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Sample records for parenting promotes willingness

  1. With a Little Help from My Friends: Maternal Social Support, via Parenting, Promotes Willingness to Share in Preschoolers Born to Young Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Rosie; Hughes, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about prosocial behaviours in children of young mothers. This longitudinal study involved 44 young mother (age less than 20 years at birth of first child) families and 44 older mother families, who were carefully matched for child age and gender, as well as for family structure (number of children, lone-parent status) and…

  2. Parental practices and willingness to ask for children's help later in life.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Carmi; Revell, Andrew J; Caplan, Leslie J

    2007-05-01

    We examine how parents' relationships with their 13- to 25-year-old offspring affect the parents' willingness to ask them for help with financial and personal problems 20 years later. Husbands and wives were interviewed in 1974 and 1994; a child was interviewed in 1974. We used two aspects of parental style, responsiveness and restrictive dominance, to predict parents' willingness to request help from a child 20 years later. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed the following: (a) mothers' willingness to ask an adult child for help with a personal problem was increased by higher levels of responsiveness; (b) mothers' willingness to ask for financial help was increased by responsive and decreased by restrictive-dominant maternal behavior; and (c) neither responsive nor restrictive-dominant paternal behavior affected fathers' later willingness to ask an adult child for help of either kind. PMID:17507584

  3. HPV vaccine for teen boys: Dyadic analysis of parents' and sons' beliefs and willingness

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jennifer L.; Reiter, Paul L.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Parents and adolescents often decide together whether the child should receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. However, few studies have investigated the dyadic nature of beliefs that affect this process. Method Data came from the 2010 HPV Immunization in Sons (HIS) Study, a national sample of 412 parents and their adolescent sons. We conducted dyadic multivariate logistic regression to test the relationships between parents' and sons' HPV vaccine beliefs and their willingness to have the son receive the vaccine. Results Fewer than half of parents and sons were willing to have the sons receive HPV vaccine (43% and 29%, respectively). Willing parents and sons anticipated greater regret if the son did not receive HPV vaccine but later contracted an HPV infection (parent odds ratio [OR]=1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.24-2.40; son OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.04-2.19) (both p<.05). Lower concerns about side effects, such as pain and fainting, were also associated with willingness. Conclusion Parents and sons were more willing to have the son receive HPV vaccine if they had higher anticipated regret about potential HPV infection and lower concerns about side effects. Communication campaigns should target these beliefs to increase parents' and sons' willingness to seek HPV vaccination. PMID:26190364

  4. Adolescents' Willingness to Seek Psychological Help: Promoting and Preventing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Jeanie K.; Fiorenza, Erika; Sofronoff, Kate

    2004-01-01

    Although a relatively high percentage of Australian adolescents experience mental health problems, many disturbed adolescents do not receive the help they require, and only a small proportion of adolescents seek professional psychological help. The present study examined adolescents' willingness to seek help and investigated factors that promote…

  5. Contributions of Parents' School Opinions and Reasons for Choice to Their Willingness To Support Catholic High Schools: A Structural Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauch, Patricia A.; Gao, Hong

    A study was conducted to determine the association among variables representing parent and school demographics, parents' opinions of the school, their reasons for choosing it, and their willingness to support the school in various ways, including the level of tuition they would pay. Data were collected from a stratified sample of 10 high schools…

  6. Promoting Positive Parenting Practices through Parenting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepeda, Marlene; Varela, Frances; Morales, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The family is the crucible of a young child's development. The 2000 Institute of Medicine report From Neurons to Neighborhoods shows that positive developmental interactions with parents improve young children's social competence and their overall capacity to learn. Fifty-four percent of parents want more information on how they can help their…

  7. Parental willingness to pay for child safety seats in Mashad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Iran has one of the highest rates of road traffic crash death rates throughout the world and road traffic injuries are the leading cause of years of life lost in the country. Using child car safety seats is not mandatory by law in Iran. The purpose of this research was to determine the parental willingness to pay (WTP) for child restraints in Mashad, the second most populated city in Iran with one of the highest rates of road traffic-related deaths. Methods We surveyed 590 car-owner parents of kindergarten children who were willing to participate in the study in the year 2009. We asked them about the maximum amount of money they were willing to pay for car safety seats using contingent valuation method. Results The mean age of children was 33.5 months. The median parental WTP for CSS was about $15. Considering the real price of CSSs in Iran, only 12 percent of responders could be categorized as being willing to pay for it. Family income level was the main predictor of being willing to pay. Conclusions The median parental WTP was much lower than the actual price of the safety seats, and those who were of lower socio-economic class were less willing to pay. Interventions to increase low-income families' access to child safety seats such as providing free of charge or subsidized seats, renting or health insurance coverage should be considered. PMID:21548995

  8. Effects of Diagnostic Label and Disease Information on Emotions, Beliefs, and Willingness to Help Older Parents with Osteoarthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Kali S.; McIlvane, Jessica M.; Haley, William E.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the impact of the diagnostic label of osteoarthritis and educational information on family members' attributions, perceptions, and willingness to help older parents with pain. Undergraduate students (N = 636) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions where they read vignettes about an older mother with chronic pain, which varied…

  9. Parent Involvement, Business Partnerships Promote Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Danny D.

    1994-01-01

    To tap the resources, knowledge, and expertise of parents, a West Virginia middle school initiated a parent-involvement program in fall 1992. The parents created their own program, the Red Apple Corps, which planned and promoted a back-to-school day, a birthday bulletin board, a tutoring program, a school pride award, and the school newspaper.…

  10. How Parents Can Promote School Bus Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofany, Vincent L.

    1982-01-01

    The president of the National Safety Council suggests ways that parents can promote school bus safety, with emphasis on preventing accidents outside the bus. Parents can explain safety rules to their children and work with their parent teacher associations and school administrators to plan and enforce safety regulations. (PP)

  11. Willingness to use ADHD treatments: a mixed methods study of perceptions by adolescents, parents, health professionals and teachers.

    PubMed

    Bussing, Regina; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Noguchi, Kenji; Mason, Dana; Mayerson, Gillian; Garvan, Cynthia W

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about factors that influence willingness to engage in treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). From 2007 to 2008, in the context of a longitudinal study assessing ADHD detection and service use in the United States, we simultaneously elicited ADHD treatment perceptions from four stakeholder groups: adolescents, parents, health care professionals and teachers. We assessed their willingness to use ADHD interventions and views of potential undesirable effects of two pharmacological (short- and long-acting ADHD medications) and three psychosocial (ADHD education, behavior therapy, and counseling) treatments. In multiple regression analysis, willingness was found to be significantly related to respondent type (lower for adolescents than adults), feeling knowledgeable, and considering treatments acceptable and helpful, but not significantly associated with stigma/embarrassment, respondent race, gender and socioeconomic status. Because conceptual models of undesirable effects are underdeveloped, we used grounded theory method to analyze open-ended survey responses to the question: "What other undesirable effects are you concerned about?" We identified general negative treatment perceptions (dislike, burden, perceived ineffectiveness) and specific undesirable effect expectations (physiological and psychological side effects, stigma and future dependence on drugs or therapies) for pharmacological and psychosocial treatments. In summary, findings indicate significant discrepancies between teens' and adults' willingness to use common ADHD interventions, with low teen willingness for any treatments. Results highlight the need to develop better treatment engagement practices for adolescents with ADHD. PMID:22133584

  12. Willingness to use ADHD Treatments: A Mixed Methods Study of Perceptions by Adolescents, Parents, Health Professionals and Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Noguchi, Kenji; Mason, Dana; Mayerson, Gillian; Garvan, Cynthia W

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about factors that influence willingness to engage in treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). From 2007 to 2008, in the context of a longitudinal study assessing ADHD detection and service use in the United States, we simultaneously elicited ADHD treatment perceptions from four stakeholder groups: adolescents, parents, health care professionals and teachers. We assessed their willingness to use ADHD interventions and views of potential undesirable effects of two pharmacological (short- and long-acting ADHD medications) and three psychosocial (ADHD education, behavior therapy, and counseling) treatments. In multiple regression analysis, willingness was found to be significantly related to respondent type (lower for adolescents than adults), feeling knowledgeable, and considering treatments acceptable and helpful, but not significantly associated with stigma/embarrassment, respondent race, gender and socioeconomic status. Because conceptual models of undesirable effects are underdeveloped, we used grounded theory method to analyze open-ended survey responses to the question: “What other undesirable effects are you concerned about?” We identified general negative treatment perceptions (dislike, burden, perceived ineffectiveness) and specific undesirable effect expectations (physiological and psychological side-effects, stigma and future dependence on drugs or therapies) for pharmacological and psychosocial treatments. In summary, findings indicate significant discrepancies between teens’ and adults’ willingness to use common ADHD interventions, with low teen willingness for any treatments. Results highlight the need to develop better treatment engagement practices for adolescents with ADHD. PMID:22133584

  13. When a Parent Is Away: Promoting Strong Parent-Child Connections during Parental Absence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeary, Julia; Zoll, Sally; Reschke, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    How does a parent stay connected with an infant or toddler during a prolonged separation? Research has shown how important early connections are for child development. When a parent is not present physically, there are strategies that military parents have been using to keep a parent and child connected, promoting mindfulness. Because infants and…

  14. HPV Awareness and Vaccine Willingness among Dominican Immigrant Parents Attending a Federal Qualified Health Clinic in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Quiñones, Valerie; Del Toro-Mejías, Lizbeth M.; Conde-Toro, Alexandra; Serra-Rivera, Michelle J.; Martínez, Tania M.; Rodríguez, Verónica; Berdiel, Luis; Villanueva, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the socio-demographic characteristics, awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV), and willingness to vaccinate among a convenience sample of 60 immigrant Dominican parents of adolescent sons in a Federal Qualified Health Clinic (FQHC) in Puerto Rico (PR). Participation involved completing a self-administered survey. Even though more than half of the parents had not received proper HPV vaccine orientation from healthcare provider (58.3%) nor asked provider for vaccination recommendation for their adolescent sons (56.7%), most parents were aware of HPV (91.7%) and HPV vaccination among males (55.0%). Among those with unvaccinated sons, willingness to vaccinate the son within the next year was high (83.8%). The low vaccination percentage (31.7%) and information exchange between the parents and the son’s healthcare provider indicates an opportunity for future culturally tailored interventions to target HPV vaccination among healthcare providers and parents of foreign descent in order to increase HPV vaccine uptake among males. PMID:25023490

  15. Parental response to health risk information: experimental results on willingness-to-pay for safer infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Isabell; Roosen, Jutta; Nayga, Rodolfo M

    2009-05-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii, a pathogen that can be found in powdered infant milk formula, can cause adverse health effects on infants. Using Vickrey auction, this study examines parents' willingness to pay (WTP) for a quality assurance label on powdered infant milk formula. The influence of ambiguity with the incidence rate information and provision of safe-handling information on WTP are also evaluated using three experimental treatments. Our findings generally imply that parents significantly value a quality assurance label. The mean price premium parents are willing to pay for the safer and quality assurance labelled powdered infant milk formula ranges from 61 to 133 Eurocents per 100 grams (53-116% of the base price per 100 grams) depending on the treatment. While no ambiguity effects are generally found, provision of safe-handling information significantly reduced WTP to 39-69 Eurocents per 100 grams depending on the treatment. PMID:18613316

  16. Promoting Attitude Change and Expressed Willingness to Take Action toward Climate Change in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Gale M.; Kardash, CarolAnne M.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Lombardi, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among cognitive and motivational variables impacting college students' willingness to take mitigative action to reduce the impacts of human-induced climate change. One hundred and forty college students were asked to read a persuasive text about human-induced climate change and were pre- and post-tested on…

  17. The positives of negative emotions: willingness to express negative emotions promotes relationships.

    PubMed

    Graham, Steven M; Huang, Julie Y; Clark, Margaret S; Helgeson, Vicki S

    2008-03-01

    Four studies support the hypothesis that expressing negative emotion is associated with positive relationship outcomes, including elicitation of support, building of new close relationships, and heightening of intimacy in the closest of those relationships. In Study 1, participants read vignettes in which another person was experiencing a negative emotion. Participants reported they would provide more help when the person chose to express the negative emotion. In Study 2, participants watched a confederate preparing for a speech. Participants provided more help to her when she expressed nervousness. In Study 3, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotions predicted having more friends, controlling for demographic variables and extraversion. In Study 4, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotion measured prior to arrival at college predicted formation of more relationships, greater intimacy in the closest of those relationships, and greater received support from roommates across participants' first semester of college. PMID:18272807

  18. Willingness to participate in a parental training intervention to reduce neurocognitive late effects among Latino parents of childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Jessica M; Rosen, Roxanna; Patel, Sunita K

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine correlates of Spanish-speaking Latino parents' interest for participation in an educational intervention to improve learning and school success in children with cancer-related cognitive and behavioral late effects. Participants included 73 Latino caregivers of school-age children who are survivors of brain tumor or leukemia and at risk for cognitive late effects. The parents completed a battery of surveys relating to interest in and barriers to intervention participation, as well as measures of parental knowledge and beliefs and their children's cognitive functioning, and health-related quality of life. Results showed that the majority of parents expressed interest in participating in the proposed 8-week intervention, with over 90% indicating interest in learning more about improving grades, making learning more exciting, being a role model, and the impact of cancer on memory. The factors most strongly related to interest in intervention included lower maternal education as well as perceptions of greater child cognitive difficulties and lower health-related quality of life. The barriers most highly endorsed by the most parents were difficulty paying for gas, child care responsibility, and too much stress in other parts of life. Also highly endorsed as barriers were statements relating to the child's lack of interest and need for services (i.e., my child is doing fine). These findings are consistent with the Health Belief Model wherein decisions to engage in health-related behaviors are made by weighing the potential benefits relative to the costs and barriers. PMID:24792525

  19. Parents Promoting School Success for Young Children with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyfer, Victoria

    This paper is designed to help parents in laying a solid foundation of learning experiences for their child with learning disabilities. It introduces three strategies, a rationale, and examples for each strategy that may help parents promote future school success for their child with learning disabilities. The first strategy urges parents to…

  20. Parents' Perspectives of School Mental Health Promotion Initiatives Are Related to Parents' Self-Assessed Parenting Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askell-Williams, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Achieving broad-scale parent engagement with school initiatives has proven elusive. This article reports survey data from 287 Maltese parents about their perceptions of the quality of their child's school's initiatives for promoting students' wellbeing and mental health. Findings indicate that, on average, parents rated school initiatives highly.…

  1. The Promotion of Self-Regulation through Parenting Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Matthew R.; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G.

    2013-01-01

    The capacity for a parent to self-regulate their own performance is argued to be a fundamental process underpinning the maintenance of positive, nurturing, non-abusive parenting practices that promote good developmental and health outcomes in children. Deficits in self-regulatory capacity, which have their origins in early childhood, are common in…

  2. Promoting cessation and a tobacco free future: willingness of pharmacy students at the University of Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Aina, Bolajoko A; Onajole, Adebayo T; Lawal, Babatunde MO; Oyerinde, Opeoluwa O

    2009-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is projected to cause nearly 450 million deaths worldwide during the next 50 years. Health professionals can have a critical role in reducing tobacco use. Therefore, one of the strategies to reduce the number of smoking-related deaths is to encourage the involvement of health professionals in tobacco-use prevention and cessation counseling. As future health care providers, pharmacy students should consider providing assistance to others to overcome tobacco use and be involved in promoting a tobacco free future as part of their professional responsibility. This research was to determine the knowledge of tobacco/smoking policy, willingness to be involved in tobacco cessation, attitude to keeping a tobacco free environment and the smoking habit among pharmacy students at the University of Lagos. Methods Data was collected by the use of self administered questionnaire which was aimed at assessing their smoking habit, determining their knowledge and attitude to smoking policy and willingness to be involved in smoking cessation. The population sample was all the pharmacy students in their professional years (200 to 500 Levels) at Idi-Araba Campus of the University of Lagos. Results Out of 327 qualified participants, 297 responded to the questionnaire which was about 91% participation rate but out of these only 291 questionnaires were useful which came to 89%. There seemed to be no statistically significant difference between the smoking habits among the different levels (p > 0.05). Overall, the current smoking prevalence was 5.5% which is lower than the national prevalence rate of 8.9%. Awareness of WHO FCTC global tobacco treaty was low (9.3%) among pharmacy students but they agreed that pharmacists and pharmacy students should be involved in quit smoking program (93.1%) and they were willing to be involved in helping smokers to quit (85.9%). Majority agreed that smoking should not be permitted in pharmacies (87.9%) and at pharmacy students

  3. Path Analysis: Health Promotion Information Access of Parent Caretaking Pattern through Parenting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunarsih, Tri; Murti, Bhisma; Anantanyu, Sapja; Wijaya, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Parents often inhibit learning process organized by education, due to their ignorance about how to educate child well. Incapability of dealing with those changes leads to dysfunctional families, and problematic children. This research aimed: to analyzed the health promotion information access pattern of parent caretaking pattern through parenting…

  4. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  5. Talking parents, healthy teens: a worksite-based program for parents to promote adolescent sexual health.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Karen L; Corona, Rosalie; Schuster, Mark A

    2006-10-01

    Parents play an important role in the sexual health of their adolescent children. Based on previous research, formative research, and theories of behavioral change, we developed Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, an intervention designed to help parents improve communication with their adolescent children, promote healthy adolescent sexual development, and reduce adolescent sexual risk behaviors. We conduct the parenting program at worksites to facilitate recruitment and retention of participants. The program consists of 8 weekly 1-hour sessions during the lunch hour. In this article, we review the literature that identifies parental influences on adolescent sexual behavior, summarize our formative research, present the theoretical framework we used to develop Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, describe the program's components and intervention strategies, and offer recommendations based on our experiences developing the program. By targeting parents at their worksites, this program represents an innovative approach to promoting adolescent sexual health. This article is intended to be helpful to health educators and clinicians designing programs for parents, employers implementing health-related programs, and researchers who may consider designing and evaluating such worksite-based programs. PMID:16978501

  6. The promotion of self-regulation through parenting interventions.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Matthew R; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G

    2013-03-01

    The capacity for a parent to self-regulate their own performance is argued to be a fundamental process underpinning the maintenance of positive, nurturing, non-abusive parenting practices that promote good developmental and health outcomes in children. Deficits in self-regulatory capacity, which have their origins in early childhood, are common in many psychological disorders, and strengthening self-regulation skills is widely recognised as an important goal in many psychological therapies and is a fundamental goal in preventive interventions. Attainment of enhanced self-regulation skills enables individuals to gain a greater sense of personal control and mastery over their life. This paper illustrates how the self-regulatory principles can be applied to parenting and family-based interventions at the level of the child, parent, practitioner and organisation. The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program, which uses a self-regulatory model of intervention, is used as an example to illustrate the robustness and versatility of the self-regulation approach to all phases of the parent consultation process. PMID:23397366

  7. Parent participation plays an important part in promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor; Rutberg, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Although physical activity (PA) is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based. PMID:26282870

  8. Parental Encouragement of Dieting Promotes Daughters' Early Dieting

    PubMed Central

    Balantekin, Katherine N.; Savage, Jennifer S.; Marini, Michele E.; Birch, Leann L.

    2014-01-01

    Dieting to lose weight is common among female adolescents. This research investigated the association between maternal and paternal encouragement to diet and their daughters' self-reported “early dieting” (prior to age 11y) and adolescent dieting (between 11y and 15y), and how parental encouragement to diet is related to changes in daughter BMI percentiles. Participants in this study were 174 non-Hispanic white girls and their parents, assessed when daughters were age 9-, 11-, 13-, and 15y. The Parent Encouragement of Child Weight Loss Scale was used to measure encouragement to diet. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between parental encouragement to diet and daughters' reports of dieting by 11y and by 15y, adjusting for daughters' weight status at baseline. Compared to girls whose mothers didn't encourage dieting, girls who were encouraged to diet were twice as likely to diet by 11y; girls who were encouraged by their fathers were also twice as likely to diet by 11y. Girls who were encouraged to diet by both parents were 8 times more likely to report early dieting than girls who were not. Neither maternal nor paternal encouragement predicted the emergence of dieting during adolescence. Girls who dieted and had parental encouragement to do so had increases in BMI percentile from 9y to 15y. Findings reveal that parental encouragement to diet may be counterproductive and that parents need alternative approaches to promote healthy patterns of intake and growth among young girls. PMID:24858835

  9. Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions to Promote Secure Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Barry; Edginton, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Various interventions are used in clinical practice to address insecure or disorganized attachment patterns and attachment disorders. The most common of these are parenting interventions, but not all have a robust empirical evidence base. We undertook a systematic review of randomized trials comparing a parenting intervention with a control, where these used a validated attachment instrument, in order to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve attachment in children with severe attachment problems (mean age <13 years). This article aims to inform clinicians about the parenting interventions included in our systematic review that were clinically effective in promoting secure attachment. For completeness, we also briefly discuss other interventions without randomized controlled trial evidence, identified in Patient Public Involvement workshops and expert groups at the point our review was completed as being used or recommended. We outline the key implications of our findings for clinical practice and future research. PMID:27583298

  10. Promoting Parenting to Support Reintegrating Military Families: After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools

    PubMed Central

    Gewirtz, Abigail H.; Pinna, Keri L. M.; Hanson, Sheila K.; Brockberg, Dustin

    2014-01-01

    The high operational tempo of the current conflicts and the unprecedented reliance on National Guard and Reserve forces highlights the need for services to promote reintegration efforts for those transitioning back to civilian family life. Despite evidence that parenting has significant influence on children’s functioning, and that parenting may be impaired during stressful family transitions, there is a dearth of empirically-supported psychological interventions tailored for military families reintegrating after deployment. This paper reports on the modification of an empirically-supported parenting intervention for families in which a parent has deployed to war. A theoretical rationale for addressing parenting during reintegration after deployment is discussed. We describe the intervention, After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT), and report early feasibility and acceptability data from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial of ADAPT, a 14-week group-based, web-enhanced parenting training program. Among the first 42 families assigned to the intervention group, participation rates were high, and equal among mothers and fathers. Satisfaction was high across all fourteen sessions. Implications for psychological services to military families dealing with the deployment process are discussed. PMID:24564441

  11. Hmong American Parents' Views on Promoting Adolescent Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina R.

    2014-01-01

    Parents play an important role in the promotion of adolescent sexual health, but little is known about parents' attitudes and beliefs in immigrant families. We examine Hmong American parents' attitudes about adolescent sexual health using survey data from 202 parents of adolescents with attention to parental gender differences. Breaking…

  12. Impact of music therapy to promote positive parenting and child development.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Jan M; Berthelsen, Donna; Abad, Vicky; Williams, Kate; Bradley, Julie

    2008-03-01

    The effectiveness of a 10-week group music therapy program for marginalized parents and their children aged 0-5 years was examined. Musical activities were used to promote positive parent-child relationships and children's behavioral, communicative and social development. Participants were 358 parents and children from families facing social disadvantage, young parents or parents of a child with a disability. Significant improvements were found for therapist-observed parent and child behaviors, and parent-reported irritable parenting, educational activities in the home, parent mental health and child communication and social play skills. This study provides evidence of the potential effectiveness of music therapy for early intervention. PMID:18375628

  13. Promoting Resilience among Parents and Caregivers of Children with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baker, K. Scott; Syrjala, Karen L.; Back, Anthony L.; Wolfe, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Promoting resilience is an aspect of psychosocial care that affects patient and whole-family well-being. There is little consensus about how to define or promote resilience during and after pediatric cancer. Objectives The aims of this study were (1) to review the resilience literature in pediatric cancer settings; (2) to qualitatively ascertain caregiver-reported perceptions of resilience; and (3) to develop an integrative model of fixed and mutable factors of resilience among family members of children with cancer, with the goal of enabling better study and promotion of resilience among pediatric cancer families. Methods The study entailed qualitative analysis of small group interviews with eighteen bereaved parents and family members of children with cancer treated at Seattle Children's Hospital. Small-group interviews were conducted with members of each bereaved family. Participant statements were coded for thematic analysis. An integrative, comprehensive framework was then developed. Results Caregivers' personal appraisals of the cancer experience and their child's legacy shape their definitions of resilience. Described factors of resilience include baseline characteristics (i.e., inherent traits, prior expectations of cancer), processes that evolve over time (i.e., coping strategies, social support, provider interactions), and psychosocial outcomes (i.e., post-traumatic growth and lack of psychological distress). These elements were used to develop a testable model of resilience among family members of children with cancer. Conclusions Resilience is a complex construct that may be modifiable. Once validated, the proposed framework will not only serve as a model for clinicians, but may also facilitate the development of interventions aimed at promoting resilience in family members of children with cancer. PMID:23646887

  14. Effects of Healthy Families New York on the Promotion of Maternal Parenting Competencies and the Prevention of Harsh Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, M. L.; Dumont, K.; Mitchell-Herzfeld, S. D.; Walden, N. J.; Greene, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the effectiveness of the Healthy Families New York (HFNY) home visiting program in promoting parenting competencies and preventing maladaptive parenting behaviors in mothers at risk for child abuse and neglect. Methods: The study used microlevel observational assessments of mother-child interactions in the third…

  15. Helping Head Start Parents Promote Their Children's Kindergarten Adjustment: The Research-Based Developmentally Informed Parent Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierman, Karen L.; Welsh, Janet A.; Heinrichs, Brenda S.; Nix, Robert L.; Mathis, Erin T.

    2015-01-01

    Head Start enhances school readiness during preschool, but effects diminish after children transition into kindergarten. Designed to promote sustained gains, the Research-based Developmentally Informed (REDI) Parent program (REDI-P) provided home visits before and after the kindergarten transition, giving parents evidence-based learning games,…

  16. Attitudes of Parents and Health Promoters in Greece Concerning Sex Education of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirana, Paraskevi-Sofia; Nakopoulou, Evangelia; Akrita, Ioanna; Papaharitou, Stamatis

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the attitudes and views of Greek parents concerning the provision of sex education to adolescents, as well as the opinion and the involvement of school health promoters in sex education. A questionnaire containing 20 items was constructed and administered to 93 parents of adolescents who participated in parents'…

  17. Parents' Promotion of Psychological Autonomy, Psychological Control, and Mexican-American Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Mexican-American adolescents are at an elevated risk for adjustment difficulties. In an effort to identify parenting practices that can affect the adjustment of Mexican-American youth, the current study examined parents' promotion of psychological autonomy and parents' psychological control as perceived by Mexican-American early adolescents, and…

  18. The Impact of Elementary Teachers' Perceptions and Practices to Promote Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattimore, Myra T.

    2013-01-01

    Parental involvement, defined as the educational engagement of parents in activities such as involvement in PTA, volunteering, and Science/Math night, promotes academic success. Lack of parental involvement is associated with lower academic performance. The purpose of this correlational study was to determine the relationship between parent…

  19. Anxiety-Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Parents with and without Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2013-01-01

    While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism,…

  20. Promoting Health and Preventing Injury in Preschool Children: The Role of Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemagno, Sonia A.; Niles, Sheila A.; Shaffer-King, Peggy; Miller, William J.

    2008-01-01

    There is concern that parents under stress may not be effective in promoting health and preventing injury in young children, but research in this area has been limited. To explore this issue, a study was conducted to look at the relationship between self-reported parenting stress and actions taken to promote health and to prevent injury in…

  1. When Education Meets Conflict: Palestinian and Jewish-Israeli Parental Attitudes towards Peace Promoting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahya, Siham; Bekerman, Zvi; Sagy, Shifra; Boag, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines parental attitudes toward bilingual and peace-promoting education at a school in Israel, and how these affect the behaviors and perceptions of their children studying there. The questions of interest were: (a) what are the parents' perceptions of and attitudes toward the bilingual and peace-promoting education? (b) Are…

  2. Anxiety Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Mothers and Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Teetsel, Rebekah N.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Drake, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research identifying anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors has been conducted with mothers, leaving a gap in current knowledge about the role of fathers’ parenting behaviors. In an attempt to fill this gap, this study compared anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors of anxious mothers and fathers. Parents completed self-report measures of parenting behavior and independent coders rated parenting behaviors (i.e., overcontrol, granting of autonomy, warmth, hostility, anxious behavior) of mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 21) during a challenging parent-child interaction task (children were ages 6–12). Results indicated that anxious fathers were observed to be more controlling than anxious mothers; while anxious mothers reported using more punishment and reinforcement of children’s dependence in anxiety provoking situations compared to fathers. Findings extend our knowledge about anxious fathers, and highlight the need for additional research on the impact of fathers’ parenting with respect to the development of child anxiety. PMID:23677528

  3. Working with Parents to Promote Healthy Adolescent Sexual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida

    2009-01-01

    Although parents play a vital role in fostering healthy sexuality-related attitudes and behaviors among adolescents, many parents struggle with how to address sexuality-related topics with their adolescent child. This article provides practitioners with evidence-based frameworks and guidelines on how to work with parents in order to improve their…

  4. Parents' Calcium Knowledge Is Associated with Parental Practices to Promote Calcium Intake among Parents of Early Adolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Carolyn W.; Rose, Angela M.; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Reicks, Marla; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Boushey, Carol J.; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here aimed to identify the relationship of parents' calcium knowledge with diet-related parental practices and determinants of calcium knowledge. A cross-sectional survey was conducted measuring parental practices, calcium knowledge, and demographics. A convenience sample of 599 racially/ethnically diverse parents of children…

  5. Cost of Talking Parents, Healthy Teens: a Worksite-based Intervention to Promote Parent-Adolescent Sexual Health Communication

    PubMed Central

    Ladapo, Joseph A.; Elliott, Marc N.; Bogart, Laura M.; Kanouse, David E.; Vestal, Katherine D.; Klein, David J.; Ratner, Jessica A.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the cost and cost-effectiveness of implementing Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, a worksite-based parenting program designed to help parents address sexual health with their adolescent children. Methods We enrolled 535 parents with adolescent children at 13 worksites in southern California in a randomized trial. Time and wage data from employees involved in implementing the program were used to estimate fixed and variable costs. Cost-effectiveness was determined with nonparametric bootstrap analysis. For the intervention, parents participated in eight weekly one-hour teaching sessions at lunchtime. The program included games, discussions, role plays, and videotaped role plays to help parents learn to communicate with their children about sex-related topics, teach their children assertiveness and decision-making skills, and supervise and interact with their children more effectively. Results Implementing the program cost $543.03 (SD=$289.98) per worksite in fixed costs, and $28.05 per parent (SD=$4.08) in variable costs. At 9 months, this $28.05 investment per parent yielded improvements in number of sexual health topics discussed, condom teaching, and communication quality and openness. The cost-effectiveness was $7.42 per new topic discussed using parental responses and $9.18 using adolescent responses. Other efficacy outcomes also yielded favorable cost-effectiveness ratios. Conclusions Talking Parents, Healthy Teens demonstrated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a worksite-based parenting program to promote parent-adolescent communication about sexual health. Its cost is reasonable and unlikely to be a significant barrier to adoption and diffusion for most worksites considering its implementation. PMID:23406890

  6. Impact of sensory-based food education in kindergarten on willingness to eat vegetables and berries

    PubMed Central

    Hoppu, Ulla; Prinz, Mira; Ojansivu, Pauliina; Laaksonen, Oskar; Sandell, Mari A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children use all of their senses when exploring new foods, and sensory-based food education provides new possibilities for promoting healthy dietary habits. Objective To evaluate the effect of sensory-based food education activities on children's willingness to eat test samples of selected vegetables and berries. Design Two kindergartens in Hanko, Finland, participated in the study and the subjects were children aged 3–6 years, divided in the intervention (n=44) and control (n=24) kindergarten. In the intervention kindergarten, five sensory-based food education sessions focusing on vegetables and berries were implemented, once per week for 5 weeks. A tasting protocol was performed with the children at baseline and after the intervention. The willingness to eat (5 different vegetables and 3 Finnish berries) was categorised. Parents also filled in a questionnaire on the children's food preferences at home. Results In the intervention kindergarten, the willingness to eat the samples increased significantly (p≤0.001, Wilcoxon and Friedman), while in the control kindergarten, no significant change was observed when all of the test samples were taken into account. The parental report of their children's preferences and children's actual eating of the test samples corresponded relatively weakly. Conclusions Sensory-based food education activities may promote a willingness to eat vegetables and berries. Child-centred test methods are important for evaluating the effects of dietary interventions among children. PMID:26652259

  7. Reducing Parental Demand for Antibiotics by Promoting Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alder, Stephen C.; Trunnell, Eric P.; White, George L., Jr.; Lyon, Joseph L.; Reading, James P.; Samore, Matthew H.; Magill, Michael K.

    2005-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria are continuing to emerge as high rates of antibiotic use persist. Children are among the highest users of antibiotics, with parents influencing physician decision-making regarding antibiotic prescription. An intervention based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) to reduce parents' expectations for antibiotics…

  8. Good Nutrition Promotes Health: Guide for Parent Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    The purpose of this manual is to guide users of the nutrition education project produced by Padres Hispanos en Accion por Una Sana Generacion (Hispanic Parents in Action for a Healthy Generation). The project provides nutrition education materials to trainers who provide nutrition counseling to parents of Head Start children. The project has two…

  9. Anxiety-Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Parents with and without Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2012-01-01

    While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism, doubts of child competency, over-control, and granting of autonomy) in anxious parents with (n = 21) and without (n = 45) social anxiety disorder (SAD) during a five-minute task with their non-anxious child (aged 7-12 years, M = 9.14). Parents with SAD demonstrated less warmth/positive affect and more criticism and doubts of child competency than did those without SAD. There were no group differences in over-control or granting of autonomy. Findings help clarify inconsistent results in the literature, inform models of familial transmission, and suggest intervention targets for parents with SAD. PMID:23053617

  10. Parental Support Exceeds Parenting Style for Promoting Active Play in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that parenting style may directly or indirectly influence school-aged children's activity behaviour. Given that relatively fewer studies have been conducted among preschool-aged children, this study's primary purpose was to examine the direct relationships between parental support and parenting style on preschool…

  11. Does Early Paternal Parenting Promote Low-Income Children's Long-Term Cognitive Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Carrano, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Although scholars and policy makers herald the promotive influence of fathers' parenting involvement, limited research has carefully delineated effects of fathers' parenting on low-income children's development and whether early contributions from fathers confer long-term protective effects. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 261), analyses…

  12. Promoting weight loss methods in parenting magazines: Implications for women.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Roberts, Katherine J; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Glaser, Debra B

    2016-01-01

    Weight gain before and after pregnancy is important for women's health. The purpose of this study was to assess articles and advertisements related to weight loss in three widely read parenting magazines, "Parenting School Years," "Parenting Early Years," and "Parenting," which have an estimated combined readership of approximately 24 million (mainly women readers). Almost a quarter (23.7%, n = 32) of the 135 magazine issues over a four year period included at least one feature article on weight loss. A variety of topics were covered in the featured articles, with the most frequent topics being on losing weight to please yourself (25.2%), healthy ways to lose weight (21.1%), and how to keep the weight off (14.7%). Less than half (45.9%) of the articles displayed author credentials, such as their degree, qualifications, or expertise. A fifth (20.0%, n = 27) of the magazines included at least one prominent advertisement for weight loss products. Almost half (46.9%) of the weight loss advertisements were for weight loss programs followed by weight loss food products (25.0%), weight loss aids (21.9%), and only 6.2% of the advertisements for weight loss were on fitness. Parenting magazines should advocate for healthy weight loss, including lifestyle changes for sustained health. PMID:26212259

  13. Helping Head Start Parents Promote Their Children's Kindergarten Adjustment: The Research-Based Developmentally Informed Parent Program.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Karen L; Welsh, Janet A; Heinrichs, Brenda S; Nix, Robert L; Mathis, Erin T

    2015-01-01

    Head Start enhances school readiness during preschool, but effects diminish after children transition into kindergarten. Designed to promote sustained gains, the Research-based Developmentally Informed (REDI) Parent program (REDI-P) provided home visits before and after the kindergarten transition, giving parents evidence-based learning games, interactive stories, and guided pretend play to use with their children. To evaluate impact, two hundred 4-year-old children in Head Start REDI classrooms were randomly assigned to REDI-P or a comparison condition (mail-home math games). Beyond the effects of the classroom program, REDI-P promoted significant improvements in child literacy skills, academic performance, self-directed learning, and social competence, demonstrating the utility of the approach in promoting gains in cognitive and social-emotional skills evident after the transition into kindergarten. PMID:26494108

  14. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    PubMed

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight. PMID:27090341

  15. Authoritative Parenting Promotes Adolescent School Achievement and Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence; Elmen, Julie D.

    As adolescents progress from elementary to secondary school, their academic success increasingly depends on their ability to manage their own time and behavior. Because the family plays such an important role in the development of responsible autonomy, this study examined authoritative parenting and the hypothesis that authoritative parents…

  16. Parent-Child Communication: Promoting Sexually Health Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagina, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    When young people feel unconnected to home, family, and school, they may become involved in activities that put their health at risk. However, when parents affirm the value of their children, young people more often develop positive, healthy attitudes about themselves. Although most adults want youth to know about abstinence, contraception, and…

  17. Promoting Epistemological Development and Parenting Skills of Rural, Impoverished Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Lynne A.; And Others

    The Listening Partners project examined rural mothers' development of a sense of the power of their own minds and voices and the relationship between this sense of power and mothers' parenting strategies and their children's development. Two cohorts of 60 women from a rural, impoverished region of Vermont participated in the program. Half the…

  18. Home Visiting: Promoting Healthy Parent and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klass, Carol S.

    Written from a multidisciplinary perspective, this handbook for home visitors provides functional, field test guidance techniques for working with parents and children from birth to 5 years. The guide offers techniques to enhance children's development in conjunction with educating and supporting families. Firsthand account of home visits…

  19. Promoting Better Interaction between Juvenile Court, Schools, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Lili Frank; Nelson, Renelle

    2004-01-01

    The PACER Center is advocating for greater involvement of parents whose children have become involved in the juvenile justice system. Coalition for Juvenile Justice reported in January 2004 that of the 300,000 to 600,000 juveniles who cycle through detention facilities after arrest awaiting legal action, more than half are under 16 years of age…

  20. Parent involvement with children's health promotion: the Minnesota Home Team.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, C L; Luepker, R V; Murray, D M; Kurth, C; Mullis, R; Crockett, S; Jacobs, D R

    1988-01-01

    This study compares the efficacy of a school-based program to an equivalent home-based program with 2,250 third grade students in 31 urban schools in Minnesota in order to detect changes in dietary fat and sodium consumption. The school-based program, Hearty Heart and Friends, involved 15 sessions over five weeks in the third grade classrooms. The home-based program, the Home Team, involved a five-week correspondence course with the third graders, where parental involvement was necessary in order to complete the activities. Outcome measures included anthropometric, psychosocial and behavioral assessments at school, and dietary recall, food shelf inventories, and urinary sodium data collected in the students' homes. Participation rates for all aspects of the study were notably high. Eighty-six per cent of the parents participated in the Home Team and 71 per cent (nearly 1,000 families) completed the five-week course. Students in the school-based program had gained more knowledge at posttest than students in the home-based program or controls. Students in the home-based program, however, reported more behavior change, had reduced the total fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat in their diets, and had more of the encouraged foods on their food shelves. The data converge to suggest the feasibility and importance of parental involvement for health behavior changes with children of this age. PMID:3407811

  1. Parent perceptions to promote a healthier lifestyle for their obese child.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Michael; Benton, Jane M; Werk, Lloyd N

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children referred to a pediatric multidisciplinary weight-management clinic were queried regarding the importance of and their readiness to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors with their children and also regarding their confidence in their ability to adopt those changes. Among the 193 children's parents who completed a questionnaire (93.7% response), greater than 75% of respondents recognized the importance of healthy eating and physical activity, and many indicated feeling both confident and ready to make changes. Surprisingly, even among those not confident, parents also indicated they were ready to change their child's eating (p < .001). This study explores the discrepancy between parents indicating a high level of importance and readiness to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors but having less confidence that they would actually be able to enact change. PMID:22136345

  2. Responding to refusal of recommended cesarean section: Promoting good parenting.

    PubMed

    Malek, Janet

    2016-06-01

    Consideration of what a "good parent" would do in controversial perinatal cases has been largely absent from to ethics literature. This article argues when a cesarean section is required to prevent death or serious disability for a fetus, the pregnant woman has an ethical (although not legal) obligation to undergo that procedure even when she has concerns or conflicting commitments. Further, a clinician may be justified in using persuasive counseling when there is grave harm at stake that the patient has a moral obligation to prevent. This conclusion is tested by exploring its implications in several other analogous controversial contexts. PMID:26803168

  3. Long-term Impact of Prevention Programs to Promote Effective Parenting: Lasting Effects but Uncertain Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Irwin; Schoenfelder, Erin; Wolchik, Sharlene; MacKinnon, David

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to twenty years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting programs; 1) through program effects on parenting skills, perceptions of parental efficacy and reduction in barriers to effective parenting; 2) through program-induced reductions in short-term problems of youth that persist over time, improvements in youth adaptation to stress, and improvements in youth belief systems concerning the self and their relationships with others; and 3) through effects on contexts in which youth become involved and on youth-environment transactions. PMID:20822438

  4. A paid radio advertising campaign to promote parent-child communication about alcohol.

    PubMed

    Surkan, Pamela J; Dejong, William; Herr-Zaya, Kathleen M; Rodriguez-Howard, Mayra; Fay, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of a paid radio commercial designed to promote parent-child communication about alcohol use and sponsored by the Bureau of Substance Abuse Services, Massachusetts Department of Public Health. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents or guardians of children ages 10-17 years was conducted after a four-week advertising flight. Respondents with unassisted recall of the commercial more often disagreed that parent-child discussion is useful only if children have begun to experiment with alcohol, and more often reported having three or more parent-child discussions about alcohol compared to those who did not recall the commercial. Findings suggest the potential benefit of paid media campaigns to encourage parents to talk with their children about alcohol. PMID:14530150

  5. Implications of Parental Suicide and Violent Death for Promotion of Resilience of Parentally-Bereaved Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ana C.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Liu, Xianchen; Haine, Rachel A.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the implications of suicide and violent deaths (including suicide, homicide, and accidents) for the development of interventions for parentally bereaved children. Analyses of data from the Family Bereavement Program find minimal differences in children's mental health problems, grief or risk and protective factors based on…

  6. Parents as Teachers: How Teachers Can Help Parents Promote Science Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichting, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Suggests some techniques and strategies that teachers can share with parents to help them support their children as they construct meaning, develop scientific literacy, and form a more intense and personal connection with the content information presented in science and mathematics books. (KHR)

  7. Influence of children's oral health promotion on parents' behaviours, attitudes and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Tolvanen, Mimmi; Anttonen, Vuokko; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Hausen, Hannu; Lahti, Satu

    2016-07-01

    Objective The aim was to compare the changes in parents' oral health-related behaviour, knowledge and attitudes in 2001-2003 and 2003-2005, during a 3.4-year-intervention in Pori and in the reference area Rauma, Finland. Materials and methods The study population consisted of parents of children who participated in the oral health promotion programme in Pori (all 5th and 6th graders who started the 2001-2002 school year in the town of Pori, n = 1691) and the parents of same-aged children in a reference town (n = 807). In 2001-2003, the promotion was targeted only to the children in Pori. In 2003-2005, the promotion was targeted also to parents, for example via local mass media. The statistical significances of the differences in parents' self-reported behaviour, knowledge and attitudes, and changes in these, were evaluated using Mann-Whitney U-tests and confidence intervals. Results In 2001-2003, the trend in changing behaviours was in favour of parents in Pori. Mothers in Pori also improved their knowledge and the attitude 'importance of brushing for health and appearance'. In 2003-2005, the trend in changing behaviours was rather similar in both towns, which may be due to diffusion of the oral health intervention to Rauma via the media. Conclusions The results suggest that health promotion targeted to children, which in previous studies has been shown to be successful in improving children's behaviours, also helped their parents in mending their habits. PMID:26651375

  8. Promoting the well-being of children whose parents are gay or lesbian.

    PubMed

    2013-04-01

    To promote optimal health and well-being of all children, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) supports access for all children to (1) civil marriage rights for their parents and (2) willing and capable foster and adoptive parents, regardless of the parents' sexual orientation. The AAP has always been an advocate for, and has developed policies to support, the optimal physical, mental, and social health and well-being of all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. In so doing, the AAP has supported families in all their diversity, because the family has always been the basic social unit in which children develop the supporting and nurturing relationships with adults that they need to thrive. Children may be born to, adopted by, or cared for temporarily by married couples, nonmarried couples, single parents, grandparents, or legal guardians, and any of these may be heterosexual, gay or lesbian, or of another orientation. Children need secure and enduring relationships with committed and nurturing adults to enhance their life experiences for optimal social-emotional and cognitive development. Scientific evidence affirms that children have similar developmental and emotional needs and receive similar parenting whether they are raised by parents of the same or different genders. If a child has 2 living and capable parents who choose to create a permanent bond by way of civil marriage, it is in the best interests of their child(ren) that legal and social institutions allow and support them to do so, irrespective of their sexual orientation. If 2 parents are not available to the child, adoption or foster parenting remain acceptable options to provide a loving home for a child and should be available without regard to the sexual orientation of the parent(s). PMID:23519941

  9. Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  10. An examination of marketing techniques used to promote children's vitamins in parenting magazines.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Roberts, Katherine J; Ethan, Danna; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    More than a third of children and adolescents in the United States take vitamins even though professional medical organizations do not endorse their use in healthy children. Regardless of their efficacy, children's vitamin products are aggressively promoted. Therefore, the goal of this study was to describe and analyze advertisements related to vitamins in the following three popular parenting magazines, Parents, Parenting Early Years, and Parenting School Years. A total of 135 magazines across four years were reviewed.  There were 207 advertisements for children's vitamins, all in the form of chewy or gummy.  None of these advertisements included a dosage or a warning.  Almost all (92.3%) included a cartoon in the advertisement.  Almost a quarter (23.2%) of the advertisements promoted their product with the theme of prevention and more than half (51.2%) included the theme of peace of mind.  Parenting magazines are a popular medium for providing exposure to products geared towards children.  Companies that market children's vitamins in these magazines can increase awareness among parents of the risks by providing warning and dosage information in their advertisements.  Magazines can also play a role by encouraging responsible marketing and providing editorial content on children's vitamins and potential consequences of pediatric overdose. PMID:25948456

  11. An Examination of Marketing Techniques used to Promote Children’s Vitamins in Parenting Magazines

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey H.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Ethan, Danna; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    More than a third of children and adolescents in the United States take vitamins even though professional medical organizations do not endorse their use in healthy children. Regardless of their efficacy, children’s vitamin products are aggressively promoted. Therefore, the goal of this study was to describe and analyze advertisements related to vitamins in the following three popular parenting magazines, Parents, Parenting Early Years, and Parenting School Years. A total of 135 magazines across four years were reviewed. There were 207 advertisements for children’s vitamins, all in the form of chewy or gummy. None of these advertisements included a dosage or a warning. Almost all (92.3%) included a cartoon in the advertisement. Almost a quarter (23.2%) of the advertisements promoted their product with the theme of prevention and more than half (51.2%) included the theme of peace of mind. Parenting magazines are a popular medium for providing exposure to products geared towards children. Companies that market children’s vitamins in these magazines can increase awareness among parents of the risks by providing warning and dosage information in their advertisements. Magazines can also play a role by encouraging responsible marketing and providing editorial content on children’s vitamins and potential consequences of pediatric overdose. PMID:25948456

  12. How do treatment seeking overweight youth and their parent describe weight promoting factors in their family?

    PubMed Central

    Lyles, Annmarie; Riesch, Susan K.; Sanders, Linda; Sass-DeRuyter, Suzanne M.; Birchmeier, Becky; Kotula, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to describe youth and parents perceptions of potential weight promoting factors among families seeking treatment for youth overweight. We identified two important gaps in the vast multi-disciplinary literature: (a) a lack of studies addressing both the youth and the parent perceptions about family factors that are potentially weight-promoting and (b) a lack of interventions that community health nurses could deliver specifically targeting families seeking treatment for overweight youth. Focus group data were content analyzed. Broad themes included: (a) Mixed Messages, (b) Food and Exercise as Battleground, (c) Problem Solving, and (d) Social Aspects of Youth Overweight. We conclude that youth and parents could benefit from community health nursing interventions to implement healthcare professionals' recommendations incorporating all family members and creating and maintaining an accepting and demanding family climate. PMID:23136859

  13. Music and Sign Language to Promote Infant and Toddler Communication and Enhance Parent-Child Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Cynthia; Memmott, Jenny; Meeker-Miller, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using music and/or sign language to promote early communication in infants and toddlers (6-20 months) and to enhance parent-child interactions. Three groups used for this study were pairs of participants (care-giver(s) and child) assigned to each group: 1) Music Alone 2) Sign Language…

  14. Children's Literacy Interest and Its Relation to Parents' Literacy-Promoting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Laura E.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; McQueen, Jessica D.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how children's literacy interests related to parent literacy-promoting practices across time. Using a sample of 909 preschool-age children and the newly developed Child Activities Preference Checklist, literacy interest appeared to be a complex construct, not easily captured by a single measure. In a subsample of 230 children…

  15. Preventing conduct problems, promoting social competence: a parent and teacher training partnership in head start.

    PubMed

    Webster-Stratton, C; Reid, M J; Hammond, M

    2001-09-01

    Studied the effectiveness of parent and teacher training as a selective prevention program for 272 Head Start mothers and their 4-year-old children and 61 Head Start teachers. Fourteen Head Start centers (34 classrooms) were randomly assigned to (a) an experimental condition in which parents, teachers, and family service workers participated in the prevention program (Incredible Years) or (b) a control condition consisting of the regular Head Start program. Assessments included teacher and parent reports of child behavior and independent observations at home and at school. Construct scores combining observational and report data were calculated for negative and positive parenting style, parent-teacher bonding, child conduct problems at home and at school, and teacher classroom management style. Following the 12-session weekly program, experimental mothers had significantly lower negative parenting and significantly higher positive parenting scores than control mothers. Parent-teacher bonding was significantly higher for experimental than for control mothers. Experimental children showed significantly fewer conduct problems at school than control children. Children of mothers who attended 6 or more intervention sessions showed significantly fewer conduct problems at home than control children. Children who were the "highest risk" at baseline (high rates of noncompliant and aggressive behavior) showed more clinically significant reductions in these behaviors than high-risk control children. After training, experimental teachers showed significantly better classroom management skills than control teachers. One year later the experimental effects were maintained for parents who attended more than 6 groups. The clinically significant reductions in behavior problems for the highest risk experimental children were also maintained. Implications of this prevention program as a strategy for reducing risk factors leading to delinquency by promoting social competence, school

  16. Parental Involvement in Middle School: A Meta-Analytic Assessment of the Strategies That Promote Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Nancy E.; Tyson, Diana F.

    2009-01-01

    Early adolescence is often marked by changes in school context, family relationships, and developmental processes. In the context of these changes, academic performance often declines, while at the same time the long-term implications of academic performance increase. In promoting achievement across elementary and secondary school levels, the significant role of families, family-school relations, and parental involvement in education has been highlighted. Although there is a growing body of literature focusing on parental involvement in education during middle school, this research has not been systematically examined to determine which types of involvement have the strongest relation with achievement. The authors conducted a meta-analysis on the existing research on parental involvement in middle school to determine whether and which types of parental involvement are related to achievement. Across 50 studies, parental involvement was positively associated with achievement, with the exception of parental help with homework. Involvement that reflected academic socialization had the strongest positive association with achievement. Based on the known characteristics of the developmental stage and tasks of adolescence, strategies reflecting academic socialization are most consistent with the developmental stage of early adolescence. PMID:19413429

  17. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe untreated dental decay affects a child’s growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children’s eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. Methods The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6–12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child–parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; “lift the lip”. The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG. Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent

  18. Good Relations between Foster Parents and Birth Parents: A Swedish Study of Practices Promoting Successful Cooperation in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedin, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The importance for foster children's well-being of good relations between foster parents and birth parents is a common topic of research. This article aims to contribute to an understanding of how co-parenting by foster parents and birth parents works in everyday life, from both parties' perspectives, whether or not they knew each other…

  19. Promoting positive parenting practices in primary pare: outcomes and mechanisms of change in a randomized controlled risk reduction trial.

    PubMed

    Reedtz, Charlotte; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Mørch, Willy-Tore

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a short parent-training program (PT) reduces risk factors related to development of childhood socio-emotional and behavior problems in a non-clinical community sample. Data were obtained from parents in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) on PT for children aged 2 to 8 years (N=186) at pre-intervention, post-intervention and one-year-follow up. There were significant differences in the changes in the two groups, with reductions in harsh parenting and child behavior problems, an enhancement of positive parenting and of the parents' sense of competence in the intervention group. The effects on parenting and parents' satisfaction all lasted through one-year follow up. Our findings suggests that a shortened version of a well-structured parenting intervention, The Incredible Years program, implemented in primary care at community level, reduces harsh parenting and strengthens positive parenting and parents' sense of competence, as reported by the parents. Issues related to a public health approach to promote positive parenting are discussed. PMID:21121925

  20. Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting Adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poslawsky, Irina E; Naber, Fabiënne BA; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2015-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the early intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI) with 78 primary caregivers and their child (16-61 months) with Autism Spectrum Disorder. VIPP-AUTI is a brief attachment-based intervention program, focusing on improving parent-child…

  1. Evaluation of a Brief Parent Intervention Teaching Coping-Promoting Behavior for the Infant Immunization Context: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustos, Theona; Jaaniste, Tiina; Salmon, Karen; Champion, G. David

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether a brief intervention encouraging parental coping-promoting talk within the treatment room would have beneficial effects on infant pain responses to an immunization injection. Infant-parent dyads were recruited from a 6-month immunization clinic and randomized to an intervention group (n = 25) or…

  2. The Use of Literacy Bags Promotes Parental Involvement in Chinese Children's Literacy Learning in the English Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, SuHua

    2013-01-01

    This study employed an ethnographic methodology to explore the use of "literacy bags" (LBs) to promote parental involvement in Chinese children's literacy learning in the English language. It was conducted with a first-grade class consisting of 18 students and their parents in Taiwan. Data resources were obtained from teaching questionnaires,…

  3. Enhancing Parent-Child Shared Book Reading Interactions: Promoting References to the Book's Plot and Socio-Cognitive Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Fine, Yaara; Ziv, Margalit

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the efficacy of an intervention designed to promote parents' and preschoolers' references to storybooks' plot and socio-cognitive themes during shared reading within a sample of 58 families from low-SES background. All parents were given four books, one new book weekly, and were instructed to read each book four times per week…

  4. [Parenting].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Contributions to this theme issue of a bulletin on infants aged birth to three, point out that becoming a parent is an evolving process and that infants' meanings to their parents shape parenting behavior and the capacity to change. Articles also examine the challenge of how to support parents as they come to, and continue in, the process of…

  5. Parents as Teachers Health Literacy Demonstration project: integrating an empowerment model of health literacy promotion into home-based parent education.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Lauren N; Smith, Sandra A; Thomson, Nicole R

    2015-03-01

    The Parents as Teachers (PAT) Health Literacy Demonstration project assessed the impact of integrating data-driven reflective practices into the PAT home visitation model to promote maternal health literacy. PAT is a federally approved Maternal, Infant, Early Childhood Home Visiting program with the goal of promoting school readiness and healthy child development. This 2-year demonstration project used an open-cohort longitudinal design to promote parents' interactive and reflective skills, enhance health education, and provide direct assistance to personalize and act on information by integrating an empowerment paradigm into PAT's parent education model. Eight parent educators used the Life Skills Progression instrument to tailor the intervention to each of 103 parent-child dyads. Repeated-measures analysis of variance, paired t tests, and logistic regression combined with qualitative data demonstrated that mothers achieved overall significant improvements in health literacy, and that home visitors are important catalysts for these improvements. These findings support the use of an empowerment model of health education, skill building, and direct information support to enable parents to better manage personal and child health and health care. PMID:24957219

  6. Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lao Parents and Teachers Association, Minneapolis, MN.

    This collection presents advice to help parents help their children succeed in school. Information sheets are included from many sources, in English and translated into Lao by the Lao Parents and Teachers Association. The emphasis is on the elementary grades, although some of the materials are useful for parents of high school students. The…

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Parenting and School Success: The Role of Parents in Promoting Students' Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenzweig, Charlotte

    A meta-analysis of 34 primary studies yielding 438 independent findings shows that 20 specific parenting practices, in combination, can account for as much as one-quarter (23.1%) of the variance in student achievement outcomes. Seven parenting practices, when combined, account for approximately one-sixth (16.3%) of the variance in student…

  8. Promoting Educational Resiliency in Youth with Incarcerated Parents: The Impact of Parental Incarceration, School Characteristics, and Connectedness on School Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Emily B; Loper, Ann B; Meyer, J Patrick

    2016-06-01

    The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, and as a result, one of the largest populations of incarcerated parents. Growing evidence suggests that the incarceration of a parent may be associated with a number of risk factors in adolescence, including school drop out. Taking a developmental ecological approach, this study used multilevel modeling to examine the association of parental incarceration on truancy, academic achievement, and lifetime educational attainment using the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (48.3 % female; 46 % minority status). Individual characteristics, such as school and family connectedness, and school characteristics, such as school size and mental health services, were examined to determine whether they significantly reduced the risk associated with parental incarceration. Our results revealed small but significant risks associated with parental incarceration for all outcomes, above and beyond individual and school level characteristics. Family and school connectedness were identified as potential compensatory factors, regardless of parental incarceration history, for academic achievement and truancy. School connectedness did not reduce the risk associated with parental incarceration when examining highest level of education. This study describes the school related risks associated with parental incarceration, while revealing potential areas for school-based prevention and intervention for adolescents. PMID:26259843

  9. Development of a Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting for Children with Autism (VIPP-AUTI).

    PubMed

    Poslawsky, Irina E; Naber, Fabiënne B A; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; De Jonge, Maretha V; Van Engeland, Herman; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development and content of Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting for Children with Autism (VIPP-AUTI). VIPP-AUTI is an adapted version of the evidence-based intervention VIPP. The lack of social responsiveness in children with autism often lowers the quality of the parent-child interaction. A wide range of early interventions exist to cope with the disorder. The majority of early interventions for children with autism focus on their deficits of (social) skills, but the number of evidence-based interventions to improve early parent-child interaction patterns is limited. The aim of VIPP-AUTI is to enhance parental sensitivity to children's autistic characteristics, in order to improve child developmental outcome by increased parental support. PMID:24972103

  10. School-Based Intervention for Nutrition Promotion in Mi Yun County, Beijing, China: Does a Health-Promoting School Approach Improve Parents' Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) framework was effective to improve parents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour (KAB) in relation to nutrition in rural Mi Yun County, Beijing. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial…

  11. Cloning and characterization of the promoter regions from the parent and paralogous creatine transporter genes.

    PubMed

    Ndika, Joseph D T; Lusink, Vera; Beaubrun, Claudine; Kanhai, Warsha; Martinez-Munoz, Cristina; Jakobs, Cornelis; Salomons, Gajja S

    2014-01-10

    Interconversion between phosphocreatine and creatine, catalyzed by creatine kinase is crucial in the supply of ATP to tissues with high energy demand. Creatine's importance has been established by its use as an ergogenic aid in sport, as well as the development of intellectual disability in patients with congenital creatine deficiency. Creatine biosynthesis is complemented by dietary creatine uptake. Intracellular transport of creatine is carried out by a creatine transporter protein (CT1/CRT/CRTR) encoded by the SLC6A8 gene. Most tissues express this gene, with highest levels detected in skeletal muscle and kidney. There are lower levels of the gene detected in colon, brain, heart, testis and prostate. The mechanism(s) by which this regulation occurs is still poorly understood. A duplicated unprocessed pseudogene of SLC6A8-SLC6A10P has been mapped to chromosome 16p11.2 (contains the entire SLC6A8 gene, plus 2293 bp of 5'flanking sequence and its entire 3'UTR). Expression of SLC6A10P has so far only been shown in human testis and brain. It is still unclear as to what is the function of SLC6A10P. In a patient with autism, a chromosomal breakpoint that intersects the 5'flanking region of SLC6A10P was identified; suggesting that SLC6A10P is a non-coding RNA involved in autism. Our aim was to investigate the presence of cis-acting factor(s) that regulate expression of the creatine transporter, as well as to determine if these factors are functionally conserved upstream of the creatine transporter pseudogene. Via gene-specific PCR, cloning and functional luciferase assays we identified a 1104 bp sequence proximal to the mRNA start site of the SLC6A8 gene with promoter activity in five cell types. The corresponding 5'flanking sequence (1050 bp) on the pseudogene also had promoter activity in all 5 cell lines. Surprisingly the pseudogene promoter was stronger than that of its parent gene in 4 of the cell lines tested. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first

  12. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziff, Barry, Ed.; Hostettler, Karen, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The newsletter of the California Association for the Gifted includes the following brief articles on parenting: "Your Challenge, Their Lives" (Barry Ziff); "Courage to Be Who I Am, Unafraid" (Elizabeth Meckstroth); "Attribution: A Key to Encouraging More Responsible Behavior in the Gifted" (Saundra Sparling); "A Parent's Perspective" (Carolyn…

  13. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markun, Patricia Maloney, Ed.

    This document contains 11 articles which are concerned with the education and development of people who are, or will be, parents. The term "parenting" is used to emphasize the need to help fathers and mothers to deal effectively with their own children. Also, the term reflects the growing awareness that child rearing is the function of many…

  14. Promoting Protective Factors for Young Adolescents: ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Kylie; Brennan, Leah; Cann, Warren

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a program for parents of young adolescents combining behavioral family intervention with acceptance-based strategies. 180 parents were randomly allocated to a 6-session group ABCD Parenting Young Adolescent Program or wait-list condition. Completer analysis indicated parents in the intervention reported…

  15. Giving offspring a healthy start: parents' experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are good opportunities in Sweden for health promotion targeting expectant parents and parents of young children, as almost all are reached by antenatal and child health care. In 2005, a multisectoral child health promotion programme (the Salut Programme) was launched to further strengthen such efforts. Methods Between June and December 2010 twenty-four in-depth interviews were conducted separately with first-time mothers and fathers when their child had reached 18 months of age. The aim was to explore their experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. Qualitative manifest and latent content analysis was applied. Results Parents reported undertaking lifestyle changes to secure the health of the fetus during pregnancy, and in early parenthood to create a health-promoting environment for the child. Both women and men portrayed themselves as highly receptive to health messages regarding the effect of their lifestyle on fetal health, and they frequently mentioned risks related to tobacco and alcohol, as well as toxins and infectious agents in specific foods. However, health promotion strategies in pregnancy and early parenthood did not seem to influence parents to make lifestyle change primarily to promote their own health; a healthy lifestyle was simply perceived as 'common knowledge'. Although trust in health care was generally high, both women and men described some resistance to what they saw as preaching, or very directive counselling about healthy living and the lack of a holistic approach from health care providers. They also reported insufficient engagement with fathers in antenatal care and child health care. Conclusion Perceptions about risks to the offspring's health appear to be the primary driving force for lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. However, as parents' motivation to prioritise their own health per se seems to be low during this period, future health promoting

  16. “Peers, parents and phones”—Swedish adolescents and health promotion

    PubMed Central

    Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor

    2012-01-01

    Many unhealthy behaviors are created during adolescence and follow the individual into adulthood. In addition, health behaviors often occur in clusters as those who are inactive are more likely to eat unhealthy food and smoke. This makes the early foundation of healthy behaviors vital. The aim was to describe and develop an understanding of adolescents’ awareness and experiences concerning health promotion. Data was collected using focus groups with a total of 28 seventh graders and was analysed with latent qualitative content analysis. One main theme was identified; being competent, ambivalent and creative at the same time. The following three subthemes also emerged: being a digital native for better and for worse, knowing what is healthy, and sometimes doing it, and considering change and having ideas of how change could be supported. The main theme elucidates how the majority of students were informed and able but they did not always prioritize their health. The concept of health promotion relies upon the engagement of the individual; however, although the students had clear ideas about how they would like to change their own behaviors, they felt a need for support. Interestingly, the students were able to make several suggestions about the kind of support that would make a difference to their adoption to more healthy modes of living. They suggested information and communication technology (ICT), for example encouraging text messages (SMS), and social support, for example parents setting rules and peers inspiring them to adhere to a healthy behavior. The knowledge gained from this study echoes our view of inclusion and this could be helpful for those who encounter the challenge of promoting health among adolescents. PMID:22740843

  17. Perceptions of a School-Based Self-Management Program Promoting an Active Lifestyle among Elementary Schoolchildren, Teachers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Greet Maria; Haerens, Leen Liesbeth; Verstraete, Stefanie; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate how classroom-based self-management lessons to promote physical activity were perceived by students, teachers, and parents. The self-management lessons were implemented by an external physical education specialist in 20 class groups at eight elementary schools. Program perceptions were evaluated in 412…

  18. Promoting Latino Parent Involvement in K-8 Schools through a Communities of Practice Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrantes Santamaria, Alfredo G.

    2012-01-01

    Due to federal mandates, Title I schools now are being asked to implement parent involvement programs that meaningfully involve parents in the schools to increase academic gains. This action research study was based on three different concepts from the literature: a) critical pedagogy theory from Paulo Freire, b) parent involvement from diverse…

  19. Pathways to Achievement: How Low-Income Mexican-Origin Parents Promote Their Adolescents through School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Jackson, Karen Moran; Pahlke, Erin; Marroquin, Yesenia; Blondeau, Lauren; Martinez, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Using an ecocultural framework, we investigated relations between parental academic socialization (PAS) and adolescent motivation and achievement. Two-hundred sixteen Mexican-origin, low-income sixth graders reported on their motivational beliefs and behaviors and on their parents' academic socialization. Results indicated that parents engaged in…

  20. Identifying and Clarifying Values and Reason Statements that Promote Effective Food Parenting Practices, Using Intensive Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Alicia; Hingle, Melanie D.; Knesek, Jessica; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Generate and test parents' understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. Methods: This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, white, and Hispanic) living with their 3- to 5-year-old child were recruited. Interested parents…

  1. Adolescent Sexuality and Parent-Adolescent Processes: Promoting Healthy Teen Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Bartholomae, Suzanne; Zentall, Shannon R.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on trends in adolescent sexual health, the relation between parenting and adolescent sexual outcomes, and adolescent sexuality interventions. Discusses parenting efforts related to adolescent sexual behavior. Examines adolescent sexuality programs with a parent component. Review of 19 programs supports the incorporation of theory and the…

  2. Effectiveness of a National Media Campaign to Promote Parent-Child Communication about Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kevin C.; Evans, W. Douglas; Kamyab, Kian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although there is debate on the effectiveness of youth-focused abstinence education programs, research confirms that parents can influence their children’s decisions about sexual behavior. To leverage parent-based approaches to adolescent sexual health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the "Parents Speak Up…

  3. Identifying and clarifying values and reason statements that promote effective food parenting practices, using intensive interviews

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to generate and test parents' understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, white, and Hispanic) living with their 3- to 5-yea...

  4. Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI): A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Poslawsky, Irina E; Naber, Fabiënne Ba; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2015-07-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the early intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI) with 78 primary caregivers and their child (16-61 months) with Autism Spectrum Disorder. VIPP-AUTI is a brief attachment-based intervention program, focusing on improving parent-child interaction and reducing the child's individual Autism Spectrum Disorder-related symptomatology in five home visits. VIPP-AUTI, as compared with usual care, demonstrated efficacy in reducing parental intrusiveness. Moreover, parents who received VIPP-AUTI showed increased feelings of self-efficacy in child rearing. No significant group differences were found on other aspects of parent-child interaction or on child play behavior. At 3-months follow-up, intervention effects were found on child-initiated joint attention skills, not mediated by intervention effects on parenting. Implementation of VIPP-AUTI in clinical practice is facilitated by the use of a detailed manual and a relatively brief training of interveners. PMID:24919961

  5. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spock, Benjamin; And Others

    Various aspects of child-rearing are covered in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Authors of current popular books on parenting are interviewed. Benjamin Spock discusses changes (including sex role revisions) in his "Baby and Child Care" since the 1946 first edition. Eda…

  6. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jochim, Lisa; Mueller, Andrea

    This guide contains 15 learning activities that can be used in parenting classes, especially for adults with limited literacy skills. Activities include quotations for discussion and suggestions for conducting group discussions and writing lessons. The following activities are included: interpreting quotations about raising children; positive…

  7. IDENTIFYING AND CLARIFYING VALUES AND REASONS STATEMENTS THAT PROMOTE EFFECTIVE FOOD PARENTING PRACTICES, USING INTENSIVE INTERVIEWS

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, Alicia; Hingle, Melanie D; Knesek, Jessica; O’Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Generate and test parents’ understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. METHODS This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, White and Hispanic) living with their 3–5 year old child were recruited. Interested parents were directed to a website where they provided screening information and informed consent. Two types of telephone interviews were employed: semi-structured intensive interviews and cognitive interviews. RESULTS The most common core values identified in the semi-structured interview were religion/spirituality, family, and health, which appeared invariant across parent ethnicity. Parent responses to cognitive interviews enabled rephrasing of statements that were not well understood; the list of values was increased; and reason statements were added to cover the spectrum cited by parents. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Values and reasons statements will be used to tailor intrinsic motivational messages for effective food parenting practices. PMID:22078775

  8. Parents as health promoters: a theory of planned behavior perspective on the prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Kyle R; Silk, Kami S; Eneli, Ihuoma U

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant problem in the United States. A number of communication campaigns and interventions have been conducted to combat the problem, with parents being recognized as an important target audience. A critical aspect of involving parents in such campaigns is formative research on parents' perceptions of their role in preventing childhood obesity. To facilitate this process, a study was conducted in which parents (N = 201) responded to Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) survey items as they relate to providing healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods for their children. Results indicated support for TPB predictions. Additionally, the degree to which parents viewed providing healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods as effective in preventing obesity (response efficacy) was predictive of parent tracking of children's unhealthy eating behavior. Finally, parent TV viewing behavior was related to perceived response efficacy of limiting children's TV viewing hours. Practical implications for communication practitioners are discussed. PMID:20390979

  9. Promoting the well-being of children whose parents are gay or lesbian.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Ellen C; Siegel, Benjamin S

    2013-04-01

    Extensive data available from more than 30 years of research reveal that children raised by gay and lesbian parents have demonstrated resilience with regard to social, psychological, and sexual health despite economic and legal disparities and social stigma. Many studies have demonstrated that children's well-being is affected much more by their relationships with their parents, their parents' sense of competence and security, and the presence of social and economic support for the family than by the gender or the sexual orientation of their parents. Lack of opportunity for same-gender couples to marry adds to families' stress, which affects the health and welfare of all household members. Because marriage strengthens families and, in so doing, benefits children's development, children should not be deprived of the opportunity for their parents to be married. Paths to parenthood that include assisted reproductive techniques, adoption, and foster parenting should focus on competency of the parents rather than their sexual orientation. PMID:23519940

  10. Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions to Promote Secure Attachment: Findings From a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Barry; Edginton, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Various interventions are used in clinical practice to address insecure or disorganized attachment patterns and attachment disorders. The most common of these are parenting interventions, but not all have a robust empirical evidence base. We undertook a systematic review of randomized trials comparing a parenting intervention with a control, where these used a validated attachment instrument, in order to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve attachment in children with severe attachment problems (mean age <13 years). This article aims to inform clinicians about the parenting interventions included in our systematic review that were clinically effective in promoting secure attachment. For completeness, we also briefly discuss other interventions without randomized controlled trial evidence, identified in Patient Public Involvement workshops and expert groups at the point our review was completed as being used or recommended. We outline the key implications of our findings for clinical practice and future research. PMID:27583298

  11. A participatory parent-focused intervention promoting physical activity in preschools: design of a cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA) promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates at the preschool and

  12. School-Based Health Promotion Intervention: Parent and School Staff Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patino-Fernandez, Anna M.; Hernandez, Jennifer; Villa, Manuela; Delamater, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity is high, particularly among minority youth. The objective of this article was to evaluate parent and school staff perspectives of childhood health and weight qualitatively to guide the development of a school-based obesity prevention program for minority youth. Methods: Hispanic parents (N?=?9) of…

  13. A Few Steps along the Road? Promoting Support for Parents with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarleton, Beth

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of research and development work around parenting by adults with a learning difficulty undertaken at the Norah Fry Research Centre (NFRC) since 2005. It discusses how our understanding of the support needs of parents with learning difficulties grew through an initial mapping study which led to the concept of…

  14. The Holding Hands Project: Effectiveness in Promoting Positive Parent-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rait, Shami

    2012-01-01

    It is now generally accepted that training parents can be effective in supporting children with behaviour difficulties and given the current climate of decreasing resources there is a strong case for evaluating effectiveness. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a significantly modified version of the standard clinic-based Parent-Child…

  15. Social Learning Theory Parenting Intervention Promotes Attachment-Based Caregiving in Young Children: Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Matias, Carla; Futh, Annabel; Tantam, Grace; Scott, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Parenting programs for school-aged children are typically based on behavioral principles as applied in social learning theory. It is not yet clear if the benefits of these interventions extend beyond aspects of the parent-child relationship quality conceptualized by social learning theory. The current study examined the extent to which a social…

  16. Preparing Parents for Change: Promoting a Sense of Well-Being for Everyone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Identifies ways to prepare parents for small early childhood education/care program changes (planned staff absences, changes of the environment or schedule, changes of classmates, changes of classroom pets, and classroom visitors) and large changes (funding, regulations, staff, building, administration). Suggests ways to keep parents informed,…

  17. Increasing Parental Involvement to Promote Dropout Prevention. Lessons from an RCT in Italian Lower Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argentin, Gianluca; Barbetta, Gian Paolo; Maci, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that socio-economic background matters in determining student performance. Systematic reviews confirm that a key role in shaping this association is played by parental involvement. Not surprisingly, successful interventions in education frequently have parental engagement as a key ingredient of their protocol, and the attention…

  18. Parental reflective functioning: Analysis and promotion of the concept for pediatric nursing

    PubMed Central

    Ordway, Monica Roosa; Sadler, Lois S.; Dixon, Jane; Slade, Arietta

    2014-01-01

    Aim To identify the definitional elements of parental reflective functioning (RF) and develop a framework for nurses to apply this concept in their clinical work with families. Background: In recent years, researchers have concluded that parental RF is a key mechanism in the development of child attachment security leading to lifelong mental and physical health benefits. Despite its clinical relevance, little has been published in the nursing literature on this concept. Design Concept analysis. Methods The Walker and Avant (2011) method of concept analysis and the Whittemore and Knafl (2005) method of integrative review were used. A search of the literature published from 1989 to 2013 was conducted using edited texts and online databases - Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, and PsychInfo. Among the 85 sources, 31 empirical studies, 17 book chapters, 32 review papers, and 5 case studies were identified concerning parental RF. Results The concept of RF, defined as the capacity to envision the mental states of self and other, was first described in 1989 by Fonagy. Slade (2005) expanded the concept specifically for parents (i.e. parental RF). Results of this concept analysis describe seven defining attributes and five antecedent conditions. Consequences of parental RF are related to a child’s attachment early in life and behavior later in life. A model case is provided to contextualize the concept. To date, there are three measures for parental RF. Conclusions While parental RF has been predominately featured in psychology and parenting interventions, the potential consequences of secure attachment and longer term children’s behavioral outcomes suggest that the concept has global implications for pediatric nurses and primary health care clinicians. Relevance to clinical practice Parental RF offers exciting and promising opportunities for pediatric health and new approaches for those who provide pediatric health care. PMID:24750548

  19. Cross-Country comparison of professionals' perceptions of the effectiveness of parenting practices to promote fruit and vegetable consumption in preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity prevention often includes promotion of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. Parents may be an important influence on FV intake for preschool children. Which parenting practices (PP) are effective in getting children to eat FV throughout childhood is unclear. A national variations in professional...

  20. Promoting the Social and Communicative Behavior of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Parent-Implemented Intervention Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Zaghlawan, Hasan Y.; Yu, SeonYeong

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to critically review the literature on parent-implemented interventions aimed at promoting and enhancing the social and communicative behavior of young children with autism spectrum disorders. Twelve parent-implemented intervention studies that were conducted, at least in part, in home environments and were published…

  1. A Comparison of Parents' Models and Expansions in Promoting Children's Acquisition of Adjectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovell, Melbourne F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of parental models plus nondifferential praise, and expansions plus nondifferential praise on 2-year-old children's spontaneous use of color and size adjective-noun combinations. (Author/SB)

  2. Client Self-Management: Promoting Self-Help for Parents of Children in Foster-Care

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Bjørn Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon Foucault's concepts of power, this article shows how a course given to parents whose children are in foster-care encourages a particular form of self-management—most notably, that their internal dialogues must be altered so that the parents can view themselves as people in control of their behaviour who are in a position to choose new behaviour. The article is based on a qualitative study conducted in Norway and centres on the support and development of participants in the course. Study results show increased self-confidence and self-respect in the participants, both as individuals and as parents. In addition, significant benefits were stated as finding that they could verbalise and describe difficult events and emotions, experiencing being ‘normal’ within a group and receiving feedback. From the perspective of child protective services, dialogue with parents is central, as it not only commits clients to specific behaviours, but—more importantly—commits them to a particular inner dialogue about parenthood. The course can be seen as a management tool in which the parent's ‘self’ becomes the central object, seeking to contradict the conventional conception of parents with children in foster-care as having nothing to contribute to their children's upbringing. PMID:27559212

  3. Empowering Head Start African American and Latino Families: Promoting Strengths-Based Parenting Characteristics through Child Parent Relationship Training--An Evidence-Based Group Parenting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheely-Moore, Angela I.; Ceballos, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    With the tendency of low-income African American and Latino children identified at-risk for school readiness and school success compared to their early-childhood counterparts, Head Start personnel are challenged to examine the role of family strengths in the promotion of academic success for these populations. This article provides a rationale for…

  4. Can gay and lesbian parents promote healthy development in high-risk children adopted from foster care?

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Waterman, Jill; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2012-10-01

    Adoption is known to promote cognitive and emotional development in children from foster care, but policy debates remain regarding whether children adopted by gay and lesbian parents can achieve these positive outcomes. This study compared the cognitive development and behavior problems at 2, 12, and 24 months postplacement of 82 high-risk children adopted from foster care in heterosexual and gay or lesbian households. On average, children in both household types showed significant gains in cognitive development and maintained similar levels of behavior problems over time, despite gay and lesbian parents raising children with higher levels of biological and environmental risks prior to adoptive placement. Results demonstrated that high-risk children show similar patterns of development over time in heterosexual and gay and lesbian adoptive households. PMID:23039344

  5. Promoting Correct Car Seat Use in Parents of Young Children: Challenges, Recommendations, and Implications for Health Communication

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Nancy L.; Brixey, Suzanne N.; Williams, Janice; Nansel, Tonja R.

    2013-01-01

    Injuries involving motor vehicles continue to be the biggest threat to the safety of children. Although child safety seats (CSS) have been established as a central countermeasure in decreasing injury risk, the majority of parents do not use the correct car seat correctly. There are many challenges in promoting correct car seat use, which itself is a complex behavior. To advance this critical protective behavior, the public health community would benefit from clarifying CSS messaging, communicating clearly, and addressing the conflicting recommendations of product use. In this article, we present current challenges in promoting CSS use and draw on health communication and other fields to offer recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:22991278

  6. Promoting a Culture of Parent Collaboration and Trust: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of formalized and centralized school structures on 2 emergent concepts in the study of school reform, trust, and collaboration. Trust and collaboration were examined from the perspective of parents, as opposed to internal school agents such as teachers or students. Three hierarchical multiple regressions…

  7. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  8. Infant Massage: A Strategy to Promote Self-Efficacy in Parents of Blind Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin, Grace

    2006-01-01

    For successful communication to exist between a caregiver and infant, the caregiver must feel confident about her/his ability to parent and also have specific and accurate knowledge about the behaviours required for optimal care-giving; lack of this knowledge may lead to feelings of uncertainty and less than optimal communication. Studies indicate…

  9. Parental Involvement Promotes Rural African American Youths Self-Pride and Sexual Self-Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride Murry, V.; Brody, Gene H.; McNair, Lily D.; Luo, Zupei; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Wills, Thomas Ashby

    2005-01-01

    This study, an evaluation of the Strong African American Families Program, was designed to determine whether intervention-induced changes in targeted parenting behaviors were associated with young adolescents development of racial pride, self-esteem, and sexual identity. Participants were 332 African American mothers and their 11-year-old children…

  10. Parents' Interactions with Preschoolers during Shared Book Reading: Three Strategies for Promoting Quality Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jisu; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that home environments play a critical role in developing children's early literacy skills. Given the importance of developing early literacy skills to bolster children's chances for subsequent academic success, this article highlights the role of parent-child shared book reading. Summarizing research on different types of…

  11. Postnatal reproductive autonomy: promoting relational autonomy and self-trust in new parents.

    PubMed

    Goering, Sara

    2009-01-01

    New parents suddenly come face to face with myriad issues that demand careful attention but appear in a context unlikely to provide opportunities for extended or clear-headed critical reflection, whether at home with a new baby or in the neonatal intensive care unit. As such, their capacity for autonomy may be compromised. Attending to new parental autonomy as an extension of reproductive autonomy, and as a complicated phenomenon in its own right rather than simply as a matter to be balanced against other autonomy rights, can help us to see how new parents might be aided in their quest for competency and good decision making. In this paper I show how a relational view of autonomy--attentive to the coercive effects of oppressive social norms and to the importance of developing autonomy competency, especially as related to self-trust--can improve our understanding of the situation of new parents and signal ways to cultivate and to better respect their autonomy. PMID:19076938

  12. Mothers' Representations of the Role of Parents and Preschools in Promoting Children's Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Jessica Taisey; Holloway, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated mothers' views about their role in their children's education and their expectations of their child's preschool. A particular focus of the study was to contrast the views of mothers with differing degrees of parenting self-efficacy and to contrast the perceptions of working-class and middle-class mothers.…

  13. It's PTA Showtime, Baby! Promoting Physical Activity among Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Tammy; Berg, Kim; Martin, Amanda Shoe; Martin, Gary; Lux, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors state, that to help children value and participate in regular physical activity, it is important that significant adults in their lives do the same. Furthermore, research has consistently shown that adults, particularly parents, influence children's participation in physical activity (e.g., Brustad, 1996; Freedson &…

  14. Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting Education: Promoting Family Mindfulness during the Perinatal Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Larissa G.; Bardacke, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We present the conceptual and empirical foundation and curriculum content of the Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting (MBCP) program and the results of a pilot study of n = 27 pregnant women participating in MBCP during their third trimester of pregnancy. MBCP is a formal adaptation of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program and was…

  15. Home Visiting: Strengthening Families by Promoting Parenting Success. Policy Brief No. 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This practice/policy brief focuses on early childhood home visiting as a place-based family strengthening strategy that supports parent/caregivers as a key influence on the lives of young children. ("Place-based family strengthening" means that "children do better when their families are strong, and families do better when they live in communities…

  16. Promoting Parent–Child Sexual Health Dialogue with an Intergenerational Game: Parent and Youth Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    D'Cruz, Jina; Santa Maria, Diane; Dube, Sara; Markham, Christine; McLaughlin, Jeffrey; Wilkerson, Johnny M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Tortolero, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Sexual health discussions between parents and their preadolescent youth can delay sexual debut and increase condom and contraceptive use. However, parents frequently report being uncomfortable talking with their youth about sex, often reporting a lack of self-efficacy and skills to inform and motivate responsible decision making by youth. Intergenerational games may support parent–youth sexual health communication. The purpose of this study was to explore parent and youth perspectives on a proposed intergenerational game designed to increase effective parent–youth sexual health communication and skills training. Materials and Methods: Eight focus groups were conducted: four with parents (n=20) and four with their 11–14-year-old youth (n=19), to identify similarities and differences in perspectives on gaming context, delivery channel, content, and design (components, features, and function) that might facilitate dyadic sexual health communication. Results: Participants concurred that a sex education game could improve communication while being responsive to family time constraints. They affirmed the demand for an immersive story-based educational adventure game using mobile platforms and flexible communication modalities. Emergent themes informed the development of a features inventory (including educational and gaming strategies, communication components, channel, and setting) and upper-level program flow to guide future game development. Conclusions: This study supports the potential of a game to be a viable medium to bring a shared dyadic sexual health educational experience to parents and youth that could engage them in a motivationally appealing way to meaningfully impact their sexual health communication and youth sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26181805

  17. Teasing Apart the Child Care Conundrum: A Factorial Survey Analysis of Perceptions of Child Care Quality, Fair Market Price and Willingness to Pay by Low-Income, African American Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shlay, Anne B.; Tran, Henry; Weinraub, Marsha; Harmon, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Child care quality plays a crucial role in children's social and cognitive development. While child care quality is a critical issue for all children, it matters more for low-income children. Policy makers have increased the emphasis on allowing parents, not government, to make decisions about the type of care they want for their children. Yet…

  18. Promoting careers in health care for urban youth: What students, parents and educators can teach us

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Lynne; Rumala, Bernice; Carson, Patricia; Siegel, Elliot

    2014-01-01

    There are many obstacles that urban youth experience in pursuing health careers, but the benefits of diversifying the classroom and workforce are clear. This is especially true today as educators and policymakers seek to enhance underrepresented minority students’ access to health careers, and also achieve the health workforce needed to support the Affordable Care Act. The creation of student pipeline programs began more than 40 years ago, but success has been equivocal. In 2008, Mentoring in Medicine (MIM) conducted a research project to identify how students learn about health careers; develop strategies for an integrated, experiential learning program that encourages underrepresented minority students to pursue careers in health; and translate these into best practices for supporting students through their entire preparatory journey. Six focus groups were conducted with educators, students, and their parents. The inclusion of parents was unusual in studies of this kind. The outcome yielded important and surprising differences between student and parent knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. They informed our understanding of the factors that motivate and deter underrepresented minority students to pursue careers in health care. Specific programmatic strategies emerged that found their place in the subsequent development of new MIM programming that falls into the following three categories: community-based, school-based and Internet based. Best practices derived from these MIM programs are summarized and offered for consideration by other health career education program developers targeting underrepresented minority students, particularly those located in urban settings. PMID:25580044

  19. Do Parents Think It Takes a Village? Parents' Attitudes towards Nonparental Adults' Involvement in the Upbringing and Nurture of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesselring, Marije; de Winter, Micha; Horjus, Bob; van de Schoot, Rens; van Yperen, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored parents' attitudes towards nonparental adults' involvement in childrearing practices. Parents' attitudes were operationalized in their willingness to share parenting responsibility and interest to participate in parenting activities. Data were collected through a quantitative survey with 1,090 parents from 17 Dutch…

  20. Implementation Planning to Promote Parents' Treatment Integrity of Behavioral Interventions for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Lindsay M.; Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Feinberg, Adam B.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral interventions delivered across home and school settings can promote positive outcomes for youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Yet, stakeholders who deliver these interventions may struggle to implement interventions as intended. Low levels of treatment integrity can undermine potentially positive intervention outcomes. One way…

  1. Parent-Implemented Script Fading to Promote Play-Based Verbal Initiations in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagon, Kara A.; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2009-01-01

    We trained 3 mothers of children with autism to create, implement, and systematically fade scripts to promote vocal initiations during play. All 3 children's scripted and unscripted initiations increased after the introduction and fading of scripts, and unscripted initiations were maintained at the 2-week follow-up. The results indicate that…

  2. Divorce Transitions: Identifying Risk and Promoting Resilience for Children and Their Parental Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Gill Gorrell

    1999-01-01

    Discusses qualitative research linked to clinical work relating to some of the short-term effects of divorce on children within a British perspective. Describes clinical intervention into family relationships in divorcing and post-divorce families and suggests some high-risk issues for children. Some interactions that may promote resilience in…

  3. Strategies to improve the Willingness to Taste: The moderating role of children's Reward Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Vandeweghe, Laura; Verbeken, Sandra; Moens, Ellen; Vervoort, Leentje; Braet, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigates the effectiveness of different strategies to improve Willingness to Taste disliked vegetables and the moderating role of Reward Sensitivity. Preschool children (N = 204; age: M = 4.48, SD = 1.01) were randomly allocated to one of four different Willingness to Taste strategies. The findings indicate that first, Willingness to Taste is higher in the modelling and reward strategies compared to neutral instructions. Second, there is a differential effect of Willingness to Taste strategies dependent upon individual differences: children high in Reward Sensitivity were more likely to taste immediately when rewarded, while children low in Reward Sensitivity were more willing to taste when verbally encouraged, but with hesitation. This article thus highlights the roles of both individual differences and behavioral techniques for promoting a healthy diet in children. PMID:27103060

  4. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  5. E-cigarette Use and Willingness to Smoke in a Sample of Adolescent Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Knight, Rebecca; Pagano, Ian; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little evidence on the consequences of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in adolescence. With a multiethnic sample of nonsmokers, we assessed the relation between e-cigarette use and social-cognitive factors that predict smoking combustible cigarettes (cigarettes). Methods School-based cross-sectional survey of 2,309 high school students (M age 14.7 years). Participants reported on e-cigarette use and cigarette use; on smoking-related cognitions (smoking expectancies, prototypes of smokers) and peer smoker affiliations; and on willingness to smoke cigarettes. Regression analyses conducted for non-cigarette smokers tested the association between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke cigarettes, controlling for demographics, parenting, academic and social competence, and personality variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses tested whether the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness was mediated through any of the three smoking-related variables. Results Nonsmokers who had used e-cigarettes (18% of the total sample) showed more willingness to smoke cigarettes compared to those who had never used any tobacco product; the adjusted odds ratio was 2.35 (95% confidence interval 1.73 – 3.19). Additionally, willingness prospectively predicted smoking onset. SEM showed that the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was partly mediated through more positive expectancies about smoking but there was also a direct path from e-cigarette use to willingness. Conclusions Among adolescent nonsmokers, e-cigarette use is associated with willingness to smoke, a predictor of future cigarette smoking. The results suggest that use of e-cigarettes by adolescents is not without attitudinal risk for cigarette smoking. These findings have implications for formulation of policy about access to e-cigarettes by adolescents. PMID:26261237

  6. Willingness to Express Emotions to Caregiving Spouses

    PubMed Central

    Monin, Joan K.; Martire, Lynn M.; Schulz, Richard; Clark, Margaret S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between care-recipients’ willingness to express emotions to spousal caregivers and caregiver’s well-being and support behaviors. Using self-report measures in the context of a larger study, 262 care-recipients with osteoarthritis reported on their willingness to express emotions to caregivers, and caregivers reported on their stress and insensitive responding to care-recipients. Results revealed that care-recipients’ willingness to express happiness was associated with less insensitive caregiver responding, and willingness to express interpersonal emotions (e.g., compassion, guilt) was associated with less caregiving stress. There were also gender differences, such that caregiving wives, in particular, benefited from their husband’s willingness to express vulnerable (e.g., anxiety, sadness) and interpersonal emotions. PMID:19186921

  7. Process Evaluation of the Project SHINE Intervention for African American Families: An Integrated Positive Parenting and Peer Monitoring Approach to Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    St George, Sara M; Wilson, Dawn K; McDaniel, Tyler; Alia, Kassandra A

    2016-07-01

    This study describes the process evaluation of Project SHINE, a randomized family-based health promotion intervention that integrated parenting and peer monitoring for improving sedentary behavior, physical activity, and diet in African American families. Adolescent-parent dyads (n = 89) were randomized to a 6-week behavioral, positive parenting, and peer monitoring skills intervention or a general health education comparison condition. Process evaluation included observational ratings of fidelity, attendance records, psychosocial measures, and qualitative interviews. Results indicated that the intervention was delivered with high fidelity based on facilitator adherence (>98% of content delivered) and competent use of theoretically based behavior change and positive parenting skills (100% of ratings >3 on a 1-4 scale). Although only 43% of peers attended the "bring a friend" session, overall attendance was high (4.39 ± 1.51 sessions) as was the retention rate (88%). Parents in the intervention condition reported significant improvements in communication related to adolescents' engagement in health behaviors both on their own and with peers. These findings were supported by qualitative themes related to improvements in family communication and connectedness. This study provides an innovative example of how future family-based health promotion trials can expand their process evaluation approaches by assessing theoretically relevant positive parenting variables as part of ongoing monitoring. PMID:27084025

  8. Key Theoretical Frameworks for Intervention: Understanding and Promoting Behavior Change in Parent-Infant Feeding Choices in a Low-Income Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Silk, Kami; Horodynski, Mildred A.; Mercer, Laura; Olson, Beth

    2009-01-01

    The early introduction of solids to infants is a risk factor associated with later health problems including allergies, overweight, and diabetes. The Infant Feeding Series (TIFS), a newly designed curriculum that promotes the appropriate transition to solids through parenting education and behavior change among low-income mothers, used the Theory…

  9. American parents’ willingness to prescribe psychoactive drugs to children: a test of cultural mediators

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Frank R.; Gladwin, Hugh; Rosa, Mario De La

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In the USA, white children receive psychoactive drugs more often than black or Hispanic children. This study investigates whether cultural attitudes statistically mediate differences between American parents’ self-identified racial–ethnic group membership and their willingness to medicate children for behavioral problems. Methods Using data from telephone interviews with 1,145 parents in two Florida counties, structural models tested associations between each group compared with the other, in willingness to medicate children exhibiting different problematic behaviors and hypothesized cultural (familism, fatalism, attitude toward corporal punishment, religiosity, concern about treatment stigma, birth abroad, language of interview) and other mediators (views about medications and causes of children’s problems). Respondent gender, age, socioeconomic status, parent-type household, taking psychoactive medication, and having a child with behavioral problems were used as covariates. Results Race–ethnicity was strongly associated with specific cultural attitudes and views about medications and problems, but only Hispanics distinguished themselves significantly from whites in willingness to medicate children. Across groups, parents who viewed medication favorably and endorsed biomedical causes for problems were more willing to medicate. In Hispanic–white and Hispanic–black comparisons, being interviewed in Spanish was the sole but modest cultural mediator of willingness, and in black–white comparisons, only concern about treatment stigma weakly mediated differences in willingness. Conclusions These findings provide faint support for a parent-centered cultural explanation of reported prescription differences among youths of different racial–ethnic groups in the USA. However, structural and professional components of a broader cultural hypothesis for such differences, within the USA and between different countries, still require evaluation. PMID

  10. Parental Involvement Practices in Formalized Home-School Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeck, Unn-Doris Karlsen

    2010-01-01

    The topic for this article is parents' participation and willingness to participate in formalized home-school cooperation. The analyses are based on a nationwide survey among parents in lower secondary schools in Norway. A main finding is that parental involvement practices differ according to parents' level of education in the sense that parents…

  11. What practices do parents perceive as effective or ineffective in promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and less sitting in children: parent focus groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To support parents in improving the health of their young children, examples of effective parenting practices for a healthy diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are needed. This study explores perceived effective and ineffective parenting practices in difficult situations concerning raising healthy children and investigates their relationship with Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The current study is formative work to inform the content of a randomized controlled trial. Methods Four focus groups were conducted between June and October 2012 at worksites during lunch break. A total of 21 unrelated parents of primary schoolchildren (6 fathers, 15 mothers) participated. A short written questionnaire introduced typical difficult situations derived from parental anecdotal reports, concerning healthy diet, PA and SB. These situations formed the backbone for the subsequent focus group discussion. In October 2012, discussions were audio-recorded and analyzed in Nvivo to identify key response items using thematic analysis. Results Parents experienced explaining why the child should behave healthily, monitoring, being consistent, offering alternatives, reacting empathetically, modeling, motivating, increasing intrinsic value and availability, and using time-out as effective practices, whereas anger was considered ineffective. Opinions were mixed about the effectiveness of giving as much freedom as possible, obliging, rewarding and punishing, and setting rules and agreements. Parenting practices were consistent with principles from both SDT and SCT. Conclusions Parents identified numerous perceived effective practices to respond to their child’s health-related behavior. Since many of them coincide with the evidence base and the success of a parenting program depends upon the degree to which parents’ concerns and motivations are integrated into the program design, important opportunities are created for future

  12. Preventive Intervention for Anxious Preschoolers and Their Parents: Strengthening Early Emotional Development

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Lerner, Amy B.; Ludwig, Kristy; Ryan, Julie L.; Colognori, Daniela; Lucas, Christopher P.; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence and early onset of anxiety disorders have inspired innovative prevention efforts targeting young at-risk children. With parent–child prevention models showing success for older children and adolescents, the goal of this study was to evaluate a parent–child indicated preventive intervention for preschoolers with mild to moderate anxiety symptoms. Sixteen children (ages 3–5) and at least one of their parents participated in Strengthening Early Emotional Development (SEED), a new 10-week intervention with concurrent groups for parents and children. Outcome measures included clinician-rated and parent-rated assessments of anxiety symptoms, as well as measures of emotion knowledge, parent anxiety, and parental attitudes about children’s anxiety. Participation in SEED was associated with reduced child anxiety symptoms and improved emotion understanding skills. Parents reported decreases in their own anxiety, along with attitudes reflecting enhanced confidence in their children’s ability to cope with anxiety. Reductions in child and parent anxiety were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Findings suggest that a parent–child cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention may hold promise for young children with mild to moderate anxiety. Improvements in parent anxiety and parental attitudes may support the utility of intervening with parents. Fostering increased willingness to encourage their children to engage in new and anxiety-provoking situations may help promote continued mastery of new skills and successful coping with anxiety. PMID:22331442

  13. Including All Families in Education: School District-Level Efforts to Promote Parent Engagement in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Parent engagement plays an essential role in student achievement and well-being, but not all families are able to participate in their children's education. This article focuses on strategies for reaching and supporting parents who face challenges to engagement such as poverty and cultural diversity. Five district-level parent engagement projects…

  14. Communication Technology Used among Parents and Their College Teens: Implications for College Health Promotion and Risk Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Abar, Beau; Turrisi, Robert; Belden, Calum

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the nature of parent-teen communication in college to re-evaluate the potential for parent inclusion in college success and risk prevention programs. During September 2006, 290 first-year college students were assessed for the frequency and form (e.g., cell phone, e-mail, text) of communication with their parents. Latent…

  15. A population-level approach to promoting healthy child development and school success in low-income, urban neighborhoods: impact on parenting and child conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rhule, Dana; Kolawole, Bukky; Petkova, Eva; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2015-02-01

    Minority children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at high risk for school dropout, delinquency, and poor health, largely due to the negative impact of poverty and stress on parenting and child development. This study evaluated a population-level, family-centered, school-based intervention designed to promote learning, behavior, and health by strengthening parenting, classroom quality, and child self-regulation during early childhood. Ten schools in urban districts serving primarily low-income Black students were randomly assigned to intervention or a "pre-kindergarten education as usual" control condition. Intervention included a family program (a 13-week behavioral parenting intervention and concurrent group for children) and professional development for early childhood teachers. The majority (88 %) of the pre-kindergarten population (N = 1,050; age 4) enrolled in the trial, and nearly 60 % of parents in intervention schools participated in the family program. This study evaluated intervention impact on parenting (knowledge, positive behavior support, behavior management, involvement in early learning) and child conduct problems over a 2-year period (end of kindergarten). Intent-to-treat analyses found intervention effects on parenting knowledge, positive behavior support, and teacher-rated parent involvement. For the highest-risk families, intervention also resulted in increased parent-rated involvement in early learning and decreased harsh and inconsistent behavior management. Among boys at high risk for problems based on baseline behavioral dysregulation (age 4, 23 % of sample), intervention led to lower rates of conduct problems at age 6. Family-centered intervention at the transition to school has potential to improve population health and break the cycle of disadvantage for low-income, minority families. PMID:24590412

  16. Promoting effective parenting practices and preventing child behavior problems in school among ethnically diverse families from underserved, urban communities.

    PubMed

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kingston, Sharon; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Schwab, Amihai; Petkova, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of ParentCorps among 4-year-old children (N = 171) enrolled in prekindergarten in schools in a large urban school district. ParentCorps includes a series of 13 group sessions for parents and children held at the school during early evening hours and facilitated by teachers and mental health professionals. ParentCorps resulted in significant benefits on effective parenting practices and teacher ratings of child behavior problems in school. Intervention effects were of similar magnitude for families at different levels of risk and for Black and Latino families. The number of sessions attended was related to improvements in parenting. Study findings support investment in and further study of school-based family interventions for children from underserved, urban communities. PMID:21291441

  17. The Impact of Parents' Categorization of Their Own Weight and Their Child's Weight on Healthy Lifestyle Promoting Beliefs and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Sylvetsky-Meni, Allison C.; Gillepsie, Scott E.; Hardy, Trisha; Welsh, Jean A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate parents' beliefs and practices related to childhood obesity and determine if these are influenced by parent's perception of their own weight or their child's weight. Methods. Parents of obese (n = 689) or normal weight (n = 1122) children 4–15 years in Georgia, USA, were randomly selected to complete a telephone survey. Frequency of child obesity-related perceptions, beliefs, and practices were assessed, stratified by parent-perceived self-weight and child weight status, and compared using Chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Most parents, regardless of perceived child weight, agreed that child overweight/obesity can cause serious illness (95%) but only one-half believed it was a problem in Georgia. Many (42.4%) failed to recognize obesity in their own children. More parents who perceived their child as overweight versus normal weight reported concern about their child's diet and activity and indicated readiness for lifestyle change. Parents' perception of their own weight had little additional impact. Conclusions. While awareness of child overweight as a modifiable health risk is high, many parents fail to recognize it in their own families and communities, reducing the likelihood of positive lifestyle change. Additional efforts to help parents understand their role in facilitating behavior change and to assist them in identifying at-risk children are required. PMID:25861468

  18. Parents of children with eating disorders: developing theory-based health communication messages to promote caregiver well-being.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheetal; Shafer, Autumn; Brown, Jane; Bulik, Cynthia; Zucker, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children with eating disorders experience extreme emotional burden because of the intensity and duration of the recovery process. While parental involvement in a child's eating disorder treatment improves outcomes, parents often neglect their own well-being, which can impede their child's recovery. This study extends the research on caregivers and on health theory in practice by conducting formative research to develop a theory-based communication intervention encouraging parents to engage in adaptive coping and self-care behaviors. The Transactional Model of Stress and Coping and the Transtheoretical Model guided qualitative assessments of the determinants of parents' coping behaviors. Three focus groups with 19 parents of children with eating disorders and 19 semi-structured interviews with experts specializing in eating disorders were conducted. Findings indicate that parents and experts see parents' need for permission to take time for themselves as the main barrier to self-care. The main motivator for parents to engage in coping behaviors is awareness of a connection between self-care and their child's health outcomes. Participant evaluation of six potential messages for main themes and effectiveness revealed that theory-based elements, such as certain processes of change within the Transtheoretical Model, were important to changing health behavior. PMID:24380433

  19. A population-level approach to promoting healthy child development and school success in low-income, urban neighborhoods: Impact on parenting and child conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rhule, Dana; Kolawole, Bukky; Petkova, Eva; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2014-01-01

    Minority children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at high risk for school dropout, delinquency and poor health, largely due to the negative impact of poverty and stress on parenting and child development. This study evaluated a population-level, family-centered, school-based intervention designed to promote learning, behavior and health by strengthening parenting, early childhood classroom quality, and child self-regulation during early childhood. Ten schools in urban districts serving primarily low-income Black students were randomly assigned to intervention or a “pre-kindergarten education as usual” control condition. Intervention included a family program (13-week behavioral parenting intervention and concurrent group for children) and professional development for early childhood teachers. The majority (88%) of the pre-kindergarten population (N=1050; age 4) enrolled in the trial and nearly 60% of parents in intervention schools participated in the family program. This study evaluated intervention impact on parenting (knowledge, positive behavior support, behavior management, involvement in early learning) and child conduct problems over a 2-year period (end of kindergarten). Intent-to-treat analyses found intervention effects on knowledge, positive behavior support and teacher-rated parent involvement in early learning. For the highest-risk families, intervention also resulted in increased parent-rated involvement in early learning and decreased harsh and inconsistent behavior management. Among boys at high risk for problems based on baseline behavioral dysregulation (age 4, 23% of sample), intervention led to lower rates of conduct problems at age 6. Family-centered intervention at the transition to school has potential to improve population health and break the cycle of disadvantage for low-income, minority families. PMID:24590412

  20. From Middle School to College: Developing Aspirations, Promoting Engagement, and Indirect Pathways from Parenting to Post High School Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nancy E.; Wang, Ming-Te

    2015-01-01

    Based on a longitudinal sample of 1,452 African American and European American adolescents and their parents, parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, warmth, and autonomy support) at 7th grade had significant indirect effects on college enrollment 3 years post high school, through their effects on aspirations, school engagement, and grade point…

  1. Increasing Parental Involvement in Our Schools: The Need to Overcome Obstacles, Promote Critical Behaviors, and Provide Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Gregory V.

    2007-01-01

    An ever growing body of research indicates that parental involvement is a key factor in the success of children in school. Studies have shown that children whose parents take an active interest in their education benefit in a number of ways. These children generally have higher academic achievement, better attendance, a sense of well-being, a…

  2. Promoting Positive Interactions in the Classroom: Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy as a Universal Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershenson, Rachel A.; Lyon, Aaron R.; Budd, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    The adaptation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), an empirically-supported dyadic parent training intervention, to a preschool setting may provide an opportunity to enhance the well-being of both teachers and children by improving the teacher-child relationship and supplying teachers with effective tools for behavior management. The…

  3. "BodyWorks": A Parent-Focused Program to Promote Healthful Eating and Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Valerie Melino; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Blake, Susan M.; Marr, Amanda; Rowe, Jonelle; Wasserman, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The "BodyWorks" program was designed to help parents improve family eating and activity behaviors. "BodyWorks" was associated with significant gains in parents' knowledge about nutrition and activity, and greater self-efficacy to set family nutrition goals, plan physical activities, and change eating habits. (Contains 1 table.)

  4. Promoting School Readiness in the Context of Socio-Economic Adversity: Associations with Parental Demoralization and Support for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okado, Yuko; Bierman, Karen L.; Welsh, Janet A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Existing research suggests that parenting stress and demoralization, as well as provision of learning activities at home, significantly affect child school readiness. However, the degree to which these dimensions of parenting uniquely influence child school readiness remains unclear. Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that…

  5. Cross-country differences in professionals' perceptions of effective parenting practices to promote fruit and vegetable consumption in preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake may reduce the risk of some chronic diseases and obesity. Parents are considered an important influence on children's FV intake. However, the effectiveness of FV parenting practices (PP) are unknown, and differences may exist between countries. We compared health and ...

  6. "I Don't Have to Do This by Myself?" Parent-Led Community Conversations to Promote Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik; Swedeen, Beth; Cooney, Molly; Walter, Martha; Moss, Colleen K.

    2012-01-01

    Parents have long played a pivotal and powerful role in advocating for improved services, supports, and increased opportunities for their children with significant disabilities. Yet inclusive opportunities remain strikingly limited in many schools and communities. We examined the viability and impact of parent-led community conversation events as…

  7. Age differences in alcohol prototype perceptions and willingness to drink in U.K. adolescents.

    PubMed

    Davies, Emma L; Martin, Jilly; Foxcroft, David R

    2016-01-01

    Using the prototype willingness model (PWM) as a framework, this study sought to explore the relationship between prototype perceptions, willingness and alcohol consumption in a sample of adolescents in the United Kingdom (UK). Adolescents aged 11-17 were asked about their alcohol prototype perceptions, willingness to drink, intentions, alcohol consumption, drunkenness and harms using a cross-sectional online survey. Participants were recruited through opportunity sampling via schools and parents. The survey was completed by 178 respondents (51% female; 91 aged 11-15, 87 aged 16-17). Multivariate analysis revealed significant differences between participants aged 11-15 and 16-17 on PWM measures, even when experience with drinking was accounted for (p < .001). There were significant interactions (p < .001) between age and prototype perceptions; younger participants rated non-drinker prototypes as more favourable and more similar to the self than 16- and 17-year-old participants. Willingness and intentions interacted with age; both measures were similar in 16- and 17-year-olds, whereas younger participants scored significantly higher on willingness than intentions (p < .001). Three distinct scales of prototype descriptions were identified in principal components analysis. Characteristics related to sociability significantly predicted willingness to drink alcohol in the sample (p < .001). This study extends previous research by demonstrating that the PWM can provide a theoretical explanation of adolescent drinking in the UK. The results suggest that 11- to 15-year-olds may be the most suitable age for an intervention that targets alcohol prototypes, with a focus on sociability characteristics. PMID:26075410

  8. Teacher Perspectives on Parental Involvement in an Urban Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannix-Lesh, Delane Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Literature shows that parental involvement impacts student performance, but many schools struggle to maintain parents' involvement. The relationship between teacher invitations and parents' willingness to get involved has been studied as part of the struggle. This correlational study investigated the association between the beliefs of…

  9. Promoting children's sustainable access to early schooling in Africa: reflections on the roles of parents in their children's early childhood care and education.

    PubMed

    Ngwaru, Jacob Marriote

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has predominantly rural populations unable to offer children sustainable access to early literacy and childhood care and education. Children's literacy development starts very early in life through participation and experiences in the home and preschool. My research in rural Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania shows that the transition from home to school is compromised by acute barriers such as lack of parental participation, lack of encouragement and support from teachers, and unavailability of learning materials. However, rural homes and communities are well endowed with a stock of practices, knowledge, and skills relevant to the promotion of literacy development. In this chapter, I reflect on how to empower parents to draw on knowledge and resources within the local context to become better involved in their children's education while also empowering teachers to better recognize and take advantage of local knowledge and resources to enrich instruction and enhance meaningful learning. PMID:25512046

  10. Willingness to use couples voluntary counseling and testing services among men who have sex with men in seven countries

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Chard, Anna; Finneran, Catherine; Sullivan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The willingness of male-male dyads to use couples voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) has not been previously investigated globally among men who have sex with men (MSM). Using online advertisements, data were collected from 3245 MSM in seven countries who were ≥18 years of age and had ≥1 male sex partner in the previous 12 months. The analysis examined associations between individual characteristics and willingness to utilize CVCT. The willingness to utilize CVCT was compellingly high, ranging from 79% in Australia and UK to 90% in Brazil. Older MSM and those who reported not knowing their sero-status reported lower odds of willingness to use CVCT. The relationship between being in a relationship and willingness to use CVCT varied across countries, perhaps reflecting varied local understandings of the nature and content of CVCT. Further work is required to examine willingness to use CVCT among a more heterogeneous population of MSM, and to examine how CVCT services are locally perceived in order to provide information vital for the development of locally appropriate messages to promote CVCT for MSM. PMID:23786340

  11. A Pilot Study Aiming to Promote Parents' Understanding of Learning Assessments at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deslandes, Rollande; Rivard, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    The new Québec curriculum is different from other curriculum reforms in that it is based on a competency approach, both cross-curricular and disciplinary. It thus means a move from knowledge-based to competency-based assessments which represents a real challenge to parents who may find it hard to understand learning assessments and their…

  12. Formative evaluation for promoting adoption of the DGA, 2005 among African American parents and children in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Formative research was conducted to increase adherence to the healthful food and physical activity patterns set forth in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005 (DGA, 2005) and thereby reduce weight gain and risk factors for obesity-related chronic diseases in African American parents and their c...

  13. The Promotion of Gross and Fine Motor Development for Infants and Toddlers: Developmentally Appropriate Activities for Parents and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Debra S.

    In recognition of the close relationship between motor skill and cognitive development in the first 2 years of life, this guide presents 78 developmentally appropriate activities that parents and teachers can use to enhance infant and toddler motor development. Activities are categorized by age group as follows: (1) 16 activities for newborn to…

  14. A Head Start to Learning: Exploration of a Parent-Directed Intervention to Promote Early Literacy Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundman-Wheat, Ashley N.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a parent-led intervention focused on developing children's early literacy skills within the home setting. The lesson plans contain scripted steps for completing activities to teach letter names and phonological awareness skills. Archival data were analyzed from a study conducted with 26 families from three…

  15. Primary Care Strategies for Promoting Parent-Child Interactions and School Readiness in At-Risk Families

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Huberman, Harris S.; Berkule, Samantha B.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.; Morrow, Lesley M.; Dreyer, Benard P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of pediatric primary care interventions on parent-child interactions in families with low socioeconomic status. Design In this randomized controlled trial, participants were randomized to 1 of 2 interventions (Video Interaction Project [VIP] or Building Blocks [BB]) or the control group. Setting Urban public hospital pediatric primary care clinic. Participants Mother-newborn dyads enrolled post partum from November 1, 2005, through October 31, 2008. Interventions In the VIP group, mothers and newborns participated in 1-on-1 sessions with a child development specialist who facilitated interactions in play and shared reading by reviewing videos made of the parent and child on primary care visit days; learning materials and parenting pamphlets were also provided. In the BB group, parenting materials, including age-specific newsletters suggesting interactive activities, learning materials, and parent-completed developmental questionnaires, were mailed to the mothers. Main Outcome Measures Parent-child interactions were assessed at 6 months with the StimQ-Infant and a 24-hour shared reading recall diary. Results A total of 410 families were assessed. The VIP group had a higher increased StimQ score (mean difference, 3.6 points; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 5.6 points; Cohen d, 0.51; 0.22 to 0.81) and more reading activities compared to the control group. The BB group also had an increased overall StimQ score compared with the control group (Cohen d, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.60). The greatest effects for the VIP group were found for mothers with a ninth-grade or higher reading level (Cohen d, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.33 to 1.03). Conclusions The VIP and BB groups each led to increased parent-child interactions. Pediatric primary care represents a significant opportunity for enhancing developmental trajectories in at-risk children. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00212576 PMID:21199978

  16. Helpseeking of Immigrant and Native Born Parents: A Qualitative Study from a Montreal Child Day Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Guzder, Jaswant; Yohannes, Sennait; Zelkowitz, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This qualitative study of the perceptions of native-born Canadian and immigrant parents whose children attended a psychiatric day hospital for significant behavior impairment, focused on parental helpseeking pathways, explanatory models of mental health, and referral or access experiences. Methods: A sample of ten immigrant and ten native born parents were recruited for semi-structured interviews analyzed thematically to discern similarities and differences between the two groups. Results: The immigrant group more frequently reported barriers and delays in accessing mental health services. They often reported lack of primary care physicians and language barriers. They were less likely to have a biomedical perspective or to use specialized resources for their children prior to admission. Both groups reported apprehension about medication trials, though the immigrant parents were less likely to agree to psychopharmacological treatment. None of the professionals treating parents for mental health problems initiated referral of their impaired children. Conclusions: Based on the qualitative analysis of this sample, native born single parents and immigrant parents may feel especially vulnerable to lack of social support. Adjustments of primary care, schools and community resources, as well as promoting best practices of culturally competent child mental health care, may increase access and willingness to pursue treatment in both groups. PMID:24223046

  17. The beach as a setting for families' health promotion: a qualitative study with parents and children living in coastal regions in Southwest England.

    PubMed

    Ashbullby, Katherine J; Pahl, Sabine; Webley, Paul; White, Mathew P

    2013-09-01

    This study explores the neglected issue of how families engage with beach environments in their local areas and use them in health promoting ways. Fifteen families with children aged 8-11 years living in coastal regions in Southwest England participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The findings indicate that beaches encouraged families to be physically active. Although families valued the opportunities for physical activity and active play afforded by beaches, the key health benefits emphasised were psychological, including experiencing fun, stress relief and engagement with nature. Increased social and family interaction was also highlighted as benefits. Despite perceiving health benefits, not all families regularly visited the beach. Barriers to visits included parents having limited time, cost of parking, lack of car access and cold weather. Parents played a key role in enabling visits by choosing to share these environments with their children. The social dimension of visits also encouraged families to make regular trips. The findings support the use of beach environments to promote families' health and wellbeing and positive relationships with nature. PMID:23906586

  18. Surviving or thriving: quality assurance mechanisms to promote innovation in the development of evidence-based parenting interventions.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Matthew R; Kirby, James N

    2015-04-01

    Parenting interventions have the potential to make a significant impact to the prevention and treatment of major social and mental health problems of children. However, parenting interventions fail to do so because program developers pay insufficient attention to the broader ecological context that influences the adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions. This context includes the professional and scientific community, end users, consumers, and broader sociopolitical environment within which parenting services are delivered. This paper presents an iterative stage model of quality assurance steps to guide ongoing research and development particularly those related to program innovations including theory building, intervention development, pilot testing, efficacy and effectiveness trials, program refinement, dissemination, and planning for implementation and political advocacy. The key challenges associated with each phase of the research and development process are identified. Stronger consumer participation throughout the entire process from initial program design to wider community dissemination is an important, but an often ignored part of the process. Specific quality assurance mechanisms are discussed that increase accountability, professional, and consumer confidence in an intervention and the evidence supporting its efficacy. PMID:24610566

  19. A comparison of parental views of their pre-school children's 'healthy' versus 'unhealthy' diets. A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jacqueline; Parletta, Natalie; Lynch, John; Campbell, Karen

    2014-05-01

    Despite recommended dietary guidelines, recent population surveys have recorded low fruit and vegetable and high non-core food consumption by Australian children. Young children rely on parents or primary carers to provide their diets; therefore pre-school age is an optimal time to promote and encourage healthy child eating behaviours. Identified contributing factors to a child's eating behaviour and diet in the home environment include parenting style, parent feeding practices and attitudes, parent nutrition knowledge, and home food availability. The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore perceptions, perceived influences, facilitators and barriers when providing healthy foods for young children via focus groups with parents of children with 'healthy' versus 'unhealthy' diets. Thematic analysis identified similarities across both groups including an intention to provide healthy food for their children with most parents involving their child in some level of meal preparation and most families dining together for the evening meal. Main points of difference included parents in the 'healthy' group having more partner support in relation to child diet, a willingness to say 'no' without wavering, and considering their child's daily physical activity when deciding appropriate food options. A majority of parents in the 'unhealthy' group attempted to disguise vegetables and healthy foods for their child and reported experiencing increased levels of stress regarding their child's fussy eating. PMID:24524974

  20. Piloting a Cooperative Extension Service Nutrition Education Program on First-Grade Children's Willingness to Try Foods Containing Legumes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Cassandra S.; Hermann, Janice R.

    2011-01-01

    Many nutrition education campaigns targeting children in the United States focus on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, but most don't specifically promote legumes. The project described here sought to pilot the effect of an Extension nutrition education program on first grade children's willingness to try foods containing legumes. A…

  1. Willingness to pay for suicide prevention in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sueki, Hajime

    2016-05-27

    The present study aimed to establish willingness to pay for suicide prevention among taxpayers in Japan. We conducted an internet-based questionnaire survey using a double-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation, and analyzed data for 956 participants. The median willingness to pay to reduce the mortality risk from suicide by 25% was JPY 1,572 ($13.67 USD). Being married was significantly associated with willingness to pay. The willingness to pay to reduce the mortality risk from suicide may be lower than that to reduce other mortality risks such as traffic accidents. PMID:26677754

  2. The moral concerns of biobank donors: the effect of non-welfare interests on willingness to donate.

    PubMed

    De Vries, Raymond G; Tomlinson, Tom; Kim, H Myra; Krenz, Chris D; Ryan, Kerry A; Lehpamer, Nicole; Kim, Scott Y H

    2016-01-01

    Donors to biobanks are typically asked to give blanket consent, allowing their donation to be used in any research authorized by the biobank. This type of consent ignores the evidence that some donors have moral, religious, or cultural concerns about the future uses of their donations - concerns we call "non-welfare interests". The nature of non-welfare interests and their effect on willingness to donate to a biobank is not well understood.In order to better undersand the influence of non-welfare interests, we surveyed a national sample of the US population (in June 2014) using a probability-based internet panel. Logistic regression models assessed the demographic and attitudinal characteristics associated with participants' willingness to give consent for unspecified future uses of their donation when presented with 7 research scenarios that raised possible non-welfare interest concerns. Most people had non-welfare interests that significantly affect their willingness to donate to a biobank using blanket consent. Some non-welfare interests are associated with subgroups but others are not. A positive attitude toward biomedical research in general was associated with increased willingness to donate, while concerns about privacy and being African American were associated with decreased willingness.Non-welfare interests matter and can diminish willingness to donate to a biobank. Our data suggest that trust in research promotes willingness to donate. Ignoring non-welfare interests could erode this trust. Donors' non-welfare interests could be accommodated through greater transparency and easier access to information about the uses of donations. PMID:26968989

  3. Key theoretical frameworks for intervention: understanding and promoting behavior change in parent-infant feeding choices in a low-income population.

    PubMed

    Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Silk, Kami; Horodynski, Mildred A; Mercer, Laura; Olson, Beth

    2009-03-01

    The early introduction of solids to infants is a risk factor associated with later health problems including allergies, overweight, and diabetes. The Infant Feeding Series (TIFS), a newly designed curriculum that promotes the appropriate transition to solids through parenting education and behavior change among low-income mothers, used the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Transtheoretical Model of Change to develop TIFS curricular foci and activities. Using a pre-post design, pilot study results indicate that after exposure to the TIFS curriculum, mothers had significantly increased knowledge about appropriate infant feeding, could more accurately identify developmental indicators of infants' readiness for solids, and reported greater feelings of self efficacy about initiating and maintaining healthy feeding practices. Editors' Strategic Implications: replication is necessary, but TIFS appears to be a promising prevention program based on short-term knowledge and long-term behavioral outcomes (i.e., healthy feeding practices). PMID:19283484

  4. Substance-abusing mothers and fathers' willingness to allow their children to receive mental health treatment.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; D'Lima, Gabrielle M; Henson, James M; Cotten, Cayla

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes of substance-abusing mothers and fathers entering outpatient treatment toward allowing their children to participate in individual- or family-based interventions. Data were collected from a brief anonymous survey completed by adults at intake into a large substance abuse treatment program in western New York. Only one-third of parents reported that they would be willing to allow their children to participate in any form of mental health treatment. Results of chi-square analyses revealed that a significantly greater proportion of mothers reported that they would allow their children to participate in mental health treatment (41%) compared to fathers (28%). Results of logistic regression analyses revealed even after controlling for child age, mothers were more likely than fathers to indicate their willingness to allow their children to receive mental health treatment; however, type of substance abuse (alcohol versus drug abuse) was not associated with parents' willingness to allow their children to receive treatment. Parental reluctance to allow their children to receive individual or family-based treatment is a significant barrier in efforts to intervene with these at-risk children. PMID:24680218

  5. Framing the willingness-to-pay question: impact on response patterns and mean willingness to pay.

    PubMed

    Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Jensen, Mette Lundsby; Kjaer, Trine

    2014-05-01

    In this study, respondents were randomly allocated to three variants of the payment card format and an open-ended format in order to test for convergent validity. The aim was to test whether preferences (as measured by willingness to pay additional tax) would be affected by framing the willingness-to-pay question differently. Results demonstrated that valuations were highly sensitive to whether respondents were asked to express their maximum willingness to pay per month or per year. Another important finding is that the introduction of a binary response filter prior to the payment card follow-up tends to eliminate the positive aspects of introducing a payment card and produces response patterns that are much in line with those of the open-ended contingent valuation format. However, although a filter will impact on the distribution of willingness-to-pay bids and on the rate of zero and protest bids, the overall impact on the welfare estimate is minor. The outcomes of this study indicate that valuations in the stated preference literature may be, at least in part, a function of the instrument designed to obtain the valuations. PMID:23696155

  6. Promoting productive interactions between parents and physicians in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, William B; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral condition that impairs functioning throughout childhood and adolescence. Evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of ADHD recommend recognizing ADHD as a chronic condition. The chronic care model for child health emphasizes the need for productive interactions between an informed, activated family and a prepared, proactive practice team. Key parent–physician interactions in the treatment of a child with ADHD include: family education, treatment goal setting, treatment plan formation, cardiovascular screening, medication titration and ongoing monitoring and treatment plan revision. Most care for children/adolescents with ADHD is provided in community-based primary care settings where there are significant barriers to delivering high-quality care to children with chronic conditions. This article reviews recommended physician–parent interactions, examines current practice patterns and identifies facilitators and barriers to the implementation of recommended practices for ADHD care. PMID:21469930

  7. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Salut Programme: a universal health promotion intervention for parents and children—protocol of a register-based retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Inna; Eurenius, Eva; Häggström, Jenny; Sampaio, Filipa; Lindkvist, Marie; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria; Ivarsson, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is inadequate evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health promotion interventions. The Salut Programme aims to reach all parents and children in the Västerbotten County of Sweden with a combination of health promotion interventions initiated during pregnancy and continued over the childhood period. This study protocol describes an effectiveness study and an economic evaluation study, where the ongoing Salut Programme is compared to care-as-usual over the periods of pregnancy, delivery and the child's first 2 years of life. Methods A register-based retrospective observational study design will be used with existing data sources with respect to exposures and outcomes. Outcomes of interest are clustered at 3 points: around the child's birth, 1 month after the child's birth and 2 years after the child's birth. We will simulate an experiment by retrospectively identifying and comparing children and their parents in the geographical areas where the Salut Programme was implemented since 2006 and onwards, and the areas where the Programme was not implemented before 2009. Outcomes will be analysed and compared for the premeasure period, and the postmeasure period for both groups. Our analysis combines difference-in-difference estimation with matching. A complementary analysis will be carried out on the longitudinal subsample of mothers who gave birth at least once during each of the time periods. The economic evaluation aims to capture the wider societal costs and benefits of the Salut Programme for the first 2 years of the children's lives. Incremental costs will be compared with incremental health gains and the results will be presented as a cost-consequence analysis. Ethics and dissemination The Regional Ethical Review Board in Umeå has given clearance for the Salut Programme research (2010-63-31M). No individual's identity will be revealed when presenting results. This study will provide information that can guide

  8. Perceptions of organ donors and willingness to donate organs upon death: a test of the prototype/willingness model.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Melissa K; White, Katherine M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding people's organ donation decisions may narrow the gap between organ supply and demand. In two studies, participants who had not recorded their posthumous organ donation decision (Study 1, N = 210; Study 2, N = 307) completed items assessing prototype/willingness model (PWM; attitude, subjective norm, donor prototype favorability and similarity, willingness) constructs. Attitude, subjective norm, and prototype similarity predicted willingness to donate. Prototype favorability and a Prototype Favorability × Similarity interaction predicted willingness (Study 2). These findings provide support for the PWM in altruistic health contexts, highlighting the importance of people's perceptions about organ donors in their donation decisions. PMID:24758216

  9. Perceptions of Organ Donors and Willingness to Donate Organs Upon Death: A Test of the Prototype/Willingness Model.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Melissa K; White, Katherine M

    2014-06-01

    Understanding people's organ donation decisions may narrow the gap between organ supply and demand. In two studies, participants who had not recorded their posthumous organ donation decision (Study 1 N = 210; Study 2 N = 307) completed items assessing Prototype/Willingness Model (PWM) (attitude, subjective norm, donor prototype favorability and similarity, willingness) constructs. Attitude, subjective norm, and prototype similarity predicted willingness to donate. Prototype favorability and a prototype favorability x similarity interaction predicted willingness (Study 2). These findings provide support for the PWM in altruistic health contexts, highlighting the importance of people's perceptions about organ donors in their donation decisions. PMID:24910896

  10. Both Direct and Vicarious Experiences of Nature Affect Children’s Willingness to Conserve Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Masashi; Gaston, Kevin J.; Yamaura, Yuichi; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Children are becoming less likely to have direct contact with nature. This ongoing loss of human interactions with nature, the extinction of experience, is viewed as one of the most fundamental obstacles to addressing global environmental challenges. However, the consequences for biodiversity conservation have been examined very little. Here, we conducted a questionnaire survey of elementary schoolchildren and investigated effects of the frequency of direct (participating in nature-based activities) and vicarious experiences of nature (reading books or watching TV programs about nature and talking about nature with parents or friends) on their affective attitudes (individuals’ emotional feelings) toward and willingness to conserve biodiversity. A total of 397 children participated in the surveys in Tokyo. Children’s affective attitudes and willingness to conserve biodiversity were positively associated with the frequency of both direct and vicarious experiences of nature. Path analysis showed that effects of direct and vicarious experiences on children’s willingness to conserve biodiversity were mediated by their affective attitudes. This study demonstrates that children who frequently experience nature are likely to develop greater emotional affinity to and support for protecting biodiversity. We suggest that children should be encouraged to experience nature and be provided with various types of these experiences. PMID:27231925

  11. Both Direct and Vicarious Experiences of Nature Affect Children's Willingness to Conserve Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Soga, Masashi; Gaston, Kevin J; Yamaura, Yuichi; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Children are becoming less likely to have direct contact with nature. This ongoing loss of human interactions with nature, the extinction of experience, is viewed as one of the most fundamental obstacles to addressing global environmental challenges. However, the consequences for biodiversity conservation have been examined very little. Here, we conducted a questionnaire survey of elementary schoolchildren and investigated effects of the frequency of direct (participating in nature-based activities) and vicarious experiences of nature (reading books or watching TV programs about nature and talking about nature with parents or friends) on their affective attitudes (individuals' emotional feelings) toward and willingness to conserve biodiversity. A total of 397 children participated in the surveys in Tokyo. Children's affective attitudes and willingness to conserve biodiversity were positively associated with the frequency of both direct and vicarious experiences of nature. Path analysis showed that effects of direct and vicarious experiences on children's willingness to conserve biodiversity were mediated by their affective attitudes. This study demonstrates that children who frequently experience nature are likely to develop greater emotional affinity to and support for protecting biodiversity. We suggest that children should be encouraged to experience nature and be provided with various types of these experiences. PMID:27231925

  12. Factors affecting willingness to provide buprenorphine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Netherland, Julie; Botsko, Michael; Egan, James E.; Saxon, Andrew J.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.; Finkelstein, Ruth; Gourevitch, Mark N.; Renner, John A.; Sohler, Nancy; Sullivan, Lynn E.; Weiss, Linda; Fiellin, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Buprenorphine is an effective long-term opioid agonist treatment. As the only pharmacological treatment for opioid dependence readily available in office-based settings, buprenorphine may facilitate a historic shift in addiction treatment from treatment facilities to general medical practices. Although many patients have benefited from the availability of buprenorphine in the United States, almost half of current prescribers are addiction specialists suggesting that buprenorphine treatment has not yet fully penetrated general practice settings. We examined factors affecting willingness to offer buprenorphine treatment among physicians with different levels of prescribing experience. Based on their prescribing practices, physicians were classified as experienced, novice, or as a nonprescriber and asked to assess the extent to which a list of factors impacted their prescription of buprenorphine. Several factors affected willingness to prescribe buprenorphine for all physicians: staff training; access to counseling and alternate treatment; visit time; buprenorphine availability; and pain medications concerns. Compared with other physicians, experienced prescribers were less concerned about induction logistics and access to expert consultation, clinical guidelines, and mental health services. They were more concerned with reimbursement. These data provide important insight into physician concerns about buprenorphine and have implications for practice, education, and policy change that may effectively support widespread adoption of buprenorphine. PMID:18715741

  13. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Promotes Apoptosis in Human Breast Epithelial × Breast Cancer Hybrids, but Not in Parental Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Sabrina; Tosun, Songuel; Troost, Gabriele; Keil, Silvia; Zaenker, Kurt S.; Dittmar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong to the group of pathogen recognition receptors known to play a crucial role in the innate immune system. In cancer, TLR expression is still debated controversially due to contradictory results reporting that both induction of apoptosis as well as tumor progression could depend on TLR signaling, whereby recent data rather indicate a pro-tumorigenic effect. The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been associated with cancer progression due to findings revealing that fusion-derived hybrid cells could exhibit properties like an increased metastatogenic capacity and an increased drug resistance. Thus, M13MDA435 hybrid cell lines, which derived from spontaneous fusion events between human M13SV1-EGFP-Neo breast epithelial cells and human MDA-MB-435-Hyg breast cancer cells, were investigated. Cultivation of cells in the presence of the TLR4 ligand LPS potently induced apoptosis in all hybrid clones, but not in parental cells, which was most likely attributed to differential kinetics of the TLR4 signal transduction cascade. Activation of this pathway concomitant with NF-κB nuclear translocation and TNF-α expression was solely observed in hybrid cells. However, induction of LPS mediated apoptosis was not TNF-α dependent since TNF-α neutralization was not correlated to a decreased amount of dead cells. In addition to TNF-α, LPS also caused IFN-β expression in hybrid clones 1 and 3. Interestingly, hybrid clones differ in the mode of LPS induced apoptosis. While neutralization of IFN-β was sufficient to impair the LPS induced apoptosis in M13MDA435-1 and -3 hybrids, the amount of apoptotic M13MDA435-2 and -4 hybrid cells remained unchanged in the presence of neutralizing IFN-β antibodies. In summary, the fusion of non-LPS susceptible parental human breast epithelial cells and human breast cancer cells gave rise to LPS susceptible hybrid cells, which is in view with the cell fusion hypothesis that hybrid cells could exhibit novel

  14. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Promotes Apoptosis in Human Breast Epithelial × Breast Cancer Hybrids, but Not in Parental Cells.

    PubMed

    Fried, Sabrina; Tosun, Songuel; Troost, Gabriele; Keil, Silvia; Zaenker, Kurt S; Dittmar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong to the group of pathogen recognition receptors known to play a crucial role in the innate immune system. In cancer, TLR expression is still debated controversially due to contradictory results reporting that both induction of apoptosis as well as tumor progression could depend on TLR signaling, whereby recent data rather indicate a pro-tumorigenic effect. The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been associated with cancer progression due to findings revealing that fusion-derived hybrid cells could exhibit properties like an increased metastatogenic capacity and an increased drug resistance. Thus, M13MDA435 hybrid cell lines, which derived from spontaneous fusion events between human M13SV1-EGFP-Neo breast epithelial cells and human MDA-MB-435-Hyg breast cancer cells, were investigated. Cultivation of cells in the presence of the TLR4 ligand LPS potently induced apoptosis in all hybrid clones, but not in parental cells, which was most likely attributed to differential kinetics of the TLR4 signal transduction cascade. Activation of this pathway concomitant with NF-κB nuclear translocation and TNF-α expression was solely observed in hybrid cells. However, induction of LPS mediated apoptosis was not TNF-α dependent since TNF-α neutralization was not correlated to a decreased amount of dead cells. In addition to TNF-α, LPS also caused IFN-β expression in hybrid clones 1 and 3. Interestingly, hybrid clones differ in the mode of LPS induced apoptosis. While neutralization of IFN-β was sufficient to impair the LPS induced apoptosis in M13MDA435-1 and -3 hybrids, the amount of apoptotic M13MDA435-2 and -4 hybrid cells remained unchanged in the presence of neutralizing IFN-β antibodies. In summary, the fusion of non-LPS susceptible parental human breast epithelial cells and human breast cancer cells gave rise to LPS susceptible hybrid cells, which is in view with the cell fusion hypothesis that hybrid cells could exhibit novel

  15. Sexual conflict over parental care promotes the evolution of sex differences in care and the ability to care

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M.; Wolf, Max

    2015-01-01

    Strong asymmetries in parental care, with one sex providing more care than the other, are widespread across the animal kingdom. At present, two factors are thought to ultimately cause sex differences in care: certainty of parentage and sexual selection. By contrast, we here show that the coevolution of care and the ability to care can result in strong asymmetries in both the ability to care and the level of care, even in the absence of these factors. While the coevolution of care and the ability to care does not predict which sex evolves to care more than the other, once other factors give rise to even the slightest differences in the cost and benefits of care between the sexes (e.g. differences in certainty in parentage), a clear directionality emerges; the sex with the lower cost or higher benefit of care evolves both to be more able to care and to provide much higher levels of care than the other sex. Our findings suggest that the coevolution of levels of care and the ability to care may be a key factor underlying the evolution of sex differences in care. PMID:25694618

  16. Community Violence Exposure and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Adolescents: Testing Parental Support as a Promotive Versus Protective Factor

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Tess; Ammons, Chrissy; Dahl, Alexandra; Kliewer, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Although callous-unemotional (CU) traits are associated with maladjustment in youth, literature predicting CU using prospective designs is rare. In the present study we examine associations between exposure to community violence, supportive relationships with caregivers, and CU in a sample of 236 low-income youth (M age = 13.00 yrs, SD = 1.56 yrs; 43% male; 92% African American) participating in a 3-wave longitudinal study of violence exposure and adjustment. Both promotive and protective models of linkages between exposure to community violence, support, and CU were investigated. Given known sex differences in CU, sex was explored as a moderator. Regression analysis revealed that witnessing and hearing about community violence, aggregated over 2 waves, were positively associated with CU at the final study wave. Supportive relationships with caregivers, aggregated over 2 waves, were negatively associated with CU but did not interact with violence exposure, suggesting that supportive relationships with caregivers has a promotive but not a protective association with CU in the context of exposure to violence. The pattern of associations did not vary by sex. This study informs our understanding of factors that contribute to the development of CU. PMID:25580047

  17. Social Goals and Willingness to Seek Help for School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yablon, Yaacov B.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between students' social goals and their willingness to seek help for school violence was examined. Four hundred and sixty-two students from sixth, eighth, and tenth grades responded to vignettes used to assess willingness to seek help from teachers and friends for dealing with relational and physical violence. Intimacy goals enhanced…

  18. Willingness among College Students to Help a Smoker Quit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Gerber, Tracy A.; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Patten, Christi A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Offord, Kenneth P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Between February and March 2003, the authors examined college students' willingness to help a smoker quit and assessed demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with willingness to help. Participants: Survey respondents were 701 college students (474 women, 227 men) aged 18 to 24 years who indicated there was someone close…

  19. Willingness To Pay for Information: An Analyst's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Hatcher, Charles B.

    2001-01-01

    Compares methods for estimating consumer willingness to pay for information: contingent valuation, experimental auction, conjoint analysis, and hedonic price equations. Shows how, in the case of food dating, measurement of willingness is complicated by the question of whether the information adds to the product's value. (Contains 31 references.)…

  20. Trauma-Informed Care for Children in the Child Welfare System: An Initial Evaluation of a Trauma-Informed Parenting Workshop.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kelly M; Murray, Kathryn J; Ake, George S

    2016-05-01

    An essential but often overlooked component to promoting trauma-informed care within the child welfare system is educating and empowering foster, adoptive, and kinship caregivers (resource parents) with a trauma-informed perspective to use in their parenting as well as when advocating for services for their child. In this first evaluation of the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's trauma-informed parenting workshop (Caring for Children who Have Experienced Trauma, also known as the Resource Parent Curriculum), participant acceptance and satisfaction and changes in caregiver knowledge and beliefs related to trauma-informed parenting were examined. Data from 159 ethnically diverse resource parents were collected before and after they participated in the workshop. Results demonstrate that kinship and nonkinship caregivers showed significant increases in their knowledge of trauma-informed parenting and their perceived self-efficacy parenting a child who experienced trauma. Nonkinship caregivers increased on their willingness to tolerate difficult child behaviors, whereas kinship caregivers did not show a significant change. Participants also demonstrated high levels of satisfaction with the workshop. Although these preliminary results are important as the first empirical study supporting the workshop's effectiveness, the limitations of this study and the directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26603357

  1. Substance-abusing Mothers and Fathers’ Willingness to Allow their Children to Receive Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Michelle L.; D’Lima, Gabrielle M.; Henson, James M.; Cotton, Cayla

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes of substance-abusing mothers and fathers entering outpatient treatment toward allowing their children to participate in individual- or family-based interventions. Data were collected from a brief anonymous survey completed by adults at intake into a large substance abuse treatment program in western New York. Only one-third of parents reported they would be willing to allow their children to participate in any form of mental health treatment. Results of chi-square analyses revealed that a significantly greater proportion of mothers reported they would allow their children to participate in mental health treatment (41%) compared to fathers (28%). Results of logistic regression analyses revealed even after controlling for child age, mothers were more likely than fathers indicate their willingness to allow their children to receive mental health treatment; however, type of substance abuse (alcohol versus drug abuse) was not associated with parents’ willingness to allow their children to receive treatment. Parental reluctance to allow their children to receive individual or family-based treatment is a significant barrier in efforts to intervene with these at-risk children. PMID:24680218

  2. Factors Associated with Willingness to Use Mental Health Services in Korean Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sharon; Jang, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Responding to the concern about underutilization of mental health services in immigrant populations, the present study explored the factors associated with Korean immigrants' willingness to use mental health services. Guided by Andersen's behavioral model, consideration was given to the role of predisposing (age, gender, marital status, education, and years in the United States), need (depressive symptoms), and enabling (health insurance, acculturation, and personal beliefs about depression) variables. The study estimated, using data from a sample of 205 Korean immigrants (ages 18-45), a logistic regression model of willingness to use mental health services. Although participants experiencing more depressive symptoms tend to be less willing to use these services (odds ratio [OR] = .89, p < .05), an increase in the odds of willingness to use them are found among women (OR = 2.52, p < .01), highly acculturated individuals (OR = 1.09, p < .05), and individuals who believe that depression is a medical condition (OR = 4.71, p < .01). Educational interventions focused on increasing mental health literacy may be beneficial in promoting mental health services for Korean immigrants. PMID:26984783

  3. Do Father-Friendly Policies Promote Father-Friendly Child-Rearing Practices? A Review of Swedish Parental Leave and Child Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Michael B.; Sarkadi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    By reviewing the literature, we looked at how parental leave policies in Sweden have influenced two well-defined areas of early father involvement: participating in parental leave and at visits/activities at the Child Health Centers. Sweden has one of the most comprehensive and egalitarian parental leave policies in the world, permitting parents…

  4. Primary care nurses’ awareness of and willingness to perform children’s oral health care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of young children receive no early dental examination while attending primary health care for routine check-ups. Our aim was to study primary care nurses’ knowledge of oral health care (OHC) and their attitudes toward delivering OHC, as well as to assess their willingness to obtain OHC information. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of all primary-care nurses working in the public health centres of Tehran city. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire queried their knowledge in paediatric-, general and medicine-related areas of dentistry, providing knowledge scores for three domains. The nurses’ attitudes toward OHC and their willingness to obtain OHC information underwent evaluation with statements utilizing a five-point Likert scale. Altogether 680 nurses took part in the survey. The Chi-square test, t-test, one-way ANOVA and logistic regression model served for statistical analyses. Result The mean score for the paediatric dentistry domain (3.6, SD: 1.5) was lower than for the medical (4.4, SD: 2.3) and dental domains (5.8, SD: 1.5). Obtaining higher scores in the paediatric (OR = 1.2) and dental (OR = 1.3) domains, and a greater willingness to receive OHC information (OR = 5.3), were associated with a positive attitude toward OHC. Nurses with a lower education (OR = 1.9) and better oral health behaviour (OR = 1.1) as well as those working in a non-affluent region (OR = 1.6) had a more positive attitude toward OHC. Conclusion Primary care nurses’ low level of knowledge in OHC and their positive attitude and willingness to obtain more information point to the need for appropriate OHC training and encouragement for the nurses to promote oral health and prevent dental diseases. PMID:24670004

  5. Parental conflict and blue egg coloration in a seabird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Judith; Torres, Roxana; Velando, Alberto

    2010-02-01

    When both parents provide offspring care, equal sharing of costly parental duties may enhance reproductive success. This is crucial for longlived species, where increased parental effort in current reproduction profoundly affects future reproduction. Indication of reproductive value or willingness to invest in reproduction may promote matching responses by mates, thus reducing the conflict over care. In birds with biparental care, blue-green eggshell color may function as a signal of reproductive value that affects parental effort, as predicted by the signaling hypothesis of blue-green eggshell coloration. However, this hypothesis has not been explored during incubation, when the potential stimulus of egg color is present, and has been little studied in longlived birds. We experimentally studied if egg color affected incubation patterns in the blue-footed booby, a longlived species with biparental care and blue eggs. We exchanged fresh eggs between nests of the same laying date and recorded parental incubation effort on the following 4 days. Although egg color did not affect male effort, original eggshell color was correlated with pair matching in incubation. Exchanged eggshell color did not affect incubation patterns. This suggests that biliverdin-based egg coloration reflects female quality features that are associated with pair incubation effort or that blue-footed boobies mate assortatively high-quality pairs incubating more colorful clutches. An intriguing possibility is that egg coloration facilitates an equal sharing of incubation, the signal being functional only during a short period close to laying. Results also suggest that indication of reproductive value reduces the conflict over care.

  6. Parental conflict and blue egg coloration in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Morales, Judith; Torres, Roxana; Velando, Alberto

    2010-02-01

    When both parents provide offspring care, equal sharing of costly parental duties may enhance reproductive success. This is crucial for longlived species, where increased parental effort in current reproduction profoundly affects future reproduction. Indication of reproductive value or willingness to invest in reproduction may promote matching responses by mates, thus reducing the conflict over care. In birds with biparental care, blue-green eggshell color may function as a signal of reproductive value that affects parental effort, as predicted by the signaling hypothesis of blue-green eggshell coloration. However, this hypothesis has not been explored during incubation, when the potential stimulus of egg color is present, and has been little studied in longlived birds. We experimentally studied if egg color affected incubation patterns in the blue-footed booby, a longlived species with biparental care and blue eggs. We exchanged fresh eggs between nests of the same laying date and recorded parental incubation effort on the following 4 days. Although egg color did not affect male effort, original eggshell color was correlated with pair matching in incubation. Exchanged eggshell color did not affect incubation patterns. This suggests that biliverdin-based egg coloration reflects female quality features that are associated with pair incubation effort or that blue-footed boobies mate assortatively high-quality pairs incubating more colorful clutches. An intriguing possibility is that egg coloration facilitates an equal sharing of incubation, the signal being functional only during a short period close to laying. Results also suggest that indication of reproductive value reduces the conflict over care. PMID:20128107

  7. Teacher and staff perceptions of school environment as predictors of student aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying situations.

    PubMed

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Polanin, Joshua R; Low, Sabina K

    2014-09-01

    This study examines how teacher and staff perceptions of the school environment correlate with student self-reports of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying incidents using multi-informant, multilevel modeling. Data were derived from 3,616 6th grade students across 36 middle schools in the Midwest, who completed survey measures of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Teachers and staff (n = 1,447) completed a school environment survey. Bivariate associations between school-level and student self-reports indicated that as teacher and staff perceive aggression as a problem in their school, students reported greater bully perpetration, fighting, peer victimization, and less willingness to intervene. Further, as staff and teacher report greater commitment to prevent bullying and viewed positive teacher and student relationships, there was less bullying, fighting, and peer victimization, and greater willingness to intervene. In a model where all school environment scales were entered together, a school commitment to prevent bullying was associated with less bullying, fighting, and peer victimization. Student-reports of bully perpetration and peer victimization were largely explained by staff and teacher commitment to bully prevention, whereas fighting and willingness to intervene were largely explained by student characteristics (e.g., gender). We conclude that efforts to address bullying and victimization should involve support from the school administration. School psychologists should play an active role in the school climate improvement process, by creating a school climate council consisting of students, parents, and teachers; administering school climate measures; identifying specific school improvement targets from these data, and engaging all stakeholders in the ongoing school improvement plan. PMID:25089334

  8. The joint moderating effect of health consciousness and healthy lifestyle on consumers' willingness to use functional foods in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Fang

    2011-08-01

    Functional foods marketed as promoting health or reducing the risk of disease open a promising avenue for consumers to pursue a healthier life. Despite the stable growth in functional foods in Taiwan, at present little is known about whether or not consumers with varying degrees of health consciousness and different healthy lifestyles will have dissimilar attitudes toward functional foods and will vary in their willingness to use them. Regression analysis of this empirical study verifies that consumers' attitudes toward functional foods do have an impact on their willingness to use such foods. Moreover, moderated regression analysis (MRA) reveals that the joint moderator of health consciousness and healthy lifestyle indeed exerts an impact on consumers' willingness to consume functional foods. Finally, one-way ANOVA tests show that there are some differences between the consumers of the "Healthy Life Attentive" group and those of the "Healthy Life Inattentive" one both in attitudes toward and in willingness to consume functional foods. The empirical results and findings from this study would be valuable for the marketers in the functional food industry to formulate marketing communication strategies and facilitate this industry's development. PMID:21609743

  9. Help Me Learn, Help Me Grow = Ayudame a Aprender, Ayudame a Crecer: A Community Action Guide To Promote the Health/Education Connection among Parents and Parents-To-Be.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Educational Leadership, Washington, DC.

    Good health is important to a child's ability to learn in school and succeed in life. This guide is intended for the use of health and education professionals who are working with a national campaign designed to teach parents and parents-to-be the critical connection between good health and their children's ability to learn. The campaign deals…

  10. Taste education reduces food neophobia and increases willingness to try novel foods in school children

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bo-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study measured the effects of a taste education program developed in Korea on food neophobia and willingness to try novel foods in school children. SUBJECTS/METHODS One-hundred and twenty school children (aged 7-9 years) residing in Seoul participated in 12 sessions of a taste education program for 3 months. The Korean taste education program was adapted from "Les classes du goût" by J. Puisais and modified to suit a Korean education environment. The study subjected school children to pre- and post-programs on food neophobia and willingness to try novel foods (WTNF), in addition to children's food neophobia in their parents. A total of 101 survey data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0. RESULTS Regarding the effects of taste education, scores of food neophobia significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in the posttest, mean (m) score (4.10 ± 1.19) decreased compared to the pretest (4.39 ± 1.00), and WTNF significantly increased (P < 0.001) in the pretest (m) score (0.48 ± 0.33) compared to the pretest (0.32 ± 0.34). This result indicates verification of the study hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS Food neophobia scale (FNS), an index that measures personal food preference [12], showed a very weak correlation with behavioral willingness to taste novel foods (WTNF). Therefore, it is expected that the two scales measure different things. However, considering that the traits of food neophobia are not easily changed, the taste education program was administered in a remarkably effective manner. PMID:27087907

  11. Relationships between and Changes in Preservice Classroom Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs, Willingness to Integrate Movement, and Perceived Barriers to Movement Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin A.; Erwin, Heather; Parks, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study used an uncontrolled pre-post design in the context of a 16-week comprehensive school physical activity promotion (CSPAP) course to examine relationships between and changes in preservice classroom teachers' (PCTs; N = 103) efficacy beliefs about integrating movement in the academic classroom, willingness to integrate movement, and…

  12. ‘Croque&bouge’: A feasible and acceptable programme for obesity prevention in preschoolers at risk and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Dudley-Martin, Fiona; Kruseman, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To conceptualize and pilot test a programme of three workshops aiming to prevent the development of overweight in susceptible preschool children. Methods: Three workshops were conducted, targeting both parents and children. The curriculum for parents included discussions on feeding responsibilities, healthy eating, taste development, neophobia and physical activity recommendations. Children participated in various play activities with fruits and vegetables and read stories about hunger and satiety feelings. Recruitment was organized through paediatricians and child-care centres. Evaluation of the programme focused on feasibility, adequacy for children’s age, parents’ perception of impact and, for children, change of the ability to recognize and willingness to taste fruits and vegetables. Results: A total of 21 children and one of their parents participated in the programme. The programme was found to be feasible and adequate for the targeted community. Parents reported perceiving a positive impact of the intervention; however, this finding was not statistically significant. The major difficulty was identifying and recruiting families and engaging the parents in a discussion about weight. Conclusions: This short programme aiming to improve parents’ ability to offer healthy environment and promote healthy eating behaviour was feasible and acceptable for families with young children. When developing and implementing such programmes, close collaboration with paediatricians and other health providers should be sought in order to identify and reach children at risk of obesity and their family. PMID:26770769

  13. Involving Parents in a Summer Book Reading Program to Promote Reading Comprehension, Fluency, and Vocabulary in Grade 3 and Grade 5 Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagan, Stephanie; Sénéchal, Monique

    2014-01-01

    In this research, parents and children participated in a comprehensive book reading intervention designed to improve children's literacy. Over eight weeks during the summer, children in the intervention condition were encouraged to read one book weekly and parents were trained to foster reading comprehension. Forty-eight Grades 3 and 5 children…

  14. Buffering Boys and Boosting Girls: The Protective and Promotive Effects of Early Head Start for Children's Expressive Language in the Context of Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallotton, C. D.; Harewood, T.; Ayoub, C. A.; Pan, B.; Mastergeorge, A. M.; Brophy-Herb, H.

    2012-01-01

    Children's characteristics, including gender, influence their development by eliciting differential responses from their environments, and by influencing differential responses to their environments. Parenting-related stress, associated with poverty environments, negatively influences children's language, likely through its impact on parent-child…

  15. Infant Signs as Intervention? Promoting Symbolic Gestures for Preverbal Children in Low-Income Families Supports Responsive Parent-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallotton, Claire D.

    2012-01-01

    Gestures are a natural form of communication between preverbal children and parents which support children's social and language development; however, low-income parents gesture less frequently, disadvantaging their children. In addition to pointing and waving, children are capable of learning many symbolic gestures, known as "infant signs," if…

  16. Handbook of Parenting. Volume 5: Practical Issues in Parenting. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.

    Concerned with practical aspects of meeting children's needs, this volume, the fifth of five on parenting, describes the nuts and bolts of parenting as well as the promotion of positive parenting practices. The volume consists of the following 19 chapters: (1) "The Ethics of Parenting" (Diana Baumrind and Ross A. Thompson; (2) "Parenting and…

  17. A Pilot Study on the Impact of a Home-Based Parenting Intervention: Parents Plus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Ellie; Holland, Sally; Jerzembek, Gabi

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a pilot study undertaken in order to explore the impact of a home-based parenting intervention (Parents Plus), on parents and families. Parents Plus is part of a Welsh Early Years strategy called Flying Start and aims to promote positive parent-child interactions. This article explores the medium-term to long-term impact of…

  18. Handbook of Parenting. Volume 4: Social Conditions and Applied Parenting. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.

    Concerned with social contexts and culture as they apply to parenting, this volume, the fourth of five on parenting, deals specifically with socially defined groups of parents and social conditions that promote variations in parenting. The volume consists of the following 15 chapters: (1) "Ethnic and Minority Parenting" (Cynthia Garcia Coll and…

  19. Parents' Attitude towards Extracurricular Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Chi-chung; Wong, Ngai-ying

    1997-01-01

    Argues that it is important to understand parents' attitudes and perceptions of extracurricular activities to promote their involvement in them. Shows that parents in Hong Kong view extracurricular activities favorably but are more willing to invest their money than their time in promoting them. Makes suggestions for policy formation. (DSK)

  20. The Effectiveness of Parent Education for Incarcerated Parents: An Evaluation of Parenting from Prison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kristina; Gonzalez, Patricia; Romero, Tony; Henry, Kimberly; Cerbana, Christine

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of the Parenting from Prison curriculum which was implemented across Colorado correctional institutions. Parenting from Prison is a skills-based program that aims to strengthen family relationships and promote positive behaviors by increasing parental knowledge about risks, resiliency and developmental assets. A…

  1. Private Middle School Parents' Perspectives Regarding School-Located Immunization Programs (SLIPs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatesh, Sheila R.; Acosta, Amy B.; Middleman, Amy B.

    2013-01-01

    The perspectives of parents of private middle school students regarding the use of school-located immunization programs (SLIPs) are unknown. Parents of private middle school students in a large, urban setting were surveyed "N" = 1,210) regarding their willingness to use SLIPs. Analyses included frequencies and chi-square analyses. Data…

  2. Increasing Acceptance of Behavioral Child Management Techniques: What Do Parents Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pemberton, Joy R.; Borrego, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    Consumers' willingness to accept treatments is an important concern of clinicians and clinical researchers, particularly when treating children. However, few studies have directly asked parents to give reasons for accepting or refusing treatments. In the current study, 82 parents read descriptions of six behavioral child management techniques,…

  3. Parenting by lying

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Gail D.; Luu, Diem H.; Lee, Kang

    2010-01-01

    The present set of studies identifies the phenomenon of `parenting by lying', in which parents lie to their children as a means of influencing their emotional states and behaviour. In Study 1, undergraduates (n = 127) reported that their parents had lied to them while maintaining a concurrent emphasis on the importance of honesty. In Study 2 (n = 127), parents reported lying to their children and considered doing so to be acceptable under some circumstances, even though they also reported teaching their children that lying is unacceptable. As compared to European American parents, Asian American parents tended to hold a more favourable view of lying to children for the purpose of promoting behavioural compliance. PMID:20930948

  4. The Willingness to Change Risky Health Behaviors among Chinese Rural Residents: What We Learned from a Population-Based Esophageal Cancer Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengfei; Zhang, Chanyuan; Cai, Hong; Liu, Fangfang; Liu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Guo, Chuanhai; He, Zhonghu; Ke, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of health interventions can be impaired by low socio-economic status and poor living conditions of the target population. However, the specifics of this problem in rural China are still unclear, and appropriate strategies should be explored. Methods In 2013, we conducted a questionnaire-based investigation among 410 participants from a population-based esophageal cancer cohort study in rural Anyang, China. Information regarding their demographic characteristics, levels of exposure to four health-risk behaviors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, risky dietary behaviors and poor hygiene, as well as willingness to change these behaviors, and data on potential predictors of willingness to change behaviors were collected. Results In this study, 33.3% (23/69), 25.0% (13/52), 60.7% (68/112) and 62.2% (237/381) of respondents reported that they were willing to change smoking, alcohol consumption, risky dietary behaviors and poor hygiene, respectively. Older people had higher exposure levels and less willingness to change these four health-risk behaviors. The levels of these four health-risk behaviors were negatively associated with willingness to change, while faith in people and behavioral change in surrounding people increased willingness to change risky behaviors. Conclusions In behavior-intervention-based health-promotion programs in rural China, the elderly and highly exposed populations should be the most difficult part and community- or household-based intervention would be more efficient. PMID:27575990

  5. Perspective-Taking Increases Willingness to Engage in Intergroup Contact

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cynthia S.; Kenneth, Tai; Ku, Gillian; Galinsky, Adam D.

    2014-01-01

    The current research explored whether perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with stereotyped outgroup members. Across three studies, we find that perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with negatively-stereotyped targets. In Study 1, perspective-takers sat closer to, whereas stereotype suppressors sat further from, a hooligan compared to control participants. In Study 2, individual differences in perspective-taking tendencies predicted individuals' willingness to engage in contact with a hooligan, having effects above and beyond those of empathic concern. Finally, Study 3 demonstrated that perspective-taking's effects on intergroup contact extend to the target's group (i.e., another homeless man), but not to other outgroups (i.e., a man of African descent). Consistent with other perspective-taking research, our findings show that perspective-taking facilitates the creation of social bonds by increasing contact with stereotyped outgroup members. PMID:24465648

  6. Willingness to care for patients with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Välimäki, Maritta; Makkonen, Pekka; Blek-Vehkaluoto, Mari; Mockiene, Vida; Istomina, Natalja; Raid, Ulla; Vänskä, Maj-Lis; Suominen, Tarja

    2008-09-01

    This study aims to describe and compare nurses' willingness to provide care for patients with HIV/AIDS and factors associated with this in three countries. An international cross-sectional survey was conducted among nurses working in medical, surgical and gynaecology units in Finland (n =427), Estonia (n =221) and Lithuania ( n =185) in early 2006. The response rates were 75% (n = 322) in Finland, 54% (n =119) in Estonia and 86% (n = 160) in Lithuania. A modified version of a scale developed in 1994 by Dubbert et al. was applied. Our findings showed a general willingness of the nurse participants to provide care for patients with HIV/AIDS. However, this willingness varied both among and within countries and was also related to specific nursing interventions. The results underline the importance of providing education on ethical issues related to HIV/AIDS care in Europe and tailoring the content of this education to meet nurses' national educational needs. PMID:18687814

  7. Eating green. Consumers' willingness to adopt ecological food consumption behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Christina; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Food consumption is associated with various environmental impacts, and consumers' food choices therefore represent important environmental decisions. In a large-scale survey, we examined consumers' beliefs about ecological food consumption and their willingness to adopt such behaviors. Additionally, we investigated in more detail how different motives and food-related attitudes influenced consumers' willingness to reduce meat consumption and to buy seasonal fruits and vegetables. We found consumers believed avoiding excessive packaging had the strongest impact on the environment, whereas they rated purchasing organic food and reducing meat consumption as least environmentally beneficial. Similarly, respondents appeared to be most unwilling to reduce meat consumption and purchase organic food. Taste and environmental motives influenced consumers' willingness to eat seasonal fruits and vegetables, whereas preparedness to reduce meat consumption was influenced by health and ethical motives. Women and respondents who preferred natural foods were more willing to adopt ecological food consumption patterns. PMID:21896294

  8. ParentSource: A Practice in Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Community-based parenting education programs have a unique role to play in the promotion of infant mental health. In contrast to classes that seek to accelerate child development, the author describes enrichment programs that promote parent-child bonding and healthy social and emotional development. The ParentSource program was developed on the…

  9. Seeing and Being Green? The Effect of Money Priming on Willingness to Perform Sustainable Actions, Social Connectedness, and Prosociality.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, Colin A; Zelenski, John M

    2016-01-01

    This investigation attempted to conceptually replicate/extend research that suggests that reminders of money can inhibit prosociality, promote self-sufficiency, and influence political beliefs. Based on these results, we hypothesized that money primes would decrease willingness to engage in sustainable actions. We also predicted that people would distribute points less prosocially and feel less socially connected when money was primed. Individuals were recruited from an undergraduate participant pool and MTurk. Meta-analytic results across the two samples revealed that money priming did not have a significant impact on willingness to act sustainably, but it did cause participants to distribute points less prosocially and report lower social connectedness than individuals in the control condition. While effects were smaller than those reported in Vohs, Mead, and Goode (2006), this study still offers support for the detrimental impact of reminders of money on interpersonal relations. PMID:25950374

  10. Assessment of the Willingness to Collaborate in Enterprise Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, João; Camarinha-Matos, Luis M.

    The success of a partnership depends fundamentally on the partners' active and vigorous participation in the achievement of the common goals. The commitment to these goals is associated to each partner's attitudes and intentions. These intentions, in turn, are linked to the partner's beliefs concerning the expected outcomes of a collaboration opportunity. This work proposes an approach to assess organizations' willingness to collaborate. This approach follows a behavioral perspective, which is based on the Theory of the Planned Behavior. A tool named Intentions Query Mechanism selects a number of appropriate questions from a knowledge-base, from which the answers allow to estimate the level of an organization's willingness to collaborate.

  11. Attitude and willingness of high school students toward organ donation.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Reza; Sanavi, Suzan; Rajabi, Mohammad-Reza

    2012-09-01

    Public awareness of organ donation fundamentally affects the organ transplantation programs. This study was performed to assess the attitude and willingness of high school adolescents regarding organ donation. The study population consisted of 416 high school girls who were studying in four grades of three educational courses. Data were collected by a questionnaire and included demographic variables and attitude and willingness, which were assessed based on the Likert scale. The SPSS v.16 was used for data analysis. The mean age of the study subjects was 16.26 ± 1.06 years, 31% studied in grade-1, 27% in grade-2 (25% natural sciences, 27% mathematics and 48% humanities), 26% in grade-3 (30% natural sciences, 34% mathematics and 36% humanities) and 16% in pre-university stage (32% natural sciences, 42% mathematics and 26% humanities). The students had a highly positive attitude toward organ donation (mean score 4.2 ± 0.54). The greatest willingness for organ donation was concerning the kidney (88%) and heart (84%), followed by the liver (83.4%), pancreas (79.6%), cornea (67.8%) and skin (51%). Willingness for deceased as well as living organ donation was indicated by 92% and 47%, respectively, of the participants. Organ donation was considered acceptable only to relatives by 5% of the participants when the donors were deceased donors and by 16% of the participants when the donors were living donors; donation to all needy persons from deceased donors was accepted by 87% of the participants and from living donors by 31%. The purpose of donation was stated as lending help to others by 89% and progression of science by 40.2% of the participants. Willingness for organ donation from a deceased relative was declared by 63% of the students. There was significant positive correlation between willingness for organ donation and attitude (P <0.001). In addition, attitude and willingness had positive correlation with educational levels, age and educational courses. Our study

  12. Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCrosse, Ed

    The paper discusses the rationale and guidelines for parent involvement in HCEEP (Handicapped Children's Early Education Program) projects. Ways of assessing parents' needs are reviewed, as are four types of services to meet the identified needs: parent education, direct participation, parent counseling, and parent provided programs. Materials and…

  13. Como Promover el Exito de las Ninas y las Minorias en las Ciencias y en las Matematicas. Para Padres/sobre Padres (How To Promote the Science and Mathematics Achievement of Females and Minorities. For Parents/about Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    Some minority and female students traditionally have not been given the help they need to enroll and succeed in mathematics and science classes. Now, however, various approaches are available to give these students the extra attention they need. Parents can help children develop an interest in science and mathematics by: (1) identifying role…

  14. School-based promotion of cessation support: reach of proactive mailings and acceptability of treatment in smoking parents recruited into cessation support through primary schools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several forms of cessation support have been shown effective in increasing the chance of successful smoking cessation, but cessation support is still underutilized among smokers. Proactive outreach to target audiences may increase use of cessation support. Methods The present study evaluated the efficiency of using study invitation letters distributed through primary schools in recruiting smoking parents into cessation support (quitline support or a self-help brochure). Use and evaluation of cessation support among smoking parents were examined. Results Findings indicate that recruitment of smokers into cessation support remains challenging. Once recruited, cessation support was well received by smoking parents. Of smokers allocated to quitline support, 88% accepted at least one counselling call. The average number of calls taken was high (5.7 out of 7 calls). Of smokers allocated to receive self-help material, 84% read at least some parts of the brochure. Of the intention-to-treat population, 81% and 69% were satisfied with quitline support or self-help material, respectively. Smoking parents were significantly more positive about quitline support compared to self-help material (p<.001). Conclusions Cessation support is well-received and well-used among smoking parents recruited through primary schools. Future studies need to examine factors that influence the response to offers of cessation support in samples of nonvolunteer smokers. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register NTR2707 PMID:23617569

  15. An Empirically Derived Taxonomy of Factors Affecting Physicians' Willingness to Disclose Medical Errors

    PubMed Central

    Kaldjian, Lauris C; Jones, Elizabeth W; Rosenthal, Gary E; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Hillis, Stephen L

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Physician disclosure of medical errors to institutions, patients, and colleagues is important for patient safety, patient care, and professional education. However, the variables that may facilitate or impede disclosure are diverse and lack conceptual organization. OBJECTIVE To develop an empirically derived, comprehensive taxonomy of factors that affects voluntary disclosure of errors by physicians. DESIGN A mixed-methods study using qualitative data collection (structured literature search and exploratory focus groups), quantitative data transformation (sorting and hierarchical cluster analysis), and validation procedures (confirmatory focus groups and expert review). RESULTS Full-text review of 316 articles identified 91 impeding or facilitating factors affecting physicians' willingness to disclose errors. Exploratory focus groups identified an additional 27 factors. Sorting and hierarchical cluster analysis organized factors into 8 domains. Confirmatory focus groups and expert review relocated 6 factors, removed 2 factors, and modified 4 domain names. The final taxonomy contained 4 domains of facilitating factors (responsibility to patient, responsibility to self, responsibility to profession, responsibility to community), and 4 domains of impeding factors (attitudinal barriers, uncertainties, helplessness, fears and anxieties). CONCLUSIONS A taxonomy of facilitating and impeding factors provides a conceptual framework for a complex field of variables that affects physicians' willingness to disclose errors to institutions, patients, and colleagues. This taxonomy can be used to guide the design of studies to measure the impact of different factors on disclosure, to assist in the design of error-reporting systems, and to inform educational interventions to promote the disclosure of errors to patients. PMID:16918739

  16. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PMID:24798817

  17. Development and Validation of an Instructional Willingness to Communicate Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Mohammad; Nourzadeh, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    The current study was undertaken with the purpose of developing and validating a willingness to communicate (WTC) questionnaire for instructional language teaching and learning contexts. Six instructional WTC (IWTC) components were identified after (1) undertaking a comprehensive review of the literature on second language (L2) WTC and other…

  18. A Sociocognitive Perspective on Second Language Classroom Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yiqian

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a multiple case study that investigated the dynamic and situated nature of learners' willingness to communicate (WTC) in second language (L2) classrooms. Framed within a sociocognitive perspective on L2 learning which draws together social, environmental, and individual factors, this study traced WTC among six learners…

  19. Willingness to Communicate in English among Iranian EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliakbari, Mohammad; Kamangar, Mohsen; Khany, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written on the determinants that can expedite or hinder learners' willingness to communicate in second and foreign language contexts. Though the literature is abundant with studies on many of these variables, little if any can be found to have targeted EFL students of private institutes in Iran. An effort was made in this study to…

  20. Private Schools and the Willingness to Pay for Public Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasington, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Households pay a premium to live in houses assigned to high quality public schools, and the housing market yields information about the demand for public school quality. The current study estimates a two-stage house price hedonic emphasizing the role that private schools play in the willingness to pay for public school quality. The elasticity of…

  1. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  2. Investigating driver willingness to drive through flooded waterways.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Marti; Hamilton, Kyra

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 40% of all drowning deaths involve a motor vehicle. Regardless of its significance as a cause of flood-related mortality, there is continued prevalence of driving through flooded waterways in Australia and worldwide. We aimed to understand the motivational determinates of driving through flooded waterways in low and high-risk scenarios by utilizing an augmented theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with behavioural willingness as the outcome variable as well as the influence of additional predictors; namely perceived risk and past behaviour. Participants (n=174; Mage=27.43, SD=10.76) answered standard TPB-based questions in regards to attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control (PBC), as well as additional variables of perceived risk (i.e., perceived susceptibility and perceived severity) and past behaviour. Support was found for the augmented TPB as attitude, subjective norm, and PBC predicted behavioural willingness. Support was also found for perceived severity in the high-risk but not the low-risk scenario. No support was found for perceived susceptibility. Past behaviour emerged as a significant predictor of willingness in the low and high-risk scenario. The findings provide support for an augmented TPB in understanding individuals' willingness to drive through flooded waterways, suggesting that a multi-strategy approach may be critical in attempts to reduce the incidence of such risky driving behaviour. PMID:25128902

  3. An Empirical Study of Student Willingness to Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Kaylee; Boggs, David; Borozan, Anci

    2012-01-01

    Companies wish for universities to provide business students with international education and awareness. Short- and long-term study-abroad programs are an effective method by which this is accomplished, but relatively few American students study abroad. In response to these facts, this study develops hypotheses that predict student willingness to…

  4. Willingness of Medical Students for Hepatitis B & C Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Mahsud, Muhammad Amin Jan; Hussain, Javed; Khan, Muhammad Hussain; Khan, Habibullah; Noman, Nargis; Rabi, Fazle, Din, Siraj ud

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health care workers including medical students are vulnerable to hepatitis B & C virus infections. The objective of this study was to determine the level of willingness for screening among medical students. Methodology: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at Gomal Medical College, Dera Ismail Khan from 1st April 2010 to 15 June…

  5. Multiple Motivational Goals, Values, and Willingness to Cheat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Ravinder

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental importance of motives, values and goals to academic behaviour has been noted by many social theorists. This paper reports the results of a survey investigation on the relationship of gender, professional career aspirations and the combined influence of materialism, religiosity, and achievement goals on students' willingness to…

  6. Factors Affecting Willingness to Communicate in a Spanish University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahuerta, Ana Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relationships among the variables believed to affect Spanish undergraduates' willingness to communicate in English. The participants were 195 students majoring in several degrees at the University of Oviedo. A questionnaire and a standardized English Test were administered to the students in February-March 2013.…

  7. Willingness to Communicate in English among Saudi Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turjoman, Mona Obaid Alrahman Ashik

    2016-01-01

    Since the English Language teaching system differs from public schools to private ones, it is presumed that this would have a great impact of students' willingness to communicate in English in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effect of private and public school education on WTC in English among Saudi Female…

  8. Exploring Dynamism in Willingness to Communicate: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yiqian Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines dynamism in students' situational willingness to communicate (WTC) within a second language classroom. This longitudinal study involved twelve English as a Second Language (ESL) participants who enrolled in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programme in New Zealand for five months. Based on data from classroom…

  9. Smokers' Willingness to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Creighton, Stephanie; Vogel, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of a secondhand smoke media campaign on adult smokers' willingness to protect children from secondhand smoke. Methods: Following a series of community awareness ads, a random sample of 390 adult smokers was surveyed via telephone regarding their perceptions of secondhand smoke. Results: Seeing or hearing…

  10. The Prediction of University Students' Willingness to Seek Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkan, Serdar; Ozbay, Yasar; Cihangir-Cankaya, Zeynep; Terzi, Serife

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the variables that qualify the help seeking behavior (willingness to seek counseling) of Turkish university students. A total of 5829 college students (2974 females, 2841 males, 14 unknown) from eleven universities in Turkey have participated in the study. Personal Form, Self Concealment Scale, Willingness…

  11. Willingness to Seek Help as a Function of Self-Disclosure and Problem Severity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinson, Janise A.; Swanson, Jane L.

    1993-01-01

    Examined effects of problem severity, amount of self-disclosure, and self-disclosure flexibility on willingness to seek help for problem. Findings from 101 college students indicated that factors that predicted greatest amount of variance in willingness to seek help were interaction of problem severity with willingness to self-disclose to…

  12. Effectiveness of a Universal Parental Support Programme to Promote Healthy Dietary Habits and Physical Activity and to Prevent Overweight and Obesity in 6-Year-Old Children: The Healthy School Start Study, a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, Gisela; Sundblom, Elinor; Norman, Åsa; Bohman, Benjamin; Hagberg, Jan; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial was carried out in areas with low to medium socio-economic status. Participants were six-year-old children (n = 243) and their parents. Fourteen pre-school classes were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 7) and control groups (n = 7). The intervention lasted for 6 months and included: 1) Health information for parents, 2) Motivational Interviewing with parents and 3) Teacher-led classroom activities with children. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, dietary and physical activity habits and parental self-efficacy through a questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured and BMI standard deviation score was calculated. Measurements were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up. Group differences were examined using analysis of covariance and Poisson regression, adjusted for gender and baseline values. Results There was no significant intervention effect in the primary outcome physical activity. Sub-group analyses showed a significant gender-group interaction in total physical activity (TPA), with girls in the intervention group demonstrating higher TPA during weekends (p = 0.04), as well as in sedentary time, with boys showing more sedentary time in the intervention group (p = 0.03). There was a significantly higher vegetable intake (0.26 servings) in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.003). At follow-up, sub-group analyses showed a sustained effect for boys. The intervention did not affect the prevalence of overweight or obesity. Conclusions It is possible to influence vegetable intake in children and girls’ physical activity through a parental support programme. The programme needs to be intensified in order to increase effectiveness and sustain the

  13. An extension of the Theory of Planned Behavior to predict willingness to pay for the conservation of an urban park.

    PubMed

    López-Mosquera, Natalia; García, Teresa; Barrena, Ramo

    2014-03-15

    This paper relates the concept of moral obligation and the components of the Theory of Planned Behavior to determine their influence on the willingness to pay of visitors for park conservation. The sample consists of 190 visitors to an urban Spanish park. The mean willingness to pay estimated was 12.67€ per year. The results also indicated that moral norm was the major factor in predicting behavioral intention, followed by attitudes. The new relations established between the components of the Theory of Planned Behavior show that social norms significantly determine the attitudes, moral norms and perceived behavioral control of individuals. The proportion of explained variance shows that the inclusion of moral norms improves the explanatory power of the original model of the Theory of Planned Behavior (32-40%). Community-based social marketing and local campaigns are the main strategies that should be followed by land managers with the objective of promoting responsible, pro-environmental attitudes as well as a greater willingness to pay for this type of goods. PMID:24525079

  14. Meat, beyond the plate. Data-driven hypotheses for understanding consumer willingness to adopt a more plant-based diet.

    PubMed

    Graça, João; Oliveira, Abílio; Calheiros, Maria Manuela

    2015-07-01

    A shift towards reduced meat consumption and a more plant-based diet is endorsed to promote sustainability, improve public health, and minimize animal suffering. However, large segments of consumers do not seem willing to make such transition. While it may take a profound societal change to achieve significant progresses on this regard, there have been limited attempts to understand the psychosocial processes that may hinder or facilitate this shift. This study provides an in-depth exploration of how consumer representations of meat, the impact of meat, and rationales for changing or not habits relate with willingness to adopt a more plant-based diet. Multiple Correspondence Analysis was employed to examine participant responses (N = 410) to a set of open-ended questions, free word association tasks and closed questions. Three clusters with two hallmarks each were identified: (1) a pattern of disgust towards meat coupled with moral internalization; (2) a pattern of low affective connection towards meat and willingness to change habits; and (3) a pattern of attachment to meat and unwillingness to change habits. The findings raise two main propositions. The first is that an affective connection towards meat relates to the perception of the impacts of meat and to willingness to change consumption habits. The second proposition is that a set of rationales resembling moral disengagement mechanisms (e.g., pro-meat justifications; self-exonerations) arise when some consumers contemplate the consequences of meat production and consumption, and the possibility of changing habits. PMID:25747854

  15. Supporting Head Start Parents: Impact of a Text Message Intervention on Parent-Child Activity Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Lisa B.; Lauricella, Alexis R.; Hanson, Ann; Raden, Anthony; Wartella, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Head Start emphasises parent engagement as a critical strategy in promoting children's long-term learning. Parents can support children's positive development by engaging them in stimulating activities. The following study assessed whether a service that delivered parenting tips via text message could prompt parents of children enrolled in Head…

  16. Predicting Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Intentions of College-Aged Males: An Examination of Parents' and Son's Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Mira L.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Krieger, Janice L.; Roberto, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine male students' and their parents' human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine communication in relation to males' willingness to discuss the vaccine with their health care provider and the likelihood of being vaccinated. Participants: Dyads (n = 111) of students and parents. Methods: Participants completed a HPV vaccine survey based…

  17. Barriers to and facilitators of nurse-parent interaction intended to promote healthy weight gain and prevent childhood obesity at Swedish child health centers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity in preschool children have increased worldwide in the past two to three decades. Child Health Centers provide a key setting for monitoring growth in preschool children and preventing childhood obesity. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 nurses working at Child Health Centers in southwest Sweden in 2011 and 2012. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim and imported to QSR N’Vivo 9 software. Data were analyzed deductively according to predefined themes using content analysis. Results Findings resulted in 332 codes, 16 subthemes and six main themes. The subthemes identified and described barriers and facilitators for the prevention of childhood obesity at Child Health Centers. Main themes included assessment of child’s weight status, the initiative, a sensitive topic, parental responses, actions and lifestyle patterns. Although a body mass index (BMI) chart facilitated greater recognition of a child’s deviant weight status than the traditional weight-for-height chart, nurses used it inconsistently. Obesity was a sensitive topic. For the most part, nurses initiated discussions of a child’s overweight or obesity. Conclusion CHCs in Sweden provide a favorable opportunity to prevent childhood obesity because of a systematic organization, which by default conducts growth measurements at all health visits. The BMI chart yields greater recognition of overweight and obesity in children and facilitates prevention of obesity. In addition, visualization and explanation of the BMI chart helps nurses as they communicate with parents about a child’s weight status. On the other hand, inconsistent use and lack of quality assurance regarding the recommended BMI chart was a barrier to prevention, possibly delaying identification of overweight or obesity. Other barriers included emotional difficulties in raising the issue of obesity because it was perceived as a sensitive topic. Some parents deliberately

  18. Parenting for Literacy Development and Educational Success: An Examination of the Parent Education Profile. Research Brief #3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson

    2008-01-01

    The Parent Education Profile (PEP) is an instrument that rates parents' support for children's literacy development. This study examined how the PEP portrays the ideal parent, its assumptions about parenting and education, and the values and ideals it promotes. In sum, many aspects of the PEP evaluate parents by the mainstream (White,…

  19. Pathos & Ethos: Emotions and Willingness to Pay for Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarti, Amitav; Ortoleva, Pietro; Gaskell, George; Ivchenko, Andriy; Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Mureddu, Francesco; Rudisill, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    In this article we use data from a multi-country Randomized Control Trial study on the effect of anti-tobacco pictorial warnings on an individual’s emotions and behavior. By exploiting the exogenous variations of images as an instrument, we are able to identify the effect of emotional responses. We use a range of outcome variables, from cognitive (risk perception and depth of processing) to behavioural (willingness to buy and willingness to pay). Our findings suggest that the odds of buying a tobacco product can be reduced by 80% if the negative affect elicited by the images increases by one standard deviation. More importantly from a public policy perspective, not all emotions behave alike, as eliciting shame, anger, or distress proves more effective in reducing smoking than fear and disgust. JEL Classification C26, C99, D03, I18 PsycINFO classification 2360; 3920 PMID:26485272

  20. Do parents of obese children use ineffective parenting strategies?

    PubMed

    Morawska, Alina; West, Felicity

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown mixed findings about the relationship between parenting style and child lifestyle outcomes. This paper describes a cross-sectional study that aimed to clarify the relationship between ineffective parenting and childhood obesity by using multiple measures of child and family functioning. Sixty-two families with an obese child (aged four to 11 years) were matched with 62 families with a healthy weight child on key sociodemographic variables. Significant differences were found on several measures, including general parenting style, domain-specific parenting practices, and parenting self-efficacy (d = .53 to 1.96). Parents of obese children were more likely to use permissive and coercive discipline techniques, and to lack confidence in managing children's lifestyle behaviour. In contrast, parents of healthy weight children were more likely to implement specific strategies for promoting a healthy lifestyle. PMID:23711490

  1. Willingness to accept risk in the treatment of rheumatic disease.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, B J; Elswood, J; Calin, A

    1990-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess patients willingness to accept mortal risk in the drug treatment of chronic rheumatic disease. DESIGN--A non-random sample of consecutive patients were interviewed with a standardised survey instrument. SETTING--The study took place in the Royal National Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Bath, UK. PATIENTS--100 consecutive in- and out-patients aged 65 or less were interviewed, 50 with rheumatoid arthritis and 50 with ankylosing spondylitis. Mean age was 48 years with mean disease duration of 14 years. The rheumatoid arthritis group was mainly female (84%), v 26% in the ankylosing spondylitis group. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Risk preferences were elicited using the method of standard gamble in the context of a hypothetical new drug. Patients indicated the maximum percentage probability of mortality they regarded as acceptable to achieve four different levels of benefit: total cure (20.7%), relief of pain (16.9%), relief of stiffness (13.1%), return to normal functioning (14.5%). Rheumatoid arthritis patients displayed a higher (p less than 0.05) willingness to accept risk than ankylosing spondylitis patients for all gambles except relief of stiffness. Analysis of variance indicated that willingness to accept risk decreases with the duration of disease and increases with reductions in self assessed health status. CONCLUSIONS--Evaluative methods such as standard gamble can elicit useful risk-benefit preference data from patients to assist those who manage clinical risks. PMID:2273365

  2. Confidence in government and vaccination willingness in the USA.

    PubMed

    Mesch, Gustavo S; Schwirian, Kent P

    2015-06-01

    The most recent internationally widespread disease outbreak occurred during the flu season of 2009 and 2010. On April 2009, the first cases of influenza A (H1N1) (Popularly called, Swine Flu) were confirmed in the USA and UK following a novel virus that was first identified in Mexico. As the virus spread rapidly, the risk of morbidity and mortality increased in several countries. In this paper, we rely on the social cognitive theory of risk to assess the willingness of the US public to comply with vaccination and reduce the risk of sickness and death from the flu. We conduct a secondary data analysis of the Pew Research for the People and Press October 2009 and investigate the factors associated with willingness to take the swine flu vaccine (n = 1000). The findings indicate that the decision to take the swine flu vaccination was highly polarized across partisan lines. Controlling for education, income and demographic factors, the likelihood of taking the vaccine was associated with party identification. Individuals that identified themselves as Democrats were more likely to be willing to take the swine vaccine than individuals that identify themselves as Republicans and Independents. Confidence in the ability of the government to deal with the swine flu crisis seems to explain party identification differences in the willingness to take the vaccine. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25369794

  3. Willingness to pay for electricity from renewable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B.C.; Houston, A.H.

    1996-09-01

    National polls reveal widespread public preference and willingness to pay more for renewables. ``Green pricing`` programs attempt to capitalize on these preferences and on an expressed willingness to pay more for environmental protection. This report explores the utility option of green pricing as a method of aggregating public preferences for renewables. It summarizes national data on public preferences for renewables and willingness to pay (WTP) for electricity from renewable energy sources; examines utility market studies on WTP for renewables and green-pricing program features; critiques utility market research on green pricing; and discusses experiences with selected green-pricing programs. The report draws inferences for program design and future research. Given the limited experiences with the programs so far, the evidence suggests that programs in which customers pay a monthly premium for a specific renewable electricity product elicit a higher monthly financial commitment per customer than programs asking for contributions to unspecified future actions involving renewables. The experience with green-pricing programs is summarized and factors likely to affect customer participation are identified.

  4. Parental schooling & children's health.

    PubMed Central

    Zill, N

    1996-01-01

    Nearly one in every four children in the United States is born to a mother who has not finished high school, and more than one in eight is reared by such a mother during the critical preschool period. Large-scale studies show that the health and welfare of children are linked to the education level of their parents, with parent education often being a stronger predictor of child well-being than family income, single parenthood, or family size. Higher parent education levels make it more likely that children will receive adequate medical care and that their daily environments will be protected and responsive to their needs. Average parent education levels have risen over the last 30 years, but progress has slowed because of high rates of immigration from countries with lower education standards and the tendency of more advantaged women to have children later than less advantaged women. The education system and community organizations must provide young people who are not doing well in school with positive alternatives to low- education, high-risk parenthood. Health care providers should be proactive, teaching parents with few resources how best to promote their children's growth and development. The changing global economy makes it more important than ever that current and future generations of children are reared by parents who have adequate skills and training to be competent members of society and effective and responsible parents. Images p34-a p35-a p36-a p39-a p41-a PMID:8610189

  5. Developing Creativity and Promoting Social Harmony: The Relationship between Government, School and Parents' Perceptions of Children's Creativity in Macao-SAR in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vong, Keang-Ieng

    2008-01-01

    The promotion of creativity in young children has been included in the agenda of the educational authorities in mainland China since 2001. Since then, attempts to implement this policy have appeared in different forms. The educational bureaux take measures by publishing documents and guidelines on the subject. While some kindergartens endeavour to…

  6. Characterizing hospital workers' willingness to report to duty in an influenza pandemic through threat- and efficacy-based assessment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    hospital-based communication and training strategies to boost employees' response willingness, including promoting pre-event plans for home-based dependents; ensuring adequate supplies of personal protective equipment, vaccines and antiviral drugs for all hospital employees; and establishing a subjective norm of awareness and preparedness. PMID:20659340

  7. Building Bridges between Refugee Parents and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rah, Yeonjai; Choi, Shangmin; Nguyen, Thu Suong Thi

    2009-01-01

    This interview study examines the way practitioners in Wisconsin public schools created conditions to facilitate refugee parent involvement. Practitioners' perceptions of barriers to refugee parents' school involvement are explored as well as the strategies used to promote meaningful parent involvement. Interviewees included nine school…

  8. Parenting Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2005-01-01

    Parenting is a subject about which people typically hold strong opinions, but about which too little solid information or considered reflection exists. And clearly critical questions about parenting abound. Moreover, the family generally, and parenting specifically, are today in a greater state of flux, question, and re-definition than perhaps…

  9. Parents Helping Parents: Mutual Parenting Network Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkinson, Charles H.; Redmond, Robert F.

    Guidelines for mutual parenting are provided in this handbook. "Mutual parenting" means that everyone in the community shares the responsibility for the safety and well-being of the community's youngsters. Several topics are discussed in the 15 brief chapters of the handbook. Chapters 1 through 3 focus on the formation of a mutual parenting…

  10. Study of Patients’ Willingness to Pay for a Cure of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Ying, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Koyin; Hsieh, Ya-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is one of the fastest growing causes of death worldwide. However, few studies, if any, have been conducted that have investigated patient profiles in Asia. This paper analyzes patient willingness to pay (WTP) as a function of patient disease severity, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and smoking behavior in Taiwan. Study Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using in-person interviews with COPD patients. A hypothetical scenario was designed and presented to ascertain each subject’s willingness to pay (WTP) for a cure for COPD. Methods: A survey of subjects with COPD was performed in Taiwan. The contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed to measure patient financial burden, which was analyzed along with covariates that included various types of health-related quality of life (HRQL), severity level, and demographic background. Multivariate regression and simulation methods were employed for analysis. Results: A total of 142 subjects were interviewed, with an average annual WTP of approximately $1422 USD (or 42,662.37 NTD, New Taiwan Dollars). The annual WTP for patients 55 years of age or younger, $5709.06, was the highest and equivalent to approximately one-third of Taiwan average annual personal income or quadruple the spending amount of the Taiwan National Bureau of Health Insurance (NBHI) for each COPD patient. Current cigarette smokers were willing to pay a substantially higher amount than former smokers and nonsmokers, which reflects a psychological desire for redemption in COPD patients. Conclusions: The results of this study provide directions for the relevant authorities regarding the alleviation of suffering as a result of COPD. Appropriate health promotion measures, such as measures to reduce tobacco usage, early diagnosis, and active treatment, may be necessary to contain the escalating costs related to COPD and to prevent this epidemic from worsening. PMID:26938547

  11. Conventional and Unconventional Treatments for Stress among Methadone-Maintained Patients: Treatment Willingness and Perceived Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Declan T.; Beitel, Mark; Breuer, Timothy; Cutter, Christopher J.; Savant, Jonathan; Schottenfeld, Richard S.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed 150 methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program patients about willingness to use, and perceived efficacy of, conventional and unconventional nonpharmacological stress-related treatments. Although levels of treatment willingness and perceived efficacy for both conventional and unconventional treatments were high, ratings for conventional interventions were, on average, significantly higher than those for unconventional ones. Dimensions of psychiatric distress—but not demographic or MMT characteristics—predicted treatment willingness for conventional therapies and treatment willingness and perceived efficacy for unconventional therapies. These findings are likely to have implications for resource and program planning in MMT programs. PMID:21314756

  12. Awareness of Religious Leaders’ Fatwa and Willingness to Donate Organ

    PubMed Central

    Afzal Aghaee, M.; Dehghani, M.; Sadeghi, M.; Khaleghi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is believed that religious leaders’ positive attitude towards organ donation can be an effective factor in Muslims’ inclination to donate organs. Objective: To assess the knowledge of freshmen students in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences about religious leaders’ fatwa on organ donation and its effect on their willingness to donate organs. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 on 400 freshmen of various medical disciplines, selected using a simple random sampling in Mashhad, Iran. Data were collected by a valid and reliable researcher-made questionnaire. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 41.5% of the students were aware of religious authorities’ views on organ donation and 55.6% were willing to donate organs. Participants’ main reasons for lack of willingness to donate organs included the fear of organ donation before the brain death is confirmed (52%), unwillingness to disfigure their body (51%), and belief in the burial of organs (50%). The willingness to organ donation for students who were aware of religious leaders opinion was more than twice more than those who were not (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.75–4.52). Also, female gender, the Shia religion and awareness of the correct definition of brain death were associated factors affecting the desire to donate organs, although their effects were not statistically significant on regression model. Conclusion: A considerable proportion of students were not aware of the religious leaders’ fatwa on organ donation. The most important factor for the desire to donate organs was the awareness of religious leaders’ fatwa. Therefore, it seems necessary that religious leaders’ fatwa be known to all by appropriate methods. PMID:26576261

  13. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline. PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. Methods We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. Results We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Conclusions Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors. PMID:22029874

  14. A new approach for willingness test in biometric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Du, Yingzi; Zhou, Zhi

    2011-06-01

    Biometrics identifies/verifies a person using his/her physiological or behavioral characteristics. It is becoming an important ally for law enforcement and homeland security. However, there are some safety and privacy concerns: biometric based systems can be accessed when users are under threat, reluctant or even unconscious states. In this paper, we introduce a new method which can identify a person and detect his/her willingness. Our experimental results show that the new approach can enhance the security by checking the consent signature while achieving very high recognition accuracy.

  15. The National PTA's National Standards for Parent/Family Involvement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Cara

    Parent involvement in education, focusing on the National Standards for Parent/Family Involvement Programs is discussed. The standards emphasize the importance of communication between home and school; promoting and supporting parenting skills; the parent's role in student learning; parents as volunteers; parents as full partners in decision…

  16. The Worksite Health Promotion Capacity Instrument (WHPCI): development, validation and approaches for determining companies' levels of health promotion capacity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Worksite Health Promotion Capacity Instrument (WHPCI) was developed to assess two key factors for effective worksite health promotion: collective willingness and the systematic implementation of health promotion activities in companies. This study evaluates the diagnostic qualities of the WHPCI based on its subscales Health Promotion Willingness and Health Promotion Management, which can be used to place companies into four different categories based on their level of health promotion capacity. Methods Psychometric evaluation was conducted using exploratory factor and reliability analyses with data taken from a random sample of managers from n = 522 German information and communication technology (ICT) companies. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to determine further diagnostic qualities of the instrument and to establish the cut-off scores used to determine each company's level of health promotion capacity. Results The instrument's subscales, Health Promotion Willingness and Health Promotion Management, are based on one-dimensional constructs, each with very good reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.83/0.91). ROC analyses demonstrated satisfactory diagnostic accuracy with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.76 (SE = 0.021; 95% CI 0.72-0.80) for the Health Promotion Willingness scale and 0.81 (SE = 0.021; 95% CI 0.77-0.86) for the Health Promotion Management scale. A cut-off score with good sensitivity (71%/76%) and specificity (69%/75%) was determined for each scale. Both scales were found to have good predictive power and exhibited good efficiency. Conclusions Our findings indicate preliminary evidence for the validity and reliability of both subscales of the WHPCI. The goodness of each cut-off score suggests that the scales are appropriate for determining companies' levels of health promotion capacity. Support in implementing (systematic) worksite health promotion can then be tailored to each company's needs based on

  17. Norms about Nonmarital Pregnancy and Willingness to Provide Resources to Unwed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    Contested social norms underlie public concern about adults' and teenagers' nonmarital pregnancy. The original, vignette-based National Pregnancy Norms Survey (N = 812) measures these norms and related sanctions. Descriptive analyses report embarrassment at the prospect of a nonmarital pregnancy by age and gender of hypothetical prospective…

  18. Parents Pleased With Child Care Options and Quality. Research Brief, Volume 96, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A recent survey of 430 parents in southeastern Wisconsin finds the majority are satisfied with the quality of their child care arrangements and their options for child care. Most say they would not change anything about their child care arrangement if they had the chance, and nearly two-thirds report a willingness to pay more for their current…

  19. Shared Experiences, Unique Realities: Formerly Married Mothers' and Fathers' Perceptions of Parenting and Custody after Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden-Derdich, Debra A.; Leonard, Stacie A.

    2002-01-01

    Using a symbolic interactionism framework, this study examined the relationship between the perceptual differences relating to parenting and custody and coparental conflict. For both mothers and fathers, perceptual divergence regarding fathers' child-rearing skills and perceptual divergence regarding mothers' willingness to be accommodating…

  20. A Spread Willingness Computing-Based Information Dissemination Model

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhiming; Zhang, Shukui

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs a kind of spread willingness computing based on information dissemination model for social network. The model takes into account the impact of node degree and dissemination mechanism, combined with the complex network theory and dynamics of infectious diseases, and further establishes the dynamical evolution equations. Equations characterize the evolutionary relationship between different types of nodes with time. The spread willingness computing contains three factors which have impact on user's spread behavior: strength of the relationship between the nodes, views identity, and frequency of contact. Simulation results show that different degrees of nodes show the same trend in the network, and even if the degree of node is very small, there is likelihood of a large area of information dissemination. The weaker the relationship between nodes, the higher probability of views selection and the higher the frequency of contact with information so that information spreads rapidly and leads to a wide range of dissemination. As the dissemination probability and immune probability change, the speed of information dissemination is also changing accordingly. The studies meet social networking features and can help to master the behavior of users and understand and analyze characteristics of information dissemination in social network. PMID:25110738

  1. Parenting and Career Development. ERIC Digest No. 214.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Research indicates that parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-child interaction influence career development. The authoritative parenting style is associated with self-confidence, persistence, social competence, academic success, and psychosocial development; parents provide a warm family climate, set standards, and promote independence…

  2. Willingness to Communicate in English: A Microsystem Model in the Iranian EFL Classroom Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khajavy, Gholam Hassan; Ghonsooly, Behzad; Fatemi, Azar Hosseini; Choi, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined willingness to communicate (WTC) in English among Iranian EFL learners in the classroom context. For this purpose, a second language willingness to communicate (L2WTC) model based on WTC theory (MacIntyre, Clément, Dörnyei, and Noels, 1998) and empirical studies was proposed and tested using structural equation modeling (SEM).…

  3. Relationship between Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Their Willingness to Implement Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerit, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationships between classroom teachers' self-efficacy and their willingness to implement curriculum reform. The sample of this study included 255 classroom teachers. The data in this study were collected using the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale and the Teachers' Willingness to…

  4. Clients' Willingness to Incorporate Religion or Spirituality in Counseling: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diallo, Abdoulaye

    2013-01-01

    A total of 84 individuals with addiction issues (e.g., drugs, sex, weight, food, and codependency) were asked about their willingness to incorporate religion or spirituality in their counseling. These respondents expressed willingness to deal with religion or spirituality in counseling if the counselor was knowledgeable about their religion or…

  5. Predicting Willingness to Engage in Unsafe Sex and Intention to Perform Sexual Protective Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myklestad, Ingri; Rise, Jostein

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the sociocognitive processes contributing to intention to use contraception and willingness to engage in unsafe sex, using extended versions of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the Prototype/Willingness model (Gibbons & Gerrard, 1995, 1997). Data were obtained from a questionnaire delivered to all the pupils in ninth…

  6. Willingness to Communicate in English as a Second Language: A Case Study of Pakistani Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukhari, Syeda Farzana; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Khan, Salman Ali

    2015-01-01

    Willingness to communicate (WTC) construct plays an important role in second language (L2) teaching and learning. Almost any second language learner is likely to respond to a direct question, but many will not continue or initiate communication. The present study investigates Pakistani undergraduate students' perception of their willingness to…

  7. Willingness of Graduate Students in Rehabilitation Counseling to Discuss Sexuality with Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juergens, Maria Helena; Smedema, Susan Miller; Berven, Norman L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a greater understanding of the willingness of graduate students in rehabilitation counseling to discuss sexuality with clients. This was done by testing a model of factors predicted to influence the willingness of rehabilitation counseling master's students to discuss sexuality with clients, using path…

  8. Reassessing Parent Involvement: Involving Language Minority Parents in School Work at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel-White, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    Parental involvement has been promoted by politicians and educators as the cure all for academic ills in the American educational system. Programs have been funded and structured to involve all parents in schools in ways valued by middle class parents to the exclusion of language minority families, their language, and their culture. These middle…

  9. Factors Affecting Willingness to Use Hospice in Racially/Ethnically Diverse Older Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Park, Nan Sook; Jang, Yuri; Ko, Jung Eun; Chiriboga, David A

    2016-09-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities tend to underutilize hospice services. Guided by Andersen behavioral health model, the purpose of this study was to explore the predictors of the willingness to use hospice services in racially/ethnically diverse older men and women. Data were drawn from the Survey of Older Floridians: 504 non-Hispanic whites, 360 African Americans, 328 Cuban Americans, and 241 non-Cuban Hispanics. In each group, logistic regression models of the willingness to use hospice were estimated. A greater likelihood of willingness was observed among younger non-Hispanic whites and among African Americans with fewer functional disabilities. In non-Cuban Hispanics, English proficiency increased the willingness by 3.1 times. Findings of the study identified group-specific factors contributing to the willingness to use hospice services and hold implications for tailored intervention programs. PMID:26071499

  10. On consumers' attitudes and willingness to pay for improved drinking water quality and infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanellari, Eftila; Bosch, Darrell; Boyle, Kevin; Mykerezi, Elton

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of consumers' willingness to pay for improvement programs for three drinking water issues: water quality, pinhole leaks in home plumbing infrastructure, and aging public infrastructure. The research is based on a mail survey of consumers in Northern Virginia and the Maryland suburbs of Washington, D. C. The analysis focuses on the relationship between information, risk perceptions, and willingness to pay. An alternative specific conditional logit model is used to model consumers' willingness to pay for improvements. Results indicate that the willingness to pay for any of the programs is negatively affected by the cost of the proposed improvement. Consumers' risk perceptions, the external information provided in the survey, and whether they read the annual report from their water utility affect consumers' willingness to pay for improvement programs.

  11. Valuing Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Eugenia Proctor

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a young faculty member commented that e-mail and inexpensive long distance rates were hampering her first-year students' development by making it too easy for them to stay in touch with their parents. Similarly, Judith Shapiro, president of Barnard College, argued in her August 22, 2002, New York Times op-ed piece, "Keeping Parents Off…

  12. Leadership Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes how three principles of leadership presented by Heifetz (1994) in "Leadership Without Easy Answers" can be translated into the leadership parenting of young children. Focuses on distinguishing between child-rearing issues that require parents to act as trainers versus those demanding a problem-solving role, on responding to children's…

  13. Parents' Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, George C.

    A psychologist discusses efforts at the Boston Center for Blind Children to help parents adjust to the demands of their multiply-handicapped, visually-impaired children. The following programs are found to be helpful: an infant home visiting program (see EC 062 470)in which parents develop their role through participating in an individualized…

  14. Parent Express.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Elise, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Intended for use by parents of infants and toddlers, this series of 27 8-page month-by-month newsletters provides research-based information on infant and child development and care from 0 to 36 months. Topics in the series for infants include: becoming a parent; getting ready for child birth; the newborn child; and characteristics of the child at…

  15. Project CAPER (Children and Parents Enjoy Reading): A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wepner, Shelley B.; Caccavale, Philip P.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a school-home partnership for encouraging parents to read along with their children to promote reading as a part of children's everyday habits. Finds that using parents to model this behavior enhanced students' attitude toward reading. (MG)

  16. Why Parents Matter!: The Conceptual Basis for a Community-Based HIV Prevention Program for the Parents of African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittus, Patricia; Miller, Kim S.; Kotchick, Beth A.; Forehand, Rex

    2004-01-01

    The Parents Matter! Program (PMP) is a community-based family intervention designed to promote positive parenting and effective parent-child communication about sexuality and sexual risk reduction. Its ultimate goal is to reduce sexual risk behavior among adolescents. PMP offers parents instruction and guidance in general parenting skills related…

  17. The Influence of Personality and Chronotype on Distance Learning Willingness and Anxiety among Vocational High School Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph; Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Vollmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies related to distance learning. Willingness and anxiety are important variables for distance learning. Recent research has shown that anxiety and willingness towards distance learning are moderated by personality. This study sought to investigate whether distance learning willingness and distance learning anxiety are…

  18. Willingness to pay for improvements in drinking water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Jeffrey L.; Elnagheeb, Abdelmoneim H.

    1993-02-01

    In this paper, data from a 1991 survey of Georgia residents were used to study people's willingness to pay (WTP) for improvements in drinking water quality and people's perceptions of potential groundwater contamination. Results showed that 27% of the respondents served by public water supplies rated drinking water quality as poor, and 23% were uncertain about their drinking water quality. The contingent valuation method was used to estimate WTP using a checklist format. The median estimated WTP was 5.49 per month above their current water bills for people on public systems and 7.38 for those using private wells, after rejecting outliers and using the maximum likelihood method. The aggregate WTP for all of Georgia was estimated to be about 111.5 million per year for public water users and 42.3 million per year for private well owners. This aggregate WTP can serve as an estimate of benefits to consumers from improvements in drinking water quality statewide.

  19. Orbitofrontal cortex encodes willingness to pay in everyday economic transactions.

    PubMed

    Plassmann, Hilke; O'Doherty, John; Rangel, Antonio

    2007-09-12

    An essential component of every economic transaction is a willingness-to-pay (WTP) computation in which buyers calculate the maximum amount of financial resources that they are willing to give up in exchange for the object being sold. Despite its pervasiveness, little is known about how the brain makes this computation. We investigated the neural basis of the WTP computation by scanning hungry subjects' brains using functional magnetic resonance imaging while they placed real bids for the right to eat different foods. We found that activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex encodes subjects' WTP for the items. Our results support the hypothesis that the medial orbitofrontal cortex encodes the value of goals in decision making. PMID:17855612

  20. Flood risks and willingness to purchase flood insurance.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlinger, M.R.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer simulation experiments were conducted to determine the effects of alternative sources of uncertainty on the willingness to pay for flood insurance. Two alternative insurance protection schemes were investigated: coinsurance and fixed coverage. The question investigated is to what extent does the insurance scheme influence how purchasers respond to risks? Floods were assumed to be log normally distributed and the effects on the purchase of insurance of uncertainties in the parameters of the distribution were explored using response surface analysis. Results indicate that fixed coverage insurance provisions shift most of the uncertainty in the physical parameters governing natural disaster occurrences away from the insuree and onto the insurer. The results also show that the form of the damage function has little effect on the demand for flood insurance.- Authors

  1. Firearm retailers' willingness to participate in an illegal gun purchase.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen

    2010-09-01

    Firearm-related violence is a significant public health and public safety problem for cities in the USA, and licensed firearm retailers are an important source of the guns used in that violence. Using a scripted telephone interview, we screened a sample of licensed retailers in California to assess their willingness to participate in the surrogate or "straw" purchase of a handgun; such purchases are illegal under federal law. Of 149 retailers who provided a response, 30 (20.1%) agreed to participate. In multivariate analysis, pawnbrokers were more likely to agree than were gun dealers (odds ratio 6.58, 95% confidence interval 1.99-21.71). Sales of handguns that were later subjected to ownership tracing (a proxy measure for a gun's use in crime) were not more frequent among retailers who agreed to participate than among others, and other findings were unexpected as well. PMID:20803095

  2. A model of willingness to become a potential organ donor.

    PubMed

    Horton, R L; Horton, P J

    1991-01-01

    This article presents two models of the decision to become a potential organ donor. In the first model the act of carrying or requesting an organ donor card is related to values and factual knowledge regarding organ donation, through intervening attitude and willingness constructs. A sample of 286 students is used to test this model via the LISREL computer program for modeling latent variables. All hypothesized relationships had the predicted sign and were significant. This model is extended by adding the variables attitude towards death, prior blood donation, and age of subject to the model. A second sample of 365 adults from the local community is used to test the second model via LISREL. With two exceptions in the adult sample, all hypothesized relationships had the predicted sign and were significant. Where the two models overlap the results are generally similar. Implications of the models for marketing the act of becoming a potential organ donor are discussed. PMID:1771431

  3. Family therapist comfort with and willingness to discuss client sexuality.

    PubMed

    Harris, Steven M; Hays, Kelli Wenner

    2008-04-01

    Limited empirical information exists on whether or not marriage and family therapists are having sexuality-related discussions with their clients. When helping professionals ignore client sexuality, the potential for unintended negative outcomes increases. The researchers surveyed 175 clinical members of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy to assess how their clinical training and education, their perceived sexual knowledge, and their comfort with sexual material influenced their willingness to engage in sexuality-related discussions with their clients. The results indicate that sexuality education and supervision experiences are the cornerstone for a therapist's base level of comfort. It is through sexuality education and supervision that sex knowledge is acquired and comfort levels are increased. Once comfort with sexual discussions increases, then therapists are more likely to engage in sexuality discussions with their clients. PMID:18412829

  4. The Impact of Nature Experience on Willingness to Support Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Zaradic, Patricia A.; Pergams, Oliver R. W.; Kareiva, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that willingness to financially support conservation depends on one's experience with nature. In order to test this hypothesis, we used a novel time-lagged correlation analysis to look at times series data concerning nature participation, and evaluate its relationship with future conservation support (measured as contributions to conservation NGOs). Our results suggest that the type and timing of nature experience may determine future conservation investment. Time spent hiking or backpacking is correlated with increased conservation contributions 11–12 years later. On the other hand, contributions are negatively correlated with past time spent on activities such as public lands visitation or fishing. Our results suggest that each hiker or backpacker translates to $200–$300 annually in future NGO contributions. We project that the recent decline in popularity of hiking and backpacking will negatively impact conservation NGO contributions from approximately 2010–2011 through at least 2018. PMID:19809511

  5. Willingness to pay for genetic testing for inherited retinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Tubeuf, Sandy; Willis, Thomas A; Potrata, Barbara; Grant, Hilary; Allsop, Matthew J; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Hewison, Jenny; McKibbin, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the willingness of adults with inherited retinal disease to undergo and pay for diagnostic genetic testing in three hypothetical scenarios and to explore the factors that influence decision making. Fifty patients were presented with three scenarios whereby genetic testing provided increasing information: confirming the diagnosis and inheritance pattern alone, providing additional information on future visual function, and identifying in addition a new treatment which could stabilise their condition. Willingness to pay (WTP) was elicited using an iterative bidding game. Regression analysis was used to investigate the probability of agreeing to and paying for testing. Qualitative data were also reviewed to provide a comprehensive understanding of WTP and decision making. The majority of participants agreed to undergo genetic testing in each of the three scenarios. Scenario 2 was the least acceptable with 78% of participants agreeing to genetic testing. The probability of agreeing to genetic testing decreased with age. Between 72 and 96% of participants reported a WTP for genetic testing. Average WTP was £539, £1516, and £6895 for scenarios 1, 2, and 3 respectively. Older participants and participants with higher incomes were willing to pay more for testing. Qualitative data provided additional detail about the rationale behind participants' decisions. The study suggests that patients with inherited retinal disease were willing to undergo and to pay for diagnostic genetic testing, suggesting that they valued the information it may provide. However, several patients preferred not to receive prognostic information and were less willing to pay for genetic testing that yielded such detail. PMID:24916649

  6. Tryptophan promotes charitable donating

    PubMed Central

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2014-01-01

    The link between serotonin (5-HT) and one of the most important elements of prosocial behavior, charity, has remained largely uninvestigated. In the present study, we tested whether charitable donating can be promoted by administering the food supplement L-Tryptophan (TRP), the biochemical precursor of 5-HT. Participants were compared with respect to the amount of money they donated when given the opportunity to make a charitable donation. As expected, compared to a neutral placebo, TRP appears to increase the participants’ willingness to donate money to a charity. This result supports the idea that the food we eat may act as a cognitive enhancer modulating the way we think and perceive the world and others. PMID:25566132

  7. Parental responsibility beliefs: associations with parental anxiety and behaviours in the context of childhood anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Apetroaia, Adela; Hill, Claire; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Background High levels of parental anxiety are associated with poor treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Associated parental cognitions and behaviours have been implicated as impediments to successful treatment. We examined the association between parental responsibility beliefs, maternal anxiety and parenting behaviours in the context of childhood anxiety disorders. Methods Anxious and non-anxious mothers of 7–12 year old children with a current anxiety disorder reported their parental responsibility beliefs using a questionnaire measure. Parental behaviours towards their child during a stressor task were measured. Results Parents with a current anxiety disorder reported a greater sense of responsibility for their child's actions and wellbeing than parents who scored within the normal range for anxiety. Furthermore, higher parental responsibility was associated with more intrusive and less warm behaviours in parent–child interactions and there was an indirect effect between maternal anxiety and maternal intrusive behaviours via parental responsibility beliefs. Limitations The sample was limited to a treatment-seeking, relatively high socio-economic population and only mothers were included so replication with more diverse groups is needed. The use of a range of stressor tasks may have allowed for a more comprehensive assessment of parental behaviours. Conclusions The findings suggest that parental anxiety disorder is associated with an elevated sense of parental responsibility and may promote parental behaviours likely to inhibit optimum child treatment outcomes. Parental responsibility beliefs may therefore be important to target in child anxiety treatments in the context of parental anxiety disorders. PMID:26363612

  8. Parents as practitioners in preterm care.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Siyuan; Warre, Ruth; Qiu, Xiangming; O'Brien, Karel; Lee, Shoo K

    2014-11-01

    The very preterm birth of an infant is physiologically traumatic for the infant and physiologically and psychologically traumatic for the parents. The manner of care delivery in the first few days and weeks of the infant's life plays a large role in determining the impact of that trauma. For optimal outcomes parents need to be integrated into the care process as the primary practitioners of their infant's care in the neonatal intensive care unit. Supporting and enabling parents to be central to the care process establishes a consistent care environment where parents are in control and able to support their infant's physiological and psychological needs, thereby improving infant outcomes and reducing parent stress and anxiety. This article reviews the role of parents in the optimal development of preterm neonates, and discusses the elements crucial to promoting parent involvement in the neonatal intensive care unit and supporting parents following discharge. PMID:25246323

  9. Household willingness to pay for azithromycin treatment for trachoma control in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Kevin D.; Lynch, Matthew; West, Sheila; Munoz, Beatriz; Mkocha, Harran A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Household willingness to pay for treatment provides important information for programme planning. We tested for relationships between socioeconomic status, risk of trachoma, perceptions of the effects of azithromycin, and the household willingness to pay for future mass treatment with azithromycin. METHODS: We surveyed 394 households in 6 villages located in central United Republic of Tanzania regarding their willingness to pay for future azithromycin treatment. A random sample of households with children under 8 years of age was selected and interviewed following an initial treatment programme in each village. Data were gathered on risk factors for trachoma, socioeconomic status, and the perceived effect of the initial azithromycin treatment. Ordered probit regression analysis was used to test for statistically significant relationships. FINDINGS: 38% of responding households stated that they would not be willing to pay anything for future azithromycin treatment, although they would be willing to participate in the treatment. A proxy for cash availability was positively associated with household willingness to pay for future antibiotic treatment. Cattle ownership (a risk factor) and being a household headed by a female not in a polygamous marriage (lower socioeconomic status) were associated with a lower willingness to pay for future treatment. A perceived benefit from the initial treatment was marginally associated with a willingness to pay a higher amount. CONCLUSIONS: As those at greatest risk of active trachoma indicated the lowest willingness to pay, imposing a cost recovery fee for azithromycin treatment would likely reduce coverage and could prevent control of the disease at the community level. PMID:12751418

  10. Total parenting.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins to cast being a parent as a matter of "parenting," a technological deployment of skills and techniques, with the loss of older, more spontaneous and intuitive relations between parents and children. Smith examines this phenomenon further through a discussion of how it is captured to some extent in Hannah Arendt's notion of "natality" and how it is illuminated by Charles Dickens in his classic novel, Dombey and Son. PMID:20662172

  11. Exploratory and confirmatory factory analysis of the Willingness to Eat Whole Grains Questionnaire: A measure of young adults' attitudes toward consuming whole grain foods.

    PubMed

    Tuuri, Georgianna; Cater, Melissa; Craft, Brittany; Bailey, Ariana; Miketinas, Derek

    2016-10-01

    Whole grains are recommended by dietary guidelines because of their health-promoting properties, yet attitudes toward consuming these foods have not been examined. This study developed and validated a questionnaire to estimate willingness to consume whole grain foods. Focus group interviews with high school students and input from nutrition educators produced a list of 10 whole grain items that were included in the "Willingness to Eat Whole Grains Questionnaire". Young adult university students 18-29 years of age indicated their willingness to consume each of the whole grain foods using a 4-point, Likert-type scale with responses ranging from "always unwilling" to "always willing" and a fifth option of "never eaten". Participants' age, race/ethnicity, and gender were collected. Data were examined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and test-retest reliability. The EFA test (n = 266; 65% female; 69% white) using principal axis factoring returned a single factor that included all survey items and explained 58.3% of the variance. The CFA (n = 252; 62% female, 74% white) supported a single-factor solution: χ(2) = 80.57 (35); RMSEA = 0.07; Comparative Fit Index = 0.92; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.90; and SRMR = 0.05. The questionnaire, administered on two occasions separated by two weeks to 36 university students, demonstrated good testretest reliability (r = 0.87, p < 0.0001). The "Willingness to Eat Whole Grains Questionnaire" had good face validity when used with a young adult population and will be a useful tool to help nutrition educators examine attitudes toward consuming nutrient-rich whole grain foods. PMID:27328099

  12. Influence of scary beliefs about the Tuskegee Syphilis Study on willingness to participate in research

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jenna L.; Green, B. Lee; Katz, Ralph V.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether scary/alarming beliefs about details on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (TSS) are associated with willingness and/or fear to participate in biomedical research. Methods Scary beliefs about TSS were examined for 565 Black and White adults who had heard of the TSS. Multivariate analyses by race were used to measure association. Results No association between scary beliefs and willingness or fear to participate in research was found (P>0.05). Conclusions These findings provide additional evidence that awareness or detailed knowledge about the TSS does not appear today to be a major factor influencing Blacks’ willingness to participate in research. PMID:22924230

  13. Israeli Arab Muslim women's willingness to be screened for intimate partner violence: A survey.

    PubMed

    Ben Natan, Merav; Muasi, Hiba; Farhan, Fidaa; Shhada, Miada; Masarwa, Gada

    2014-03-17

    In the present study, we explored whether the research model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action predicts Israeli Arab Muslim women's willingness to be screened for intimate partner violence at healthcare facilities. Three hundred women completed a questionnaire. Most women (68.4%) expressed willingness to be screened, however, only 16% of them had been screened over the past year. Women's beliefs about screening for intimate partner violence and the support of significant others were found to predict this willingness. The study may constitute an initial foundation for determining national policy with the aim of detecting and eradicating the phenomenon among this unique population. PMID:24636365

  14. A Survey on the Willingness to Use Physical Activity Smartphone Applications (Apps) in Patients with Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liu; Jiao, Chen; Wang, Yanling; Xiao, Qian; Zhang, Yiling; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the willingness of using physical activity smartphone apps among patients with chronic diseases. 218 outpatients from a tertiary hospital in Beijing were involved using a questionnaire. Over half of the patients (53.7%) were willing to use smartphone apps to promote physical activities. The individuals more likely to use physical activity apps tended to be younger (≤44 years), be more educated, perceiving their disease need exercise instruction or professional support, current smartphone user, having previous experience of using physical activity apps, and accepting paid apps (P<0.05). The results could help health educator suggest chronic disease patients to use apps to do more exercises. Further research could be focus on evaluate the effects of using physical activity apps in chronic disease patients. PMID:27332468

  15. Let's look at leeks! Picture books increase toddlers' willingness to look at, taste and consume unfamiliar vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Philippa; Houston-Price, Carmel; Kennedy, Orla B.

    2013-01-01

    Repeatedly looking at picture books about fruits and vegetables with parents enhances young children's visual preferences toward the foods in the book (Houston-Price et al., 2009a) and influences their willingness to taste these foods (Houston-Price et al., 2009b). This article explores whether the effects of picture book exposure are affected by infants' initial familiarity with and liking for the foods presented. In two experiments parents of 19- to 26-month-old toddlers were asked to read a picture book about a liked, disliked or unfamiliar fruit or vegetable with their child every day for 2 weeks. The impact of the intervention on both infants' visual preferences and their eating behavior was determined by the initial status of the target food, with the strongest effects for foods that were initially unfamiliar. Most strikingly, toddlers consumed more of the unfamiliar vegetable they had seen in their picture book than of a matched control vegetable. Results confirm the potential for picture books to play a positive role in encouraging healthy eating in young children. PMID:24653709

  16. Physicians' knowledge of and willingness to prescribe naloxone to reverse accidental opiate overdose: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Beletsky, Leo; Ruthazer, Robin; Macalino, Grace E; Rich, Josiah D; Tan, Litjen; Burris, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Naloxone, the standard treatment for heroin overdose, is a safe and effective prescription drug commonly administered by emergency room physicians or first responders acting under standing orders of physicians. High rates of overdose deaths and widely accepted evidence that witnesses of heroin overdose are often unwilling or unable to call 9-1-1 has led to interventions in several US cities and abroad in which drug users are instructed in overdose rescue techniques and provided a "take-home" dose of naloxone. Under current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, such interventions require physician involvement. As part of a larger study to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of doctors towards providing drug treatment and harm reduction services to injection drug users (IDUs), we investigated physician knowledge and willingness to prescribe naloxone. Less than one in four of the respondents in our sample reported having heard of naloxone prescription as an intervention to prevent opiate overdose, and the majority reported that they would never consider prescribing the agent and explaining its application to a patient. Factors predicting a favorable attitude towards prescribing naloxone included fewer negative perceptions of IDUs, assigning less importance to peer and community pressure not to treat IDUs, and increased confidence in ability to provide meaningful treatment to IDUs. Our data suggest that steps to promote naloxone distribution programs should include physician education about evidence-based harm minimization schemes, broader support for such initiatives by professional organizations, and policy reform to alleviate medicolegal concerns associated with naloxone prescription. FDA re-classification of naloxone for over-the-counter sales and promotion of nasal-delivery mechanism for this agent should be explored. PMID:17146712

  17. Willingness to pay for private primary care services in Hong Kong: are elderly ready to move from the public sector?

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Yam, Carrie H K; Huang, Olivia H Y; Griffiths, Sian M

    2013-10-01

    How to provide better primary care and achieve the right level of public-private balance in doing so is at the centre of many healthcare reforms around the world. In a healthcare system like Hong Kong, where inpatient services are largely funded through general taxation and ambulatory services out of pocket, the family doctor model of primary care is underdeveloped. Since 2008, the Government has taken forward various initiatives to promote primary care and encourage more use of private services. However, little is known in Hong Kong or elsewhere about consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for private services when care is available in the public sector. This study assessed willingness of the Hong Kong elderly to pay for specific primary care and preventive services in the private sector, through a cross-sectional in-person questionnaire survey and focus group discussions among respondents. The survey revealed that the WTP for private services in general was low among the elderly; particularly, reported WTP for chronic conditions and preventive care both fell below the current market prices. Sub-group analysis showed higher WTP among healthier and more affluent elderly. Among other things, concerns over affordability and uncertainty (of price and quality) in the private sector were associated with this low level of WTP. These results suggest that most elderly, who are heavy users of public health services but with limited income, may not use more private services without seeing significant reduction in price. Financial incentives for consumers alone may not be enough to promote primary care or public-private partnership. Public education on the value of prevention and primary care, as well as supply-side interventions should both be considered. Hong Kong's policy-making process of the initiative studied here may also provide lessons for other countries with ongoing healthcare reforms. PMID:23161587

  18. Parent support and parent-mediated behaviors are associated with children's sugary beverage consumption.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Nanette V; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Corder, Kirsten; Eisenberg, Christina M; Zive, Michelle M; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P

    2012-04-01

    Consumption of sugary beverages has been identified as a contributor to childhood obesity. Studies have established the importance of specific parenting practices to children's beverage consumption; however, no study has examined multiple operationalizations of parenting to better understand where to focus future interventions. The present study examined the relationship between children's sugary beverage consumption and a parenting model that included household food rules, parent modeling of food rules, parent-mediated behaviors, and parent support. Baseline data from Project MOVE/me Muevo were used. Participants included 541 children, aged 5 to 8 years old, and their parents. Parents completed a 45-minute self-administered survey in Spanish or English, providing information about their child's dietary intake, as well as their parenting practices. Children's sugary beverage consumption included nondiet soda, noncarbonated sugary drinks, and sport drinks. Household food rules and parent modeling of food rules were assessed with seven items each. Parent-mediated behaviors consisted of four behaviors. Parent support was assessed with five items. Parent support and parent-mediated behaviors, including total screen time and eating at fast-food restaurants at least weekly, were associated with greater consumption of sugary beverages in children. No other parenting variables were significant. Encouraging caregivers to promote healthy dietary behaviors and provide healthy choices, limiting children's television and computer use, and reducing fast-food consumption can contribute to reductions in sugary beverage consumption among children. PMID:22709703

  19. Internet Treatment Delivery of Parent-Adolescent Conflict Training for Families with an ADHD Teen: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Erika M.; Frankel, Fred; Marina, Michael; Duan, Naihua; Smalley, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examines the feasibility of Internet delivery of a Parent-Adolescent Conflict Training (PACT) program to families with an ADHD teen. The goals of the project are to ascertain the willingness of families to participate in this web-based study, identify relevant issues related to confidentiality of Internet data collection, and…

  20. Will Parents Participate in and Comply with Programs and Regimens Using Xylitol for Preventing Acute Otitis Media in Their Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danhauer, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Carole E.; Baker, Jason A.; Ryu, Jung A.; Smith, Rachel A.; Umeda, Claire J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Antiadhesive properties in xylitol, a natural sugar alcohol, can help prevent acute otitis media (AOM) in children by inhibiting harmful bacteria from colonizing and adhering to oral and nasopharyngeal areas and traveling to the Eustachian tube and middle ear. This study investigated parents' willingness to use and comply with a regimen…

  1. Disentangling the relative contribution of parental antisociality and family discord to child disruptive disorders.

    PubMed

    Bornovalova, Marina A; Blazei, Ryan; Malone, Stephen H; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2013-07-01

    A number of familial risk factors for childhood disruptive disorders have been identified. However, many of these risk factors often co-occur with parental antisociality, which by itself may account for both the familial risk factors and the increased likelihood of offspring disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). The current study aimed to examine the association of parenting behaviors, marital conflict, and divorce with child DBDs while accounting for (a) coparent parenting behaviors, and (b) parental adult antisocial behavior (AAB). A series of regressions tested the association between family-level variables (namely, parent-child relationship quality, parental willingness to use physical punishment, marital adjustment, and history of divorce) and DBDs (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder) alone and after statistically adjusting for coparent variables and parental AAB. Results indicated that parents with AAB were more likely to engage in various forms of maladaptive parenting, to divorce, and to have conflictual marriages. Maladaptive parenting, marital conflict, and divorce were associated with heightened rates of child DBDs, and these associations persisted after adjusting for coparent parenting and parental AAB. Finally, the mother's parenting behaviors had a higher impact on child DBDs than the father's parenting behaviors. Thus, familial variables continue to have an effect on childhood DBDs even after accounting for confounding influences. These variables should be a focus of research on etiology and intervention. PMID:22888991

  2. Parent Social Networks and Parent Responsibility: Implications for School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Katherine A.; Adams, Curt M.

    2014-01-01

    Family-school partnerships are difficult to initiate and sustain in ways that actually promote student learning, especially in high-poverty communities. This quantitative study was designed to better understand how social forces shape parent responsibility in education. Based on social cognitive theory as the conceptual framework, the…

  3. Improving Parental Involvement in Children's Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Kathy Everts

    1997-01-01

    States that the influence of the home environment on children's learning has long been recognized as significant. Presents some exemplary programs and guiding principles that teachers can share with parents to promote their children's literacy. Lists 10 simple reading-writing activities that could be shared with parents at an open house or…

  4. PACT: Parents and Children Together. Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Loralyn; Hager, Elizabeth A.

    The Parent and Children Together (PACT) project, developed by the Arkansas Valley and High Plain Regional Library Services in Colorado, is aimed at promoting lifelong interest in reading among today's children. PACT services include: (1) sponsoring workshops that will train librarians and volunteers to plan and present parents' programs; (2)…

  5. Helicopter Parents Can Be a Good Thing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Helicopter parents get a bad rap. Teachers and administrators should view them as a resource--not a nuisance. By encouraging open communication, teachers can begin to understand the motivations of these parents and find creative ways to connect them with opportunities to promote their students' academic success and the school's overall…

  6. Reasons Parents Exempt Children from Receiving Immunizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Callister, Lynn C.; Cahoon, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    School nurses are on the front lines of educational efforts to promote childhood vaccinations. However, some parents still choose to exempt their children from receiving vaccinations for personal reasons. Studying the beliefs of parents who exempt vaccinations allows health care workers, including school nurses, to better understand parental…

  7. A Chronology of Parental Choice in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Sister Dale

    2001-01-01

    Traces the history of parental rights in education since the landmark case Pierce vs. the Society of Sisters (1925), when the existence of private schools was validated. States that initiatives promoting parental choice include : (1) tax relief/credits; (2) vouchers or scholarships; (3) public school choice; and (4) home schooling. Provides a…

  8. Preparation for Parenting. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This instructional guide for a one-half-credit technical laboratory course for grades 10-12 teaches parental responsibilities; child guidance techniques; positive role modeling and parenting practices that promote child development, health, safety, and well-being. Introductory materials consist of a course description; overview of course design;…

  9. Early Parenting Practices and Outcomes for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Amy; Dunham, Mardis

    2011-01-01

    This study compared early parenting practices and adolescent behavior to determine whether parental attachment-promoting behaviors in the first year of life were associated with psychosocial adjustment in teenagers. The mothers of 22 adolescents completed a behavioral assessment of their teenager and an inventory of their recollected parenting…

  10. Validity of Willingness to Pay Measures under Preference Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Braun, Carola; Rehdanz, Katrin; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies in the marketing literature developed a new method for eliciting willingness to pay (WTP) with an open-ended elicitation format: the Range-WTP method. In contrast to the traditional approach of eliciting WTP as a single value (Point-WTP), Range-WTP explicitly allows for preference uncertainty in responses. The aim of this paper is to apply Range-WTP to the domain of contingent valuation and to test for its theoretical validity and robustness in comparison to the Point-WTP. Using data from two novel large-scale surveys on the perception of solar radiation management (SRM), a little-known technique for counteracting climate change, we compare the performance of both methods in the field. In addition to the theoretical validity (i.e. the degree to which WTP values are consistent with theoretical expectations), we analyse the test-retest reliability and stability of our results over time. Our evidence suggests that the Range-WTP method clearly outperforms the Point-WTP method. PMID:27096163

  11. Validity of Willingness to Pay Measures under Preference Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Carola; Rehdanz, Katrin; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies in the marketing literature developed a new method for eliciting willingness to pay (WTP) with an open-ended elicitation format: the Range-WTP method. In contrast to the traditional approach of eliciting WTP as a single value (Point-WTP), Range-WTP explicitly allows for preference uncertainty in responses. The aim of this paper is to apply Range-WTP to the domain of contingent valuation and to test for its theoretical validity and robustness in comparison to the Point-WTP. Using data from two novel large-scale surveys on the perception of solar radiation management (SRM), a little-known technique for counteracting climate change, we compare the performance of both methods in the field. In addition to the theoretical validity (i.e. the degree to which WTP values are consistent with theoretical expectations), we analyse the test-retest reliability and stability of our results over time. Our evidence suggests that the Range-WTP method clearly outperforms the Point-WTP method. PMID:27096163

  12. Firearm Retailers’ Willingness to Participate in an Illegal Gun Purchase

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Firearm-related violence is a significant public health and public safety problem for cities in the USA, and licensed firearm retailers are an important source of the guns used in that violence. Using a scripted telephone interview, we screened a sample of licensed retailers in California to assess their willingness to participate in the surrogate or “straw” purchase of a handgun; such purchases are illegal under federal law. Of 149 retailers who provided a response, 30 (20.1%) agreed to participate. In multivariate analysis, pawnbrokers were more likely to agree than were gun dealers (odds ratio 6.58, 95% confidence interval 1.99–21.71). Sales of handguns that were later subjected to ownership tracing (a proxy measure for a gun’s use in crime) were not more frequent among retailers who agreed to participate than among others, and other findings were unexpected as well. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11524-010-9489-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20803095

  13. Internal dental school environmental factors promoting faculty survival and success.

    PubMed

    Masella, Richard S

    2005-04-01

    A career in dental academics offers ample rewards and challenges. To promote successful careers in dental education, prospective and new dental faculty should possess a realistic view of the dental school work environment, akin to the informed consent so valuable to patients and doctors. Self-assessment of personal strengths and weaknesses provides helpful information in matching faculty applicants with appropriate dental schools. Essential prehiring information also includes a written job description detailing duties and responsibilities, professional development opportunities, and job performance evaluation protocol. Prehiring awareness of what constitutes excellence in job performance will aid new faculty in allotting time to productive venues. New faculty should not rely solely on professional expertise to advance careers. Research and regular peer-reviewed publications are necessary elements in academic career success, along with the ability to secure governmental, private foundation, and corporate grant support. Tactful self-promotion and self-definition to the dental school community are faculty responsibilities, along with substantial peer collaboration. The recruitment period is a singular opportunity to secure job benefits and privileges. It is also the time to gain knowledge of institutional culture and assess administrative and faculty willingness to collaborate on teaching, research, professional development, and attainment of change. Powerful people within dental schools and parent institutions may influence faculty careers and should be identified and carefully treated. The time may come to leave one's position for employment at a different dental school or to step down from full-time academics. Nonetheless, the world of dental and health professional education in 2005 is rapidly expanding and offers unlimited opportunities to dedicated, talented, and informed educators. PMID:15800257

  14. Childhood obesity treatment: targeting parents exclusively v. parents and children.

    PubMed

    Golan, Moria; Kaufman, Vered; Shahar, Danit R

    2006-05-01

    There is a consensus that interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity should involve the family; however, the extent of the child's involvement has received little attention. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the relative efficacy of treating childhood obesity via a family-based health-centred intervention, targeting parents alone v. parents and obese children together. Thirty-two families with obese children of 6-11 years of age were randomised into groups, in which participants were provided for 6 months a comprehensive educational and behavioural programme for a healthy lifestyle. These groups differed in their main agent of change: parents-only v. the parents and the obese child. In both groups, parents were encouraged to foster authoritative parenting styles (parents are both firm and supportive; assume a leadership role in the environmental change with appropriate granting of child's autonomy). Only the intervention aimed at parents-only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage overweight at the end of the programme (P=0.02) as well as at the 1-year follow-up meeting. The differences between groups at both times were significant (P<0.05). A greater reduction in food stimuli in the home (P<0.05) was noted in the parents-only group. In both groups, the parents' weight status did not change. Regression analysis shows that the level of attendance in sessions explained 28 % of the variability in the children's weight status change, the treatment group explained another 10 %, and the improvement in the obesogenic load explained 11 % of the variability. These results suggest that omitting the obese child from active participation in the health-centred programme may be beneficial for weight loss and for the promotion of a healthy lifestyle among obese children. PMID:16611394

  15. Iraqi parents' views of barriers to childhood immunization.

    PubMed

    Al-Lela, O Q B; Bahari, M B; Al-Abbassi, M G; Salih, M R M; Basher, A Y

    2013-03-01

    Deficiencies in knowledge about immunization among parents often leads to poor utake or errors in immunization dosage and timing. The aims of this study were to determine Iraqi parents' views of barriers to immunization and beliefs about ways to promote immunization. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 528 Iraqi parents with children who had incomplete immunization status. The main barriers to immunization agreed by the parents were lack of vaccine availability (51.5% of parents) and parents' lack of education (42.4%), while 88.4% of parents thought that lack of funding was not an important barrier. More than 60% of the parents suggested promoting childhood immunization via the media, and 77.5% thought that an increase in funding would not remove barriers to childhood immunization. Better vaccine availability in public health clinics and improving parents' literacy might enhance immunization uptake in Iraq. PMID:23879083

  16. Examining daily variability in willingness to drink in relation to underage young adult alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Melissa; King, Kevin; Litt, Dana; Swanson, Alex; Lee, Christine

    2016-10-01

    A key component of the Prototype Willingness Model is willingness, which reflects an openness to opportunity to perform a behavior in situations that are conducive to that behavior. Willingness has traditionally been tested using global, hypothetical assessments, and has not been examined at the daily level. We expected to find within-person variability in willingness to drink, such that on days with greater willingness, individuals would report greater drinking. A national sample (N=288) of young adults aged 18 to 20 (31.60% female) completed a Web-based survey that was comprised of measures of drinking and sexual behavior, including the Timeline Follow-Back (Sobell & Sobell, 1992). Findings show daily variability in willingness to drink (ICC=0.54), which suggests that there are substantial differences from day-to-day in this drinking-related cognition. Participants drank more on days when individuals also reported feeling more willing to drink than their own average level across the two weeks. Daily process level mechanisms allow greater insight into factors contributing to increased risk in-the-moment, which may point to targets for interventions aimed at improving adolescents' and young adults' abilities to make healthier choices in moments when they may be at greater risk for engaging in risky behaviors. PMID:27243458

  17. Willingness to Drink as a Function of Peer Offers and Peer Norms in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kristina M; Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Abar, Caitlin C; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the effect of subjective peer norms on adolescents’ willingness to drink and whether this association was moderated by sensitivity to peer approval, prior alcohol use, and gender. Method: The sample was 1,023 middle-school students (52% female; 76% White; 12% Hispanic; Mage = 12.22 years) enrolled in a prospective study of drinking initiation and progression. Using web-based surveys, participants reported on their willingness to drink alcohol if offered by (a) a best friend or (b) a classmate, peer norms for two referent groups (close friends and classmates), history of sipping or consuming a full drink of alcohol, and sensitivity to peer approval (extreme peer orientation). Items were re-assessed at two follow-ups (administered 6 months apart). Results: Multilevel models revealed that measures of peer norms were significantly associated with both willingness outcomes, with the greatest prediction by descriptive norms. The association between norms and willingness was magnified for girls, those with limited prior experience with alcohol, and youths with low sensitivity to peer approval. Conclusions: Social norms appear to play a key role in substance use decisions and are relevant when considering more reactive behaviors that reflect willingness to drink under conducive circumstances. Prevention programs might target individuals with higher willingness, particularly girls who perceive others to be drinking and youths who have not yet sipped alcohol but report a higher perceived prevalence of alcohol consumption among both friends and peers. PMID:24766752

  18. Impulsivity moderates the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on adolescents' willingness to drink.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Kingsbury, John H; Wills, Thomas A; Finneran, Stephanie D; Dal Cin, Sonya; Gerrard, Meg

    2016-05-01

    This study examined impulsivity as a moderator of adolescents' reactions to positive versus negative portrayals of drinking in American movie clips. Impulsivity, along with willingness and intentions to drink in the future, were assessed in a pretest session. In the experimental sessions, adolescents viewed a series of clips that showed drinking associated with either positive outcomes (e.g., social facilitation) or negative outcomes (fights, arguments). A third group viewed clips with similar positive or negative outcomes, but no alcohol consumption. All participants then responded to an implicit measure of attentional bias regarding alcohol (a dot probe), followed by explicit alcohol measures (self-reports of willingness and intentions to drink). Hypotheses, based on dual-processing theories, were: (a) high-impulsive adolescents would respond more favorably than low-impulsive adolescents to the positive clips, but not the negative clips; and (b) this difference in reactions to the positive clips would be larger on the willingness than the intention measures. Results supported the hypotheses: Adolescents high in impulsivity reported the highest willingness to drink in the positive-clip condition, but were slightly less willing than others in the negative-clip condition. In addition, results on the dot probe task indicated that RTs to alcohol words were negatively correlated with changes in alcohol willingness, but not intention; that is, the faster their response to the alcohol words, the more their willingness increased. The results highlight the utility of a dual-processing perspective on media influence. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27099959

  19. Collecting Disability Data from Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jill; Daniels, Harry; Feiler, Anthony; Georgeson, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and national trial of a methodology for collecting disability data directly from parents, enabling schools and local authorities to meet their obligations under the "Disability Discrimination Act" (DDA; 2005) to promote equality of opportunity for all children. It illustrates the complexities around…

  20. Effects of Parent Training on Infant Sleeping Patterns, Parents' Stress, and Perceived Parental Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Amy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Assigned 60 couples to training group learning behavioral strategies to promote healthy sleep patterns in infants or to control group. At 6-9 weeks, training group infants displayed significantly better sleeping patterns than did control infants. Training group parents awakened and responded less often to infant signaling and reported greater…

  1. Perceived Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Sofie; Doumen, Sarah; Germeijs, Veerle; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Contingent self-esteem (i.e., the degree to which one's self-esteem is dependent on meeting particular conditions) has been shown to predict a wide range of psychosocial and academic problems. This study extends previous research on contingent self-esteem by examining the predictive role of perceived parenting dimensions in a sample of early…

  2. Parental Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Lehman, Stephanie; Clapp, John; Hovell, Melbourne; Sipan, Carol; Blumberg, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period during which many youth experiment with risk practices. This paper examined the association of parental monitoring with a range of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use behaviors among high-risk youth, while controlling for other demographic and environmental variables previously found to be associated with AOD…

  3. Total Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins…

  4. Constructive Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Sally

    This book turns important research and theory into essential, easy-to-follow guidelines for new parents and child care providers to help them focus on the critical first 3 years of life to build a strong foundation for the future. All the key areas of child development are covered, including self-esteem, and cognitive, motor and social…

  5. Homicidal parents.

    PubMed

    Bourget, D; Bradford, J M

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes a series of 13 cases of parents who have killed their children. A review of the literature suggests that child murder is infrequent and committed in most instances by the parents. Most attention has been directed to the universal phenomenon of child abuse. The killing of a child in our culture is viewed much more seriously than the killing of a newborn infant, legally defined as infanticide. Only a few authors have reported on the former, and their studies tend to demonstrate that a higher proportion of these crimes are perpetrated by mothers. Homicidal behaviour in parents may also be associated with common forms of psychiatric disorders and may manifest as the extended suicide phenomenon (homicide reported with major depressive illness). Attributes of both parents and the children are also significant factors to be considered. In a retrospective study the relevant demographic and clinical data of a series of 13 cases are reviewed. The diagnostic classification using DSM-III-R is discussed in detail. A higher incidence of maternal perpetrators was found and is consistent with previous studies. Exposure to a variety of psychosocial stresses appears to have been a major factor. Similarly the suicidal history and behaviour of the subjects is significant. Affective disorder appears to be an important diagnostic category. Finally, the role of psychiatric and other social agencies is considered in relation to the murder of children. A better understanding of this phenomenon is indicated in order to help us deal with families at risk. PMID:2340456

  6. Low willingness and actual uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention among men who have sex with men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yingying; Yan, Huamei; Ning, Zhen; Cai, Xiaofeng; Yang, Yin; Pan, Rong; Zhou, Yanqiu; Zheng, Huang; Gao, Meiyang; Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou; He, Na

    2016-05-23

    Little is known about the acceptance and actual uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and associated factors in men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. This study is the baseline survey of an intervention study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of tenofovirdisoproxil fumarate (TDF) on a daily use for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention among MSM in Shanghai, China. From October 2012 to December 2013, a total of 1,033 MSM in Shanghai were recruited by local district Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and a MSM community-based non-governmental organization (NGO). Among them, 197 (19.1%) participants expressed willingness to use the TDF group at baseline survey, but only 26 (2.5%) participated in the TDF group and took TDF one tablet a day. Higher willingness to use PrEP was associated with being 45 years or older, non-local residents, having more male sex partners in the past 6 months and not using condom at last anal sex with man. Acutal uptake of PrEP was associated with having ≥ 11 male sex partners in lifetime and reporting no female sex partners in lifetime. Reasons for not participating in TDF group among those who expressed willingness to use PrEP at baseline survey included loss of contact, ineligiblity because of abnormal results for liver or renal function tests, change of mind, and HIV seroconversion before uptake of PrEP. Our findings suggest that promotion of PrEP in MSM remains challenging at current circumstancein China. Future research is needed to solicit effective education and intervention programs to promote acceptance of PrEP among Chinese MSM. PMID:27052151

  7. Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1988-01-01

    Children ranging from fifth to twelfth grade, and their parents, were presented with items pertaining to family transgressions and asked to judge the legitimacy of parental jurisdiction, justify its wrongness or permissibility, and assess its contingency on parental authority. (PCB)

  8. Patient preference and willingness to pay for knee osteoarthritis treatments

    PubMed Central

    Posnett, John; Dixit, Sanjeev; Oppenheimer, Brooks; Kili, Sven; Mehin, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To review treatments for osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK) received by patients across five European countries, and to obtain patients’ perceptions and willingness to pay for current treatments. Patients and methods A prospective, internet-based, double-blind survey of adults with OAK was conducted in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The questionnaire included questions about diagnosis, treatment history, and perceptions of OAK treatments, followed by a discrete choice-based conjoint exercise to identify preferred attributes of OAK treatments, evaluating 14 sets of four unbranded products. Results Two thousand and seventy-three patients with self-reported OAK completed the survey; 17.4% of patients rated their knee pain as drastically affecting their ability to perform normal daily activities, and 39.3% of employed patients reported that they had lost work time because of OAK. The most common treatments were exercise (69.7%), physical therapy (68.2%), and nonprescription oral pain medication (73.9%). Treatments perceived as most effective were: viscosupplement injections (74.1%), narcotics (67.8%), and steroid injection (67.6%). Patient co-pay, duration of pain relief, and type of therapy exhibited the largest impact on patient preference for OAK treatments. The average patient was willing to pay €35 and €64 more in co-pay for steroid and viscosupplement injections, respectively, over the cost of oral over-the-counter painkillers (per treatment course, per knee) (each P<0.05). Conclusion OAK is a debilitating condition that affects normal daily activities. In general, treatments most commonly offered to patients are not those perceived as being the most effective. Patients are willing to pay a premium for treatments that they perceive as being more effective and result in longer-lasting pain relief, and those that can be administered with fewer visits to a physician. PMID:26089650

  9. Using Consumer Preference Information to Increase the Reach and Impact of Media-Based Parenting Interventions in a Public Health Approach to Parenting Support

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Carol W.; Sanders, Matthew R.; Rusby, Julie C.; Crowley, Ryann

    2012-01-01

    Within a public health approach to improving parenting, the mass media offer a potentially more efficient and affordable format for directly reaching a large number of parents with evidence-based parenting information than do traditional approaches to parenting interventions that require delivery by a practitioner. Little is known, however, about factors associated with parents’ interest in and willingness to watch video messages about parenting. Knowledge of consumer preferences could inform the effective design of media interventions to maximize parental engagement in the parenting messages. This study examined parents’ preferred formats for receiving parenting information, as well as family sociodemographic and child behavior factors that predict parents’ ratings of acceptability of a media-based parenting intervention. An ethnically diverse sample of 162 parents of children ages 3–6 years reported their preferences for various delivery formats for parenting information and provided feedback on a prototype episode of a video-format parenting program based on the Triple P Positive Parenting Program. Parents reported the strongest preference for self-administered delivery formats such as television, online programs, and written materials; the least preferred formats were home visits, therapists, and multiweek parenting groups. Parents’ ratings of engagement, watchability, and realism of the prototype parenting episode were quite strong. Parents whose children exhibited clinical levels of problem behaviors rated the episode as more watchable, engaging, and realistic. Mothers also rated the episodes as more engaging and realistic than did fathers. Lower income marginally predicted higher watchability ratings. Minority status and expectations of future problems did not predict acceptability ratings. The results suggest that the episode had broad appeal across groups. PMID:22440064

  10. Evaluating a model linking assessed parent factors to four domains of youth risky driving.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sarah; Morrongiello, Barbara A; Colwell, Scott R

    2014-08-01

    Motor vehicle collisions are the leading cause of death in youth aged 15-19. Research has consistently shown that driver education programs do not result in safer youth driving. Indeed, the biggest predictor of collisions involving youth is parental history of collisions. The current study examined how parental modeling of and teaching about risky driving behaviors related to youth practices within four domains of risky driving (aggressive, substance use, distracted, moving violations), and evaluated whether the Prototype-Willingness Model explains links from parent to teen driving practices. Participants (N=432) were undergraduate students (mean age 18 years, age range 17-22 years) who had obtained their G2 driver's license within the past year; the G2 driver's license allows youth to drive alone on all municipal roads, with some restrictions on their blood alcohol level and the number of passengers they can carry. Results revealed that parental modeling was more predictive than parental teaching for all domains of risky driving examined. Youth whose parents modeled risky driving behaviors were found to be more likely to have engaged in those risky driving behaviors in the past, as well as to be more willing to engage in the behaviors in the future. The Prototype-Willingness Model was not a good fit to explain these relations. Findings from this study highlight the role parents play in the development of youth risky driving practices. PMID:24797085

  11. Kentucky Trains Parents to Help Schools Bolster STEM Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Parents from around Kentucky are taking part in an unusual effort to encourage parents to take a more active role in promoting science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) topics in their local schools. They have joined the Commonwealth Institute for Parent Leadership, which tries to help adults work with teachers and administrators, and…

  12. Critical Thinking, Parenting, and the Dance of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargant, Hope

    2002-01-01

    A parent of a gifted preteen discusses how parents can promote critical thinking in their gifted adolescents. Parents are urged to focus three levels of cognition where critical thinking is believed to take place: analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Examples of positive interactions and questioning techniques are provided. (Contains 1 reference.)…

  13. Self-reported narcissism and perceived parental permissiveness and authoritarianism.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, A; Watson, P J; Biderman, M D; Reeves, A L

    1996-06-01

    The hypothesis that inadequate parenting promotes the development of pathological narcissism was tested in a sample of 370 undergraduate students. They responded to the O'Brien (1987) Multiphasic Narcissism Inventory (OMNI) and to measures of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness. Perceived parental permissiveness and authoritarianism served as independent predictors of greater narcissistic tendencies. The students who scored high on the OMNI were also less likely to evaluate both of their parents as having been especially strong in their use of the adjustment-promoting authoritative style. Theoretical efforts to link narcissism with inadequate parenting therefore may have merit and may deserve additional research attention. PMID:8656207

  14. Bringing Parents to School: The Effect of Invitations from School, Teacher, and Child on Parental Involvement in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shajith, Bindiya I.; Erchul, William P.

    2014-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's school activities is beneficial for children's academic and social competence. However, parental involvement tends to decrease as children become older and it is therefore important to promote parental involvement at the secondary level, especially in middle schools. Frequent, positive home-school communications…

  15. Smart Times: A Parent's Guide to Quality Time with Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtt, Kent Garland

    Containing over 200 quality time activities for preschool-age children and their parents, "Smart Times" is designed to promote the development of children's physical, social, and cognitive skills and to help parents and children enjoy each other's company more. Recipes for fun and learning are provided to stimulate imagination, promote close…

  16. Many Parents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maseng, Torleiv; Moxnes, John F.

    2015-06-01

    In all living species at most, two parents are needed in order to make an offspring. In this paper, we assume that N parents are needed, and we calculate the optimum N in terms of fitness using a simple probabilistic approach. The probability of finding an attractive partner is set to P. The probability that this partner gives increased fitness is set to 1- R. We show that the best number of partners is N = 2 for any value of R as long as 1/2 < P < 2/3. For P < 1/2, the most beneficial is N = 1 partner. As P increases, there exists an optimum number of partners N > 2.

  17. The Process of Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Jane B.

    Written to help couples prepare for parenthood and to improve the effectiveness of parents, this book provides extensive guidelines and background information for accomplishing the basic tasks of parenting. Chapter One depicts parenting as a process, delineates parents' tasks and describes how parents learn to be parents. Based on Erikson's theory…

  18. Parental modelling and prompting effects on acceptance of a novel fruit in 2-4-year-old children are dependent on children's food responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Blissett, Jackie; Bennett, Carmel; Fogel, Anna; Harris, Gillian; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-02-14

    Few children consume the recommended portions of fruit or vegetables. This study examined the effects of parental physical prompting and parental modelling in children's acceptance of a novel fruit (NF) and examined the role of children's food-approach and food-avoidance traits on NF engagement and consumption. A total of 120 caregiver-child dyads (fifty-four girls, sixty-six boys) participated in this study. Dyads were allocated to one of the following three conditions: physical prompting but no modelling, physical prompting and modelling or a modelling only control condition. Dyads ate a standardised meal containing a portion of a fruit new to the child. Parents completed measures of children's food approach and avoidance. Willingness to try the NF was observed, and the amount of the NF consumed was measured. Physical prompting but no modelling resulted in greater physical refusal of the NF. There were main effects of enjoyment of food and food fussiness on acceptance. Food responsiveness interacted with condition such that children who were more food responsive had greater NF acceptance in the prompting and modelling conditions in comparison with the modelling only condition. In contrast, children with low food responsiveness had greater acceptance in the modelling control condition than in the prompting but no modelling condition. Physical prompting in the absence of modelling is likely to be detrimental to NF acceptance. Parental use of physical prompting strategies, in combination with modelling of NF intake, may facilitate acceptance of NF, but only in food-responsive children. Modelling consumption best promotes acceptance in children with low food responsiveness. PMID:26603382

  19. Predictors of Non- Hookah Smoking Among High-School Students Based On Prototype/Willingness Model

    PubMed Central

    Abedini, Sedigheh; MorowatiSharifabad, MohammadAli; Chaleshgar Kordasiabi, Mosharafeh; Ghanbarnejad, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to determine predictors of refraining from hookah smoking among high-school students in Bandar Abbas, southern Iran based on Prototype/Willingness model. Methods: This cross- sectional with analytic approach was performed on 240 high-school students selected by a cluster random sampling. The data of demographic and Prototype-Willingness Model constructs were acquired via a self-administrated questionnaire. Data were analyzed by mean, frequency, correlation, liner and logistic regression statistical tests. Results: Statistically significant determinants of the intention to refrain from hookah smoking were subjective norms, willingness, and attitude. Regression model indicated that the three items together explained 46.9% of the non-smoking hookah intention variance. Attitude and subjective norms predicted 36.0% of the non-smoking hookah intention variance. There was a significant relationship between the participants’ negative prototype about the hookah smokers and the willingness to avoid from hookah smoking (P=0.002). Also willingness predicted non-smoking hookah better than the intention (P<0.001). Conclusion: Deigning intervention to increase negative prototype about the hookah smokers and reducing situations and conditions which facilitate hookah smoking, such as easy access to tobacco products in the cafés, beaches can be useful results among adolescents to hookah smoking prevention. PMID:25097836

  20. Willingness to Use Microbicides Varies by Race/Ethnicity, Experience With Prevention Products, and Partner Type

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Kathleen M.; Fava, Joseph L.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Christensen, Anna L.; Vargas, Sara; Barroso, Candelaria

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate women's willingness to use vaginal microbicides to reduce/prevent HIV infection, using measures grounded in the individual, behavioral, and social contexts of sex. Design A cross-sectional study that enrolled a sample (N = 531) of 18−55 year old Latina, African-American, and White women in the U.S. between October, 2004, and July, 2005. Main Outcome Measures Willingness to use microbicides and individual- and context-related variables (e.g., demographics, relationship status). Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a one-dimensional, 8-item scale, with high internal consistency (α = .91). Subgroup analyses within the Latina (n = 166), African-American (n = 193), and White sub-samples (n = 172) also supported a unidimensional scale with strong internal validity and high reliability. Race/ethnicity as a contextual factor, a woman's history of using prevention products, and the nature of the sexual partnership were predictive of willingness to use microbicides (R = .41). That is, women with greater frequencies of condom use, a history of spermicide use, and non-main sexual partners had higher predicted Willingness to Use Microbicides scale scores, while White women had lower predicted scores. Conclusion The Willingness to Use Microbicides scale serves as the first psychometrically validated measure of factors related to microbicide acceptability. Developing and implementing psychometrically validated and contextualized microbicide acceptability measures, in an effort to understand microbicide users and circumstances of use, is crucial to both clinical trials and future intervention studies. PMID:18020851

  1. The psychology of recycled water: Factors predicting disgust and willingness to use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wester, Julia; Timpano, Kiara R.; ćek, Demet; Broad, Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    Water recycling is increasingly recognized as a critical strategy to maintain sustainable water supplies. Yet public acceptance of water recycling often lags behind. It is unclear the degree to which individuals are aware of the role of disgust in their decisions about recycled water, how important anticipated disgust is to willingness to use when controlling for other factors, and what the most effective method of presenting information about water recycling would be to decrease disgust reactions and increase willingness to use. We used a two-pronged approach, combining a survey with open-ended and psychometric measures with an experimental manipulation, in a U.S., web-based sample (N = 428). Only 2% of participants self-identified disgust as important to their decisions about recycled water. When measured directly using a Likert scale, however, anticipated disgust was the strongest predictor of willingness to use recycled water when controlling for individual differences that have been shown to impact willingness to use, including a subscale of individual pathogen disgust sensitivity. Finally, participants were exposed to an educational brochure about water reuse framed either affectively or cognitively or were shown a simple, neutral definition. Exposure to either the affectively or cognitively framed brochures lowered anticipated disgust, but did not significantly affect willingness to use recycled water compared to the neutral condition.

  2. Knowledge and willingness to use emergency contraception among low-income post-partum women.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R; Schwarz, E B; Freedman, L; Darney, P

    2000-06-01

    We performed a multivariate analysis to determine factors associated with knowledge and willingness to use emergency contraception in a consecutive sample of 371 post-partum women from an inner-city public hospital. Women were queried about previous contraceptive use, pregnancy history including abortions and unplanned pregnancies, and demographic characteristics. Outcomes included knowledge of emergency contraception and willingness to use it. Questionnaires were conducted in person, in English or Spanish.Of 371 women, 3% had used emergency contraception, 36% had heard of it, and 7% knew the correct timing for use. Two-thirds of the population indicated a willingness to use emergency contraception in the future. Factors positively associated with knowledge included being a teenager or more than 30 years old, prior use of condoms, and history of an elective abortion. Being multiparous, monolingual Spanish-speaking, or Asian were negatively associated with knowledge. Willingness to use emergency contraception was positively associated with being multiparous and negatively associated with a higher income, moral or religious objections to the use of emergency contraception, a belief that it is unsafe or a perception that it is an abortificient. Knowledge about emergency contraception, especially correct timing, remains low. Multiparous women should receive increased education given their lack of knowledge but willingness to use emergency contraception. In order to increase the acceptability of emergency contraception, educational efforts must include accurate information about its mechanism of use and safety. PMID:10958877

  3. Correlates of Willingness to Engage in Residential Gardening: Implications for Health Optimization in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Motunrayo Ibrahim, Fausat

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gardening is a worthwhile adventure which engenders health op­timization. Yet, a dearth of evidences that highlights motivations to engage in gardening exists. This study examined willingness to engage in gardening and its correlates, including some socio-psychological, health related and socio-demographic variables. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, 508 copies of a structured questionnaire were randomly self administered among a group of civil servants of Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi-item measures were used to assess variables. Step wise multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of willingness to engage in gar­dening Results: Simple percentile analysis shows that 71.1% of respondents do not own a garden. Results of step wise multiple regression analysis indicate that descriptive norm of gardening is a good predictor, social support for gardening is better while gardening self efficacy is the best predictor of willingness to engage in gardening (P< 0.001). Health consciousness, gardening response efficacy, education and age are not predictors of this willingness (P> 0.05). Results of t-test and ANOVA respectively shows that gender is not associated with this willingness (P> 0.05), but marital status is (P< 0.05).  Conclusion: Socio-psychological characteristics and being married are very rele­vant in motivations to engage in gardening. The nexus between gardening and health optimization appears to be highly obscured in this population. PMID:24688974

  4. Willingness to pay to sustain and expand National Health Insurance services in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Hui-Chu; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to investigate people's willingness to pay to sustain the current National Health Insurance (NHI) program in Taiwan and to extend that program to cover long-term care services. Methods A survey was administered to 1800 inpatients and 1800 outpatients, selected from health care facilities across all accreditation levels that were operating under the supervision of six different regional branches of Taiwan's Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI). We used a contingent valuation method with closed-ended questions to elicit participants' willingness to pay for continued national heath insurance and additional institutional long-term care services. We divided participants into six subgroups and asked individuals in these groups referendum-like yes-no questions about whether they were willing to pay one of six price bids: New Taiwan Dollar (NT$) 50, NT$100, NT$200, NT$300, NT$400, or NT$500. Logistic regression was used to analyze willingness to pay. Results We found maximum willingness to pay for continued coverage by the NHI program and additional institutional long-term care services to be NT$66 and NT$137 dollars per month, respectively. Conclusion We found that people were willing to pay more for their insurance coverage. With regard to methodology, we also found that using a contingent valuation method to elicit peoples' willingness to pay for health policy issues is valid. The results of the present referendum-like study can serve as a reference for future policy decision making. PMID:19091093

  5. Child problem recognition and help-seeking intentions among black and white parents.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Idia B; Phares, Vicky; Coates, Erica E; Bogart, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    Parents play a central role in utilization of mental health services by their children. This study explored the relationship between parents' recognition of child mental health problems and their decisions to seek help. Participants included 251 parents (49% Black, 51% White; 49% fathers, 51% mothers) recruited from community settings. Parents ranged in age from 20 to 66 years old with at least one child between ages 2 and 21. Parents read three vignettes that described a child with an anxiety disorder, ADHD, and no clinically significant diagnosis. Parents completed measures of problem recognition, perception of need, willingness to seek help, and beliefs about causes of mental illness. Findings from Generalized Estimating Equations revealed that parents were more likely to report intentions to seek help when they recognized a problem (odds ratio [OR] = 41.35, p < .001), 95% confidence interval (CI) [14.81, 115.49]; when it was an externalizing problem (OR = 1.85, p < .05), 95% CI [1.14, 3.02]; and when parents were older (OR = 1.04, p < .05), 95% CI [1.01, 1.08]. Predictors of parental problem recognition included perceived need, prior experience with mental illness, and belief in trauma as a cause of mental illness. Predictors of help-seeking intentions included problem recognition, perceived need, externalizing problem type, and being female. Given the relationship between parental problem recognition and willingness to seek help, findings suggest that efforts to address disparities in mental health utilization could focus on problem-specific, gender-sensitive, mutable factors such as helping parents value help-seeking for internalizing as well as externalizing problems. PMID:24635659

  6. Parent Training with Low-Income Multi-ethnic Parents of Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Grady, Jane

    This study tested the effectiveness of parent training (PT) as a health promotion/prevention intervention. Participants were parents of toddlers enrolled in 11 urban day care centers serving low-income families of color. The 12-week intervention consisted of a video-based PT program with group discussion. Eleven centers were matched and assigned…

  7. Preschool for Parents: What Every Parent Needs To Know about Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Bickart, Toni S.

    Noting that a high-quality preschool program is one that promotes learning through rich play experiences, this book gives parents information needed to select the right preschool for their children. Chapter 1, "Thinking about Preschool," discusses questions parents ask, practical considerations, beginning the search, and the screening phone call.…

  8. Understanding patient preferences and willingness to pay for hemophilia therapies

    PubMed Central

    Chaugule, Shraddha S; Hay, Joel W; Young, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite clearly improved clinical outcomes for prophylaxis compared to on-demand therapy, on average only 56% of patients diagnosed with severe hemophilia receive prophylactic factor replacement therapy in the US. Prophylaxis rates generally drop as patients transition from childhood to adulthood, partly due to patients becoming less adherent when they reach adulthood. Assessment of patient preferences is important because these are likely to translate into increased treatment satisfaction and adherence. In this study, we assessed preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for on-demand, prophylaxis, and longer acting prophylaxis therapies in a sample of US hemophilia patients. Methods Adult US hemophilia patients and caregivers (N=79) completed a discrete-choice survey that presented a series of trade-off questions, each including a pair of hypothetical treatment profiles. Using a mixed logit model for analysis, we compared the relative importance of five treatment characteristics: 1) out-of-pocket treatment costs (paid by patients), 2) factor dose adjustment, 3) treatment side effects, 4) availability of premixed factor, and 5) treatment effectiveness and dosing frequency. Based on these attribute estimates, we calculated patients’ WTP. Results Out-of-pocket treatment costs (P<0.001), side effects (P<0.001), and treatment effectiveness and dosing frequency (P<0.001) were found to be statistically significant in the model. Patients were willing to pay US $410 (95% confidence interval: $164–$656) out of pocket per month for thrice-weekly prophylaxis therapy compared to on-demand therapy and $360 (95% confidence interval: $145–$575) for a switch from thrice-weekly to once-weekly prophylaxis therapy. Conclusion Improvements in treatment effectiveness and dosing frequency, treatment side effects, and out-of-pocket costs per month were the greatest determinants of hemophilia treatment choice and WTP. The positive preferences and WTP for longer acting

  9. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  10. Drug Users’ Willingness to Encourage Social, Sexual, and Drug Network Members to Receive an HIV Vaccine: A Social Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Young, A. M.; DiClemente, R. J.; Halgin, D. S.; Sterk, C. E.; Havens, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined feasibility of peer-based promotion of HIV vaccination and dyadic correlates to vaccine encouragement in risk- and non-risk networks of drug users (n = 433) in the US. Data were collected on HIV vaccine attitudes, risk compensation intentions, likelihood of encouraging vaccination, and recent (past 6 months) risk (i.e. involving sex and/or injecting drugs) and non-risk (i.e. involving co-usage of noninjected drugs and/or social support) relationships. Willingness to encourage HIV vaccination was reported in 521 and 555 risk- and non-risk relationships, respectively. However, 37 % expressed hesitancy, typically due to fear of side effects or social concerns. Encouragement was often motivated by perceived HIV risk, though 9 % were motivated by risk compensation intentions. In non-risk partnerships, encouragement was associated with drug co-usage, and in risk relationships, with perceived vaccine acceptability and encouragement by the partner. Network-based HIV vaccine promotion may be a successful strategy, but risk compensation intentions should be explored. PMID:24849621

  11. Mothers' beliefs about knowledge, child development, and parenting strategies: expanding the goals of parenting programs.

    PubMed

    Bond, Lynne A; Burns, Catherine E

    2006-11-01

    This study examined the relationship between mothers' beliefs about knowledge (epistemology) and conceptions of child development and parent-child communication strategies. One hundred twenty mothers of preschool-aged children completed the Ways of Knowing measure and Parent Communication Strategies Interview; a subset of 38 also completed the Concepts of Development Questionnaire. Analyses revealed that mothers with more complex understanding of knowledge have less categorical and more multi-faceted conceptions of child development and are more likely to endorse parenting strategies that are less authoritarian and more cognitively challenging for children. EDITOR'S STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: Prevention programs designed to promote constructive parenting should foster parents' epistemological development (which guide beliefs and practices) rather than dwell on individual parent behaviors. The authors continue to develop the promising practice of tailoring interventions on the basis of parents' personal belief systems (see also Burns & Bond, 2004). PMID:17001521

  12. Parents as Advocates for Child Pedestrian Injury Prevention: What Do They Believe about the Efficacy of Prevention Strategies and about How to Create Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFrancesco, Susan; Gielen, Andrea Carlson; Bishai, David; Mahoney, Patricia; Ho, Shiu; Guyer, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the support of parents and other community members for child pedestrian safety measures, their willingness to pay in terms of volunteer time and money for efforts to make child pedestrian safety improvements in their neighborhood, and their views on how to affect child pedestrian safety improvements in their communities. In…

  13. Evolution of parental care driven by mutual reinforcement of parental food provisioning and sibling competition

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andy; Smiseth, Per T.

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, altricial birds and some invertebrates, parents care for their offspring by providing them with food and protection until independence. Although parental food provisioning is often essential for offspring survival and growth, very little is known about the conditions favouring the evolutionary innovation of this key component of care. Here, we develop a mathematical model for the evolution of parental food provisioning. We find that this evolutionary innovation is favoured when the efficiency of parental food provisioning is high relative to the efficiency of offspring self-feeding and/or parental guarding. We also explore the coevolution between food provisioning and other components of parental care, as well as offspring behaviour. We find that the evolution of food provisioning prompts evolutionary changes in other components of care by allowing parents to choose safer nest sites, and that it promotes the evolution of sibling competition, which in turn further drives the evolution of parental food provisioning. This mutual reinforcement of parental care and sibling competition suggests that evolution of parental food provisioning should show a unidirectional trend from no parental food provisioning to full parental food provisioning. PMID:20667869

  14. Human-itarian aid? Two forms of dehumanization and willingness to help after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Andrighetto, Luca; Baldissarri, Cristina; Lattanzio, Sara; Loughnan, Steve; Volpato, Chiara

    2014-09-01

    The present research explores the distinct effects of animalistic and mechanistic dehumanization on willingness to help natural disaster victims. We examined Japanese and Haitians, two national groups recently struck by earthquakes. We showed that Italian participants differently dehumanized the two outgroups: Japanese were attributed low human nature (dehumanized as automata), whereas Haitians were attributed low human uniqueness (dehumanized as animal-like). Ninety participants were then randomly assigned to the Japanese or Haitian target group condition. Mediation analyses showed that animalistic dehumanization decreased willingness to help Haitians, whereas mechanistic dehumanization decreased willingness to help Japanese, even when controlling for attitudes. Importantly, reduced empathy explained the effects of both forms of dehumanization on intergroup helping. PMID:24588786

  15. Willingness to pay for home- and community-based services for seniors in Florida.

    PubMed

    Loh, Chung-Ping; Shapiro, Adam

    2013-01-01

    States are increasingly interested in measuring the benefit of home- and community-based services (HCBS) programs in order to determine if continued provision of HCBS can be justified on a cost-benefit basis. This study attempts to assess the maximum dollar amount HCBS enrollees or eligible applicants are willing to pay as a measure of the value of the services to them. A contingent valuation survey was conducted on a random sample of 409 clients who were enrolled in or waitlisted for HCBS programs in Florida. Based on estimates from a random-effect model, the median and mean willingness to pay amounts are calculated to be $901 and $933 per month per person, respectively, with considerable variation across HCBS programs. The major determinants of willingness to pay include household income and individual functional status. The sizable values for willingness to pay reported in this study suggest that HCBS programs are perceived as a valuable resource for the elderly. PMID:23438507

  16. HIV-related knowledge, stigma, and willingness to disclose: A mediation analysis

    PubMed Central

    YANG, H.; LI, X.; STANTON, B.; FANG, X.; LIN, D.; NAAR-KING, S.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing HIV knowledge is a focus of many HIV education and prevention efforts. While the bivariate relationship of HIV serostatus disclosure with HIV-related knowledge and stigma has been reported in the literature, little is known about the mediation effect of stigma on the relationship of HIV knowledge with HIV serostatus disclosure. Data from 4,208 rural-to-urban migrants in China were analyzed to explore this issue. Overall, 70% of respondents reported willingness to disclose their HIV status if they were HIV-positive. Willingness to disclose was negatively associated with misconceptions about HIV transmission and stigma. Stigma mediated the relationship between misconceptions and willingness to disclose among women but not men. The mediation effect of stigma suggests that stigmatization reduction would be an important component of HIV prevention approaches. Gender inequality needs to be addressed in stigmatization reduction efforts. PMID:16971280

  17. AAPI college students' willingness to seek counseling: the role of culture, stigma, and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Na-Yeun; Miller, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    This study tested 4 theoretically and empirically derived structural equation models of Asian, Asian American, and Pacific Islanders' willingness to seek counseling with a sample of 278 college students. The models represented competing hypotheses regarding the manner in which Asian cultural values, European American cultural values, public stigma, stigma by close others, self-stigma, and attitudes toward seeking professional help related to willingness to seek counseling. We found that Asian and European American cultural values differentially related to willingness to seek counseling indirectly through specific indirect pathways (public stigma, stigma by close others, self-stigma, and attitudes toward seeking professional help). Our results also showed that the magnitude of model-implied relationships did not vary as a function of generational status. Study limitations, future directions for research, and implications for counseling are discussed. PMID:25019538

  18. Nurses' willingness to manage the pain of specific groups of patients.

    PubMed

    Brockopp, Dorothy Y; Ryan, Patty; Warden, Sherry

    Effective pain management remains a challenge for the nursing profession. While nurses' knowledge of appropriate pain strategies has improved considerably, additional research needs to be conducted into the influence of factors other than knowledge on the management of pain. This study examined the willingness of nurses (n = 157) and nursing students (n = 265) to spend time and energy managing the pain of different groups of patients, when told that all patients had the same degree of pain. The willingness of nurses to spend time and energy in managing patients' pain was used as a proxy for preconceived notions relative to particular groups of patients. A pattern emerged that suggested that nurses' and nursing students' willingness to spend time and energy managing patients' pain in influenced by their perceptions of different groups of patients. PMID:12743487

  19. Community Willingness to Participate in a Dengue Study in Aceh Province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Samsul; Bustaman, Aslam; Radiansyah, Arsil; Angraini, Pradiba; Fasli, Riny; Salwiyadi, Salwiyadi; Bastian, Reza Akbar; Oktiviyari, Ade; Akmal, Imaduddin; Iqbalamin, Muhammad; Adil, Jamalul; Henrizal, Fenni; Darmayanti, Darmayanti; Pratama, Rovy; Fajar, Jonny Karunia; Setiawan, Abdul Malik; Imrie, Allison; Kuch, Ulrich; Groneberg, David Alexander; Sasmono, R. Tedjo; Dhimal, Meghnath; Müller, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue virus infection is the most rapidly spreading vector-borne disease in the world. Essential research on dengue virus transmission and its prevention requires community participation. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the factors that are associated with the willingness of communities in high prevalence areas to participate in dengue research. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the willingness of healthy community members in Aceh province, Indonesia, to participate in dengue research that would require phlebotomy. Methodology/Principal Findings A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in nine regencies and municipalities of Aceh from November 2014 to March 2015. Interviews using a set of validated questionnaires were conducted to collect data on demography, history of dengue infection, socioeconomic status, and knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dengue fever. Two-step logistic regression and Spearman’s rank correlation (rs) analysis were used to assess the influence of independent variables on dependent variables. Among 535 participants, less than 20% had a good willingness to participate in the dengue study. The factors associated with good willingness to participate were being female, working as a civil servant, private employee or entrepreneur, having a high socioeconomic status and good knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dengue. Good knowledge and attitude regarding dengue were positive independent predictors of willingness to participate (OR: 2.30 [95% CI: 1.36–3.90] and 3.73 [95% CI: 2.24–6.21], respectively). Conclusion/Significance The willingness to participate in dengue research is very low among community members in Aceh, and the two most important associated factors are knowledge and attitude regarding dengue. To increase participation rate, efforts to improve the knowledge and attitude of community members regarding dengue fever and dengue-related research is required

  20. Cost sharing and hereditary cancer risk: predictors of willingness-to-pay for genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Matro, Jennifer M; Ruth, Karen J; Wong, Yu-Ning; McCully, Katen C; Rybak, Christina M; Meropol, Neal J; Hall, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Increasing use of predictive genetic testing to gauge hereditary cancer risk has been paralleled by rising cost-sharing practices. Little is known about how demographic and psychosocial factors may influence individuals' willingness-to-pay for genetic testing. The Gastrointestinal Tumor Risk Assessment Program Registry includes individuals presenting for genetic risk assessment based on personal/family cancer history. Participants complete a baseline survey assessing cancer history and psychosocial items. Willingness-to-pay items include intention for: genetic testing only if paid by insurance; testing with self-pay; and amount willing-to-pay ($25-$2,000). Multivariable models examined predictors of willingness-to-pay out-of-pocket (versus only if paid by insurance) and willingness-to-pay a smaller versus larger sum (≤$200 vs. ≥$500). All statistical tests are two-sided (α = 0.05). Of 385 evaluable participants, a minority (42%) had a personal cancer history, while 56% had ≥1 first-degree relative with colorectal cancer. Overall, 21.3% were willing to have testing only if paid by insurance, and 78.7% were willing-to-pay. Predictors of willingness-to-pay were: 1) concern for positive result; 2) confidence to control cancer risk; 3) fewer perceived barriers to colorectal cancer screening; 4) benefit of testing to guide screening (all p < 0.05). Subjects willing-to-pay a higher amount were male, more educated, had greater cancer worry, fewer relatives with colorectal cancer, and more positive attitudes toward genetic testing (all p < 0.05). Individuals seeking risk assessment are willing-to-pay out-of-pocket for genetic testing, and anticipate benefits to reducing cancer risk. Identifying factors associated with willingness-to-pay for genetic services is increasingly important as testing is integrated into routine cancer care. PMID:24794065

  1. Healthcare workers' willingness to work during an influenza pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Yumiko; Beck, Charles R; Dingwall, Robert; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the proportion of healthcare workers (HCWs) willing to work during an influenza pandemic and identify associated risk factors, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis compliant with PRISMA guidance. Databases and grey literature were searched to April 2013, and records were screened against protocol eligibility criteria. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were undertaken using a piloted form. Random-effects meta-analyses estimated (i) pooled proportion of HCWs willing to work and (ii) pooled odds ratios of risk factors associated with willingness to work. Heterogeneity was quantified using the I2 statistic, and publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger's test. Data were synthesized narratively where meta-analyses were not possible. Forty-three studies met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of the proportion of HCWs willing to work was abandoned due to excessive heterogeneity (I2 = 99·2%). Narrative synthesis showed study estimates ranged from 23·1% to 95·8% willingness to work, depending on context. Meta-analyses of specific factors showed that male HCWs, physicians and nurses, full-time employment, perceived personal safety, awareness of pandemic risk and clinical knowledge of influenza pandemics, role-specific knowledge, pandemic response training, and confidence in personal skills were statistically significantly associated with increased willingness. Childcare obligations were significantly associated with decreased willingness. HCWs' willingness to work during an influenza pandemic was moderately high, albeit highly variable. Numerous risk factors showed a statistically significant association with willingness to work despite significant heterogeneity between studies. None of the included studies were based on appropriate theoretical constructs of population behaviour. PMID:25807865

  2. Variables related to graduate students' willingness to forgive a job-related transgression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sherman A; Chard, Kathleen M

    2003-12-01

    43 graduate students' willingness, within a hypothetical situation, to forgive a friend whose negligent actions negatively affected their chances of getting a job was examined. Self-actualization, age, and general interpersonal closeness were proposed as possible variables related to these students' ratings of willingness to forgive while controlling for sex. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed this model predicted 23% of the variability in Forgiveness scores using self-actualization and age as significantly related to forgiveness in a positive direction, but with sex and general interpersonal closeness showing no significant relation. PMID:14723469

  3. Data of a willingness to pay survey for national climate change mitigation policies in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Uehleke, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    The dataset includes responses from a contingent valuation study about the national climate change mitigation policies in Germany. The online survey was carried out in the spring of 2014. It assesses the willingness to pay for an increase of the national CO2 reduction target by 10 percentage points, which closely represents Germany׳s climate change mitigation strategy. Respondents were randomly allocated to one of the following three question formats: The dichotomous choice referendum, the dissonance minimizing referendum and the two-sided payment ladder. The data can be used to investigate the influence of alternative statistical approaches on the willingness to pay measures and their comparison across question formats. PMID:27054192

  4. Data of a willingness to pay survey for national climate change mitigation policies in Germany.

    PubMed

    Uehleke, Reinhard

    2016-06-01

    The dataset includes responses from a contingent valuation study about the national climate change mitigation policies in Germany. The online survey was carried out in the spring of 2014. It assesses the willingness to pay for an increase of the national CO2 reduction target by 10 percentage points, which closely represents Germany׳s climate change mitigation strategy. Respondents were randomly allocated to one of the following three question formats: The dichotomous choice referendum, the dissonance minimizing referendum and the two-sided payment ladder. The data can be used to investigate the influence of alternative statistical approaches on the willingness to pay measures and their comparison across question formats. PMID:27054192

  5. Socioeconomic inequalities in height, leg length and trunk length among children aged 6.5 years and their parents from the Republic of Belarus: Evidence from the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rita; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kramer, Michael S.; Smith, George Davey; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Matush, Lidia; Martin, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lower socioeconomic position is associated with shorter stature, in particular shorter leg length, but the magnitude of these associations in non-Western countries has received little attention. Aim To examine socioeconomic differentials in height, leg and trunk length in 6.5 year olds from the Republic of Belarus and compare these to differentials in parental height. Methods Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations in a cohort of 13 889 children. Results Children from non-manual households were 1.0 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.7–1.3 cm) taller than those from manual households. Mothers and fathers from non-manual backgrounds were 0.7 cm (0.5–0.8) and 1.8 cm (1.6–2.0) taller than those from manual backgrounds, respectively. Associations with higher parental educational attainment were similar. The magnitudes of the associations of socioeconomic position with leg length were similar to those with trunk length. Adjusting for mid-parental height and number of older siblings attenuated associations markedly. Conclusions In Belarus, similar socioeconomic differentials in height were observed in both children and their parents. Among children, height differentials were partly explained by mid-parental height and number of older siblings. Leg length was not a more sensitive indicator of childhood socioeconomic conditions than trunk length. PMID:21591995

  6. Annual Conference on Parent Education Proceedings (4th, Denton, Texas, February 9-10, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Arminta, Ed.; And Others

    The goals of the 2-day interdisciplinary conference covered in these proceedings were to: (1) present a spectrum of program models, curriculum, and knowledge related to parent education, parent involvement, and parenting; (2) provide in-depth training in parent education; and (3) promote interaction and exchange of ideas. Included in the…

  7. Parental acceptability of the watchful waiting approach in pediatric acute otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Broides, Arnon; Bereza, Olga; Lavi-Givon, Noga; Fruchtman, Yariv; Gazala, Eli; Leibovitz, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine parental knowledge about acute otitis media (AOM) and its antibiotic therapy, antibiotic resistance and the willingness to comply with the watchful waiting (WW) approach in primary care settings in southern Israel. METHODS: The study was conducted in 3 primary care clinics and the pediatric emergency room of Soroka University Medical Center. Questionnaires (20 questions on education background, previous AOM experience, knowledge on antimicrobial resistance and attitude vs the WW approach) were filled by 600 parents (150 at each centers) of children < 6 years of age. RESULTS: Mothers represented 69% of parents; 2% had an education of < 10 school years, 46% had high-school education and 17% had an academic degree. 69% parents reported previous experience with AOM and 56% thought that antibiotics represent the only treatment for AOM. Knowledge on bacterial resistance to antibiotics was reported by 57% of the parents; 86% parents were willing to accept/probably accept the WW approach for their children. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between parental education and knowledge about bacterial resistance to antibiotics and that previous experience with AOM was significantly associated with reluctance to accept the WW approach. More parents with knowledge on bacterial resistance were willing to accept the WW approach compared with parents without such knowledge. No correlation was found between the education level and willingness to accept the WW approach. CONCLUSION: A significant correlation was found between previous parental education and experience with AOM and the knowledge about antibiotic use, bacterial resistance and acceptance of the WW approach. PMID:27170930

  8. Child Problem Recognition and Help-Seeking Intentions Among Black and White Parents

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Idia B.; Phares, Vicky; Coates, Erica E.; Bogart, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parents play a central role in utilization of mental health services by their children. This study explored the relationship between parents’ recognition of child mental health problems and their decisions to seek help. Method Participants included 251 parents (49% Black, 51% White; 49% fathers, 51% mothers) recruited from community settings. Parents ranged in age from 20–66 years-old with at least one child between ages 2–21. Parents read three vignettes that described a child with an anxiety disorder, ADHD, and no clinically-significant diagnosis. Parents completed measures of problem recognition, perception of need, willingness to seek help, and beliefs about causes of mental illness. Results Findings from Generalized Estimating Equations revealed that parents were more likely to report intentions to seek help when they recognized a problem (OR = 41.35, p < .001, 95% CI [14.81, 115.49]), when it was an externalizing problem (OR = 1.85, p < .05, 95% CI [1.14, 3.02]), and when parents were older (OR = 1.04, p < .05, 95% CI [1.01, 1.08]). Predictors of parental problem recognition included perceived need, prior experience with mental illness, and belief in trauma as a cause of mental illness. Predictors of help-seeking intentions included problem recognition, perceived need, externalizing problem type, and being female. Conclusions Given the relationship between parental problem recognition and willingness to seek help, findings suggest that efforts to address disparities in mental health utilization could focus on problem-specific, gender-sensitive, mutable factors such as helping parents value help-seeking for internalizing as well as externalizing problems. PMID:24635659

  9. Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

  10. The Utility of the Prototype/Willingness Model in Predicting Alcohol Use among North American Indigenous Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armenta, Brian E.; Hautala, Dane S.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we considered the utility of the prototype/willingness model in predicting alcohol use among North-American Indigenous adolescents. Specifically, using longitudinal data, we examined the associations among subjective drinking norms, positive drinker prototypes, drinking expectations (as a proxy of drinking willingness), and…

  11. What Makes or Breaks Provider--Researcher Collaborations in HIV Research? A Mixed Method Analysis of Providers' Willingness to Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Rogerio M.

    2013-01-01

    Research is lacking about what makes or breaks collaboration between researchers and HIV services providers. This study identified factors that influence providers' levels of willingness to collaborate in HIV prevention scientific research. Survey measures were grounded in in-depth interview data and included providers' "willingness to…

  12. Willingness to Remain Friends and Attend School with Lesbian and Gay Peers: Relational Expressions of Prejudice among Heterosexual Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, heterosexual students' willingness to remain friends with peers who disclose that they are gay or lesbian and their willingness to attend schools that include gay and lesbian students were examined among two large middle school and high school samples (Sample 1: n = 20,509; 50.7% girls; Sample 2: n = 16,917; 50.2% girls). Boys were…

  13. Parents Make a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Responsive Education, Boston, MA.

    This handbook discusses the following types of parent involvement in education: (1) decision-making; (2) parents as educators; (3) advocacy; (4) school support; and (5) parent education and support. The benefits of parent involvement are outlined. Examples from New York City's 1987-88 Parent Involvement Program (PIP) demonstrate that parent…

  14. Parenting and Video Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinkuehler, Constance

    2016-01-01

    There is a terrific disconnect between parenting advice related to media and the realities of contemporary parenting. We condone enrichment parenting and condemn the use of "digital babysitters," admonishing parents who exceed the two-hour screen time limitation even when, all the while, no one is listening. Parents are not merely blasé…

  15. The parenting partnership: The evaluation of a human service/corporate workplace collaboration for the prevention of substance abuse and mental health problems, and the promotion of family and work adjustment.

    PubMed

    Felner, R D; Brand, S; Mulhall, K E; Counter, B; Millman, J B; Fried, J

    1994-12-01

    A partnership between corporate worksites, a community-based prevention agency, and families in those worksites is described. Its primary goals were the reduction of family risk and enhancement of family protective factors that predispose children and youth to substance abuse and related social and emotional difficulties. A related goal of the program is to reduce family stress levels and attitudes that may influence the parents' levels of risk for substance abuse and related disorder. The program delivery strategy is conceived of as part of the necessart efforts of prevention programs to reach target populations in host settings in which they may naturally participate, thereby reducing obstacles and barriers to participation that often impede prevention efforts. Evaluation revealed that the program was generally better able to retain parents for a fairly lengthy period, and with high rates of attendance. Program attendance was also not affected by parental background characteristics that, in other delivery approaches, are often associated with poor attendance and high drop-out levels. Results also indicated that levels of program exposure (dosage) do make a significant difference in the efficacy of such efforts as those parents in the program who participated in higher percentages and numbers of sessions (i.e. more than 80% of sessions) showed both short-term and longer-term (i.e. across 18 month follow-ups) gains in their ratings of the target child's behavior problems and strengths, substance abuse resistance related knowledge and attitudes, reduced parental stress, depression and irritability, and increased utilization of social support. By contrast, parents who received a low program exposure exhibited a more restricted set of short-term gains. The findings are discussed in terms of their importance for consideration of program dosage for prevention programs, and the need to attend to the context in which programming is offered as it may facilitate or impede

  16. Characteristics of the work environment related to older employees' willingness to continue working: intrinsic motivation as a mediator.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Peter T

    2011-08-01

    The relationships between older employees' willingness to continue working and characteristics of the work environment for older workers were investigated, as well as a possible mediation by intrinsic motivation. 103 employees ages 50 to 65 years, from various sectors of the Dutch labor market, completed questionnaires that measured willingness to continue working, intrinsic motivation, organizational stimulation, work variety, work challenge, and job autonomy. Hierarchical regression analyses showed organizational stimulation, as well as the various job characteristics, were positively related to employees' willingness to continue working. Moreover, intrinsic motivation fully mediated the relationship of work variety with willingness to continue working and partially mediated the relationships of organizational stimulation, work challenge, and job autonomy with willingness to continue working. It was concluded that organizations can encourage older workers to work until age 65 and beyond by shifting their focus from extrinsic to intrinsic rewards. PMID:22049660

  17. Effects of Ads from a Drug and Alcohol Prevention Campaign on Willingness to Engage in Alcohol-Related Risky Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral willingness is conceptualized as a pathway to behavior that is non-deliberative, yet traditional measures require thoughtful deliberation to complete. This study explored non-deliberative measures of alcohol-related willingness to complement recent work on marijuana-related willingness. The study also examined whether ads from a field-tested drug-and-alcohol prevention campaign may have operated by influencing alcohol-related willingness. Participants viewed campaign ads or consumer ads (control). Outcomes were reaction times to make speeded judgments about whether one would engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors. Results showed that campaign ads lowered willingness to play drinking games and (for males) to drive while intoxicated. PMID:21646292

  18. Who needs cream and sugar when there is eco-labeling? Taste and willingness to pay for "eco-friendly" coffee.

    PubMed

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Hedblom, Daniel; Holmgren, Mattias; Haga, Andreas; Langeborg, Linda; Nöstl, Anatole; Kågström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Participants tasted two cups of coffee, decided which they preferred, and then rated each coffee. They were told (in lure) that one of the cups contained "eco-friendly" coffee while the other did not, although the two cups contained identical coffee. In Experiments 1 and 3, but not in Experiment 2, the participants were also told which cup contained which type of coffee before they tasted. The participants preferred the taste of, and were willing to pay more for, the "eco-friendly" coffee, at least those who scored high on a questionnaire on attitudes toward sustainable consumer behavior (Experiment 1). High sustainability consumers were also willing to pay more for "eco-friendly" coffee, even when they were told, after their decision, that they preferred the non-labeled alternative (Experiment 2). Moreover, the eco-label effect does not appear to be a consequence of social desirability, as participants were just as biased when reporting the taste estimates and willingness to pay anonymously (Experiment 3). Eco labels not only promote a willingness to pay more for the product but also lead to a more favorable perceptual experience of it. PMID:24324623

  19. Who Needs Cream and Sugar When There Is Eco-Labeling? Taste and Willingness to Pay for “Eco-Friendly” Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Hedblom, Daniel; Holmgren, Mattias; Haga, Andreas; Langeborg, Linda; Nöstl, Anatole; Kågström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Participants tasted two cups of coffee, decided which they preferred, and then rated each coffee. They were told (in lure) that one of the cups contained “eco-friendly” coffee while the other did not, although the two cups contained identical coffee. In Experiments 1 and 3, but not in Experiment 2, the participants were also told which cup contained which type of coffee before they tasted. The participants preferred the taste of, and were willing to pay more for, the “eco-friendly” coffee, at least those who scored high on a questionnaire on attitudes toward sustainable consumer behavior (Experiment 1). High sustainability consumers were also willing to pay more for “eco-friendly” coffee, even when they were told, after their decision, that they preferred the non-labeled alternative (Experiment 2). Moreover, the eco-label effect does not appear to be a consequence of social desirability, as participants were just as biased when reporting the taste estimates and willingness to pay anonymously (Experiment 3). Eco labels not only promote a willingness to pay more for the product but also lead to a more favorable perceptual experience of it. PMID:24324623

  20. Parenting while Being Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

  1. Production of a Multi-Media Package to Promote Positive Parental Attitudes toward Non-Traditional Vocational Education. Final Report. Project Dates: July 1, 1979 to April 30, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Richard L.

    A Pennsylvania project produced a multi-media program designed to increase awareness of and change attitudes about occupational sex-role stereotyping among parents of present and future students in vocational education. The multi-media program consisted of a fifteen-minute color/sound motion picture on nontraditional careers entitled "Vocational…

  2. The moderating role of parenting on the relationship between psychopathy and antisocial behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Silva, Teresa C; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to analyze the impact of several parenting factors on the relationship between psychopathy and antisocial behavior. Nine hundred youths and their mothers reported on parent-youth interactions, and youth self-report measures of psychopathy, delinquency and violent behavior were taken. Multiple regression was used to test for the significance of interactions between parenting and psychopathy scores. In terms of delinquency, linear interactions between psychopathy and the level of conflict with parents and parents' knowledge of their youths' whereabouts/youths' willingness to disclose information were found based on the data reported by the youths. Data reported by mothers indicated a linear interaction between psychopathy and parents' knowledge/youth disclosure, and a quadratic interaction of conflict with parents. For violence, we used logistic regression models to analyze moderation. No interaction effects between psychopahy scores and parenting factors were found. Youths' reports of high conflict with parents and parents' knowledge/youth disclosure showed to have an impact on violence regardless of the level of psychopathic traits. Implications for the prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26651859

  3. Student Teachers' Attitudes towards and Willingness to Teach Evolution in a Changing South African Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrie, A. L.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes of South African student teachers towards the theory of evolution and their willingness to teach it. The teaching of evolution has been excluded from the South African school curriculum for most of the 20th century. In 2008, Grade 12 learners were for the first time exposed to the concept of evolution in the…

  4. Asian International Students' Willingness to Seek Counseling: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Peiwei; Wong, Y. Joel; Toth, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Using a mixed-methods survey design that was predominantly quantitative, this study explored Asian international students' willingness to seek counseling. Participants were 177 Asian international students recruited from a U.S. Midwestern University. After controlling for attitudes toward psychological help-seeking and past counseling experience,…

  5. Expressed Willingness and Competence of Home Economics Teachers to Instruct Occupational Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Shirley

    A questionnaire and Super's Work Values Inventory were mailed to all teachers of home economics in junior and senior high schools and community colleges in five central California counties to investigate their expressed willingness and competence to offer occupational classes. It was also desired to determine any relationship between willingness…

  6. Participation Willingness in Web Surveys: Exploring Effect of Sponsoring Corporation's and Survey Provider's Reputation

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chao; Pavur, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Prior research involving response rates in Web-based surveys has not adequately addressed the effect of the reputation of a sponsoring corporation that contracts with a survey provider. This study investigates the effect of two factors, namely, the reputation of a survey's provider and the reputation of a survey's sponsoring corporation, on the willingness of potential respondents to participate in a Web survey. Results of an experimental design with these two factors reveal that the sponsoring corporation's and the survey provider's strong reputations can induce potential respondents to participate in a Web survey. A sponsoring corporation's reputation has a greater effect on the participation willingness of potential respondents of a Web survey than the reputation of the survey provider. A sponsoring corporation with a weak reputation who contracts with a survey provider having a strong reputation results in increased participation willingness from potential respondents if the identity of the sponsoring corporation is disguised in a survey. This study identifies the most effective strategy to increase participation willingness for a Web-based survey by considering both the reputations of the sponsoring corporation and survey provider and whether to reveal their identities. PMID:22304457

  7. Testing a structural model of young driver willingness to uptake Smartphone Driver Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Kervick, Aoife A; Hogan, Michael J; O'Hora, Denis; Sarma, Kiran M

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in the potential value of using phone applications that can monitor driver behaviour (Smartphone Driver Support Systems, 'SDSSs') in mitigating risky driving by young people. However, their value in this regard will only be realised if young people are willing to use this technology. This paper reports the findings of a study in which a novel structural model of willingness to use SDSSs was tested. Grounded in the driver monitoring and Technology Acceptance (TA) research literature, the model incorporates the perceived risks and gains associated with potential SDSS usage and additional social cognitive factors, including perceived usability and social influences. A total of 333 smartphone users, aged 18-24, with full Irish driving licenses completed an online questionnaire examining willingness or Behavioural Intention (BI) to uptake a SDSS. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation modelling indicated that perceived gains and social influence factors had significant direct effects on BI. Perceived risks and social influence also had significant indirect effects on BI, as mediated by perceived gains. Overall, this model accounted for 72.5% of the variance in willingness to uptake SDSSs. Multi-group structural models highlighted invariance of effects across gender, high and low risk drivers, and those likely or unlikely to adopt novel phone app technologies. These findings have implications for our understanding of the willingness of young drivers to adopt and use SDSSs, and highlight potential factors that could be targeted in behavioural change interventions seeking to improve usage rates. PMID:26277411

  8. Attitudes toward Political Engagement and Willingness to Participate in Politics: Trajectories throughout Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter; Gniewosz, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on data from a longitudinal cohort-sequential project, the present study examined developmental trajectories of adolescents' attitudes toward political engagement and their willingness to participate in politics from grade 7 to 11 while accounting for the influence of school track and gender. Moreover, stabilities on the dependent…

  9. Assessing the Utility of the Willingness/Prototype Model in Predicting Help-Seeking Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Joseph H.; Vogel, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research on professional psychological help-seeking behavior has operated on the assumption that the decision to seek help is based on intentional and reasoned processes. However, research on the dual-process prototype/willingness model (PWM; Gerrard, Gibbons, Houlihan, Stock, & Pomery, 2008) suggests health-related decisions may also…

  10. Japanese University Students' Willingness to Communicate in English: The Serendipitous Effect of Oral Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuoka, Rieko; Matsumoto, Kahoko; Poole, Gregory; Matsuoka, Misato

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which college students in Japan overcame sensitivity to external evaluation and increased their willingness to communicate in English. It is not uncommon for university students in Japan, who are otherwise proficient speakers of English and motivated to learn, fail to exhibit English competency in real communication…

  11. Towards an Ecological Understanding of Willingness to Communicate in EFL Classrooms in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Jian-E.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a multiple-case study designed to investigate factors influencing willingness to communicate (WTC) in the English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom in China. Four university students participated in this study; data were collected through semi-structured interviews, learning journals recorded by the students, and…

  12. Willingness to Engage in Personal Relationships with Persons with Disabilities: Examining Category and Severity of Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Eva; Chen, Roy; Glover-Graf, Noreen M.; Kranz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the willingness of persons without disabilities (PWODs) to engage in personal relationships with persons with disabilities (PWDs). Participants (N = 305) were primarily female Hispanic students (91%) preparing for careers in the helping professions. The "Relationships and Disability Survey" assessed the effect of the category…

  13. Patterns of Change in Willingness to Communicate in Public Speaking Contexts: A Latent Growth Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodis, Georgeta M.; Bardhan, Nilanjana R.; Hodis, Flaviu A.

    2010-01-01

    This study offers a comprehensive analysis of change in willingness to communicate (WTC) in public speaking contexts (i.e., PS-WTC). The proposed conceptualization of change was tested using longitudinal data collected from a sample of 706 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory communication course in a US university. Results of latent…

  14. INFERRING WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR HOUSING AMENITIES FROM RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY VALUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a new model of consumers' choices in housing markets that incorporates three heretofore overlooked market considerations. The new model has been tested econometrically against the standard model. The new model gives estimates of buyers' willingness to pay for...

  15. Willingness to Intervene in Bullying Episodes among Middle School Students: Individual and Peer-Group Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy; Green, Harold; Polanin, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations among gender, empathy, attitudes toward bullying, willingness to intervene, and bullying within peer groups in a sample of sixth and seventh-grade students (N = 346; M Age = 12.22 years). Peer groups were identified via social network analysis using NEGOPY (Richards, 1995) and peer-group predictors were…

  16. Willingness To Communicate, Social Support, and Language Learning Orientations of Immersion Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Baker, Susan C.; Clement, Richard; Conrod, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Hypothesized that orientations toward language learning (L2) as well as social support would influence students willingness to communicate (WTC) in a second language. Grade 9 L2 students of French immersion participated in the study. Results showed endorsement of all five orientations (travel, job related, friendship with Francophones, personal…

  17. Perceptions of Opinion "Climates" and Willingness to Discuss the Issue of Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Charles T.; Neuwirth, Kurt

    1990-01-01

    Examines willingness to discuss the issue of abortion. Finds that persons whose opinions are congruent with those of the national majority are more willing to speak to a stranger than are those whose opinions are shared only by a minority. Finds that involvement and knowledge directly influence opinion expression, whereas education and gender…

  18. Willingness of Nurses to Learn with the Use of Technology: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilcher, Jobeth

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of technologically enhanced tools are becoming available to meet the ongoing professional development needs of nurses. Only a few studies have addressed nurses' willingness to learn with technology, resulting in the problem of inadequate evidence to guide best practices for technology incorporation into nursing professional…

  19. Classroom versus Societal Willingness to Communicate: Investigating French as a Second Language in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denies, Katrijn; Yashima, Tomoko; Janssen, Rianne

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates willingness to communicate (WTC) and its determinants through structural equation modelling (SEM). Building on models by MacIntyre and Charos (1996) and Yashima (2002), it addresses 3 apparent gaps in the current knowledge base: It is the first SEM-based WTC study in a Western European context, investigating French as a…

  20. College Students' Perceptions of Severity and Willingness to Seek Psychological Help For Drug and Alcohol Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowinger, Robert Jay

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 201 college students were surveyed with respect to their perceptions of severity and willingness to seek psychological help for drug and alcohol problems. Results indicated that students perceive alcohol problems as significantly less serious than drug problems and are significantly less willing to seek help for alcohol problems. Males…

  1. Relationship among Willingness To Listen, Receiver Apprehension, Communication Apprehension, Communication Competence, and Dogmatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Charles V.; Vinson, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Investigates whether subjects, 94 college students, vary in their willingness to listen (WTL) and whether this variable relates to dogmatism, receiver apprehension, Self-Perceived Communication Competence (SPCC), or communication apprehension. Indicates that the WTL scale is a reliable and valid measure of an individual's habitual propensity to…

  2. Turkish School Students and Global Warming: Beliefs and Willingness to Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2011-01-01

    One aim of environmental education is to persuade people to act in more pro-environmental ways. However, there is not a linear relationship between environmental knowledge "in general" and a willingness to act pro-environmentally. This research explores, using a specially-devised questionnaire, Turkish school students' beliefs about the benefits…

  3. Omani Students' Views about Global Warming: Beliefs about Actions and Willingness to Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambusaidi, Abdullah; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin; Taylor, Neil

    2012-01-01

    A 44-item questionnaire was designed to determine students' views about how useful various "specific" actions might be in helping to reduce global warming, their willingness to undertake these various actions and the extent to which these two might be related. The instrument was administered to students in Grades 6 to 12 (N = 1532) from 12 schools…

  4. Global Warming Responses at the Primary Secondary Interface: 1. Students' Beliefs and Willingness to Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stannistreet, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Using survey methodology, students' beliefs, and willingness to act, about 16 specific actions related to global warming are compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those actions. In general there was a disparity between…

  5. Farmers as Consumers of Agricultural Education Services: Willingness to Pay and Spend Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charatsari, Chrysanthi; Papadaki-Klavdianou, Afroditi; Michailidis, Anastasios

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed farmers' willingness to pay for and spend time attending an Agricultural Educational Program (AEP). Primary data on the demographic and socio-economic variables of farmers were collected from 355 farmers selected randomly from Northern Greece. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis methods were used in order to meet…

  6. IMPROVING WILLINGNESS-TO-ACCEPT RESPONSES USING ALTERNATE FORMS OF COMPENSATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project is to design a pilot survey to investigate why surveys that ask willingness-to-accept compensation questions so often yield unreliable data and whether respondents would find alternate modes of compensation (specifically, public goods) more acceptab...

  7. Willingness to Communicate and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: L2 Communication and Acculturative Stress as Transaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, H. Colin

    2013-01-01

    Although much research has focused on the influence of second language (L2) proficiency on L2 use and on outcomes of intercultural adaptation, these two strands have remained largely separate. This study examines the impact of willingness to communicate in the L2 (L2 WTC) on the daily hassles and stress of international students, with the aim of…

  8. Influencing Students' Pronunciation and Willingness to Communicate through Interpersonal Audio Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepore, Cindy E.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a study that investigated pronunciation development in second language learners by monitoring willingness to communicate variables. Students (N = 37) in a second-semester, introductory French course participated in online interpersonal audio discussions with classmates through VoiceThread. Pronunciation development and…

  9. Enhancing Willingness to Communicate: Relative Effects of Visualization and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munezane, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relative effects of two treatments--goal setting and visualization--on enhancing Willingness to Communicate (WTC) among a group of 373 Japanese university EFL learners. Although longitudinal studies in both EFL and ESL settings have been conducted to examine the developmental aspect of WTC, no solid results of enhancing…

  10. Public crack cocaine smoking and willingness to use a supervised inhalation facility: implications for street disorder

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The health risks of crack cocaine smoking in public settings have not been well described. We sought to identify factors associated with public crack smoking, and assess the potential for a supervised inhalation facility to reduce engagement in this behavior, in a setting planning to evaluate a medically supervised crack cocaine smoking facility. Methods Data for this study were derived from a Canadian prospective cohort of injection drug users. Using multivariate logistic regression we identified factors associated with smoking crack cocaine in public areas. Among public crack smokers we then identified factors associated with willingness to use a supervised inhalation facility. Results Among our sample of 623 people who reported crack smoking, 61% reported recently using in public locations. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with public crack smoking included: daily crack cocaine smoking; daily heroin injection; having encounters with police; and engaging in drug dealing. In sub analysis, 71% of public crack smokers reported willingness to use a supervised inhalation facility. Factors independently associated with willingness include: female gender, engaging in risky pipe sharing; and having encounters with police. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of public crack smoking locally, and this behavior was independently associated with encounters with police. However, a majority of public crack smokers reported being willing to use a supervised inhalation facility, and individuals who had recent encounters with police were more likely to report willingness. These findings suggest that supervised inhalation facilities offer potential to reduce street-disorder and reduce encounters with police. PMID:21345231

  11. The willingness to eat. An investigation of appetite among elderly people.

    PubMed

    Wikby, Kerstin; Fägerskiöld, Astrid

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe factors of importance with regard to appetite among elderly people. A qualitative approach was used and the method was grounded theory. Fifteen elderly people were interviewed using a method with two overall questions. The results show that the willingness to eat plays a central role in appetite among elderly people. The appetite is a state on a sliding scale, from good to poor appetite. Factors affecting the appetite include six categories: mood, personal values, wholesomeness, food, eating environment and meal fellowship. When planning and realizing nursing actions concerning eating, the willingness to eat has to be observed. The desire within every individual has to be given consideration, including all factors as well as how they affect each other. The willingness to eat contains internal factors dependent on mood and personal values, as well as external factors dependent on wholesomeness, food, eating environment and meal fellowship. These factors contain qualitative dimensions, which affect elderly people's appetites as well as their quality of life to a varying extent. Through this, it can be seen that there is a connection between their desire or willingness to eat and their will to live. PMID:15147474

  12. Public willingness to pay for recovering and downlisting threatened and endangered marine species.

    PubMed

    Wallmo, Kristy; Lew, Daniel K

    2012-10-01

    Nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. Although over 40 value estimates exist, it is often difficult to compare values from different studies due to variations in study design, implementation, and modeling specifications. We conducted a stated-preference choice experiment to estimate the value of recovering or downlisting 8 threatened and endangered marine species in the United States: loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis), North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica), upper Willamette River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi), and smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). In May 2009, we surveyed a random sample of U.S. households. We collected data from 8476 households and estimated willingness to pay for recovering and downlisting the 8 species from these data. Respondents were willing to pay for recovering and downlisting threatened and endangered marine taxa. Willingness-to-pay values ranged from $40/household for recovering Puget Sound Chinook salmon to $73/household for recovering the North Pacific right whale. Statistical comparisons among willingness-to-pay values suggest that some taxa are more economically valuable than others, which suggests that the U.S. public's willingness to pay for recovery may vary by species. PMID:22827248

  13. Reasoned versus reactive prediction of behaviour: a meta-analysis of the prototype willingness model.

    PubMed

    Todd, Jemma; Kothe, Emily; Mullan, Barbara; Monds, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The prototype willingness model (PWM) was designed to extend expectancy-value models of health behaviour by also including a heuristic, or social reactive pathway, to better explain health-risk behaviours in adolescents and young adults. The pathway includes prototype, i.e., images of a typical person who engages in a behaviour, and willingness to engage in behaviour. The current study describes a meta-analysis of predictive research using the PWM and explores the role of the heuristic pathway and intentions in predicting behaviour. Eighty-one studies met inclusion criteria. Overall, the PWM was supported and explained 20.5% of the variance in behaviour. Willingness explained 4.9% of the variance in behaviour over and above intention, although intention tended to be more strongly related to behaviour than was willingness. The strength of the PWM relationships tended to vary according to the behaviour being tested, with alcohol consumption being the behaviour best explained. Age was also an important moderator, and, as expected, PWM behaviour was best accounted for within adolescent samples. Results were heterogeneous even after moderators were taken into consideration. This meta-analysis provides support for the PWM and may be used to inform future interventions that can be tailored for at-risk populations. PMID:26824678

  14. Communication Failure, Esteem Level, and Responsibility: A Willingness to Try Again.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derr, William R.

    Noting that communication apprehension contributes to failed communication, which in turn places business organizations at risk, this paper describes the rationale and methodology of a study to determine whether managers can predict an employee's sense of responsibility and willingness to improve following an incident of failure, based on the…

  15. Evaluation of the Willingness for Cadaveric Donation in Greece: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halou, Heidi; Chalkias, Athanasios; Mystrioti, Dimitra; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Vasileiou, Panagiotis V.S.; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of body donation for medical education and the advancement of medical science, cadaveric donation remains suboptimal worldwide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the willingness of body donation in Greece and determine the characteristics of donors. This cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted from January…

  16. Willingness to Participate in Organ Donation among Black Seventh-Day Adventist College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Malcolm; Cort, David

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors studied a group of black and white Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) college students (N = 334) to compare the power of religious socialization with racial socialization. Methods: The authors compared the levels of willingness to donate organs between black and nonblack students in an availability sample. Results:…

  17. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Multidimensional Scale of Willingness to Communicate in a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Purya

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to develop and validate a multidimensional scale of willingness to communicate in a foreign language. Multidimensional random coefficient multinomial logit model was employed to analyze the scale. Likelihood deviance test and information criteria showed that a three-dimensional model fits significantly better than a two-dimensional…

  18. College Women's Willingness to Participate in Alternative Marital and Family Forms: 1986 and 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingham, Robert E., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    In 1986 (n = 359) and in 2003 (n = 111), single never married women enrolled at a large university in the mid-west completed questionnaires designed to investigate their willingness to participate in 13 different alternative marital and family forms. "Egalitarian" marriage was ranked first by women in both time periods with 93.5 and 95.6 percent…

  19. Dynamic Emergence of Situational Willingness to Communicate in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Su-Ja

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study that shows how situational willingness to communicate (WTC) in a second language (L2) can dynamically emerge and fluctuate during a conversation situation. From inductive analysis of data from interviews, videotaped conversations, and stimulated recalls, it was found that situational WTC in L2 emerged…

  20. Assessment as a Scholarly Activity?: Faculty Perceptions of and Willingness to Engage in Student Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueli; Hurley, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of survey data collected at a liberal arts college suggests that faculty perception of assessment as a scholarly activity has a significant relationship with willingness to engage in assessment. This finding indicates the importance of focusing on the scholarly nature of assessment when encouraging faculty participation in assessment…

  1. Willingness to Communicate and Language Learning Orientations in Iranian EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarrinabadi, Nourollah; Abdi, Razieh

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' willingness to communicate (WTC) inside and outside the classroom and their language learning orientations. Sixty seven intermediate students (36 males and 31 females) who were majoring in English Literature and Translation at University of Isfahan during…

  2. Women’s willingness to be tested for human immunodeficiency virus during pregnancy: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Natan, Merav; Hazanov, Yelena

    2015-01-01

    Mother-to-child-transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a primary cause of pediatric infections with HIV. Many of these infections involve women who were not tested early enough in pregnancy, or who did not receive prevention services. HIV testing of pregnant women is considered to be one of the key strategies for preventing mother-to-child-transmission of HIV, but HIV testing rates among pregnant women in various countries remain suboptimal. Understanding the factors relating to women’s willingness to be tested for HIV during pregnancy is critical for developing strategies to increase HIV testing rates among pregnant women. Extensive research points to various factors relating to women’s willingness to be tested for HIV during pregnancy, and various recommendations aimed at improving testing rates among pregnant women have been suggested based on the research. In light of the goals set by the United Nations to reduce the rate of infants infected with HIV, it is necessary to summarize what is currently known regarding factors related to women’s willingness to be tested for HIV during pregnancy. The purpose of this review is therefore to examine factors related to women’s willingness to be tested for HIV during pregnancy, and to summarize recommendations for practice and further research. PMID:26279985

  3. Australian Secondary Students' Views about Global Warming: Beliefs about Actions, and Willingness to Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyes, Edward; Skamp, Keith; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2009-01-01

    A 44-item questionnaire was constructed to determine secondary students' views about how useful various specific actions might be at reducing global warming, their willingness to undertake the various actions, and the extent to which these two might be linked. Responses (n = 500) were obtained from students in years 7 to 10 in three schools in…

  4. Development of an Adolescent Alcohol Misuse Intervention Based on the Prototype Willingness Model: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Emma; Martin, Jilly; Foxcroft, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of the Delphi method to gain expert feedback on the identification of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and development of a novel intervention to reduce adolescent alcohol misuse, based on the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) of health risk behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: Four…

  5. Emotional Competence and Willingness To Seek Help from Professional and Nonprofessional Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarrochi, Joseph V.; Deane, Frank P.

    2001-01-01

    Survey of 300 undergraduates assesses emotional competence, hopelessness, willingness to seek help from health professionals and nonprofessionals, and perceived usefulness of past help-seeking experience. Results reveal that those who felt less skilled at managing emotions were less willing to seek help from family and friends for emotional…

  6. Completion of advanced care directives is associated with willingness to donate.

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, J. Daryl; Curtis, J. Randall; Allen, Margaret D.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A useful framework for initiating organ donation discussions in the primary care setting may help increase willingness to donate and thereby increase the frequency of organ transplantation. Given the lower willingness to donate among African Americans and that a higher proportion of African Americans die while waiting for an organ transplant, this is an important group to consider in such an approach. We examined the association among completion of a living will and willingness to donate and the influence of race in this relationship. METHODS: A nationwide telephone interview survey using random digit dialing of households in high- and low-density African-American census blocks. Results: One hundred-eighty-eight adults participated (41% cooperation rate). In a multivariate model, factors associated with willingness to donate included having signed a living will (OR=2.43, 95% CI=1.13-5.23), talking with a physician about organ donation (OR=3.04, 95% CI=1.07-8.67) and white race (OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.23-5). CONCLUSION: The public is generally supportive of organ donation although African Americans remain less willing to donate after controlling for confounding variables. Physicians interested in increasing donation rates should consider incorporating organ donation into discussions of advance care planning and end-of-life care. PMID:16775911

  7. Final Year Biosciences Students' Willingness to Engage: Teaching-Learning Environments, Authentic Learning Experiences and Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Velda

    2009-01-01

    The research reported in this article investigates what students perceive as influencing their willingness to engage actively with their studies. The semi-structured interviews which form the basis of this analysis are a subset of the data from the Enhancing Teaching-Learning Environments in Undergraduate Courses (ETL) Project, a large-scale…

  8. Complex Interactions of Factors Underlying Thai EFL Learners' Willingness to Communicate in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattapong, Kamlaitip

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores factors contributing to the willingness to communicate (WTC) in English as a foreign language (L2) in a Thai university setting. The study uses multiple methods within a qualitative research approach. Data were collected through interviews, stimulated recall, and classroom observations. Relevant contextually-related variables…

  9. Anxiety, Outcome Expectancies, and Young People's Willingness to Engage in Contact with the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Paul; Fox, Edward; Laas, Anna Maria; Matharu, Jasmin; Urzi, Serena

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study (N = 61) investigated the relationship between young people's previous experiences of intergenerational contact and their willingness to engage in future contact with the elderly. Regression analyses confirmed that frequent positive intergenerational contact predicted more positive outcome expectancies, less intergroup…

  10. Student Willingness to Seek Help for Threats of Violence in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Farah; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined factors that influence a student's willingness to seek help for a threat of violence. The sample consisted of 542 middle school students who completed an anonymous survey that asked students how likely they would be to seek help in response to being bullied or threatened. The survey also included measures of type of bullying,…

  11. Supportive School Climate and Student Willingness to Seek Help for Bullying and Threats of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Megan; Cornell, Dewey; Gregory, Anne; Fan, Xitao

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between student perceptions of support and student willingness to seek help for bullying and threats of violence in a sample of 7318 ninth-grade students from 291 high schools who participated in the Virginia High School Safety Study. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that students who perceived their…

  12. Willingness to Request Help from Others: Effects of Mode of Interaction and Size of Request.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, E. Gary

    This study investigated the willingness of persons to ask others for help. It examined the effect of modes of interaction (asking for help by letter, phone, or in person) and the size of the request (whether they asked for a small or large favor). The sample consisted of 96 male and female undergraduates in introductory sociology classes. The…

  13. [Image and familiarity of student counseling service and willingness to use the service].

    PubMed

    Ito, Naoki

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between image and familiarity that college students had about student counseling service and their willingness to make use of the service. A questionnaire was administered to 421 college students. Factor analysis of the image found two positive sides: helpfulness and support in crisis, and two negative ones: disadvantage and uneasiness. Men had an image that was higher on support in crisis and disadvantage than women. Women were more familiar with the service, but no sex difference was found in the willingness to visit it. First-year students were lower in terms of their familiarity, but no image differences were found among students of different years. Regression analysis of the willingness indicated that different predictors became significant, depending on the sex and year of the respondents. It was suggested that different information about counseling service should be disseminated, so as to maximize the willingness, depending on the sex and year of the students. PMID:16566235

  14. The Willingness-to-Pay for Work/Family Policies: A Study of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drago, Robert; Costanza, David; Caplan, Robert; Brubaker, Tanya; Cloud, Darnell; Harris, Naomi; Kashian, Russell; Riggs, T. Lynn

    2001-01-01

    A contingent valuation study of 343 elementary teachers identified circumstances in which they would be willing to provide, through payroll deductions, certain work-family policies/programs. Even those with little or no likelihood of using the programs exhibited willingness to pay for some of them. (SK)

  15. An assessment of children's willingness to try new foods in the rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to assess elementary school children's willingness to eat an unfamiliar food at and away from home. Children often eat the same foods repeatedly, and those patterns have resulted in intakes that do not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) set for children by the National Acad...

  16. Occupational Mobility in Members of the Labor Force: Explaining the Willingness to Change Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Kathleen; Dette-Hagenmeyer, Dorothea E.; Dalbert, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    It has become a commonplace for people to move from one occupation to another during their career. The authors propose that work-related attitudes and person-related characteristics should be considered when examining the willingness to change occupations (WCOs). Consistent with our hypotheses, we found that high levels of work satisfaction,…

  17. Asian-American Acculturation, Severity of Concerns, and Willingness to See a Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gim, Ruth H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed Asian American college students, assessing severity of 24 problems. Factor analysis reduced 24 problems to 8 areas of concern. Found severity ratings for eight areas related to acculturation and ethnicity. Women and low-medium acculturated students expressed greater willingness to see counselor than did men and high-acculturated students.…

  18. Peer Educators and Close Friends as Predictors of Male College Students' Willingness to Prevent Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Jerrold L.

    2007-01-01

    Astin's (1977, 1991, 1993) input-environment-outcome (I-E-O) model provided a conceptual framework for this study which measured 156 male college students' willingness to prevent rape (outcome variable). Predictor variables included personal attitudes (input variable), perceptions of close friends' attitudes toward rape and rape prevention…

  19. Parental overprotection revisited.

    PubMed

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1993-01-01

    Dimensions of parental overprotection are clarified in a critical review of the research and clinical literature. An indulgent style of parenting is distinguished from an overprotective parent-child relationship. Differential antecedents and outcomes are proposed for each of these forms of parent-child interaction. Measures of protection are reviewed. A new conceptual model of parental overprotection is presented which takes into account child, parent, family, socio-cultural, environmental and resiliency factors. Directions for future research are suggested. PMID:8287694

  20. A National Survey of Parent Perspectives on Use of Patient Portals for Their Children’s Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Costello, L.E.; Gebremariam, A.; Dombkowski, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To assess parents’ current utilization and future willingness to use patient portals to interact with their child’s health care provider. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of US parents was conducted using an established online panel. Bivariate analyses assessed associations between current utilization and future willingness to use patient portals, parental concerns, and demographic variables. Results Among the 1,420 parent respondents, 40% did not know whether their child’s health practice offers the option of setting up a patient portal for their child. Of the 21% of parents who reported being offered the option of setting up a patient portal for their child, 59% had done so. Among parents who had the option but chose not to set up a patient portal for their child, lack of time and low perceived need were the main reasons cited. Current use and likelihood of future use was highest for viewing lab results and immunization records. The most common concern about patient portals was the security of the child portal system. Conclusions Current use of patient portals by parents is low. Only about half of parents currently using or likely to use a portal perceive value in using portals for certain tasks, which suggests that providers will need to continue traditional communication mechanisms to reach their entire patient population. PMID:25848417

  1. Putting your money where your mouth is: parents' valuation of good oral health of their children.

    PubMed

    Vermaire, J H; van Exel, N J A; van Loveren, C; Brouwer, W B F

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the parental willingness to invest in good oral health for their child in terms of money and time and to relate this to oral health related knowledge and behavioral aspects. 290 parents of 6-year-old children, participating in a RCT on caries preventive strategies in The Netherlands were asked to provide information on education, oral health habits, dietary habits, knowledge on dental topics, willingness to pay and perceived resistance against investing in preventive oral health actions for their children. Despite the fact that parents overall valued oral health for their child highly, still 12% of the parents were unwilling to spend any money, nor to invest any time by brushing their children's teeth to maintain good oral health for their child. Additionally, they indicated that they were unwilling to visit the dentist for preventive measures more than once a year. These children may certainly be considered at higher risk of developing oral diseases because worse oral hygiene habits and dietary habits were found in this group. Given the results, it may be necessary to differentiate in allocating caries prevention programmes to target parents or (school-based) children directly. PMID:22995665

  2. Resilient Parenting: Overcoming Poor Parental Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Wendy J.; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This study identified groups of mothers with varying patterns of adaptive functioning and bonds with their own parents. These patterns were related to mothers' parenting of their own children to understand how some mothers avoid repeating the cycle of poor parenting. Data from 210 new mothers were analyzed before hospital discharge about bonding…

  3. Parent Connection: Enlisting Parents in Career Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinacore, Ada L.; Healy, Patricia; Hassan, Sheila

    1999-01-01

    Although the potential impact of parental influence in career development is recognized, attempts to enlist parents in positive ways often appear haphazard, rather than purposeful. Article offers numerous strategies to maximize the positive aspects of parental involvement in children's career development, by offering concrete steps to strengthen…

  4. Parental Involvement to Parental Engagement: A Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Janet; Montgomery, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Based on the literature of the field, this article traces a continuum between parental involvement with schools, and parental engagement with children's learning. The article seeks to shed light on an area of confusion; previous research has shown that different stakeholder groups understand "parental engagement" in different ways.…

  5. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  6. Factors associated with willingness to participate in biospecimen research among Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wanzhen; Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Fang, Carolyn; Weaver, JoEllen; Jin, Ming; Lai, Philip

    2014-04-01

    A paucity of information exists on the recruitment of Asian Americans for biospecimen research. Although studies show that Chinese Americans are at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, little is known about their willingness to participate in HBV-related biospecimen research and how knowledge, attitudes, and cultural factors impact their willingness to participate. The study was guided by Community-Based Participatory Research principles. Data were derived from an assessment study on HBV-related biospecimen research participation among Chinese Americans in the Philadelphia region. The assessment was conducted with 415 Chinese Americans recruited from eight Chinese community-based organizations. Cultural beliefs, knowledge, and attitudes toward biospecimen research were examined for associations with their willingness to participate in biospecimen banking research. Overall, 192 (46.3%) of 415 participants who completed the assessment indicated they were willing to participate if they were invited to donate blood to be frozen and stored for future HBV biospecimen studies. Cultural variables significant in bivariate analysis included collectivism, knowledge about biospecimen research, and Yin-Yang beliefs. Fatalism and individualism were not associated with participation willingness. In multivariate analysis, age, health care attitudes, and trust were significantly associated with willingness to participate in biospecimen banking research. Asian American communities have little knowledge of biospecimen banking and will benefit from educational campaigns that emphasize collective benefits and attitudes towards and trust in the health care system. Understanding cultural factors is important for improving Chinese Americans' knowledge, awareness, and intentions of participation in biospecimen research. Similar efforts need to be undertaken to develop culturally appropriate educational intervention programs to increase participation in biospecimen research

  7. Effects of Acute Alcohol Tolerance on Perceptions of Danger and Willingness to Drive after Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Amlung, Michael T.; Morris, David H.; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Drinking and driving is associated with elevated rates of motor vehicle accidents and fatalities. Previous research suggests that alcohol impairs judgments about the dangers of risky behaviors; however, how alcohol affects driving-related judgments is less clear. Impairments have also been shown to differ across limbs of the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) curve, which is known as acute tolerance. Objectives Examine whether perceptions about the dangerousness of driving after drinking and willingness to drive differed across ascending and descending limbs of the BAC curve. Test whether reductions in perceived danger were associated with willingness to drive on the descending limb. Methods Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive either a moderate dose of alcohol (peak BAC = 0.10 g%) or placebo. We assessed perceived dangerousness and willingness to drive at matched BACs (~0.067-0.068 g%) on the ascending and descending limbs. Results Both perceived danger and willingness to drive showed acute tolerance in the alcohol group. Participants judged driving to be significantly less dangerous and were more willing to drive on the descending limb compared to the ascending limb. The magnitude of change in perceived danger significantly predicted willingness to drive on the descending limb. Conclusions Decreased impairment associated with acute tolerance may lead individuals to underestimate the dangerousness of driving after drinking and in turn make poor decisions regarding driving. This study further emphasizes the descending limb as a period of increased risk and offers support for enhancing prevention efforts by targeting drivers at declining BAC levels. PMID:24752657

  8. Factors Associated With Medical and Nursing Students’ Willingness to Donate Organs

    PubMed Central

    Tumin, Makmor; Tafran, Khaled; Tang, Li Yoong; Chong, Mei Chan; Mohd Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Mohd Satar, NurulHuda; Abdullah, Nurhidayah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Malaysia suffers from a chronic shortage of human organs for transplantation. Medical and nursing students (MaNS) are future health professionals and thus their attitude toward organ donation is vital for driving national donation rates. This study investigates MaNS’ willingness to donate organs upon death and the factors influencing their willingness. A cross-sectional design was used with a sample of 500 students (264 medical and 236 nursing) at the University of Malaya. A self-administrated questionnaire was used. The responses were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression. Of all respondents, 278 (55.6%) were willing to donate organs upon death, while the remaining 222 (44.4%) were unwilling to donate. Only 44 (8.8%) had donor cards. The multiple logistic regression revealed that the minorities ethnic group was more willing to donate organs than Malay respondents (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.98, P = 0.010). In addition, medical students were more willing to donate than nursing students (aOR = 2.53, P = 0.000). Respondents who have a family member with a donor card were more willing to donate than respondents who do not (aOR = 3.48, P = 0.006). MaNS who believed that their religion permits deceased donation were more willing to donate than their counterparts (aOR = 4.96, P = 0.000). Household income and sex were not significant predictors of MaNS’ willingness to donate organs upon death. MaNS have moderate willingness, but low commitment toward deceased organ donation. Strategies for improving MaNS’ attitude should better educate them on organ donation, targeting the most the Malay and nursing students, and should consider the influence of family attitude and religious permissibility on MaNS’ willingness. PMID:27015207

  9. Factors Associated With Medical and Nursing Students' Willingness to Donate Organs.

    PubMed

    Tumin, Makmor; Tafran, Khaled; Tang, Li Yoong; Chong, Mei Chan; Mohd Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Mohd Satar, NurulHuda; Abdullah, Nurhidayah

    2016-03-01

    Malaysia suffers from a chronic shortage of human organs for transplantation. Medical and nursing students (MaNS) are future health professionals and thus their attitude toward organ donation is vital for driving national donation rates. This study investigates MaNS' willingness to donate organs upon death and the factors influencing their willingness. A cross-sectional design was used with a sample of 500 students (264 medical and 236 nursing) at the University of Malaya. A self-administrated questionnaire was used. The responses were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression. Of all respondents, 278 (55.6%) were willing to donate organs upon death, while the remaining 222 (44.4%) were unwilling to donate. Only 44 (8.8%) had donor cards. The multiple logistic regression revealed that the minorities ethnic group was more willing to donate organs than Malay respondents (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.98, P = 0.010). In addition, medical students were more willing to donate than nursing students (aOR = 2.53, P = 0.000). Respondents who have a family member with a donor card were more willing to donate than respondents who do not (aOR = 3.48, P = 0.006). MaNS who believed that their religion permits deceased donation were more willing to donate than their counterparts (aOR = 4.96, P = 0.000). Household income and sex were not significant predictors of MaNS' willingness to donate organs upon death. MaNS have moderate willingness, but low commitment toward deceased organ donation. Strategies for improving MaNS' attitude should better educate them on organ donation, targeting the most the Malay and nursing students, and should consider the influence of family attitude and religious permissibility on MaNS' willingness. PMID:27015207

  10. Willingness to Accept HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis among Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuming; Li, Dongliang; Zhang, Lifen; Fan, Wensheng; Yang, Xueying; Yu, Mingrun; Xiao, Dong; Yan, Li; Zhang, Zheng; Shi, Wei; Luo, Fengji; Ruan, Yuhua; Jin, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Objective We investigated the awareness and acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and potential predicting factors. Methods This study was conducted among MSM in Beijing, China. Study participants, randomly selected from an MSM cohort, completed a structured questionnaire, and provided their blood samples to test for HIV infection and syphilis. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the factors associated with willingness to accept (WTA) PrEP. Factors independently associated with willingness to accept were identified by entering variables into stepwise logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 152 MSM completed the survey; 11.2% had ever heard of PrEP and 67.8% were willing to accept it. Univariate analysis showed that age, years of education, consistent condom use in the past 6 months, heterosexual behavior in the past 6 months, having ever heard of PrEP and the side effects of antiretroviral drugs, and worry about antiretroviral drugs cost were significantly associated with willingness to accept PrEP. In the multivariate logistic regression model, only consistent condom use in the past 6 months (odds ratio [OR]: 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13–0.70) and having ever heard of the side effects of antiretroviral drugs (OR: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.14–0.67) were independently associated with willingness to accept PrEP. Conclusions The awareness of PrEP in the MSM population was low. Sexual behavioral characteristics and knowledge about ART drugs may have effects on willingness to accept PrEP. Comprehensive prevention strategies should be recommended in the MSM community. PMID:22479320

  11. Factors Associated with Willingness to Participate in Biospecimen Research Among Chinese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wanzhen; Tan, Yin; Fang, Carolyn; Weaver, JoEllen; Jin, Ming; Lai, Philip

    2014-01-01

    A paucity of information exists on the recruitment of Asian Americans for biospecimen research. Although studies show that Chinese Americans are at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, little is known about their willingness to participate in HBV-related biospecimen research and how knowledge, attitudes, and cultural factors impact their willingness to participate. The study was guided by Community-Based Participatory Research principles. Data were derived from an assessment study on HBV-related biospecimen research participation among Chinese Americans in the Philadelphia region. The assessment was conducted with 415 Chinese Americans recruited from eight Chinese community-based organizations. Cultural beliefs, knowledge, and attitudes toward biospecimen research were examined for associations with their willingness to participate in biospecimen banking research. Overall, 192 (46.3%) of 415 participants who completed the assessment indicated they were willing to participate if they were invited to donate blood to be frozen and stored for future HBV biospecimen studies. Cultural variables significant in bivariate analysis included collectivism, knowledge about biospecimen research, and Yin-Yang beliefs. Fatalism and individualism were not associated with participation willingness. In multivariate analysis, age, health care attitudes, and trust were significantly associated with willingness to participate in biospecimen banking research. Asian American communities have little knowledge of biospecimen banking and will benefit from educational campaigns that emphasize collective benefits and attitudes towards and trust in the health care system. Understanding cultural factors is important for improving Chinese Americans' knowledge, awareness, and intentions of participation in biospecimen research. Similar efforts need to be undertaken to develop culturally appropriate educational intervention programs to increase participation in biospecimen research

  12. Diabetic patients' willingness to use tele-technology to manage their disease – A descriptive study.

    PubMed Central

    Saddik, Basema; Al-Dulaijan, Norah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a public health concern worldwide. TeleHealth technology may be an effective tool for empowering patients in the self-management of diabetes mellitus. However despite the great impact of diabetes on healthcare in Saudi Arabia, no research has investigated diabetic patients' willingness to use this technology. This study investigates diabetic patients' willingness to use tele-technology as a tool to monitor their disease. Methods: Data were collected from diabetic patients attending the diabetes education clinic at the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs (MNGHA) in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia over a three month period. A survey was developed which measured patients' willingness to use tele-technology in the self-management of their diabetes as well as their perceived expectations from the technology. Results: The study found that the majority of patients were willing to use tele-technology to self- monitor their diabetes. However, a minority (11.3%) indicated willingness to use the system daily and only half indicated preference to use it once a week (53.8%). Patients who were younger, had higher education levels, were employed, had internet access and had Type II diabetes were significantly more likely to report willingness to use the technology. Conclusions: Diabetic patients could be ready to play a more active role in their care if given the opportunity. Results from this study could serve as a baseline for future studies to develop targeted interventions by trialing tele-technology on a sample of the diabetic population. Patients with diabetes need to be in charge of their own care in order to improve health outcomes across the country. PMID:26284148

  13. Evaluation of a childhood obesity awareness campaign targeting head start families: designed by parents for parents.

    PubMed

    GreenMills, Lisa L; Davison, Kirsten K; Gordon, Karen E; Li, Kaigang; Jurkowski, Janine M

    2013-01-01

    The Communities for Healthy Living program used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to empower Head Start parents in designing and pilot testing a multi-component family-centered obesity prevention program. One program component was a childhood obesity awareness campaign addressing common parental misconceptions about obesity. The campaign was designed by a community advisory board of parents to target specific issues identified within their own community. Results from pre-post intervention surveys (N=108) showed that campaign exposure was high; 92% of responding parents reported noticing the campaign. Parents also demonstrated significant increases in awareness of childhood obesity, along with decreases in obesity-related misconceptions. Findings, supported by growing literature on CBPR, suggest a CBPR approach to campaign development is an effective strategy to promote parent awareness of childhood obesity. PMID:23727962

  14. Korean American Adolescent Depression and Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM Korean American adolescents tend to experience more mental health problems than adolescents in other ethnic groups. METHODS The goal of this study was to examine the association between Korean American parent-adolescent relationships and adolescents’ depressive symptoms in 56 families. FINDINGS Thirty-nine percent of adolescents reported elevated depressive symptoms. Adolescents’ perceived low maternal warmth and higher intergenerational acculturation conflicts with fathers were significant predictors for adolescent depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS The findings can be used to develop a family intervention program, the aim of which would be to decrease adolescent depressive symptoms by promoting parental warmth and decreasing parent-adolescent acculturation conflicts. PMID:18429840

  15. Documenting Different Domains of Promotion of Autonomy in Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzi, Claudia; Regalia, Camillo; Pelucchi, Sara; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Parental promotion of autonomy for offspring well-being has been widely recognized in developmental psychology. Recent studies, however, show that this association varies across cultures. Such variation may reflect inappropriate measurement of this dimension of parenting. Therefore, three existing measures of promotion of autonomy were used to…

  16. Unmarried parents in college.

    PubMed

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Sorensen, Kia

    2010-01-01

    Noting that access to higher education has expanded dramatically in the past several decades, Sara Goldrick-Rab and Kia Sorensen focus on how unmarried parents fare once they enter college. Contrary to the expectation that access to college consistently promotes family stability and economic security, the authors argue that deficiencies in current policy lead college attendance to have adverse consequences for some families headed by unmarried parents. Although rates of college attendance have increased substantially among unmarried parents, their college completion rates are low. One explanation is inadequate academic preparation. Another is financial constraints, which can force unmarried students to interrupt their studies or increase their work hours, both of which compromise the quality of their educational experiences and the outcomes for their children. The authors point out that although many public programs offer support to unmarried parents attending college, the support is neither well coordinated nor easily accessed. Over the past three decades, loans have increasingly replaced grants as the most common form of federal and state financial aid. Confusion about what is available leads many low-income students to the two most "straightforward" sources of income--loans and work, both of which involve significant costs and can operate at cross-purposes with public forms of support. Too much work can lead to reductions in public benefits, and earnings do not always replace the lost income. A growing body of experimental evidence shows that providing social, financial, and academic supports to vulnerable community college students can improve achievement and attainment. Contextualized learning programs, for example, have enabled participants not only to move on from basic skills to credit-bearing coursework, but also to complete credits, earn certificates, and make gains on basic skills tests. Another successful initiative provided low-performing students with

  17. Parent-child drug communication: pathway from parents' ad exposure to youth's marijuana use intention.

    PubMed

    Huansuriya, Thipnapa; Siegel, Jason T; Crano, William D

    2014-01-01

    The authors combined the 2-step flow of communication model and the theory of planned behavior to create a framework to evaluate the effectiveness of a set of advertisements from the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign promoting parent-child drug communication. The sample consisted of 1,349 pairs of parents and children who responded to the first and second annual rounds of the National Survey of Parents and Youth, and 1,276 pairs from Rounds 3 and 4. Parents' exposure to the campaign reported at Round 1 was indirectly associated with youth's lowered intentions to use marijuana at Round 2. Ad exposure was associated with positive changes in parental attitudes toward drug communication and perceived social approval of antidrug communications. These two beliefs, along with perceived behavioral control, predicted parents' intentions to discuss drugs with their children. Parental intentions to discuss drugs reported at Round 1 were associated with youth's report of actual drug communication with their parents at Round 2. Frequency and breadth of the topics in parent-child drug communication were associated with less positive attitudes toward marijuana use among youth who spoke with their parents. Together, the child's attitudes toward marijuana use and perceived ability to refuse marijuana use predicted youth's intentions to use marijuana. The proposed model fit well with the data and was replicated in a parallel analysis of the data from Rounds 3 and 4. Implications for future antidrug media campaign efforts are discussed. PMID:24308793

  18. Engaging Urban Parents of Early Adolescents in Parenting Interventions: Home Visits vs. Group Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Haynie, Denise L.; Cheng, Tina L.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions targeting parents of young children have shown effectiveness, but research is lacking about best practices for engaging parents of early adolescents. Low levels of enrollment and attendance in parenting interventions present major problems for researchers and clinicians. Effective and efficient ways to engage and collaborate with parents to strengthen parenting practices and to promote healthy development of early adolescents are needed. This exploratory mixed methods study examined the feasibility of three methods of engaging parents in positive parenting activities. Participants were parents of youth ages 11–13 enrolled in three urban, public middle schools in neighborhoods characterized by high rates of community violence. Families (N = 144) were randomized into one of three interventions: six home sessions, two home sessions followed by four group sessions, or six group sessions. The majority of parents were single, non-Hispanic, African American mothers. Urban parents of middle school students were more likely to participate in home visits than in group sessions; offering a combination did not increase participation in the group sessions. As only 34% of those who consented participated in the intervention, qualitative data were examined to explain the reasons for non-participation. PMID:27122960

  19. Parent adjustment over time in gay, lesbian, and heterosexual parent families adopting from foster care.

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Waterman, Jill; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2014-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of gay and lesbian individuals and couples are adopting children, gay men and lesbian women continue to face increased scrutiny and legal obstacles from the child welfare system. To date, little research has compared the experiences of gay or lesbian and heterosexual adoptive parents over time, limiting conceptual understandings of the similarities they share and the unique challenges that gay and lesbian adoptive parents may face. This study compared the adoption satisfaction, depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and social support at 2, 12, and 24 months postplacement of 82 parents (60 heterosexual, 15 gay, 7 lesbian) adopting children from foster care in Los Angeles County. Few differences were found between heterosexual and gay or lesbian parents at any of the assessments or in their patterns of change over time. On average, parents in both household types reported significant increases in adoption satisfaction and maintained low, nonclinical levels of depressive symptoms and parenting stress over time. Across all family types, greater parenting stress was associated with more depressive symptoms and lower adoption satisfaction. Results indicated many similarities between gay or lesbian and heterosexual adoptive parents, and highlight a need for services to support adoptive parents throughout the transition to parenthood to promote their well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24826826

  20. Are parental attitudes related to adolescent juvenile offenders' readiness to change?

    PubMed

    Snyder, Benjamin D H; Glaser, Brian A; Calhoun, Georgia B

    2015-05-01

    Contemporary research suggests that many factors contribute to adolescent problematic and delinquent behaviors; however, there is little discussion in the literature related to factors that contribute to an adolescent's willingness to change these maladaptive behaviors. The current study examines the role parental attitudes play in the adolescent juvenile offender's readiness to change. Ninety-five adjudicated adolescents and their parent or legal guardian completed the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) and the Juvenile Offender Parent Questionnaire (JOPQ), respectively. Participants fell into one of two URICA groups: Precontemplative or Contemplative. Parental attitudes (JOPQ) of Exasperation in Regard to the Child and Fear of the Child significantly predicted membership in two of the URICA stages of change groups (Precontemplative and Contemplative) when gender was included in the model. This study has important implications for practitioners developing effective treatments for adjudicated adolescents. PMID:24391125

  1. Effect of Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior on Willingness to Undergo Colorectal Cancer Screening Using the Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Almadi, Majid A.; Mosli, Mahmoud H.; Bohlega, Mohamed S.; Al Essa, Mohanned A.; AlDohan, Mohammed S.; Alabdallatif, Turki A.; AlSagri, Turki Y.; Algahtani, Faleh A.; Mandil, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Success of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is dependent in part on the proportion of uptake by the targeted population. We aimed in this study to identify factors that were associated with willingness to undergo CRC screening based on the health belief model (HBM). Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among citizens of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Demographic data collected included gender, age, education, marital status, employment status, a history of CRC in the family or knowing a friend with CRC, as well as income. A questionnaire was developed in Arabic based on the HBM and included enquiries on knowledge about CRC symptoms and risk factors, types of CRC screening tests, perceived risk of CRC, previously undergoing CRC screening, intent to undergo CRC screening, perceived barriers to CRC screening, perceived severity of CRC, as well as attitudes toward CRC and its screening. Results: Five hundred participants were included. The mean age was 41.0 years (SD 10.7). Males were 50% and only 6.7% of those between 50 and 55 years of age had undergone CRC screening. Of those surveyed, 70.7% were willing to undergo CRC screening. Also, 70.5% thought that CRC is curable, 73.3% believed it was preventable, whereas 56.7% thought it was a fatal disease. Neither gender, level of education, occupation, income, marital status, nor general knowledge about CRC was found to be associated with the willingness to undergo CRC screening. Recognizing that colonoscopy was a screening test (OR 1.55, 95% CI; 1.04–2.29) was associated with a strong desire to undergo CRC screening while choosing a stool-based test was associated with not willing to undergo CRC screening (OR 0.59, 95%CI; 0.38–0.91). Conclusion: We found that the majority of those interviewed were willing to undergo CRC screening and identified a number of barriers as well as potential areas that could be targeted in the promotion of CRC screening uptake if such a national program were to

  2. A Chance to Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Susan; Brillhart, Lindsay; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    While parents with disabilities may face big challenges, with appropriate supports, many can be great parents. Just like other parents, they do not have to be responsible for every part of childrearing all by themselves. All parents rely on supports to help raise their children, such as day care, carpools, schools, babysitting co-ops, or advice…

  3. Parent Conferences. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Roslyn; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents six workshop sessions on parent conferences: (1) "Parents' Perspectives on Conferencing" (R. Duffy); (2) "Three Way Conferences" (G. Zeller); (3) "Conferencing with Parents of Infants" (K. Albrecht); (4) "Conferencing with Parents of School-Agers" (L. G. Miller); (5) "Cross Cultural Conferences" (J. Gonzalez-Mena); and (6) "Working with…

  4. Parent Mentor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voluntary Interdistrict Coordinating Council, St. Louis, MO.

    Legal action opposing school segregation in St. Louis (Missouri) in the 1970s resulted in a plan to facilitate student transfer and transportation. The Parent Mentor Program was established to help parents acquire skills to work effectively with their children's schools. Through the program, parents are put in touch with other parents who are…

  5. Involving Latino Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quezada, Reyes L.; Diaz, Delia M.; Sanchez, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Describes barriers to Latino parent involvement in educational activities, factors to consider when involving Latino parents, and two examples of Latino involvement programs in California: Family Literacy Workshop at James Monroe Elementary School, Madera Unified School District, and Parents Take P.A.R.T. (Parent Assisted Reading Training) at…

  6. Children of Incarcerated Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Katherine, Ed.; Johnston, Denise, Ed.

    The arrest and imprisonment of a parent is significant trauma for children, and children of incarcerated parents are at high risk for juvenile delinquency. This book for social workers, psychologists, and others who work with children whose parents are incarcerated examines parental incarceration, its impact on children, care and placement of…

  7. Turn Parents into Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobetsky, Victor V.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on how music teachers can improve their interaction with parents and involve them in their child's music education. States that teachers should meet with parents early in the year and inform parents about their child's accomplishments. Offers ideas about discipline issues and how parents can become involved in the music program. (CMK)

  8. Parent Interview Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    This 116-item interview schedule designed for parents who failed to respond to the Questionnaire for Parents, is individually administered to the mother of the child of elementary school age. It consists of scales measuring 14 parent variables plus a section devoted to demographic variables: (1) parent's achievement aspirations for the child, (2)…

  9. Questionnaire for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    The 116-item parent questionnaire is designed for parents of elementary school children. It is intended to be used with the child's mother, or the person acting as the child's mother. The questionnaire consists of a section devoted to demographic variables and scales measuring 14 parent variables: (1) parent's achievement aspirations for the…

  10. When Your Parents Fight

    MedlinePlus

    ... hear the yelling and the unkind words. Seeing parents upset and out of control can make kids feel unprotected and scared. Kids ... the other parent. They might worry that one parent seems angry enough to lose control. They might worry that their parent might be ...

  11. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  12. Parental Involvement. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains seven articles about meaningful participation by parents, particularly Hispanic and other minority parents, in the education of their children. "Parents Reclaiming Their Schools: New Initiative Brings Parents Together for Better Schools" (Aurelio M. Montemayor) describes objectives and activities of a Texas-based coalition…

  13. Strategies for Parent Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felber, Stacey Ann

    1997-01-01

    Identifies seven strategies that will help strengthen the bond between parents and teachers of children with learning disabilities. Strategies include celebrating children's individuality, identifying with parents, providing information, talking with parents, avoiding stereotyping, reaching out to parents, and warning about media portrayals of…

  14. Parent-child Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlich, A. C., Ed.

    This survey investigates 6 major questions: (1) do adolescents and their parents perceive youth as overindulged; (2) are parent-child communication channels open; (3) has understanding between parents and their children broken down; (4) do children identify with their parents; (5) has discipline been permissive; and (6) do adolescents reject the…

  15. Correlates of Adolescent Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet S.; Herz, Elicia J.

    1987-01-01

    Studied correlates of teenage parenting in self-selected sample of 177 teenage parents. Parental race, punitive attitudes toward child rearing, and parental age were statistically significant predictors of total Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores. Older, white adolescent mothers with less punitive attitudes toward child…

  16. Health care personnel's experiences of a bereavement follow-up intervention for grieving parents.

    PubMed

    Liisa, Aho Anna; Marja-Terttu, Tarkka; Päivi, Åstedt-Kurki; Marja, Kaunonen

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the experiences of health care personnel of a bereavement follow-up intervention for grieving parents and of the ways to develop it. The intervention included three components: a support package for grieving parents, peer supporters' and health care personnel's contact with parents. The sample included 29 health professionals. Data were collected via open-format questionnaires and telephone interviews from health care personnel. Content analysis was used as a means of data analysis. The support package for grieving parents was considered important and versatile. Health care personnel perceived the intervention and its viability as mostly good. Parents' willingness to receive support, health care personnel's good resources and organizational preconditions were important for the follow-up contact. The intervention clarified the policy related to supporting grieving parents. It was enabled by a good attitude, shift arrangements and co-worker support. However, the implementation was considered difficult because of scarce resources. Parental support engendered negative feelings in health care personnel and they desired systematic supervision to deal with these. Follow-up care of grieving parents is a demanding task. Continuous education about bereavement follow-up care and systematic supervision to health care personnel is needed. Family-focused care in supporting grieving families after leaving from hospital should be increased. Inter-organizational cooperation in supporting parents is important and feasible. PMID:21039718

  17. Parenting asthmatic children: identification of parenting challenges.

    PubMed

    Morawska, Alina; Stelzer, Jennifer; Burgess, Scott

    2008-08-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood, affecting up to 14% of children. Poor asthma management and non-adherence to treatment regimens are a pervasive problem in this population and are related to exacerbation of symptoms. Effective management of pediatric asthma involves a complex set of interactions between the parent and child, yet there is a paucity of literature examining these interactions. The main purpose of this study was to identify the child behavior and asthma management tasks parents experience difficulty with. It was hypothesized that the more asthma behavior problems reported, the more problems parents experience in asthma management tasks. Participants in this study were 255 parents of 2-to 10-year-old asthmatic children, recruited via an advertisement placed in school newsletters throughout Australia. Results indicated that the most problematic child asthma behaviors were oppositional behavior, hyperactivity, and aggression, and anxiety was also identified by parents as a concern. The main problematic asthma parenting tasks were entrusting the school, entrusting caregivers, identifying unique symptoms, and identifying and avoiding triggers. More problem asthma behaviors were associated with higher levels of parenting difficulty and more general levels of behavior problems. Parents who reported more dysfunctional parenting styles reported more difficulties with their child's asthma behavior. Based on the results it is suggested that an appropriate parenting intervention program would target basic behavioral management skills, in addition to applying these behavior management principles to asthma management. PMID:18612898

  18. Cultural Approaches to Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting. PMID:22962544

  19. Reconceptualizing Parent Involvement: Parent as Accomplice or Parent as Partner?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitt, Nichole M.; Brooks, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Policy statements of the last two decades have directed schools to enter into partnerships with parents to enhance the social, emotional, and academic growth of their children. However, in practice and scholarship, parental involvement has been constructed as attendance to school-based activities and needs. This article draws on data from an…

  20. Does Parental Autonomy Support Relate to Adolescent Autonomy? An In-Depth Examination of a Seemingly Simple Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fousiani, Kyriaki; Van Petegem, Stijn; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Chen, Beiwen

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary research on autonomy development, autonomy has been defined as independence (vs. dependence) or as self-endorsed (vs. controlled) functioning. Analogously, perceived parental autonomy support involves either perceived parental promotion of independence (PI) or perceived parental promotion of volitional functioning (PVF). The…