits involved in winter hardiness validates our findings and suggests that associations between DNA fragments and agronomic traits can be detected without the necessity of developing bi-parental mapping populations. PMID:17676305

  1. Historical events and allelic polymorphism at the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus in Solanaceae.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y

    2006-01-01

    The historical migration rate of a species is often difficult to estimate with neutral markers, because the relationship between the turnover time of the markers and the age of the species commonly remains unknown. Compared with neutral markers, the plant self-incompatibility locus (S) provides a much better source of data for migration-rate estimation due to its high allelic polymorphism and antiquity. Here, the results from extensive surveys of S alleles in two wild solanaceous species, Solanum carolinense and Physalis longifolia, indicate that historical migration rates have differed significantly between the species; the higher migration rate found in S. carolinense appears to have interacted with the balancing selection at the S locus to result in fewer S alleles being maintained in the species. Historical population growth rates estimated via a modified coalescent approach also suggest a faster growing population for S. carolinense than for P. longifolia, which would have further widened their interspecific difference in S-allelle polymorphism. These historical factors may have reduced the probability of new S alleles to prevailing in S. carolinense, leaving old ones segregating at the S locus with little signature of positive selection being currently detectable. PMID:16189546

  2. Allelic Variation in a Willow Warbler Genomic Region Is Associated with Climate Clines

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Keith W.; Liedvogel, Miriam; Addison, BriAnne; Kleven, Oddmund; Laskemoen, Terje; Lifjeld, Jan T.; Lundberg, Max; Åkesson, Susanne; Bensch, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Local adaptation is an important process contributing to population differentiation which can occur in continuous or isolated populations connected by various amounts of gene flow. The willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) is one of the most common songbirds in Fennoscandia. It has a continuous breeding distribution where it is found in all forested habitats from sea level to the tree line and therefore constitutes an ideal species for the study of locally adapted genes associated with environmental gradients. Previous studies in this species identified a genetic marker (AFLP-WW1) that showed a steep north-south cline in central Sweden with one allele associated with coastal lowland habitats and the other with mountainous habitats. It was further demonstrated that this marker is embedded in a highly differentiated chromosome region that spans several megabases. In the present study, we sampled 2,355 individuals at 128 sites across all of Fennoscandia to study the geographic and climatic variables associated with the allele frequency distributions of WW1. Our results demonstrate that 1) allele frequency patterns significantly differ between mountain and lowland populations, 2) these allele differences coincide with extreme temperature conditions and the short growing season in the mountains, and milder conditions in coastal areas, and 3) the northern-allele or “altitude variant” of WW1 occurs in willow warblers that occupy mountainous habitat regardless of subspecies. Finally these results suggest that climate may exert selection on the genomic region associated with these alleles and would allow us to develop testable predictions for the distribution of the genetic marker based on climate change scenarios. PMID:24788148

  3. Allelic variation in a willow warbler genomic region is associated with climate clines.

    PubMed

    Larson, Keith W; Liedvogel, Miriam; Addison, Brianne; Kleven, Oddmund; Laskemoen, Terje; Lifjeld, Jan T; Lundberg, Max; Akesson, Susanne; Bensch, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Local adaptation is an important process contributing to population differentiation which can occur in continuous or isolated populations connected by various amounts of gene flow. The willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) is one of the most common songbirds in Fennoscandia. It has a continuous breeding distribution where it is found in all forested habitats from sea level to the tree line and therefore constitutes an ideal species for the study of locally adapted genes associated with environmental gradients. Previous studies in this species identified a genetic marker (AFLP-WW1) that showed a steep north-south cline in central Sweden with one allele associated with coastal lowland habitats and the other with mountainous habitats. It was further demonstrated that this marker is embedded in a highly differentiated chromosome region that spans several megabases. In the present study, we sampled 2,355 individuals at 128 sites across all of Fennoscandia to study the geographic and climatic variables associated with the allele frequency distributions of WW1. Our results demonstrate that 1) allele frequency patterns significantly differ between mountain and lowland populations, 2) these allele differences coincide with extreme temperature conditions and the short growing season in the mountains, and milder conditions in coastal areas, and 3) the northern-allele or "altitude variant" of WW1 occurs in willow warblers that occupy mountainous habitat regardless of subspecies. Finally these results suggest that climate may exert selection on the genomic region associated with these alleles and would allow us to develop testable predictions for the distribution of the genetic marker based on climate change scenarios. PMID:24788148

  4. Cumulative-genetic plasticity, parenting and adolescent self-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Jay; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The capacity to control or regulate one’s emotions, cognitions and behavior is central to competent functioning, with limitations in these abilities associated with developmental problems. Parenting appears to influence such self-regulation. Here the differential-susceptibility hypothesis is tested that the more putative ‘plasticity alleles’ adolescents carry, the more positively and negatively influenced they will be by, respectively, supportive and unsupportive parenting. Methods One thousand, five hundred and eighty-six (1586) adolescents (n = 754 males; n = 832 females) enrolled in the American Add Health project were scored in terms of how many of 5 putative ‘plasticity alleles’ they carried – the 10R allele of DAT1, the A1 allele of DRD2, the 7R allele of DRD4, the short allele of 5HTTLPR, and the 2R/3R alleles of MAOA. Then the effect of the resultant index (ranging from 0 to 5) of cumulative-genetic plasticity in moderating effects of parenting on adolescent self-regulation was evaluated. Results Consistent with differential susceptibility, the more plasticity alleles males (but not females) carried, the more and less self-regulation they manifested under, respectively, supportive and unsupportive parenting conditions. Conclusion Adolescent males appear to vary for genetic reasons in their susceptibility to parenting vis-à-vis self-regulation, perhaps due to epistatic and/or epigenetic processes. G×E research may benefit from compositing candidate genes. To afford comparative evaluation of differential-susceptibility vs. diathesis-stress models of environmental action, future G×E work should focus on positive as well as negative environmental conditions and developmental outcomes. PMID:21039487

  5. Teen Parents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pregnancy—one in six, at last count. Parents of the parent-to-be play an important role in ensuring the unborn child’s well-being. Keep an eye out for signs of tobacco use, drinking, taking drugs and reckless sexual ...

  6. Valuing Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Eugenia Proctor

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a young faculty member commented that e-mail and inexpensive long distance rates were hampering her first-year students' development by making it too easy for them to stay in touch with their parents. Similarly, Judith Shapiro, president of Barnard College, argued in her August 22, 2002, New York Times op-ed piece, "Keeping Parents Off…

  7. Novel Method for Analysis of Allele Specific Expression in Triploid Oryzias latipes Reveals Consistent Pattern of Allele Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Tzintzuni I.; Matos, Isa; Shen, Yingjia; Pabuwal, Vagmita; Coelho, Maria Manuela; Wakamatsu, Yuko; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing allele-specific gene expression (ASE) on a large scale continues to be a technically challenging problem. Certain biological phenomena, such as X chromosome inactivation and parental imprinting, affect ASE most drastically by completely shutting down the expression of a whole set of alleles. Other more subtle effects on ASE are likely to be much more complex and dependent on the genetic environment and are perhaps more important to understand since they may be responsible for a significant amount of biological diversity. Tools to assess ASE in a diploid biological system are becoming more reliable. Non-diploid systems are, however, not uncommon. In humans full or partial polyploid states are regularly found in both healthy (meiotic cells, polynucleated cell types) and diseased tissues (trisomies, non-disjunction events, cancerous tissues). In this work we have studied ASE in the medaka fish model system. We have developed a method for determining ASE in polyploid organisms from RNAseq data and we have implemented this method in a software tool set. As a biological model system we have used nuclear transplantation to experimentally produce artificial triploid medaka composed of three different haplomes. We measured ASE in RNA isolated from the livers of two adult, triploid medaka fish that showed a high degree of similarity. The majority of genes examined (82%) shared expression more or less evenly among the three alleles in both triploids. The rest of the genes (18%) displayed a wide range of ASE levels. Interestingly the majority of genes (78%) displayed generally consistent ASE levels in both triploid individuals. A large contingent of these genes had the same allele entirely suppressed in both triploids. When viewed in a chromosomal context, it is revealed that these genes are from large sections of 4 chromosomes and may be indicative of some broad scale suppression of gene expression. PMID:24945156

  8. Analysis of forensically used autosomal short tandem repeat markers in Polish and neighboring populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ireneusz Soltyszewski; Andrzej Plocienniczak; Hans Åke Fabricius; Igor Kornienko; Dmitrij Vodolazhsky; Walther Parson; Roman Hradil; Hermann Schmitter; Pavel Ivanov; Piotr Kuzniar; Boris A. Malyarchuk; Tomasz Grzybowski; Marcin Wo?niak; J?rgen Henke; Lotte Henke; Sergiv Olkhovets; Vladimir Voitenko; Vita Lagus; Andrej Ficek; Gabriel Minárik; Peter de Knijff; Krzysztof R?ba?a; Joanna Wysocka; Ewa Kapi?ska; Lidia Cybulska; Alexei I. Mikulich; Iosif S. Tsybovsky; Zofia Szczerkowska; Pawe? Krajewski; Rafa? Ploski

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the homogeneity of Polish populations with respect to STRs chosen as core markers of the Polish Forensic National DNA Intelligence Database, and to provide reference allele frequencies and to explore the genetic interrelationship between Poland and neighboring countries. The allele frequency distribution of 10 STRs included in the SGMplus kit was analyzed

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT MARKERS FOR THE PLANT PATHOGENIC RUST FUNGUS, PUCCINIA TRITICINA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen polymorphic di- and trinucleotide simple sequence repeat markers were developed for the phytopathogenic rust fungus, Puccinia triticina. The allelic diversity varied from 2 to 9 alleles per locus. Levels of observed heterozygosity (HO) ranged from 0.095 to 0.952. Seven of the loci deviated ...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT MARKERS FOR THE PLANT PATHOGENIC RUST FUNGUS, PUCCINIA GRAMINIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four dinucleotide simple sequence repeat markers were developed for the phytopathogenic fungus, Puccinia graminis. The identified loci were polymorphic, with allelic diversity ranging from 2 to 11 alleles. Levels of heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 0.960 and 0.113 to 0.846 for observed and...

  11. An association between Manic-depressive illness and a pseudoautosomal DNA marker

    SciTech Connect

    Yoneda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Toshiaki; Ishida, Toru; Inayama, Yasuhiro; Nonomura, Yasuhiro; Kono, Yoshihiro; Asaba, Hiroyuki (Osaka Medical Center (Japan))

    1992-11-01

    This article reports on the association between manic-depressive illness and a polymorphic DNA marker in the pseudoautosomal region (Xp22.32; Yp11.3). The authors studied two markers in 49 biologically unrelated patients and 119 normal controls. Probe 362A (DXYS20) identified four alleles. Frequencies of the A4 allele were significantly higher in patients than in controls. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Prediction of heterosis using genome-wide SNP-marker data: application to egg production traits in white Leghorn crosses

    PubMed Central

    Amuzu-Aweh, E N; Bijma, P; Kinghorn, B P; Vereijken, A; Visscher, J; van Arendonk, J AM; Bovenhuis, H

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of heterosis has a long history with mixed success, partly due to low numbers of genetic markers and/or small data sets. We investigated the prediction of heterosis for egg number, egg weight and survival days in domestic white Leghorns, using ?400?000 individuals from 47 crosses and allele frequencies on ?53?000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). When heterosis is due to dominance, and dominance effects are independent of allele frequencies, heterosis is proportional to the squared difference in allele frequency (SDAF) between parental pure lines (not necessarily homozygous). Under these assumptions, a linear model including regression on SDAF partitions crossbred phenotypes into pure-line values and heterosis, even without pure-line phenotypes. We therefore used models where phenotypes of crossbreds were regressed on the SDAF between parental lines. Accuracy of prediction was determined using leave-one-out cross-validation. SDAF predicted heterosis for egg number and weight with an accuracy of ?0.5, but did not predict heterosis for survival days. Heterosis predictions allowed preselection of pure lines before field-testing, saving ?50% of field-testing cost with only 4% loss in heterosis. Accuracies from cross-validation were lower than from the model-fit, suggesting that accuracies previously reported in literature are overestimated. Cross-validation also indicated that dominance cannot fully explain heterosis. Nevertheless, the dominance model had considerable accuracy, clearly greater than that of a general/specific combining ability model. This work also showed that heterosis can be modelled even when pure-line phenotypes are unavailable. We concluded that SDAF is a useful predictor of heterosis in commercial layer breeding. PMID:24105438

  13. Microsatellite markers for Lycium ruthenicum (Solananeae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-kui; Zhong, Yang

    2014-09-01

    We developed microsatellite markers in Lycium ruthenicum, a desert plant widely distributed in northwestern China. In order to investigate its population genetic structure, genetic diversity, and its evolutionary history, we have isolated 11 novel microsatellite loci primers and characterized them in 24 individuals from 3 populations of L. ruthenicum using the combined biotin capture technique. For these microsatellites, one to seven alleles per locus were identified. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.958, meanwhile the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.841. These microsatellite markers could be first useful for population level studies like genetic diversity and structure in this species. PMID:25028267

  14. Microsatellite markers in white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    DeWoody, J A; Honeycutt, R L; Skow, L C

    1995-01-01

    A genomic library of DNA from white-tailed deer was constructed for the isolation of d(AC)n microsatellite repeats. PCR primers were designed from regions flanking each repeat and used to amplify DNA samples from a pedigreed herd of white-tailed deer and other artiodactyls. Allelic frequencies, PIC values, and heterozygosity values are reported for five polymorphic markers scored in 41 animals. Homologs of two of the five markers were assigned to bovine chromosomes 4 and 23, respectively, using a panel of bovine+hamster hybrid somatic cell lines. PMID:7658002

  15. Identification of repeat sequence heterogeneity at the polymorphic short tandem repeat locus HUMTH01[AATG][sub n] and reassignment of alleles in population analysis by using a locus-specific allelic ladder

    SciTech Connect

    Puers, C. (Institute for Forensic Medicine, Muenster (Germany)); Schumm, J.W. (Promega Corp., Madison, WI (United States)); Hammond, H.A.; Caskey, C.T.; Jin, L.

    1993-10-01

    An allelic ladder containing amplified sequences of seven alleles of the polymorphic human tyrosine hydroxylase locus, HUMTH01, was constructed and employed as a standard marker. Sequence analysis of each ladder component indicates that fragments differ by integral multiples of the AATG core repeat sequence characteristic of this locus. Individual alles are designated [open quotes]5[close quotes] through [open quotes]11,[close quotes] according to the number of complete reiterations of the core repeat contained within them. Comparison of the HUMTH01 allelic ladder with DNA samples amplified at this locus revealed core repeat length heterogeneity (i.e., deletions or insertions shorter than one core repeat) within the human population. In particular, a common allele was identified which migrates more quickly than allele 10, but more slowly than allele 9, on electrophoresis through a denaturing polyacrylamide gel. Sequence analysis of this allele, designated [open quotes]10-1,[close quotes] reveals lack of a single adenine normally present in the seventh copy of the AATG. The allelic ladder was used to reevaluate previously published population data. Results of testing for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and population substructure were not altered significantly by these modifications. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Parentage and kinship studies in an obligate brood parasitic bird, the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), using microsatellite DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Alderson, G W; Gibbs, H L; Sealy, S G

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that single-locus microsatellite DNA markers have the potential to unambiguously resolve parentage among individuals in natural populations where maternity is known. However, their power for determining parentage when neither parent is known is unclear. Here we investigate the usefulness of microsatellite DNA markers to determine parentage in a brood parasitic bird, the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), where, for a given offspring, no a priori knowledge of either parent is available. Seven polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers isolated from brown-headed cowbirds and yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) were used to genetically characterize an individually marked breeding population of male and female cowbirds at Delta Marsh, Manitoba. Forty-four males, 21 females, and 61 cowbird chicks were genotyped at seven loci using DNA amplified from blood and tissue samples. The mean exclusion probabilities pooled across all seven loci were 0.9964 for males and 0.9948 for females. Two null (non-amplifying) alleles at one locus were discovered and accounted for by constructing alternate nonoverlapping primer sets. Exclusion analyses performed using all individuals determined both paternity and maternity for 43 chicks and paternity only for 4 chicks. Another microsatellite locus was then used to determine paternity for three additional chicks. Relatedness analyses placed 12 of the 18 remaining chicks not assigned both maternity and paternity into four unique full sibling groups. Overall, 90.16% (55 of 61) of all offspring examined were placed into distinct parent/sibling groups, demonstrating that this marker set is extremely useful for parentage studies in this species. PMID:9987928

  17. Simple sequence repeat markers in genetic divergence and marker-assisted selection of rice cultivars: a review.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Shubhneet; Panesar, Parmjit S; Bera, Manab B; Kaur, Varinder

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing of rice genome has facilitated the understanding of rice evolution and has been utilized extensively for mining of DNA markers to facilitate marker-assisted breeding. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that are tandemly repeated nucleotide sequence motifs flanked by unique sequences are presently the maker of choice in rice improvement due to their abundance, co-dominant inheritance, high levels of allelic diversity, and simple reproducible assay. The current level of genome coverage by SSR markers in rice is sufficient to employ them for genotype identification and marker-assisted selection in breeding for mapping of genes and quantitative trait loci analysis. This review provides comprehensive information on the mapping and applications of SSR markers in investigation of rice cultivars to study their genetic divergence and marker-assisted selection of important agronomic traits. PMID:24915404

  18. Evidence of cryptic introgression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) based on wild tomato species alleles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many highly beneficial traits (e.g. disease or abiotic stress resistance) have been transferred into crops through crosses with their wild relatives. The 13 recognized species of tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) are closely related to each other and wild species genes have been extensively used for improvement of the crop, Solanum lycopersicum L. In addition, the lack of geographical barriers has permitted natural hybridization between S. lycopersicum and its closest wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium in Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile. In order to better understand patterns of S. lycopersicum diversity, we sequenced 47 markers ranging in length from 130 to 1200?bp (total of 24?kb) in genotypes of S. lycopersicum and wild tomato species S. pimpinellifolium, Solanum arcanum, Solanum peruvianum, Solanum pennellii and Solanum habrochaites. Between six and twelve genotypes were comparatively analyzed per marker. Several of the markers had previously been hypothesized as carrying wild species alleles within S. lycopersicum, i.e., cryptic introgressions. Results Each marker was mapped with high confidence (e<1 x 10-30) to a single genomic location using BLASTN against tomato whole genome shotgun chromosomes (SL2.40) database. Neighbor-joining trees showed high mean bootstrap support (86.8 ± 2.34%) for distinguishing red-fruited from green-fruited taxa for 38 of the markers. Hybridization and parsimony splits networks, genomic map positions of markers relative to documented introgressions, and historical origins of accessions were used to interpret evolutionary patterns at nine markers with putatively introgressed alleles. Conclusion Of the 47 genetic markers surveyed in this study, four were involved in linkage drag on chromosome 9 during introgression breeding, while alleles at five markers apparently originated from natural hybridization with S. pimpinellifolium and were associated with primitive genotypes of S. lycopersicum. The positive identification of introgressed genes within crop species such as S. lycopersicum will help inform conservation and utilization of crop germplasm diversity, for example, facilitating the purging of undesirable linkage drag or the exploitation of novel, favorable alleles. PMID:22871151

  19. Parents FamiliesGuide PARENT & FAMILY RESOURCES

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Anne

    Parents FamiliesGuide #12;11 Contents: PARENT & FAMILY RESOURCES Welcome from Vice Presidents ---------- 2 Parents Program Welcome --------------- 3 Parents & Families Weekend Information ---------------------- 5 Partnering with Penn State ------------- 6 The Role of the Student ------------------- 6 Penn

  20. A review on SNP and other types of molecular markers and their use in animal genetics

    PubMed Central

    Vignal, Alain; Milan, Denis; SanCristobal, Magali; Eggen, André

    2002-01-01

    During the last ten years, the use of molecular markers, revealing polymorphism at the DNA level, has been playing an increasing part in animal genetics studies. Amongst others, the microsatellite DNA marker has been the most widely used, due to its easy use by simple PCR, followed by a denaturing gel electrophoresis for allele size determination, and to the high degree of information provided by its large number of alleles per locus. Despite this, a new marker type, named SNP, for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, is now on the scene and has gained high popularity, even though it is only a bi-allelic type of marker. In this review, we will discuss the reasons for this apparent step backwards, and the pertinence of the use of SNPs in animal genetics, in comparison with other marker types. PMID:12081799

  1. Parenting Conflicts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disorders are Treated Teen Parents Healthy Children Radio: Teaching Children Civility (Audio) Healthy Children Radio: Making Childhood Transitions Easier (Audio) Medical Home Offers Benefits for Children without Special Needs Healthy ...

  2. Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the birth of a child. So parents of twins or higher-order multiples (triplets or more) can ... the chances of having multiples. The incidence of twin and higher-order multiple births has climbed rapidly ...

  3. A comparison of the effects of parental risk markers on pre- and perinatal variables in multiple patient cohorts with fetal alcohol syndrome, autism, Tourette syndrome, and sudden infant death syndrome: an enviromic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn G. Klug; Larry Burd; Jacob Kerbeshian; Becky Benz; John T. Martsolf

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence and magnitude of effect of individual risk markers for specific developmental disorders vary widely across diagnostic category. The four study cohorts for this project were patients from four diagnostic registries in North Dakota for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), autism, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and Tourette syndrome. These four cohorts were used to estimate prevalence and magnitude of

  4. Allelic association at the D14S43 locus in early onset Alzheimer`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, A.; Tardieu, S.; Campion, D.; Martinez, M. [and others

    1995-04-24

    The D14S43 marker is closely linked to the major gene for early onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer`s disease on chromosome 14. Allelic frequencies at the D14S43 locus were compared in 113 familial and isolated cases of early onset Alzheimer`s disease (<60 years of age at onset) (EOAD) and 109 unaffected individuals of the same geographic origin. Allele 7 was significantly (P = 0.033) more frequent in type 1 EOAD patients (13.2%), defined by the presence of at least another first degree relative with EOAD, than in controls (4.1%). Since an autosomal dominant gene is probably responsible for type 1 patients, allelic association may reflect linkage disequilibrium at the D14S43 locus. This would mean that some patients share a common ancestral mutation. However, since multiple tests were carried out, this result must be interpreted with caution, and needs confirmation in an independent sample. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Direct Detection of Insertion/Deletion Polymorphisms in an Autosomal Region by Analyzing High-Density Markers in Individual Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Pramanik, Sreemanta; Li, Honghua

    2002-01-01

    Direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms requires sample homozygosity. For the indel polymorphisms that have the deletion allele with a relatively low frequency in the autosomal regions, direct PCR detection becomes difficult or impossible. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first designed to directly detect indel polymorphisms in a human autosomal region (i.e., the immunoglobulin VH region), through use of single haploid sperm cells as subjects. Unique marker sequences (n=32), spaced at ?5-kb intervals, were selected near the 3? end of the VH region. A two-round multiplex PCR protocol was used to amplify these sequences from single sperm samples from nine unrelated healthy donors. The parental haplotypes of the donors were determined by examining the presence or absence of these markers. Seven clustered markers in 6 of the 18 haplotypes were missing and likely represented a 35–40-kb indel polymorphism. The genotypes of the donors, with respect to this polymorphism, perfectly matched the expectation under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Three VH gene segments, of which two are functional, are affected by this polymorphism. According to these results, >10% of individuals in the human population may not have these gene segments in their genome, and ?44% may have only one copy of these gene segments. The biological impact of this polymorphism would be very interesting to study. The approach used in the present study could be applied to understand the physical structure and diversity of all other autosomal regions. PMID:12442231

  6. Molecular marker assisted selection and pyramiding of two QTLs for fiber strength in upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wang-Zhen; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Ding, Ye-Zhang; Zhu, Yi-Chao; Shen, Xin-Lian; Zhu, Xie-Fei

    2005-12-01

    Based on two major QTLs that control high fiber strength which originated from an elite fiber germ-plasm line 7235 (Gossypium hiusutum L.), the efficiency of molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) was investigated using two populations from pedigree selection and modified backcrossing pyramiding developed for the breeding purpose. Simian 3 (SM3), a widely planted variety in the Yangtze River Valley, and 7235 were used as parents to develop the two populations. In the two major QTLs for fiber strength from 7235, QTLfs-1 could explain more than 30% of the phenotypic variation (PV) in the (7235 x TM-1) F2 population. QTLfs-2 was at first identified in another super quality fiber line HS427-10 from (HS427-10 x TM-1) F2 population with 12.5% of PV explanation,which was further also identified in 7235 line but was non-allelic with QTLfs-1. The result of molecular marker-assisted selection for fiber strength showed that the genetic effect of the QTLfs-1 was stable under different environmental conditions, and its molecular marker-assisted selection showed significant selective efficiency among breeding populations with different genetic backgrounds. QTLfs-2 also showed high selective efficiency in advanced generation populations though its effect was a little lower than the former. When QTLfs-1 was selected simultaneously with 2 molecular markers with known genetic distance, the selection efficiency for the fiber strength was greatly increased. The pyramiding for two QTLs that control high fiber strength by MAS greatly improved the selection efficiency for cotton fiber strength. This report provides a successful example of MAS pyramiding for QTL for favorable traits in breeding programs. PMID:16459656

  7. Exploring the Distribution of Genetic Markers of Pharmacogenomics Relevance in Brazilian and Mexican Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bonifaz-Peña, Vania; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Roela, Rosimeire A.; Furuya-Mazzotti, Tatiane K.; Chammas, Roger; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Gómez-Vázquez, María José; McLeod, Howard L.; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Studies of pharmacogenomics-related traits are increasingly being performed to identify loci that affect either drug response or susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. However, the effect of the polymorphisms can differ in magnitude or be absent depending on the population being assessed. We used the Affymetrix Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters (DMET) Plus array to characterize the distribution of polymorphisms of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx) relevance in two samples from the most populous Latin American countries, Brazil and Mexico. The sample from Brazil included 268 individuals from the southeastern state of Rio de Janeiro, and was stratified into census categories. The sample from Mexico comprised 45 Native American Zapotecas and 224 self-identified Mestizo individuals from 5 states located in geographically distant regions in Mexico. We evaluated the admixture proportions in the Brazilian and Mexican samples using a panel of Ancestry Informative Markers extracted from the DMET array, which was validated with genome-wide data. A substantial variation in ancestral proportions across census categories in Brazil, and geographic regions in Mexico was identified. We evaluated the extent of genetic differentiation (measured as FST values) of the genetic markers of the DMET Plus array between the relevant parental populations. Although the average levels of genetic differentiation are low, there is a long tail of markers showing large frequency differences, including markers located in genes belonging to the Cytochrome P450, Solute Carrier (SLC) and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT) families as well as other genes of PGx relevance such as ABCC8, ADH1A, CHST3, PON1, PPARD, PPARG, and VKORC1. We show how differences in admixture history may have an important impact in the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies at the population level. PMID:25419701

  8. Body for Parents (Girls)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Illness & disability Drugs, alcohol & smoking Your feelings Relationships Bullying Safety Your future Environmental health Skip section navigation ( ... parents Girls' feelings for parents Relationships for parents Bullying for parents Safety for parents The future for ...

  9. Characterization of the treefrog null allele, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Guttman, S.I. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Dept. of Zoology)

    1992-04-01

    Spring peeper (Hyla crucifer) tadpoles collected from the waste storage area during the Biological and Ecological Site Characterization of the Feed Materials Production Center (FEMP) in 1986 and 1987 appeared to be unique. A null (inactive) allele was found at the glucose phosphate isomerase enzyme locus in significant frequencies (approximately 20%) each year; this allele did not appear to occur in the offsite sample collected approximately 15km from the FEMP. Null alleles at this locus have not been reported in other amphibian populations; when they have been found in other organisms they have invariably been lethal in the homozygous condition.

  10. Characterization of the treefrog null allele

    SciTech Connect

    Guttman, S.I. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (USA). Dept. of Zoology)

    1990-12-01

    As part of the authors intensive year-long baseline ecological study, they characterized the degree of genetic polymorphism and heterozygosity in selected Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) populations using electrophoretic techniques. These data are being used as an indicator of stress by comparing populations on and off the FMPC site. The current study was initiated to determine whether this GPI null allele is lethal, when homozygous, in spring peepers. Also, a sampling protocol was implemented to determine whether a linear effect occurs relative to the frequency of the null allele offsite and to determine the origination site of the null allele. 18 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. [Development of a genetic transformation system for Candida tropicalis based on a reusable selection marker of URA3 gene].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zheng; Chen, Xianzhong; Zhang, Lihua; Shen, Wei; Fan, You; Lu, Maolin

    2014-10-01

    Candida tropicalis, a diploid asporogenic yeast, is frequently utilized in industrial applications and research studies. However, the low efficiency of genetic transformation limits the strain improvement by metabolic engineering. A reliable transformation and efficient deletion of target gene are prerequisite for molecular improvement of C. tropicalis. In this study, an efficient approach for genetic transformation of C. tropicalis was developed based on the URA3 gene as a reusable selection marker and both of PDC allele genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase were successfully deleted by this approach. Firstly, an auxotrophic mutant strain of C. tropicalis XZX which is defective in orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase (URA3) was isolated by chemical mutagenesis combined with nystatin enrichment selection and 5-fluoro-orotic acid (5-FOA) resistance selection using C. tropicalis ATCC 20336 as the parent strain. Then, the first PDC deletion cassette PDC1-hisG-URA3-hisG- PDC1 (PHUHP) which contains a 1.6 kb URA3 marker gene, two copies of 1.1 kb Salmonella hisG fragments and homologous arms of target gene was constructed and transformed into C. tropicalis XZX cells. Transformants with a single copy of PDC deleted were isolated and identified by PCR and DNA sequencing, which was designated as C.tropicalis XZX02. The C.tropicalis XZX02 cells were spread on the minimal medium containing 5-FOA to generate mutant C. tropicalis XZX03 in which URA3 marker gene was excised from PHUHP fragment integrated into the PDC gene site. The second PDC gene deletion cassette PDCm-URA3-PDCm (MUM) was constructed and transformed into C. tropicalis XZX03 to generate C.tropicalis XZX04 in which both of PDC allele genes were deleted. All strains were confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. This efficient genetic transformation approach laid a foundation for further metabolic engineering of C. tropicalis. PMID:25406254

  12. High-efficiency genome editing and allele replacement in prototrophic and wild strains of Saccharomyces.

    PubMed

    Alexander, William G; Doering, Drew T; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2014-11-01

    Current genome editing techniques available for Saccharomyces yeast species rely on auxotrophic markers, limiting their use in wild and industrial strains and species. Taking advantage of the ancient loss of thymidine kinase in the fungal kingdom, we have developed the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene as a selectable and counterselectable marker that forms the core of novel genome engineering tools called the H: aploid E: ngineering and R: eplacement P: rotocol (HERP) cassettes. Here we show that these cassettes allow a researcher to rapidly generate heterogeneous populations of cells with thousands of independent chromosomal allele replacements using mixed PCR products. We further show that the high efficiency of this approach enables the simultaneous replacement of both alleles in diploid cells. Using these new techniques, many of the most powerful yeast genetic manipulation strategies are now available in wild, industrial, and other prototrophic strains from across the diverse Saccharomyces genus. PMID:25209147

  13. Interrogation of allelic chromatin states in human cells by high-density ChIP-genotyping.

    PubMed

    Light, Nicholas; Adoue, Véronique; Ge, Bing; Chen, Shu-Huang; Kwan, Tony; Pastinen, Tomi

    2014-09-01

    Allele-specific (AS) assessment of chromatin has the potential to elucidate specific cis-regulatory mechanisms, which are predicted to underlie the majority of the known genetic associations to complex disease. However, development of chromatin landscapes at allelic resolution has been challenging since sites of variable signal strength require substantial read depths not commonly applied in sequencing based approaches. In this study, we addressed this by performing parallel analyses of input DNA and chromatin immunoprecipitates (ChIP) on high-density Illumina genotyping arrays. Allele-specificity for the histone modifications H3K4me1, H3K4me3, H3K27ac, H3K27me3, and H3K36me3 was assessed using ChIP samples generated from 14 lymphoblast and 6 fibroblast cell lines. AS-ChIP SNPs were combined into domains and validated using high-confidence ChIP-seq sites. We observed characteristic patterns of allelic-imbalance for each histone-modification around allele-specifically expressed transcripts. Notably, we found H3K4me1 to be significantly anti-correlated with allelic expression (AE) at transcription start sites, indicating H3K4me1 allelic imbalance as a marker of AE. We also found that allelic chromatin domains exhibit population and cell-type specificity as well as heritability within trios. Finally, we observed that a subset of allelic chromatin domains is regulated by DNase I-sensitive quantitative trait loci and that these domains are significantly enriched for genome-wide association studies hits, with autoimmune disease associated SNPs specifically enriched in lymphoblasts. This study provides the first genome-wide maps of allelic-imbalance for five histone marks. Our results provide new insights into the role of chromatin in cis-regulation and highlight the need for high-depth sequencing in ChIP-seq studies along with the need to improve allele-specificity of ChIP-enrichment. PMID:25055051

  14. Allele frequencies of microsatellite loci for genetic characterization of a Sicilian bovine population.

    PubMed

    Cosenza, M; Reale, S; Lupo, T; Vitale, F; Caracappa, S

    2015-01-01

    Short tandem repeats are used as an effective method to trace DNA markers in genotyping. Using a standardized kit, we tested 11 microsatellite markers recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) in a sample of 495 Sicilian cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the allele frequencies in the Sicilian cattle population to provide a reference database and at the same time to assess the use of the ISAG microsatellite panel for pedigree analysis. DNA samples were collected from blood and amplified in an 11-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR); PCR products were injected in a 3130 Genetic Analyzer. All loci showed high mean polymorphism information content (0.768), and the observed mean heterozygosity was less than the expected value (0.732 vs 0.794, respectively). The exact test for Hardy-Weinberg proportions, allele number, and inbreeding coefficient were calculated. Our results indicated that equilibrium was not always maintained. The observed mean homozygote value exceeded the expected value (132.81 vs 102.14), but no evidence for allele dropout was found. These results could be explained by a non-random mating; further studies using a larger number of animals could confirm or invalidate this hypothesis. The probability of identity and exclusion of a locus were also estimated and proved to be useful in paternity testing. The ISAG microsatellite panel is useful to screen the Sicilian bovine kinship. Currently, an allele frequency database is being constructed. PMID:25730006

  15. Linkage between RFLP markers and genes affecting kernel hardness in wheat.

    PubMed

    Sourdille, P; Perretant, M R; Charmet, G; Leroy, P; Gautier, M F; Joudrier, P; Nelson, J C; Sorrells, M E; Bernard, M

    1996-09-01

    A molecular-marker linkage map of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) provides a powerful tool for identifying genomic regions influencing breadmaking quality. A variance analysis for kernel hardness was conducted using 114 recombinant inbred lines (F7) from a cross between a synthetic and a cultivated wheat. The major gene involved in kernel hardness, ha (hard), known to be on chromosome arm 5DS, was found to be closely linked with the locus Xmta9 corresponding to the gene of puroindoline-a. This locus explained around 63% of the phenotypic variability but there was no evidence that puroindoline-a is the product of Ha (soft). Four additional regions located on chromosomes 2A, 2D, 5B, and 6D were shown to have single-factor effects on hardness, while three others situated on chromosomes 5A, 6D and 7A had interaction effects. Positive alleles were contributed by both parents. A three-marker model explains about 75% of the variation for this trait. PMID:24162351

  16. Incorporating Allelic Variation for Reconstructing the Evolutionary History of Organisms from Multiple Genes: An Example from Rosa in North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Joly; Anne Bruneau

    2006-01-01

    Allelic variation within individuals holds information regarding the relationships of organisms, which is expected to be particularly important for reconstructing the evolutionary history of closely related taxa. However, little effort has been committed to incorporate such information for reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms. Haplotype trees represent a solution when one nonrecombinant marker is considered, but there is no satisfying method

  17. Nuclear gene phylogeography using PHASE: dealing with unresolved genotypes, lost alleles, and systematic bias in parameter estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan C Garrick; Paul Sunnucks; Rodney J Dyer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A widely-used approach for screening nuclear DNA markers is to obtain sequence data and use bioinformatic algorithms to estimate which two alleles are present in heterozygous individuals. It is common practice to omit unresolved genotypes from downstream analyses, but the implications of this have not been investigated. We evaluated the haplotype reconstruction method implemented by PHASE in the context

  18. Copyright 2000 by the Genetics Society of America Evolutionary Dynamics of Self-Incompatibility Alleles in Brassica

    E-print Network

    Uyenoyama, Marcy K

    -Incompatibility Alleles in Brassica Marcy K. Uyenoyama Department of Zoology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina-incompatibility in Brassica entails the rejection of pollen grains that express specificities held in common with the seed parent. In Brassica, pollen specificity is encoded at the multipartite S-locus, a complex region

  19. Initiation of allelic exclusion by stochastic interaction of Tcrb alleles with repressive nuclear compartments

    PubMed Central

    Schlimgen, Ryan J; Reddy, Karen L; Singh, Harinder; Krangel, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    Earlier studies of antigen-receptor loci implicated directed monoallelic association with peri-centromeric heterochromatin in the initiation or maintenance of allelic exclusion. Here we provide evidence for a fundamentally different basis for Tcrb allelic exclusion. Using 3D Immuno-FISH we found that germline Tcrb alleles associated stochastically and at high frequency with the nuclear lamina or with peri-centromeric heterochromatin in developing thymocytes, and that such interactions inhibited V?-to-D?J? recombination prior to ?-selection. Introduction of an ectopic enhancer into Tcrb reduced these interactions and impaired allelic exclusion. We propose that initial V?-to-D?J? recombination events are generally monoallelic in developing thymocytes due to frequent stochastic, rather than directed, interactions of Tcrb alleles with repressive nuclear compartments. Such interactions may be essential for Tcrb allelic exclusion. PMID:18536719

  20. Allelic ladder characterization of the short tandem repeat polymorphism located in the 5{prime} flanking region to the human coagulation factor XIII A subunit gene

    SciTech Connect

    Puers, C. [Promega Corp., Madison, WI (United States)] [Promega Corp., Madison, WI (United States); [Institute for Forensic Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Lins, A.M.; Sprecher, C.J. [Promega Corp., Madison, WI (United States)] [and others] [Promega Corp., Madison, WI (United States); and others

    1994-09-01

    The short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism present within the 5{prime} untranslated region of the human coagulation factor XIII A subunit gene, HUM-F13A01 [AAAG]{sub n}, was evaluated using an allelic ladder, i.e., a standard size marker consisting of amplified alleles from the locus. The allelic ladder was constructed by pooling 12 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified alleles identified by their differential migration in denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This standard marker was used to distinguish 14 different alleles observed at this locus. Sequence analyses indicate that 13 of the alleles contain 4 through 16 iterations of the tandemly repeated AAAG sequence, respectively. The remaining allele carries four repeats and displays a deletion of two consecutive nucleotides (GT), one base distal to the repeat region. The allelic ladder was employed to type 326 F13A01 chromosomes rapidly and reliably in representatives of a German Caucasian population. Population data were analyzed with respect to Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) and compared with those of a previously studied Houston, Texas, Caucasian population. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Analysis of some polymorphic markers of the CFTR gene in cystic fibrosis patients and healthy donors from the Moscow region

    SciTech Connect

    Amosenko, F.A.; Sazonova, M.A.; Kapranov, N.I.; Trubnikova, I.S.; Kalinin, V.N. [Institute for Human Genetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    Allelic frequencies of three polymorphic markers in the CFTR gene were estimated on chromosomes derived from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and healthy donors from Moscow and the Moscow region. These polymorphic markers are tetranucleotide tandem repeats GATT in intron 6B, M470V in exon 10, and T854T in exon 14 (fragment A). Frequencies at allele 1 of the M470V marker, along with allele 2 of GATT and T854T, are two times higher for CF patients without {Delta}F508 mutation than for healthy donors, and there is linkage disequilibrium of these alleles of the polymorphic markers analyzed with the CF gene. Allele 1 of M470V and T854T markers, as well as allele 2 of the GATT marker (six repeats), are absolutely linked to mutation F508 of the CFTR gene. Using the polymorphic markers studied, family analysis of CF was carried out in two families. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Most parsimonious haplotype allele sharing determination

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhipeng; Sabaa, Hadi; Wang, Yining; Goebel, Randy; Wang, Zhiquan; Xu, Jiaofen; Stothard, Paul; Lin, Guohui

    2009-01-01

    Background The "common disease – common variant" hypothesis and genome-wide association studies have achieved numerous successes in the last three years, particularly in genetic mapping in human diseases. Nevertheless, the power of the association study methods are still low, in particular on quantitative traits, and the description of the full allelic spectrum is deemed still far from reach. Given increasing density of single nucleotide polymorphisms available and suggested by the block-like structure of the human genome, a popular and prosperous strategy is to use haplotypes to try to capture the correlation structure of SNPs in regions of little recombination. The key to the success of this strategy is thus the ability to unambiguously determine the haplotype allele sharing status among the members. The association studies based on haplotype sharing status would have significantly reduced degrees of freedom and be able to capture the combined effects of tightly linked causal variants. Results For pedigree genotype datasets of medium density of SNPs, we present two methods for haplotype allele sharing status determination among the pedigree members. Extensive simulation study showed that both methods performed nearly perfectly on breakpoint discovery, mutation haplotype allele discovery, and shared chromosomal region discovery. Conclusion For pedigree genotype datasets, the haplotype allele sharing status among the members can be deterministically, efficiently, and accurately determined, even for very small pedigrees. Given their excellent performance, the presented haplotype allele sharing status determination programs can be useful in many downstream applications including haplotype based association studies. PMID:19379528

  3. Molecular analysis of chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-associated alleles in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Sridaran, Sankar; Rodriguez, Betzabe; Soto, Aida Mercedes; Macedo De Oliveira, Alexandre; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-05-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is used as a first-line therapy for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Nicaragua. We investigated the prevalence of molecular markers associated with CQ and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in P. falciparum isolates obtained from the North Atlantic Autonomous Region of Nicaragua. Blood spots for this study were made available from a CQ and SP drug efficacy trial conducted in 2005 and also from a surveillance study performed in 2011. Polymorphisms in P. falciparum CQ resistance transporter, dihydrofolate reductase, and dihydropteroate synthase gene loci that are associated with resistance to CQ, pyrimethamine, and sulfadoxine, respectively, were detected by DNA sequencing. In the 2005 dataset, only 2 of 53 isolates had a CQ resistance allele (CVIET), 2 of 52 had a pyrimethamine resistance allele, and 1 of 49 had a sulfadoxine resistance allele. In the 2011 dataset, none of 45 isolates analyzed had CQ or SP resistance alleles. PMID:24615126

  4. Microsatellite markers for the wasp Euodynerus foraminatus (Vespidae: Eumeninae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie K. Stahlhut; David P. Cowan; Karim Essani; D. Dewayne Shoemaker; Todd J. Barkman

    2002-01-01

    We have identified five polymorphic microsatellite loci for the solitary wasp Euodynerus foraminatus , using a partial genomic library constructed from random amplified poly- morphic DNA fragments. We detected between three and 13 alleles per locus in a sample of 30 female wasps collected in southwest Michigan, USA. Observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.2 to 0.73. These markers will be used

  5. Microsatellite markers for the diploid Basidiomycete fungus, Armillaria mellea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We isolated and characterized 13 microsatellite markers for two North American populations (California and Pennsylvania) of Armillaria mellea, a fungal root pathogen responsible for Armillaria root disease of numerous horticultural crops and forest trees. The frequency of alleles ranged from two to...

  6. VARIATION OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AMONG SELECTED PAPAYA VARIETIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are simple, tandemly repeated mono- to hexa-nucleotide sequence motifs. Due to their co-dominant nature, ability to detect high levels of allelic diversity, and ubiquitous distribution, they have been widely used as genetic markers. Genomic researc...

  7. Seed fates in crop–wild hybrid sunflower: crop allele and maternal effects

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M; Emry, Jason D; Mercer, Kristin L

    2015-01-01

    Domestication has resulted in selection upon seed traits found in wild populations, yet crop-wild hybrids retain some aspects of both parental phenotypes. Seed fates of germination, dormancy, and mortality can influence the success of crop allele introgression in crop-wild hybrid zones, especially if crop alleles or crop-imparted seed coverings result in out-of-season germination. We performed a seed burial experiment using crop, wild, and diverse hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cross types to test how a cross type's maternal parent and nuclear genetic composition might affect its fate under field conditions. We observed higher maladaptive fall germination in the crop- and F1- produced seeds than wild-produced seeds and, due to an interaction with percent crop alleles, fall germination was higher for cross types with more crop-like nuclear genetics. By spring, crop-produced cross types had the highest overwintering mortality, primarily due to higher fall germination. Early spring germination was identical across maternal types, but germination continued for F1-produced seeds. In conclusion, the more wild-like the maternal parent or the less proportion of the cross type's genome contributed by the crop, the greater likelihood a seed will remain ungerminated than die. Wild-like dormancy may facilitate introgression through future recruitment from the soil seed bank. PMID:25685189

  8. Seed fates in crop-wild hybrid sunflower: crop allele and maternal effects.

    PubMed

    Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M; Emry, Jason D; Mercer, Kristin L

    2015-02-01

    Domestication has resulted in selection upon seed traits found in wild populations, yet crop-wild hybrids retain some aspects of both parental phenotypes. Seed fates of germination, dormancy, and mortality can influence the success of crop allele introgression in crop-wild hybrid zones, especially if crop alleles or crop-imparted seed coverings result in out-of-season germination. We performed a seed burial experiment using crop, wild, and diverse hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cross types to test how a cross type's maternal parent and nuclear genetic composition might affect its fate under field conditions. We observed higher maladaptive fall germination in the crop- and F1- produced seeds than wild-produced seeds and, due to an interaction with percent crop alleles, fall germination was higher for cross types with more crop-like nuclear genetics. By spring, crop-produced cross types had the highest overwintering mortality, primarily due to higher fall germination. Early spring germination was identical across maternal types, but germination continued for F1-produced seeds. In conclusion, the more wild-like the maternal parent or the less proportion of the cross type's genome contributed by the crop, the greater likelihood a seed will remain ungerminated than die. Wild-like dormancy may facilitate introgression through future recruitment from the soil seed bank. PMID:25685189

  9. Consensus genetic structuring and typological value of markers using multiple co-inertia analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Laloë; Thibaut Jombart; Anne-Béatrice Dufour; Katayoun Moazami-Goudarzi

    2007-01-01

    Working with weakly congruent markers means that consensus genetic structuring of populations requires methods explicitly devoted to this purpose. The method, which is presented here, belongs to the multivariate analyses. This method consists of different steps. First, single-marker analyses were performed using a version of principal component analysis, which is designed for allelic frequencies (%PCA). Drawing confidence ellipses around the

  10. A review on SNP and other types of molecular markers and their use in animal genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Vignal; Denis Milan; Magali SanCristobal; André Eggen

    2002-01-01

    During the last ten years, the use of molecular markers, revealing polymorphism at the DNA level, has been playing an increasing part in animal genetics studies. Amongst others, the microsatellite DNA marker has been the most widely used, due to its easy use by simple PCR, followed by a denaturing gel electrophoresis for allele size determination, and to the high

  11. Inbreeding load, average dominance and the mutation rate for mildly deleterious alleles in Mimulus guttatus.

    PubMed Central

    Willis, J H

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this study is to provide information on the genetics of inbreeding depression in a primarily outcrossing population of Mimulus guttatus. Previous studies of this population indicate that there is tremendous inbreeding depression for nearly every fitness component and that almost all of this inbreeding depression is due to mildly deleterious alleles rather than recessive lethals or steriles. In this article I assayed the homozygous and heterozygous fitnesses of 184 highly inbred lines extracted from a natural population. Natural selection during the five generations of selfing involved in line formation essentially eliminated major deleterious alleles but was ineffective in purging alleles with minor fitness effects and did not appreciably diminish overall levels of inbreeding depression. Estimates of the average degree of dominance of these mildly deleterious alleles, obtained from the regression of heterozygous fitness on the sum of parental homozygous fitness, indicate that the detrimental alleles are partially recessive for most fitness traits, with h approximately 0.15 for cumulative measures of fitness. The inbreeding load, B, for total fitness is approximately 1.0 in this experiment. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that spontaneous mildly deleterious mutations occur at a rate >0.1 mutation per genome per generation. PMID:10581293

  12. Genome Destabilizing Mutator Alleles Drive Specific Mutational Trajectories in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Stirling, Peter C.; Shen, Yaoqing; Corbett, Richard; Jones, Steven J. M.; Hieter, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In addition to environmental factors and intrinsic variations in base substitution rates, specific genome-destabilizing mutations can shape the mutational trajectory of genomes. How specific alleles influence the nature and position of accumulated mutations in a genomic context is largely unknown. Understanding the impact of genome-destabilizing alleles is particularly relevant to cancer genomes where biased mutational signatures are identifiable. We first created a more complete picture of cellular pathways that impact mutation rate using a primary screen to identify essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene mutations that cause mutator phenotypes. Drawing primarily on new alleles identified in this resource, we measure the impact of diverse mutator alleles on mutation patterns directly by whole-genome sequencing of 68 mutation-accumulation strains derived from wild-type and 11 parental mutator genotypes. The accumulated mutations differ across mutator strains, displaying base-substitution biases, allele-specific mutation hotspots, and break-associated mutation clustering. For example, in mutants of POL? and the Cdc13–Stn1–Ten1 complex, we find a distinct subtelomeric bias for mutations that we show is independent of the target sequence. Together our data suggest that specific genome-instability mutations are sufficient to drive discrete mutational signatures, some of which share properties with mutation patterns seen in tumors. Thus, in a population of cells, genome-instability mutations could influence clonal evolution by establishing discrete mutational trajectories for genomes. PMID:24336748

  13. Genome destabilizing mutator alleles drive specific mutational trajectories in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Peter C; Shen, Yaoqing; Corbett, Richard; Jones, Steven J M; Hieter, Philip

    2014-02-01

    In addition to environmental factors and intrinsic variations in base substitution rates, specific genome-destabilizing mutations can shape the mutational trajectory of genomes. How specific alleles influence the nature and position of accumulated mutations in a genomic context is largely unknown. Understanding the impact of genome-destabilizing alleles is particularly relevant to cancer genomes where biased mutational signatures are identifiable. We first created a more complete picture of cellular pathways that impact mutation rate using a primary screen to identify essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene mutations that cause mutator phenotypes. Drawing primarily on new alleles identified in this resource, we measure the impact of diverse mutator alleles on mutation patterns directly by whole-genome sequencing of 68 mutation-accumulation strains derived from wild-type and 11 parental mutator genotypes. The accumulated mutations differ across mutator strains, displaying base-substitution biases, allele-specific mutation hotspots, and break-associated mutation clustering. For example, in mutants of POL? and the Cdc13-Stn1-Ten1 complex, we find a distinct subtelomeric bias for mutations that we show is independent of the target sequence. Together our data suggest that specific genome-instability mutations are sufficient to drive discrete mutational signatures, some of which share properties with mutation patterns seen in tumors. Thus, in a population of cells, genome-instability mutations could influence clonal evolution by establishing discrete mutational trajectories for genomes. PMID:24336748

  14. Multi-allelic phenotyping – A systematic approach for the simultaneous analysis of multiple induced mutations?

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, Christopher M.; Scahill, Catherine; Fényes, Fruzsina; Kettleborough, Ross N.W.; Stemple, Derek L.; Busch-Nentwich, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish mutation project (ZMP) aims to generate a loss of function allele for every protein-coding gene, but importantly to also characterise the phenotypes of these alleles during the first five days of development. Such a large-scale screen requires a systematic approach both to identifying phenotypes, and also to linking those phenotypes to specific mutations. This phenotyping pipeline simultaneously assesses the consequences of multiple alleles in a two-step process. First, mutations that do not produce a visible phenotype during the first five days of development are identified, while a second round of phenotyping focuses on detailed analysis of those alleles that are suspected to cause a phenotype. Allele-specific PCR single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays are used to genotype F2 parents and individual F3 fry for mutations known to be present in the F1 founder. With this method specific phenotypes can be linked to induced mutations. In addition a method is described for cryopreserving sperm samples of mutagenised males and their subsequent use for in vitro fertilisation to generate F2 families for phenotyping. Ultimately this approach will lead to the functional annotation of the zebrafish genome, which will deepen our understanding of gene function in development and disease. PMID:23624102

  15. Construction of chimeric alleles with altered specificity at the b incompatibility locus of Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed Central

    Yee, A R; Kronstad, J W

    1993-01-01

    Multiallelic incompatibility systems found in many fungi and plants function to limit inbreeding by mediating self versus nonself recognition. The plant pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis has a locus called b that governs incompatibility. Two multiallelic genes, bE and bW, are present at the b locus. Fusion of haploid strains carrying different alleles at bE and bW establishes an infectious dikaryon capable of pathogenesis on maize (Zea mays). Cells carrying a single type of b locus, whether haploid or dikaryotic, are nonpathogenic. To identify sequences within the bE gene that determine allelic specificity, targeted gene replacement was employed to produce a series of chimeras between the b1E and b2E alleles. Incompatibility tests with strains carrying the chimeric alleles identified a 30- to 48-amino acid region responsible for specificity. Suprisingly, the chimeras with recombination points within this region had a specificity different from both parent alleles. Overall, these results define an important domain in bE involved in self versus nonself recognition. Images PMID:8421703

  16. Allelic associations of two polymorphic microsatellites in intron 40 of the human von Willebrand factor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, S.D.J.; De Souza, K.T. (Nucleo de Genetica Medica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)); De Andrade, M.; Chakraborty, R. (Univ. of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-01-18

    At intron 40 of the von Willebrand factor (vWF) gene, two GATA-repeat polymorphic sites exist that are physically separated by 212 bp. At the first site (vWF1 locus), seven segregating repeat alleles were observed in a Brazilian Caucasian population, and at the second (vWF2 locus) there were eight alleles, detected through PCR amplifications of this DNA region. Haplotype analysis of individuals revealed 36 different haplotypes in a sample of 338 chromosomes examined. Allele frequencies between generations and gender at each locus were not significantly different, and the genotype frequencies were consistent with their Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Linkage disequilibrium between loci is highly significant with positive allele size association; that is, large alleles at the loci tend to occur together, and so do the same alleles. Variability at each locus appeared to have arisen in a stepwise fashion, suggesting replication slippage as a possible mechanism of production of new alleles. However, the authors observed an increased number of haplotypes, in contrast with the predictions of a stepwise production of variation in the entire region, suggesting some form of cooperative changes between loci that could be due to either gene conversion, or a common control mechanism of production of new variation at these repeat polymorphism sites. The high degree of polymorphism (gene diversity values of 72% and 78% at vWF1 and vWF2, respectively, and of 93% at the haplotype level) makes these markers informative for paternity testing, genetic counseling, and individual-identification purposes.

  17. An improved MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry procedure and a novel DNA marker for identifying over-expressed Bx7 glutenin protein subunit in wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Islam, Shahidul; Ma, Junhong; Anwar, Masood; Chen, Jing; Yan, Yueming; Appels, Rudi; Ma, Wujun

    2014-12-01

    Wheat bread-making quality is mainly determined by glutenin proteins in the grain, which exist in a wide range of variable alleles with differential influence on processing attributes. A recently identified allele, Bx7 over-expression (Bx7(oe) ), has been showing highly significant positive effects on wheat dough strength over the normally expressed Bx7 allele. SDS-PAGE and normal RP-HPLC procedures failed to separate the two alleles. In the current study, an extensively optimised MALDI-TOF based procedure and a refined DNA based marker for efficiently differentiating Bx7(oe) from normal Bx7 allele were established. Results indicated that the MALDI-TOF procedure is cost effective, high throughput, and proven reliable, while the refined PCR marker only amplifies Bx7(oe) allele, a clear advantage over the previously developed codominant marker. PMID:25588305

  18. STRait Razor: a length-based forensic STR allele-calling tool for use with second generation sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Warshauer, David H; Lin, David; Hari, Kumar; Jain, Ravi; Davis, Carey; Larue, Bobby; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the capability of second generation sequencing (SGS) to provide coverage of short tandem repeats (STRs) found within the human genome. However, there are relatively few bioinformatic software packages capable of detecting these markers in the raw sequence data. The extant STR-calling tools are sophisticated, but are not always applicable to the analysis of the STR loci commonly used in forensic analyses. STRait Razor is a newly developed Perl-based software tool that runs on the Linux/Unix operating system and is designed to detect forensically-relevant STR alleles in FASTQ sequence data, based on allelic length. It is capable of analyzing STR loci with repeat motifs ranging from simple to complex without the need for extensive allelic sequence data. STRait Razor is designed to interpret both single-end and paired-end data and relies on intelligent parallel processing to reduce analysis time. Users are presented with a number of customization options, including variable mismatch detection parameters, as well as the ability to easily allow for the detection of alleles at new loci. In its current state, the software detects alleles for 44 autosomal and Y-chromosome STR loci. The study described herein demonstrates that STRait Razor is capable of detecting STR alleles in data generated by multiple library preparation methods and two Illumina(®) sequencing instruments, with 100% concordance. The data also reveal noteworthy concepts related to the effect of different preparation chemistries and sequencing parameters on the bioinformatic detection of STR alleles. PMID:23768312

  19. Comparing single-nucleotide polymorphism marker-based and microsatellite marker-based linkage analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayse Ulgen; Wentian Li

    2005-01-01

    We compared linkage analysis results for an alcoholism trait, ALDX1 (DSM-III-R and Feigner criteria) using a nonparametric linkage analysis method, which takes into account allele sharing among several affected persons, for both microsatellite and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers (Affymetrix and Illumina) in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) dataset provided to participants at the Genetic Analysis Workshop

  20. Perceived Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Sofie; Doumen, Sarah; Germeijs, Veerle; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Contingent self-esteem (i.e., the degree to which one's self-esteem is dependent on meeting particular conditions) has been shown to predict a wide range of psychosocial and academic problems. This study extends previous research on contingent self-esteem by examining the predictive role of perceived parenting dimensions in a sample of early…

  1. Parental Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Lehman, Stephanie; Clapp, John; Hovell, Melbourne; Sipan, Carol; Blumberg, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period during which many youth experiment with risk practices. This paper examined the association of parental monitoring with a range of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use behaviors among high-risk youth, while controlling for other demographic and environmental variables previously found to be associated with AOD…

  2. Total Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins…

  3. Constructive Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Sally

    This book turns important research and theory into essential, easy-to-follow guidelines for new parents and child care providers to help them focus on the critical first 3 years of life to build a strong foundation for the future. All the key areas of child development are covered, including self-esteem, and cognitive, motor and social…

  4. Factors Influencing Ascertainment Bias of Microsatellite Allele Sizes: Impact on Estimates of Mutation Rates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Biao; Kimmel, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellite loci play an important role as markers for identification, disease gene mapping, and evolutionary studies. Mutation rate, which is of fundamental importance, can be obtained from interspecies comparisons, which, however, are subject to ascertainment bias. This bias arises, for example, when a locus is selected on the basis of its large allele size in one species (cognate species 1), in which it is first discovered. This bias is reflected in average allele length in any noncognate species 2 being smaller than that in species 1. This phenomenon was observed in various pairs of species, including comparisons of allele sizes in human and chimpanzee. Various mechanisms were proposed to explain observed differences in mean allele lengths between two species. Here, we examine the framework of a single-step asymmetric and unrestricted stepwise mutation model with genetic drift. Analysis is based on coalescent theory. Analytical results are confirmed by simulations using the simuPOP software. The mechanism of ascertainment bias in this model is a tighter correlation of allele sizes within a cognate species 1 than of allele sizes in two different species 1 and 2. We present computations of the expected average allele size difference, given the mutation rate, population sizes of species 1 and 2, time of separation of species 1 and 2, and the age of the allele. We show that when the past demographic histories of the cognate and noncognate taxa are different, the rate and directionality of mutations affect the allele sizes in the two taxa differently from the simple effect of ascertainment bias. This effect may exaggerate or reverse the effect of difference in mutation rates. We reanalyze literature data, which indicate that despite the bias, the microsatellite mutation rate estimate in the ancestral population is consistently greater than that in either human or chimpanzee and the mutation rate estimate in human exceeds or equals that in chimpanzee with the rate of allele length expansion in human being greater than that in chimpanzee. We also demonstrate that population bottlenecks and expansions in the recent human history have little impact on our conclusions. PMID:23525076

  5. Stochastic Loss of Silencing of the Imprinted Ndn/NDN Allele, in a Mouse Model and Humans with Prader-Willi Syndrome, Has Functional Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Unmehopa, Unga; Matarazzo, Valery; Watrin, Françoise; Linke, Matthias; Georges, Beatrice; Bischof, Jocelyn; Dijkstra, Femke; Bloemsma, Monique; Corby, Severine; Michel, François J.; Wevrick, Rachel; Zechner, Ulrich; Swaab, Dick; Dudley, Keith; Bezin, Laurent; Muscatelli, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a process that causes genes to be expressed from one allele only according to parental origin, the other allele being silent. Diseases can arise when the normally active alleles are not expressed. In this context, low level of expression of the normally silent alleles has been considered as genetic noise although such expression has never been further studied. Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disease involving imprinted genes, including NDN, which are only expressed from the paternally inherited allele, with the maternally inherited allele silent. We present the first in-depth study of the low expression of a normally silent imprinted allele, in pathological context. Using a variety of qualitative and quantitative approaches and comparing wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous mice deleted for Ndn, we show that, in absence of the paternal Ndn allele, the maternal Ndn allele is expressed at an extremely low level with a high degree of non-genetic heterogeneity. The level of this expression is sex-dependent and shows transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. In about 50% of mutant mice, this expression reduces birth lethality and severity of the breathing deficiency, correlated with a reduction in the loss of serotonergic neurons. In wild-type brains, the maternal Ndn allele is never expressed. However, using several mouse models, we reveal a competition between non-imprinted Ndn promoters which results in monoallelic (paternal or maternal) Ndn expression, suggesting that Ndn allelic exclusion occurs in the absence of imprinting regulation. Importantly, specific expression of the maternal NDN allele is also detected in post-mortem brain samples of PWS individuals. Our data reveal an unexpected epigenetic flexibility of PWS imprinted genes that could be exploited to reactivate the functional but dormant maternal alleles in PWS. Overall our results reveal high non-genetic heterogeneity between genetically identical individuals that might underlie the variability of the phenotype. PMID:24039599

  6. Pseudoautosomal marker DXYS20 and manic depression

    SciTech Connect

    Noethen, M.M.; Cichon, S.; Erdmann, J.; Koerner, J.; Rietschel, M.; Propping, P. (Univ. of Bonn (Germany)); Rappold, G.A. (Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)); Fritze, J. (Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany))

    1993-04-01

    Yoneda et al. (1992) observed a significant association between manic-depressive illness and a 13.5-kb band of the pseudoautosomal marker DXYS20 (probe 362A) in EcoRI digests of 49 Japanese patients compared with 119 controls. The 13.5-kb allele was designated [open quotes]A4 allele[close quotes] and was found on at least one chromosome in 46.9% of the patients, compared with 26.1% of the controls. The relative risk of the A4 allele for the disease was 2.51. The authors have genotyped the EcoRI RFLP in 73 patients (40 females and 33 males) who fulfill DSM-III-R criteria of manic-depressive illness (bipolar affective disorder) and in 79 controls (34 females and 45 males). All subjects included in the study were unrelated and were of German descent. They used the probe 3cos-PP, which, by sequence analysis, was shown to be directly homologous to the independently cloned probe 362A (Rappold et al. 1992). The pseudoautosomal locus DXYS20 represents a VNTR-like minisatellite, and many polymorphic bands are recognized by means of several restriction endonucleases (Page et al. 1987). In EcoRI digests, sizes of bands cluster, and the authors grouped their bands according to allele sizes used by Yoneda et al. In addition to the alleles reported by Yoneda et al., they observed a 10-kb band in five subjects. The results are shown in a table. The frequency of the A4 allele did not differ significantly between patients and controls. Thus, the data do not support a widespread or consistent association between DXYS20 and bipolar affective disorder. A large degree of ethnic variation is seen with DXYS20 (Rappold et al. 1992) and might explain the difference of allele frequencies in controls from Japan and Germany. Since VNTRs evolve rapidly, they may not always be the best markers to detect disease associations, where a positive effect requires linkage disequilibrium. In any case, it should be useful to study larger samples of Japanese patients and controls. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  7. The use of DNA probes to establish parental origin in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rudd, N L; Dimnik, L S; Greentree, C; Mendes-Crabb, K; Hoar, D I

    1988-02-01

    Molecular analysis was performed to determine the parental origin of the extra number 21 chromosome in 20 couples following the birth of a child with standard trisomy 21. The parent of origin was successfully identified in 9 of 20 (45%) using five chromosome-21-specific DNA probes and eight restriction endonucleases by restriction fragment length polymorphism and dosage analysis; seven were of maternal and two of paternal origin. Utilizing the observed allele frequencies, the expected frequencies of informative homozygous matings [2(p2q2)] approximate 10% for seven of eight enzyme/probe combinations; the eighth, TaqI/pPW231F (D21S3), is 3%. The observed phenotype frequencies for all enzyme/probe combinations tested conform closely to predictions by the Hardy-Weinberg law. Strong linkage disequilibrium was observed between the DNA markers of EcoRI and TaqI with probe pPW236B; identical results were obtained with G-95 alpha 1-11a. We were able to demonstrate that although these two probes are of different size, and hence not identical, they detect the same TaqI and EcoRI polymorphisms; therefore both should be assigned to a single locus, D21S11. PMID:2892782

  8. Functional analysis of 11 novel GBA alleles.

    PubMed

    Malini, Erika; Grossi, Serena; Deganuto, Marta; Rosano, Camillo; Parini, Rossella; Dominisini, Silvia; Cariati, Roberta; Zampieri, Stefania; Bembi, Bruno; Filocamo, Mirella; Dardis, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Gaucher disease is the most frequent lysosomal storage disorder due to the deficiency of the acid ?-glucosidase, encoded by the GBA gene. In this study, we report the structural and functional characterization of 11 novel GBA alleles. Seven single missense alleles, P159S, N188I, E235K, P245T, W312S, S366R and W381C, and two alleles carrying in cis mutations, (N188S; G265R) and (E326K; D380N), were studied for enzyme activity in transiently transfected cells. All mutants were inactive except the P159S, which retained 15% of wild-type activity. To further characterize the alleles carrying two in cis mutations, we expressed constructs bearing singly each mutation. The presence of G265R or D380N mutations completely abolished enzyme activity, while N188S and E326K mutants retained 25 and 54% of wild-type activity, respectively. Two mutations, affecting the acceptor splice site of introns 5 (c.589-1G>A) and 9 (c.1389-1G>A), led to the synthesis of aberrant mRNA. Unpredictably, family studies showed that two alleles resulted from germline or 'de novo' mutations. These results strengthen the importance of performing a complete and accurate molecular analysis of the GBA gene in order to avoid misleading conclusions and provide a comprehensive functional analysis of new GBA mutations. PMID:24022302

  9. Functional analysis of 11 novel GBA alleles

    PubMed Central

    Malini, Erika; Grossi, Serena; Deganuto, Marta; Rosano, Camillo; Parini, Rossella; Dominisini, Silvia; Cariati, Roberta; Zampieri, Stefania; Bembi, Bruno; Filocamo, Mirella; Dardis, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher disease is the most frequent lysosomal storage disorder due to the deficiency of the acid ?-glucosidase, encoded by the GBA gene. In this study, we report the structural and functional characterization of 11 novel GBA alleles. Seven single missense alleles, P159S, N188I, E235K, P245T, W312S, S366R and W381C, and two alleles carrying in cis mutations, (N188S; G265R) and (E326K; D380N), were studied for enzyme activity in transiently transfected cells. All mutants were inactive except the P159S, which retained 15% of wild-type activity. To further characterize the alleles carrying two in cis mutations, we expressed constructs bearing singly each mutation. The presence of G265R or D380N mutations completely abolished enzyme activity, while N188S and E326K mutants retained 25 and 54% of wild-type activity, respectively. Two mutations, affecting the acceptor splice site of introns 5 (c.589-1G>A) and 9 (c.1389-1G>A), led to the synthesis of aberrant mRNA. Unpredictably, family studies showed that two alleles resulted from germline or ‘de novo' mutations. These results strengthen the importance of performing a complete and accurate molecular analysis of the GBA gene in order to avoid misleading conclusions and provide a comprehensive functional analysis of new GBA mutations. PMID:24022302

  10. Parental stress, parenting behavior and observed parent-child interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrina L Adams

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental stress, social support, and directly observed parenting behavior and dyadic interaction in a non-clinical sample of 26 parent-child dyads, in which the child was age five or younger. This study also explored the differential impact of various types of stress on parenting behavior and dyadic interaction, including life stress as measured by the

  11. To be or not to be the odd one out - Allele-specific transcription in pentaploid dogroses (Rosa L. sect. Caninae (DC.) Ser)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple hybridization events gave rise to pentaploid dogroses which can reproduce sexually despite their uneven ploidy level by the unique canina meiosis. Two homologous chromosome sets are involved in bivalent formation and are transmitted by the haploid pollen grains and the tetraploid egg cells. In addition the egg cells contain three sets of univalent chromosomes which are excluded from recombination. In this study we investigated whether differential behavior of chromosomes as bivalents or univalents is reflected by sequence divergence or transcription intensity between homeologous alleles of two single copy genes (LEAFY, cGAPDH) and one ribosomal DNA locus (nrITS). Results We detected a maximum number of four different alleles of all investigated loci in pentaploid dogroses and identified the respective allele with two copies, which is presumably located on bivalent forming chromosomes. For the alleles of the ribosomal DNA locus and cGAPDH only slight, if any, differential transcription was determined, whereas the LEAFY alleles with one copy were found to be significantly stronger expressed than the LEAFY allele with two copies. Moreover, we found for the three marker genes that all alleles have been under similar regimes of purifying selection. Conclusions Analyses of both molecular sequence evolution and expression patterns did not support the hypothesis that unique alleles probably located on non-recombining chromosomes are less functional than duplicate alleles presumably located on recombining chromosomes. PMID:21345190

  12. Highly Informative Single-Copy Nuclear Microsatellite DNA Markers Developed Using an AFLP-SSR Approach in Black Spruce (Picea mariana) and Red Spruce (P. rubens)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yong-Zhong; Forneris, Natascha; Rajora, Om P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are highly informative molecular markers for various biological studies in plants. In spruce (Picea) and other conifers, the development of single-copy polymorphic genomic microsatellite markers is quite difficult, owing primarily to the large genome size and predominance of repetitive DNA sequences throughout the genome. We have developed highly informative single-locus genomic microsatellite markers in black spruce (Picea mariana) and red spruce (Picea rubens) using a simple but efficient method based on a combination of AFLP and microsatellite technologies. Principal Findings A microsatellite-enriched library was constructed from genomic AFLP DNA fragments of black spruce. Sequencing of the 108 putative SSR-containing clones provided 94 unique sequences with microsatellites. Twenty-two of the designed 34 primer pairs yielded scorable amplicons, with single-locus patterns. Fourteen of these microsatellite markers were characterized in 30 black spruce and 30 red spruce individuals drawn from many populations. The number of alleles at a polymorphic locus ranged from 2 to 18, with a mean of 9.3 in black spruce, and from 3 to 15, with a mean of 6.2 alleles in red spruce. The polymorphic information content or expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.340 to 0.909 (mean?=?0.67) in black spruce and from 0.161 to 0.851 (mean?=?0.62) in red spruce. Ten SSR markers showing inter-parental polymorphism inherited in a single-locus Mendelian mode, with two cases of distorted segregation. Primer pairs for almost all polymorphic SSR loci resolved microsatellites of comparable size in Picea glauca, P. engelmannii, P. sitchensis, and P. abies. Significance The AFLP-based microsatellite-enriched library appears to be a rapid, cost-effective approach for isolating and developing single-locus informative genomic microsatellite markers in black spruce. The markers developed should be useful in black spruce, red spruce and other Picea species for various genetics, genomics, breeding, forensics, conservation studies and applications. PMID:25126846

  13. Identification and DUS Testing of Rice Varieties through Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Pourabed, Ehsan; Jazayeri Noushabadi, Mohammad Reza; Jamali, Seyed Hossein; Moheb Alipour, Naser; Zareyan, Abbas; Sadeghi, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Identification and registration of new rice varieties are very important to be free from environmental effects and using molecular markers that are more reliable. The objectives of this study were, first, the identification and distinction of 40 rice varieties consisting of local varieties of Iran, improved varieties, and IRRI varieties using PIC, and discriminating power, second, cluster analysis based on Dice similarity coefficient and UPGMA algorithm, and, third, determining the ability of microsatellite markers to separate varieties utilizing the best combination of markers. For this research, 12 microsatellite markers were used. In total, 83 polymorphic alleles (6.91 alleles per locus) were found. In addition, the variation of PIC was calculated from 0.52 to 0.9. The results of cluster analysis showed the complete discrimination of varieties from each other except for IR58025A and IR58025B. Moreover, cluster analysis could detect the most of the improved varieties from local varieties. Based on the best combination of markers analysis, five pair primers together have shown the same results of all markers for detection among all varieties. Considering the results of this research, we can propose that microsatellite markers can be used as a complementary tool for morphological characteristics in DUS tests. PMID:25755666

  14. Single Parent Families

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Families > Single Parent Families Family Life Listen Single Parent Families Article Body Single parenthood can be one ... in the United States live with only one parent. Most single-parent situations result from divorce, but ...

  15. For Parents and Kids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español For Parents & Kids Diabetes is a disease that affects the ... right balance between caring and hovering. Explore: For Parents & Kids Parent's Perspective Parents of children with diabetes ...

  16. Evaluation of a 49 InDel Marker HID panel in two specific populations of South America and one population of Northern Africa.

    PubMed

    Moura-Neto, R S; Silva, R; Mello, I C; Nogueira, T; Al-Deib, A A; LaRue, B; King, J; Budowle, B

    2015-03-01

    The majority of STR loci are not ideal for the analysis of forensic samples with degraded and/or low template DNA. One alternative to overcome these limitations is the use of bi-allelic markers, which have low mutation rates and shorter amplicons. Human identification (HID) InDel marker panels have been described in several countries, including Brazil. The commercial kit available is, however, mostly suitable for Europeans, with lower discrimination power for other population groups. Recently, a combination of 49 InDel markers used in four different ethnic groups in the USA has been shown to be more informative than another panel from Portugal, already tested in a Rio de Janeiro sample. However, these 49 InDels have yet to be applied to other admixed or isolated populations. We assessed the efficiency of this panel in two urban admixed populations (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Tripoli, Libya) and one isolated Native Brazilian community. All markers are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) after the Bonferroni correction, and no Linkage disequilibrium was detected. Assuming loci independence and no substructure effect, cumulative RMP was 2.7×10(-18), 1.5×10(-20), and 4.5×10(-20) for Native Brazilian, Rio de Janeiro, and Tripoli populations, respectively. The overall Fst value was 0.05512. Rio de Janeiro and Tripoli showed similar admixture levels, however for Native Brazilians one parental cluster represented over 60 % of the total parental population. We conclude that this panel is suitable for HID on these urban populations, but is less efficient for the isolated group. PMID:25516412

  17. Template mixing: a method of enhancing detection and interpretation of codominant RAPD markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Davis; H. Yu; K. M. Haigis; P. J. McGowan

    1995-01-01

    Ten codominant RAPD markers, ranging in size from about 300 to about 1350 bp, were identified in mapping populations of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.). A distinguishing feature of all ten markers, and perhaps of codominant RAPD markers in general, was the presence in heterozygous individuals of a non-parental, heteroduplex band migrating more slowly than

  18. Mapping 245 SSR markers on the Vitis vinifera genome: a tool for grape genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A.-F. Adam-Blondon; C. Roux; D. Claux; G. Butterlin; D. Merdinoglu; P. This

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a microsatellite marker-based map of the Vitis vinifera genome ( n=19), useful for genetic studies in this perennial heterozygous species, as SSR markers are highly transferable co-dominant markers. A total of 346 primer pairs were tested on the two parents (Syrah and Grenache) of a full sib population of 96 individuals

  19. Three allele combinations associated with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Favorova, Olga O; Favorov, Alexander V; Boiko, Alexey N; Andreewski, Timofey V; Sudomoina, Marina A; Alekseenkov, Alexey D; Kulakova, Olga G; Gusev, Eugenyi I; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Ochs, Michael F

    2006-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of polygenic etiology. Dissection of its genetic background is a complex problem, because of the combinatorial possibilities of gene-gene interactions. As genotyping methods improve throughput, approaches that can explore multigene interactions appropriately should lead to improved understanding of MS. Methods 286 unrelated patients with definite MS and 362 unrelated healthy controls of Russian descent were genotyped at polymorphic loci (including SNPs, repeat polymorphisms, and an insertion/deletion) of the DRB1, TNF, LT, TGF?1, CCR5 and CTLA4 genes and TNFa and TNFb microsatellites. Each allele carriership in patients and controls was compared by Fisher's exact test, and disease-associated combinations of alleles in the data set were sought using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo-based method recently developed by our group. Results We identified two previously unknown MS-associated tri-allelic combinations: -509TGF?1*C, DRB1*18(3), CTLA4*G and -238TNF*B1,-308TNF*A2, CTLA4*G, which perfectly separate MS cases from controls, at least in the present sample. The previously described DRB1*15(2) allele, the microsatellite TNFa9 allele and the biallelic combination CCR5?32, DRB1*04 were also reidentified as MS-associated. Conclusion These results represent an independent validation of MS association with DRB1*15(2) and TNFa9 in Russians and are the first to find the interplay of three loci in conferring susceptibility to MS. They demonstrate the efficacy of our approach for the identification of complex-disease-associated combinations of alleles. PMID:16872485

  20. Tri-allelic pattern of short tandem repeats identifies the murderer among identical twins and suggests an embryonic mutational origin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Feng; Yang, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Nan; Quan, Xiao-Liang; Wu, Yuan-Ming

    2015-05-01

    Monozygotic twins can be co-identified by genotyping of short tandem repeats (STRs); however, for distinguishing them, STR genotyping is ineffective, especially in the case of murder. Here, a rarely occurring tri-allelic pattern in the vWA locus (16, 18, 19) was identified only in the DNA of one identical twin, which could help to exonerate the innocent twin in a murder charge. This mutation was defined as primary through genotyping of the family and could be detected in blood, buccal and semen samples from the individual; however, two alternative allele-balanced di-allelic patterns (16, 18 or 16, 19) were detected in hair root sheath cells. Such a kind of segregation indicates a one-step mutation occurs in cell mitosis, which is after embryonic zygote formation and during the early development of the individual after the division of the blastocyte. Sequencing revealed the insertion between the allele 18 and 19 is a repeat unit of TAGA/TCTA (plus/minus strand), which belongs to "AGAT/ATCT"-based core repeats identified from all tri-allelic pattern reports recorded in the STR base and a detailed model was proposed for STR repeat length variation caused by false priming during DNA synthesis. Our model illustrates the possible origination of allele-balanced and unbalanced tri-allelic pattern, clarifies that the genotypes of parent-child mismatches, aberrant di-allelic patterns, and type 1 or 2 tri-allelic patterns should be considered as independent, but interconnected forms of STR mutation. PMID:25732248

  1. Evaluation in beef cattle of six deoxyribonucleic acid markers developed for dairy traits reveals an osteopontin polymorphism associated with postweaning growth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six DNA markers have been reported to be associated with variation in dairy production traits. The objectives of this study were to 1) estimate allele frequencies in U.S. beef cattle and 2) evaluate association of marker genotype with beef production traits. Several genetic markers have been assoc...

  2. Identification of HLA-DRPhe?47 as the susceptibility marker of hypersensitivity to beryllium in individuals lacking the berylliosis-associated supratypic marker HLA-DPGlu?69

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Amicosante; Floriana Berretta; Milton Rossman; Richard H Butler; Paola Rogliani; Ella van den Berg-Loonen; Cesare Saltini

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Susceptibility to beryllium (Be)-hypersensitivity (BH) has been associated with HLA-DP alleles carrying a glutamate at position 69 of the HLA-DP ?-chain (HLA-DPGlu69) and with several HLA-DP, -DQ and -DR alleles and polymorphisms. However, no genetic associations have been found between BH affected subjects not carrying the HLA-DPGlu69 susceptibility marker. METHODS: In this report, we re-evaluated an already described patient

  3. Expanding the Repertoire of Gene Tools for Precise Manipulation of the Clostridium difficile Genome: Allelic Exchange Using pyrE Alleles

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Sheryl; Collery, Mark M.; Janoir, Clare; Collignon, Anne; Cartman, Stephen T.; Minton, Nigel P.

    2013-01-01

    Sophisticated genetic tools to modify essential biological processes at the molecular level are pivotal in elucidating the molecular pathogenesis of Clostridium difficile, a major cause of healthcare associated disease. Here we have developed an efficient procedure for making precise alterations to the C. difficile genome by pyrE-based allelic exchange. The robustness and reliability of the method was demonstrated through the creation of in-frame deletions in three genes (spo0A, cwp84, and mtlD) in the non-epidemic strain 630?erm and two genes (spo0A and cwp84) in the epidemic PCR Ribotype 027 strain, R20291. The system is reliant on the initial creation of a pyrE deletion mutant, using Allele Coupled Exchange (ACE), that is auxotrophic for uracil and resistant to fluoroorotic acid (FOA). This enables the subsequent modification of target genes by allelic exchange using a heterologous pyrE allele from Clostridium sporogenes as a counter-/negative-selection marker in the presence of FOA. Following modification of the target gene, the strain created is rapidly returned to uracil prototrophy using ACE, allowing mutant phenotypes to be characterised in a PyrE proficient background. Crucially, wild-type copies of the inactivated gene may be introduced into the genome using ACE concomitant with correction of the pyrE allele. This allows complementation studies to be undertaken at an appropriate gene dosage, as opposed to the use of multicopy autonomous plasmids. The rapidity of the ‘correction’ method (5–7 days) makes pyrE? strains attractive hosts for mutagenesis studies. PMID:23405251

  4. A powerful test of parent-of-origin effects for quantitative traits using haplotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon where the same alleles have unequal transcriptions and thus contribute differently to a trait depending on their parent of origin. This mechanism has been found to affect a variety of human disorders. Although various methods for testing parent-of-origin effect...

  5. Genetic exchange of fimbrial alleles exemplifies the adaptive virulence strategy of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jennifer E; Abramian, Jared R; Dao, Doan-Hieu V; Rigney, Todd W; Fritz, Jamie; Pham, Tan; Gay, Isabel; Parthasarathy, Kavitha; Wang, Bing-yan; Zhang, Wenjian; Tribble, Gena D

    2014-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, a member of the human oral microbiome, and a proposed "keystone" pathogen in the development of chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the gingiva. P. gingivalis is a genetically diverse species, and is able to exchange chromosomal DNA between strains by natural competence and conjugation. In this study, we investigate the role of horizontal DNA transfer as an adaptive process to modify behavior, using the major fimbriae as our model system, due to their critical role in mediating interactions with the host environment. We show that P. gingivalis is able to exchange fimbrial allele types I and IV into four distinct strain backgrounds via natural competence. In all recombinants, we detected a complete exchange of the entire fimA allele, and the rate of exchange varies between the different strain backgrounds. In addition, gene exchange within other regions of the fimbrial genetic locus was identified. To measure the biological implications of these allele swaps we compared three genotypes of fimA in an isogenic background, strain ATCC 33277. We demonstrate that exchange of fimbrial allele type results in profound phenotypic changes, including the quantity of fimbriae elaborated, membrane blebbing, auto-aggregation and other virulence-associated phenotypes. Replacement of the type I allele with either the type III or IV allele resulted in increased invasion of gingival fibroblast cells relative to the isogenic parent strain. While genetic variability is known to impact host-microbiome interactions, this is the first study to quantitatively assess the adaptive effect of exchanging genes within the pan genome cloud. This is significant as it presents a potential mechanism by which opportunistic pathogens may acquire the traits necessary to modify host-microbial interactions. PMID:24626479

  6. Genetic Exchange of Fimbrial Alleles Exemplifies the Adaptive Virulence Strategy of Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jennifer E.; Abramian, Jared R.; Dao, Doan-Hieu V.; Rigney, Todd W.; Fritz, Jamie; Pham, Tan; Gay, Isabel; Parthasarathy, Kavitha; Wang, Bing-yan; Zhang, Wenjian; Tribble, Gena D.

    2014-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram–negative anaerobic bacterium, a member of the human oral microbiome, and a proposed “keystone” pathogen in the development of chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the gingiva. P. gingivalis is a genetically diverse species, and is able to exchange chromosomal DNA between strains by natural competence and conjugation. In this study, we investigate the role of horizontal DNA transfer as an adaptive process to modify behavior, using the major fimbriae as our model system, due to their critical role in mediating interactions with the host environment. We show that P. gingivalis is able to exchange fimbrial allele types I and IV into four distinct strain backgrounds via natural competence. In all recombinants, we detected a complete exchange of the entire fimA allele, and the rate of exchange varies between the different strain backgrounds. In addition, gene exchange within other regions of the fimbrial genetic locus was identified. To measure the biological implications of these allele swaps we compared three genotypes of fimA in an isogenic background, strain ATCC 33277. We demonstrate that exchange of fimbrial allele type results in profound phenotypic changes, including the quantity of fimbriae elaborated, membrane blebbing, auto-aggregation and other virulence-associated phenotypes. Replacement of the type I allele with either the type III or IV allele resulted in increased invasion of gingival fibroblast cells relative to the isogenic parent strain. While genetic variability is known to impact host-microbiome interactions, this is the first study to quantitatively assess the adaptive effect of exchanging genes within the pan genome cloud. This is significant as it presents a potential mechanism by which opportunistic pathogens may acquire the traits necessary to modify host-microbial interactions. PMID:24626479

  7. Parents' Guide The purpose of the Parents'

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    Parents' Guide #12;The purpose of the Parents' Guide is to help you provide support to your student out of their time at Western. Parents' Guide DIDYOU KNOW? In October of 2012, Western received sessions, there is a concurrent Parent/Guest Orientation Program where you can have your questions answered

  8. Cryptic virulence and avirulence alleles revealed by controlled sexual recombination in pea aphids.

    PubMed

    Kanvil, Sadia; Collins, C Matilda; Powell, Glen; Turnbull, Colin G N

    2015-02-01

    Although aphids are worldwide crop pests, little is known about aphid effector genes underlying virulence and avirulence. Here we show that controlling the genetics of both aphid and host can reveal novel recombinant genotypes with previously undetected allelic variation in both virulence and avirulence functions. Clonal F1 progeny populations were derived from reciprocal crosses and self-matings between two parental genotypes of pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) differing in virulence on a Medicago truncatula host carrying the RAP1 and RAP2 resistance genes. These populations showed Mendelian segregation consistent with aphid performance being controlled largely by a dominant virulence allele derived from only one parent. Altered segregation ratios on near-isogenic host genotypes differing in the region carrying RAP1 were indicative of additional heritable functions likely related to avirulence genes originating from both parents. Unexpectedly, some virulent F1 progeny were recovered from selfing of an avirulent parent, suggesting a reservoir of cryptic alleles. Host chlorosis was associated with virulence, whereas necrotic hypersensitive-like response was not. No maternal inheritance was found for any of these characteristics, ruling out sex-linked, cytoplasmic, and endosymbiotic factors. Our results demonstrate the tractability of dissecting the genetic basis of pest-host resistance mechanisms and indicate that the annual sexual cycle in aphids may lead to frequent novel genotypes with both increased and decreased virulence. Availability of genomes for both pest and host can facilitate definition of cognate gene-for-gene relationships, potentially leading to selection of crop genotypes with multiple resistance traits. PMID:25519896

  9. Evolutionary Dynamics of Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility Alleles in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Schierup, M. H.; Vekemans, X.; Christiansen, F. B.

    1997-01-01

    The stationary frequency distribution and allelic dynamics in finite populations are analyzed through stochastic simulations in three models of single-locus, multi-allelic sporophytic self-incompatibility. The models differ in the dominance relationships among alleles. In one model, alleles act codominantly in both pollen and style (SSIcod), in the second, alleles form a dominance hierarchy in pollen and style (SSIdom). In the third model, alleles interact codominantly in the style and form a dominance hierarchy in the pollen (SSIdomcod). The SSIcod model behaves similarly to the model of gametophytic self-incompatibility, but the selection intensity is stronger. With dominance, dominant alleles invade the population more easily than recessive alleles and have a lower frequency at equilibrium. In the SSIdom model, recessive alleles have both a higher allele frequency and higher expected life span. In the SSIdomcod model, however, loss due to drift occurs more easily for pollen-recessive than for pollen-dominant alleles, and therefore, dominant alleles have a higher expected life span than the more recessive alleles. The process of allelic turnover in the SSIdomcod and SSIdom models is closely approximated by a random walk on a dominance ladder. Implications of the results for experimental studies of sporophytic self-incompatibility in natural populations are discussed. PMID:9335618

  10. A SERIES OF FIVE MULTIPLE ALLELES1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID C. RIFE

    In 1937 Boye and Rife (1) reported a single pair of alleles as being responsible for a solid purple leaf color versus pattern (brown or red area in central portion of upper epidermis of otherwise green leaves). Purple (P) is dominant to pattern (p). The difference between the solid green of the Golden Bedder variety and. pattern was likewise shown

  11. Tetrasomic segregation for multiple alleles in alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Quiros, C F

    1982-05-01

    Evidence of tetrasomic inheritance in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. and M. falcata L., for multiple codominant alleles at three isozymic loci is reported in this study. The locus Prx-1 governing anodal peroxidase and the loci Lap-1 and Lap-2 governing anodal leucine-aminopeptidase were studied by starch gel electrophoresis in seedling root tissue or seeds. The progenies from several di-, tri- or tetra-allelic plants belong to the species M. sativa and M. falcata and their hybrids were studied for the segregation of the three genes. In all cases, tetrasomic inheritance of chromosomal-type segregation was observed. In another progeny resulting from the crossing of two plants involving four different alleles at locus Lap-2, tetrasomic segregation with the possible occurrence of double reduction was observed. This study presents direct evidence of autotetraploidy and the existence of tetra-allelic loci in alfalfa. It also supports the concept that the species M. sativa and M. falcata are genetically close enough to be considered biotypes of a common species. PMID:17246077

  12. Estimation of Allele Frequencies at Isoloci

    PubMed Central

    Waples, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    In some polyploid animals and plants, pairs of duplicated loci occur that share alleles encoding proteins with identical electrophoretic mobilities. Except in cases where these ``isoloci'' are known to be inherited tetrasomically, individual genotypes cannot be determined unambiguously, and there is no direct way to assign observed variation to a particular locus of the pair. For a pair of diallelic isoloci, nine genotypes are possible but only five phenotypes can be identified, corresponding to individuals with 0-4 doses of the variant allele. A maximum likelihood (ML) approach is used here to identify the set of allele frequencies (p, q) at the individual gene loci with the highest probability of producing the observed phenotypic distribution. A likelihood ratio test is used to generate the asymmetrical confidence intervals around ML estimates. Simulations indicate that the standard error of p is typically about twice the binomial sampling error associated with single locus allele frequency estimates. ML estimates can be used in standard indices of genetic diversity and differentiation and in goodness-of-fit tests of genetic hypotheses. The noncentral ?(2) distribution is used to evaluate the power of a test of apparent heterozygote deficiency that results from attributing all variation to one locus when both loci are polymorphic. PMID:3360307

  13. Non-random Allelic Variation Natural Selection

    E-print Network

    Houde, Peter

    Non-random Allelic Variation AKA Natural Selection #12;Adaptation!Adaptation! #12;#12;Venus comb or ­ a feature that is maintained because of natural selection for its function preadaptation ­ a trait history #12;Natural Selection Evolution evolution is a two step process 1) origin of genetic variation 2

  14. Comparing alleles between wild and domesticated tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the USDA, ARS Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU), we conserve approximately 6,000 accessions of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and several hundred accessions of wild tomato species. Characterizing alleles in our collection will aid breeders and other researchers in using the germplasm. Domesti...

  15. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    PubMed

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. PMID:25775930

  16. Associations of HLA alleles with specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci have been implicated in several neurodevelopmental disorders in which language is affected. However, to date, no studies have investigated the possible involvement of HLA loci in specific language impairment (SLI), a disorder that is defined primarily upon unexpected language impairment. We report association analyses of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and HLA types in a cohort of individuals affected by language impairment. Methods We perform quantitative association analyses of three linguistic measures and case-control association analyses using both SNP data and imputed HLA types. Results Quantitative association analyses of imputed HLA types suggested a role for the HLA-A locus in susceptibility to SLI. HLA-A A1 was associated with a measure of short-term memory (P = 0.004) and A3 with expressive language ability (P = 0.006). Parent-of-origin effects were found between HLA-B B8 and HLA-DQA1*0501 and receptive language. These alleles have a negative correlation with receptive language ability when inherited from the mother (P = 0.021, P = 0.034, respectively) but are positively correlated with the same trait when paternally inherited (P = 0.013, P = 0.029, respectively). Finally, case control analyses using imputed HLA types indicated that the DR10 allele of HLA-DRB1 was more frequent in individuals with SLI than population controls (P = 0.004, relative risk = 2.575), as has been reported for individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Conclusion These preliminary data provide an intriguing link to those described by previous studies of other neurodevelopmental disorders and suggest a possible role for HLA loci in language disorders. PMID:24433325

  17. Analysis of allelic variation of the apolipoprotein B hypervariable locus in the Bashkir and Komi populations

    SciTech Connect

    Khusnutdinova, E.K.; Khidiatova, I.M.; Rafikov, H.S. [Bashkir Scientific Center, Ufa (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Allelic variation of the hypervariable apolipoprotein B gene locus (APOB) in three groups of the Bashkir population and in the Komi population was analyzed. Among 219 individuals studied, 13 allelic variants were identified with a number of repeats ranging from 28 to 52. The frequency of alleles varied from 0.01 to 0.51 with the mean heterozygosity index being 0.66 in the Bashkir population and 0.74 in the Komi one. Considerable difference in the frequency distribution of the APOB loci genotypes between the Bashkir and Komi populations was observed, and the distribution patterns for Bashkirs from Abzelilovskii and Ilishevskii raions deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The genetic distance between the Bashkir and Komi populations calculated on the basis of allele frequencies at the hypervariable APOB gene locus corresponded to the expected degree similarity of the population studied. Thus, this locus can be recommended as an informative marker for studying the gene pool and genetic processes in the populations because of the high level of its polymorphism and the heterozygosity in the populations. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Relationships among parental, event-, parenting, and life-stresses, parental behavior, and parent-child interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven E Zimmerman

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among parental event-, parenting-, and life- stress, parental behavior, and parent-child interaction, in a non-clinical sample of 26 parent-child dyads with children 11 to 53 months, building upon a prior study (Adams, 2006), by investigating the relevance of additional parent- and parent-child dyadic behaviors. Hypotheses were: Greater event stress would be positively associated with improved

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of chrysanthemums in Korea based on novel SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Khaing, A A; Moe, K T; Hong, W J; Park, C S; Yeon, K H; Park, H S; Kim, D C; Choi, B J; Jung, J Y; Chae, S C; Lee, K M; Park, Y J

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemums are well known for their esthetic and medicinal values. Characterization of chrysanthemums is vital for their conservation and management as well as for understanding their genetic relationships. We found 12 simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs) of 100 designed primers to be polymorphic. These novel SSR markers were used to evaluate 95 accessions of chrysanthemums (3 indigenous and 92 cultivated accessions). Two hundred alleles were identified, with an average of 16.7 alleles per locus. KNUCRY-77 gave the highest polymorphic information content value (0.879), while KNUCRY-10 gave the lowest (0.218). Similar patterns of grouping were observed with a distance-based dendrogram developed using PowerMarker and model-based clustering with Structure. Three clusters with some admixtures were identified by model-based clustering. These newly developed SSR markers will be useful for further studies of chrysanthemums, such as taxonomy and marker-assisted selection breeding. PMID:24301794

  20. Analysis of genomic imprinting by quantitative allele-specific expression by Pyrosequencing(®).

    PubMed

    McKeown, Peter C; Fort, Antoine; Spillane, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a parent-of-origin phenomenon whereby gene expression is restricted to the allele inherited from either the maternal or paternal parent. It has been described from flowering plants and eutherian mammals and may have evolved due to parental conflicts over resource allocation. In mammals, imprinted genes are responsible for ensuring correct rates of embryo development and for preventing parthenogenesis. The molecular basis of imprinting depends upon the presence of differential epigenetic marks on the alleles inherited from each parent, although in plants the exact mechanisms that control imprinting are still unclear in many cases. Recent studies have identified large numbers of candidate imprinted genes from Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants (see Chap. 7 by Köhler and colleagues elsewhere in this volume) providing the tools for more thorough investigation into how imprinted gene networks (IGNs) are regulated. Analysis of genomic imprinting in animals has revealed important information on how IGNs are regulated during development, which often involves intermediate levels of imprinting. In some instances, small but significant changes in the degree of parental bias in gene expression have been linked to developmental traits, livestock phenotypes, and human disease. As some of the imprinted genes recently reported from plants show differential rather than complete (binary) imprinting, there is a clear need for tools that can quantify the degree of allelic expression bias occurring at a transcribed locus. In this chapter, we describe the use of Quantification of Allele-Specific Expression by Pyrosequencing(®) (QUASEP) as a tool suitable for this challenge. We describe in detail the factors which ensure that a Pyrosequencing(®) assay will be suitable for giving robust QUASEP and the problems which may be encountered during the study of imprinted genes by Pyrosequencing(®), with particular reference to our work in A. thaliana and in cattle. We also discuss some considerations with respect to the statistical analysis of the resulting data. Finally, we provide a brief overview of the future possibility of adapting Pyrosequencing(®) for analyzing other aspects of imprinting including the analysis of methylated regions. PMID:24478009

  1. Exploration of presence/absence variation and corresponding polymorphic markers in soybean genome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Lu, Jiangjie; Chen, Shouyi; Shu, Liping; Palmer, Reid G; Xing, Guangnan; Li, Yan; Yang, Shouping; Yu, Deyue; Zhao, Tuanjie; Gai, Junyi

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to reveal the genome-wide distribution of presence/absence variation (PAV) and to establish a database of polymorphic PAV markers in soybean. The 33 soybean whole-genome sequences were compared to each other with that of Williams 82 as a reference genome. A total of 33,127 PAVs were detected and 28,912 PAV markers with their primer sequences were designed as the database NJAUSoyPAV_1.0. The PAVs scattered on whole genome while only 518 (1.8%) overlapped with simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in BARCSOYSSR_1.0 database. In a random sample of 800 PAVs, 713 (89.13%) showed polymorphism among the 12 differential genotypes. Using 126 PAVs and 108 SSRs to test a Chinese soybean germplasm collection composed of 828 Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc. and Glycine max (L.) Merr. accessions, the per locus allele number and its variation appeared less in PAVs than in SSRs. The distinctness among alleles/bands of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) products showed better in PAVs than in SSRs, potential in accurate marker-assisted allele selection. The association mapping results showed SSR?+?PAV was more powerful than any single marker systems. The NJAUSoyPAV_1.0 database has enriched the source of PCR markers, and may fit the materials with a range of per locus allele numbers, if jointly used with SSR markers. PMID:24751174

  2. Effortful Control and Parenting: Associations with HPA Axis Reactivity in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryski, Katie R.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Laptook, Rebecca S.; Klein, Daniel N.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.

    2013-01-01

    While activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is an adaptive response to stress, excessive HPA axis reactivity may be an important marker of childhood vulnerability to psychopathology. Parenting, including parent affect during parent-child interactions, may play an important role in shaping the developing HPA system; however,…

  3. Spatial proximity of homologous alleles and long noncoding RNAs regulate a switch in allelic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Stratigi, Kalliopi; Kapsetaki, Manouela; Aivaliotis, Michalis; Town, Terrence; Flavell, Richard A.; Spilianakis, Charalampos G.

    2015-01-01

    Physiological processes rely on the regulation of total mRNA levels in a cell. In diploid organisms, the transcriptional activation of one or both alleles of a gene may involve trans-allelic interactions that provide a tight spatial and temporal level of gene expression regulation. The mechanisms underlying such interactions still remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that lipopolysaccharide stimulation of murine macrophages rapidly resulted in the actin-mediated and transient homologous spatial proximity of Tnf? alleles, which was necessary for the mono- to biallelic switch in gene expression. We identified two new complementary long noncoding RNAs transcribed from the TNF? locus and showed that their knockdown had opposite effects in Tnf? spatial proximity and allelic expression. Moreover, the observed spatial proximity of Tnf? alleles depended on pyruvate kinase muscle isoform 2 (PKM2) and T-helper-inducing POZ-Krüppel-like factor (ThPOK). This study suggests a role for lncRNAs in the regulation of somatic homologous spatial proximity and allelic expression control necessary for fine-tuning mammalian immune responses. PMID:25770217

  4. Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

  5. Alu polymorphism within the MICB gene and association with HLA-B alleles.

    PubMed

    Kulski, Jerzy K; Dunn, David S; Hui, Jennie; Martinez, Patricia; Romphruk, Amornrat V; Leelayuwat, Chanvit; Tay, Guan K; Oka, Akira; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2002-02-01

    We describe the finding of an Alu repeat dimorphism within the first intron of the MICB gene. The frequencies of the two AluyMICB alleles, AluyMICB*0(absence of insertion) and AluyMICB*1(presence of insertion), and their associations with the highly polymorphic HLA-B locus were determined for 51 human cell lines and for 109 and 200 Caucasians and northeastern Thais, respectively. Analysis of the AluyMICB and HLA-B allelic relationships revealed that AluyMICB*1 occurred at relatively low gene frequency (0.118-0.157) [corrected] but was strongly associated with HLA-B17 (HLA-B57,HLA-B58) and HLA-B13. The AluyMICB locus provides a useful dimorphic marker for investigations on the level of linkage disequilibrium between MICB, MICA, and HLA-B loci. PMID:11862397

  6. Strong allelic association between Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome and D17S805

    SciTech Connect

    Pigg, M.; Jagell, S.; Sillen, A. [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Sjoegren-Larsson Syndrom (SLS) is characterized by congenital ichthyosis, spastic di- or tetraplegia and mental retardation. It is an autosomal recessive trait that has been described in many populations, but is particularly frequent in the northern part of Sweden. A defect in the enzyme fatty alcohol: NAD+ oxidoreductase (FAD) has been suggested, but the molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. Based on linkage analysis and allelic association, the disorder has now been mapped to chromosome 17. Meiotic recombinations suggests that the gene is flanked by D17S805 on the centromeric and D17S783 and D17S925 on the telomeric side. These three markers map to the same location in reference pedigrees. Strong allelic association (chi-square 60.28, p<0.0003) to D17S805 suggests that the mutation is located at a limited distance on the telomeric side of this marker. It is possible that the gene can be identified by functional complementation of SLS cells using YACs from this region. Alternatively, positional cloning should be possible in this presumable small area. The markers identified are close and informative enough to allow accurate genetic diagnosis.

  7. Statistics of Natural Populations. II. Estimating an Allele Probability in Families Descended from Cryptic Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Jonathan; Morrison, Melvin L.

    1985-01-01

    In population studies, adults are frequently difficult or inconvenient to identify for genotype, but a family profile of genotypes can be obtained from an unidentified female crossed with a single unidentified male. The problem is to estimate an allele frequency in the cryptic parental gene pool from the observed family profiles. For example, a worker may wish to estimate inversion frequencies in Drosophila; inversion karyotypes are cryptic in adults but visible in salivary gland squashes from larvae. A simple mixture model, which assumes the Hardy-Weinberg law, Mendelian laws and a single randomly chosen mate per female, provides the vehicle for studying three competing estimators of an allele frequency. A simple, heuristically appealing estimator called the Dobzhansky estimator is compared with the maximum likelihood estimator and a close relative called the grouped profiles estimator. The Dobzhansky estimator is computationally simple, consistent and highly efficient and is recommended in practice over its competitors. PMID:17246258

  8. Statistics of Natural Populations. II. Estimating an Allele Probability in Families Descended from Cryptic Mothers.

    PubMed

    Arnold, J; Morrison, M L

    1985-04-01

    In population studies, adults are frequently difficult or inconvenient to identify for genotype, but a family profile of genotypes can be obtained from an unidentified female crossed with a single unidentified male. The problem is to estimate an allele frequency in the cryptic parental gene pool from the observed family profiles. For example, a worker may wish to estimate inversion frequencies in Drosophila; inversion karyotypes are cryptic in adults but visible in salivary gland squashes from larvae. A simple mixture model, which assumes the Hardy-Weinberg law, Mendelian laws and a single randomly chosen mate per female, provides the vehicle for studying three competing estimators of an allele frequency. A simple, heuristically appealing estimator called the Dobzhansky estimator is compared with the maximum likelihood estimator and a close relative called the grouped profiles estimator. The Dobzhansky estimator is computationally simple, consistent and highly efficient and is recommended in practice over its competitors. PMID:17246258

  9. Discipline: Parents' and

    E-print Network

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    Parenting Styles and Discipline: Parents' and Children's Perspectives SUMMARY REPORT The National Children's Strategy Research Series #12;#12;Parenting Styles and Discipline: Parents' Perspectives SUMMARY Data analysis 4 KEY FINDINGS 4 Parental discipline responses 4 Non-aggressive discipline strategies 4

  10. Parent-Offspring Conflict

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT L. TRIVERS

    1974-01-01

    synopsis. When parent-offspring relations in sexually reproducing species are viewed from the standpoint of the offspring as well as the parent, conflict is seen to be an expected feature of such relations. In particular, parent and offspring are expected to disagree over how long the period of parental investment should last, over the amount of parental investment that should be

  11. Information Titan Parents

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    for Parents of Commuter Students 3 Titan Parents Profile & State Relations & Advocacy 4 College Parenting 101 Titan Parents Connection President Gordon's Farewell Cal State Fullerton President Milton A. Gordon President #12;Welcome Titan Parents! On behalf of California State University, Fullerton, welcome

  12. INSIDE THIS Titan Parents

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    INSIDE THIS ISSUE: Titan Parents: New Initiatives 1 Homecoming 2010: Parents Show Parent Connection A P R I L 2 0 1 0V O L U M E 1 , I S S U E 2 Titan Parents: New Initiatives for a New Year Over the past year, California State University, Fullerton has championed efforts to make parent

  13. Parent Support Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Judy

    1985-01-01

    The Parent Services Project in the San Francisco area is described. A brief history is given along with a brief look at project activities. Parent support activities are examined. Elements of a successful parent support project, including social activities, family entertainment, parental decision making, and parental control of resources, are…

  14. Working with Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Learning Resources System/CROWN, Jacksonville.

    Designed to give special education teachers ideas and techniques for working effectively with parents of elementary school students, the document presents guidelines for parent-teacher interaction. Sections cover the following topics: techniques for parent involvement, building rapport, informal parent-teacher contacts, parent-teacher conferences,…

  15. Prison Parenting Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret J. Hughes; Jenée Harrison-Thompson

    2002-01-01

    Estimates indicate that parents make up a large segment of the prison population in the United States. Parental incarceration affects the whole family. For children of incarcerated parents, separation is painful and can be detrimental to their development. Effective parenting programs in prisons can be beneficial to the incarcerated parents, their children, and society. This study surveyed 745 state prisons

  16. Parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jullien, Pauline E; Berger, Frédéric

    2010-03-01

    In mammals and in plants, parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates embryo growth and might be involved in reproductive isolation between emerging new species. Increased dosage of maternal genomes represses growth while an increased dosage of paternal genomes has the opposite effect. These observations led to the discovery of imprinted genes, which are expressed by a single parental allele. It was further proposed in the frame of the parental conflict theory that parental genome imbalances are directly mirrored by antagonistic regulations of imprinted genes encoding maternal growth inhibitors and paternal growth enhancers. However these hypotheses were never tested directly. Here, we investigated the effect of parental genome imbalance on the expression of Arabidopsis imprinted genes FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED2 (FIS2) and FLOWERING WAGENINGEN (FWA) controlled by DNA methylation, and MEDEA (MEA) and PHERES1 (PHE1) controlled by histone methylation. Genome dosage imbalance deregulated the expression of FIS2 and PHE1 in an antagonistic manner. In addition increased dosage of inactive alleles caused a loss of imprinting of FIS2 and MEA. Although FIS2 controls histone methylation, which represses MEA and PHE1 expression, the changes of PHE1 and MEA expression could not be fully accounted for by the corresponding fluctuations of FIS2 expression. Our results show that parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting using mechanisms, which are independent from known regulators of imprinting. The complexity of the network of regulations between expressed and silenced alleles of imprinted genes activated in response to parental dosage imbalance does not support simple models derived from the parental conflict hypothesis. PMID:20333248

  17. Genic Microsatellite Markers in Brassica rapa: Development, Characterization, Mapping, and Their Utility in Other Cultivated and Wild Brassica Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2011-01-01

    Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species. PMID:21768136

  18. Role of GBSS allelic diversity in rice grain quality

    E-print Network

    Dobo, Macaire

    2009-05-15

    protein than those with the Wxb allele (Villareal and Juliano 1989). The Wxb allele is often found in the japonica subspecies of O. sativa, while Wxa is primarily found in the indica subspecies (Hirano and Sano 1991). Genotypes with the wx allele have...

  19. Mutant maize variety containing the glt1-1 allele

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Oliver E. (Cross Plains, WI); Pan, David (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01

    A maize plant has in its genome a non-mutable form of a mutant allele designated vitX-8132. The allele is located at a locus designated as glt which conditions kernels having an altered starch characteristic. Maize plants including such a mutant allele produce a starch that does not increase in viscosity on cooling, after heating.

  20. Mutant maize variety containing the glt1-1 allele

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, O.E.; Pan, D.

    1994-07-19

    A maize plant has in its genome a non-mutable form of a mutant allele designated vitX-8132. The allele is located at a locus designated as glt which conditions kernels having an altered starch characteristic. Maize plants including such a mutant allele produce a starch that does not increase in viscosity on cooling, after heating. 2 figs.

  1. Questions about Biological Parents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Biological Parents Family Life Listen Questions About Biological Parents Article Body As you raise your adopted ... to her life—the fact that she has biological parents elsewhere—that may make it necessary for ...

  2. When Parents Argue

    MedlinePLUS

    ... when your parents fight with each other? When Parents Disagree All couples argue from time to time. ... they don't really mean. It's OK for Parents to Argue Sometimes It's natural for people to ...

  3. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... than those who hadn't. Back Continue How Parents Might Feel Adolescence is a time of transition not just for teens, but for their parents too. Many parents face their adolescent's emerging sexuality ...

  4. The Parent Care Pavilion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Morris; Green, Janice G.

    1977-01-01

    Describes operation of the Parent Care Pavilion of the J. W. Riley Children's Hospital in Indianapolis, which encourages active parent involvement in care of hospitalized children on a 24-hour basis. Benefits to children, parents and staff are described. (BF)

  5. Parenting while Being Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

  6. PARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    PARENT'S GUIDE ARROYO VISTA Tips for Parents & Families Seeing your child leave for college a niche early usually have a more positive and productive undergraduate experience. Therefore, encourage government, athletic events, recreation, arts performances, volunteer service, campus employment, the First

  7. PARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    PARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families Seeing your child leave for college, whether" environments. Students who find a niche early usually have a more positive and productive undergraduate- clubs, lectures, student government, athletic events, recreation, arts performances, volunteer service

  8. PARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    PARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families Seeing your child leave for college, whether a niche early usually have a more positive and productive undergraduate experience. Therefore, encourage government, athletic events, recreation, arts performances, volunteer service, campus employment, the First

  9. Comparison of allele frequencies of eight STR loci from Argentinian Amerindian and European populations.

    PubMed

    Sala, A; Penacino, G; Corach, D

    1998-10-01

    Eight STR systems (THO1, FABP, VWA, FES/FPS, HPRTB, F13A1, CSF1PO, and D6S366) were investigated in different ethnic groups of Argentina. Allele and genotype frequencies, power of exclusion, and discriminative power were investigated. Hardy-Weinberg expectations were calculated from heterozygosity levels. FST and G tests demonstrated that significant differences exist among the investigated populations for some of the eight STRs markers. The Wichi Indians are clearly separated from the Mapuche and Tehuelche, who in turn are closer to the European population, suggesting non-Amerindian admixture. PMID:9780520

  10. Development of microsatellite markers for the grapevine fungal pathogen Phaeomoniella chlamydospora.

    PubMed

    Smetham, Gabrielle; Ades, Peter; Ford, Rebecca

    2008-09-01

    Twenty polymorphic microsatellite markers from microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA of the grapevine fungal pathogen, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, were developed and characterized. The markers were used to genotype isolates from Australia and from Europe/Eurasia. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 11. Gene diversity per locus ranged from 0.08 to 0.63 among Australian isolates, and from 0.2 to 0.77 among isolates from Europe/Eurasia, demonstrating the suitability of these markers for population genetic studies of P. chlamydospora. Eighteen of the 20 markers also amplified a product in the closely related Phaeoacremonium aleophilum. PMID:21585969

  11. Sympathovagal Imbalance in Prehypertensive Offspring of Two Parents versus One Parent Hypertensive

    PubMed Central

    Pal, G. K.; Pal, Pravati; Nanda, Nivedita; Lalitha, V.; Dutta, T. K.; Adithan, C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Though prehypertension has strong familial predisposition, difference in pathophysiological mechanisms in its genesis in offspring of both parents and single parent hypertensive have not been elucidated. Methods. Body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), basal heart rate (BHR), blood pressure (BP), HR and BP response to standing, deep breathing difference, BP response to handgrip and spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV) were analyzed in normotensive offspring of two parents hypertensive (Group I), normotensive offspring of one parent hypertensive (Group II), prehypertensive offspring of two parents hypertensive (Group III) and prehypertensive offspring of one parent hypertensive (Group IV). Results. Sympathovagal imbalance (SVI) in prehypertensive offspring was observed due to increased sympathetic and decreased vagal activity. In group III, SVI was more prominent with greater contribution by vagal withdrawal. LF-HF ratio, the marker of SVI was correlated more with diastolic pressure, 30?:?15 ratio and E?:?I ratio in prehypertensives and the degree of correlation was more in group III prehypertensives. Conclusion. Vagal withdrawal plays a critical role in development of SVI in prehypertensive offspring of hypertensive parents. The intensity of SVI was more in offspring of two parents hypertensive compared to single parent hypertensive. PMID:22121472

  12. Distribution of DRB1 and DQB1 HLA class II alleles in occupational asthma due to western red cedar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Horne; P. J. E. Quintana; P. A. Keown; H. Dimich-Ward; M. Chan-Yeung

    2000-01-01

    Occupational asthma caused by western red cedar is a common prob- lem in sawmill industries. The objective of this study was to examine a possible association of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genetic markers with sus- ceptibility or resistance to western red cedar induced asthma. The distribution of DRB1 and DQB1 HLA class II alleles and DRB1-DQB1 haplotypes was

  13. Microsatellite markers for the invasive species Bidens alba (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yong-Bin; Huang, Dong-Ling; Wang, Xie; Wu, Zheng-Jun; Tang, Shao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed in the invasive species Bidens alba (Asteraceae) to assess its population structure and to facilitate tracking its expansion in China. • Methods and Results: Using 454 pyrosequencing, 20 microsatellite primer sets were developed for B. alba. The markers were tested on one population of B. alba (30 individuals) and one population of the closely related B. pilosa (30 individuals) in China. For B. alba, all of the markers were polymorphic, and the number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 32. The expected heterozygosity values were from 0.3787 to 0.9284, and the Shannon–Wiener index was from 0.6796 to 2.8401. • Conclusions: These markers will be useful for investigating the genetic structure, genetic diversity, and invasion dynamics of B. alba and will also be useful in studies of B. pilosa. PMID:25202626

  14. Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers for the human botfly, Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Bitarello, Bárbara Domingues; Torres, Tatiana Teixeira; Lyra, Mariana Lúcio; DE Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria Lima

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we describe the development of 17 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the human botfly, Dermatobia hominis, an obligatory parasite of mammals of great veterinary importance in Latin America. The number of alleles ranged from 5 to 21 per locus, with a mean of 12.2 alleles per locus. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.2571 to 0.9206 and from 0.2984 to 0.9291 in two populations from Brazil. These markers should provide a high resolution tool for assessment of the fine-scale genetic structure of natural populations of the human botfly. PMID:21564664

  15. Isolation and characterization of 21 microsatellite markers in the barn owl (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Burri, R; Antoniazza, S; Siverio, F; Klein, A; Roulin, A; Fumagalli, L

    2008-09-01

    We report 21 new polymorphic microsatellite markers in the European barn owl (Tyto alba). The polymorphism of the reported markers was evaluated in a population situated in western Switzerland and in another from Tenerife, Canary Islands. The number of alleles per locus varies between two and 31, and expected heterozygosity per population ranges from 0.16 to 0.95. All loci are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no linkage disequilibrium was detected. Two loci exhibit a null allele in the Tenerife population. PMID:21585946

  16. Allele frequencies of a SNP and a 27-bp deletion that are the determinant of earwax type in the ABCC11 gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Kitano; Isao Yuasa; Kentaro Yamazaki; Nori Nakayashiki; Aya Miyoshi; Kyung Sook Park; Kazuo Umetsu

    2008-01-01

    Allele frequencies for a SNP (rs17822931) and a 27-bp deletion that are the determinant of earwax type in the ABCC11 gene were investigated in seven Japanese, one Korean, and one German populations. The SNP will be useful as one of ancestry information markers, because it showed marked difference in frequencies between Asian and European populations.

  17. Mutation analyses of KRAS exon 1 comparing three different techniques: temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis, constant denaturant capillaryelectrophoresis and allele specific polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Bjørheim; Sigrid Lystad; Annika Lindblom; Ulf Kressner; Sophia Westring; Siobhan Wahlberg; Gudrun Lindmark; Gustav Gaudernack; Per Ekstrøm; Janne Røe; William G. Thilly; Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale

    1998-01-01

    Mutations in the KRAS gene is a key event in the carcinogenesis of many human cancers and may serve as a diagnostic marker and a target for therapeutic intervention. In this study we have applied three different techniques for mutation detection of KRAS exon 1 mutations: Allele specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR), temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) and constant denaturant

  18. Assignment of allelic configuration in polyploids using the MAC-PR (microsatellite DNA allele counting—peak ratios) method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Esselink; H. Nybom; B. J. Vosman

    2004-01-01

    Polysomic inheritance frequently results in the simultaneous occurrence of several microsatellite DNA alleles on a single locus. The MAC-PR (microsatellite DNA allele counting—peak ratios) method was recently developed for the analysis of polyploid plants and makes use of the quantitative values for microsatellite allele peak areas. To date, this approach has only been used in plants with known genetic relationships.

  19. A test of the maximum heterozygosity hypothesis using molecular markers in tetraploid potatoes.

    PubMed

    Bonierbale, M W; Plaisted, R L; Tanksley, S D

    1993-05-01

    It has been theorized that in cross-pollinated polyploid species hybrid vigor is maximized by the frequent occurrence of more than two alleles per chromosomal locus. In polyploid crops this condition of maximum heterozygosity has been reported to be associated with increased yield and optimum field performance. We report herein the first direct test of the maximum heterozygosity hypothesis. Molecular markers were used to examine the association between maximum heterozygosity and several components of yield in three different populations of tetraploid potatoes. The results indicate that the value of maximum heterozygosity is not universal but dependent on the genetic background of the material under evaluation. In a cross between adapted breeding lines, homozygosity was negatively correlated with tuber yield, and maximum heterozygosity was positively correlated with the proportion of tuber yield in the large-size fraction. In contrast, in crosses between adapted and unadapted parents, maximum heterozygosity had no detectable effect on any character. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of the three populations reveals that, regardless of the genetic background, additive genetic effects are more strongly correlated with the components of yield than are any measures of heterozygosity and that some common QTLs may be influencing yield in all three populations. PMID:24193596

  20. Genetic Introgression and Species Boundary of Two Geographically Overlapping Pine Species Revealed by Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaogang; Xu, Jin; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

    2014-01-01

    Gene introgression and hybrid barriers have long been a major focus of studies of geographically overlapping species. Two pine species, Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis, are frequently observed growing adjacent to each other, where they overlap in a narrow hybrid zone. As a consequence, these species constitute an ideal system for studying genetic introgression and reproductive barriers between naturally hybridizing, adjacently distributed species. In this study, we sampled 270 pine trees along an elevation gradient in Anhui Province, China and analyzed these samples using EST-SSR markers. The molecular data revealed that direct gene flow between the two species was fairly low, and that the majority of gene introgression was intermediated by backcrossing. On the basis of empirical observation, the on-site distribution of pines was divided into a P. massoniana zone, a hybrid zone, and a P. hwangshanensis zone. STRUCTURE analysis revealed the existence of a distinct species boundary between the two pine species. The genetic boundary of the hybrid zone, on the other hand, was indistinct owing to intensive backcrossing with parental species. Compared with P. massoniana, P. hwangshanensis was found to backcross with the hybrids more intensively, consistent with the observation that morphological and anatomical characteristics of trees in the contact zone were biased towards P. hwangshanensis. The introgression ability of amplified alleles varied across species, with some being completely blocked from interspecific introgression. Our study has provided a living example to help explain the persistence of adjacently distributed species coexisting with their interfertile hybrids. PMID:24977711

  1. Development of EST-based new SSR markers in seabuckthorn.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ankit; Ghangal, Rajesh; Grover, Atul; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Sharma, Prakash C

    2010-12-01

    EST-based SSR markers were developed by screening a collection of 1584 clustered ESTs of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides). PCR primers were designed for the amplification of 30 microsatellite loci. Two to five allelic bands were displayed by nine primer pairs in H. rhamnoides genotypes and by eleven primer pairs in H. salicifolia genotypes. None of the thirty primer pairs detected polymorphism in H. tibetana genotypes. Considering the high polymorphism detected in the tested genotypes and their direct origin from the genic regions, these EST-SSR markers hold immense promise in seabuckthorn genome analysis, molecular breeding and population genetics. PMID:23572988

  2. Complex hybridization dynamics between golden-winged and blue-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera and Vermivora pinus) revealed by AFLP, microsatellite, intron and mtDNA markers.

    PubMed

    Vallender, R; Robertson, R J; Friesen, V L; Lovette, I J

    2007-05-01

    Blue-winged (Vermivora pinus) and golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) have an extensive mosaic hybrid zone in eastern North America. Over the past century, the general trajectory has been a rapid replacement of chrysoptera by pinus in a broad, northwardly moving area of contact. Previous mtDNA-based studies on these species' hybridization dynamics have yielded variable results: asymmetric and rapid introgression from pinus into chrysoptera in some areas and bidirectional maternal gene flow in others. To further explore the hybridization genetics of this otherwise well-studied complex, we surveyed variation in three nuclear DNA marker types--microsatellites, introns, and a panel of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs)--with the goal of generating a multilocus assay of hybrid introgression. All markers were first tested on birds from phenotypically and mitochondrially pure parental-type populations from outside the hybrid zone. Searches for private alleles and assignment test approaches found no combination of microsatellite or intron markers that could separate the parental populations, but seven AFLP characters exhibited significant frequency differences among them. We then used the AFLP markers to examine the extent and pattern of introgression in a population where pinus-phenotype individuals have recently invaded a region that previously supported only a chrysoptera-phenotype population. Despite the low frequency of phenotypic hybrids at this location, the AFLP data suggest that almost a third of the phenotypically pure chrysoptera have introgressed genotypes, indicating the presence of substantial cryptic hybridization in the history of this species. The evidence for extensive cryptic introgression, combined with the lack of differentiation at other nuclear loci, cautions against hybrid assessments based on single markers or on phenotypic traits that are likely to be determined by a small number of loci. Considered in concert, these results from four classes of molecular markers indicate that pinus and chrysoptera are surprisingly weakly differentiated and that far fewer genetically 'pure' populations of chrysoptera may exist than previously assumed, two findings with broad implications for the conservation of this rapidly declining taxon. PMID:17498229

  3. Allelic genealogies in sporophytic self-incompatibility systems in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Schierup, M H; Vekemans, X; Christiansen, F B

    1998-01-01

    Expectations for the time scale and structure of allelic genealogies in finite populations are formed under three models of sporophytic self-incompatibility. The models differ in the dominance interactions among the alleles that determine the self-incompatibility phenotype: In the SSIcod model, alleles act codominantly in both pollen and style, in the SSIdom model, alleles form a dominance hierarchy, and in SSIdomcod, alleles are codominant in the style and show a dominance hierarchy in the pollen. Coalescence times of alleles rarely differ more than threefold from those under gametophytic self-incompatibility, and transspecific polymorphism is therefore expected to be equally common. The previously reported directional turnover process of alleles in the SSIdomcod model results in coalescence times lower and substitution rates higher than those in the other models. The SSIdom model assumes strong asymmetries in allelic action, and the most recessive extant allele is likely to be the most recent common ancestor. Despite these asymmetries, the expected shape of the allele genealogies does not deviate markedly from the shape of a neutral gene genealogy. The application of the results to sequence surveys of alleles, including interspecific comparisons, is discussed. PMID:9799270

  4. Development of EST-based new SSR markers in seabuckthorn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ankit Jain; Rajesh Ghangal; Atul Grover; Saurabh Raghuvanshi; Prakash C. Sharma

    2010-01-01

    EST-based SSR markers were developed by screening a collection of 1584 clustered ESTs of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides). PCR primers were designed for the amplification of 30 microsatellite loci. Two to five allelic bands were displayed by\\u000a nine primer pairs in H. rhamnoides genotypes and by eleven primer pairs in H. salicifolia genotypes. None of the thirty primer pairs detected polymorphism

  5. Microsatellite markers for the proboscis monkey ( Nasalis larvatus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Salgado-LynnD; D. W. G. Stanton; R. Sakong; J. Cable; B. Goossens; M. W. Bruford

    2010-01-01

    We describe eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus). These markers were tested with 33 samples, collected from Sabah and exhibited a mean of 6.25 alleles per locus and a mean\\u000a expected heterozygosity of 0.674. All but one locus were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, and no evidence for linkage disequilibrium\\u000a was detected between any loci. Another 30 loci

  6. Autoantibodies, HLA and PTPN22: susceptibility markers for rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Orozco; D. Pascual-Salcedo; M. A. Lopez-Nevot; T. Cobo; A. Cabezon; E. Martin-Mola; A. Balsa; J. Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To analyse the relationship between the presence of auto-antibodies (rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP)), HLA-DRB1 alleles and PTPN22 1858 C\\/T polymorphism and test the value of their combination as susceptibility markers for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients with early arthritis were included. At entry in the cohort or during follow-up, 191 patients fulfilled the criteria for

  7. Genographic: Permanent Markers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, the second in a set of lessons exploring migration, genetic markers, markers in context, and the Genographic Project (a five-year study of human origins and migration based on genetic markers), students will review background information about the basics of DNA and chromosomal structure. They will then explore the Genographic Project and the work of lead scientist Dr. Spencer Wells. Using a hands-on simulation activity, they will learn how genetic markers are passed from generation to generation and haplogroups are formed. Finally, they will use the Atlas of the Human Journey to track one genetic marker over time.

  8. Phenytoin-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome with negative HLA-B*1502 allele in mainland China: two cases.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fa-Yun; Wu, Xin-Tong; An, Dong-Mei; Yan, Bo; Stefan, Hermann; Zhou, Dong

    2011-06-01

    Antiepileptic drugs-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a life-threatening severe cutaneous adverse reaction. Recent studies in Thailand and Taiwan showed a significant association between phenytoin (PHT)-induced SJS and human leucocyte antigen HLA-B*1502 allele. Although the US FDA had issued an alert to clinicians, insufficient information is available to recommend testing for HLA-B*1502 in Asian patients in line for PHT treatment. Therefore, extended studies are necessary to further evaluate the potential association between PHT-induced SJS and HLA-B*1502 allele in various populations. To date, no similar data exist in mainland China. Here, we describe two Chinese Han cases of PHT-induced SJS with negative HLA-B*1502 allele, in which HLA high-resolution genotyping showed two heterozygous HLA-B*4601/B*5102 and HLA-B*3701/B*4601 allele, respectively. Our findings provide evidence to support that other genetic markers or nongenetic factors could contribute to the susceptibility of PHT-induced SJS, except for HLA-B*1502 allele. Further studies are encouraged to investigate the genetic link with PHT-induced serious skin reactions in future. PMID:21334226

  9. Maternal transmission of a humanised Igf2r allele results in an Igf2 dependent hypomorphic and non-viable growth phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jennifer; Frago, Susana; Bühnemann, Claudia; Carter, Emma J; Hassan, A Bassim

    2013-01-01

    The cation independent mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) functions in the transportation and regulation of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and mannose 6-phosphate modified proteins. The relative and specific titration of IGF2 by high affinity binding of IGF2R represents a mechanism that supports the parental conflict theory of genomic imprinting. Imprinting of Igf2 (paternal allele expressed) and Igf2r (maternal allele expressed) arose to regulate the relative supply of both proteins. Experiments in the mouse have established that loss of the maternal allele of Igf2r results in disproportionate growth and peri-natal lethality. In order to systematically investigate the consequences of loss of function and of hypomorphic alleles of Igf2r on growth functions, we introduced a conditional human IGF2R exon 3-48 cDNA into the intron 2 region of murine Igf2r. Here we show that the knock-in construct resulted in over-growth when the humanised Igf2r allele was maternally transmitted, a phenotype that was rescued by either paternal transmission of the humanised allele, expression of a wild-type paternal allele or loss of function of Igf2. We also show that expression of IGF2R protein was reduced to less than 50% overall in tissues previously known to be Igf2 growth dependent. This occurred despite the detection of mouse derived peptides, suggesting that trans-splicing of the knock-in human cDNA with the endogenous maternal mouse Igf2r allele. The phenotype following maternal transmission of the humanised allele resulted in overgrowth of the embryo, heart and placenta with partial peri-natal lethality, suggesting that further generation of hypomorphic Igf2r alleles are likely to be at the borderline of maintaining Igf2 dependent viability. PMID:23468951

  10. Maternal Transmission of a Humanised Igf2r Allele Results in an Igf2 Dependent Hypomorphic and Non-Viable Growth Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Bühnemann, Claudia; Carter, Emma J.; Hassan, A. Bassim

    2013-01-01

    The cation independent mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) functions in the transportation and regulation of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and mannose 6-phosphate modified proteins. The relative and specific titration of IGF2 by high affinity binding of IGF2R represents a mechanism that supports the parental conflict theory of genomic imprinting. Imprinting of Igf2 (paternal allele expressed) and Igf2r (maternal allele expressed) arose to regulate the relative supply of both proteins. Experiments in the mouse have established that loss of the maternal allele of Igf2r results in disproportionate growth and peri-natal lethality. In order to systematically investigate the consequences of loss of function and of hypomorphic alleles of Igf2r on growth functions, we introduced a conditional human IGF2R exon 3–48 cDNA into the intron 2 region of murine Igf2r. Here we show that the knock-in construct resulted in over-growth when the humanised Igf2r allele was maternally transmitted, a phenotype that was rescued by either paternal transmission of the humanised allele, expression of a wild-type paternal allele or loss of function of Igf2. We also show that expression of IGF2R protein was reduced to less than 50% overall in tissues previously known to be Igf2 growth dependent. This occurred despite the detection of mouse derived peptides, suggesting that trans-splicing of the knock-in human cDNA with the endogenous maternal mouse Igf2r allele. The phenotype following maternal transmission of the humanised allele resulted in overgrowth of the embryo, heart and placenta with partial peri-natal lethality, suggesting that further generation of hypomorphic Igf2r alleles are likely to be at the borderline of maintaining Igf2 dependent viability. PMID:23468951

  11. Allele and haplotype diversity of X-chromosomal STRs in Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Pasino, Serena; Caratti, Stefano; Del Pero, Massimiliano; Santovito, Alfredo; Torre, Carlo; Robino, Carlo

    2011-09-01

    Twenty-one X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, including the six clusters of linked markers DXS10148-DXS10135-DXS8378 (Xp22), DXS7132-DXS10079-DXS10074 (Xq12), DXS6801-DXS6809-DXS6789 (Xq21), DXS7424-DXS101 (Xq22), DXS10103-HPRTB-DXS10101 (Xq26), DXS8377-DXS10146-DXS10134-DXS7423 (Xq28) and the loci DXS6800, GATA172D05 and DXS10011 were typed in a population sample from Ivory Coast (n=125; 51 men and 74 women). Allele and haplotype frequencies as well as linkage disequilibrium data for kinship calculations are provided. On the whole, no significant differences in the genetic variability of X-STR markers were observed between Ivorians and other sub-Saharan African populations belonging to the Niger-Kordofanian linguistic group. PMID:21717153

  12. MAOA, Early Experiences of Harsh Parenting, Irritable Opposition, and Bullying-Victimization: A Moderated Indirect-Effects Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Yvonne M.; Kretschmer, Tina; Barker, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Harsh parenting and child characteristics such as opposition and aggression have been found to relate to bullying, victimization, and bullying-victimization, yet not all children display equal vulnerability to harsh parenting. The monoamine oxidase A gene ("MAOA"; "low-activity" variant) may be a key vulnerability allele as it…

  13. Toward fully automated genotyping: genotyping microsatellite markers by deconvolution.

    PubMed Central

    Perlin, M W; Lancia, G; Ng, S K

    1995-01-01

    Dense genetic linkage maps have been constructed for the human and mouse genomes, with average densities of 2.9 cM and 0.35 cM, respectively. These genetic maps are crucial for mapping both Mendelian and complex traits and are useful in clinical genetic diagnosis. Current maps are largely comprised of abundant, easily assayed, and highly polymorphic PCR-based microsatellite markers, primarily dinucleotide (CA)n repeats. One key limitation of these length polymorphisms is the PCR stutter (or slippage) artifact that introduces additional stutter bands. With two (or more) closely spaced alleles, the stutter bands overlap, and it is difficult to accurately determine the correct alleles; this stutter phenomenon has all but precluded full automation, since a human must visually inspect the allele data. We describe here novel deconvolution methods for accurate genotyping that mathematically remove PCR stutter artifact from microsatellite markers. These methods overcome the manual interpretation bottleneck and thereby enable full automation of genetic map construction and use. New functionalities, including the pooling of DNAs and the pooling of markers, are described that may greatly reduce the associated experimentation requirements. PMID:7485172

  14. Mitochondrial microsatellite markers for the Australian ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria sp. A (Hydnangiaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Sheedy, Elizabeth M.; Van de Wouw, Angela P.; Howlett, Barbara J.; May, Tom W.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria sp. A to investigate the population genetic structure of this fungal symbiont across its fragmented distribution in southeastern Australia. • Methods and Results: A partial genome sequence from an individual collection of Laccaria sp. A was obtained by 454 genome sequencing. Eight microsatellite markers were selected from 66 loci identified in the genome. The selected markers were highly polymorphic (4–19 alleles per locus, average 13 alleles) and amplified reproducibly from collections made across the distribution of this species. Five of these markers also amplified reproducibly in the sister species Laccaria sp. E (1). All eight of the selected microsatellite loci were from the mitochondrial genome. • Conclusions: The highly polymorphic markers described here will enable population structure of Laccaria sp. A to be determined, contributing to research on mycorrhizal fungi from a novel distribution. PMID:25202611

  15. Sophora microphylla (Fabaceae) microsatellite markers and their utility across the genus1

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, Megan L.; Houliston, Gary J.; Mitchell, Caroline M.; Heenan, Peter B.; Robertson, Alastair W.; Tate, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Genus-specific microsatellite markers were developed for Sophora for population genetic and systematic studies of the group in New Zealand, and potentially elsewhere in the geographic range. • Methods and Results: From sequencing a total genomic DNA library (using Roche 454), we identified and developed 29 polymorphic microsatellite markers for S. microphylla and S. chathamica. We tested 12 of these markers on 14 S. chathamica individuals and four S. microphylla populations. All loci amplified in both species and species-specific alleles occurred at seven loci. In S. microphylla populations, the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000–0.960 and 0.000–0.908, respectively, with alleles per locus ranging from seven to 23. • Conclusions: The developed markers will be valuable in studies of phylogenetics, population structure, mating system, and selection of provenances for restoration projects. PMID:25202609

  16. Characterization of fungus-specific microsatellite markers in the lichen fungus Usnea subfloridana (Parmeliaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Tõrra, Tiiu; Cornejo, Carolina; Cheenacharoen, Saran; Dal Grande, Francesco; Marmor, Liis; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the haploid lichenized fungal species Usnea subfloridana to study its population subdivision and the species’ response to forest disturbance, fragmentation, and environmental pollution. • Methods and Results: We developed 14 polymorphic microsatellite markers using 454 pyrosequencing data of U. subfloridana. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 15, and Nei’s unbiased gene diversity averaged over nine markers without null alleles ranged from 0.64 to 0.67. Evaluation of the cross-species amplification in U. glabrescens and U. wasmuthii indicates that these markers are also informative in other Usnea species. • Conclusions: These markers will allow us to investigate the effects of forest management and environmental pollution on genetic population structure of U. subfloridana and closely related species. Moreover, they will help facilitate phylogeographic studies of U. subfloridana across the species’ distribution area in Europe. PMID:25202640

  17. Microsatellite DNA markers for delineating population structure and kinship among the endangered Kirtland's warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, T.L.; Eackles, M.S.; Henderson, A.P.; Bocetti, C.I.; Currie, D.; Wunderle, J.M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of 23 microsatellite DNA markers for the endangered Kirtland's warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii), a Nearctic/Neotropical migrant passerine. This suite of markers revealed moderate to high levels of allelic diversity (averaging 7.7 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 72%). Genotypic frequencies at 22 of 23 (95%) markers conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations, and no linkage disequilibrium was observed in blood samples taken from 14 warblers found on the wintering grounds in the Bahamas archipelago. Multilocus genotypes resulting from this suite of markers should reduce the amount of resources required for initiating new genetic studies assessing breeding structure, parentage, demographics, and individual-level ecological interactions for D. kirtlandii. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Parental Bonding Instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Cavedo; G. Parker

    1994-01-01

    The view that those with obsessive compulsive disorder or obsessional personality have been exposed to overcontrolling and overcritical parenting is examined. Two measures of obsessionality (the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory and the Leyton Obsessionality Inventory) were completed by 344 nonclinical subjects. They also scored their parents on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), a measure assessing perceived levels of parental care and

  19. Parental Involvement. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains seven articles about meaningful participation by parents, particularly Hispanic and other minority parents, in the education of their children. "Parents Reclaiming Their Schools: New Initiative Brings Parents Together for Better Schools" (Aurelio M. Montemayor) describes objectives and activities of a Texas-based coalition…

  20. School Parent Involvement Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Education (NJ3), 2005

    2005-01-01

    This school parent involvement policy is divided into three sections: (1) Development and Adoption of the Parent Involvement Policy; (2) Contents of the Parent Involvement Policy; and (3) Distributing and Revising the School's Parent Involvement Policy. This paper presents the provision of the Section 1118 of Title I of the No Child Left Behind…

  1. Involving Latino Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quezada, Reyes L.; Diaz, Delia M.; Sanchez, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Describes barriers to Latino parent involvement in educational activities, factors to consider when involving Latino parents, and two examples of Latino involvement programs in California: Family Literacy Workshop at James Monroe Elementary School, Madera Unified School District, and Parents Take P.A.R.T. (Parent Assisted Reading Training) at…

  2. Children of Incarcerated Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Katherine, Ed.; Johnston, Denise, Ed.

    The arrest and imprisonment of a parent is significant trauma for children, and children of incarcerated parents are at high risk for juvenile delinquency. This book for social workers, psychologists, and others who work with children whose parents are incarcerated examines parental incarceration, its impact on children, care and placement of…

  3. Parents and the media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natascha Notten; Gerbert Kraaykamp

    2009-01-01

    In this study we analysed the effects of parental social background and family composition on various types of parental media socialization. We employed the Family Survey Dutch Population 1998, 2000 and 2003 (N=2608), and analysed respondents’ reports of socialization practices in their parental home. Respondents from high-status families report more extensive parental media socialization in all highbrow and guidance activities.

  4. Categories of Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauch, Jerold P.

    1994-01-01

    The growing interest in effective parent involvement has produced several ways to classify or describe ways parents are or should be involved. This article reviews and evaluates Ira Gordon's systems approach, the California-based System Development Corporation's categories, Eugenia H. Berger's parental role categories, Chavkin and Williams' parent

  5. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  6. A Chance to Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Susan; Brillhart, Lindsay; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    While parents with disabilities may face big challenges, with appropriate supports, many can be great parents. Just like other parents, they do not have to be responsible for every part of childrearing all by themselves. All parents rely on supports to help raise their children, such as day care, carpools, schools, babysitting co-ops, or advice…

  7. Living with a Single Parent

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Body Works Main Page Living With a Single Parent KidsHealth > Kids > Feelings > My Home & Family > Living With ... parents can be a great idea, too. Single Parents and Work Single parents are often working parents ...

  8. Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) for chickpea Fusarium oxysporum wilt resistant genotypes using PCR based molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zakia; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad; Ghafoor, Abdul; Ali, Amjad; Nisar, Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    The exploration of genetically superior accessions is the key source of germplasm conservation and potential breeding material for the future. To meet the demand of better yielding chickpea cultivars in Pakistan the present study was organized to select more stable and resistant lines from indigenous as well as exotic chickpea germplasm obtained from Plant Genetic Resource Institute (PGRI), National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. For the identification and evaluation of chickpea wilt resistant lines against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Schlechtends), the germplasm was tested in the field for the selection of wilt resistant lines and the PCR based molecular markers were investigated to use Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) for selection of the desirable cultivars. In field trial, 70 % accessions were resistant to wilt disease, while the remaining 30 % have shown susceptibility to the disease. A total of 5 RAPD and 15 SSR markers were screened for molecular based characterization of wilt response. The data of molecular markers were scored by the presence (1) and absence (0) of allele and subjected to statistical analysis. The analysis was based on coefficient of molecular similarity using UPGMA and sorted the germplasm into two groups based on disease response. Among the total used RAPD/SSR primers, only TA194 SSR marker showed linkage to wilt resistant locus at 85 % probability. The linkage of a marker was reconfirmed by receiver operating characteristic curve. The use of the sorted wilt resistant genotypes through SSR marker TA194 can make available ample prospect in MAS breeding for yield improvement of the crop in Pakistan. PMID:25017202

  9. Efficient development of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers based on polymorphic repeats in transcriptome sequences of multiple individuals.

    PubMed

    Vukosavljev, M; Esselink, G D; van 't Westende, W P C; Cox, P; Visser, R G F; Arens, P; Smulders, M J M

    2015-01-01

    The first hurdle in developing microsatellite markers, cloning, has been overcome by next-generation sequencing. The second hurdle is testing to differentiate polymorphic from nonpolymorphic loci. The third hurdle, somewhat hidden, is that only polymorphic markers with a large effective number of alleles are sufficiently informative to be deployed in multiple studies. Both steps are laborious and still performed manually. We have developed a strategy in which we first screen reads from multiple genotypes for repeats that show the most length variants, and only these are subsequently developed into markers. We validated our strategy in tetraploid garden rose using Illumina paired-end transcriptome sequences of 11 roses. Of 48 tested two markers failed to amplify, but all others were polymorphic. Ten loci amplified more than one locus, indicating duplicated genes or gene families. Completely avoiding duplicated loci will be difficult because the range of numbers of predicted alleles of highly polymorphic single- and multilocus markers largely overlapped. Of the remainder, half were replicate markers (i.e. multiple primer pairs for one locus), indicating the difficulty of correctly filtering short reads containing repeat sequences. We subsequently refined the approach to eliminate multiple primer sets to the same loci. The remaining 18 markers were all highly polymorphic, amplifying on average 11.7 alleles per marker (range = 6-20) in 11 tetraploid roses, exceeding the 8.2 alleles per marker of the 24 most polymorphic markers genotyped previously. This strategy therefore represents a major step forward in the development of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. PMID:24893879

  10. Cultural Approaches to Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting. PMID:22962544

  11. Functional association of CTCF with the insulator upstream of the H19 gene is parent of origin-specific and methylation-sensitive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandrasekhar Kanduri; Vinod Pant; Dmitri Loukinov; Elena Pugacheva; Chen-Feng Qi; Alan Wolffe; Rolf Ohlsson; Victor V. Lobanenkov

    2000-01-01

    In mammals, a subset of genes inherit gametic marks that establish parent of origin-dependent expression patterns in the soma ([1] and references therein). The currently most extensively studied examples of this phenomenon, termed genomic imprinting, are the physically linked Igf2 (insulin-like growth factor II) and H19 genes, which are expressed mono-allelically from opposite parental alleles [1,2]. The repressed status of

  12. Genetic Variability and Distribution of Mating Type Alleles in Field Populations of Leptosphaeria maculans from France

    PubMed Central

    Gout, Lilian; Eckert, Maria; Rouxel, Thierry; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène

    2006-01-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans is the most ubiquitous fungal pathogen of Brassica crops and causes the devastating stem canker disease of oilseed rape worldwide. We used minisatellite markers to determine the genetic structure of L. maculans in four field populations from France. Isolates were collected at three different spatial scales (leaf, 2-m2 field plot, and field) enabling the evaluation of spatial distribution of the mating type alleles and of genetic variability within and among field populations. Within each field population, no gametic disequilibrium between the minisatellite loci was detected and the mating type alleles were present at equal frequencies. Both sexual and asexual reproduction occur in the field, but the genetic structure of these populations is consistent with annual cycles of randomly mating sexual reproduction. All L. maculans field populations had a high level of gene diversity (H = 0.68 to 0.75) and genotypic diversity. Within each field population, the number of genotypes often was very close to the number of isolates. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that >99.5% of the total genetic variability was distributed at a small spatial scale, i.e., within 2-m2 field plots. Population differentiation among the four field populations was low (GST < 0.02), suggesting a high degree of gene exchange between these populations. The high gene flow evidenced here in French populations of L. maculans suggests a rapid countrywide diffusion of novel virulence alleles whenever novel resistance sources are used. PMID:16391041

  13. Interactions Between SNP Alleles at Multiple Loci and Variation in Skin Pigmentation in 122 Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Anno, Sumiko; Abe, Takashi; Sairyo, Koichi; Kudo, Susumu; Yamamoto, Takushi; Ogata, Koretsugu; Goel, Vijay K.

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the molecular basis for human skin color variation and the environmental adaptability to ultraviolet irradiation, with the ultimate goal of predicting the impact of changes in future environments on human health risk. One hundred twenty-two Caucasians living in Toledo, Ohio participated. Back and cheek skin were assayed for melanin as a quantitative trait marker. Buccal cell samples were collected and used for DNA extraction. DNA was used for SNP genotyping using the Masscode™ system, which entails two-step PCR amplification and a platform chemistry which allows cleavable mass spectrometry tags. The results show gene-gene interaction between SNP alleles at multiple loci (not necessarily on the same chromosome) contributes to inter-individual skin color variation while suggesting a high probability of linkage disequilibrium. Confirmation of these findings requires further study with other ethic groups to analyze the associations between SNP alleles at multiple loci and human skin color variation. Our overarching goal is to use remote sensing data to clarify the interaction between atmospheric environments and SNP allelic frequency and investigate human adaptability to ultraviolet irradiation. Such information should greatly assist in the prediction of the health effects of future environmental changes such as ozone depletion and increased ultraviolet exposure. If such health effects are to some extent predictable, it might be possible to prepare for such changes in advance and thus reduce the extent of their impact. PMID:19461972

  14. Exquisite allele discrimination by toehold hairpin primers

    PubMed Central

    Byrom, Michelle; Bhadra, Sanchita; Jiang, Yu Sherry; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to detect and monitor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biological samples is an enabling research and clinical tool. We have developed a surprising, inexpensive primer design method that provides exquisite discrimination between SNPs. The field of DNA computation is largely reliant on using so-called toeholds to initiate strand displacement reactions, leading to the execution of kinetically trapped circuits. We have now similarly found that the short toehold sequence to a target of interest can initiate both strand displacement within the hairpin and extension of the primer by a polymerase, both of which will further stabilize the primer:template complex. However, if the short toehold does not bind, neither of these events can readily occur and thus amplification should not occur. Toehold hairpin primers were used to detect drug resistance alleles in two genes, rpoB and katG, in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, and ten alleles in the Escherichia coli genome. During real-time PCR, the primers discriminate between mismatched templates with Cq delays that are frequently so large that the presence or absence of mismatches is essentially a ‘yes/no’ answer. PMID:24990378

  15. Development, inheritance and cross-species amplification of microsatellite markers from Acacia mangium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Butcher; S. Decroocq; Y. Gray; G. F. Moran

    2000-01-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed in Acacia mangium Willd. to provide highly variable co-dominant markers for linkage mapping and studies of the breeding system. After an enrichment\\u000a procedure 40% of colonies contained microsatellites in contrast with less than 1% from a non-enriched library. The majority\\u000a of microsatellite sequences were AC repeats. Co-dominant segregation of alleles in two full-sib crosses of A.

  16. A new statistic for the analysis of association between trait and polymorphic marker loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vartan Choulakian; Smail Mahdi

    2000-01-01

    Inference for detecting the existence of an association between a diallelic marker and a trait locus is based on the chi-squared statistic with one degree of freedom. For polymorphic markers with m alleles (m>2), three approaches are mainly used in practice. First, one may use Pearson's chi-squared statistic with m?1 degrees of freedom (d.f.) but this leads to a loss

  17. Characterization of 29 polymorphic artiodactyl microsatellite markers for the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JULIEN MAINGUY; AMY S. LLEWELLYN; KIRSTY WORLEY; STEEVE D. COTE; DAVID W. COLTMAN

    2005-01-01

    We report the results of a cross-species amplification test of 156 bovine, ovine and cervid micro- satellite markers in a wild population of mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus , inhabiting Caw Ridge, Alberta, Canada. Twenty-nine markers were found to be low to moderately poly- morphic with between two to nine alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.14 to 0.85 for

  18. Reconceptualizing Parent Involvement: Parent as Accomplice or Parent as Partner?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitt, Nichole M.; Brooks, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Policy statements of the last two decades have directed schools to enter into partnerships with parents to enhance the social, emotional, and academic growth of their children. However, in practice and scholarship, parental involvement has been constructed as attendance to school-based activities and needs. This article draws on data from an…

  19. Maternal inheritance and chromosome 18 allele sharing in unilineal bipolar illness pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Gershon, E.S.; Badner, J.A.; Detera-Wadleigh, S.D. [National Inst. of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others] [National Inst. of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); and others

    1996-04-09

    We have replicated the observation that there is excess maternal transmission of illness in a series of previously described unilineal Bipolar manic-depressive illness extended pedigrees. ({open_quotes}Transmission{close_quotes} is defined for any ill person in a pedigree when father or mother has a personal or immediate family history of major affective disorder.) We divided our pedigrees into exclusively maternal transmission (Mat) and mixed maternal-paternal transmission (in different pedigree branches) (Pat). Using affected sib-pair-analysis, linkage to a series of markers on chromosome 18p-cen was observed in the Pat but not the Mat pedigrees, with significantly greater identity by descent (IBD) at these markers in the Pat pedigrees. As compared with the pedigree series as a whole, the proportion of alleles IBD in the linkage region is much increased in the Pat pedigrees. As the sharing proportion of alleles in affected relative pairs increases, the number of such pairs needed to resolve the linkage region to a 1 cM interval becomes smaller. Genetic subdivision of an illness by clinical or pedigree configuration criteria may thus play an important role in discovery of disease susceptibility mutations. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions and Parenting Practices

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the Five-Factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the five personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process. PMID:21443335

  1. Development of microsatellite markers and analysis of intraspecific genetic variability in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Shokeen, Bhumika; Edwards, Keith J; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2006-05-01

    Paucity of polymorphic molecular markers in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) has been a major limitation in the improvement of this important legume. Hence, in an attempt to develop sequence-tagged microsatellite sites (STMS) markers from chickpea, a microsatellite enriched library from the C. arietinum cv. Pusa362 nuclear genome was constructed for the identification of (CA/GT)n and (CT/GA)n microsatellite motifs. A total of 92 new microsatellites were identified, of which 74 functional STMS primer pairs were developed. These markers were validated using 9 chickpea and one C. reticulatum accession. Of the STMS markers developed, 25 polymorphic markers were used to analyze the intraspecific genetic diversity within 36 geographically diverse chickpea accessions. The 25 primer pairs amplified single loci producing a minimum of 2 and maximum of 11 alleles. A total of 159 alleles were detected with an average of 6.4 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity values averaged 0.32 (0.08-0.91) and 0.74 (0.23-0.89) respectively. The UPGMA based dendrogram was able to distinguish all the accessions except two accessions from Afghanistan establishing that microsatellites could successfully detect intraspecific genetic diversity in chickpea. Further, cloning and sequencing of size variant alleles at two microsatellite loci revealed that the variable numbers of AG repeats in different alleles were the major source of polymorphism. Point mutations were found to occur both within and immediately upstream of the long tracts of perfect repeats, thereby bringing about a conversion of perfect motifs into imperfect or compound motifs. Such events possibly occurred in order to limit the expansion of microsatellites and also lead to the birth of new microsatellites. The microsatellite markers developed in this study will be useful for genetic diversity analysis, linkage map construction as well as for depicting intraspecific microsatellite evolution. PMID:16534564

  2. Tumour markers: An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Malati

    2007-01-01

    Tumor Markers comprise a wide spectrum of biomacromolecules synthesized in excess concentration by a wide variety of neoplastic\\u000a cells. The markers could be endogenous products of highly active metabolic malignant cells or the products of newly switched\\u000a on genes, which remained unexprssed in early life or newly acquired antigens at cellular and sub-cellular levels. The appearance\\u000a of tumor marker and

  3. Imputation of microsatellite alleles from dense SNP genotypes for parentage verification across multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite markers (MS) have traditionally been used for parental verification and are still the international standard in spite of their higher cost, error rate, and turnaround time compared with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) -based assays. Despite domestic and international demands fr...

  4. Microsatellite markers linked to stem rust resistance allele Sr9a in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers.: Pers. f.sp. tritici Eriks. & E Henn., is one of the most serious diseases of wheat worldwide. Host resistance is more effective and durable when several stem rust resistance (Sr) genes are pyramided into a single genotype, a process that can be ...

  5. Favorable QTL alleles for yield and its components identified by association mapping in Chinese Upland cotton cultivars.

    PubMed

    Mei, Hongxian; Zhu, Xiefei; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2013-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium based association mapping is a powerful tool for dissecting the genetic basis underlying complex traits. In this study, an association mapping panel consisting of 356 representative Upland cotton cultivars was constructed, evaluated in three environments and genotyped using 381 SSRs to detect molecular markers associated with lint yield and its components. The results showed that abundant phenotypic and moderate genetic diversities existed within this germplasm panel. The population could be divided into two subpopulations, and weak relatedness was detected between pair-wise accessions. LD decayed to the background (r(2) = 0.1182, P ? 0.01), r(2) = 0.1 and r(2) = 0.2 level within 12-13 cM, 17-18 cM and 3-4 cM, respectively, providing the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in Chinese Upland cotton. A total of 55 marker-trait associations were detected between 26 SSRs and seven lint yield traits, based on a mixed linear model (MLM) and Bonferroni correction (P ? 0.05/145, -log10 P ? 3.46). Of which 41 could be detected in more than one environment and 17 markers were simultaneously associated with two or more traits. Many associations were consistent with QTLs identified by linkage mapping in previous reports. Phenotypic values of alleles of each loci in 41 stably detected associations were compared, and 23 favorable alleles were identified. Population frequency of each favorable allele in historically released cultivar groups was also evaluated. The QTLs detected in this study will be helpful in further understanding the genetic basis of lint yield and its components, and the favorable alleles may facilitate future high-yield breeding by genomic selection in Upland cotton. PMID:24386089

  6. Favorable QTL Alleles for Yield and Its Components Identified by Association Mapping in Chinese Upland Cotton Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Hongxian; Zhu, Xiefei; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2013-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium based association mapping is a powerful tool for dissecting the genetic basis underlying complex traits. In this study, an association mapping panel consisting of 356 representative Upland cotton cultivars was constructed, evaluated in three environments and genotyped using 381 SSRs to detect molecular markers associated with lint yield and its components. The results showed that abundant phenotypic and moderate genetic diversities existed within this germplasm panel. The population could be divided into two subpopulations, and weak relatedness was detected between pair-wise accessions. LD decayed to the background (r2?=?0.1182, P?0.01), r2?=?0.1 and r2?=?0.2 level within 12–13 cM, 17–18 cM and 3–4 cM, respectively, providing the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in Chinese Upland cotton. A total of 55 marker-trait associations were detected between 26 SSRs and seven lint yield traits, based on a mixed linear model (MLM) and Bonferroni correction (P?0.05/145, ?log10P?3.46). Of which 41 could be detected in more than one environment and 17 markers were simultaneously associated with two or more traits. Many associations were consistent with QTLs identified by linkage mapping in previous reports. Phenotypic values of alleles of each loci in 41 stably detected associations were compared, and 23 favorable alleles were identified. Population frequency of each favorable allele in historically released cultivar groups was also evaluated. The QTLs detected in this study will be helpful in further understanding the genetic basis of lint yield and its components, and the favorable alleles may facilitate future high-yield breeding by genomic selection in Upland cotton. PMID:24386089

  7. Inheritance and interactions of incompatibility alleles in the tetraploid sour cherry.

    PubMed

    Boskovi?, R I; Wolfram, B; Tobutt, K R; Cerovi?, R; Sonneveld, T

    2006-01-01

    Three progenies of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) were analysed to correlate self-(in)compatibility status with S-RNase phenotype in this allotetraploid hybrid of sweet and ground cherry. Self-(in)compatibility was assessed in the field and by monitoring pollen tube growth after selfing. The S-RNase phenotypes were determined by isoelectric focusing of stylar proteins and staining for RNase activity and, for the parents, confirmed by PCR. Seedling phenotypes were generally consistent with disomic segregation of S-RNase alleles. The genetic arrangements of the parents were deduced to be 'Köröser' (self-incompatible) S1S4.S(B) S(D), 'Schattenmorelle' (self-compatible) S6S13.S(B)S(B), and clone 43.87 (self-compatible) S4S13.S(B)S(B), where "." separates the two homologous genomes. The presence of S4 and S6 alleles at the same locus led to self-incompatibility, whereas S13 and S(B) at homologous loci led to self-compatibility. The failure of certain heteroallelic genotypes in the three crosses or in the self-incompatible seedlings indicates that S4 and S6 are dominant to S(B). However, the success of S13S(B) pollen on styles expressing corresponding S-RNases indicates competitive interaction or lack of pollen-S components. In general, the universal compatibility of S13S(B) pollen may explain the frequent occurrence of S13 and S(B) together in sour cherry cultivars. Alleles S(B) and S(D), that are presumed to derive from ground cherry, and S13, presumably from sweet cherry, were sequenced. Our findings contribute to an understanding of inheritance of self-(in)compatibility, facilitate screening of progenies for self-compatibility and provide a basis for studying molecular interactions in heteroallelic pollen. PMID:16307228

  8. Allele-specific disparity in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In a cancer cell the number of copies of a locus may vary due to amplification and deletion and these variations are denoted as copy number alterations (CNAs). We focus on the disparity of CNAs in tumour samples, which were compared to those in blood in order to identify the directional loss of heterozygosity. Methods We propose a numerical algorithm and apply it to data from the Illumina 109K-SNP array on 112 samples from breast cancer patients. B-allele frequency (BAF) and log R ratio (LRR) of Illumina were used to estimate Euclidian distances. For each locus, we compared genotypes in blood and tumour for subset of samples being heterozygous in blood. We identified loci showing preferential disparity from heterozygous toward either the A/B-allele homozygous (allelic disparity). The chi-squared and Cochran-Armitage trend tests were used to examine whether there is an association between high levels of disparity in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and molecular, clinical and tumour-related parameters. To identify pathways and network functions over-represented within the resulting gene sets, we used Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results To identify loci with a high level of disparity, we selected SNPs 1) with a substantial degree of disparity and 2) with substantial frequency (at least 50% of the samples heterozygous for the respective locus). We report the overall difference in disparity in high-grade tumours compared to low-grade tumours (p-value < 0.001) and significant associations between disparity in multiple single loci and clinical parameters. The most significantly associated network functions within the genes represented in the loci of disparity were identified, including lipid metabolism, small-molecule biochemistry, and nervous system development and function. No evidence for over-representation of directional disparity in a list of stem cell genes was obtained, however genes appeared to be more often altered by deletion than by amplification. Conclusions Our data suggest that directional loss and amplification exist in breast cancer. These are highly associated with grade, which may indicate that they are enforced with increasing number of cell divisions. Whether there is selective pressure for some loci to be preferentially amplified or deleted remains to be confirmed. PMID:22188678

  9. Developing genome-wide microsatellite markers of bamboo and their applications on molecular marker assisted taxonomy for accessions in the genus Phyllostachys

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hansheng; Yang, Li; Peng, Zhenhua; Sun, Huayu; Yue, Xianghua; Lou, Yongfeng; Dong, Lili; Wang, Lili; Gao, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    Morphology-based taxonomy via exiguously reproductive organ has severely limitation on bamboo taxonomy, mainly owing to infrequent and unpredictable flowering events of bamboo. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis and application of microsatellites based on the genome of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) to assist bamboo taxonomy. Of identified 127,593 microsatellite repeat-motifs, the primers of 1,451 microsatellites were designed and 1,098 markers were physically mapped on the genome of moso bamboo. A total of 917 markers were successfully validated in 9 accessions with ~39.8% polymorphic potential. Retrieved from validated microsatellite markers, 23 markers were selected for polymorphic analysis among 78 accessions and 64 alleles were detected with an average of 2.78 alleles per primers. The cluster result indicated the majority of the accessions were consistent with their current taxonomic classification, confirming the suitability and effectiveness of the developed microsatellite markers. The variations of microsatellite marker in different species were confirmed by sequencing and in silico comparative genome mapping were investigated. Lastly, a bamboo microsatellites database (http://www.bamboogdb.org/ssr) was implemented to browse and search large information of bamboo microsatellites. Consequently, our results of microsatellite marker development are valuable for assisting bamboo taxonomy and investigating genomic studies in bamboo and related grass species. PMID:25620112

  10. HLA-DRB1 alleles associated with polymyalgia rheumatica in northern Italy: correlation with disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Salvarani, C.; Boiardi, L.; Mantovani, V.; Ranzi, A.; Cantini, F.; Olivieri, I.; Bragliani, M.; Collina, E.; Macchioni, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the association of HLA-DRB1 alleles with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) in a Mediterranean country and to explore the role of HLA-DRB1 genes in determining disease severity.?METHODS—A five year prospective follow up study of 92 consecutive PMR patients diagnosed by the secondary referral centre of rheumatology of Reggio Emilia, Italy was conducted. HLA-DRB1 alleles were determined in the 92 patients, in 29 DR4 positive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and in 148 controls from the same geographical area by polymerase chain reaction amplification and oligonucleotide hybridisation.?RESULTS—No significant differences were observed in the frequencies of HLA-DRB1 types and in the expression of HLA-DRB 70-74 shared motif between PMR and controls. The frequency of the patients with double dose of epitope was low and not significantly different in PMR and in controls. No significant differences in the distribution of HLA-DR4 subtypes were observed between DR4+ PMR, DR+ RA, and DR4+ controls. Results of the univariate analysis indicated that an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at diagnosis > 72 mm 1st h, the presence of HLA-DR1, DR10, rheumatoid epitope, and the type of rheumatoid epitope were significant risk factors associated with relapse/recurrence. Cox proportional hazards modelling identified two variables that independently increased the risk of relapse/recurrence: ESR at diagnosis > 72 mm 1st h (RR=1.5) and type 2 (encoded by a non-DR4 allele) rheumatoid epitope (RR=2.7).?CONCLUSION—These data from a Mediterranean country showed no association of rheumatoid epitope with PMR in northern Italian patients. A high ESR at diagnosis and the presence of rheumatoid epitope encoded by a non-DR4 allele are independent valuable markers of disease severity.?? PMID:10225816

  11. Using haplotypes for the prediction of allelic identity to fine-map QTL: characterization and properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous methods have been developed over the last decade to predict allelic identity at unobserved loci between pairs of chromosome segments along the genome. These loci are often unobserved positions tested for the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL). The main objective of this study was to understand from a theoretical standpoint the relation between linkage disequilibrium (LD) and allelic identity prediction when using haplotypes for fine mapping of QTL. In addition, six allelic identity predictors (AIP) were also compared in this study to determine which one performed best in theory and application. Results A criterion based on a simple measure of matrix distance was used to study the relation between LD and allelic identity prediction when using haplotypes. The consistency of this criterion with the accuracy of QTL localization, another criterion commonly used to compare AIP, was evaluated on a set of real chromosomes. For this set of chromosomes, the criterion was consistent with the mapping accuracy of a simulated QTL with either low or high effect. As measured by the matrix distance, the best AIP for QTL mapping were those that best captured LD between a tested position and a QTL. Moreover the matrix distance between a tested position and a QTL was shown to decrease for some AIP when LD increased. However, the matrix distance for AIP with continuous predictions in the [0,1] interval was algebraically proven to decrease less rapidly up to a lower bound with increasing LD in the simplest situations, than the discrete predictor based on identity by state between haplotypes (IBS hap), for which there was no lower bound. The expected LD between haplotypes at a tested position and alleles at a QTL is a quantity that increases naturally when the tested position gets closer to the QTL. This behavior was demonstrated with pig and unrelated human chromosomes. Conclusions When the density of markers is high, and therefore LD between adjacent loci can be assumed to be high, the discrete predictor IBS hap is recommended since it predicts allele identity correctly when taking LD into account. PMID:25022866

  12. Allele Interaction – Single Locus Genetics Meets Regulatory Biology

    PubMed Central

    Gjuvsland, Arne B.; Plahte, Erik; Ådnøy, Tormod; Omholt, Stig W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Since the dawn of genetics, additive and dominant gene action in diploids have been defined by comparison of heterozygote and homozygote phenotypes. However, these definitions provide little insight into the underlying intralocus allelic functional dependency and thus cannot serve directly as a mediator between genetics theory and regulatory biology, a link that is sorely needed. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide such a link by distinguishing between positive, negative and zero allele interaction at the genotype level. First, these distinctions disclose that a biallelic locus can display 18 qualitatively different allele interaction sign motifs (triplets of +, – and 0). Second, we show that for a single locus, Mendelian dominance is not related to heterozygote allele interaction alone, but is actually a function of the degrees of allele interaction in all the three genotypes. Third, we demonstrate how the allele interaction in each genotype is directly quantifiable in gene regulatory models, and that there is a unique, one-to-one correspondence between the sign of autoregulatory feedback loops and the sign of the allele interactions. Conclusion/Significance The concept of allele interaction refines single locus genetics substantially, and it provides a direct link between classical models of gene action and gene regulatory biology. Together with available empirical data, our results indicate that allele interaction can be exploited experimentally to identify and explain intricate intra- and inter-locus feedback relationships in eukaryotes. PMID:20186347

  13. Nomenclature for human CYP2D6 alleles.

    PubMed

    Daly, A K; Brockmöller, J; Broly, F; Eichelbaum, M; Evans, W E; Gonzalez, F J; Huang, J D; Idle, J R; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Ishizaki, T; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Meyer, U A; Nebert, D W; Steen, V M; Wolf, C R; Zanger, U M

    1996-06-01

    To standardize CYP2D6 allele nomenclature, and to conform with international human gene nomenclature guidelines, an alternative to the current arbitrary system is described. Based on recommendations for human genome nomenclature, we propose that alleles be designated by CYP2D6 followed by an asterisk and a combination of roman letters and arabic numerals distinct for each allele with the number specifying the key mutation and, where appropriate, a letter specifying additional mutations. Criteria for classification as a separate allele and protein nomenclature are also presented. PMID:8807658

  14. More than one mutant allele causes infantile Tay-Sachs disease in French-Canadians

    PubMed Central

    Hechtman, Peter; Kaplan, Feige; Bayleran, Janet; Boulay, Bernard; Andermann, Eva; de Braekeleer, Marc; Melançon, Serge; Lambert, Marie; Potier, Michel; Gagné, Richard; Kolodny, Edwin; Clow, Carol; Capua, Aniceta; Prevost, Claude; Scriver, Charles

    1990-01-01

    Two Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) patients of French-Canadian origin were shown by Myerowitz and Hogikyan to be homozygous for a 7.6-kb deletion mutation at the 5' end of the hexosaminidase A ?-subunit gene. In order to determine whether all French-Canadian TSD patients were homozygotes for the deletion allele and to assess the geographic origins of TSD in this population, we ascertained 12 TSD families of French-Canadian origin and screened for occurrence of mutations associated with infantile TSD. DNA samples were obtained from 12 French-Canadian TSD families. Samples were analyzed using polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) amplification followed by hybridization to allele-specific oligonucleotides (ASO) or by restriction analysis of PCR products. In some cases Southern analysis of genomic DNA was performed. Eighteen of the 22 independently segregating mutant chromosomes in this sample carried the 7.6-kb deletion mutation at the 5' end of the gene. One chromosome carried the 4-nucleotide insertion in exon 11 (a “Jewish” mutation). In this population no individuals were detected who had the substitution at the splice junction of exon 12 previously identified in Ashkenazi Jews. One chromosome carried an undescribed B1 mutation; this allele came from a parent of non-French-Canadian origin. Patients in three families carried TSD alleles different from any of the above mutations. The 5' deletion mutation clusters in persons originating in southeastern Quebec (Gaspé) and adjacent counties of northern New Brunswick. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:2220821

  15. MAPPING PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN CARICA PAPAYA USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.) vary in the phenotypic expression of agronomically important traits. Genetic loci responsible for these differences can be mapped using DNA markers to genotype a segregating progeny population derived from a controlled cross between parents having dif...

  16. Four novel PEPD alleles causing prolidase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Ledoux, P.; Scriver, C.; Hechtman, P. (McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada))

    1994-06-01

    Mutations at the PEPD locus cause prolidase (an enzyme specific for proline- and hydroxyproline-terminated dipeptides) deficiency (McKusick 170100), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by iminodipeptiduria, skin ulcers, mental retardation, and recurrent infections. Four PEPD mutations from five severely affected individuals were characterized by analysis of reverse-transcribed, PCR-amplified (RT-PCR) cDNA. The authors used SSCP analysis on four overlapping cDNA fragments covering the entire coding region of the PEPD gene and detected abnormal SSCP bands for the fragments spanning all or part of exons 13-15 in three of the probands. Direct sequencing of the mutant cDNAs showed a G[yields]A, 1342 substitution (G448R) in two patients and a 3-bp deletion ([Delta]E452 or [Delta]E453) in another. In the other two probands the amplified products were of reduced size. Direct sequencing of these mutant cDNAs revealed a deletion of exon 5 in one patient and of exon 7 in the other. Intronic sequences flanking exons 5 and 7 were identified using inverse PCR followed by direct sequencing. Conventional PCR and direct sequencing then established the intron-exon borders of the mutant genomic DNA revealing two splice acceptor mutations: a G[yields]C substitution at position -1 of intron 4 and an A[yields]G substitution at position -2 of intron 6. The results indicate that the severe form of prolidase deficiency is caused by multiple PEPD alleles. In this report the authors attempt to begin the process of describing these alleles and cataloging their phenotype expression. 31 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Genetic characterization of guava (psidium guajava l.) Germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity of thirty five Psidium guajava accessions maintained at the USDA, National Plants Germplasm System, Hilo, HI, was characterized using 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Diversity analysis detected a total of 178 alleles ranging from four to 16. The observed mean heterozygosit...

  18. Characterization of twelve microsatellite markers for the native redbud tree (Cercis canadensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight microsatellite DNA markers were developed for studies of gene flow in the redbud tree (Cercis canadensis), which is native to North America. The loci were unlinked and polymorphic in a sample of 22 individuals collected from a single population in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Allele number ranged fr...

  19. Establishment of codominant marker for rice blast resistance gene pi-ta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single nucleotide length polymorphism (SNLP) was identified at the intron region of the Pi-ta gene to develop a codominant Pi-ta gene marker suitable for genotyping with an ABI automated machine. The DNA primer specific to the resistance Pi-ta allele was labeled with the blue dye as a forward pr...

  20. Identification of cut rose ( Rosa hybrida ) and rootstock varieties using robust sequence tagged microsatellite site markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Esselink; M. J. M. Smulders; B. Vosman

    2003-01-01

    In this study a DNA fingerprinting protocol was developed for the identification of rose varieties based on the variability of microsatellites. Microsatellites were isolated from Rosa hybrida L. using enriched small insert libraries. In total 24 polymorphic sequenced tagged microsatellite site (STMS) markers with easily scorable allele profiles, from six different linkage groups, were used to characterize 46 Hybrid Tea

  1. Genetic diversity and relationships of lotus ( Nelumbo) cultivars based on allozyme and ISSR markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Li Tian; Jian-Hua Xue; Jun Wen; Grant Mitchell; Shi-Liang Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Genetic diversity and genetic relationships of lotus (Nelumbo Adanson) cultivars were evaluated using allozyme and ISSR markers. The samples used covered 11 accessions of possible hybrids between Nelumbo nucifera and Nelumbo lutea and 92 accessions of N. nucifera including 69 flower lotus, 13 rhizome lotus, 5 seed lotus and 5 wild lotus. For allozyme studies, a total of 31 alleles

  2. Development of soybean aphid genomic SSR markers using next generation sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are very useful molecular markers due to locus-specific co-dominant and multi-allelic nature, high abundance in the genome, and high rates of transferability across species. The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) has become the most damaging in...

  3. UPIC: Perl scripts to determine the number of SSR markers to run

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed Perl Scripts for the cost-effective planning of fingerprinting and genotyping experiments. The UPIC scripts detect the best combination of polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and provide coefficients of the amount of information obtainable (number of alleles of patter...

  4. Establishment of codominant markers for rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single nucleotide length polymorphism (SNLP) was identified at the intron region of the Pi-ta gene to develop a codominant Pi-ta gene marker suitable for genotyping with an ABI automated machine. The DNA primer specific to the resistance Pi-ta allele was labeled with the blue dye as a forward pr...

  5. Development of microsatellite markers in a large perennial herb, Veratrum album ssp. oxysepalum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. KATO; K. ARAKI; S. KUBOTA; M. OHARA

    2008-01-01

    We developed 11 polymorphic microsatellite (simple sequence repeat (SSR)) loci from genomic DNA of Veratrum album ssp. oxysepalum using a dual-suppression polymerase chain reaction technique and an improved method. These markers, with four to 17 alleles per locus, identified 47 genotypes in 48 samples collected from a population in Hokkaido, Japan. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.042 to

  6. Case-control study of allele frequencies of 15 short tandem repeat loci in males with impulsive violent behavior

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun; Ba, Huajie; Gao, Zhiqin; Zhao, Hanqing; Yu, Haiying; Guo, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Analysis of genetic polymorphisms in short tandem repeats (STRs) is an accepted method for detecting associations between genotype and phenotype but it has not previously been used in the study of the genetics of impulsive violent behavior. Objective Compare the prevalence of different polymorphisms in 15 STR loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA) between men with a history of impulsive violence and male control subjects without a history of impulsive violence. Methods The distributions of the alleles of the 15 STR loci were compared between 407 cases with impulsive violent behavior and 415 controls using AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ kits. Results Compared to controls, the average frequencies of the following alleles were significantly lower in individuals with a history of violent behavior: allele 10 of TH01 (OR=0.29, 95%CI=0.16-0.52, p<0.0001,), allele 8 of TPOX (OR=0.71, 95%CI=0.58-0.86, p=0.0005), allele 9 of TPOX (OR=0.65, 95%CI=0.47-0.89, p=0.0072) and allele 14 of CSF1PO (OR=0.27, 95%CI=0.11-0.68, p=0.0035). One allele was significantly higher in cases than controls: allele 11 of TPOX (OR=1.79, 95%CI=1.45-2.22, p<0.0001). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first behavioral genetic study that clearly demonstrates a close relationship between specific genetic markers and impulsive aggression in non-psychiatric offenders. Further prospective work will be needed to determine whether or not the alleles identified can be considered risk factors for impulsive aggression and, if so, the underlying mechanisms that result in this relationship. PMID:24991178

  7. Applying SNP marker technology in the cacao breeding program at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...

  8. Proceedings of the SMBE Tri-National Young Investigators' Workshop 2005 Genome-Wide Associations Between Hybrid Sterility QTL and Marker Transmission Ratio Distortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonie C. Moyle; Elaine B. Graham

    Marker transmission ratio distortion (TRD) in genetic mapping populations is frequently ascribed to selection against allelic combinations that cause hybrid incompatibility. Accordingly, genomic regions of TRD should be nonrandomly associated (colocated) with loci that underlie hybrid incompatibility. To directly test this hypothesis, we evaluated the genome-wide qualitative and quantitative agreement between chromosomal regions exhibiting marker TRD and those known to

  9. Selection for genetic markers in beef cattle reveals complex associations of thyroglobulin and casein1-S1 with carcass and meat traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic markers in casein (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genes have previously been associated with fat distribution in cattle. Determining the nature of these genetic associations (additive, recessive, or dominant) has been difficult because both markers have small minor allele frequencies in mos...

  10. Parent to Parent: Giftedness with a Twist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Christy D.

    2012-01-01

    Discovering that a child is gifted can be both exhilarating and daunting. Parents watch in amazement and awe as their 3-year-old reads a first-grade-level book flawlessly, or they might listen to their preschool child's distress over seeing a homeless person on the street. Parents observe as their 6-year-old dismantles a broken CD player and…

  11. Parents' talk : multiple schemas and parenting practice

    E-print Network

    Sarda, Zoltan G.

    2012-01-01

    of negative parental cognitions, indicating a need for moreneeds of our multiple selves, including multiple and at times conflicting parenting cognitions.cognitions: Event-dependent and schematic, the former operating within our awareness and activated by such events as the need

  12. PARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    MIDDLE EARTH PARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families Seeing your child leave for college "user friendly" environments. Students who find a niche early usually have a more positive that UC Irvine has to offer- clubs, lectures, student government, athletic events, recreation, arts

  13. PARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    PARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families Seeing your child leave for college, whether communities are designed to be small, supportive "user friendly" environments. Students who find a niche early, athletic events, recreation, arts performances, volunteer service, campus employment, the First Year

  14. PARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    PARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families Seeing your child leave for college, whether "user friendly" environments. Students who find a niche early usually have a more positive that UC Irvine has to offer- clubs, lectures, student government, athletic events, recreation, arts

  15. PARENT'S GUIDE Tips for Parents & Families

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    PARENT'S GUIDE ARROYO VISTA Tips for Parents & Families Seeing your child leave for college "user friendly" environments. Students who find a niche early usually have a more positive that UC Irvine has to offer- clubs, lectures, student government, athletic events, recreation, arts

  16. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions, and Parenting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play)…

  17. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF SEX-DETERMINING ALLELES IN HONEY BEES AND SELF-INCOMPATIBILITY ALLELES IN PLANTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHOZO YOKOYAMA; MASATOSHI NET

    Mathematical theories of the population dynamics of sex-determining alleles in honey bees are developed. It is shown that in an infinitely large population the equilibrium frequency of a sex allele is l\\/n, where n is the number of alleles in the population, and the asymptotic rate of approach to this equilibrium is 2\\/(3n) per generation. Formulae for the distribution of

  18. Cotton Marker Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To address the lack of available molecular markers for cotton, Cotton Incorporated has spearheaded an initiative to create the Cotton Microsatellite Database (CMD), and several groups are actively involved in projects to generate, screen and map cotton molecular markers. CMD is a centralized databas...

  19. Lesson 39: Conditional Markers

    E-print Network

    Lesson 39: Conditional Markers NGE and NGALI Conditional Markers [wakati tegemezi] A Kiswahili ningeenda Kenya. [If I were to study Kiswahili, I would go to Kenya.] 5. Ungeona televisheni. Ningalisoma Kiswahili ningalienda Kenya. [If I had studied Kiswahili, I would have gone to Kenya.] 5

  20. Selection, trans-species polymorphism, and locus identification of major histocompatibility complex class II? alleles of New World ranid frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiemnec-Tyburczy, Karen M.; Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Savage, Anna E.; Zamudio, Kelly R.

    2010-01-01

    Genes encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play key roles in the vertebrate immune system. However, our understanding of the evolutionary processes and underlying genetic mechanisms shaping these genes is limited in many taxa, including amphibians, a group currently impacted by emerging infectious diseases. To further elucidate the evolution of the MHC in frogs (anurans) and develop tools for population genetics, we surveyed allelic diversity of the MHC class II ??1 domain in both genomic and complementary DNA of seven New World species in the genus Rana (Lithobates). To assign locus affiliation to our alleles, we used a "gene walking" technique to obtain intron 2 sequences that flanked MHC class II?? exon 2. Two distinct intron sequences were recovered, suggesting the presence of at least two class II?? loci in Rana. We designed a primer pair that successfully amplified an orthologous locus from all seven Rana species. In total, we recovered 13 alleles and documented trans-species polymorphism for four of the alleles. We also found quantitative evidence of selection acting on amino acid residues that are putatively involved in peptide binding and structural stability of the ??1 domain of anurans. Our results indicated that primer mismatch can result in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) bias, which influences the number of alleles that are recovered. Using a single locus may minimize PCR bias caused by primer mismatch, and the gene walking technique was an effective approach for generating single-copy orthologous markers necessary for future studies of MHC allelic variation in natural amphibian populations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Community Engaged Parent Education: Strengthening Civic Engagement among Parents and Parent Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.; Jacob, Jenet; Cutting, Beth

    2009-01-01

    We introduce Community Engaged Parent Education as a model for civic engagement in parent education. In Community Engaged Parent Education, the parent educator weaves the public dimensions of parenting into the everyday practice of group parent education. It is not a curriculum but a community-collaborative way of teaching all parenting topics by…

  2. Development of microsatellite markers for Carallia brachiata (Rhizophoraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Yinmeng; Xie, Hongxian; Qiao, Sitan; Yuan, Yang; Liu, Ying; Shi, Xianggang; Shu, Mi; Jin, Jianhua; Shi, Suhua; Tan, Fengxiao; Huang, Yelin

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for Carallia brachiata to assess the genetic diversity and structure of this terrestrial species of the Rhizophoraceae. Methods and Results: Based on transcriptome data for C. brachiata, 40 primer pairs were initially designed and tested, of which 18 were successfully amplified and 11 were polymorphic. For these microsatellites, one to three alleles per locus were identified. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.727 and 0 to 0.520, respectively. In addition, all primers were successfully amplified in two congeners: C. pectinifolia and C. garciniifolia. Conclusions: The microsatellite markers described here will be useful in population genetic studies of C. brachiata and related species, suggesting that developing microsatellite markers from next-generation sequencing data can be efficient for genetic studies across this genus. PMID:25798345

  3. Characterization of new microsatellite markers of Siganus fuscescens (Siganidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Q H; Li, Z B; Dai, G; Chen, X J; Chen, L N; Cao, Y Y; Shangguan, J B; Ning, Y F

    2013-01-01

    Siganus fuscescens, which is a small commercially important marine fish, is wildly distributed in shallow waters throughout the tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific and Eastern Mediterranean regions. It is part of a group known as rabbitfish. Fifteen new polymorphic microsatellite markers for S. fuscescens were identified, and 32 wild individuals were used to evaluate the degree of polymorphism of these markers. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 12, and the polymorphism information content ranged from 0.210 to 0.849. The observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.142-0.808 and 0.225-0.853, respectively. Although significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected at 2 loci (Sf1-37-2 and Sf1-47), no significant deviations were detected at the other 13 loci. These microsatellite markers will provide a useful tool for studies on genetic diversity and differentiation of S. fuscescens. PMID:23979899

  4. Imprinted chromosomal domains revealed by allele-specific replication timing of the GABRB3 and GABRA5 genes

    SciTech Connect

    LaSalle, J.; Flint, A.; Lalande, M. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The GABRB3 and GABRA5 genes are organized as a cluster in chromosome 15q11-q13. The genes are separated by around 100 kb and arranged in opposite transcriptional orientations. The GABA{sub A} receptor cluster lies near the Angelman and Prader-Willi loci and displays asynchronous DNA replication, suggesting that this region is subject to parental imprinting. In order to further study the association between DNA replication and imprinting, allele-specific replication was assayed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with {lambda}-phage probes from the GABRB3/A5 region and a D15Z1 satellite probe to identify the parental origin of each chromosome. The replication kinetics of each allele was determined by using a flow sorter to fractionate mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes on the basis of cell cycle progression prior to FISH analysis. These kinetic studies reveal a 50-150 kb chromosomal domain extending from the middle of the GABRB3/A5 intergenic region into the GABRA5 5{prime}-UTR which displays maternal replication in early S with paternal replication delayed until the end of S. In contrast, genomic regions on either side of this maternal early replication domain exhibit the opposite pattern with paternal before maternal replication and both alleles replicating in the latter half of S. These results indicate that the GABRB3/A5 region is divided into domains in which replication timing is determined by parental origin. In addition to a loss of asynchronous replication, organization into replication timing domains is also lost in lymphocytes from maternal and paternal uniparental disomy 15 patients suggesting that a chromosome contribution from both parents is required for the establishment of the imprinted replication domains.

  5. Parent Outreach Success

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joel Nitzberg

    2001-11-01

    Through the Massachusetts Parent Involvement Project (MassPIP), teams of community businesses, service organizations, school personnel, parents, and children joined together and planned and conducted science, mathematics, and technology related activities

  6. Pinworm (for Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Pinworm KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Parasitic Infections (Worms, Lice, etc.) > Pinworm Print ...

  7. Appendicitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Appendicitis KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Stomach & Intestinal Infections > Appendicitis Print A A ...

  8. Tuberculosis (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Tuberculosis KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Tuberculosis Print A A ...

  9. Growing Pains (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Growing Pains KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Aches, Pains & Injuries > Growing Pains Print ...

  10. Toxocariasis (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Toxocariasis KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Parasitic Infections (Worms, Lice, etc.) > Toxocariasis Print ...

  11. Strep Throat (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Strep Throat KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Strep Throat Print A ...

  12. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Pneumocystis Pneumonia KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Lung & Respiratory Infections > Pneumocystis Pneumonia Print A ...

  13. Undescended Testicles (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Undescended Testicles KidsHealth > Parents > Pregnancy & Newborn Center > Newborn Care > Undescended Testicles Print ...

  14. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Blood Culture KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Blood Culture Print A ...

  15. Rotavirus (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Rotavirus KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Rotavirus Print A A ...

  16. Sinusitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Sinusitis KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Sinusitis Print A A ...

  17. Paronychia (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Paronychia KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Skin Infections & Rashes > Paronychia Print A A ...

  18. Enlarged Adenoids (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Enlarged Adenoids KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Ears, Nose, Throat/Speech & Hearing > Enlarged ...

  19. Sore Throat (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... What to Expect First Aid: Sore Throat KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > First Aid: ...

  20. Electroencephalogram (EEG) (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Precautions Checkups: What to Expect EEG (Electroencephalogram) KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > EEG (Electroencephalogram) Print A ...

  1. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Urine Tests KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Urine Tests Print A ...

  2. When Your Parents Fight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fault of kids. What Does It Mean When Parents Fight? Kids often worry about what it means ... worries. Continue How Do Kids Feel When Their Parents Fight? Kids usually feel upset when they see ...

  3. Head Lice (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... What to Expect First Aid: Head Lice KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > First Aid: ...

  4. Parent's Firearm Safety Checklist

    MedlinePLUS

    Parent’s Firearm Safety Checklist IN YOUR HOME ? Before you buy a gun, consider less dangerous ways to keep your ... have the necessary knowledge to use it safely. ? Firearms should be stored unloaded and in a locked ...

  5. Information for Expectant Parents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parents Families About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Information for Expectant Parents Language: English Español (Spanish) ... Defects, Blood Disorders & Disabilities Information For... Media Policy Makers Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How ...

  6. Upstream Transcription Factor 1 (USF1) allelic variants regulate lipoprotein metabolism in women and USF1 expression in atherosclerotic plaque.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yue-Mei; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Oksala, Niku; Levula, Mari; Raitoharju, Emma; Collings, Auni; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Juonala, Markus; Marniemi, Jukka; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Seppälä, Ilkka; Mennander, Ari; Tarkka, Matti; Kangas, Antti J; Soininen, Pasi; Salenius, Juha Pekka; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Laitinen, Tomi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Laaksonen, Reijo; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli T; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2014-01-01

    Upstream transcription factor 1 (USF1) allelic variants significantly influence future risk of cardiovascular disease and overall mortality in females. We investigated sex-specific effects of USF1 gene allelic variants on serum indices of lipoprotein metabolism, early markers of asymptomatic atherosclerosis and their changes during six years of follow-up. In addition, we investigated the cis-regulatory role of these USF1 variants in artery wall tissues in Caucasians. In the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, 1,608 participants (56% women, aged 31.9 ± 4.9) with lipids and cIMT data were included. For functional study, whole genome mRNA expression profiling was performed in 91 histologically classified atherosclerotic samples. In females, serum total, LDL cholesterol and apoB levels increased gradually according to USF1 rs2516839 genotypes TT < CT < CC and rs1556259 AA < AG < GG as well as according to USF1 H3 (GCCCGG) copy number 0 < 1 < 2. Furthermore, the carriers of minor alleles of rs2516839 (C) and rs1556259 (G) of USF1 gene had decreased USF1 expression in atherosclerotic plaques (P = 0.028 and 0.08, respectively) as compared to non-carriers. The genetic variation in USF1 influence USF1 transcript expression in advanced atherosclerosis and regulates levels and metabolism of circulating apoB and apoB-containing lipoprotein particles in sex-dependent manner, but is not a major determinant of early markers of atherosclerosis. PMID:24722012

  7. Upstream Transcription Factor 1 (USF1) allelic variants regulate lipoprotein metabolism in women and USF1 expression in atherosclerotic plaque

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yue-Mei; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Oksala, Niku; Levula, Mari; Raitoharju, Emma; Collings, Auni; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Juonala, Markus; Marniemi, Jukka; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Seppälä, Ilkka; Mennander, Ari; Tarkka, Matti; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Salenius, Juha Pekka; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Laitinen, Tomi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Laaksonen, Reijo; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli T.; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2014-01-01

    Upstream transcription factor 1 (USF1) allelic variants significantly influence future risk of cardiovascular disease and overall mortality in females. We investigated sex-specific effects of USF1 gene allelic variants on serum indices of lipoprotein metabolism, early markers of asymptomatic atherosclerosis and their changes during six years of follow-up. In addition, we investigated the cis-regulatory role of these USF1 variants in artery wall tissues in Caucasians. In the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, 1,608 participants (56% women, aged 31.9 ± 4.9) with lipids and cIMT data were included. For functional study, whole genome mRNA expression profiling was performed in 91 histologically classified atherosclerotic samples. In females, serum total, LDL cholesterol and apoB levels increased gradually according to USF1 rs2516839 genotypes TT < CT < CC and rs1556259 AA < AG < GG as well as according to USF1 H3 (GCCCGG) copy number 0 < 1 < 2. Furthermore, the carriers of minor alleles of rs2516839 (C) and rs1556259 (G) of USF1 gene had decreased USF1 expression in atherosclerotic plaques (P = 0.028 and 0.08, respectively) as compared to non-carriers. The genetic variation in USF1 influence USF1 transcript expression in advanced atherosclerosis and regulates levels and metabolism of circulating apoB and apoB-containing lipoprotein particles in sex-dependent manner, but is not a major determinant of early markers of atherosclerosis. PMID:24722012

  8. Development and characterization of nine polymorphic microsatellite markers for Mexican spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata) with cross-amplification in Plains spadefoot toads (S. bombifrons).

    PubMed

    Rice, A M; Pearse, D E; Becker, T; Newman, R A; Lebonville, C; Harper, G R; Pfennig, K S

    2008-11-01

    We developed nine polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Mexican spadefoot toad, Spea multiplicata. Allele numbers range from five to 12, with observed heterozygosities from 0.48 to 0.87. Because two loci are in linkage disequilibrium, these nine loci provide eight independent markers. Three loci exhibit departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, possibly resulting from null alleles or population admixture. These markers will be useful for assessing population structure and relatedness in S. multiplicata. Based on our success at cross-amplification in the Plains spadefoot toad (Spea bombifrons), these loci also may be useful in this species with additional optimization. PMID:21586053

  9. Microsatellite markers for the hybridizing tiger swallowtails, Papilio glaucus and P. canadensis, and their applicability to historic specimens and congeneric species.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Carsten; Brown, Christian M; Hellmann, Jessica J

    2009-05-01

    We report the development of microsatellite markers for the sister species Papilio glaucus and P. canadensis (Papilionidae: Lepidoptera). All 16 markers displayed a high degree of variation in both species, ranging from eight to 24 alleles per locus. Substantial heterozygote deficits were observed for several loci, indicating the presence of null alleles. All markers were successfully used to genotype dried samples from a historical collection. Cross-species amplification with six additional Papilio species showed that most loci can be used to study genetic variation in other closely related species of tiger swallowtails. PMID:21564748

  10. Learning about the X from our parents.

    PubMed

    Wise, Alison S; Shi, Min; Weinberg, Clarice R

    2015-01-01

    The X chromosome is generally understudied in association studies, in part because the analyst has had limited methodological options. For nuclear-family-based association studies, most current methods extend the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) to the X chromosome. We present a new method to study association in case-parent triads: the parent-informed likelihood ratio test for the X chromosome (PIX-LRT). Our method enables estimation of relative risks and takes advantage of parental genotype information and the sex of the affected offspring to increase statistical power to detect an effect. Under a parental exchangeability assumption for the X, if case-parent triads are complete, the parents of affected offspring provide an independent replication sample for estimates based on transmission distortion to their affected offspring. For each offspring sex we combine the parent-level and the offspring-level information to form a likelihood ratio test statistic; we then combine the two to form a combined test statistic. Our method can estimate relative risks under different modes of inheritance or a more general co-dominant model. In triads with missing parental genotypes, the method accounts for missingness with the Expectation-Maximization algorithm. We calculate non-centrality parameters to assess the power gain and robustness of our method compared to alternative methods. We apply PIX-LRT to publically available data from an international consortium of genotyped families affected by the birth defect oral cleft and find a strong, internally-replicated signal for a SNP marker related to cleft lip with or without cleft palate. PMID:25713581

  11. Learning about the X from our parents

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Alison S.; Shi, Min; Weinberg, Clarice R.

    2015-01-01

    The X chromosome is generally understudied in association studies, in part because the analyst has had limited methodological options. For nuclear-family-based association studies, most current methods extend the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) to the X chromosome. We present a new method to study association in case-parent triads: the parent-informed likelihood ratio test for the X chromosome (PIX-LRT). Our method enables estimation of relative risks and takes advantage of parental genotype information and the sex of the affected offspring to increase statistical power to detect an effect. Under a parental exchangeability assumption for the X, if case-parent triads are complete, the parents of affected offspring provide an independent replication sample for estimates based on transmission distortion to their affected offspring. For each offspring sex we combine the parent-level and the offspring-level information to form a likelihood ratio test statistic; we then combine the two to form a combined test statistic. Our method can estimate relative risks under different modes of inheritance or a more general co-dominant model. In triads with missing parental genotypes, the method accounts for missingness with the Expectation-Maximization algorithm. We calculate non-centrality parameters to assess the power gain and robustness of our method compared to alternative methods. We apply PIX-LRT to publically available data from an international consortium of genotyped families affected by the birth defect oral cleft and find a strong, internally-replicated signal for a SNP marker related to cleft lip with or without cleft palate. PMID:25713581

  12. Incarcerated mothers and parenting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy C. Howze Browne

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes as a primary prevention strategy, a parent-education program aimed at enhancing the parenting skills and knowledge of incarcerated women (the majority of whom were mothers). Data are presented which describe changes in program participants' self-evaluations, parenting attitudes, and expectations of children. Upon completing of the parenting program, few differences were observed for the various pre- and post-test

  13. Development of microsatellite markers in Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), monozoic fish tapeworm, using next-generation sequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Minárik, Gabriel; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Mikulí?ek, Peter; Oravcová, Alexandra; Pálková, Lenka; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2015-02-01

    Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas 1781) (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a monozoic tapeworm of cyprinid fishes with a distribution area that includes Europe, most of the Palaearctic Asia and northern Africa. Broad geographic distribution, wide range of definitive fish hosts and recently revealed high morphological plasticity of the parasite, which is not in an agreement with molecular findings, make this species to be an interesting model for population biology studies. Microsatellites (short tandem repeat (STR) markers), as predominant markers for population genetics, were designed for C. laticeps using a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach. Out of 165 marker candidates, 61 yielded PCR products of the expected size and in 25 of the candidates a declared repetitive motif was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. After the fragment analysis, six loci were proved to be polymorphic and tested for heterozygosity, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the presence of null alleles on 59 individuals coming from three geographically widely separated populations (Slovakia, Russia and UK). The number of alleles in particular loci and populations ranged from two to five. Significant deficit of heterozygotes and the presence of null alleles were found in one locus in all three populations. Other loci showed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the presence of null alleles only in some populations. In spite of relatively low polymorphism and the potential presence of null alleles, newly developed microsatellites may be applied as suitable markers in population genetic studies of C. laticeps. PMID:25482859

  14. Perspectives on Parenting

    E-print Network

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    2 General views on parenting 2 Parental discipline practices 2 Parental use of physical punishment 2 punishment 3 Awareness and understanding of legislation on physical punishment 3 Conclusions 4 1. i discipline and physical punishment 8 Prevalence of physical punishment 8 Legislative context 9 Irish

  15. Parenting after Infertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olshansky, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

  16. Academic Planning For Parents

    E-print Network

    Wang, Hai

    ;Parents play a pivotal role in assisting their child in meeting the eligibility standards and requirementsGuide to Academic Planning For Parents Created by USC MESA, Viterbi School of Engineering, Los colleges and universities. To this end, parents should ensure their child is enrolled in the appropriate

  17. UNL Parents Association!

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Welcome to the UNL Parents Association! Joy Citta and Rosemary Eastwood, Co-Presidents You became to become an active member of this important organization. Parents Count at UNL! Find out more on our web site at: http://parentsassoc.unl.edu/ Each year the Parents Association conducts a tuition raffle. All

  18. The Parent Loan Trap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Marian; Supiano, Beckie; Fuller, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    As the cost of college has spiraled ever upward and median family income has fallen, the loan program, called Parent PLUS, has become indispensable for increasing numbers of parents desperate to make their children's college plans work. Last year the government disbursed $10.6-billion in Parent PLUS loans to just under a million families. Even…

  19. Parent's Journal. [Videotape Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    Parent's Journal is a set of 16 videotapes for parents of prenatal, infant, and toddler-age children, created by the Alaska Native Home Base Video Project of the Tlingit and Haida Head Start Program. This series offers culturally relevant solutions to the challenges of parenting, drawing on the life stories and experiences of capable mothers and…

  20. Predicting Parent Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, William H.; And Others

    Because the factors which influence parent functioning have not been extensively researched, a study was conducted to determine the relationships among marital adjustment, child temperament, locus of control, and parent satisfaction. Participants included 93 volunteer couples who had at least one child at home. Parents averaged 35 years old and…

  1. Parental Engagement with Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Joanna; Harbinson, Terence

    2010-01-01

    A programme of parental engagement with school science is described, in which parents and their children take part in scientific debate and practical science lessons. Three sessions, in biology, chemistry and physics, of this ongoing programme are described, through which parents have been able to support their children by learning science with…

  2. Children of Incarcerated Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Charlene Wear

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes what is known about the children of incarcerated parents in California. The report estimates the number of children in California who have parents in the state's criminal justice system (jail, prison, parole, and probation) and summarizes key findings from the research literature on the impact of parental arrest and…

  3. Sharing Portfolios with Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paul B., Sr.

    1996-01-01

    At a Rhode Island elementary school, portfolio sharing night provides a way for students to share their classwork with parents in a relaxed, informative setting. Parents see works in progress and completed samples and hear the children explain their work. This format has helped improve public relations and communication with parents and encouraged…

  4. B-Complex Alleles Immunity to Salmonella enteritidis in Chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Soliman; P. G. Reddy; R. Nimmanapel; E. M. Abouelhass

    2009-01-01

    Six experiments were conducted during which a total of 12 congenic lines homozygous for various B-complex alleles, were challenged by intraperitone al injection with either of two isolates of Salmonella enteritidis. Because these B alleles were expressed on a common genetic background and mortality differences among lines were statistically significant in three of the six trials and morbidity (body weight)

  5. Rescue of Progeria in Trichothiodystrophy by Homozygous Lethal Xpd Alleles

    PubMed Central

    Andressoo, Jaan-Olle; Jans, Judith; de Wit, Jan; Coin, Frederic; Hoogstraten, Deborah; van de Ven, Marieke; Toussaint, Wendy; Huijmans, Jan; Thio, H. Bing; van Leeuwen, Wibeke J; de Boer, Jan; Egly, Jean-Marc; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J; Mitchell, James R

    2006-01-01

    Although compound heterozygosity, or the presence of two different mutant alleles of the same gene, is common in human recessive disease, its potential to impact disease outcome has not been well documented. This is most likely because of the inherent difficulty in distinguishing specific biallelic effects from differences in environment or genetic background. We addressed the potential of different recessive alleles to contribute to the enigmatic pleiotropy associated with XPD recessive disorders in compound heterozygous mouse models. Alterations in this essential helicase, with functions in both DNA repair and basal transcription, result in diverse pathologies ranging from elevated UV sensitivity and cancer predisposition to accelerated segmental progeria. We report a variety of biallelic effects on organismal phenotype attributable to combinations of recessive Xpd alleles, including the following: (i) the ability of homozygous lethal Xpd alleles to ameliorate a variety of disease symptoms when their essential basal transcription function is supplied by a different disease-causing allele, (ii) differential developmental and tissue-specific functions of distinct Xpd allele products, and (iii) interallelic complementation, a phenomenon rarely reported at clinically relevant loci in mammals. Our data suggest a re-evaluation of the contribution of “null” alleles to XPD disorders and highlight the potential of combinations of recessive alleles to affect both normal and pathological phenotypic plasticity in mammals. PMID:17020410

  6. Substitution Processes in Molecular Evolution. 111. Deleterious Alleles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Gillespie

    1994-01-01

    The substitution processes for various models of deleterious alleles are examined using computer simulations and mathematical analyses. Most of the work focuses on the house-ofcards model, which is a popular model of deleterious allele evolution. The rate of substitution is shown to be a concave function of the strength of selection as measured by a = 2Nu, where N is

  7. Rescue of Progeria in Trichothiodystrophy by Homozygous Lethal Xpd Alleles

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of the same gene, is common in human recessive disease, its potential to impact disease outcome has not been of different recessive alleles to contribute to the enigmatic pleiotropy associated with XPD recessive effects on organismal phenotype attributable to combinations of recessive Xpd alleles, including

  8. Allele diversity and germline mutation at the insulin minisatellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. H. Stead; Alec J. Jeffreys

    2000-01-01

    Previous analysis of germline mutation at highly unstable GC-rich minisatellites with continuous allele size distributions revealed similar meiotic recombinational mechanisms operating at all loci investigated. The insulin minisatellite has been studied intensively due to its associations with diabetes, polycystic ovary syn- drome, obesity and birth size. Its bimodal allele size distribution in Caucasians suggests a much lower muta- tion rate

  9. Effect of Glu-B3 Allelic Variation on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Sedimentation Volume in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Manli; He, Fuxia; Ma, Chuanxi

    2013-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation volume has long been used to characterize wheat flours and meals with the aim of predicting processing and end-product qualities. In order to survey the influence of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) at Glu-B3 locus on wheat SDS sedimentation volume, a total of 283 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties including landraces and improved and introduced cultivars were analyzed using 10 allele-specific PCR markers at the Glu-B3 locus. The highest allele frequency observed in the tested varieties was Glu-B3i with 21.9% in all varieties, 21.1% in landraces, 25.5% in improved cultivars, and 12% in introduced cultivars. Glu-B3 locus represented 8.6% of the variance in wheat SDS sedimentation volume, and Glu-B3b, Glu-B3g, and Glu-B3h significantly heightened the SDS sedimentation volume, but Glu-B3a, Glu-B3c, and Glu-B3j significantly lowered the SDS sedimentation volume. For the bread-making quality, the most desirable alleles Glu-B3b and Glu-B3g become more and more popular and the least desirable alleles Glu-B3a and Glu-B3c got less and less in modern improved cultivars, suggesting that wheat grain quality in China has been significantly improved through breeding effort. PMID:23861659

  10. Distribution of the CCR5delta32 allele (gene variant CCR5) in Rondônia, Western Amazonian region, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Farias, Josileide Duarte; Santos, Marlene Guimarães; de França, Andonai Krauze; Delani, Daniel; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Casseb, Almeida Andrade; Simões, Aguinaldo Luiz; Engracia, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Since around 1723, on the occasion of its initial colonization by Europeans, Rondonia has received successive waves of immigrants. This has been further swelled by individuals from northeastern Brazil, who began entering at the beginning of the twentieth century. The ethnic composition varies across the state according to the various sites of settlement of each wave of immigrants. We analyzed the frequency of the CCR5?32 allele of the CCR5 chemokine receptor, which is considered a Caucasian marker, in five sample sets from the population. Four were collected in Porto Velho, the state capital and the site of several waves of migration. Of these, two, from the Hospital de Base were comprised of HB Mothers and HB Newborns presenting allele frequencies of 3.5% and 3.1%, respectively, a third from the peri-urban neighborhoods of Candelária/Bate-Estaca (1.8%), whereas a fourth, from the Research Center on Tropical Medicine/CEPEM (0.6%), was composed of malaria patients under treament. The fifth sample (3.4%) came from the inland Quilombola village of Pedras Negras. Two homozygous individuals (CCR5?32/CCR5?32) were detected among the HB Mother samples. The frequency of this allele was heterogeneous and higher where the European inflow was more pronounced. The presence of the allele in Pedras Negras revealed European miscegenation in a community largely comprising Quilombolas. PMID:22481870

  11. SNP Marker Discovery in Koala TLR Genes

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jian; Frankham, Greta J.; Johnson, Rebecca N.; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter; O’Meally, Denis; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Belov, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in the early defence against invading pathogens, yet our understanding of TLRs in marsupial immunity is limited. Here, we describe the characterisation of nine TLRs from a koala immune tissue transcriptome and one TLR from a draft sequence of the koala genome and the subsequent development of an assay to study genetic diversity in these genes. We surveyed genetic diversity in 20 koalas from New South Wales, Australia and showed that one gene, TLR10 is monomorphic, while the other nine TLR genes have between two and 12 alleles. 40 SNPs (16 non-synonymous) were identified across the ten TLR genes. These markers provide a springboard to future studies on innate immunity in the koala, a species under threat from two major infectious diseases. PMID:25799012

  12. Fostered and left behind alleles in peanut: interspecific QTL mapping reveals footprints of domestication and useful natural variation for breeding

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polyploidy can result in genetic bottlenecks, especially for species of monophyletic origin. Cultivated peanut is an allotetraploid harbouring limited genetic diversity, likely resulting from the combined effects of its single origin and domestication. Peanut wild relatives represent an important source of novel alleles that could be used to broaden the genetic basis of the cultigen. Using an advanced backcross population developed with a synthetic amphidiploid as donor of wild alleles, under two water regimes, we conducted a detailed QTL study for several traits involved in peanut productivity and adaptation as well as domestication. Results A total of 95 QTLs were mapped in the two water treatments. About half of the QTL positive effects were associated with alleles of the wild parent and several QTLs involved in yield components were specific to the water-limited treatment. QTLs detected for the same trait mapped to non-homeologous genomic regions, suggesting differential control in subgenomes as a consequence of polyploidization. The noteworthy clustering of QTLs for traits involved in seed and pod size and in plant and pod morphology suggests, as in many crops, that a small number of loci have contributed to peanut domestication. Conclusion In our study, we have identified QTLs that differentiated cultivated peanut from its wild relatives as well as wild alleles that contributed positive variation to several traits involved in peanut productivity and adaptation. These findings offer novel opportunities for peanut improvement using wild relatives. PMID:22340522

  13. A molecular marker of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariey, Frédéric; Witkowski, Benoit; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Beghain, Johann; Langlois, Anne-Claire; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Duru, Valentine; Bouchier, Christiane; Ma, Laurence; Lim, Pharath; Leang, Rithea; Duong, Socheat; Sreng, Sokunthea; Suon, Seila; Chuor, Char Meng; Bout, Denis Mey; Ménard, Sandie; Rogers, William O.; Genton, Blaise; Fandeur, Thierry; Miotto, Olivo; Ringwald, Pascal; Le Bras, Jacques; Berry, Antoine; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Ménard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives in southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination activities worldwide. To monitor the spread of artemisinin resistance, a molecular marker is urgently needed. Here, using whole-genome sequencing of an artemisinin-resistant parasite line from Africa and clinical parasite isolates from Cambodia, we associate mutations in the PF3D7_1343700 kelch propeller domain (`K13-propeller') with artemisinin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Mutant K13-propeller alleles cluster in Cambodian provinces where resistance is prevalent, and the increasing frequency of a dominant mutant K13-propeller allele correlates with the recent spread of resistance in western Cambodia. Strong correlations between the presence of a mutant allele, in vitro parasite survival rates and in vivo parasite clearance rates indicate that K13-propeller mutations are important determinants of artemisinin resistance. K13-propeller polymorphism constitutes a useful molecular marker for large-scale surveillance efforts to contain artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Subregion and prevent its global spread.

  14. Evaluation of a Blog Based Parent Involvement Approach by Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozcinar, Zehra; Ekizoglu, Nihat

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of parent involvement in children's education, research clearly shows that it is difficult to effectively involve parents. This study aims to capture parents' views of a Blog Based Parent Involvement Approach (BPIA) designed to secure parent involvement in education by strengthening school-parent communication. Data…

  15. UNH Parents Association Supporting Parents, Supporting Students, Supporting UNH

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    UNH Parents Association Supporting Parents, Supporting Students, Supporting UNH Check out these parent recommeded websites! www.unh.edu/parents Parents Resource Guide - click on Publications, visiting UNH Sign up for the Parents Association secure email list for UNH Updates - on the P. A. home page

  16. Parenting Beliefs, Parental Stress, and Social Support Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee

    2012-01-01

    The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…

  17. Personality and Parenting Style in Parents of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huver, Rose M. E.; Otten, Roy; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian,…

  18. Characterization of agronomic traits and markers of recombinant inbred lines from intra- and interracial populations of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Welsh, W; Bushuk, W; Roca, W; Singh, S P

    1995-07-01

    The value of intra- and interracial populations in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) needs to be determined in order to create useful genetic variation for maximizing gains from selection, broadening the genetic base of commercial cultivars, and making efficient use of available resources. Five large-seeded parents of race Nueva Granada (N), two small-seeded race Mesoamerica (M), and one medium-seeded race Durango (D) were hybridized to produce one intraracial (N x N) and three interracial (two N x M and one N x D) populations. Seventy-nine F2-derived F6 lines randomly taken from each population along with their parents were evaluated for agronomic traits and markers at Palmira and Popayán, Colombia, in 1990 and 1991. Variation for agronomic traits and for morphological, protein, and isozyme markers was larger in interracial populations than in the intraracial population. Mean seed yield of all lines as well as yield of the highest yielding line from two interracial populations were significantly higher than that of the intraracial population. The highest (? 0.80±0.15) heritability was recorded for 100-seed weight. Values for seed yield varied from 0.19±0.17 to 0.50±0.16. Gains from selection (at 20% selection pressure) for seed yield ranged from 3.9% to 11.4%. Seed yield was positively associated with biomass yield, pods/m(2), and days to maturity, but harvest index showed negative correlations with these traits and a positive value with 100-seed weight. Polymorphism was recorded for phaseolin, lectins, protein Group-1 and protein Group-2 fractions, and six isozyme loci. Lines with indeterminate growth habit had significantly (P < 0.01) higher seed yield than lines with determinate growth habit in a Redkloud x MAM 4 population. Also, 23 other associations of markers with agronomic traits other than seed yield were recorded. Of these associations, lines with T phaseolin, the Diap1 (2) allele, and lilac flower color tended to possess greater seed weight. PMID:24169683

  19. MOLECULAR MARKERS IN WILD TURKEY

    E-print Network

    Latch, Emily K.

    and conservation of wildlife species. In the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), these markers have been used, hybridization, Meleagris gallopavo, micro- satellite, mitochondrial, molecular marker, population, subspecies

  20. New microsatellite markers for Campanula pyramidalis (Campanulaceae) and cross-amplification in closely related species1

    PubMed Central

    Radosavljevi?, Ivan; Jakse, Jernej; Satovic, Zlatko; Javornik, Branka; Jankovi?, Ivana; Liber, Zlatko

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were identified and characterized to study the genetic diversity and structure, conservation status, taxonomy, and biogeography of subspecific taxa and populations of Campanula pyramidalis (Campanulaceae). Methods and Results: Eleven microsatellite markers were developed from genomic libraries enriched for di- and trinucleotide repeats. A total of 80 alleles were observed in the tested natural population. The number of alleles per locus, observed heterozygosity, and expected heterozygosity ranged from four to 13, 0.217 to 0.913, and 0.521 to 0.895, respectively. Conclusions: The new microsatellite markers will be useful for studying genetic diversity and structure as well as for better assessing the conservation status of subspecific taxa and populations of C. pyramidalis. Furthermore, a set of seven loci was successfully cross-amplified in C. secundiflora and C. versicolor and will be of great value for addressing unsolved taxonomic and biogeographic issues within the C. pyramidalis species complex. PMID:25798343

  1. Clinicopathological characteristics of breast carcinomas with allelic loss in the p73 region.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, G; Silva, J; Silva, J M; Garcia, J M; Miralles, C; Rodriguez, O; Jareño, E; Provencio, M; España, P; Bonilla, F

    2000-09-01

    p73, a new member of the p53 family, has been mapped to chromosome 1p 36, a region where loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is frequently observed in primary human tumors. Allelic loss studies involving the 1p arm in breast carcinomas offer rates ranging from 13% to 75%, depending on the genetic interval being studied. We investigated LOH in an intragenic microsatellite marker, and those centromerically flanking the p73 gene, at 1p 36, and their correlations with patient age and 10 pathologic parameters in a series of 193 breast carcinomas. The LOH analysis was performed by amplifying DNA by PCR, using the five markers of the 1p 36 region (p73P1, D1S2694, D1S214, D1S2666 and D1S450). LOH was found in at least one of these markers in 27% of tumors. When we established the comparison between tumors with and without LOH and the distribution of the 10 pathologic parameters considered, we observed statistically significant differences in association with higher histologic grade (p = 0.02), more advanced pathological stage (p = 0.02), peritumoral vessel involvement (p = 0.04) and poorly differentiated carcinomas (p = 0.01), as well as in tumors that concomitantly exhibited lymph node metastases, peritumoral vessel involvement and absence of steroid receptors (p = 0.02). These data suggest that LOH in the p73 region could be pathogenically related to breast cancer and possibly to a poor tumor prognosis. PMID:11079155

  2. Quality control of genotypes using heritability estimates of gene content at the marker.

    PubMed

    Forneris, Natalia S; Legarra, Andres; Vitezica, Zulma G; Tsuruta, Shogo; Aguilar, Ignacio; Misztal, Ignacy; Cantet, Rodolfo J C

    2015-03-01

    Quality control filtering of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is a key step when analyzing genomic data. Here we present a practical method to identify low-quality SNPs, meaning markers whose genotypes are wrongly assigned for a large proportion of individuals, by estimating the heritability of gene content at each marker, where gene content is the number of copies of a particular reference allele in a genotype of an animal (0, 1, or 2). If there is no mutation at the marker, gene content has an additive heritability of 1 by construction. The method uses restricted maximum likelihood (REML) to estimate heritability of gene content at each SNP and also builds a likelihood-ratio test statistic to test for zero error variance in genotyping. As a by-product, estimates of the allele frequencies of markers at the base population are obtained. Using simulated data with 10% permutation error (4% actual error) in genotyping, the method had a specificity of 0.96 (4% of correct markers are rejected) and a sensitivity of 0.99 (1% of wrong markers are accepted) if markers with heritability lower than 0.975 are discarded. Checking of Mendelian errors resulted in a lower sensitivity (0.84) for the same simulation. The proposed method is further illustrated with a real data set with genotypes from 3534 animals genotyped for 50,433 markers from the Illumina PorcineSNP60 chip and a pedigree of 6473 individuals; those markers underwent very little quality control. A total of 4099 markers with P-values lower than 0.01 were discarded based on our method, with associated estimates of heritability as low as 0.12. Contrary to other techniques, our method uses all information in the population simultaneously, can be used in any population with markers and pedigree recordings, and is simple to implement using standard software for REML estimation. Scripts for its use are provided. PMID:25567991

  3. Pilot Parents: An Organizer's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association for the Mentally Retarded, Toronto (Ontario).

    Intended for parents of mentally retarded children, the booklet describes the organization of a parent support program in Canada. Sections outline seven steps involved in the development of a Pilot Parents Program: (1) one or two parents in a local association for the mentally retarded chapter decide to start Pilot Parents; (2) a Pilot Parents

  4. Allele frequencies of gene polymorphisms related to economic traits in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Makoto; Lin, Bang Zhong; Sasazaki, Shinji; Oyama, Kenji; Mannen, Hideyuki

    2011-12-01

    Allele frequencies of 10 representative polymorphisms for beef and milk traits were investigated for a total of 240 animals from Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds, including two Japanese groups (Japanese Black and Japanese Brown), two East Asian groups (Korean and Mongolian), three European groups (Holstein, Angus and Hereford) and a Bos indicus group in South Asia (Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia). The Japanese Black revealed unique genetic construction in GH, FASN and SREBP-1 and the other Asian populations show intermediate frequencies between European and Japanese populations. The Bos indicus group showed low favorable allele frequencies in most of the genes. The study showed the variability and distribution of 10 genes affecting economic traits among world representative cattle breeds. The genetic information would contribute to elucidating the genetic background for worldwide cattle breeds and the possibility of improvement using the markers. PMID:22111625

  5. Single strand conformation polymorphism of genomic and EST-SSRs marker and its utility in genetic evaluation of sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Kalwade, Sachin B; Devarumath, Rachayya M

    2014-07-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop producing around 75 % of sugar in world and used as first generation biofuel. In present study, the genomic and gene based microsatellite markers were analyzed by low cost Single Strand Confirmation Polymorphism technique for genetic evaluation of 22 selected sugarcane genotypes. Total 16 genomic and 12 Expression Sequence Tag derived markers were able to amplify the selected sugarcane genotypes. Total 138 alleles were amplified of which 99 alleles (72 %) found polymorphic with an average of 4.9 alleles per locus. Microsatellite marker, VCSSR7 and VCSSR 12 showed monomorphic alleles with frequency 7.1 % over the average of 3.5 obtained for polymorphic locus. The level of Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) varied from 0.09 in VCSSR 6 to 0.88 in VCSSR 11 marker respectively with a mean of 0.49. Genomic SSRs showed more polymorphism than EST-SSRs markers on selected sugarcane genotypes whereas, the genetic similarity indices calculated by Jaccard's similarity coefficient varied from 0.55 to 0.81 indicate a high level of genetic similarity among the genotypes that was mainly attributed to intra specific diversity. Hence, the SSR-SSCP technique helped to identify the genetically diverse clones which could be used in crossing program for introgression of sugar and stress related traits in hybrid sugarcane. PMID:25049458

  6. Marker-Assisted Selection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A method of selecting desirable individuals in a breeding scheme based on DNA molecular marker patterns instead of, or in addition to, their trait values.A tool that can help plant breeders select more efficiently for desirable crop traits.

  7. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions, and Parenting Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc H. Bornstein; Chun-Shin Hahn; O. Maurice Haynes

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the 5-factor model

  8. Comparative Anatomy of Chromosomal Domains with Imprinted and Non-Imprinted Allele-Specific DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Kerkel, Kristi; Yale, Alexander; Yotova, Iveta; Drost, Natalia; Lax, Simon; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Ling; Powell, Charles; Borczuk, Alain; Aviv, Abraham; Wapner, Ronald; Chen, Xiaowei; Nagy, Peter L.; Schork, Nicholas; Do, Catherine; Torkamani, Ali; Tycko, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM) is well studied in imprinted domains, but this type of epigenetic asymmetry is actually found more commonly at non-imprinted loci, where the ASM is dictated not by parent-of-origin but instead by the local haplotype. We identified loci with strong ASM in human tissues from methylation-sensitive SNP array data. Two index regions (bisulfite PCR amplicons), one between the C3orf27 and RPN1 genes in chromosome band 3q21 and the other near the VTRNA2-1 vault RNA in band 5q31, proved to be new examples of imprinted DMRs (maternal alleles methylated) while a third, between STEAP3 and C2orf76 in chromosome band 2q14, showed non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM. Using long-read bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq) in 8 human tissues we found that in all 3 domains the ASM is restricted to single differentially methylated regions (DMRs), each less than 2kb. The ASM in the C3orf27-RPN1 intergenic region was placenta-specific and associated with allele-specific expression of a long non-coding RNA. Strikingly, the discrete DMRs in all 3 regions overlap with binding sites for the insulator protein CTCF, which we found selectively bound to the unmethylated allele of the STEAP3-C2orf76 DMR. Methylation mapping in two additional genes with non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM, ELK3 and CYP2A7, showed that the CYP2A7 DMR also overlaps a CTCF site. Thus, two features of imprinted domains, highly localized DMRs and allele-specific insulator occupancy by CTCF, can also be found in chromosomal domains with non-imprinted ASM. Arguing for biological importance, our analysis of published whole genome bis-seq data from hES cells revealed multiple genome-wide association study (GWAS) peaks near CTCF binding sites with ASM. PMID:24009515

  9. The general protected invasion theory: Sex biases in parental and alloparental care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HUDSONK. Reeve; JANETS. Shellman-Reeve

    1997-01-01

    The biases towards eusociality, female workers and maternal care in haplodiploid versus diploid insects may result from the relatively low probabilities that rare mutant, partially dominant alleles promoting these behaviours will be lost by genetic drift in haplodiploid populations (Reeve, 1993). A generalization of this 'protected invasion' theory also predicts that parental and alloparental care will tend to be associated

  10. Parental origin of the extra chromosome in Down's syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Magenis; K. M. Overton; J. Chamberlin; T. Brady; E. Lovrien

    1977-01-01

    Chromosome 21 fluorescent heteromorphisms were studied in 42 patients with Down's syndrome, their parents and their siblings. Included in this number are two instances of an aunt and niece affected with trisomy 21, and one of affected siblings. One case has a de novo 21\\/21 translocation. Blood group, red cell and serum protein markers were also studied for linkage, gene

  11. Toward fully automated genotyping: Allele assignment, pedigree construction, phase determination, and recombination detection in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Perlin, M.W.; Burks, M.B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hoop, R.C.; Hoffman, E.P. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Human genetic maps have made quantum leaps in the past few years, because of the characterization of >2,000 CA dinucleotide repeat loci: these PCR-based markers offer extraordinarily high PIC, and within the next year their density is expected to reach intervals of a few centimorgans per marker. These new genetic maps open new avenues for disease gene research, including large-scale genotyping for both simple and complex disease loci. However, the allele patterns of many dinucleotide repeat loci can be complex and difficult to interpret, with genotyping errors a recognized problem. Furthermore, the possibility of genotyping individuals at hundreds or thousands of polymorphic loci requires improvements in data handling and analysis. The automation of genotyping and analysis of computer-derived haplotypes would remove many of the barriers preventing optimal use of dense and informative dinucleotide genetic maps. Toward this end, we have automated the allele identification, genotyping, phase determinations, and inheritance consistency checks generated by four CA repeats within the 2.5-Mbp, 10-cM X-linked dystrophin gene, using fluorescein-labeled multiplexed PCR products analyzed on automated sequencers. The described algorithms can deconvolute and resolve closely spaced alleles, despite interfering stutter noise; set phase in females; propagate the phase through the family; and identify recombination events. We show the implementation of these algorithms for the completely automated interpretation of allele data and risk assessment for five Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy families. The described approach can be scaled up to perform genome-based analyses with hundreds or thousands of CA-repeat loci, using multiple fluorophors on automated sequencers. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. CGG allele size somatic mosaicism and methylation in FMR1 premutation alleles

    PubMed Central

    Pretto, Dalyir I.; Mendoza-Morales, Guadalupe; Lo, Joyce; Cao, Ru; Hadd, Andrew; Latham, Gary J.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Hagerman, Randi; Tassone, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Background Greater than 200 CGG repeats in the 5?UTR of the FMR1 gene leads to epigenetic silencing and lack of the FMR1 protein, causing Fragile X Syndrome. Individuals carriers of a premutation (PM) allele with 55–200 CGG repeats are typically unmethylated and can present with clinical features defined as FMR1 associated conditions. Methods Blood samples from 17 male PM carriers were assessed clinically and molecularly by Southern Blot, Western Blot, PCR and QRT-PCR. Blood and brain tissue from additional 18 PM males were also similarly examined. Continuous outcomes were modeled using linear regression and binary outcomes were modeled using logistic regression. Results Methylated alleles were detected in different fractions of blood cells in all PM cases (n= 17). CGG repeat numbers correlated with percent of methylation and mRNA levels and, especially in the upper PM range, with greater number of clinical involvements. Inter/intra- tissue somatic instability and differences in percent methylation were observed between blood and fibroblasts (n=4) and also observed between blood and different brain regions in three of the 18 premutation cases examined. CGG repeat lengths in lymphocytes remained unchanged over a period of time ranging from 2–6 years, three cases for whom multiple samples were available. Conclusion In addition to CGG size instability, individuals with a PM expanded alleles can exhibit methylation and display more clinical features likely due to RNA toxicity and/or FMR1 silencing. The observed association between CGG repeat length and percent of methylation with the severity of the clinical phenotypes underscores the potential value of methylation in affected PM to further understand penetrance, inform diagnosis and to expand treatment options. PMID:24591415

  13. Rheumatoid arthritis seropositive for the rheumatoid factor is linked to the protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22-620W allele

    PubMed Central

    Dieudé, Philippe; Garnier, Sophie; Michou, Laëtitia; Petit-Teixeira, Elisabeth; Glikmans, Elodie; Pierlot, Céline; Lasbleiz, Sandra; Bardin, Thomas; Prum, Bernard; Cornélis, François

    2005-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene encodes for lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase LYP, involved in the negative regulation of early T-cell activation. An association has recently been reported between the PTPN22-620W functional allele and rheumatoid factor-positive (RF+) rheumatoid arthritis (RA), among other autoimmune diseases. Expected linkage proof for consistency cannot be definitely produced by an affected sib-pair (ASP) analysis. Our aim was therefore to search for linkage evidence with the transmission disequilibrium test. DNA from the French Caucasian population was available for two samples of 100 families with one RA patient and both parents, and for 88 RA index cases from RA ASP families. Genotyping was carried out by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The analysis was performed using the transmission disequilibrium test, genotype relative risk and ASP-based analysis. The transmission disequilibrium test of the PTPN22-620W allele revealed linkage and association for RF+ RA (61% of transmission, P = 0.037). The genotype relative risk showed the risk allele in 34% of RF+ RA patients and in 24% of controls derived from nontransmitted parental chromosomes (P = 0.047, odds ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–2.78). The ASP investigation showed no enriched risk allele in RA multiplex families, resulting in a lack of power of ASP analysis, explaining the published negative results. This study is the first to show linkage of PTPN22 to RF+ RA, consistent with PTPN22 as a new RA gene. PMID:16277672

  14. Parent Stress and Its Relation to Parent Perceptions of Communication following Parent-Coached Language Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose A.; Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a parent-coached language intervention on parent stress and its relation to parent perceptions of communication development were examined in 60 parents of toddlers with developmental delays. Results indicated that overall parent stress was not high prior to or following language intervention. Parents' perceptions about the severity…

  15. Effortful control and parenting: associations with HPA axis reactivity in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Kryski, Katie R; Dougherty, Lea R; Dyson, Margaret W; Olino, Thomas M; Laptook, Rebecca S; Klein, Daniel N; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2013-07-01

    While activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is an adaptive response to stress, excessive HPA axis reactivity may be an important marker of childhood vulnerability to psychopathology. Parenting, including parent affect during parent-child interactions, may play an important role in shaping the developing HPA system; however, the association of parent affect may be moderated by child factors, especially children's emerging self-regulatory skills. We therefore tested the relationship between parent affectivity and 160 preschoolers' cortisol reactivity during a laboratory visit, examining children's effortful control (EC) as a moderator. Greater parent negative affectivity was related to greater initial and increasing cortisol over time, but only when children were low in EC. Higher parent positive affectivity was related to a higher baseline cortisol for children with low EC and lower baseline cortisol for children with high EC. Results indicate that children's EC moderates the extent to which parent affect shapes stress reactive systems in early childhood. PMID:23786471

  16. Characterization of microsatellite markers for the vulnerable grassland forb Senecio macrocarpus (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Collin W.; James, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Development of microsatellite markers for the vulnerable forb Senecio macrocarpus was performed to begin an assessment of its population structure and breeding method to aid in the conservation of the species in Victoria, Australia. • Methods and Results: Fifteen microsatellite markers were developed for S. macrocarpus from 454 pyrosequencing. The markers were tested on 104 individuals from four populations. The markers produced between two and seven alleles per locus while the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.20 to 0.67 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 1.00. The observed heterozygosity is suggestive that the populations may be apomictic. • Conclusions: The microsatellite markers developed for S. macrocarpus are intended to be used on future studies that aim to assess the population genetics and local breeding dynamics of the species with an emphasis on conservation. PMID:25202496

  17. Development of sequence characterized DNA markers linked to a dominant verticillium wilt resistance gene in tomato.

    PubMed

    Kawchuk, L M; Hachey, J; Lynch, D R

    1998-02-01

    Sequences were determined for codominant RAPD markers closely linked to the Ve locus, a dominant verticillium wilt resistance gene in tomato. Analysis of the sequences linked to Ve and ve revealed a perfectly homologous sequence with a central polymorphic region comprising 79 nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Codominant and allele-specific SCARs were developed using conserved and polymorphic sequences linked to the Ve locus. High resolution linkage analysis using F2 progeny segregating for resistance and marker-assisted selection indicated that linkage between the genetic markers and the Ve locus is less than 0.67 +/- 0.49 cM. Sequences were useful in determining the molecular structure of a polymorphic genomic region closely linked to the Ve locus and in developing genetic markers that facilitated marker-assisted selection of the resistant, susceptible, heterozygous, and homozygous genotypes. PMID:9549062

  18. Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water-saving in Chinese Zone II wheat detected by developed functional markers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenxian; Shi, Zhanliang; Zhang, Aimin; Guo, Jinkao

    2015-03-01

    Functional markers (FMs) developed from sequence polymorphisms are present in allelic variants of a functional gene at a locus and are directly associated with phenotypic variations. In this study, FM linked to Rht-B1, Rht-D1, TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B, TaGW2-6A and Dreb-B1 genes conferring to yield potential and water-saving were selected to analyse the distribution in 102 wheat varieties, most of which were authorized in the past decade and adapted to grow in Zone II of China. First, the semidwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b (mutant alleles) conferring to grain yield were analysed. The frequencies of favourable alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b were 32.4 and 58.8%, respectively. Comparing with the previous report, the frequency of Rht-B1b among cultivars in this study is similar to the frequency among cultivars released in the 1990s, while the frequency of Rht-D1b is slightly lower than the previous report 63.9%. Twelve (11.8%) cultivars neither contained Rht-B1b nor Rht-D1b, while only Yumai 66 contained both semidwarfing genes. Linyuan8 and Xinong 928 are heterozygous at RhtB1 locus and Zhengmai 9023 is heterozygous at both RhtB1 and Rht-D1 loci. Second, the TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B and TaGW2-6A genes considered as candidate genes related to grain weight were detected. We found that the frequencies of the favourable alleles were 76.5, 56.9 and 69.6%, respectively. Among the 102 wheat varieties, 30 contained all the three favourable genes, 45 contained two of the three favourable genes and 27 contained only one. There are eight wheat varieties (7.8%) in hybrid state at the TaCWI-A1 locus. Third, the designed FM linked to water-saving gene Dreb-B1 were validated on 102 wheat varieties. The results showed that the haplotypes of 47 wheat varieties at the Dreb-B1 locus were same as that of Opata 85, and 55 wheat varieties showed the signal expected for W7984 (Opata 85 and W7984 are parents of the ITMI mapping population). This information will be useful for the wheat breeding programmes aiming at improving yield and water use efficiency in Shijiazhuang located in China Zone II. PMID:25846875

  19. Allele frequencies of six STR loci in Argentine populations.

    PubMed

    Tourret, N; López Camelo, J; Vidal-Rioja, L

    1999-11-01

    Allele frequencies of six short tandem repeat (STR) loci were determined in a Caucasian urban sample of La Plata city and three Amerindian sample populations of Argentina. Allele frequencies showed differences between urbans and Amerindians, and among Amerindians as well. The degree of genetic differentiation of subpopulations was mainly due to the Amerindian contribution. Mapuche, Mocovi, and pooled Amerindian populations showed little evidence of HW disequilibrium, and association of alleles. In the urban sample, there is no evidence of population substructuring. Forensic probabilities of exclusion and matching showed high differences between the population groups. Finally, La Plata sample did not show differences with Caucasians from other geographic regions. PMID:10582366

  20. Characterization of genic microsatellite markers derived from expressed sequence tags in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Shu, Jing; Zhao, Cui; Liu, Shikai; Kong, Lingfeng; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai). Repeat motifs were found in 4.95% of the ESTs at a frequency of one repeat every 10.04 kb of EST sequences, after redundancy elimination. Seventeen polymorphic EST-SSRs were developed. The number of alleles per locus varied from 2-17, with an average of 6.8 alleles per locus. The expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.159 to 0.928 and from 0.132 to 0.922, respectively. Twelve of the 17 loci (70.6%) were successfully amplified in H. diversicolor. Seventeen loci segregated in three families, with three showing the presence of null alleles (17.6%). The adequate level of variability and low frequency of null alleles observed in H. discus hannai, together with the high rate of transportability across Haliotis species, make this set of EST-SSR markers an important tool for comparative mapping, marker-assisted selection, and evolutionary studies, not only in the Pacific abalone, but also in related species.

  1. The Sjögren-Larsson syndrome gene is close to D17S805 as determined by linkage analysis and allelic association.

    PubMed

    Pigg, M; Jagell, S; Sillén, A; Weissenbach, J; Gustavson, K H; Wadelius, C

    1994-12-01

    Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome (SLS) is characterized by congenital ichthyosis, spastic dior tetraplegia and mental retardation. It is an autosomal recessive trait that is frequent in the northern part of Sweden. Based on linkage analysis and allelic association, the disorder has now been mapped to chromosome 17. Meiotic recombinations suggest that the gene is flanked by D17S805 on the centromeric and D17S783, D17S959, D17S842 and D17S925 on the telomeric side. These markers map to the same location in reference pedigrees. Strong allelic association (chi-square 60.28, p < 0.0003) to D17S805 suggests that the mutation is located close to this marker. PMID:7894487

  2. HLA-DMA*0103 and HLA-DMB*0104 alleles as novel prognostic factors in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Morel, J; Roch-Bras, F; Molinari, N; Sany, J; Eliaou, J; Combe, B

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate HLA-DM alleles as markers for disease severity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Two distinct cohorts of patients with RA were oligotyped for HLA-DB1 and HLA-DM genes using PCR amplified genomic DNA with sequence specific oligonucleotide probes. Cohort 1 comprised 199 unselected patients with RA (mean (SD) age 45.5 (13.5) years; disease duration 11.9(8.8) years), whose disease severity was assessed using Larsen score on hand and foot radiographs. Cohort 2 comprised 95 patients with severe RA and 70 patients with benign RA according to the Larsen method. Results: In cohort 1, after stratification according to DRB1 genotypes, patients positive for HLA-DMA*0103 and negative for HLA-DRB1*04 tended to have greater articular damage on hands and wrists (p = 0.07 by Mann-Whitney U test) and reached statistical significance for the Larsen score per year (p = 0.05). This association between HLA-DMA*0103 and articular damage was especially observed in patients with HLA-DRB1*01. Similarly, HLA-DMB*0104 positive patients had higher Larsen score on hands and wrists (p = 0.02). This association was even stronger in DRB1*04 positive patients (p = 0.005). In cohort 2, HLA-DMA*0103 was associated with severe RA in patients negative for HLA-DRB1*04 (OD = 5.4; p = 0.014). HLA-DMB*0104 allele frequency tended to be higher in patients with severe RA but without reaching significance. Conclusion: This is the first study evaluating the role of HLA-DM genes in the severity of RA. Our results suggest that HLA-DMA*0103 and HLA-DMB*0104 alleles may represent new genetic markers of RA severity. The HLA-DMA*0103 allele tends to be associated with patients with RA negative for DRB1*04 and could predict a more severe form of disease especially in HLA-DRB1*01 positive patients. The HLA-DMB*0104 allele could have an additive effect in HLA-DRB1*04 patients. Combined determination of HLA-DM and HLA-DRB1 alleles could facilitate identification of patients likely to have a poor disease course. PMID:15547082

  3. Design III with Marker Loci

    PubMed Central

    Cockerham, C. C.; Zeng, Z. B.

    1996-01-01

    Design III is an experimental design originally proposed by R. E. COMSTOCK and H. F. ROBINSON for estimating genetic variances and the average degree of dominance for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and has recently been extended for mapping QTL. In this paper, we first extend COMSTOCK and ROBINSON's analysis of variance to include linkage, two-locus epistasis and the use of F(3) parents. Then we develop the theory and statistical analysis of orthogonal contrasts and contrast X environment interaction for a single marker locus to characterize the effects of QTL. The methods are applied to the maize data of C. W. STUBER. The analyses strongly suggest that there are multiple linked QTL in many chromosomes for several traits examined. QTL effects are largely environment-independent for grain yield, ear height, plant height and ear leaf area and largely environment dependent for days to tassel, grain moisture and ear number. There is significant QTL epistasis. The results are generally in favor of the hypothesis of dominance of favorable genes to explain the observed heterosis in grain yield and other traits, although epistasis could also play an important role and overdominance at individual QTL level can not be ruled out. PMID:8807314

  4. Parenting by lying

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Gail D.; Luu, Diem H.; Lee, Kang

    2010-01-01

    The present set of studies identifies the phenomenon of `parenting by lying', in which parents lie to their children as a means of influencing their emotional states and behaviour. In Study 1, undergraduates (n = 127) reported that their parents had lied to them while maintaining a concurrent emphasis on the importance of honesty. In Study 2 (n = 127), parents reported lying to their children and considered doing so to be acceptable under some circumstances, even though they also reported teaching their children that lying is unacceptable. As compared to European American parents, Asian American parents tended to hold a more favourable view of lying to children for the purpose of promoting behavioural compliance. PMID:20930948

  5. Nuclear gene phylogeography using PHASE: dealing with unresolved genotypes, lost alleles, and systematic bias in parameter estimation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A widely-used approach for screening nuclear DNA markers is to obtain sequence data and use bioinformatic algorithms to estimate which two alleles are present in heterozygous individuals. It is common practice to omit unresolved genotypes from downstream analyses, but the implications of this have not been investigated. We evaluated the haplotype reconstruction method implemented by PHASE in the context of phylogeographic applications. Empirical sequence datasets from five non-coding nuclear loci with gametic phase ascribed by molecular approaches were coupled with simulated datasets to investigate three key issues: (1) haplotype reconstruction error rates and the nature of inference errors, (2) dataset features and genotypic configurations that drive haplotype reconstruction uncertainty, and (3) impacts of omitting unresolved genotypes on levels of observed phylogenetic diversity and the accuracy of downstream phylogeographic analyses. Results We found that PHASE usually had very low false-positives (i.e., a low rate of confidently inferring haplotype pairs that were incorrect). The majority of genotypes that could not be resolved with high confidence included an allele occurring only once in a dataset, and genotypic configurations involving two low-frequency alleles were disproportionately represented in the pool of unresolved genotypes. The standard practice of omitting unresolved genotypes from downstream analyses can lead to considerable reductions in overall phylogenetic diversity that is skewed towards the loss of alleles with larger-than-average pairwise sequence divergences, and in turn, this causes systematic bias in estimates of important population genetic parameters. Conclusions A combination of experimental and computational approaches for resolving phase of segregating sites in phylogeographic applications is essential. We outline practical approaches to mitigating potential impacts of computational haplotype reconstruction on phylogeographic inferences. With targeted application of laboratory procedures that enable unambiguous phase determination via physical isolation of alleles from diploid PCR products, relatively little investment of time and effort is needed to overcome the observed biases. PMID:20429950

  6. Generation of high frequency of novel alleles of the high molecular weight glutenin in somatic hybridization between bread wheat and tall wheatgrass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Heng; Liu, Shuwei; Xia, Guangmin

    2009-04-01

    Somatic hybridization between bread wheat and tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum) has generated fertile introgression progenies with novel combinations of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS). Most of these novel HMW-GS alleles were stably inherited. Sixteen HMW-GS sequences were PCR amplified from three introgression progeny lines and sequenced. The alignment of these sequences indicated that five, probably derived from point mutations of the parental genes, whereas eight likely represent the product of replication slippage. Three Glu-1Ay sequences appear to have lost the transposon presented in the parental gene. Two subunits carry an additional cysteine residue, which may be favorable to the quality of end-use product. We demonstrate that novel HMW-GS alleles can be rapidly generated via asymmetric somatic hybridization. PMID:19199095

  7. Implication of HLA-C and KIR alleles in human papillomavirus infection and associated cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Roberta; Gentili, Valentina; Rotola, Antonella; Bortolotti, Daria; Cassai, Enzo; Di Luca, Dario

    2014-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) regulation of host immune response leads to cervical lesions. In particular, natural killer (NK) cells are crucial for HPV control. Since specific HLA-I/KIR interactions modify NK cell activation, we analyzed HLA-C and KIR alleles in HPV infection and lesion development in 150 controls, 33 condyloma acuminatum, and 111 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) patients. We showed an increase in HLA-C1/KIR2DL2 and HLA-C1/KIR2DL3 pairs in HPV high-risk infected patients (OR 3.05, 3.24) with ICC (OR 1.33, 3.68). These data suggest HLA-C and KIR typing as risk marker for HPV infection and lesion evolution. PMID:25188020

  8. Uneven segregation of sporophytic self-incompatibility alleles in Arabidopsis lyrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B ECHSGAARD; T. BATAILLON; M. H. SCHIERUP

    2004-01-01

    Self-incompatibility in Arabidopsis lyrata is sporophytically controlled by the multi-allelic S-locus. Self-incompatibility alleles (S-alleles) are under strong negative frequency dependent selection because pollen carrying common S-alleles have fewer mating opportunities. Population genetics theory predicts that deleterious alleles can accumulate if linked to the S-locus. This was tested by studying segregation of S-alleles in 11 large full sib families in A.

  9. Effects of allelic variations in starch synthesis-related genes on grain quality traits of Korean nonglutinous rice varieties under different temperature conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Young-Jun; Jeung, Ji-Ung; Shin, Woon-Chul; Kim, Ki-Young; Ye, Changrong; Redoña, Edilberto D.; Kim, Bo-Kyeong

    2014-01-01

    Influences of allelic variations in starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs) on rice grain quality were examined. A total of 187 nonglutinous Korean rice varieties, consisting of 170 Japonica and 17 Tongil-type varieties, were grown in the field and in two greenhouse conditions. The percentages of head rice and chalky grains, amylose content, alkali digestion value, and rapid visco-analysis characteristics were evaluated in the three different environments. Among the 10 previously reported SSRG markers used in this study, seven were polymorphic, and four of those showed subspecies-specific allele distributions. Six out of the seven polymorphic SSRG markers were significantly associated with at least one grain quality trait (R2 > 0.1) across the three different environments. However, the association level and significance were markedly lower when the analysis was repeated using only the 170 Japonica varieties. Similarly, the significant associations between SSRG allelic variations and changes in grain quality traits under increased temperature were largely attributable to the biased allele frequency between the two subpopulations. Our results suggest that within Korean Japonica varieties, these 10 major SSRG loci have been highly fixed during breeding history and variations in grain quality traits might be influenced by other genetic factors. PMID:24987303

  10. Favorable Alleles for Stem Water-Soluble Carbohydrates Identified by Association Analysis Contribute to Grain Weight under Drought Stress Conditions in Wheat.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyu; Zhang, Bin; Li, Runzhi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint to crop distribution and productivity. Stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) buffer wheat grain yield against conditions unfavorable for photosynthesis during the grain filling stage. In this study, 262 winter wheat accessions and 209 genome-wide SSR markers were collected and used to undertake association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM). The WSC in different internodes at three growth stages and 1000-grain weight (TGW) were investigated under four environmental regimes (well-watered, drought stress during the whole growth period, and two levels of terminal drought stress imposed by chemical desiccation under the well-watered and drought stress during the whole growth period conditions). Under diverse drought stress conditions, WSC in lower internodes showed significant positive correlations with TGW, especially at the flowering stage under well-watered conditions and at grain filling under drought stress. Sixteen novel WSC-favorable alleles were identified, and five of them contributed to significantly higher TGW. In addition, pyramiding WSC favorable alleles was not only effective for obtaining accessions with higher WSC, but also for enhancing TGW under different water regimes. During the past fifty years of wheat breeding, WSC was selected incidentally. The average number of favorable WSC alleles increased from 1.13 in the pre-1960 period to 4.41 in the post-2000 period. The results indicate a high potential for using marker-assisted selection to pyramid WSC favorable alleles in improving WSC and TGW in wheat. PMID:25768726

  11. Favorable Alleles for Stem Water-Soluble Carbohydrates Identified by Association Analysis Contribute to Grain Weight under Drought Stress Conditions in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Li, Runzhi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint to crop distribution and productivity. Stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) buffer wheat grain yield against conditions unfavorable for photosynthesis during the grain filling stage. In this study, 262 winter wheat accessions and 209 genome-wide SSR markers were collected and used to undertake association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM). The WSC in different internodes at three growth stages and 1000-grain weight (TGW) were investigated under four environmental regimes (well-watered, drought stress during the whole growth period, and two levels of terminal drought stress imposed by chemical desiccation under the well-watered and drought stress during the whole growth period conditions). Under diverse drought stress conditions, WSC in lower internodes showed significant positive correlations with TGW, especially at the flowering stage under well-watered conditions and at grain filling under drought stress. Sixteen novel WSC-favorable alleles were identified, and five of them contributed to significantly higher TGW. In addition, pyramiding WSC favorable alleles was not only effective for obtaining accessions with higher WSC, but also for enhancing TGW under different water regimes. During the past fifty years of wheat breeding, WSC was selected incidentally. The average number of favorable WSC alleles increased from 1.13 in the pre-1960 period to 4.41 in the post-2000 period. The results indicate a high potential for using marker-assisted selection to pyramid WSC favorable alleles in improving WSC and TGW in wheat. PMID:25768726

  12. Association of Autoimmune Addison's Disease with Alleles of STAT4 and GATA3 in European Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Anna L.; Macarthur, Katie D. R.; Gan, Earn H.; Baggott, Lucy E.; Wolff, Anette S. B.; Skinningsrud, Beate; Platt, Hazel; Short, Andrea; Lobell, Anna; Kämpe, Olle; Bensing, Sophie; Betterle, Corrado; Kasperlik-Zaluska, Anna; Zurawek, Magdalena; Fichna, Marta; Kockum, Ingrid; Nordling Eriksson, Gabriel; Ekwall, Olov; Wahlberg, Jeanette; Dahlqvist, Per; Hulting, Anna-Lena; Penna-Martinez, Marissa; Meyer, Gesine; Kahles, Heinrich; Badenhoop, Klaus; Hahner, Stephanie; Quinkler, Marcus; Falorni, Alberto; Phipps-Green, Amanda; Merriman, Tony R.; Ollier, William; Cordell, Heather J.; Undlien, Dag; Czarnocka, Barbara; Husebye, Eystein; Pearce, Simon H. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene variants known to contribute to Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) susceptibility include those at the MHC, MICA, CIITA, CTLA4, PTPN22, CYP27B1, NLRP-1 and CD274 loci. The majority of the genetic component to disease susceptibility has yet to be accounted for. Aim To investigate the role of 19 candidate genes in AAD susceptibility in six European case-control cohorts. Methods A sequential association study design was employed with genotyping using Sequenom iPlex technology. In phase one, 85 SNPs in 19 genes were genotyped in UK and Norwegian AAD cohorts (691 AAD, 715 controls). In phase two, 21 SNPs in 11 genes were genotyped in German, Swedish, Italian and Polish cohorts (1264 AAD, 1221 controls). In phase three, to explore association of GATA3 polymorphisms with AAD and to determine if this association extended to other autoimmune conditions, 15 SNPs in GATA3 were studied in UK and Norwegian AAD cohorts, 1195 type 1 diabetes patients from Norway, 650 rheumatoid arthritis patients from New Zealand and in 283 UK Graves' disease patients. Meta-analysis was used to compare genotype frequencies between the participating centres, allowing for heterogeneity. Results We report significant association with alleles of two STAT4 markers in AAD cohorts (rs4274624: P?=?0.00016; rs10931481: P?=?0.0007). In addition, nominal association of AAD with alleles at GATA3 was found in 3 patient cohorts and supported by meta-analysis. Association of AAD with CYP27B1 alleles was also confirmed, which replicates previous published data. Finally, nominal association was found at SNPs in both the NF-?B1 and IL23A genes in the UK and Italian cohorts respectively. Conclusions Variants in the STAT4 gene, previously associated with other autoimmune conditions, confer susceptibility to AAD. Additionally, we report association of GATA3 variants with AAD: this adds to the recent report of association of GATA3 variants with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:24614117

  13. Parent Abuse: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Kennair; David Mellor

    2007-01-01

    A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse).\\u000a This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears\\u000a to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily focused on prevalence rates and

  14. Schooling and Parental Death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Gertler; David I. Levine; Minnie Ames

    2003-01-01

    Loss of a parent is one of the most traumatic events a child can face. If loss of a parent reduces investments in children, it can also have long-lasting implications. This study uses parametric and semi-nonparametric matching techniques to estimate how one human capital investment, school enrollment, is affected by a parent's recent death. We analyze data from 600,000 households

  15. Schooling and Parental Death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Gertler; David I. Levine; Minnie Ames

    2002-01-01

    Loss of a parent is one of the most traumatic events a child can face. If loss of a parent reduces investments in children, it can also have long-lasting implications. This study uses parametric and semi-nonparametric matching techniques to estimate how one human capital investment, school enrollment, is affected by a parent's recent death. We analyze data from 600,000 households

  16. Schooling and Parental Death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Gertler; David I. Levine; Minnie Ames

    2004-01-01

    Loss of a parent is one of the most traumatic events a child can face. If loss of a parent reduces investments in children, it can also have long-lasting implications. This study uses parametric and seminonpara-metric matching techniques to estimate how one human capital investment, school enrollment, is affected by a parent's recent death. We analyze data from 600,000 households

  17. Allele-Specific Associations of 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 with ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Siegal, Victoria I.; Olvet, Doreen M.; Kibria, Saniya; Kirsch, Sarah F.; Hatchwell, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were to examine the association between a common serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) polymorphism 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 with severity of attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms. Methods Mothers and teachers completed a validated DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for ADHD and ASD symptoms in 118 children with ASD. Results Analyses indicated that children with at least one copy of the S or LG allele obtained significantly more severe maternal ratings of hyperactivity (p=0.001; ?p2=0.097) and impulsivity (p=0.027; ?p2=0.044) but not inattention (p=0.061; ?p2=0.032), controlling for ASD severity, than children homozygous for the LA allele. Conversely, mothers’ ratings indicated that children with LA/LA genotype had more severe ASD social deficits than S+ or LG allele carriers (p=0.003; ?p2=0.081), controlling for ADHD symptom severity. Teachers’ ratings though consistent with mothers’ ratings of hyperactivity and social deficits were marginally significant (p=0.07/p=0.09). There was some evidence that the magnitude of parent-teacher agreement regarding symptom severity varied as a function of the child’s genotype. Conclusion The 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphism or its correlates may modulate severity of ADHD and ASD symptoms in children with ASD, but in different ways. These tentative, hypothesis-generating findings require replication with larger independent samples. PMID:23123360

  18. Association of prophage antiterminator Q alleles and susceptibility to food-processing treatments applied to Escherichia coli O157 in laboratory media.

    PubMed

    Malone, Aaron S; Yousef, Ahmed E; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2007-11-01

    Resistance of Escherichia coli O157 to inactivation by high-pressure processing, heat, and UV and gamma radiation was associated with the allele of the prophage-encoded antiterminator Q gene present upstream of the Shiga toxin gene stx2. Increased processing may be required to kill certain strains of E. coli O157, and the choice of strains used as surrogate markers for processing efficiency is critical. PMID:18044444

  19. The CDKN2A G500 Allele Is More Frequent in GBM Patients with No Defined Telomere Maintenance Mechanism Tumors and Is Associated with Poorer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Royds, Janice A.; Al Nadaf, Shafagh; Wiles, Anna K.; Chen, Yu-Jen; Ahn, Antonio; Shaw, Alisha; Bowie, Sara; Lam, Frederic; Baguley, Bruce C.; Braithwaite, Antony W.; MacFarlane, Martin R.; Hung, Noelyn A.; Slatter, Tania L.

    2011-01-01

    Prognostic markers for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are important for patient management. Recent advances have identified prognostic markers for GBMs that use telomerase or the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism for telomere maintenance. Approximately 40% of GBMs have no defined telomere maintenance mechanism (NDTMM), with a mixed survival for affected individuals. This study examined genetic variants in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) gene that encodes the p16INK4a and p14ARF tumor suppressors, and the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene as potential markers of survival for 40 individuals with NDTMM GBMs (telomerase negative and ALT negative by standard assays), 50 individuals with telomerase, and 17 individuals with ALT positive tumors. The analysis of CDKN2A showed NDTMM GBMs had an increased minor allele frequency for the C500G (rs11515) polymorphism compared to those with telomerase and ALT positive GBMs (p?=?0.002). Patients with the G500 allele had reduced survival that was independent of age, extent of surgery, and treatment. In the NDTMM group G500 allele carriers had increased loss of CDKN2A gene dosage compared to C500 homozygotes. An analysis of IDH1 mutations showed the R132H mutation was associated with ALT positive tumors, and was largely absent in NDTMM and telomerase positive tumors. In the ALT positive tumors cohort, IDH1 mutations were associated with a younger age for the affected individual. In conclusion, the G500 CDKN2A allele was associated with NDTMM GBMs from older individuals with poorer survival. Mutations in IDH1 were not associated with NDTMM GBMs, and instead were a marker for ALT positive tumors in younger individuals. PMID:22046342

  20. Amodiaquine and Artemether-Lumefantrine Select Distinct Alleles of the Plasmodium falciparum mdr1 Gene in Tanzanian Children Treated for Uncomplicated Malaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Humphreys; I. Merinopoulos; J. Ahmed; C. J. M. Whitty; T. K. Mutabingwa; C. J. Sutherland; R. L. Hallett

    2007-01-01

    The artemisinin-based combination therapies artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and amodiaquine (AQ) plus artesunate have been adopted for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in many African countries. Molecular markers of parasite resistance suitable for surveillance have not been established for any of the component drugs in either of these combinations. We assessed P. falciparum mdr1 (Pfmdr1) alleles present in 300 Tanzanian children presenting