Science.gov

Sample records for pargo rojo lutjanus

  1. Diet and food partitioning between juveniles of mutton Lutjanus analis, dog Lutjanus jocu and lane Lutjanus synagris snappers (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in a mangrove-fringed estuarine environment.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, C R; Joyeux, J-C

    2010-06-01

    Diet of juvenile mutton Lutjanus analis, dog Lutjanus jocu and lane Lutjanus synagris snappers were studied in the tropical Brazilian estuarine system of the Piraquê-açú and Piraquê-mirim Rivers to determine how these species share the resources in this restricted space. The three species prey principally upon Peracarida (L. synagris: relative importance index I(RIc) = 29%), Natantia (L. analis and L. synagris: I(RIc) = 39 and 38%, respectively), Reptantia (L. analis and L. jocu: I(RIc) = 28 and 43%, respectively) and Teleostei (L. jocu: I(RIc) = 24%). The three species use estuaries as nursery habitats but food overlap was not biologically significant due to a combination of interspecific differences in size, spatial distribution, microhabitat preferences and seasonal patterns of abundance and prey choice. Large marine protected areas incorporating essential habitats for all life stages are suggested to be the best tool for the management of these economically important species. PMID:20557594

  2. Mitogenomes of genus Pristipomoides, Lutjanus and Pterocaesio confirm Caesionidae nests in Lutjanidae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yusong; Bai, Qin; Yan, Tao; Wang, Zhongduo; Liu, Chuwu

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Goldbanded jobfish (Perciformes: Lutjanidae: Etelinae: Pristipomoides multidens) was sequenced using long-PCR amplification (Accession No.: KF430626). The mitochondrial genome is highly homologous to those of other teleosts. Consensus tree based on phylogeny analysis of nucleotide sequences using the protein-coding regions combined sequences (apart from ND6) in 11 species supports the fact that Pristipomoides multidens of Etelinae and the cluster of Subfamily Lutjaninae remain the sister relationship, consistent with the traditional taxonomy, while the fusiliers (Pterocaesio tile) of family Caesionidae nested within the genus Lutjanus of family Lutjanidae and showed more closely relationship with the non-reddish snappers cluster including L. russellii and L. argentimaculatus. Conclusively, this mitogenomic phylogeny indicates that the Caesionidae is a synonym of family Lutjanidae. Given the morphologic and feeding diversity, we hypothesize that the variation of feeding systems of genus Lutjanus may drive the speciation of snappers and fusiliers. PMID:25423518

  3. Use of riverine through reef habitat systems by dog snapper ( Lutjanus jocu ) in eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Rodrigo L.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Chaves, Eduardo M.; Minte-Vera, Carolina V.; Lindeman, Kenyon C.

    2011-11-01

    The early life history of Western Atlantic snappers from the Southern hemisphere is largely unknown. Habitat use of different life stages (i.e. size categories) of the dog snapper ( Lutjanus jocu) was examined across the largest South Atlantic reef-estuarine complex (Abrolhos Shelf, Brazil, 16-19° S). Visual surveys were conducted in different habitats across the shelf (estuary, inner-shelf reefs and mid-shelf reefs). Lutjanus jocu showed higher densities on inner-shelf habitats, with a clear increase in fish size across the shelf. Individuals <7 cm were associated with both the estuary (mangrove and rocky habitats) and inner-shelf reefs (particularly shallow fore-reefs and tide pools). Individuals ranging 10-30 cm were broadly distributed, but consistently more abundant on inner-shelf reefs. Individuals between 30 and 40 cm were more common on mid-shelf reefs, while individuals >40 cm were recorded only on mid-shelf reefs. Literature data indicate that individuals ranging 70-80 cm are common on deep offshore reefs. This pattern suggests that the dog snapper performs ontogenetic cross-shelf migrations. Protecting portions of the different habitats used by the dog snapper during its post-settlement life cycle is highlighted as an important conservation and management measure.

  4. The Presence and Origin of Enterococcus faecalis in Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachman, A. J.; Sturm, P.; Viqueira Ríos, R.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, a watershed management plan is being developed for Cabo Rojo region in Southwest Puerto Rico. This project fills in major gaps for water quality data on the Rio Viejo, a tributary on the Guanajibio River. The Rio Viejo flows through the town of Cabo Rojo, a town of 51,245 people. The project has identified 5 sites along the river to track bacterial loads. In the tropics, Enterococcus faecalis is an important indicator for fecal contamination in surface waters as it does not reproduce as quickly soils as E. coli. A combination of EPA 1600 and 9230B from Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater for identification of E. faecalis were utilized. The assay is a four step procedure that identifies the four criteria of bacteria in the group D Streptococcus system. The criteria require that the bacteria are Gram-positive cocci and Esculin-positive. There also must be growth in Brain Heart Infusion Broth at 35C and 45C as well as growth in Brain Heart Infusion broth + 6.5% NaCl. Further research will be conducted at North Carolina State University to ascertain the vertebrate species that is the source of the contamination through the use of qPCR.

  5. Glugea jazanensis sp. nov. infecting Lutjanus bohar in the Red Sea: ultrastructure and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Tamihi, Ahmad F; Al-Qahtani, Hussain A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Mansour, Lamjed

    2015-10-27

    During a survey of the microsporean fauna of the two-spot red snapper Lutjanus bohar Forsskål, 1775, from the Red Sea off Jizan (Saudi Arabia), a species of Glugea Thélohan, 1891 was found that did not conform to any known species. The species is characterized by the presence of spherical xenomas (ca. 2-5 mm in diameter) in the host body cavity. Examination of the lifecycle stages and mature spores using light and transmission electron microscopy also revealed morphological characteristics typical of species of the genus Glugea. Spores were elongated-ovoid with a posterior vacuole surrounded by the polar filament coils. Mature spores were 4.5 (4.0-4.8) µm long and 2.5 (2.0-2.5) µm wide. The polar filament was isofilar with 28 to 30 coils, although in most cases 29 coils, organized in 3 rows. Phylogenetic study based on the partial sequence of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene clustered the new microsporidia within the clade grouping species of the genus Glugea. The comprehensive analysis of the parasite's ultrastructural characteristics, together with molecular data for the SSU rDNA gene, suggests that this parasite is a new species of the genus Glugea, for which the name Glugea jazanensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:26503772

  6. [Reproductive biology of the golden snapper Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the central Mexican Pacific].

    PubMed

    Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Ceballos-Vázquez, Bertha Patricia

    2012-03-01

    Reproductive aspects and information on the effect of fishery activities over this species stock are scarce, despite the imperative need of effective protection and resource management programs. To support the possible establishment of closed seasons and catch levels for the area, our study aimed to evaluate the spawning season of the Golden snapper (Lutjanus inermis). For this, fish caught by artisanal fisheries in the Navidad, Tenacatita and Chamela bays (Jalisco, Mexico) were sampled monthly from 1999-2008, and analyzed sex ratios, spawning season and size at first maturity. A total of 311 (53.1%) females and 275 (46.9%) males were caught, and the observed sex ratio was 1:0.88. The total length range was 14.4-37.0cm and total weight range from 48-575g. The length at first maturity was 23.9cm TL for females and 23.6cm TL for males. The gonadosomatic index showed two principal reproductive periods in the year (February-April and September-November), when the largest number of mature gonads were observed. Ovaries were of asynchronic development type and seven oocyte development stages were identified. Testicles showed lobular development and spermatozoa were observed in the center of the cysts and in the collecting ducts. It is important to mention that our results support the current suitable exploitation of this species in the area. PMID:22458233

  7. Age and growth of mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus at its cool-water-range limits.

    PubMed

    Piddocke, T P; Butler, G L; Butcher, P A; Stewart, J; Bucher, D J; Christidis, L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the age and growth of Lutjanus argentimaculatus at its southern (cooler) range limits in eastern Australia. Specimens were collected from New South Wales and southern Queensland between November 2011 and December 2013. Fork lengths (LF ) ranged from 190 to 1019 mm, and ages ranged from 2+ to 57+ years. Growth was described by the von Bertalanffy growth function with coefficients L∞ = 874·92 mm, K = 0·087 year(-1) and t0 = -2·76 years. Estimates of the instantaneous natural mortality rate (M) ranged from 0·072 to 0·25. The LF (mm) and mass (W; g) relationship was represented by the equation: W=2·647×10-5LF2·92. The maximum age of 57+ years is the oldest reported for any lutjanid and comparisons with tropical studies suggest that the age-based demography of L. argentimaculatus follows a latitudinal gradient. High maximum ages and low natural mortality rates indicate considerable vulnerability to overexploitation at the species' cool-water-range limits. These results demonstrate the need to identify underlying processes driving latitudinal gradients in fish demography. PMID:25943148

  8. USE OF PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID PROFILES TO STUDY THE MICROBIAL COMPOSITION OF CYANOBACTERIAL MATS IN CABO ROJO SOLAR SALTERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cabo Rojo Saltern located in the West side of Puerto Rico is a hypersaline ecosystem that consists of crystallizer ponds surrounded by series of cyanobacterial mats. Although this ecosystem harbors a variety of microorganisms not much is known about their identity and relati...

  9. Sensory, Microbiological and Chemical Changes in Vacuum-Packaged Blue Spotted Emperor (Lethrinus sp), Saddletail Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus), Crimson Snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Fillets Stored at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Amaya, Luisa Fernanda; Munyard, Steve; Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Howieson, Janet

    2016-05-01

    Quality assessment of finfish fillets during storage is important to be able to predict the shelf life of the fresh product during distribution. Microbial, chemical (pH, TMA, and TVB-N), and sensory (Quality index assessment QIA, Torry scheme) changes in vacuum-packaged blue-spotted emperor (Lethrinus sp), saddletail (Lutjanus malabaricus), crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored at 4°C were evaluated for 5 days. Microbiological study included evaluation of TVC (total viable counts), total psychrotrophic organisms, and H2S-producing bacteria. Numbers increased during storage time and reached an average of 8.5, 8.5, and 9.2 log10 cfu/g, respectively, for the five different fish species. These levels were above accepted microbiological limits for fish fillets. Although the sensory analyses showed a decrease in quality, none of the finfish fillets were considered unacceptable at the end of the storage trial. Chemically, there was a slight pH increase, but trimethylamine (TMA) levels remained low. However, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) levels increased over time, reaching levels above 35 mg/100 g for blue spotted emperor, saddletail snapper, and crimson snapper by the end of the storage period. Results show that the deterioration of finfish fillet quality is a complex event of biochemical, sensory, and microbial factors, and multiple analyses may be required to define acceptability. PMID:27247777

  10. Spatial variation in otolith chemistry of Lutjanus apodus at Turneffe Atoll, Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittaro, P. M.; Usseglio, P.; Fryer, B. J.; Sale, P. F.

    2006-05-01

    Lutjanus apodus (Schoolmaster) were collected from several mangroves and coral reefs at Turneffe Atoll, Belize, in order to investigate whether elemental concentrations from the otolith edge could be used as a means to identify the habitat (mangrove or coral reef) and site (9 mangrove sites and 6 reef sites) from which they were collected. Results of a two factor nested MANOVA (sites nested within habitat) indicated significant differences in elemental concentrations between habitats (i.e., mangrove versus reef) as well as among sites. When separate Linear Discriminant Function Analyses (LDFA) were used to assess whether the spatial variability in otolith chemistry was sufficient to differentiate individuals to their respective habitats or sites, the results indicated that fish were classified (jackknife procedure) with a moderate to poor degree of accuracy (i.e., on average, 67% and 40% of the individuals were correctly classified to the habitat and site from which they were collected, respectively). Using a partial Mantel test we did not find a significant correlation between the differences in otolith elemental concentrations between sites and the distance between sites, while controlling the effect of habitat type (mangrove or reef). This suggests that for mangrove and reef sites at Turneffe Atoll, Belize, the overlap in terms of L. apodus otolith elemental concentrations is too high for investigations of fish movement. Finally, by comparing previously published Haemulon flavolineatum otolith chemistry to that of L. apodus we assessed whether these species showed similar habitat and/or site specific patterns in their otolith chemistry. Although both species were collected from the same sites our results indicated little similarity in their elemental concentrations, thus suggesting that habitat and site elemental signatures are species specific.

  11. From surfaces to magnetic properties: special section dedicated to Juan Rojo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaraque, A.; Rodríguez de la Fuente, O.; González-Barrio, Miguel A.

    2013-12-01

    Surface physics and magnetism, in particular the connection between surface defects, reduced dimensionality or size, crystal structure, electronic density of states and the mechanical and magnetic properties of solids, were always at the core of Juan Rojo's scientific interest and output. Both fields seem to meet at the nanoscale, a privileged playing field which is ideal for testing theoretical concepts, exploring new physics or probing a wealth of new, stunning and unheard-of applications. Upon reducing size or dimensionality, either in bulk systems or in thin films, surfaces and surface effects are telling. Thus, for instance, an ultra-thin coating can make nanoparticles of non-magnetic materials exhibit magnetic behaviour; or atomic steps can modify the local mechanical properties of a metallic single crystal. In this special section there are eight invited papers by disciples and close collaborators of Juan Rojo, that cover an ample spectrum of the above mentioned topics. The first paper, by Palacio et al, investigates the temperature and oxygen partial pressure conditions for FeO mono- and bi-layer growth on Ru(0001). The following paper, by Cortés-Gil et al, reports on the dramatic change in the electric resistivity of the manganite perovskite (La0.5Ca0.5)z MnO3 as a function of Ca content, an effect related to the removal of a charge-ordered state and a magnetic transition. Baeza et al study biomaterials for bone cancer treatment and skeletal reinforcing, as well as targeted magnetic nanoparticles used for intracell hyperthermia in cancer therapies. In the following paper, Marcano et al, assisted by a multi-technique approach, revisit the extraordinarily rich magnetic phase diagram of the Kondo system CeNi1- x Cux down to 100 mK temperatures. The magnetic field dependence of the martensitic transition temperature of the meta-magnetic shape memory alloy Ni50Mn34.5In15.5 in a crystalline and amorphous phase, in fields up to 13 T, is the subject of the paper

  12. From surfaces to magnetic properties: special section dedicated to Juan Rojo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaraque, A.; Rodríguez de la Fuente, O.; González-Barrio, Miguel A.

    2013-12-01

    Surface physics and magnetism, in particular the connection between surface defects, reduced dimensionality or size, crystal structure, electronic density of states and the mechanical and magnetic properties of solids, were always at the core of Juan Rojo's scientific interest and output. Both fields seem to meet at the nanoscale, a privileged playing field which is ideal for testing theoretical concepts, exploring new physics or probing a wealth of new, stunning and unheard-of applications. Upon reducing size or dimensionality, either in bulk systems or in thin films, surfaces and surface effects are telling. Thus, for instance, an ultra-thin coating can make nanoparticles of non-magnetic materials exhibit magnetic behaviour; or atomic steps can modify the local mechanical properties of a metallic single crystal. In this special section there are eight invited papers by disciples and close collaborators of Juan Rojo, that cover an ample spectrum of the above mentioned topics. The first paper, by Palacio et al, investigates the temperature and oxygen partial pressure conditions for FeO mono- and bi-layer growth on Ru(0001). The following paper, by Cortés-Gil et al, reports on the dramatic change in the electric resistivity of the manganite perovskite (La0.5Ca0.5)z MnO3 as a function of Ca content, an effect related to the removal of a charge-ordered state and a magnetic transition. Baeza et al study biomaterials for bone cancer treatment and skeletal reinforcing, as well as targeted magnetic nanoparticles used for intracell hyperthermia in cancer therapies. In the following paper, Marcano et al, assisted by a multi-technique approach, revisit the extraordinarily rich magnetic phase diagram of the Kondo system CeNi1- x Cux down to 100 mK temperatures. The magnetic field dependence of the martensitic transition temperature of the meta-magnetic shape memory alloy Ni50Mn34.5In15.5 in a crystalline and amorphous phase, in fields up to 13 T, is the subject of the paper

  13. Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani, a Gram-negative bacterium in internal organs of blue striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira from Hawaii.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsaro, Daniele; Work, Thierry M.

    2012-01-01

    The blue-striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira (Perciformes, Lutjanidae) are cosmopolitan in the Indo-Pacific but were introduced into Oahu, Hawaii, USA, in the 1950s and have since colonized most of the archipelago. Studies of microparasites in blue-striped snappers from Hawaii revealed chlamydia-like organisms (CLO) infecting the spleen and kidney, characterized by intracellular basophilic granular inclusions containing Gram-negative and Gimenez-positive bacteria similar in appearance to epitheliocysts when seen under light microscopy. We provide molecular evidence that CLO are a new member of Chlamydiae, i.e. Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani, that represents the first reported case of chlamydial infection in organs other than the gill in fishes.

  14. Mercury pollution by mining activities in Rayo Rojo mining district, Apolobamba (Bolivia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teran-Mita, T.; Faz Cano, A.; Muñoz, M.; Millán, R.; Salvador, F.

    2009-04-01

    In Bolivia, metal mining activities since historical times have been one of the most important causes of the environmental degradation. This is the case of the Natural Integrated Management Area of Apolobamba (Department of La Paz, Bolivia), where intense gold mining activities have been carried out from former times to present days, with very little gold extraction and very scarce mineral processing technology. In Apolobamba mercury is still being used in the amalgam processes and this might conduct to high Hg contents. Inhabitants of this area consume fish from lakes and rivers, and use the waters for the livestock, domestic use, and irrigation. The aim of this work was to evaluate mercury impact into the soil-plant-water system. The Technical University of Cartagena, Spain, through the Research Group "Sustainable Use, Management and Reclamation of Soil and Water", carried out a research, in the most intense affected gold extraction zones in Apolobamba, among them Rayo Rojo, where mining activity is mainly gold extraction, although the extracted mineral volume and technology used is low. Rayo Rojo is located in the central part of ANMI - Apolobamba (in the andean region), inside of Pelechuco municipality; the area belongs biogeographically to the Altoandina and Puna. This district, located in Apolobamba mountain-range, where altitudes above 5.000 m.a.s.l are reached. Water, soil, sediment and plant samples were taken around the operations mining sites and total mercury analysed. Mercury content was determined by AMA-254 model, based on the thermal decomposition of the sample and collection of the Hg vapour on a gold amalgamator. The analysis is performed from solid samples without any further preparation. Samples are initially dried at 125°C and then thermally decomposed at the temperature of 550°C. Mercury vapour is then trapped on the gold amalgamator. AMA-254 method certificated standards were BCR 62-BCR 281. Preliminary results show high Hg concentrations

  15. Historical and contemporary evidence of a mutton snapper ( Lutjanus analis Cuvier, 1828) spawning aggregation fishery in decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, R. T.; Carcamo, R.; Rhodes, K. L.; Roberts, C. M.; Requena, N.

    2008-06-01

    Scientific information on reef fish spawning aggregation fisheries is sparse in light of numerous regional declines and extirpations from overexploitation. Fisher interviews of the small-scale commercial mutton snapper ( Lutjanus analis) spawning aggregation fishery at Gladden Spit, Belize, suggests a historic decadal decline. The reported trend is supported by analysis of inter-seasonal catch and effort and yield (2000 2002) that reveals a 59% decline in catch per unit effort (CPUE) and a 22% decrease in mean landings per boat. Declining population-level trends are also supported by a significant decrease in inter-annual median lengths of mutton snappers (2000 2006). These findings demonstrate the need for additional life history information that includes length-associated age and details on growth to provide clearer support of the effects on, and responses by, populations following fishing. In view of the historical changes to mutton snapper CPUE and landings at Gladden Spit and the fishery-associated declines in fish spawning aggregations observed globally, a precautionary approach to spawning aggregation management is warranted that provides full protection from fishing to enhance population persistence. The findings also highlight the need for substantially greater enforcement and long-term fisheries monitoring under a comprehensive regional management strategy.

  16. Expression of myostatin in the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus during larval and juvenile development under cultured conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres-Velarde, J; Ibarra-Castro, L; Rodríguez-Ibarra, E; Sifuentes-Romero, I; Hernández-Cornejo, R; García-Gasca, A

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the developmental expression pattern of myostatin (mstn) in the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus under culture conditions is presented. The full coding sequence of mstn from L. guttatus was isolated from muscle tissue, obtaining 1134 nucleotides which encode a peptide of 377 amino acids. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that this sequence corresponds to mstn-1. mstn expression was detected in embryonic stages, and maintained at low levels until 28 days post-hatch, when it showed a significant increase, coinciding with the onset of metamorphosis. After that, expression was fluctuating, coinciding probably with periods of rapid and slow muscle growth or individual growth rates. mstn expression was also analysed by body mass with higher levels detected in smaller animals, irrespective of age. mstn was also expressed in other tissues from L. guttatus, presenting higher levels in brain, eye and gill. In brain for instance, two variants of mstn were isolated, both coding sequences were identical to muscle, except that one of them contained a 75 nucleotide deletion in exon 1, maintaining the reading frame but deleting two conserved cysteine residues. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this brain variant was also mstn-1. The function of this variant is not clear and needs further investigation. These results indicate that mstn-1 participates in different physiological processes other than muscle growth in fishes. PMID:26376729

  17. Lack of Spatial Subdivision for the Snapper Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae - Perciformes) from Southwest Atlantic Based on Multi-Locus Analyses.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Raimundo; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Grazielle

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean snapper Lutjanus purpureus is a marine species fish commonly found associated with rocky seabeds and is widely distributed along of Western Atlantic. Data on stock delineation and stock recognition are essential for establishing conservation measures for commercially fished species. However, few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of this economically valuable species, and previous studies (based on only a portion of the mitochondrial DNA) provide an incomplete picture. The present study used a multi-locus approach (12 segments of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) to elucidate the levels of genetic diversity and genetic connectivity of L. purpureus populations and their demographic history. L. purpureus has high levels of genetic diversity, which probably implies in high effective population sizes values for the species. The data show that this species is genetically homogeneous throughout the geographic region analyzed, most likely as a result of dispersal during larval phase. Regarding demographic history, a historical population growth event occurred, likely due to sea level changes during the Pleistocene. PMID:27556738

  18. Characterization and expression analysis of B Cell receptor accessory molecule CD79 gene in humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yucong; Yan, Xiuying; Cai, Shuanghu; Cai, Jia; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Tang, Jufen; Wu, Zaohe

    2016-04-01

    CD79, a key component of the B cell antigen receptor complex, is composed of CD79α(Igα) and CD79β(Igβ) encoded by mb-1 and B29 respectively, and plays an important role in B cell signaling. In this study, we isolated and characterized mb-1 and B29 from humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus). Their tissue distribution and expression profiles after stimulations in vitro and in vivo were also investigated. The humphead snapper mb-1 and B29 contain open reading frames of 684 bp and 606 bp, encoding 227 amino acids and 201 amino acids, respectively. Both CD79α and CD79β possess signal peptide, extracellular Ig domain, transmembrane region and immunoreceptor tyrosine kinase activation motif (ITAM). Mb-1 is highly expressed in lymphoid organs (thymus, posterior kidney and spleen) and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues (gill and intestine), while B29 is mainly detected in posterior kidney, spleen, gill and skin. Furthermore, transcription of mb-1 and B29 in head kidney leucocytes was up-regulated following lipopolysaccharide (LPS), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) stimulation, respectively, and their expression level in anterior kidney and spleen was also increased after challenged with formalin-inactived Vibrio harveyi. These results indicated that humphead snapper CD79 molecule might play an important role in immune response to pathogen infection.

  19. Spatial and Dietary Overlap Creates Potential for Competition between Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and Vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, William T.; Drymon, J. Marcus; Powers, Sean P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the complex nature of direct and indirect species interactions is a critical precursor to successful resource management. In the northern Gulf of Mexico fisheries ecosystem, red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens) are two commercially harvested species within a larger reef fish complex. These two species share similar habitats and diets; however, little is known about how these species partition habitat and dietary resources. In this study we examined the extent of spatial and dietary overlap between red snapper and vermilion snapper, and experimentally compared their feeding behavior. Field data from multiple gear types demonstrates that red snapper and vermilion snapper frequently cohabited reefs in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and Pianka’s niche overlap indices suggest significantly overlapping diets. Experimental manipulations show that red snapper are the dominant forager of the two species, as red snapper foraging alone ate more shrimp per fish than vermilion snapper in both the single species (p = 0.003) and mixed species (p = 0.02) treatments. In addition, red snapper ate significantly more shrimp per fish in the mixed species treatment than in the single species treatment (p = 0.04). Vermilion snapper shrimp consumption per fish did not differ significantly between mixed and single species treatments. Cumulatively, our results suggest that spatial and dietary overlap could lead to competition between red and vermilion snapper in the study area; however, conclusively determining the existence of such competition would require further research. PMID:26630481

  20. Hematological characteristics of the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869) healthy and naturally infected by dactylogyrid monogeneans.

    PubMed

    Del Rio-Zaragoza, O B; Fajer-Ávila, E J; Almazán-Rueda, P; Abdo de la Parra, M I

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain a basic knowledge of the hematology in order to determine changes in blood parameters of the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus. The morphological features of blood cells were described according to the observations made by light microscopy of Wright-Giemsa-stained blood films. The reference intervals and the mean value were determined for each hematological parameter evaluated in healthy fish and data were compared to those of naturally infected, with dactylogyrid monogeneans fish. Infected fish showed a prevalence of 100% and a mean intensity of 246.6 parasites per fish. Mean values of HCT, WBC, thrombocytes percentage and eosinophils percentage were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the infected fish. In addition, lymphocytes percentage and total protein were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the infected fish compared to healthy fish. Only total WBC count, lymphocytes percentage and eosinophils percentage in infected fish were outside reference interval. The hematology of the spotted rose snapper of this study might serve as a basis for future studies and diagnosis. Changes observed in blood parameters in infected fish suggest that the immune system of L. guttatus was affected by the presence of the parasites. PMID:21466888

  1. Influence of β-glucan on innate immunity and resistance of Lutjanus guttatus to an experimental infection of dactylogyrid monogeneans.

    PubMed

    Del Rio-Zaragoza, O B; Fajer-Ávila, E J; Almazán-Rueda, P

    2011-09-01

    The present study investigated the effect of β-1,3/1,6-glucan on growth, haematology, innate immunity and resistance against dactylogyrids on the spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus). Fish were fed during 5 weeks with commercial diet (control group) and same diet supplemented with three levels of β-glucans (0·05%, 0·1% and 0·5%/kg feed). The results showed that at concentrations of 0·05% and 0·1%, fish growth was enhanced, and in weeks 2 and 4, an increase in cellular responses such as percentage of monocytes, neutrophils, respiratory burst activity and nitric oxide activity was observed. In diet with 0·5%β-glucans, changes were registered at the end of the experiment. At week 2, 0·05%β-glucans showed the best response to most of the analysed parameters. In a second trial, diet with 0·05%β-glucans was chosen to prove its effect on the resistance of infected fish with monogeneans. The results showed that fish reduce significantly the number of dactylogyrids, and parameters such as WBC, percentage of lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils were increased. In addition, WBC and percentage of thrombocytes increased in the control (+). The β-glucans have the potential to be use in diet formulations of the spotted rose snapper and to limit the adverse effects of dactylogyrids. PMID:21711364

  2. Spatial and Dietary Overlap Creates Potential for Competition between Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and Vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens).

    PubMed

    Davis, William T; Drymon, J Marcus; Powers, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the complex nature of direct and indirect species interactions is a critical precursor to successful resource management. In the northern Gulf of Mexico fisheries ecosystem, red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens) are two commercially harvested species within a larger reef fish complex. These two species share similar habitats and diets; however, little is known about how these species partition habitat and dietary resources. In this study we examined the extent of spatial and dietary overlap between red snapper and vermilion snapper, and experimentally compared their feeding behavior. Field data from multiple gear types demonstrates that red snapper and vermilion snapper frequently cohabited reefs in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and Pianka's niche overlap indices suggest significantly overlapping diets. Experimental manipulations show that red snapper are the dominant forager of the two species, as red snapper foraging alone ate more shrimp per fish than vermilion snapper in both the single species (p = 0.003) and mixed species (p = 0.02) treatments. In addition, red snapper ate significantly more shrimp per fish in the mixed species treatment than in the single species treatment (p = 0.04). Vermilion snapper shrimp consumption per fish did not differ significantly between mixed and single species treatments. Cumulatively, our results suggest that spatial and dietary overlap could lead to competition between red and vermilion snapper in the study area; however, conclusively determining the existence of such competition would require further research. PMID:26630481

  3. Morphological Characters and Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Black Skin and Red Skin in Crimson Snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Zhong-Duo; Guo, Yu-Song; Liu, Li; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Shun; Liu, Shao-Jun; Liu, Chu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, morphology observation and illumina sequencing were performed on two different coloration skins of crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), the black zone and the red zone. Three types of chromatophores, melanophores, iridophores and xanthophores, were organized in the skins. The main differences between the two colorations were in the amount and distribution of the three chromatophores. After comparing the two transcriptomes, 9200 unigenes with significantly different expressions (ratio change ≥ 2 and q-value ≤ 0.05) were found, of which 5972 were up-regulated in black skin and 3228 were up-regulated in red skin. Through the function annotation, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of the differentially transcribed genes, we excavated a number of uncharacterized candidate pigment genes as well as found the conserved genes affecting pigmentation in crimson snapper. The patterns of expression of 14 pigment genes were confirmed by the Quantitative real-time PCR analysis between the two color skins. Overall, this study shows a global survey of the morphological characters and transcriptome analysis of the different coloration skins in crimson snapper, and provides valuable cellular and genetic information to uncover the mechanism of the formation of pigment patterns in snappers. PMID:26569232

  4. Anatomical and surface morphology of Hedruris lutjanenses sp. n. (Nematoda: Hedruridae) from the common marinewater fish Lutjanus synagris in Damietta, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, M M; Awad, E R; Taha, R G

    2014-08-01

    The description and tegumental ultrastructure of nematode Hedruris lutjanenses sp. n. collected from marine Lane Snapper fish Lutjanus synagris Linnaeus, 1758 collected at Manzala Lake, Damietta, Egypt was studied by light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The new species is mainly characterized by that the buccal capsule is surrounded by four pseudolapia; one small and three larger pseudolapia, each one bears a number of papillae arranged irregularly on its surface and the presence of one pair of precloacal papillae and nine pairs of postcloacal ones in males. PMID:25597145

  5. Monogenea of marine fishes from Hainan Island, China. VIII. Two new species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 (Dactylogyridae) from Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Teleostei: Lutjanidae).

    PubMed

    Jun, Pan; Jianying, Zhang

    2006-06-01

    This paper reports two new species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 collected from the gills of Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål). E. xinyingense n. sp. is similar to Euryhaliotrema atlanticum Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 in the structure of copulatory apparatus, but differs from the latter in the shape of anchors and the structure of vagina. E. hainanense n. sp. also closely resembles E. atlanticum Kritsky & Boeger, 2002, but differs from the latter in the structure of haptor and the shape of accessory piece. PMID:16612651

  6. Population model for Amyloodinium ocellatum infecting the spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus and the red snapper Lutjanus campechanus.

    PubMed

    Masson, Ignacio; Lotz, Jeffrey M; Blaylock, Reginald B

    2013-10-11

    The dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum, a major pathogen in warm water mariculture, has a trophont, a tomont and a dinospore life history stage. This paper presents a population model for A. ocellatum infecting spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus and red snapper Lutjanus campechanus and evaluates the relative effect of each vital rate on the A. ocellatum population growth rate. The vital rates were estimated by incubating trophonts in vitro and tracking their development through the successive life history stages at 25°C and 33 ppt. The A. ocellatum population growth rate was 1.90 d-1 for spotted seatrout and 1.92 d-1 for red snapper. Highest elasticity values (0.24 and 0.23 in spotted seatrout and red snapper, respectively) corresponded to transitions from the dinospore to the trophont stage, the trophont stage to the tomont stage and the tomont stage back to the dinospore stage in both host species (self-loops not included). A 50% change in vital rates showed that the mean number of dinospores produced by a tomont had the largest effect on the A. ocellatum population growth rate (15%), followed by the dinospore infection rate (14%), the tomont sporulation rate (12%) and the dinospore mortality rate (10%) in both host species. A comparison of modeled and experimental vital rate threshold values revealed a 2.5- (spotted seatrout) or a 2.6-fold (red snapper) difference in the values for dinospore mortality, which is the smallest difference among all the modeled and experimental vital rates. Therefore, measures that increase dinospore mortality have a greater likelihood of influencing the outcome of an epidemic. PMID:24113247

  7. Humoral immune response and TLR9 gene expression in Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) experimentally exposed to Aeromonas veronii.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Angulo, Carlos; Ascencio, Felipe

    2015-02-01

    Aquaculture production of Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru is growing rapidly in Mexico, especially in Gulf of California. As it is a relatively new aquaculture species there are few reports evaluating its immune response to pathogens. The Gram-negative bacteria Aeromonas veronii is a heterogeneous organism that causes the disease known as motile aeromonad septicemia, which is responsible for serious economic loss in seabream culture due to bacterial infections. For the purpose of this study, juvenile Pacific red snapper specimens were intraperitoneally injected with low doses of A. veronii (1 × 10(6) CFU ml(-1)). Changes in humoral immune parameters (total protein, myeloperoxidase, lisozyme and antiprotease activities and IgM levels), as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and TLR9 gene expression were evaluated 24 and 48 h after injection. Overall, the results showed an enhanced in humoral immune parameters and SOD and CAT activities in fish infected with A. veronii compared with control group at 24 or 48 h. By real time PCR assays, the basal mRNA transcripts of TLR9 showed that were highly expressed in intestine and leucocytes compared to skin, head kidney, liver and gill. Then, the mRNA expression levels of TLR9 in head kidney, skin, liver and intestine were analyzed in non-infected and experimentally infected fish 24 and 48 h after injection. A. veronii up-regulated the expression of TLR9 at 24 or 48 h of exposure in all samples analyzed except in liver. Interestingly, intestine produced the greatest increase in transcript levels upon exposure (48 h) to A. veronii. Taken together, our results suggest that low doses of A. veronii infection inducing humoral immune system and TLR9 immune gene in Pacific red snapper that can be useful in the health control of this species. PMID:25462554

  8. Regional variation in mercury and stable isotopes of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    PubMed

    Zapp Sluis, Michelle; Boswell, Kevin M; Chumchal, Matthew M; Wells, R J David; Soulen, Brianne; Cowan, James H

    2013-02-01

    The presence of total mercury (Hg) in fish tissue and the potential associated health risks has become a global concern in marine ecosystems. Few studies have examined basin-scale variation in Hg accumulation in marine ecosystems, and determining if Hg concentrations in fish tissue vary across marine ecosystems is a key monitoring question. The present study evaluated Hg concentrations in red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) tissue across three regions of the northern Gulf of Mexico (Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas, USA) and between two habitat types (oil and gas platforms and nonplatforms) within each region. Nitrogen (δ(15)N), carbon (δ(13)C), and sulfur (δ(34)S) stable isotopes were used to investigate ecological differences that may affect Hg concentrations among regions and between habitats. Mercury concentrations in red snapper tissue were positively correlated with fish total length. Regional differences in Hg concentrations were significant, with fish collected from Alabama having the highest concentrations and fish collected from Louisiana having the lowest. No significant difference existed in Hg concentrations between habitats, suggesting that association with platforms may not be a significant factor contributing to red snapper Hg concentrations. While δ(15)N did not differ significantly among the three regions, Texas red snapper were more enriched in δ(34)S and depleted in δ(13)C compared with Alabama and Louisiana red snapper. Although the majority of red snapper collected in the present study had Hg concentrations below safe consumption guidelines, regional differences suggest that spatially explicit monitoring programs may be important for basin-wide assessments. PMID:23180665

  9. Metal contents in the tissues of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Smith 1949) and Epinephelus tauvina (Forskal 1775) collected from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.; Al-Ghais, S.M.

    1996-12-01

    The role heavy metals (the non-degradable and commutative chemicals) play as pollutants is widely recognized. In the sea, accumulation of pollutants may cause the toxicity to the aquatic organism and subsequently transferred to man through the food chain. Among the major sources of metal contamination are industrial activities and mining. Natural processes such as volcanic eruptions, erosion and wind are also important. At many places, industrial and agricultural discharges were found primary source of metal poisoning of fish e.g. Poland, Canada. Highway or motorboat traffic has also been reported as a major contributor of the problem. Exposure to heavy metals through air, water and/or the food chain is known to induce a wide variety of toxic effects in humans and animals. Some of these heavy metals are considered as essential elements for normal physiological functions of the human as well as for the most of animals micronutrients but the higher levels may be toxic or harmful. Extensive studies have been carried out in many parts of the world to determine toxicity and bio-accumulation of these metals in fish and other marine flora and fauna. However, there is a gap in our knowledge of the kind and extent of marine pollution by heavy metals around the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the resultant contamination of the aquatic habitat. In continuation of our interest in marine environment, this study was designed to investigate and to compare the concentrations of cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc in the skin, muscle and liver, and mercury in the muscle tissues only of Lutjanus fulviflamma and Epinephelus tauvina. These species have been selected as these are among the highly commercial fish species found in the trap fishery of United Arab Emirates. 25 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Characterization and expression of MHC class II alpha and II beta genes in mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyan; Tan, Shangjin; Cai, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II plays a key role in adaptive immunity by presenting foreign peptides to CD4(+) T cells and by triggering the adaptive immune response. While the structure and function of MHC class II have been well characterized in mammalian, limited research has been done on fishes. In this study, we characterized the gene structure and expression of MHC class II α (Lunar-DAA) and II β (Lunar-DAB) of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Both genes shared, respectively, a high similarity and typical features with other vertebrate MHC class II α and II β. The phylogenetic analysis of the deduced peptides revealed that both Lunar-DAA and Lunar-DAB were located in the teleost subclass. Western blotting analyses indicated that both MHC class II α and II β were expressed ubiquitously in immune-related cells, tissues and organs, and that MHC class II α and II β chains existed mainly as heterodimers. While it was highly expressed in gills, thymus, head kidney (HK), spleen, head kidney macrophage and spleen leucocytes, MHC class II β chain was expressed with a low abundance in skin, intestine, stomach and heart. The highest expression of MHC class II β in thymus confirmed the conclusion that thymus is one of the primary lymphoid organs in fishes. The detection of MHC class II αβ dimers in HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes indicated that HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes play a critical role in the adaptive immunity in fishes. All these results provide valuable information for understanding the structure of MHC class II α and II β and their function in immune responses. PMID:26454477

  11. Validity of a blue stripe snapper, Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828) and a related species, L. bengalensis (Bloch 1790) with a new species (Pisces; Lutjanidae) from the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Yukio; Al-Mamry, Juma M; Heemstra, Phillip C

    2016-01-01

    Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828), previously considered a junior synonym of Lutjanus bengalensis (Bloch 1790), is shown to be a valid species and lectotypes are designated. Both species are redescribed. The two species have overlapping distributions in the Indian Ocean, but are clearly separable by different dorsal-fin spine counts, blue-striped pattern on the body and the presence or absence of a subocular extension of cheek scales. Lutjanus octovittata (Valenciennes 1830), formerly assigned to synonymy of L. bengalensis, is considered a junior synonym of L. octolineatus based on examination of the holotype. Lutjanus sapphirolineatus n. sp., a species formerly misidentified as L. bengalensis, is described based on 10 specimens from Oman and Somalia. The new species differs from the three species above by a combination of different characters. Analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1, 603 bp) genetic marker, also strongly supports the validity of each species of the blue-striped snapper complex as distinct. PMID:27394598

  12. Three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in Lutjanus spp. (Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico off Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Bakenhaster, Micah; Fajer-Avila, Emma J

    2014-08-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes of the genus Lutjanus Bloch (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico: P. longispicula sp. n. from the ovary of the northern red snapper L. campechanus (Poey) (type host) and silk snapper L. vivanus (Cuvier); P. latispicula sp. n. from the ovary and rarely testes of the grey snapper L. griseus (Linnaeus); and P. synagridis sp. n. (only males available) from the ovary of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus). These species are mainly characterised by the lengths of spicules (378-690 microm, 135-144 microm and 186-219 microm, respectively) and spicule shapes, structure of the distal portion of the gubernaculum and the structure of the male caudal end. These are the first valid, nominal species of gonad-infecting philometrids reported from fishes of the family Lutjanidae in the western Atlantic region. PMID:25185406

  13. Spatial and temporal variability in the otolith chemistry of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei from estuarine and coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, A; Ferreira, B P; Rooker, J R

    2016-07-01

    Otolith chemistry of juvenile and adult individuals of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei was measured to assess the utility of natural markers for investigating individual movements. Individuals were collected over a 3-year period (2010-2012) along the north-eastern coast of Brazil from both estuarine (juvenile to sub-adult stages) and coastal (sub-adult to adult stages) areas. Six elements ((7) Li, (24) Mg, (55) Mn, (59) Co, (88) Sr and (137) Ba) were measured in sectioned otoliths of L. alexandrei using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Edge composition analysis indicated that element:Ca ratios in the otoliths of juvenile and sub-adult L. alexandrei from estuaries were not significantly different among the three consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012), suggesting that physicochemical conditions within the nursery area investigated were temporally stable. Similarly, apart from two elements (Ba and Co), element:Ca ratios for larger L. alexandrei inhabiting coastal waters were also similar. In contrast, otolith chemistry of similar sized L. alexandrei from estuarine and coastal areas was significantly different (based on recently accreted material). Otolith Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca were both significantly higher for L. alexandrei collected in estuaries compared to fish from adjacent coastal reefs, while the opposite trend was observed for Sr:Ca. Given the pronounced differences in otolith chemistry between estuarine and coastal areas, element:Ca transects were constructed from the core to margin of the otoliths for adults (age 7+ years) collected on reefs to determine the timing of movement (ontogenetic migration) from estuarine to coastal areas. Based on observed patterns of decline for both Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca, it appears that L. alexandrei begin the move to more coastal habitats (i.e. lower element:Ca ratios) after age 2 years. The patterns observed for this species highlight the importance of conserving connectivity between

  14. Secondary forest succession and tree planting at the Laguna Cartagena and Cabo Rojo wildlife refuges in southwestern Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Peter L; Schwagerl, Joseph J

    2008-12-01

    Secondary forest succession and tree planting are contributing to the recovery of the Cabo Rojo refuge (Headquarters and Salinas tracts) and Laguna Cartagena refuge (Lagoon and Tinaja tracts) of the Fish and Wildlife Service in southwestern Puerto Rico. About 80 species, mainly natives, have been planted on 44 ha during the past 25 y in an effort to reduce the threat of grass fires and to restore wildlife habitat. A 2007 survey of 9-y-old tree plantings on the Lagoon tract showed satisfactory growth rates for 16 native species. Multiple stems from individual trees at ground level were common. A sampling of secondary forest on the entire 109 ha Tinaja tract disclosed 141 native tree species, or 25% of Puerto Rico's native tree flora, along with 20 exotics. Five tree species made up about 58% of the total basal area, and seven species were island endemics. Between 1998 and 2003, tree numbers and basal area, as well as tree heights and diameter at breast height values (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground), increased on the lower 30 ha of the Tinaja tract. In this area, much of it subject to fires and grazing through 1996, exotic trees made up 25% of the species. Dry forest throughout the tropics is an endangered habitat, and its recovery (i.e., in biomass, structure, and species composition) at Tinaja may exceed 500 y. Future forests, however, will likely contain some exotics. PMID:19205183

  15. A new species of Euryhaliotrematoides Plaisance & Kritsky, 2004 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner) (Perciformes: Lutjanidae).

    PubMed

    Soler-Jiménez, Lilia C; García-Gasca, Alejandra; Fajer-Ávila, Emma J

    2012-06-01

    Euryhaliotrematoides mehen n. sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) is described based on specimens collected from the gills of the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner) off Mazatlan, Sinaloa, on the northwestern coast of Mexico. The synapomorphy of this genus is the presence of a funnel-shaped base of the male copulatory organ. This new species differs from all other species of the genus by possessing a male copulatory organ with a base with a thickened margin and a membranous accessory piece resembling a scarf and covering about 60% of its distal region. PCR products of the 28S rRNA (831 bp) and 18S rRNA (662 bp) genes were sequenced and submitted to GenBank (accession numbers HQ615997 and JF938069, respectively). BLASTn searches revealed no 100% identical hits with the previously registered monogenean sequences. PMID:22581247

  16. Effects of dietary protein level on growth and utilization of protein and energy by juvenile mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulam, Abbas; Khalid, Jamil; Rukhsana, Akhtar; Lin, Hong

    2005-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted in a recirculating water system to investigate the effects of dietary protein levels on growth, feed utilization, hepatosomatic index and liver lipid deposition of juvenile red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (average initial wet weight 8.0 ± 0.39 g and total length 3.14 ± 0.3 cm). In the experiment, six fishmeal-based diets were formulated to contain various protein levels (20% to 45% in 5% increments), with dietary energy ranging from 2210.7kJ lOOg to 2250.2kJlOOg dry matter. The protein to energy ratios of diets ranged from 8.58 mg protein kJ-1 to 20.03 mg protein kJ-1. Diets were fed for 90d to triplicate groups of fish stocked in 0.128m3 seawater tanks, 25 individuals each. The daily ration of 2% wet body weight was offered to the fish thrice a day. The fish at the end of the study had more than ten-fold (77.0g) increase in weight compared to the initial (8.0g). Fish fed diets of 40% and 45% protein produced significantly (P<0.05) higher weight gain of 77.2g and 76.5g, and specific growth rate (SGR) of 2.65% and 2.62% than those of 67.0 g and 68.3g, and 2.49% and 2.51% of the other diets. The broken-line regression of SGR against dietary protein level yielded an optimum dietary protein requirement of 42.6% (Y=-1.6295 + 0.1114 X 2,P<0.05). Survival remained 100% among groups. Feed conversion ratio decreased from 0.45 for fish fed 20% dietary protein to 0.35 for fish fed 45% dietary protein. Nitrogen intake increased with an increase in dietary protein, which in turn resulted in an increase in nitrogen gain of fish whole body. Fish fed 40% and 45% protein diets showed higher (P<0.05) nitrogen gain (0.27g and 0.26g) than those (0.23g and 025g) fed all other diets. Gross energy intake (GEI) in fish fed 45% protein was lower (600.67kJ) than that (607.97 kJ) of 40% protein diet, though the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05); GEI ranging from 677.31 kJ to 663.20 kJ at remaining four diets (20% to 35% protein

  17. Cloning and expression analysis of recombination activating genes (RAG1/2) in red snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Lu, Y S; Jian, J C; Wu, Z H

    2012-04-01

    Recombination activating genes (RAG1 and RAG2), involved in the V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes play a crucial role in the adaptive immune response in vertebrates. The expression of these genes was required for the proper development and maturity of lymphocytes so that they can be used as useful markers to evaluate the development of lymphoid organ. In this paper, the cDNA of RAG1 and RAG2 in red snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus were cloned by homological cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. Results showed the full length of RAG1 cDNA was 3944 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 200 bp, a 3'-UTR of 561 bp and an open reading frame of 3183 bp encoding 1060 amino acids. Three important structural motifs, a RING/U-box domain, a RING/FYVE/PHD-type domain and a RAG Nonamer-binding domain were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of RAG1 by InterProScan analysis. The full length of RAG2 cDNA was 2200 bp, consisting of a 141 bp 5'-UTR, a 457 bp 3'-UTR and an open reading frame of 1602 bp encoding 533 amino acids. Two important structural motifs, a Galactose oxidase/kelch, beta-propeller domain and a kelch-type beta-propeller domain were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of RAG2 by InterProScan analysis. BLAST analysis revealed that the RAG1 and RAG2 in red snapper shared a high homology with other known RAG1 and RAG2 genes, while the greatest degree of identity was observed with Hippoglossus hippoglossus RAG1 at 82% and Takifugu rubripes RAG2 at 87%, respectively. The differential expressions of RAG1 and RAG2 in various tissues of red snapper were analyzed by fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR. The overall expression pattern of the two genes was quite similar. In healthy red snappers, the RAGs transcripts were mainly detected in thymus, following head kidney, spleen, intestine, liver and brain. After vaccinated with inactivated Vibrio alginolyticus 48 h later, the RAGs m

  18. Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea: Polyonchoinea) parasitising the gills of snappers (Perciformes: Lutjanidae): species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 from the golden snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) off northern Australia, with a redescription of Euryhaliotrema johni (Tripathi, 1959) and descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Diggles, Ben K

    2014-01-01

    Three species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) were collected from the gills of four golden snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) (Lutjanidae) from the marine and brackish waters off Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Type-specimens of Ancyrocephalus johni Tripathi, 1959 apparently have not survived and the possibility existed that the species was based on specimens representing more than one species. Euryhaliotrema johni (Tripathi, 1959) (sensu Young, 1968) was redescribed and determined to most likely represent A. johni, originally described from the River Hooghly, Diamond Harbour, India. Two new species were described. Euryhaliotrema longibaculoides n. sp. was most similar to Euryhaliotrema longibaculum (Zhukov, 1976) Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 from Lutjanus spp. from the western Atlantic Ocean. It differed from E. longibaculum by having a male copulatory organ (MCO) with an elongate comparatively delicate shaft and a bulbous base (MCO U- or J-shaped with funnel-shaped base in E. longibaculum). Based on the comparative morphology of the haptoral sclerites, Euryhaliotrema lisae n. sp. was most similar to Euryhaliotrema cryptophallus Kritsky & Yang, 2012 from the gills of the mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) from the South China Sea. Euryhaliotrema lisae differed from E. cryptophallus by having a copulatory complex with an obvious weakly sclerotised J-shaped MCO (MCO cryptic, delicate, and with a shaft comprising about one counterclockwise ring in E. cryptophallus). PMID:24395576

  19. Neobenedenia melleni Parasite of Red Snapper, Lutjanus erythropterus, with Regression Statistical Analysis between Fish Length, Temperature, and Parasitic Intensity in Infected Fish, Cultured at Jerejak Island, Penang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    The fish parasites collected from Lutjanus erythropterus fish species showed a correlation with parasitic intensity, fish size, and temperature, and statistical model summary was produced using SPSS version 20, statistical software. Statistical model summary concluded that among the variables which significantly predict the prevalence of Neobenedenia melleni parasites are fish length and water temperature, both significant at 1% and 5%. Furthermore, the increase in one unit of fish length, holding other variables constant, increases the prevalence of parasite by approximately 1 (0.7≈1) unit. Also, increasing the temperature from 32°C to 33°C will positively increase the number of parasites by approximately 0.32 units, holding other variables constant. The model can be summarized as estimated number of Neobenedenia melleni parasites = 8.2 + 0.7 ⁎ (fish length) + 0.32 ⁎ (water temperature). Next, this study has also shown the DNA sequence and parasitic morphology of Neobenedenia melleni. Nucleotide sequence for 18s ribosomal gene RNA in this study showed 99% similarity with N. melleni EU707804.1 from GenBank. Finally, all the sequence of Neobenedenia melleni in this study was deposited in GenBank with accession numbers of KU843501, KU843502, KU843503, and KU843504. PMID:27190634

  20. Development of Formaldehyde Biosensor for Determination of Formalin in Fish Samples; Malabar Red Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus) and Longtail Tuna (Thunnus tonggol).

    PubMed

    Noor Aini, Bohari; Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Ampon, Kamaruzaman

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical biosensors are widely recognized in biosensing devices due to the fact that gives a direct, reliable, and reproducible measurement within a short period. During bio-interaction process and the generation of electrons, it produces electrochemical signals which can be measured using an electrochemical detector. A formaldehyde biosensor was successfully developed by depositing an ionic liquid (IL) (e.g., 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([EMIM][Otf])), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and chitosan (CHIT), onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The developed formaldehyde biosensor was analyzed for sensitivity, reproducibility, storage stability, and detection limits. Methylene blue was used as a redox indicator for increasing the electron transfer in the electrochemical cell. The developed biosensor measured the NADH electron from the NAD⁺ reduction at a potential of 0.4 V. Under optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method detected a wider linear range of formaldehyde concentrations from 0.01 to 10 ppm within 5 s, with a detection limit of 0.1 ppm. The proposed method was successfully detected with the presence of formalin in fish samples, Lutjanus malabaricus and Thunnus Tonggol. The proposed method is a simple, rapid, and highly accurate, compared to the existing technique. PMID:27376338

  1. Lack of Spatial Subdivision for the Snapper Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae – Perciformes) from Southwest Atlantic Based on Multi-Locus Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean snapper Lutjanus purpureus is a marine species fish commonly found associated with rocky seabeds and is widely distributed along of Western Atlantic. Data on stock delineation and stock recognition are essential for establishing conservation measures for commercially fished species. However, few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of this economically valuable species, and previous studies (based on only a portion of the mitochondrial DNA) provide an incomplete picture. The present study used a multi-locus approach (12 segments of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) to elucidate the levels of genetic diversity and genetic connectivity of L. purpureus populations and their demographic history. L. purpureus has high levels of genetic diversity, which probably implies in high effective population sizes values for the species. The data show that this species is genetically homogeneous throughout the geographic region analyzed, most likely as a result of dispersal during larval phase. Regarding demographic history, a historical population growth event occurred, likely due to sea level changes during the Pleistocene. PMID:27556738

  2. Mineralogical, IR-spectral and geochemical monitoring of hydrothermal alteration in a deformed and metamorphosed Jurassic VMS deposit at Arroyo Rojo, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, C.; Subías, I.; Acevedo, R. D.; Yusta, I.; Velasco, F.

    2012-04-01

    The Arroyo Rojo Zn-Pb-Cu volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit is the main deposit of the Fin del Mundo District in the Fuegian Andes, Argentina. This deposit is hosted by a Middle Jurassic volcanic and volcanoclastic sequence forming the Lemaire Formation. The latter consists, from the base up, of the following: rhyolitic and dacitic porphyritic rocks, ignimbrite, tuff, and flow. It is underlain by a pre-Jurassic basement and overlain by the hyaloclastic andesites of the Yahgán Formation. The Arroyo Rojo consists of stacked lenticular lenses that are associated with disseminated mineralization in both the footwall and the hanging wall. The internal structure of the ore lenses is marked by the occurrence of massive, semi-massive and banded facies, along with stringer and brecciated zones and minor ore disseminations. The mineral assemblage comprises mainly pyrite and sphalerite, with minor amounts of galena and chalcopyrite and rare pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, tetrahedrite and bournonite. The ores and the volcanic host rocks have metamorphosed to greenschist facies and were overprinted by a penetrative tectonic foliation, which led to the development of mylonitic, and cataclastic textures, recrystallization and remobilization. Primary depositional characteristics and regional and hydrothermal alteration patterns were preserved despite deformation and metamorphism. Therefore, primary banding was preserved between facies boundaries. In addition, some remnants of magmatic origin are recognizable in preserved phenocrysts and volcaniclastic phenoclasts. Most of the volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the host sequence show a rhyolitic to rhyo-dacitic composition. Regional seafloor alteration, characterized by the presence of clinozoisite, Fe-chlorite and titanite, along with quartz and albite, is partially obliterated by hydrothermal alteration. The hydrothermal alteration is stratabound with the following assemblages, which developed from the base to top: (1) Quartz

  3. Draft genome sequence of Halorubrum tropicale strain V5, a novel halophilic archaeon isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Nieves, Rubén; Facciotti, Marc T.; Saavedra-Collado, Sofía; Dávila-Santiago, Lizbeth; Rodríguez-Carrero, Roy; Montalvo-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The genus Halorubrum is a member of the family Halobacteriaceae which currently has the highest number of described species (31) of all the haloarchaea. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain V5, a new species within this genus that was isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Assembly was performed and rendered the genome into 17 contigs (N50 = 515,834 bp), the largest of which contains 1,031,026 bp. The genome consists of 3.57 MB in length with G + C content of 67.6%. In general, the genome includes 4 rRNAs, 52 tRNAs, and 3246 protein-coding sequences. The NCBI accession number for this genome is LIST00000000 and the strain deposit number is CECT9000. PMID:26981427

  4. Nutrition and feeding research in the spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus), new species for marine aquaculture.

    PubMed

    García-Ortega, Armando

    2009-03-01

    The spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) are fish species from the tropical Eastern Pacific for which controlled production of larvae and juveniles has been accomplished in recent years. Diverse topics relating to their biology and aquaculture production are currently under study, in particular the nutrition and feeding aspects required to formulate practical feeds and rearing protocols. Improvements in larval growth and survival are possible by feeding live food organisms with natural or enhanced essential fatty acids content and highly digestible artificial microdiets. The ontogeny of the digestive tract and the expression and activity of digestive enzymes have been described for S. annulatus larvae. The effect of various protein and lipid levels on growth and feed utilization has been studied in juvenile and on-growing fish. Both species have carnivorous feeding habits and require high levels of protein in their diets, from 40% to 45% (dry weight) in spotted rose snapper and above 50% in bullseye puffer, with the younger stages requiring the highest protein levels. Encouraging results have been obtained in feeding experiments with different sources of dietary protein from animal and plant origin to evaluate their suitability as feed ingredients in practical diets. Optimization of fish culture practices through feeding management has also been investigated. Trials with various fish densities and feeding frequencies in intensive culture systems are providing information to improve feed utilization and growth in on-growing fish. Further research is underway to evaluate factors in broodstock nutrition which have an impact on egg and larval quality, and into the use of various commercially available oil sources in on-growing diets. In this paper, the results on nutrition and feeding research with both species are reviewed and research needs to support their commercial production in the region are discussed. PMID

  5. Effects of temperature and diet on length-weight relationship and condition factor of the juvenile Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus Bloch & Schneider, 1801).

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Das, Simon Kumar; Bakar, Yosni; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd

    2016-08-01

    In this study we aimed to analyze the effects of water temperature and diet on the length-weight relationship and condition of juvenile Malabar blood snapper Lutjanus malabaricus over a 30-d experimental period. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory using a flow-through-sea-water system. The fish were subjected to four different temperatures (22, 26, 30, and 34 °C) and two diets (commercial pellet and natural shrimp). Fish were fed twice daily. L. malabaricus exhibited negative allometric growth (b<3) at the beginning of the experiment (Day 0) at all temperatures and both diets except for 22 °C fed with shrimp, which showed isometric growth (b=3). Conversely, at the end of the experiment (Day 30) fish showed isometric growth (b=3) at 30 °C fed with the pellet diet, indicating that the shape of the fish did not change with increasing weight and length, and a positive allometric growth (b>3) at 30 °C fed with shrimp diet, which indicated that fish weight increases faster than their length. The rest of the temperatures represented negative allometric growth (b<3) on both diet, meaning that fish became lighter with increasing size. The condition factors in the initial and final measurements were greater than 1, indicating the state of health of the fish, except for those fed on a pellet diet at 34 °C. However, the best condition was obtained at 30 °C on both diets. Nevertheless, diets did not have a significant effect on growth and condition of juvenile L. malabaricus. The data obtained from this study suggested culturing L. malabaricus at 30 °C and feeding on the pellet or shrimp diet, which will optimize the overall production and condition of this commercially important fish species. PMID:27487803

  6. The microecology of dactylogyrids (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) on the gills of wild spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus (Lutjanidae) from Mazatlan Bay, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Soler-Jiménez, Lilia C; Fajer-Avila, Emma J

    2012-02-01

    The spatial distribution and coexistence of monogenean dactylogyrids was assessed on the gills of 63 specimens of wild spotted rose snapper, Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner), caught in the Mazatlan Bay, Sinaloa, Mexico. Five species are reported: Euryhaliotrema perezponcei Garcia-Vargas, Fajer-Avila et Lamothe-Argumedo, 2008, Euryhaliotrematoides sp., Haliotrematoides spinatus Kritsky et Mendoza-Franco, 2009, H. plectridium Kritsky et Mendoza-Franco, 2009, and H. guttati Garcia-Vargas, Fajer-Avila et Lamothe-Argumedo, 2008. All except E. perezponcei and H. guttati represent new geographical records for the Pacific coast. The most prevalent dactylogyrid species was E. perezponcei (100%), H. plectridium and H. spinatus had > 80% prevalence, and H. guttati and Euryhaliotrematoides sp. had the lowest prevalence. The mean abundance of H. plectridium and E. perezponcei was close to 60 parasites/fish, whereas Euryhaliotrematoides sp. and H. guttati had the lowest abundance. The dactylogyrid species exhibited a tendency for attachment to gill arch 2: 25% attachment occurring on gill arch 1, 30% on 2, 27% on 3 and 18% on 4, and showed a significant preference for the central sector of the gill (42%). Haliotrematoides plectridium had a preference for attachment to gill arches 2 and 3 and the central sector. Haliotrematoides spinatus tended to settle on the gill arches 2 and 3 and had a preference for the central sector. Euryhaliotrema perezponcei tended to settle on the gill arches 1 and 2 and the anterior gill sector. Euryhaliotrematoides sp. and H. guttati did not show a preference for any gill arch or sector. The intraspecific aggregation was stronger than the interspecific aggregation, indicating that all the dactylogyrid species on spotted rose snapper were aggregated, and there was no evidence of competition among the species. PMID:22439428

  7. Effects of temperature and diet on length-weight relationship and condition factor of the juvenile Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus Bloch & Schneider, 1801)*

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Das, Simon Kumar; Bakar, Yosni; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aimed to analyze the effects of water temperature and diet on the length-weight relationship and condition of juvenile Malabar blood snapper Lutjanus malabaricus over a 30-d experimental period. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory using a flow-through-sea-water system. The fish were subjected to four different temperatures (22, 26, 30, and 34 °C) and two diets (commercial pellet and natural shrimp). Fish were fed twice daily. L. malabaricus exhibited negative allometric growth (b<3) at the beginning of the experiment (Day 0) at all temperatures and both diets except for 22 °C fed with shrimp, which showed isometric growth (b=3). Conversely, at the end of the experiment (Day 30) fish showed isometric growth (b=3) at 30 °C fed with the pellet diet, indicating that the shape of the fish did not change with increasing weight and length, and a positive allometric growth (b>3) at 30 °C fed with shrimp diet, which indicated that fish weight increases faster than their length. The rest of the temperatures represented negative allometric growth (b<3) on both diet, meaning that fish became lighter with increasing size. The condition factors in the initial and final measurements were greater than 1, indicating the state of health of the fish, except for those fed on a pellet diet at 34 °C. However, the best condition was obtained at 30 °C on both diets. Nevertheless, diets did not have a significant effect on growth and condition of juvenile L. malabaricus. The data obtained from this study suggested culturing L. malabaricus at 30 °C and feeding on the pellet or shrimp diet, which will optimize the overall production and condition of this commercially important fish species. PMID:27487803

  8. Severe glomerular disease in juvenile grey snapper Lutjanus griseus L. in the Gulf of Mexico caused by the myxozoan Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp.

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Astrid S.; Pecková, Hanka; Patra, Sneha; Brennan, Nathan P.; Yanes-Roca, Carlos; Main, Kevan L.

    2013-01-01

    In the eastern Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Florida, grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus was found to be infected with the myxozoan parasite Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp., with high prevalence (83%) and intensity of infection occuring in age-0 fish, and with parasite levels decreasing with age (age-1 snapper 40%; age-2 snapper 0%). The morphological, molecular and phylogenetic characterisation of the myxozoan showed that it is a member of the typically marine, polysporoplasmid Sphaerospora spp. which form a subclade within the Sphaerospora sensu stricto clade of myxozoans, which is characterised by large expansion segments in their SSU rDNA sequences. Presporogonic stages of S. motemarini n. sp. were detected in the blood, using PCR. Pseudoplasmodia and spores were found to develop in the renal corpuscles of the host, causing their massive expansion. Macroscopic and histopathological changes were observed in age-0 fish and show that S. motemarini n. sp. causes severe glomerulonephritis in L. griseus leading to a compromised host condition, which makes it more susceptible to stress (catch-and-release, predators, water quality) and can result in mortalities. These results are discussed in relation to the exploitation of grey snapper populations by commercial and recreational fisheries and with the observed increased mortalities with temperature along the coast of Florida. In the future, we would like to determine prevalence and intensity of infection with S. motemarini n. sp. in juvenile L. griseus in different areas of the Gulf of Mexico in order to be able to estimate the temperature dependence of S. motemarini n. sp. proliferation and to be able to predict its distribution and severity during climatic changes in the Gulf. PMID:24533325

  9. Refuge-seeking impairments mirror metabolic recovery following fisheries-related stressors in the Spanish flag snapper (Lutjanus carponotatus) on the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Steven J; Messmer, Vanessa; Tobin, Andrew J; Pratchett, Morgan S; Clark, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries and marine park management strategies for large predatory reef fish can mean that a large proportion of captured fish are released. Despite being released, these fish may experience high mortality while they traverse the water column to locate suitable refuge to avoid predators, all the while recovering from the stress of capture. The predatory reef fish Spanish flag snapper (Lutjanus carponotatus) is frequently released because of a minimum-size or bag limit or by fishers targeting more desirable species. Using L. carponotatus as a model, we tested whether simulated fishing stress (exercise and air exposure) resulted in impairments in reflexes (e.g., response to stimuli) and the ability to identify and use refuge in a laboratory arena and whether any impairments were associated with blood physiology or metabolic recovery. Control fish were consistently responsive to reflex tests and rapidly located and entered refugia in the arena within seconds. Conversely, treatment fish (exhausted and air exposed) were unresponsive to stimuli, took longer to search for refugia, and were more apprehensive to enter the refuge once it was located. Consequently, treatment fish took more than 70 times longer than control fish to enter the coral refuge (26.12 vs. 0.36 min, respectively). The finding that fish exposed to stress were hesitant to use refugia suggests that there was likely cognitive, visual, and/or physiological impairment. Blood lactate, glucose, and hematocrit measures were perturbed at 15 and 30 min after the stressor, relative to controls. However, measurements of oxygen consumption rate revealed that about 50% of metabolic recovery occurred within 30 min after the stressor, coinciding with apparent cognitive/visual/physiological recovery. Recovering the treatment fish in aerated, flow-through chambers for 30 min before introduction to the behavioral arena restored reflexes, and "recovered" fish behaved more similarly to controls. Therefore, we suggest that

  10. Growth, Age Validation, Mortality, and other Population Characteristics of the Red Emperor Snapper, Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier, 1828), off the Kimberley Coast of North-Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. J.; Dunk, I. J.

    2002-07-01

    Red emperor, Lutjanus sebae, were examined from commercial catches in the Northern Demersal Scalefish Fishery (NDSF) of north-western Australia from 1997 to 1999. Specimens ranged from 183 to 728 mm fork length (FL); males had a mean FL of 509 mm, and were significantly larger than females that had a mean FL of 451 mm. Ages were estimated from thin sections of sagittal otoliths. Marginal increment analysis of sagittal otoliths showed a single annual minimum during September and October and indicated that one annulus is formed each year. Male L. sebae (n=977; 211-728 mm FL) ranged from age 2 to 30 years and females (n=1384; 183-584 mm FL) ranged from age 1 to 34 years. Sagittal otolith weight and height were significantly correlated with age for each sex. There was significant differential growth between sexes. The relationship of observed fork length at age was described by the von Bertalanffy growth equation for males, Lt=627·8 {1-exp [-0·151 (t+0·595)]} and females, Lt=482·6 {1-exp [-0·271 (t-0·065)]}. The slow growth, long life span and large size and age at maturity of L. sebae indicate that this species has a low production potential and hence spatial area closures are vulnerable to over-exploitation. The instantaneous rate of natural mortality (M) ranged from 0·104 to 0·122. The optimum rate of fishing mortality was estimated to be 0·052-0·061. The instantaneous rate of total mortality (Z) estimated from catch at age data for fully recruited ages, was 0·374 in 1997/98 and 0·242 in 1998/99. Hence, the NDSF population of L. sebae is exploited above optimum levels. Given their low production potential, populations of L. sebae in north-western Australia and elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific region require prudent management. Furthermore, fishery managers need to consider as part of any harvest strategy for these fish to preserve significant levels of the spawning stock.

  11. Rapid infection and proliferation of dactylogyrid monogeneans on gills of spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) after transfer to a sea-cage.

    PubMed

    Soler-Jiménez, Lilia C; Morales-Serna, Francisco N; Fajer-Ávila, Emma J

    2015-06-15

    Finfish mariculture is typically threatened by parasite and disease outbreaks. Therefore, it is important to identify parasite species of potential risk for this activity. Snappers are valuable food fish worldwide. In the Eastern Pacific, spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus [Steindachner, 1869]) is a firm candidate for sea-cage aquaculture. In the current study, the parasitism of caged L. guttatus by dactylogyrids was evaluated for the first time during a complete farming period. Twenty five thousand juvenile fish produced at the Research Center for Food and Development (CIAD, Mazatlan Unit) were reared in a sentinel sea-cage from February to November 2012 in Mazatlan Bay, Mexico. A fish sample (n=15) was obtained every month. Dactylogyrids from the left second gill arch were identified and quantified. A total of 18,704 dactylogyrids distributed in three species, Euryhaliotrema perezponcei García-Vargas, Fajer-Ávila and Lamothe-Argumedo, 2008, E. mehen (Soler-Jiménez, García-Gasca and Fajer-Ávila, 2012), and Haliotrematoides guttati García-Vargas, Fajer-Ávila and Lamothe-Argumedo, 2008 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) was found, which were able to infect caged L. guttatus since the first month of the farming period. Prevalence of these parasite species was 100% all the time, except for initial low values for E. mehen and H. guttati. The mean intensity of infection of each dactylogyrid species varied significantly between sampling months. Euryhaliotrema perezponcei was the most abundant parasite, reaching the highest mean intensity in May, June and July (154.3, 296.9 and 176.6 parasites/host, respectively). No clear seasonality of infection was observed; however, the influence of the water temperature on the observed infection levels is discussed. There was no mortality, change on behavior or pathological signs. However, given the rapid infection and proliferation of dactylogyrids, particularly E. perezponcei on L. guttaus reared in a sentinel sea

  12. Draft genome of Haloarcula rubripromontorii strain SL3, a novel halophilic archaeon isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Nieves, Rubén; Facciotti, Marc; Saavedra-Collado, Sofía; Dávila-Santiago, Lizbeth; Rodríguez-Carrero, Roy; Montalvo-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The genus Haloarcula belongs to the family Halobacteriaceae which currently has 10 valid species. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain SL3, a new species within this genus, isolated from the Solar Salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Genome assembly performed using NGEN Assembler resulted in 18 contigs (N50 = 601,911 bp), the largest of which contains 1,023,775 bp. The genome consists of 3.97 MB and has a GC content of 61.97%. Like all species of Haloarcula, the genome encodes heterogeneous copies of the small subunit ribosomal RNA. In addition, the genome includes 6 rRNAs, 48 tRNAs, and 3797 protein coding sequences. Several carbohydrate-active enzymes genes were found, as well as enzymes involved in the dihydroxyacetone processing pathway which are not found in other Haloarcula species. The NCBI accession number for this genome is LIUF00000000 and the strain deposit number is CECT9001. PMID:26981428

  13. Two new species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky et Boeger, 2002 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from Lutjanus russellii (Bleeker) and L. argentimaculatus (Forsskål) (Teleostei: Lutjanidae) in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Yang, Tingbao

    2015-01-01

    Euryhaliotrema russellum sp. n. and Euryhaliotrema tenuiaccessorium sp. n. are described from the gills of Lutjanus russellii (Bleeker) and L. argentimaculatus (Forsskål), respectively, in the South China Sea. Euryhaliotrema russellum sp. n. differs from all other members of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky et Boeger, 2002 by its unique male copulatory organ, a straight tube with a bulbous base and without an accessory piece. Euryhaliotrema tenuiaccessorium sp. n. differs from its congeners by having a copulatory organ with a bulbous base, a meandering copulatory tube with clockwise coil having less than one complete ring, and a slender accessory piece along the middle length of the copulatory tube. All species of Euryhaliotrema are listed and divided to three groups based on morpholgy of the male copulatory organ. PMID:26278378

  14. 76 FR 24511 - Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge, Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... process through a notice of intent in the Federal Register on March 12, 2007 (72 FR 11047). For more about... would continue to restore and maintain existing sub-tropical dryland forests, salt lagoons, and... manipulations for management of the saltwater lagoons through a special use permit with a commercial...

  15. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Gray, lane, mutton, and yellowtail snappers. [Lutjanus griseus; Lutjanus synagris; Lutjanus analis; Ocyurus chrysurus

    SciTech Connect

    Bortone, S.A.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-06-01

    These four snapper species have similar morphologies as well as life history and environmental requirements. With some exceptions they are restricted to tropical and subtropical coastal areas of the western Atlantic. Adults often associate with coral reef and other hard-bottom communities. Juveniles and pre-adults usually inhabit shallow, inshore areas and are often found in seagrass beds. Reproduction usually takes place offshore in the warmer months of the year. Fecundity is positively related to female body size, but there is substantial variation both within and among the species. Juveniles obtain adult body proportions at about 50 mm SL. Approximate total maximum lengths of adults are 900 mm for gray snapper, 446 mm for lane snapper, and 750 mm for mutton and yellowtail snappers. Otoliths are the most preferred body part used to determine age. Most snappers attain sexual maturity after 3 to 5 years at a size range of 180 to 350 mm FL. Males mature at a smaller size than females. Recent commercial catches of gray and lane snappers have been increasing, whereas mutton and yellowtail snappers show no clear trends. Sport fishing probably has a substantial impact on the stocks of all four species. All four snappers feed predominantly on small benthic fishes and crustaceans, but yellowtail snapper feed on more pelagic animals. Upper water temperature tolerance limits are 27.2 to 32.5/sup 0/C and lower limits are 11 to 14/sup 0/C.

  16. Protozoal and epitheliocystis-like infections in the introduced bluestripe snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.; Takata, G.; Kent, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The bluestripe snapper, or taape, was introduced into Hawaii in the 1950s and has since become very abundant throughout the archipelago. As part of a health survey of reef fish in Hawaii, we necropsied 120 taape collected from various coastal areas south of Oahu and examined fish histology for extraintestinal organisms. Forty-seven percent of taape were infected with an apicomplexan protozoan compatible with a coccidian. Infection was evident mainly in the spleen and, less commonly, the kidney. Prevalence of this coccidian increased with size of fish, and we saw no significant pathology associated with the organism. Twenty-six percent of taape were also infected with an epitheliocystis-like organism that occurred mainly in the kidney and, less commonly, the spleen. In contrast to the coccidian, fish mounted a notable inflammatory response to the epitheliocystis-like organism, and this inflammation appeared to increase in severity with age. Prevalence of the epitheliocystis-like organism infection increased with age, but infection was not seen in fish greater than 26.5 cm fork length. The high prevalence of coccidial infection in introduced taape prompts the concern that these organisms, along with the epitheliocystis-like organism, have the potential to be transmitted to native reef fish. Given the impact of other introduced microbial organisms on native Hawaiian fauna, there is a clear need to assess whether protozoa and bacteria are endemic to Hawaii, and whether they negatively impact native reef fish that closely associate with taape.

  17. Identification of putative cathepsin S in mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus and its role in antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Li, Lei; Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Cathepsin S (CTSS) is a key enzyme employed in the histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted antigens, which are presented by processing class II-associated invariant chains and loaded antigen peptides into class II molecules. To date, little is known about the character and function of CTSS in fish. In the present study, we screened and identified a CTSS cDNA sequence from the mangrove red snapper head kidney cDNA library. The full-length CTSS cDNA contained 1339-bp nucleotide acids encoding 337 amino acids. The sequence shared high identity and similarity with other known cathepsins, especially CTSS (about 56-78% and 79-89%, respectively). Like other cathepsins, the deduced peptide consisted of regions with N-terminal signal peptides, propeptides, and mature peptides. A typical ERWNIN motif in L-like cathepsins and three conservative catalytic activity sites forming a catalytic triad active center were respectively identified in the pro-peptide and mature peptide regions of CTSS. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that mangrove red snapper CTSS was located in the CTSS clade belonging to the L-like cathepsin group, and evolved from the same ancestry. To further characterize the biological activity of the putative CTSS of mangrove snapper, CTSS was expressed in Escherichia coli M15 strains. Like other mammalian CTSS, the recombinant CTSS (rCTSS) had autocatalytic activation properties, can remove pro-peptides, and can release active mature peptides. Active CTSS had the ability to catalyze Z-Phe-Arg-AMC substrates in acidic conditions (pH 5.0) and weak alkaline environments (pH 7.5); this activity could be blocked by the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64. Active CTSS can process recombinant Ii chains (invariant chains) in a stepwise manner in vitro. The results indicate that mangrove red snapper CTSS is a lysosomal cysteine protease family member with a key role in antigen processing in fish. PMID:22210546

  18. Validated environmental and physiological data from the CELSS Breadboard Projects Biomass Production Chamber. BWT931 (Wheat cv. Yecora Rojo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, G. W.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Markwell, G. A.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    This KSC database is being made available to the scientific research community to facilitate the development of crop development models, to test monitoring and control strategies, and to identify environmental limitations in crop production systems. The KSC validated dataset consists of 17 parameters necessary to maintain bioregenerative life support functions: water purification, CO2 removal, O2 production, and biomass production. The data are available on disk as either a DATABASE SUBSET (one week of 5-minute data) or DATABASE SUMMARY (daily averages of parameters). Online access to the VALIDATED DATABASE will be made available to institutions with specific programmatic requirements. Availability and access to the KSC validated database are subject to approval and limitations implicit in KSC computer security policies.

  19. 77 FR 51044 - Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge, PR; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... this process through a Federal Register notice on March 12, 2007 (72 FR 11047). We announce our... period via a Federal Register notice on May 2, 2011 (76 FR 24511). Several comments were received... species; (2) exploring opportunities to control and manage water levels in the saltwater lagoons;...

  20. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka pink snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus. kalekale pink snapper Pristipomoides seiboldii. gindai...

  1. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka pink snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus. kalekale pink snapper Pristipomoides seiboldii. gindai...

  2. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka pink snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus. kalekale pink snapper Pristipomoides seiboldii. gindai...

  3. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka pink snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus. kalekale pink snapper Pristipomoides seiboldii. gindai...

  4. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka pink snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus. kalekale pink snapper Pristipomoides seiboldii. gindai...

  5. Life-stages, exploitation status and habitat use of Lutjanus goreensis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in coastal marine environments of Lagos, SW Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kafayat, A Fakoya; Martins, A Anetekhai; Shehu, L Akintola; Abdulwakil, O Sabal; Abass, Mikhail A

    2015-03-01

    The Gorean snapper, Lutanus goreensis is an important component of artisanal fisheries and trawl landings in the Gulf of Guinea. Despite its economic importance, there is a dearth of information on size structure and life history strategies of the species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the life stages, exploitation status and habitat use for the species in Nigeria. Monthly samples were obtained from artisanal and trawl catches in Five Cowrie Creek and Lagos coastal waters between December 2008 and December 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions of the fishes caught were analysed to provide preliminary information on mean and modal lengths at capture and life-history strategies based on habitat use and estuarine-dependency for L. goreensis. A total of 822 specimens of L. goreensis were collected from Five Cowrie Creek while 377 specimens were collected from Lagos coastal waters. Total length varied between 7.90-34.90 cm for creek samples and from 21.90-56.10 cm for marine samples. Length-frequency histograms showed polymodal size distributions in creek and marine samples. Length-frequency distributions of L. goreensis showed a high abundance ofjuveniles (<20 cm) and sub-adults (20-35 cm) which accounted for 84.1% and 68.4% of creek and marine samples examined, respectively. For the creek samples, fish in modal length class of 13.00-13.99 cm were the most exploited while in the marine samples, length classes of 29.00-30.99 cm and 31.00-32.99cm constituted the most frequently exploited fishes. Increase in total lengths from the creek (mean +/- SD; 16.19 +/- 3.73 cm) to the marine habitat samples (32.89 +/- 6.14 cm) indicated ontogenetic shift in habitat use. Occurrence of a predominant juvenile population in Five Cowrie Creek by L. goreensis suggests estuarine-dependency and is indicative of a temporary juvenile habitat or a migratory corridor. In conclusion, data from the presently reported study and previous studies demonstrated that juvenile L. goreensis displays estuarine dependency and habitat flexibility. Hence, this underscores the importance of preserving estuarine environments as essential fish habitats to prevent overfishing. The study also concludes that the species is vulnerable to recruitment overfishing in the marine environment especially as a consequence of shrimping. Consequently, it advocates for ban on all fishing activities during peak spawning periods in breeding grounds and shrimp ground assemblage. PMID:26299125

  6. B-cell activating CpG ODN 1668 enhance the immune response of Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) exposed to Vibrio parahaemolitycus.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Reyna, Tomás; Angulo, Carlos; Hori-Oshima, Sawako; Velázquez-Lizárraga, Esteban; Reyes-Becerril, Martha

    2016-09-01

    B-class CpG ODN 1668 is known to possess clear immunostimulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the potential ability of CpG ODN 1668 to enhance the immune response of Pacific red snapper exposed to Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Four different treatments were evaluated in Pacific red snapper: (1) stimulatory CpG ODN 1668, (2) stimulatory CpG ODN 1668 and V. parahaemolyticus, (3) exposure only to V. parahaemolyticus and (4) PBS. Samples were taken at 24, 72, 168 and 240 h of stimulation/infection. The results show that intraperitoneal injection of CpG-ODN 1668 enhanced the anti-protease, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in serum. CpG ODN 1668 upregulated TLR9 and IgM gene expression in head-kidney, intestine and skin, with higher expression in head-kidney. A higher correlation was observed between TLR9 and IgM in head-kidney and intestine. Finally, no histopathological damages were observed in fish stimulated with CpG ODN 1668. In contrast, melanomacrophages-like structures were present in higher numbers in infected fish. Taken together, these results indicate that CpG ODN 1668 activates innate immune response and upregulate the TLR9 and IgM-mediated immune response. These results may be exploited for the control of Vibriosis in farmed Pacific red snapper. PMID:27143535

  7. Projecting Range Limits with Coupled Thermal Tolerance - Climate Change Models: An Example Based on Gray Snapper (Lutjanus griseus) along the U.S. East Coast

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Jonathan A.; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Kimball, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    We couple a species range limit hypothesis with the output of an ensemble of general circulation models to project the poleward range limit of gray snapper. Using laboratory-derived thermal limits and statistical downscaling from IPCC AR4 general circulation models, we project that gray snapper will shift northwards; the magnitude of this shift is dependent on the magnitude of climate change. We also evaluate the uncertainty in our projection and find that statistical uncertainty associated with the experimentally-derived thermal limits is the largest contributor (∼ 65%) to overall quantified uncertainty. This finding argues for more experimental work aimed at understanding and parameterizing the effects of climate change and variability on marine species. PMID:23284974

  8. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-09-25

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  9. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  10. Feeding ecology of some fish species occurring in artisanal fishery of Socotra Island (Yemen).

    PubMed

    Hassan Ali', Mohammed Kaed; Belluscio, Andrea; Ventura, Daniele; Ardizzone, Giandomenico

    2016-04-30

    The demersal species Lethrinus borbonicus, Lethrinus mahsena, Lethrinus microdon, Lethrinus nebulosus, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus gibbus, Lutjanus kasmira, Epinephelus fasciatus, Epinephelus stoliczkae, Carangoides gymnostethus and Euthynnus affinis are important coastal fishes species of the northern coast of Socotra (Yemen), exploited by local fishery. The biology and feeding ecology of these species are poorly known in the area. A total of 1239 specimens were sampled from the main fishing landing site of the island (Hadibo). Total length and weight were measured, stomach contents were analyzed, diet overlap, Fulton's Condition index, and trophic levels were estimated. C. gymnostethus, L. microdon and L. kasmira occupied the highest position (T=4.50), L. nebulosus occupied the lower one (TL=3.41). The role of the increasing abundance of small pelagic fish in the diet of many species after the upwelling event is evident, but also different feeding strategies are reported, according to fish ecology. PMID:26880127

  11. REGISTRATION OF FIVE WHEAT ISOGENIC LINES FOR LEAF RUST AND STRIPE RUST RESISTANCE GENES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We reported here the release of four germplasm lines of hard red spring (HRS) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) [Yecora Rojo Yr36-GpcB1 (Reg. no. GP-793, PI 638740), Yecora Rojo Lr47 (Reg. No. GP-791, PI 638738), cERN Lr47 (Reg. No. GP-792, PI 638739), and Anza Lr37/Yr17/Sr38 (reg. No. GP-795, PI 638742)...

  12. Fisheries Management of Red Snapper in the Gulf of Mexico: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joy N.; Snyder, Stephanie M.; Berkson, Jim; Murphy, Brian R.; McMullin, Steve L.

    2009-01-01

    In the Gulf of Mexico, the overfished population of red snapper ("Lutjanus campechanus") is a major source of revenue resulting in a dichotomy between maintaining the health of the fishery and meeting the demands of the local economies. In order to govern marine fisheries the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 was…

  13. Study of the Brazil and Falkland currents using their images of Nimbus 5 and oceanographic data in 1972 - 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Y. C.; Inostroza, H. M. V.; Kumar, R.

    1977-01-01

    The Western Edge of the Sub-tropical Convergence of the South-western Atlantic Ocean, called the Front, which is a thermal discontinuity between the Brazil and Falkland Currents, was studied utilizing the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) of Nimbus V in the 10.5 to 12.5 micrometers channel and historical oceanographic data. Some important results obtained are: the oceanographic Front could be detected from Nimbus THIR data; oceanographic charts showed that the transition zone where the Brazil and the Falkland Currents meet was the Front detected from satellite data; ocean current speeds calculated with THIR data were of the same order of magnitude as those calculated oceanographically; fisheries statistics for Pargo Roseo showed that the maximum catches were in September of 1973, in the period when the Front was observed most distinctly and clearly. The results showed the great potentiality of satellite data to study surface thermal structures, surface currents and oceanic fisheries.

  14. The flower fly genus Allograpta: Classification with description of a new subgenus and species (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new subgenus and one species of flower flies are described from the Neotropical biotic region (Allograpta (Costarica Mengual, Rojo, Ruiz, Ståhls & Thompson), type Allograpta zumbadoi Thompson & Allograpta (Costarica) nishida Thompson, type-locality: Costa Rica, type-depository: Instituto Nacional ...

  15. Correction: Decrease in thermal conductivity in polymeric P3HT nanowires by size-reduction induced by crystal orientation: new approaches towards thermal transport engineering of organic materials.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Rojo, Miguel; Martín, Jaime; Grauby, Stéphane; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian; Dilhaire, Stefan; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2015-03-01

    Correction for 'Decrease in thermal conductivity in polymeric P3HT nanowires by size-reduction induced by crystal orientation: new approaches towards thermal transport engineering of organic materials' by Miguel Muñoz Rojo et al., Nanoscale, 2014, 6, 7858-7865. PMID:25668105

  16. Guanophilic fungi in three caves of southwestern Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty species of guanophilic (bat guano-loving) fungi were isolated from field-collected samples within three caves in south-western Puerto Rico; most were mitosporic fungi (23 species). The caves studied were Cueva La Tuna (Cabo Rojo), Cueva de Malano (Sistema de Los Chorros, San Germán), and Cuev...

  17. Ecosystem Warming Affects Vertical Distribution of Leaf Gas Exchange Properties and Water Relations of Spring Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The vertical distribution of gas exchange and water relations responses to full-season in situ infrared (IR) warming were evaluated for hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) grown in an open field in a semiarid desert region of the Southwest USA. A Temperature Free-Air Contro...

  18. Gas exchange and water relations responses of spring wheat to full-season infrared warming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gas exchange and water relations responses to full-season in situ infrared (IR) warming were evaluated for hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) grown in an open field in a semi-arid desert region of the Southwest USA. A Temperature Free-Air Controlled Enhancement (T-FACE) ap...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF FUNGI FROM HYPERSALINE ENVIRONMENTS OF SOLAR SALTERNS USING MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cabo Rojo Solar Salterns located on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico are composed of two main ecosystems (i.e., salt ponds and microbial mats). Even though these locations are characterized by high solar radiation (mean light intensity of 39 mol photons m-2d-1) they harbor ...

  20. La Ciencia y el Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    el robot más nuevo fabricado para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte o Curiosity. ¡Se encuentra listo para deambular por el planeta rojo con el mayor y más avanzado conjunto de instrumento...

  1. Gas Exchange and Water Relations Responses of Spring Wheat to Full-Season Infrared Warming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gas exchange and water relations were evaluated under full-season in situ infrared (IR) warming for hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) grown in an open field in a semiarid desert region of the southwest USA. A temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) apparatus u...

  2. The relationship of reef fish densities to the proximity of mangrove and seagrass nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorenbosch, M.; van Riel, M. C.; Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.

    2004-05-01

    Visual census surveys were used to study the distribution of coral reef fishes that are associated with seagrass beds and mangroves in their juvenile phase, on various coral reef sites along the coast of the Caribbean island of Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles). The hypothesis tested was that various reef fish species occur in higher densities on coral reefs adjacent to nursery habitats than on reefs located at some distance to these habitats. Of 17 coral reef fish species that are known to use bays with seagrass beds and mangroves as nurseries (nursery species), 15 were observed in quadrats on the reef. Four nursery species, Haemulon sciurus, Lutjanus apodus, Ocyurus chrysurus and Scarus coeruleus occurred in significantly higher densities on coral reefs adjacent to bays with seagrass beds and mangroves. Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus mahogoni and Sphyraena barracuda also had their highest densities on reefs adjacent to these bays, although differences between the distinguished reef categories were not always significant. It is suggested that these seven species are highly dependent on the presence of bays with seagrass beds and mangroves as nurseries on an island scale. Eight other species that are known to use seagrass beds and mangroves as nurseries did not have their highest densities on reefs adjacent to bays with seagrass beds and mangroves. For six of these species, juveniles were also observed on the reef. It is suggested that these species are able to use the reef as an alternative nursery and do not depend strictly on the presence of bays with seagrass beds and mangroves as nurseries.

  3. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management.

    PubMed

    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana V; Araujo, Luciana G; Andreoli, Tainá B; Clauzet, Mariana; Martinelli, Claudia M; Ferreira, Allan G I; Oliveira, Luiz E C; Silvano, Renato A M

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.).We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages.Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population. PMID:21410969

  4. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.). We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population. PMID:21410969

  5. Target fishes on artificial reefs: evidences of impacts over nearby natural environments.

    PubMed

    Simon, Thiony; Pinheiro, Hudson Tercio; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe

    2011-10-01

    Topics in artificial reef research have included a wide number of themes but a major portion of published works are about the attraction that artificial reefs exert over fishes that reside in natural reefs. In the present work, underwater visual censuses of fishes were conducted at both artificial and natural reefs, aiming at verifying whether fishes are attracted or and produced on artificial reefs. Length frequency, mean biomass and frequency of occurrence of four fish genera targeted by local fisheries (Caranx, Haemulon, Lutjanus and Mycteroperca) were compared between two artificial and two natural reefs. Evidences of both production and attraction of target reef fishes by artificial reefs were found. Production is evidenced by the enormous abundance of recruits of a single grunt species, the tomtate (Haemulon aurolineatum Cuvier). The high concentration of adults of predator demersal fishes (Mycteroperca spp. and Lutjanus spp.), present at low density on natural reefs, is the main evidence for attraction by artificial reefs. Results are inconclusive for the pelagic predators Caranx spp. The attraction that artificial reefs exert over large demersal predators can negatively affect nearby natural areas through shifts in predation, competition or nutrient input. Production can affect benthic communities in soft bottoms adjacent to artificial reefs by foraging of reef-associated fishes. Even when unplanned for fisheries purposes artificial reefs are often submitted to commercial and recreational fisheries and, due to the strong attraction they exert over large predators, these structures need harvest regulations. PMID:21871652

  6. Coming out of the starting blocks: extended lag time rearranges genetic diversity in introduced marine fishes of Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Michelle R.; Toonen, Robert J.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions with known histories are rare, especially in the sea, and empirical studies of the genetic consequences are even rarer. Fifty-five years ago, the state of Hawai‘i began a remarkable, if unintentional, ‘experiment’ with the introduction of three reef fishes, Lutjanus fulvus, Cephalopholis argus and Lutjanus kasmira. All have since expanded from the initial introduction of 2204 to 3163 individuals; however, historical records show that initially L. fulvus remained scarce, C. argus had modest population expansion and L. kasmira experienced rapid population growth. The consequences of differential population growth rates are apparent in F-statistics: Hawaiian L. fulvus demonstrate strong and significant haplotype frequency shifts from the founder location (FST = 0.449), C. argus shows low but significant differentiation (FST = 0.066) and L. kasmira is nearly identical to the founder location (FST = 0.008). All three species had higher mtDNA diversity in the introduced range, which can be explained by multiple sources for L. fulvus and L. kasmira, but not for C. argus. We conclude that lag time before population expansion, in conjunction with genetic drift, has defined the genetic architecture of these three species in the introduced range. PMID:22874747

  7. Seasonal abundance and composition of finfish and shellfish seeds inmangroves of Gangolli estuary, off south-west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, K M; Thomas, Sujitha; Dineshbabu, A R; PrathibhaRohit; Sridhara, B; Nataraja, G D

    2015-11-01

    The composition and seasonal abundance of the fin and shellfish seeds in mangrove areas of Gangoli estuary were studied for one year from January to December, 2013. Monthly day time sampling was conducted with a rectangular dragnet of 75 m2 length having 5 mm mesh size. The mean monthly density was highest in January (Avg. of 12,996/haul) and lowest during May (Avg. of 859/haul). Thirty species of fish, four species of shrimps and two species of crabs belonging to 26 families were recorded during the study. Ambasis sp., Feneropenaeus indicus, Etroplus suratensis,Leognathus sp., Liza sp., Stolephorus vaganensis, Hemiramphus sp., Terapon sp. and Gerres sp. were the most abundant species/taxa. A total of 10 commercially important species comprising F. indicus, Etroplus suratensis, Liza sp., Gerres sp.,Siganus sp., Lutjanus russei, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Sillago sp. and Penaeus monodon constituted 8.5% (April, 2013) to 93.7% (October, 2013) with an average of 37.2% of the total fish and shellfish seeds. Higher Species diversity (H') and Species richness (D) was recorded during January. The result of the present investigation gives an insight of the abundance and seasonality of commercially important fish and shellfish seeds, which may facilitate the brackishwater fish farmers to exploitthe seeds more pragmatically for their culture practice. PMID:26688975

  8. Spatial variation in density and size structure indicate habitat selection throughout life stages of two Southwestern Atlantic snappers.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Alexandre; Hackradt, Carlos Werner; Ferreira, Beatrice Padovani

    2016-02-01

    The early life history of Lutjanus alexandrei and Lutjanus jocu in Southwestern Atlantic is still largely unknown. Habitat use of different life stages (i.e. size categories and densities) of the Brazilian snapper (L. alexandrei) and dog snapper (L. jocu) was examined in a tropical portion of NE coast of Brazil. Visual surveys were conducted in different shallow habitats (mangroves and reefs). Both snapper species showed higher densities in early life stages in mangrove habitat, with a clear increase in fish size from mangrove to adjacent reefs. Post-settler individuals were exclusively found in mangroves for both species. Juveniles of L. alexandrei were also registered only in mangroves, while sub-adult individuals were associated with both mangrove and reef habitats. Mature individuals of L. alexandrei were only observed in reef habitats. Juvenile and sub-adult individuals of the dog snapper were both associated with mangrove and reef habitats, with high densities registered in mangroves. Mature individuals of L. jocu were not registered in the study area. This pattern suggests preference for mangrove habitat in early life stages for both species. Ontogenetic movement between habitats was also recorded. This pattern denotes habitat selection across different life cycle of both species. Such information highlights the importance of directing management and conservation efforts to these habitats to secure the continuity of contribution to adult populations. PMID:26599976

  9. Effects of Seasonal Upwelling on Inorganic and Organic Matter Dynamics in the Water Column of Eastern Pacific Coral Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Stuhldreier, Ines; Sánchez-Noguera, Celeste; Rixen, Tim; Cortés, Jorge; Morales, Alvaro; Wild, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The Gulf of Papagayo at the northern Pacific coast of Costa Rica experiences pronounced seasonal changes in water parameters caused by wind-driven coastal upwelling. While remote sensing and open water sampling already described the physical nature of this upwelling, the spatial and temporal effects on key parameters and processes in the water column have not been investigated yet, although being highly relevant for coral reef functioning. The present study investigated a range of water parameters on two coral reefs with different exposure to upwelling (Matapalo and Bajo Rojo) in a weekly to monthly resolution over one year (May 2013 to April 2014). Based on air temperature, wind speed and water temperature, three time clusters were defined: a) May to November 2013 without upwelling, b) December 2013 to April 2014 with moderate upwelling, punctuated by c) extreme upwelling events in February, March and April 2014. During upwelling peaks, water temperatures decreased by 7°C (Matapalo) and 9°C (Bajo Rojo) to minima of 20.1 and 15.3°C respectively, while phosphate, ammonia and nitrate concentrations increased 3 to 15-fold to maxima of 1.3 μmol PO43- L-1, 3.0 μmol NH4+ L-1 and 9.7 μmol NO3- L-1. This increased availability of nutrients triggered several successive phytoplankton blooms as indicated by 3- (Matapalo) and 6-fold (Bajo Rojo) increases in chlorophyll a concentrations. Particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC and PON) increased by 40 and 70% respectively from February to April 2014. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased by 70% in December and stayed elevated for at least 4 months, indicating high organic matter release by primary producers. Such strong cascading effects of upwelling on organic matter dynamics on coral reefs have not been reported previously, although likely impacting many reefs in comparable upwelling systems. PMID:26560464

  10. Effects of Seasonal Upwelling on Inorganic and Organic Matter Dynamics in the Water Column of Eastern Pacific Coral Reefs.

    PubMed

    Stuhldreier, Ines; Sánchez-Noguera, Celeste; Rixen, Tim; Cortés, Jorge; Morales, Alvaro; Wild, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The Gulf of Papagayo at the northern Pacific coast of Costa Rica experiences pronounced seasonal changes in water parameters caused by wind-driven coastal upwelling. While remote sensing and open water sampling already described the physical nature of this upwelling, the spatial and temporal effects on key parameters and processes in the water column have not been investigated yet, although being highly relevant for coral reef functioning. The present study investigated a range of water parameters on two coral reefs with different exposure to upwelling (Matapalo and Bajo Rojo) in a weekly to monthly resolution over one year (May 2013 to April 2014). Based on air temperature, wind speed and water temperature, three time clusters were defined: a) May to November 2013 without upwelling, b) December 2013 to April 2014 with moderate upwelling, punctuated by c) extreme upwelling events in February, March and April 2014. During upwelling peaks, water temperatures decreased by 7°C (Matapalo) and 9°C (Bajo Rojo) to minima of 20.1 and 15.3°C respectively, while phosphate, ammonia and nitrate concentrations increased 3 to 15-fold to maxima of 1.3 μmol PO43- L-1, 3.0 μmol NH4+ L-1 and 9.7 μmol NO3- L-1. This increased availability of nutrients triggered several successive phytoplankton blooms as indicated by 3- (Matapalo) and 6-fold (Bajo Rojo) increases in chlorophyll a concentrations. Particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC and PON) increased by 40 and 70% respectively from February to April 2014. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased by 70% in December and stayed elevated for at least 4 months, indicating high organic matter release by primary producers. Such strong cascading effects of upwelling on organic matter dynamics on coral reefs have not been reported previously, although likely impacting many reefs in comparable upwelling systems. PMID:26560464

  11. Hurricane Hortense: impact on surface water in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Sierra, Heriberto

    1997-01-01

    Late Monday night, September 9, and into the early morning hours of Tuesday, September 10, 1996, Hurricane Hortense passed over the southwestern part of Puerto Rico (inset). Hurricane Hortense made landfall as a Category One Hurricane (74 to 95 miles per hour) on the Saffir-Simpson Scale, with maximum sustained winds of nearly 80 miles per hour. The eye of Hurricane Hortense moved over the towns of Guayanilla, Yauco, Guánica, Lajas, San Germán, Cabo Rojo, Hormigueros, and Mayagüez (fig. 1).

  12. A review of the status and development of Kuwait's fisheries.

    PubMed

    Al-Husaini, M; Bishop, J M; Al-Foudari, H M; Al-Baz, A F

    2015-11-30

    The status of Kuwait's fisheries landings and relative abundance for major species was reviewed using research data from Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and landing data from the Kuwait's Central Statistical Bureau. Landing data showed significant decreases for major commercial species such as zobaidy (Pampus argenteus), suboor (Tenualosa ilisha), hamoor (Epinephelus coioides), newaiby (Otolithes ruber) and hamra (Lutjanus malabaricus) while abundance data for the shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus showed significant reduction in the recent years mainly because of overfishing. The catch-rate data showed continuous decline for major species such as zobaidy, newaiby and hamoor, which indicate that stock abundances of these species are low. The reduction in stock abundance in context with changes in habitat quality, particularly the effects of reduced discharge of the Shatt Al-Arab, is discussed. PMID:26233306

  13. First evidence of fish larvae producing sounds

    PubMed Central

    Staaterman, Erica; Paris, Claire B.; Kough, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic ecology of marine fishes has traditionally focused on adults, while overlooking the early life-history stages. Here, we document the first acoustic recordings of pre-settlement stage grey snapper larvae (Lutjanus griseus). Through a combination of in situ and unprovoked laboratory recordings, we found that L. griseus larvae are acoustically active during the night, producing ‘knock’ and ‘growl’ sounds that are spectrally and temporally similar to those of adults. While the exact function and physiological mechanisms of sound production in fish larvae are unknown, we suggest that these sounds may enable snapper larvae to maintain group cohesion at night when visual cues are reduced. PMID:25274018

  14. Residency of Reef Fish During Pile Driving Within a Shallow Pierside Environment.

    PubMed

    Iafrate, Joseph D; Watwood, Stephanie L; Reyier, Eric A; Gilchrest, Matthew; Crocker, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    The potential effects of pile driving on fish populations and commercial fisheries have received significant attention given the prevalence of construction occurring in coastal habitats throughout the world. In this study, we used acoustic telemetry to assess the movement and survival of free-ranging reef fish in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to 35 days of pile driving at an existing wharf complex. The site fidelity and behavior of 15 sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus) and 10 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) were determined before, during, and after pile driving. No obvious signs of mortality or injury to tagged fish were evident from the data. There was a significant decline in the residency index for mangrove snapper at the construction wharf after pile driving compared with the baseline, although this may be influenced by natural movements of this species in the study area rather than a direct response to pile driving. PMID:26610995

  15. Characterization, development and multiplexing of microsatellite markers in three commercially exploited reef fish and their application for stock identification

    PubMed Central

    Dudgeon, Christine; Maher, Safia; Crook, David A.; Saunders, Thor M.; Barton, Diane P.; Taylor, Jonathan A.; Welch, David J.; Newman, Stephen J.; Travers, Michael J.; Saunders, Richard J.; Ovenden, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-four microsatellite loci were isolated from three reef fish species; golden snapper Lutjanus johnii, blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus and grass emperor Lethrinus laticaudis using a next generation sequencing approach. Both IonTorrent single reads and Illumina MiSeq paired-end reads were used, with the latter demonstrating a higher quality of reads than the IonTorrent. From the 1–1.5 million raw reads per species, we successfully obtained 10–13 polymorphic loci for each species, which satisfied stringent design criteria. We developed multiplex panels for the amplification of the golden snapper and the blackspotted croaker loci, as well as post-amplification pooling panels for the grass emperor loci. The microsatellites characterized in this work were tested across three locations of northern Australia. The microsatellites we developed can detect population differentiation across northern Australia and may be used for genetic structure studies and stock identification.

  16. Reviving red snapper.

    PubMed

    Estabrook, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Red snappers in the Gulf of Mexico once hovered on the brink of extinction, their population having dropped to 2 percent of what had historically swum in the Gulf. But thanks to a recently introduced plan that turns the conventional wisdom of fisheries management on its head, the picture has begun to change. Called Individual Fishing Quotas (IFQs), the new regulations, which give a guaranteed allotment of fish to each participant instead of applying industry-wide quotas, went into effect for Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in early 2007. The results were immediate and so profound that the Gulf Fishery Management Council voted earlier this year to increase the annual limit on red snapper to nearly 7 million pounds from 5 million. PMID:21542214

  17. Groupers on the edge: Shelf edge spawning habitat in and around marine reserves of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, F.C.; Scanlon, K.M.; Koenig, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    The northeastern Gulf of Mexico contains some of the most diverse and productive marine habitat in the United States. Much of this habitat, located on the shelf edge in depths of 50 to 120 m, supports spawning for many economically important species, including groupers. Here, we couple acoustic surveys with georeferenced videography to describe the primary spatial and geologic features of spawning aggregation sites for four economically important species: gag (Mycteroperca microlepis), scamp (M. phenax), red grouper (Epinephelus morio), and red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), with notes on fish distribution and abundance and spawning activities. We provide information on movement patterns of reef fish determined using acoustic telemetry. Finally, we discuss the possible coupling of geomorphology with hydrographic features to influence the overall productivity of the region and the importance of spatial fishery management in sustaining that productivity. ?? 2011 by Association of American Geographers.

  18. Spatial relationships between an introduced snapper and native goatfishes on Hawaiian reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, B.D.; Parrish, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that the introduced blueline snapper (Lutjanus kasmira, Family: Lutjanidae) may adversely affect populations of native fishery species in Hawai'i through competition for spatial or dietary resources, or through predation on young fish. We studied the habitat use patterns of L. kasmira and several native reef fish species using direct observation by SCUBA divers. Habitat use patterns of the yellowtail goatfish (Mulloidichthys vanicolensis, Family: Mullidae) were most similar to those of L. kasmira. Both species were primarily found low in the water column and were closely associated with areas of vertical relief. Individual M. vanicolensis were found higher in the water column when L. kasmirawere present, but L. kasmira were not similarly affected by M. vanicolensis. This finding suggests asymmetrical competition for shelter, in which the dominant L. kasmira displaces M. vanicolensis farther into the water column. This displacement from the protection of the reef could increase the vulnerability of M. vanicolensisto predators and fishers. ?? Springer 2005.

  19. Behavioral Response of Reef Fish and Green Sea Turtles to Midfrequency Sonar.

    PubMed

    Watwood, Stephanie L; Iafrate, Joseph D; Reyier, Eric A; Redfoot, William E

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern over the potential effects of high-intensity sonar on wild fish populations and commercial fisheries. Acoustic telemetry was employed to measure the movements of free-ranging reef fish and sea turtles in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to routine submarine sonar testing. Twenty-five sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus), 28 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus), and 29 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were tagged, with movements monitored for a period of up to 4 months using an array of passive acoustic receivers. Baseline residency was examined for fish and sea turtles before, during, and after the test event. No mortality of tagged fish or sea turtles was evident from the sonar test event. There was a significant increase in the daily residency index for both sheepshead and gray snapper at the testing wharf subsequent to the event. No broad-scale movement from the study site was observed during or immediately after the test. PMID:26611089

  20. Mercury bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in sympatric snapper species from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bank, Michael S; Chesney, Edward; Shine, James P; Maage, Amund; Senn, David B

    2007-10-01

    Consumption of marine fish is a major route of toxic methyl mercury (MeHg) exposure to ocean apex predators and human populations. Here we explore the influence of trophic structure on total mercury (Hg) accumulation in red snapper (RS, Lutjanus campechanus) and gray snapper (GS, Lutjanus griseus) from the coastal Louisiana region of the Gulf of Mexico, west of the Mississippi River. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) determine the effectiveness of the use of offshore recreational fishing charter boats and marinas as sources of fish samples and (2) compare species differences in Hg bioaccumulation, trophic position, and carbon sources. Our data show that length-normalized Hg concentrations (> or = 97% as MeHg in tissue of both species) were 230% greater in GS in comparison to RS collected from the same general area. Stable C and N isotope signatures (delta15N and delta13C) indicate that GS occupy a slightly higher trophic position (approximately 30% of one trophic position higher) on the Gulf food web in comparison to RS and that GS appear to incorporate higher trophic positioned prey, continually and at smaller sizes. Mercury was strongly correlated with combined delta15N and delta13C in pooled species data, arguing that most of the substantial difference in Hg bioaccumulation between RS and GS can be explained by modest differences in their trophic position and, to a lesser degree, carbon sources, which had low variation and high overlap among species. These observations demonstrate that even minor to moderate differences in trophic position and food habits in sympatric species can create relatively large differences in bioaccumulation regimes and underscores the importance of quantitative characterization of trophic structure in marine MeHg bioaccumulation studies. PMID:17974344

  1. Monitoring ethylene emissions from plants cultured for a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Emission of hydrocarbons and other volatile compounds by materials and organisms in closed environments will be a major concern in the design and management of advanced life support systems with a bioregenerative component. Ethylene, a simple hydrocarbon synthesized by plants, is involved in the elicitation of a wide range of physiological responses. In closed environments, ethylene may build up to levels which become physiologically active. In several growouts of 'Yecora Rojo' wheat in Kennedy Space Center's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC), it was observed that leaf flecking and rolling occurred in the sealed environment and was virtually eliminated when potassium permanganate was used to scrub the atmospheric environment. It was suggested that ethylene, which accumulated to about 60 ppb in the chamber and which was effectively absorbed by potassium permanganate, was responsible for the symptoms. The objectives of this work were to: (1) determine rates of ethylene evolution from lettuce (Lactuca sativa cultivar Waldemann's Green) and wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar Yecora Rojo) plants during growth and development; (2) determine the effects of exposure of whole, vegetative stage plants to exogenous ethylene concentrations in the range of what would develop in closed environment growth chambers; and (3) develop predictive functions for changes in ethylene concentration that would develop under different cropping and closed environment configurations. Results will lead to the development of management strategies for ethylene in bioregenerative life support systems.

  2. Theory of dynamic arrest in colloidal mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez-Maldonado, R.; Medina-Noyola, M.

    2008-05-01

    We present a first-principles theory of dynamic arrest in colloidal mixtures based on the multicomponent self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of colloid dynamics [M. A. Chávez-Rojo and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E 72, 031107 (2005); M. A. Chávez-Rojo and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E76, 039902 (2007)]. We illustrate its application with a description of dynamic arrest in two simple model colloidal mixtures: namely, hard-sphere and repulsive Yukawa binary mixtures. Our results include observation of the two patterns of dynamic arrest, one in which both species become simultaneously arrested and the other involving the sequential arrest of the two species. The latter case gives rise to mixed states in which one species is arrested while the other species remains mobile. We also derive the (”bifurcation” or fixed-point”) equations for the nonergodic parameters of the system, which takes the surprisingly simple form of a system of coupled equations for the localization length of the particles of each species. The solution of this system of equations indicates unambiguously which species is arrested (finite localization length) and which species remains ergodic (infinite localization length). As a result, we are able to draw the entire ergodic-nonergodic phase diagram of the binary hard-sphere mixture.

  3. Yield comparisons and unique characteristics of the dwarf wheat cultivar `USU-Apogee'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugbee, B.; Koerner, G.

    1997-01-01

    Extremely short, high yielding cultivars of all crop plants are needed to optimize the food production of bioregenerative life support systems in space. In the early 1980's, we examined over a thousand wheat genotypes from the world germplasm collection in search of genotypes with appropriate characteristics for food production in space. Here we report the results of 12 years of hybridization and selection for the perfect wheat cultivar. `USU-Apogee' is a full-dwarf hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed for high yields in controlled environments. USU-Apogee was developed by the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station in cooperation with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and released in April 1996. USU-Apogee is a shorter, higher yielding alternative to `Yecora Rojo' and `Veery-10', the short field genotypes previously selected for use in controlled environments. The yield advantage of USU-Apogee is 10 to 30% over these other cultivars, depending on environmental conditions. USU-Apogee (45-50 cm tall, depending on temperature) is 10 to 15 cm shorter than Yecora Rojo and 1 to 4 cm shorter than Veery-10. USU-Apogee was also selected for resistance to the calcium-induced leaf tip chlorosis that occurs in controlled-environments. Breeder seed of USU-Apogee will be maintained by the Crop Physiology Laboratory and seed is available for testing on request.

  4. GPS and odometer data fusion for outdoor robots continuous positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo-Ruz, Ana; Garcia-Perez, Lia; Garcia-Alegre, Maria C.; Guinea, Domingo; Ribeiro, Angela; Sandoval, Francisco

    2002-02-01

    Present work describes an approximation to obtain the best estimation of the position of the outdoor robot ROJO, a low cost lawnmower to perform unmanned precision agriculture task such are the spraying of pesticides in horticulture. For continuous location of ROJO, two redundant sensors have been installed onboard: a DGPS submetric precision model and an odometric system. DGPS system will allow an absolute positioning of the vehicle in the field, but GPS failures in the reception of the signals due to obstacles and electrical and meteorological disturbance, lead us to the integration of the odometric system. Thus, a robust odometer based upon magnetic strip sensors has been designed and integrated in the vehicle. These sensors continuosly deliver the position of the vehicle relative to its initial position, complementing the DGPS blindness periods. They give an approximated location of the vehicle in the field that can be in turn conveniently updated and corrected by the DGPS. Thus, to provided the best estimation, a fusion algorithm has been proposed and proved, wherein the best estimation is calculated as the maximum value of the join probability function obtained from both position estimation of the onboard sensors. Some results are presented to show the performance of the proposed sensor fusion technique.

  5. Chemistry of venom alkaloids in someSolenopsis (Diplorhoptrum) species from Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Jones, T H; Torres, J A; Spande, T F; Garraffo, H M; Blum, M S; Snelling, R R

    1996-07-01

    A number of 15-carbon alkaloids have been identified in venom extracts of four Puerto Rican species of ants in the genusSolenopsis (Diplorhoptrum). Workers of a species from El Verde produced thecis andtrans isomers of 2-methyl-6-nonylpiperidine with the latter isomer predominating. The same compounds were identified in queens of a species from Río Grande, but in this species no alkaloids were detected in worker extracts. Workers of aDiplorhoptrum species collected on Mona Island produced primarily atrans-2-methyl-6-(Z-4-nonenyl)piperidine,3, with smaller amounts of thecis isomer, whereas the major compound found in the queens of the same species on Mona Island was (5Z,9Z)-3-hexyl-5-methylindolizidine, identical with the alkaloid produced by queens of a species collected on Cabo Rojo. Surprisingly, workers of the Cabo Rojo species produced (5Z,9Z)- and (5E,9E)-3-butyl-5-propylindolizidine (4 and5, respectively) reported earlier as the 223AB indolizidines from skins of dendrobatid frogs. The possible significance of the qualitative and quantitative differences in the venom alkaloids synthesized by queens and workers is discussed as is the possibility that ants containing such alkaloids may serve as a dietary source for the skin alkaloids used by certain frogs in chemical defense. PMID:24226081

  6. Alcohol: an alternate energy resource for community use. Final performance report. [Small-scale - 250 gal per year

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-29

    The original purpose of the grant was to construct an alcohol producing facility for community use thereby demonstrating that small land owners could, through their initiative, produce fuel from a vegetable grown on small plots of land. The rationale for the program was predicated on increasing fuel costs, decreasing fuel supplies, and on information supplied by Tuskegee Institute about a high dry matter sweet potato (Rojo Blanco, reportedly 42% dry matter and an average yield of 750 bushels/acre) which theoretically would produce at least 1.42 gallons of ethyl alcohol/bushel. Two approaches were undertaken: the production of sweet potatoes and the production of alcohol. In the first year, Rojo Blanco did yield 700 bushels/acre, but in subsequent years, due to drought and inadequate knowledge of proper fertilizer and moisture regimes, that yield was never reached. In alcohol production, a long period of time with laboratory stills was devoted to testing sweet potato varieties to determine the alcohol/bushel ratios. The hypothetical 1.4 gallons/bushel was never attained - because the dry matter never approached 42%. In spite of the low alcohol per bushel results, a 250 gallon batch still was built (cost of over $3000). With cost of fuel for the digester and for the fermentation coupled with the market value of sweet potatoes, we determined that community operated stills using home-grown vegetable sources for alcohol production is not economically feasible at this time.

  7. Optimally Squeezed Spin States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Alberto

    2004-03-01

    We consider optimally spin-squeezed states that maximize the sensitivity of the Ramsey spectroscopy, and for which the signal to noise ratio scales as the number of particles N. Using the variational principle we prove that these states are eigensolutions of the Hamiltonian H(λ)=λ S_z^2-S_x, and that, for large N, the states become equivalent to the quadrature squeezed states of the harmonic oscillator. We present numerical results that illustrate the validity of the equivalence. We also present results of spin squeezing via atom-field interactions within the context of the Tavis-Cummings model. An ensemble of N two-level atoms interacts with a quantized cavity field. For all the atoms initially in their ground states, it is shown that spin squeezing of both the atoms and the field can be achieved provided the initial state of the cavity field has coherence between number states differing by 2. Most of the discussion is restricted to the case of a cavity field initially in a coherent state, but initial squeezed states for the field are also discussed. An analytic solution is found that is valid in the limit that the number of atoms is much greater than unity. References: A. G. Rojo, Phys. Rev A, 68, 013807 (2003); Claudiu Genes, P. R. Berman, and A. G. Rojo Phys. Rev. A 68, 043809 (2003).

  8. Microhabitat use, not temperature, regulates intensity of Gyrodactylus cichlidarum long-term infection on farmed tilapia--are parasites evading competition or immunity?

    PubMed

    Rubio-Godoy, Miguel; Muñoz-Córdova, Germán; Garduño-Lugo, Mario; Salazar-Ulloa, Martha; Mercado-Vidal, Gabriel

    2012-02-10

    Gyrodactylids (Monogenea) are ectoparasites of fish, some of which negatively affect commercially valuable fishes. Temperature strongly regulates population dynamics of these viviparous flatworms in farmed and wild fish populations, with most gyrodactylid species showing positive temperature-abundance associations. In agreement with epidemiological theory, numerous laboratory studies demonstrate that these parasites cannot persist in confined fish populations without periodic introduction of susceptible hosts. Extinction of gyrodactylid populations is due to host immunity, which develops in several fish species. In this one-year study, we followed populations of the recognized pathogen Gyrodactylus cichlidarum infecting four genetic groups of confined tilapia (wild type Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus niloticus, red O. n. niloticus, Mozambique tilapia O. mossambicus and a red synthetic population called Pargo-UNAM) kept under farming conditions and subject to natural environmental fluctuations. Based on the antecedents given, we postulated the following three hypotheses: (1) parasite abundance will be regulated by water temperature; (2) parasites will induce host mortality, particularly during periods of rapid infrapopulation growth; and (3) gyrodactylid populations will eventually become extinct on confined fish hosts. We disproved the three hypotheses: (1) parasite numbers fluctuated independently of temperature but were associated to changes in microhabitat use; (2) although gyrodactylid populations exhibited considerable growth, no evidence was found of negative effects on the hosts; and (3) infections persisted for one year on confined fish. Microhabitat use changed over time, with most worms apparently migrating anteriorly from the caudal fin and ending on the pectoral fins. Gyrodactylid populations followed similar trajectories in all fish, aggregating and dispersing repeatedly. Several instances were found where increased parasite dispersion coincided

  9. Characterization of volatile substances in apples from Rosaceae family by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by GC-qMS.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Liseth; Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Câmara, José S

    2009-06-01

    The volatile composition of different apple varieties of Malus domestica Borkh. species from different geographic regions at Madeira Islands, namely Ponta do Pargo (PP), Porto Santo (PS), and Santo da Serra (SS) was established by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure followed by GC-MS (GC-qMS) analysis. Significant parameters affecting sorption process such as fiber coating, extraction temperature, extraction time, sample amount, dilution factor, ionic strength, and desorption time, were optimized and discussed. The SPME fiber coated with 50/30 microm divinylbenzene/carboxen/PDMS (DVB/CAR/PDMS) afforded highest extraction efficiency of volatile compounds, providing the best sensitivity for the target volatiles, particularly when the samples were extracted at 50 degrees C for 30 min with constant magnetic stirring. A qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis between the investigated apple species has been established. It was possible to identify about 100 of volatile compounds among pulp (46, 45, and 39), peel (64, 60, and 64), and entire fruit (65, 43, and 50) in PP, PS, and SS apples, respectively. Ethyl esters, terpenes, and higher alcohols were found to be the most representative volatiles. Alpha-farnesene, hexan-1-ol and hexyl 2-methylbutyrate were the compounds found in the volatile profile of studied apples with the largest GC area, representing, on average, 24.71, 14.06, and 10.80% of the total volatile fraction from PP, PS, and SS apples. In PP entire apple, the most abundant compounds identified were alpha-farnesene (30.49%), the unknown compound m/z (69, 101, 157) (21.82%) and hexyl acetate (6.57%). Regarding PS entire apple the major compounds were alpha-farnesene (16.87%), estragole (15.43%), hexan-1-ol (10.94), and E-2-hexenal (10.67). Alpha-farnesene (30.3%), hexan-1-ol (18.90%), 2-methylbutanoic acid (4.7%), and pentan-1-ol (4.6%) were also found as SS entire apple volatiles present in a higher relative content. Principal

  10. Characterization of volatiles in bullock's heart (Annona reticulata L.) fruit cultivars from Cuba.

    PubMed

    Pino, Jorge A; Marbot, Rolando; Fuentes, Victor

    2003-06-18

    Volatile compounds were isolated from four cultivars of bullock's heart fruit (Cenizo, Rojo, Verde, and De Ojo) by simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction. Compounds were identified by HRGC and capillary GC-MS. One hundred and eighty compounds were identified in the aroma extracts, of which alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, limonene, terpinen-4-ol, and germacrene D were found to be the major constituents. Fruit from cv. De Ojo containing the highest concentration of total volatile and the highest major terpenoid content had the highest custard-like and overall fruity aroma intensity. The presence of many terpenic compounds is thought to contribute to the unique flavor of the bullock's heart fruit. PMID:12797752

  11. Analysis of remote reflection spectroscopy to monitor plant health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, R.; Heeb, M.; Berry, W.; Hoshizaki, T.; Wood, M.

    1994-11-01

    Remote non-contact reflection spectroscopy is examined as a method for detecting stress in Controlled Ecological Life Support System CELSS type crops. Lettuce (Latuca Sativa L. cv. Waldmans Green) and wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) were grown hydroponically. Copper and zinc treatments provided toxic conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium treatments were used for deficiency conditions. Water stress was also induced in test plants. Reflectance spectra were obtained in the visible and near infrared (400nm to 2600nm) wavebands. Numerous effects of stress conditions can be observed in the collected spectra and this technique appears to have promise as a remote monitor of plant health, but significant research remains to be conducted to realize the promise.

  12. Analysis of remote reflection spectroscopy to monitor plant health.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, R; Heeb, M; Berry, W; Hoshizaki, T; Wood, M

    1994-11-01

    Remote non-contact reflection spectroscopy is examined as a method for detecting stress in Controlled Ecological Life Support System CELSS type crops. Lettuce (Lactuca [correction of Latuca] Sativa L. cv. Waldmans Green) and wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) were grown hydroponically. Copper and zinc treatments provided toxic conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium treatments were used for deficiency conditions. Water stress was also induced in test plants. Reflectance spectra were obtained in the visible and near infrared (400nm to 2600nm) wavebands. Numerous effects of stress conditions can be observed in the collected spectra and this technique appears to have promise as a remote monitor of plant health, but significant research remains to be conducted to realize the promise. PMID:11540181

  13. Analysis of remote reflectin spectroscopy to monitor plant health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodhouse, R.; Heeb, M.; Berry, W.; Hoshizaki, T.; Wood, M.

    1994-01-01

    Remote non-contact reflection spectroscopy is examined as a method for detecting stress in Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) type crops. Lettuce (Latuca Sativa L. cv. Waldmans Green) and wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) were grown hydroponically. Copper and zinc treatments provided toxic conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium treatments were used for deficiency conditions. Water stress was also induced in test plants. Reflectance spectra were obtained in the visible and near infrared (400nm to 2600nm) wavebands. Numerous effects of stress conditions can be observed in the collected spectra and this technique appears to have promise as a remote monitor of plant health, but significant research remains to be conducted to realize the promise.

  14. Nitrogen uptake by wheat seedlings, interactive effects of four nitrogen sources: NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, and urea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criddle, R. S.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The net influx (uptake) rates of NO3-, NH4+, NO2-, and urea into roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Yecora Rojo) seedlings from complete nutrient solutions containing all four compounds were monitored simultaneously. Although urea uptake was too slow to monitor, its presence had major inhibitory effects on the uptake of each of the other compounds. Rates of NO3-, NH4+, and NO2- uptake depended in a complex fashion on the concentration of all four N compounds. Equations were developed which describe the uptake rates of each of the compounds, and of total N, as functions of concentrations of all N sources. Contour plots of the results show the interactions over the range of concentrations employed. The coefficients of these equations provide quantitative values for evaluating primary and interactive effects of each compound on N uptake.

  15. Biomass production chamber air analysis of wheat study (BWT931)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, J. H.; Peterson, B. V.; Berdis, E.; Wheeler, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) biomass production chamber at John F. Kennedy Space Center provides a test bed for bioregenerative studies using plants to provide food, oxygen, carbon dioxide removal, and potable water to humans during long term space travel. Growing plants in enclosed environments has brought about concerns regarding the level of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) emitted from plants and the construction materials that make up the plant growth chambers. In such closed systems, the potential exists for some VOC's to reach toxic levels and lead to poor plant growth, plant death, or health problems for human inhabitants. This study characterized the air in an enclosed environment in which wheat cv. Yocora Rojo was grown. Ninty-four whole air samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry throughout the eighty-four day planting. VOC emissions from plants and materials were characterized and quantified.

  16. Control of water and nutrients using a porous tube: a method for growing plants in space.

    PubMed

    Dreschel, T W; Sager, J C

    1989-12-01

    A plant nutrient delivery system that uses a microporous, hydrophilic tube was developed with potential application for crop production in the microgravity of space. The tube contains a nutrient solution and delivers it to the roots. Pumps attached to the tubing create a very small suction that holds the solution within the tube. This system was used to grow wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Yecora Rojo) for 107 days in a controlled environment at suctions of 0.40, 1.48, or 2.58 kPa. The water absorbed through the pores of the tube by baby diaper sections decreased as suction increased. Correspondingly, final plant biomass, seed number, and spikelet number also tended to decrease as suction increased. The reduced yield at higher suction suggests that the plants experienced water stress, although all suctions were below those typical of soils at field capacity. PMID:11540906

  17. Nuevas Galaxias Seyfert 1 Australes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maza, J.; Ruiz, M. T.

    1987-05-01

    En 1984 se inició una extensión del "survey" de Tololo que de- sarrollara en 1975 Smith, con la cámara Curtis-Schmidt y el prisma UV delgado. Utilizando placas IIIaJ horneadas, sin filtro, expues tas 90 minutos sin ensanchamiento se han obtenido a la fecha más de 150 placas que cubren la zona entre -20° y -45° a latitudes galácticas mayores de 20°; se presenta un detalle de las franjas que comprende el survey Calan-Tololo, indicando el grado de completitud de las mismas. Se ha encontrado un gran número de galaxias con líneas de emisión entre las cuales las más frecuentes, más de 300, son galaxias irregulares con formación estelar violenta ("starburst galaxies"). Se ha encontrado un número de cuasares cercano a 100; casi todos ellos tienen la linea Lyman alfa en la zona entre 3300 y 5300 A, que corresponde a un rango de corrimientosal rojo 1.7< z <3.3 el cuasar con mayor corri- miento al rojo encontrado a la fecha en el survey tiene z = 3.1. La información detallada sobre cuasares y galaxias tipo "starburst" será presentada en otro lugar. Entre los objetos más interesantes encontrados en el survey Calán- Tololo destacan unas 50 nuevas galaxias Seyfert 1. Estas galaxias han sido encontradas por su fuerte exceso UV y su brillante núcleo, más que por sus intensas lineas de emisión. Hemos observado espectroscópicamente, en el Observatorio Interamericano de Cerro Tololo, 37 de ellas para las cuales se presentan cartas de identificación, coordenadas y los datos espectroscópicos obtenidos.

  18. Length-based assessment of coral reef fish populations in the main and northwestern Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Nadon, Marc O; Ault, Jerald S; Williams, Ivor D; Smith, Steven G; DiNardo, Gerard T

    2015-01-01

    The coral reef fish community of Hawaii is composed of hundreds of species, supports a multimillion dollar fishing and tourism industry, and is of great cultural importance to the local population. However, a major stock assessment of Hawaiian coral reef fish populations has not yet been conducted. Here we used the robust indicator variable "average length in the exploited phase of the population ([Formula: see text])", estimated from size composition data from commercial fisheries trip reports and fishery-independent diver surveys, to evaluate exploitation rates for 19 Hawaiian reef fishes. By and large, the average lengths obtained from diver surveys agreed well with those from commercial data. We used the estimated exploitation rates coupled with life history parameters synthesized from the literature to parameterize a numerical population model and generate stock sustainability metrics such as spawning potential ratios (SPR). We found good agreement between predicted average lengths in an unfished population (from our population model) and those observed from diver surveys in the largely unexploited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Of 19 exploited reef fish species assessed in the main Hawaiian Islands, 9 had SPRs close to or below the 30% overfishing threshold. In general, longer-lived species such as surgeonfishes, the redlip parrotfish (Scarus rubroviolaceus), and the gray snapper (Aprion virescens) had the lowest SPRs, while short-lived species such as goatfishes and jacks, as well as two invasive species (Lutjanus kasmira and Cephalopholis argus), had SPRs above the 30% threshold. PMID:26267473

  19. Species composition of by-catch from milkfish (Chanos chanos) fry fishery in selected sites in the Philippines as determined by DNA barcodes.

    PubMed

    Asis, Angelli Marie Jacynth M; Destura, Irma; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-05-01

    Milkfish fry fishery, an important industry in the Philippines, uses non-selective fishing gears and push nets in coastal areas which lead to the capture of other non-targeted juvenile aquatic species. Unfortunately, information on the amount and the identity of by-catch species is lacking thus the extent of impact of the fry fishery is not known. In this study, the species composition of milkfish fry fishery by-catch sampled from selected coastal areas that are known to be fry collection sites in the country were identified and assessed through the use of DNA barcoding. Analyses revealed that by-catch fish species of the milkfish fry industry included Black Tiger shrimp (Peneaus monodon), Tarpon (Megalops cyprinoides), Glass perchlets (Ambasis gymnocephalus and Ambasis buruensis), Ladyfish (Elops hawaiensis), Snapper (Lutjanus fulviflamma), Cardinal fishes (Apogon hyalosoma and Sphaeramia orbicularis), Whipfin siver biddy (Gerres filamentosus), Mullet (Liza sp.), Anchovy (Encrasicholina heteroloba), and Tiger perch (Terapon jarbua), almost all of which are potential marketable food fish and culture species. The results of the study provide preliminary information, as well as awareness, on the species composition of milkfish fry by-catch. PMID:25329278

  20. New records of sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) from marine fishes in Jaramijó, an area with potential for sea-cage aquaculture in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptali; Caña-Bozada, Víctor; Mera-Loor, Geormery; Loor-Andrade, Peggy; Fajer-Ávila, Emma J; Ho, Ju-Shey

    2015-01-01

    Farming of finfish in sea cages is gaining popularity worldwide. These systems are a suitable environment for the emergence, establishment and transmission of parasites or pathogens, such as sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae), known to cause serious diseases and economic losses in finfish aquaculture worldwide. In coastal waters of Jaramijó, Ecuador, there are plans to culture spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and longfin yellowtail (Seriola rivoliana); however, the information about the occurrence of sea lice on fish from this country is scarce. To address this problem, a parasitological survey of economically important fish caught by artisanal fishermen was conducted between June 2013 and May 2014. A total of 608 fish belonging to 66 species were examined. Sea lice were found on 23 fish species. The diversity of these parasites consisted of 22 species of Caligus and 5 species of Lepeophtheirus. Most sea lice species (66%) occurred in a single fish species only, with low infection levels. The most frequently encountered species were Caligus asperimanus Pearse, 1951, Caligus mutabilis Wilson, 1905 and Caligus rufimaculatus Wilson, 1905. Taxonomic remarks are presented for some of the species recorded during this survey. All but two sea lice records are new to Ecuador, considerably expanding the geographical range of some species. PMID:25781254

  1. Heavy metal concentrations in marine fishes collected from fish culture sites in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, C K; Wong, P P; Chu, L M

    2001-01-01

    The levels of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in different tissues of three species of cultured marine fishes (Epinephelus areolatus, Lutjanus russelli, and Sparus sarba) collected from three fish culture sites in Hong Kong were evaluated. Metal pollution problems in the fish culture sites were serious, as reflected by the high metal concentrations recorded in sea water, sediments, and the biomonitor Perna viridis. In general, tissues of all three species contained high concentrations of Zn and Cu, but much lower concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr. Similar pattern of heavy metal concentrations was observed in sea water, sediment, and P. viridis. Metal concentrations in various tissues varied greatly among species and among fish culture sites. Different tissues showed different capacity for accumulating heavy metals. Gonad of all three species contained high concentrations of Zn. On the other hand, liver seemed to be the primary organ for Cu accumulation. Overall, metal concentrations in the tissues of culture marine fishes were much lower than those in P. viridis. Despite high metal levels in sea water and sediments, concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Pb in edible tissues, including muscle and skin, did not exceed permissible levels recommended by the Hong Kong Government for human consumption. PMID:11116341

  2. [Trophic interactions of the six most abundant fish species in the artisanal fishery in two bays, central Mexican Pacific].

    PubMed

    Flores Ortega, J R; Godínez Domínguez, E; Rojo Vázquez, J A; Corgos, A; Galván Piña, V H; Sansón González, G

    2010-03-01

    We surveyed the trophic components in six species of Bahía de Navidad and Bahía de Chamela: Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caballus, Haemulon flaviguttatum, Lutjanus guttatus, L. argentiventris and Mulloidichthys dentatus. Two main seasonal periods were considered: 1) North Equatorial Counter Current NECC period influence (T1) and 2) California Current CC period influence (T2). In Bahía de Navidad 78 prey taxa were identified in the stomachs. From July to December (T1), 64 prey taxa were found, and from January to June (T2), 45 prey items. In Bahía de Chamela 93 prey items were identified; 74 during T1 and 60 during T2. The highest prey number was found in the stomachs of M. dentatus during T1 in Bahía de Navidad and the lowest prey number (7) was recorded in H. flaviguttatum in Bahía de Navidad in the same period. Crustaceans were the most frequently recorded prey items, followed by fishes, mollusks, polychaetes, and echinoderms in both seasonal periods and sites. The six fish species studied are considered as specialist feeders due the low values of the niche breadth index. There was little similarity among the diets. PMID:20411730

  3. Abundance, diversity, and activity of microbial assemblages associated with coral reef fish guts and feces.

    PubMed

    Smriga, Steven; Sandin, Stuart A; Azam, Farooq

    2010-07-01

    Feces and distal gut contents were collected from three coral reef fish species. Bacteria cell abundances, as determined via epifluorescence microscopy, ranged two orders of magnitude among the fishes. Mass-specific and apparent cell-specific hydrolytic enzyme activities in feces from Chlorurus sordidus were very high, suggesting that endogenous fish enzymes were egested into feces. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of 16S rRNA genes were more similar among multiple individuals of the surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans than among individuals of the parrotfish C. sordidus or the snapper Lutjanus bohar. Analyses of feces-derived 16S rRNA gene clones revealed that at least five bacterial phyla were present in A. nigricans and that Vibrionaceae comprised 10% of the clones. Meanwhile, C. sordidus contained at least five phyla and L. bohar three, but Vibrionaceae comprised 71% and 76% of the clones, respectively. Many sequences clustered phylogenetically to cultured Vibrio spp. and Photobacterium spp. including Vibrio ponticus and Photobacterium damselae. Other Vibrionaceae-like sequences comprised a distinct phylogenetic group that may represent the presence of 'feces-specific' bacteria. The observed differences among fishes may reflect native gut microbiota and/or bacterial assemblages associated with ingested prey. PMID:20455942

  4. Otolith chemistry of fishes from Kosi Bay, South Africa: A preliminary multiple analytical methods approach to reconstruct fish migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbach, Andreas; Cowley, Paul D.; Kramar, Utz; Neumann, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Over exploitation of fish stocks in coastal areas is a subject of global concern. Increasing numbers of traditional fish traps, recreational fishing effort and unknown extents of illegal gillnetting are blamed for the declining abundance of estuarine-dependent fish species in the Kosi Bay estuarine lake system in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Otoliths from four important fishery species (Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Pomadasys commersonnii, Acanthopagrus vagus, and Rhabdosargus sarba) and water samples collected from throughout the Kosi Bay system were analyzed for trace element constituents and δ18O values, in an attempt to reconstruct fish movements. The applied microscopic X-ray fluorescence analysis proved valuable in detecting μm-scale spatially resolved Sr/Ca ratio distributions across otolith thin sections. Sr/Ca ratios and δ18O in otoliths correlated well with ambient water conditions and, thus, enabled us to reconstruct migratory histories of individual fish in the estuarine lake system. The findings are representative of the known biology of these species, although exact spatial and temporal ranges of migrations remain unclear. Interestingly, samples of two species (L. argentimaculatus and R. sarba) did not show any clue of migrations back to sea, which would be necessary for successful spawning. Further laboratory and field investigations with larger sample sizes are necessary to detect fishery impacts on migratory behavior at a population level.

  5. Cadmium, Copper, Lead, and Zinc Contents of Fish Marketed in NW Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Frías-Espericueta, Martín G.; Zamora-Sarabia, Francia K. G.; Osuna-López, J. Isidro; Muy-Rangel, María D.; Rubio-Carrasco, Werner; Aguilar-Juárez, Marisela

    2014-01-01

    To assess if they were within the safety limits for human consumption, the Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents of fish muscles, bought from separate stalls of the fish markets of nine cities of NW Mexico, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Considering all fish and markets, the mean contents were Zn: 23.23 ± 5.83, Cu: 1.72 ± 0.63, Cd: 0.27 ± 0.07, and Pb: 0.09 ± 0.04 µg/g (dry weight). Cu, Zn, and Pb did not reach levels of concern for human consumption, but the high Cd values determined in Mazatlán (Mugil cephalus: 0.48 ± 0.15; Diapterus spp.: 0.57 ± 0.33; Lutjanus spp.: 0.72 ± 0.12; small shark: 0.87 ± 0.19 µg/g dry weight) indicate that this was the only metal of concern for human health because the daily individual consumption of fish muscle to reach the PTDI would be within 0.27 and 0.41 kg. PMID:24526908

  6. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P.

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

  7. Two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Diggles, Ben K

    2014-09-01

    Based on light and electron microscopical studies, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia (near Darwin): Philometra carangis n. sp. from the bluespotted trevally Caranx bucculentus Alleyne & Macleay (Carangidae) and P. carponotati n. sp. from the Spanish flag snapper Lutjanus carponotatus (Richardson) (Lutjanidae). Philometra carangis is mainly characterised by the length of the spicules (153-189 µm), the presence of a distinct dorsal protuberance consisting of two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, a pair of large post-cloacal papillae and the body length of the males (3.22-4.15 mm). Philometra carponotati is distinguished from other congeneric species parasitising lutjanids by the length of the spicules and gubernaculum (225-252 and 99-117 µm, respectively), the absence of a dorsal protuberance on the distal lamellar part of the gubernaculum, the presence of a U-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, a pair of large post-cloacal papillae and the body length of the male (3.74-4.31 mm). Besides the recently established Philometra zabidii Moravec & Diggles, 2014 (based on a single female), these two newly described nematodes are the only nominal gonad-infecting species of Philometra known to parasitise marine fishes in Australian waters. PMID:25079814

  8. Diversity and Abundance of a Tropical Fishery on the Pacific Shelf of Michoacán, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrid, J.; Sánchez, P.; Ruiz, A.

    1997-10-01

    This study was undertaken on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Some 22 523 individual fish were sampled, representing two classes, 154 genera, 64 families and 257 species in a total area of 50 km 2. The species Lutjanus guttatus, Scomberomorus sierra, Cynoscion reticulatus, Sphyrna lewini, Arius platypogonand Caranx caninuswere the most numerically abundant, amounting to 53·2% of the whole sample. Two models for sample size analysis and richness prediction were used. From these, the forecast for a theoretical doubling of the level of sampling effort (90 days) was 297 and 331. The Shannon diversity indexes in summer (June-August) and winter (December-February) were significantly different (paired t-test, P<0·0005). Of four families compared, three gave significant differences in the summer and winter periods (the Carangidae, the Haemulidae and the Sciaenidae). The classification (Euclidean Distance and UPGMA) indicated two climatic periods and three species assemblages. In addition, the nodal fidelity analysis agreed with the importance of the winter season in the study area. Two El Niño/southern oscillation incidences from 1986-87 and 1991-93 occurred during the sampling period.

  9. First report of gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidia (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea: Heteronchoinea) on gills of flyingfish (Exocoetidae), snapper (Lutjanidae), dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae), and amberjack (Carangidae) from the Gulf of Mexico: decoy hosts and the dilution effect.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bullard, Stephen A; Bakenhaster, Micah D

    2011-09-01

    Larvae, identified as post-oncomiracidia of the suborder Gastrocotylinea (Monogenoidea), were collected from formalin-fixed gills excised from six species of marine fishes captured from the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi and Florida: common dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus and pompano dolphinfish, Coryphaena equiselis (both Perciformes, Coryphaenidae); gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Perciformes, Lutjanidae); greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili (Perciformes, Carangidae); and Atlantic flyingfish, Cheilopogon melanurus and sailfin flyingfish, Parexocoetus hillianus (both Beloniformes and Exocoetidae). Based on a combination of diagnostic morphological features, the specimens were divided into two basic forms, each of which was further subdivided into two morphotypes. No gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidium had been reported previously from these hosts. Of the six host species, only C. hippurus serves as a host (unconfirmed) for the adult of a gastrocotylinean species, suggesting that the recorded fishes from the Gulf of Mexico comprise dead-end hosts acting as decoys for the oncomiracidia. These comparatively non-susceptible "decoy hosts" apparently dilute the susceptible fish-host population and by intercepting infective larvae (oncomiracidia) decrease the abundance of parasites on their typical hosts. PMID:21497672

  10. Philometrid nematodes infecting fishes from the Everglades National Park, Florida, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Bakenhaster, Micah

    2010-09-01

    The following three species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from marine perciform fishes of the Everglades National Park (northern Gulf of Mexico), Florida, U.S.A.: Philometra brevispicula sp. n. (male and females) from the subcutaneous tissue of mouth of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus) (Lutjanidae), Philometroides grandipapillatus sp. n. (only females) from pectoral fin muscle of the crevalle jack Caranx hippos (Linnaeus) (Carangidae), and Caranginema americanum Moravec, Montoya-Mendoza et Salgado-Maldonado, 2008 (females) from the subcutaneous fascia of trunk muscle in crevalle jack C. hippos. Philometra brevispicula is mainly characterized by small cephalic papillae of the external circle, the absence of oesophageal teeth and the presence of small caudal projections in gravid female, markedly short spicules (45 microm) in male, and by its location in the host. Philometroides grandipapillatus differs from congeners mainly in the shape of the cephalic region (narrow, conspicuously protruding), large cephalic papillae of the external circle and the absence of caudal projections in female, and by the site of infection in the host. Caranginema americanum is for the first time recorded from the northern Gulf of Mexico. PMID:20941913

  11. Using Fish Population Metrics to Compare the Effects of Artificial Reef Density

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Artificial reefs continue to be added as habitat throughout the world, yet questions remain about how reef design affects fish diversity and abundance. In the present study, the effects of reef density were assessed for fish communities and sizes of economically valuable Lutjanus campechanus 13 km off Port Mansfield, Texas, at a reef composed of more than 4000 concrete culverts. The study spanned from May to June in 2013 and 2014, and sites sampled included natural reefs, bare areas, and varying culvert patch density categories, ranging from 1–190 culverts. Abundances of adults and species evenness of juvenile populations differed between the years. Fish communities did not significantly differ among density categories; however, highest species richness and total abundances were observed at intermediate culvert densities and at natural reefs. Whereas the abundance of L. campechanus did not differ among density categories, mean total lengths of L. campechanus were greatest at the lower density. Our findings suggest that reefs should be deployed with intermediate patch density of 71–120 culverts in a 30-m radius to yield the highest fish abundances. PMID:26422472

  12. The use of biotic and abiotic components of Red Sea coastal areas as indicators of ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2016-03-01

    A biomonitoring study was conducted using some biotic (Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii fish) and abiotic (water and sediment) components of the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic along two polluted sites (Al-Dawar beach and Urj village) in comparison to a reference site (Al-Nukhailah beach). The studied fish biomarkers included hepatosomatic index (HSI), condition factor (K), scaled mass index (SMI), catalase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and albumin. In addition, metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) concentrations in water and sediment were measured and sediment pollution assessment was carried out using contamination factor (CF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution load index (PLI) and enrichment factor (EF). The studied metals concentration in water and sediment samples showed significant increase among the polluted sites in comparison to the reference site. Sediment pollution assessment generally confirmed that Urj village was the most contaminated site followed by Al-Dawar beach. Catalase, GST and MDA proved to be the most responsive biomarkers with increased values of GST and MDA at sites influenced by agricultural, urban and industrial activities while catalase, HSI, K, SMI, total protein and albumin showed the opposite trend. This study recommends monitoring of sediment Igeo and EF values as well as SMI, catalase, GST and MDA as sensitive indicators of different anthropogenic activities and their effects on aquatic ecosystems under complex and different gradients of metal pollution. In addition, P. hasta proved to be more sensitive towards the detected pollution condition. PMID:26547874

  13. Trophic behaviour of juvenile reef fishes inhabiting interlinked mangrove-seagrass habitats in offshore mangrove islets.

    PubMed

    Vaslet, A; Phillips, D L; France, C A M; Feller, I C; Baldwin, C C

    2015-08-01

    Stable isotope (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and gut content analyses were used to investigate size-related feeding habits of four reef fishes (the beaugregory Stegastes leucostictus, the french grunt Haemulon flavolineatum, the schoolmaster snapper Lutjanus apodus and the yellowtail snapper Ocyurus chrysurus) inhabiting an offshore (non-estuarine) mangrove islet off Belize, Central America. Comparisons of isotopic niche space and Schoener diet similarity index suggested a low to moderate degree of niche overlap between fish size groups. The δ(13)C gradient between mangrove and seagrass prey as well as results of Bayesian mixing models revealed that sampled fishes relied mostly on seagrass prey items. Only small and large juveniles of the carnivorous species L. apodus derived a part of their diet from mangroves by targeting mangrove-associated Grapsidae crabs and fish prey, respectively. Isotopic niche shifts were particularly obvious for carnivorous fishes that ingested larger prey items (Xanthidae crabs and fishes) during their ontogeny. The utilization of mangrove food resources is less than expected and depends on the ecology and life history of the fish species considered. This research highlights that mangrove-derived carbon contributed relatively little to the diets of four fish taxa from an offshore mangrove islet. PMID:26084450

  14. Statistical power to detect change in a mangrove shoreline fish community adjacent to a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Dolan, T E; Lynch, P D; Karazsia, J L; Serafy, J E

    2016-03-01

    An expansion is underway of a nuclear power plant on the shoreline of Biscayne Bay, Florida, USA. While the precise effects of its construction and operation are unknown, impacts on surrounding marine habitats and biota are considered by experts to be likely. The objective of the present study was to determine the adequacy of an ongoing monitoring survey of fish communities associated with mangrove habitats directly adjacent to the power plant to detect fish community changes, should they occur, at three spatial scales. Using seasonally resolved data recorded during 532 fish surveys over an 8-year period, power analyses were performed for four mangrove fish metrics (fish diversity, fish density, and the occurrence of two ecologically important fish species: gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) and goldspotted killifish (Floridichthys carpio). Results indicated that the monitoring program at current sampling intensity allows for detection of <33% changes in fish density and diversity metrics in both the wet and the dry season in the two larger study areas. Sampling effort was found to be insufficient in either season to detect changes at this level (<33%) in species-specific occurrence metrics for the two fish species examined. The option of supplementing ongoing, biological monitoring programs for improved, focused change detection deserves consideration from both ecological and cost-benefit perspectives. PMID:26903208

  15. Stable isotopes as tracers of residency for fish on inshore coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jean P.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Fry, Brian; Connolly, Rod M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the migratory movements of fish between habitats is an important priority for fisheries management. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotopes were used to evaluate the degree of movement and residency for five fish species collected from coral reefs in Queensland, Australia. Isotope values of fish were measured and compared between slow-turnover muscle tissue and fast-turnover liver tissue, with isotopic agreement between liver and muscle generally indicating resident animals, and relatively low C isotope values in muscle indicating migrants. Three fish species, rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens), painted sweetlips (Diagramma labiosum) and Guenther's wrasse (Pseudolabrus guentheri) showed relatively consistent carbon isotope values between muscle and liver tissue as expected for resident populations. One quarter of bream (Acanthopagrus australis) individuals showed much lower δ13C values in muscle than liver. These low values diverged from the -10 to -15‰ values of residents and were more similar to the -20‰ values of fish collected from coastal riverine habitats, the presumed migration source. Moses perch (Lutjanus russelli) also showed substantial differences between muscle and liver C isotopes for about a quarter of individuals, but the overall higher C values of these individuals indicated they may have switched diets within island habitats rather than migrating. Our results were consistent with previous studies of fish residency and indicate that measuring stable isotopes in multiple tissues provides a useful methodology for characterizing fish residency in inshore areas.

  16. Vitrification of Sperm from Marine Fishes: Effect on Motility and Membrane Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Chesney, Edward J.; Daly, Jonathan; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to develop a standardized approach for sperm vitrification of marine fishes that can be applied generally in aquatic species. The objectives were to: 1) estimate acute toxicity of cryoprotectants over a range of concentrations; 2) evaluate the properties of vitrification solutions (VS); 3) evaluate different thawing solutions, and 4) evaluate sperm quality after thawing by examination of motility and membrane integrity. Sperm were collected from red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), and red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). A total of 29 combinations of cryoprotectants were evaluated for toxicity and glass formation. Samples were loaded onto 10-µL polystyrene loops and plunged into liquid nitrogen. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in post-thaw motility among VS and among species when using the same VS. The sperm in VS of 15% DMSO + 15% ethylene glycol + 10% glycerol + 1% X-1000™ + 1% Z-1000™ had an average post-thaw motility of 58% and membrane integrity of 19% for spotted seatrout, 38% and 9% for red snapper, and 30% and 19% for red drum. Adaptations by marine fish to high osmotic pressures could explain the survival in the high cryoprotectant concentrations. Vitrification offers an alternative to conventional cryopreservation. PMID:26074721

  17. [Toxin profiles in fish implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in Amami and Kakeroma Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan].

    PubMed

    Yogi, Kentaro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Matsuda, Seiko; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Matsuo, Toshiaki; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in Amami Islands, Kagoshima, Japan in 2008 were determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. Ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B), 54-deoxyCTX1B, and 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B were detected in Variola louti and Lutjanus monostigma. The toxin profile distinctly differed from that of a CFP-related fish from Miyazaki, which mainly contained ciguatoxin-3C type toxins. Toxin profiles were species-specific, as observed in fish from Okinawa. The LC-MS/MS and mouse bioassay (MBA) methods produced comparable data, though 54-deoxyCTX1B was not taken into consideration owing to the lack of toxicity data. To improve assessment, toxicity data for this compound are needed. A reef fish caught on the same occasion and judged nontoxic by MBA (<0.025 MU/g) was found to contain low levels of CTX, indicating a potential risk for CFP. PMID:24389468

  18. Contrasting environmental drivers of adult and juvenile growth in a marine fish: implications for the effects of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Joyce Jia Lin; Nicholas Rountrey, Adam; Jane Meeuwig, Jessica; John Newman, Stephen; Zinke, Jens; Gregory Meekan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fishes have life history strategies that involve ontogenetic changes in the use of coastal habitats. Such ontogenetic shifts may place these species at particular risk from climate change, because the successive environments they inhabit can differ in the type, frequency and severity of changes related to global warming. We used a dendrochronology approach to examine the physical and biological drivers of growth of adult and juvenile mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) from tropical north-western Australia. Juveniles of this species inhabit estuarine environments and adults reside on coastal reefs. The Niño-4 index, a measure of the status of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had the highest correlation with adult growth chronologies, with La Niña years (characterised by warmer temperatures and lower salinities) having positive impacts on growth. Atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena operating at ocean-basin scales seem to be important correlates of the processes driving growth in local coastal habitats. Conversely, terrestrial factors influencing precipitation and river runoff were positively correlated with the growth of juveniles in estuaries. Our results show that the impacts of climate change on these two life history stages are likely to be different, with implications for resilience and management of populations. PMID:26052896

  19. Contrasting environmental drivers of adult and juvenile growth in a marine fish: implications for the effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Ong, Joyce Jia Lin; Rountrey, Adam Nicholas; Meeuwig, Jessica Jane; Newman, Stephen John; Zinke, Jens; Meekan, Mark Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fishes have life history strategies that involve ontogenetic changes in the use of coastal habitats. Such ontogenetic shifts may place these species at particular risk from climate change, because the successive environments they inhabit can differ in the type, frequency and severity of changes related to global warming. We used a dendrochronology approach to examine the physical and biological drivers of growth of adult and juvenile mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) from tropical north-western Australia. Juveniles of this species inhabit estuarine environments and adults reside on coastal reefs. The Niño-4 index, a measure of the status of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had the highest correlation with adult growth chronologies, with La Niña years (characterised by warmer temperatures and lower salinities) having positive impacts on growth. Atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena operating at ocean-basin scales seem to be important correlates of the processes driving growth in local coastal habitats. Conversely, terrestrial factors influencing precipitation and river runoff were positively correlated with the growth of juveniles in estuaries. Our results show that the impacts of climate change on these two life history stages are likely to be different, with implications for resilience and management of populations. PMID:26052896

  20. Sublethal effects of catch-and-release fishing: measuring capture stress, fish impairment, and predation risk using a condition index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Matthew D.; Patino, Reynaldo; Tolan, J.M.; Strauss, R.E.; Diamond, S.

    2009-01-01

    The sublethal effects of simulated capture of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) were analysed using physiological responses, condition indexing, and performance variables. Simulated catch-and-release fishing included combinations of depth of capture and thermocline exposure reflective of environmental conditions experienced in the Gulf of Mexico. Frequency of occurrence of barotrauma and lack of reflex response exhibited considerable individual variation. When combined into a single condition or impairment index, individual variation was reduced, and impairment showed significant increases as depth increased and with the addition of thermocline exposure. Performance variables, such as burst swimming speed (BSS) and simulated predator approach distance (AD), were also significantly different by depth. BSSs and predator ADs decreased with increasing depth, were lowest immediately after release, and were affected for up to 15 min, with longer recovery times required as depth increased. The impairment score developed was positively correlated with cortisol concentration and negatively correlated with both BSS and simulated predator AD. The impairment index proved to be an efficient method to estimate the overall impairment of red snapper in the laboratory simulations of capture and shows promise for use in field conditions, to estimate release mortality and vulnerability to predation.

  1. Determination of toxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific by LC/MS.

    PubMed

    Yogi, Kentaro; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Sugiyama, Kiminori; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most extensive and difficult to control of the seafood poisonings. To facilitate monitoring of fish toxicity, toxin profiles were investigated by an LC/MS/MS method using 14 reference toxins on eight representative species of fish collected in four different areas of the Pacific. Snappers and groupers from Okinawa contained ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B) and two deoxy congeners at variable but species-specific ratios, while red snapper, Lutjanus bohar, from Minamitorishima, and amberjack, Seriola dumerili, from Hawaii, contained both CTX1B-type and CTX3C-type toxins. Spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, from Okinawan waters, contained mainly CTX4A and CTX4B, but the same species caught at Miyazaki was contaminated primarily with the CTX3C-type toxins. Otherwise, the toxin profiles were consistently species-specific in fish collected from various locations around Okinawa over 20 years. The LC/MS/MS and mouse bioassay results agreed well, indicating the LC/MS/MS method is a promising alternative to the mouse bioassay. Pure CTX1B and CTX3C were prepared for use in future LC/MS/MS analysis. PMID:24830151

  2. Detailed LC-MS/MS analysis of ciguatoxins revealing distinct regional and species characteristics in fish and causative alga from the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Yogi, Kentaro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Inafuku, Yasuo; Hirama, Masahiro; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2011-12-01

    Toxin profiles of representative ciguatera species caught at different locations of Japan were investigated in fish flesh by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Identification and quantification of 16 toxins were facilitated by the use of 14 reference toxins prepared by either synthesis or isolation from natural sources and the previous LC-MS data thereof. Sodium adduct ions [M + Na](+) were used as parent and product ions. Distinct regional differences were unveiled: ciguatoxin-1B type toxins were found in snappers and groupers from Okinawa, ciguatoxin-3C type toxins were found in a spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, from Miyazaki located 730 km north of Okinawa, and both types of toxins were found in a red snapper, Lutjanus bohar, from Minamitorishima (Marcus) Island. Twelve toxins were identified in a dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus toxicus, collected as the primary toxin source in French Polynesia. Occurrence of M-seco-toxins in fish and oxidized toxins in the dinoflagellate was confirmed for the first time. The present LC-MS/MS method is rapid, specific, and accurate. It not only outperforms the currently employed mouse bioassays but also enables the study of the toxin dynamics during the food chain transmission. PMID:22010820

  3. High population density enhances recruitment and survival of a harvested coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Wormald, Clare L; Steele, Mark A; Forrester, Graham E

    2013-03-01

    A negative relationship between population growth and population density (direct density dependence) is necessary for population regulation and is assumed in most models of harvested populations. Experimental tests for density dependence are lacking for large-bodied, harvested fish because of the difficulty of manipulating population density over large areas. We studied a harvested coral reef fish, Lutjanus apodus (schoolmaster snapper), using eight large, isolated natural reefs (0.4-1.6 ha) in the Bahamas as replicates. An initial observational test for density dependence was followed by a manipulation of population density. The manipulation weakened an association between density and shelter-providing habitat features and revealed a positive effect of population density on recruitment and survival (inverse density dependence), but no effect of density on somatic growth. The snappers on an individual reef were organized into a few shoals, and we hypothesize that large shoals on high-density reefs were less vulnerable to large piscivores (groupers and barracudas) than the small shoals on low-density reefs. Reductions in predation risk for individuals in large social groups are well documented, but because snapper shoals occupied reefs the size of small marine reserves, these ecological interactions may influence the outcome of management actions. PMID:23634588

  4. Survey of ciguatera at Enewetak and Bikini, Marshall Islands, with notes on the systematics and food habits of ciguatoxic fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, J.E.

    1980-04-01

    A total of 551 specimens of 48 species of potentially ciguatoxic fishes from Enewetak and 256 specimens of 23 species from Bikini, Marshall Islands, were tested for ciguatoxin by feeding liver or liver and viscera from these fishes to mongooses at 10% body weight (except for sharks, when only muscle tissue was used). The fishes are representatives of the following families: Orectolobidae, Carcharhinidae, Dasyatidae, Muraenidae, Holocentridae, Sphyraenidae, Mugilidae, Serranidae, Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae, Carangidae, Scombridae, Labridae, Scaridae, Acanthuridae, and Balistidae. The species selected were all ones for which toxicity can be expected, including the worst offenders from reports of ciguatera throughout Oceania; only moderate to large-sized adults were tested. In all, 37.3% of the fishes from Enewetak and 19.7% from Bikini gave a positive reaction for ciguatoxin. Because liver and other viscera are more toxic than muscle, the percentage of positive reactions at the level which might cause illness in humans eating only the flesh of these fishes collectively would drop to 16.2 for Enewetak and 1.4 for Bikini. This level of toxicity is not regarded as high for Pacific islands, in general. Because ciguatoxin is acquired through feeding, the food habits of these fishes were investigated. Most of the highly toxic species, including seven of the eight causing severe illness or death in the test animals (Lycodontis javanicus, Cephalopholis argus, Epinephelus hoedtii, E. microdon, Plectropomus leopardus, Aprion virescens, and Lutjanus bohar) are primarily piscivorous.

  5. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc contents of fish marketed in NW Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frías-Espericueta, Martín G; Zamora-Sarabia, Francia K G; Osuna-López, J Isidro; Muy-Rangel, María D; Rubio-Carrasco, Werner; Aguilar-Juárez, Marisela; Voltolina, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    To assess if they were within the safety limits for human consumption, the Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents of fish muscles, bought from separate stalls of the fish markets of nine cities of NW Mexico, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Considering all fish and markets, the mean contents were Zn: 23.23 ± 5.83, Cu: 1.72 ± 0.63, Cd: 0.27 ± 0.07, and Pb: 0.09 ± 0.04 µg/g (dry weight). Cu, Zn, and Pb did not reach levels of concern for human consumption, but the high Cd values determined in Mazatlán (Mugil cephalus: 0.48 ± 0.15; Diapterus spp.: 0.57 ± 0.33; Lutjanus spp.: 0.72 ± 0.12; small shark: 0.87 ± 0.19 µg/g dry weight) indicate that this was the only metal of concern for human health because the daily individual consumption of fish muscle to reach the PTDI would be within 0.27 and 0.41 kg. PMID:24526908

  6. Trace metals health risk appraisal in fish species of Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Yasmeen, Kousar; Mirza, Muhammad Aslam; Khan, Namra A; Kausar, Nazish; Rehman, Atta-Ur; Hanif, Muddasir

    2016-01-01

    Fish is a vital food for humans and many animals. We report an environmental monitoring study to assess the trace metals in fish species caught from Arabian Sea and commercially available in the coastal city Karachi, Pakistan. Heavy metals such as copper, iron, lead and cadmium were determined in the skin, fillet and heart of the fish species Pampus argenteus, Epinephelus chlorostigma, Rachycentron canadum, Scomberomorus commerson, Johnius belangerii, Labeo rohita, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Trachinotus blochii, Pomadsys olivaceum and Acanthopagrus berda by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentration (mg kg(-1), dry weight) range was: Cd (0.00-0.041), Cu (0.006-0.189), Fe (0.413-4.952) and Pb (0.00-0.569). Cadmium, copper and iron levels were below the tolerable limits whereas concentration of lead in the skins of S. commerson, E. chlorostigma, J. belangerii, A. berda; L. argentimaculatus, fillets of J. belangerii, E. chlorostigma and in the heart of J. belangerii exceeded the recommended limits. Therefore fish skin should be discouraged as food for humans or animals. The results indicate that a number of fish species have higher concentration of heavy metals dangerous for human health. Since the fish P. olivaceum (Dhotar) has the lowest level of trace metals therefore we recommend it for breeding and human consumption. PMID:27386308

  7. Reef fishes have higher parasite richness at unfished Palmyra Atoll compared to fished Kiritimati Island.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Shaw, Jenny C; Kuris, Armand M

    2008-09-01

    We compared parasite communities at two coral atolls in the Line Islands chain of the central Pacific (Kiritimati Island and Palmyra Atoll). Palmyra Atoll is relatively pristine while Kiritimati Island is heavily fished. At each island, we sampled five fish species for helminth and arthropod endoparasites: Chromis margaritifer, Plectroglyphidodon dickii, Paracirrhites arcatus, Acanthurus nigricans, and Lutjanus bohar. The surveys found monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans, and copepods. Parasite richness was higher at Palmyra compared to Kiritimati for all five fish species. Fishes from Palmyra also tended to have more parasites species per host, higher parasite prevalence, and higher parasite abundance than did fishes from Kiritimati. The lower parasitism at Kiritimati may result from a simplified food web due to over fishing. Low biodiversity could impair parasite transmission by reducing the availability of hosts required by parasites with complex life cycles. Most notably, the lower abundances of larval shark tapeworms at Kiritimati presumably reflect the fact that fishing has greatly depleted sharks there in comparison to Palmyra. PMID:18846315

  8. Length-Based Assessment of Coral Reef Fish Populations in the Main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Nadon, Marc O.; Ault, Jerald S.; Williams, Ivor D.; Smith, Steven G.; DiNardo, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    The coral reef fish community of Hawaii is composed of hundreds of species, supports a multimillion dollar fishing and tourism industry, and is of great cultural importance to the local population. However, a major stock assessment of Hawaiian coral reef fish populations has not yet been conducted. Here we used the robust indicator variable “average length in the exploited phase of the population (L¯)”, estimated from size composition data from commercial fisheries trip reports and fishery-independent diver surveys, to evaluate exploitation rates for 19 Hawaiian reef fishes. By and large, the average lengths obtained from diver surveys agreed well with those from commercial data. We used the estimated exploitation rates coupled with life history parameters synthesized from the literature to parameterize a numerical population model and generate stock sustainability metrics such as spawning potential ratios (SPR). We found good agreement between predicted average lengths in an unfished population (from our population model) and those observed from diver surveys in the largely unexploited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Of 19 exploited reef fish species assessed in the main Hawaiian Islands, 9 had SPRs close to or below the 30% overfishing threshold. In general, longer-lived species such as surgeonfishes, the redlip parrotfish (Scarus rubroviolaceus), and the gray snapper (Aprion virescens) had the lowest SPRs, while short-lived species such as goatfishes and jacks, as well as two invasive species (Lutjanus kasmira and Cephalopholis argus), had SPRs above the 30% threshold. PMID:26267473

  9. Fishing top predators indirectly affects condition and reproduction in a reef-fish community.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S M; Hamilton, S L; Ruttenberg, B I; Donovan, M K; Sandin, S A

    2012-03-01

    To examine the indirect effects of fishing on energy allocation in non-target prey species, condition and reproductive potential were measured for five representative species (two-spot red snapper Lutjanus bohar, arc-eye hawkfish Paracirrhites arcatus, blackbar devil Plectroglyphidodon dickii, bicolour chromis Chromis margaritifer and whitecheek surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans) from three reef-fish communities with different levels of fishing and predator abundance in the northern Line Islands, central Pacific Ocean. Predator abundance differed by five to seven-fold among islands, and despite no clear differences in prey abundance, differences in prey condition and reproductive potential among islands were found. Body condition (mean body mass adjusted for length) was consistently lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the four prey species. Mean liver mass (adjusted for total body mass), an indicator of energy reserves, was also lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the prey species and the predator. Trends in reproductive potential were less clear. Mean gonad mass (adjusted for total body mass) was high where predator abundance was high for only one of the three species in which it was measured. Evidence of consistently low prey body condition and energy reserves in a diverse suite of species at reefs with high predator abundance suggests that fishing may indirectly affect non-target prey-fish populations through changes in predation and predation risk. PMID:22380551

  10. Extent of Mangrove Nursery Habitats Determines the Geographic Distribution of a Coral Reef Fish in a South-Pacific Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Paillon, Christelle; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Labonne, Maylis; Vigliola, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC) and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year). The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r = 0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass). These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. PMID:25140697

  11. 'Cebiche'--a potential source of human anisakiasis in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Laffon-Leal, S M; Vidal-Martínez, V M; Arjona-Torres, G

    2000-06-01

    Five fish species used for preparation of a popular dish (cebiche) made with raw fish flesh in Mexico were obtained from five localities of the coast of Yucatan. Lutjanus synagris, Gerres cinereus, Sphyraena barracuda, Epinephelus morio and Haemulon plumieriwere examined for the presence of larvae of anisakid nematodes, causative agents of human anisakiasis. The nematode Pseudoterranova sp. was found in E. morio and S. barracuda with a total prevalence of 83% and 6.5 +/- 6.2 worms per fish for E. morio, and a prevalence of 33% and 10.2 +/- 30.0 worms per fish for S. barracuda. Contracaecumsp. was found to infect G. cinereus with a prevalence of 57% and 7.6 +/- 11.4 worms per fish. The relatively high prevalence of Pseudoterranova sp. indicates that this parasite is a potential causal agent of anisakiasis on the coast of Yucatan. Although all larvae were found only in the mesentery of the fish host, their importance as a potential source of human infection cannot be excluded as larval migration to the muscles in dead fish is possible. PMID:10881286

  12. Photosynthetic capacity and dry mass partitioning in dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. L.; Bugbee, B. G.

    1998-01-01

    Efficient use of space and high yields are critical for long-term food production aboard the International Space Station. The selection of a full dwarf wheat (less than 30 cm tall) with high photosynthetic and yield potential is a necessary prerequisite for growing wheat in the controlled, volume-limited environments available aboard long-term spaceflight missions. This study evaluated the photosynthetic capacity and carbon partitioning of a full-dwarf wheat cultivar, Super Dwarf, which is routinely used in spaceflight studies aboard U.S. space shuttle and NASA/Mir missions and made comparisons with other dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat cultivars utilized in other ground-based studies in plant space biology. Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf in two dwarf (Super Dwarf, BB-19), and three semi-dwarf (Veery-10, Yecora Rojo, IBWSN 199) wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) was assessed by measuring: net maximum photosynthetic rate, RuBP carboxylation efficiency, chlorophyll concentration and flag leaf area. Dry mass partitioning of carbohydrates to the leaves, sheaths, stems and ear was also assessed. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions in three replicate studies: slightly enriched CO2 (370 micromoles mol-1), high photosynthetic photon flux (1000 micromoles m-2 s-1; 58 mol m-2 d-1) for a 16 h photoperiod, 22/15 degrees C day/night temperatures, ample nutrients and water provided by one-half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution (Hoagland and Arnon, 1950). Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf was determined at anthesis using net CO2 exchange rate versus internal CO2 concentration curves measured under saturating light (2000 micromoles m-2 s-1) and CO2 (1000 micromoles mol-1). Dwarf wheat cultivars had greater photosynthetic capacities than the taller semi-dwarfs, they averaged 20% higher maximum net photosynthetic rates compared to the taller semi-dwarfs, but these higher rates occurred only at anthesis, had slightly greater carboxylation

  13. An invasive fish and the time-lagged spread of its parasite across the Hawaiian archipelago.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Michelle R; Aeby, Greta; Vignon, Matthias; Meguro, Yu-ichiro; Rigby, Mark; Runyon, Christina; Toonen, Robert J; Wood, Chelsea L; Bowen, Brian W

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to limit the impact of invasive species are frustrated by the cryptogenic status of a large proportion of those species. Half a century ago, the state of Hawai'i introduced the Bluestripe Snapper, Lutjanus kasmira, to O'ahu for fisheries enhancement. Today, this species shares an intestinal nematode parasite, Spirocamallanus istiblenni, with native Hawaiian fishes, raising the possibility that the introduced fish carried a parasite that has since spread to naïve local hosts. Here, we employ a multidisciplinary approach, combining molecular, historical, and ecological data to confirm the alien status of S. istiblenni in Hawai'i. Using molecular sequence data we show that S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are genetically affiliated with source populations in French Polynesia, and not parasites at a geographically intermediate location in the Line Islands. S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are a genetic subset of the more diverse source populations, indicating a bottleneck at introduction. Ecological surveys indicate that the parasite has found suitable intermediate hosts in Hawai'i, which are required for the completion of its life cycle, and that the parasite is twice as prevalent in Hawaiian Bluestripe Snappers as in source populations. While the introduced snapper has spread across the entire 2600 km archipelago to Kure Atoll, the introduced parasite has spread only half that distance. However, the parasite faces no apparent impediments to invading the entire archipelago, with unknown implications for naïve indigenous Hawaiian fishes and the protected Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. PMID:23468894

  14. The Evolutionary Dynamics of Ribosomal Genes, Histone H3, and Transposable Rex Elements in the Genome of Atlantic Snappers.

    PubMed

    Costa, Gideão Wagner Werneck Félix da; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2016-03-01

    Lutjanidae is a family of primarily marine and carnivorous fishes distributed in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans, with enormous economic and ecological importance. In order to better clarify the conservative chromosomal evolution of Lutjanidae, we analyzed the evolutionary dynamics of 5 repetitive DNA classes in 5 Lutjanus and in 1 Ocyurus species from the Western Atlantic. The ribosomal 18S sites were generally located in a single chromosome pair, except for L. jocu and L. alexandrei where they are found in 2 pairs. In turn, the 5S rDNA sites are unique, terminal and nonsyntenic with the 18S rDNA sites. In 3 species analyzed, H3 hisDNA genes were found in 1 chromosomal pair. However, while L. jocu presented 2 H3 sites, O. chrysurus showed a noteworthy dispersion of this gene in almost all chromosomes of the karyotype. Retrotransposons Rex1 and Rex3 do not exhibit any association with the explosive distribution of H3 sequences in O. chrysurus. The low compartmentalization of Rex elements, in addition to the general nondynamic distribution of ribosomal and H3 genes, corroborate the karyotype conservatism in Lutjanidae species, also at the microstructural level. However, some "disturbing evolutionary waves" can break down this conservative scenario, as evidenced by the massive random dispersion of H3 hisDNA in the genome of O. chrysurus. The implication of the genomic expansion of H3 histone genes and their functionality remain unknown, although suggesting that they have higher evolutionary dynamics than previously thought. PMID:26792596

  15. Modeling coral reef fish home range movements in Dry Tortugas, Florida.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Nicholas A; Ault, Jerald S

    2014-01-01

    Underestimation of reef fish space use may result in marine reserves that are too small to effectively buffer a portion of the stock from fishing mortality. Commonly used statistical home range models, such as minimum convex polygon (MCP) or 95% kernel density (95% KD) methods, require the exclusion of individuals who move beyond the bounds of the tracking study. Spatially explicit individual-based models of fish home range movements parameterized from multiple years of acoustic tracking data were developed for three exploited coral reef fishes (red grouper Epinephelus morio, black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci, and mutton snapper Lutjanus analis) in Dry Tortugas, Florida. Movements were characterized as a combination of probability of movement, distance moved, and turning angle. Simulations suggested that the limited temporal and geographic scope of most movement studies may underestimate home range size, especially for fish with home range centers near the edges of the array. Simulations provided useful upper bounds for home range size (red grouper: 2.28±0.81 km2 MCP, 3.60±0.89 km2 KD; black grouper: 2.06±0.84 km2 MCP, 3.93±1.22 km2 KD; mutton snapper: 7.72±2.23 km2 MCP, 6.16±1.11 km2 KD). Simulations also suggested that MCP home ranges are more robust to artifacts of passive array acoustic detection patterns than 95% KD methods. PMID:24558320

  16. The Mangrove Nursery Paradigm Revisited: Otolith Stable Isotopes Support Nursery-to-Reef Movements by Indo-Pacific Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Kimirei, Ismael A.; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Mgaya, Yunus D.; Huijbers, Chantal M.

    2013-01-01

    Mangroves and seagrass beds have long been perceived as important nurseries for many fish species. While there is growing evidence from the Western Atlantic that mangrove habitats are intricately connected to coral reefs through ontogenetic fish migrations, there is an ongoing debate of the value of these coastal ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific. The present study used natural tags, viz. otolith stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, to investigate for the first time the degree to which multiple tropical juvenile habitats subsidize coral reef fish populations in the Indo Pacific (Tanzania). Otoliths of three reef fish species (Lethrinus harak, L. lentjan and Lutjanus fulviflamma) were collected in mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats and analyzed for stable isotope ratios in the juvenile and adult otolith zones. δ13C signatures were significantly depleted in the juvenile compared to the adult zones, indicative of different habitat use through ontogeny. Maximum likelihood analysis identified that 82% of adult reef L. harak had resided in either mangrove (29%) or seagrass (53%) or reef (18%) habitats as juveniles. Of adult L. fulviflamma caught from offshore reefs, 99% had passed through mangroves habitats as juveniles. In contrast, L. lentjan adults originated predominantly from coral reefs (65–72%) as opposed to inshore vegetated habitats (28–35%). This study presents conclusive evidence for a nursery role of Indo-Pacific mangrove habitats for reef fish populations. It shows that intertidal habitats that are only temporarily available can form an important juvenile habitat for some species, and that reef fish populations are often replenished by multiple coastal habitats. Maintaining connectivity between inshore vegetated habitats and coral reefs, and conserving habitat mosaics rather than single nursery habitats, is a major priority for the sustainability of various Indo Pacific fish populations. PMID:23776658

  17. Responses of algae, corals and fish to the reduction of macroalgae in fished and unfished patch reefs of Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClanahan, T.; McField, M.; Huitric, M.; Bergman, K.; Sala, E.; Nyström, M.; Nordemar, I.; Elfwing, T.; Muthiga, N.

    2001-05-01

    Macroalgae were experimentally reduced by approximately 2.5 kg/m2 on eight similar-sized patch reefs of Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize, in September 1998. Four of these reefs were in a protected "no-take" zone and four were in a "general use" fishing zone. Eight adjacent reefs (four in each management zone) were also studied as unmanipulated controls to determine the interactive effect of algal reduction and fisheries management on algae, coral, fish, and rates of herbivory. The 16 reefs were sampled five times for 1 year after the manipulation. We found that the no-fishing zone had greater population densities for 13 of 30 species of fish, including four herbivorous species, but lower herbivory levels by sea urchins. However, there was lower stony coral cover and higher macroalgal cover in the "no-take" zone, both prior to and after the experiment. There were no significant effects of management on the percent cover of fleshy macroalgae. The algal reduction resulted in an increase in six fish species, including four herbivores and two which feed on invertebrates. One species, Lutjanus griseus, declined in experimental reefs. Macroalgal biomass quickly recovered from the reduction in both management areas within a few months, and by species-level community measures within 1 year, while stony coral was reduced in all treatments. Coral bleaching and Hurricane Mitch disturbed the site at the beginning of the study period and may explain the loss of stony coral and rapid increase in erect algae. We suggest that reducing macroalgae, as a technique to restore turf and encrusting coralline algae and stony corals, may work best after reefs have been fully protected from fishing for a period long enough to allow herbivorous fish to recover (i.e. >5 years). Further ecological studies on Glovers Reef are required to understand the shift from coral to algal dominance that has occurred on this reef in the last 25 years.

  18. The fish species composition and variation of catch from the small-scale gillnet fishery before, during and after the 1997-1998 ENSO event, central Mexican Pacific.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Vázquez, J A; Quiñonez-Velázquez, C; Echavarria-Heras, H A; Lucano-Ramirez, G; Godínez-Domínguez, E; Ruiz-Ramírez, S; Galván-Piña, V H; Sosa-Nishizaki, O

    2008-03-01

    In the tropical and subtropical coastal zone, were highly diverse fish communities occur, it is important to study the small scale fisheries exploiting these communities. For this study, 219 fishing days were carried out in Bahia de Navidad, Jalisco, Mexico. Four gillnets with different mesh sizes (76.2, 88.9, 101.6 and 114.3 mm) were used for the fishing operations, from April 1994 to March 1995 and from January 1998 to December 2000. A total of 26126 organisms weighting 11680 kg were caught. One hundred and eighty three species belonging to 57 families and 19 orders were identified. Ten species accumulated more than 60% of the total abundance and biomass, the remaining species (173) individually contributed with less than 2% of the total abundance and biomass. The most important species in the catch were Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caballus, Haemulon flaviguttatum, Scomberomorus sierra, C. caninus, C. sexfjasciatus, Lutjanus guttatus and L. argentiventris. The catch per unit of effort showed a large variation during the study, both in number and biomass. On average, 110 fishes and 48.5 kg fishing day(-1) were caught. The maximum values were recorded during January and October 1998 (250 fishes and 100 kg fishing day(-1)), and the minimum values were recorded during September and November 1994 (25 org. and 10 kg fishing day(-1)). The total abundance and biomass was lower during the 1994-95 period (F=6.16, 8.32, P<0.05). There were statistically significant differences among the annual catch from each gillnet. All the environmental changes caused by the ENSO event had ecological and economic effects that can be rated from moderate to severe. PMID:18624232

  19. Vibrio alfacsensis sp. nov., isolated from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Roque, Ana; Chimetto, Luciane; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Lang, Elke; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2012-12-01

    Five strains (CAIM 1831(T), CAIM 1832, CAIM 1833, CAIM 1834 and CAIM 1836) were isolated from cultured sole (Solea senegalensis) in two regions of Spain, two strains (CAIM 404 and CAIM 1294) from wild-caught spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) in Mexico, and one strain (CAIM 1835) from corals in Brazil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the novel isolates showed similarity to Vibrio ponticus (98.2-98.3%, GenBank accession no. AJ630103) and to a lesser degree to Vibrio furnissii (97.2-97.3%, X76336) and to Vibrio fluvialis (96.9-97.1%, X74703). Multilocus sequence analysis clustered these strains closely together and clearly separated them from phylogenetically related species of the genus Vibrio. Genomic fingerprinting by rep-PCR clustered the novel strains according to their geographical origin. Phenotypic analyses showed a large variation among the new strains, but many tests enabled them to be differentiated from other species of the genus Vibrio. The mean ΔT(m) values between the strains analysed here and closely related type strains were above 6.79 °C. The values between the novel isolates were below 2.35 °C, well outside the limit suggested for the delineation of a bacterial species. The phenotypic and genotypic data presented here clearly place these new strains as a coherent group within the genus Vibrio, for which we propose the name Vibrio alfacsensis sp. nov. with CAIM 1831(T) ( = DSM 24595(T) = S277(T)) as the type strain. PMID:22286904

  20. Analysis of biogenic carbonates by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Flow injection on-line solid-phase preconcentration for trace element determination in fish otoliths.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Z; Paulson, A J

    2002-04-01

    The aragonite deposits within the ear bones (otoliths) of teleost fish retain a chemical signal reflecting the life history of fish (similar to rings of trees) and the nature of fish habitats. Otoliths dissolved in acid solutions contain high concentrations of calcium and a variety of proteins. Elimination of matrix salts and organic interferences during preconcentration is essential for accurate determination of trace elements in otolith solutions by inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry. An iminodiacetate-based chelating resin (Toyopearl AF-Chelate 650 M) has been used for on-line preconcentration and matrix separation for the determination of 31 transition and rare elements. Successful preconcentration of the elements was achieved at pH 5 by on-line buffering, except Mn which required pH 8.8. Sample solutions were loaded on to the column for 1 min at 3.2 mL min(-1), and then eluted directly into the mass spectrometer with 4% v/v nitric acid. This procedure enabled up to 25-fold preconcentration with successful removal of the calcium matrix. The effect of heat-assisted oxidation with concentrated nitric acid was investigated to eliminate the organic matrix. It was found that heating to dryness after dissolution and further mineralization with the acid significantly improved the retention of the transition elements. The method was validated by analysis of a certified reference material produced from saggittal otoliths of emperor snapper ( Lutjanus sebae), and then applied to the determination of trace metal concentrations in juvenile bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus) from the Western Pacific Ocean. PMID:12012188

  1. Distribution of fish in seagrass, mangroves and coral reefs: life-stage dependent habitat use in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Jaxion-Harm, Jessica; Saunders, James; Speight, Martin R

    2012-06-01

    Many coral reef fish exhibit habitat partitioning throughout their lifetimes. Such patterns are evident in the Caribbean where research has been predominantly conducted in the Eastern region. This work addressed the paucity of data regarding Honduran reef fish distribution in three habitat types (seagrass, mangroves, and coral reefs), by surveying fish on the islands of Utila and Cayos Cochinos off the coast of Honduras (part of the Mesoamerican barrier reef). During July 2nd - Aug 27th 2007 and June 22nd - Aug 17th, 2008, visual surveys (SCUBA and snorkel) were performed in belt transects in different areas: eleven coral reef, six seagrass beds, and six mangroves sites. Juvenile densities and total habitat surface area were used to calculate nursery value of seagrass and mangroves. A total of 113 fish species from 32 families were found during underwater surveys. Multi-dimensional analyses revealed distinct clusters of fish communities in each habitat type by separating fish associated with seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs. Coral reefs showed the highest mean fish species richness and were dominated by adult fish, while juvenile fish characterized seagrass beds and mangrove sites. Habitat use differed widely at the fish species level. Scarus iseri (Striped Parrotfish), the most abundant fish in this study, were found in all three habitat types, while Lutjanus apodus (Schoolmaster Snapper) juveniles were located primarily in mangroves before migrating to coral reefs. Many species used seagrass beds and mangroves as nurseries; however, the nursery value could not be generalized at the family level. Furthermore, for some fish species, nursery value varied between islands and sites. Our results suggest that connectivity of seagrass, mangrove, and coral reef sites at a species and site levels, should be taken into consideration when implementing policy and conservation practices. PMID:23894938

  2. Kudoa hypoepicardialis n. sp. (Myxozoa: Kudoidae) and associated lesions from the heart of seven perciform fishes in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A; Whipps, Christopher M

    2004-06-01

    Kudoa hypoepicardialis n. sp. infects the space between the epicardium and the compact myocardium and, in intense infections, the pericardial chamber of man-of-war fish (Nomeus gronovii) (Nomeidae) (the type host), blue runner (Caranx crysos) (Carangidae), Warsaw grouper (Epinephelus nigritus) (Serranidae), Atlantic tripletail (Lobotes surinamensis) (Lobotidae), northern red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) (Lutjanidae), black drum (Pogonias cromis) (Sciaenidae), and bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) (Pomatomidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. This is the first report of a Kudoa sp. from the heart of a fish in the Gulf of Mexico, and of these hosts, only the bluefish was previously identified as a host for a species of Kudoa. Spores of the new species varied slightly in size among these hosts but were regarded as conspecific based on their nearly identical (99.9%) small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence. The new species differs both from the 4 nominal species of Kudoa reported from fishes in the Gulf of Mexico and from K. pericardialis, an allopatric species that infects the pericardial cavity, by the combination of having a large spore, a small polar capsule, and a polar filament with a single coil. The new species is morphologically and genetically most similar to K. shiomitsui, an allopatric species that infects the heart and pericardial cavity, but is distinguished from it based on a 4.2% difference in the SSU rDNA sequence. Heart lesions primarily were restricted to the vicinity of plasmodia and included a layer of fibrinous inflammation characterized by lymphocytes, macrophages, and granulomas as well as epithelioid encapsulations around plasmodia. Heavily infected hosts had melanin-like deposits and adipose cells beneath the epicardium. and the epicardium was discontinuous and apparently breached by plasmodia in some regions. Cardiac muscle, gill, liver, spleen, intestine, and kidney were normal. PMID:15270103

  3. The role of Thalassoma lunare as a predator of juvenile fish on a sub-tropical coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, T. H.; Wilson, S. K.; Vanderklift, M.; Babcock, R.; Fraser, M.

    2012-12-01

    The process of predation causes significant mortality in coral reef fishes immediately following settlement. However, much of what we know of predator identity is based on a small number of detailed studies. This study aims to identify the key predator of early juvenile coral reef fishes on Ningaloo Reef, North-Western Australia. Video cameras were used to observe patch reefs stocked with newly settled reef fish in the back-reef area between 12:00 and 20:30 h. The cameras were fitted with >610 nm light sources to allow observation in low light conditions. All strikes (attempted and successful) on newly settled fish were recorded, along with the time spent in the vicinity of experimental patch reefs with or without juvenile fish. A total of 69 strikes were observed over the 199 h of recorded video footage, with the majority of strikes occurring mid-afternoon between 13:00 and 15:30 h. Only one strike was observed during the twilight period, an hour either side of sunset (~18:45 h), and no strikes were observed after this period. The moonwrasse, Thalassoma lunare, was responsible for the majority of strikes (75.4 %), with the sandperch ( Parapercis clatharatha—10.1 %), spanish flag ( Lutjanus carponotatus—5.8 %) and ring wrasse ( Hologymnosus annulatus—2.9 %) the next highest contributors. T. lunare also spent significantly more time in the vicinity of reefs stocked with newly settled fish, than those without, during daylight hours. The results of the study are in contrast to the common perception that predation on newly settled fish is focused largely around crepuscular periods and suggests that diurnally active species, in particular T. lunare, are important predators of juvenile fish on the Ningaloo back-reef. The study also implies that generalist species can fulfil key functional roles and that the nature of these roles is not always apparent.

  4. Modulation of telomerase activity in fish muscle by biological and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Drew Ryan; Mok, Helen Oi Lam; Au, Doris Wai Ting

    2015-12-01

    Telomerase expression has long been linked to promotion of tumor growth and cell proliferation in mammals. Interestingly, telomerase activity (TA) has been detected in skeletal muscle for a variety of fish species. Despite this being a unique feature in fish, very few studies have investigated the potential role of TA in muscle. The present study was set to prove the concepts that muscle telomerase in fish is related to body growth, and more specifically, to muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis in vivo. Moreover, muscle TA can be influenced by biotic factors and modulated by environmental stress. Using three fish species, mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus), orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), and marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma), the present work reports for the first time that fish muscle TA was sensitive to the environmental stresses of starvation, foodborne exposure to benzo[a]pyrene, and hypoxia. In marine medaka, muscle TA was coupled with fish growth during early life stages. Upon sexual maturation, muscle TA was confounded by sex (female>male). Muscle TA was significantly correlated with telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein expression (Pearson correlation r=0.892; p≤0.05), which was coupled with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) cell proliferation, but not associated with apoptosis (omBax/omBcl2 ratio) in muscle tissue. The results reported here have bridged the knowledge gap between the existence and function of telomerase in fish muscle. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of muscle TA in fish warrant further exploration for comparison with telomerase regulation in mammals. PMID:26400776

  5. ET743: Chemical analysis of the sea squirt Ecteinascidia turbinata ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Manning, Thomas; Rhodes, Emily; Loftis, Richard; Phillips, Dennis; Demaria, Don; Newman, David; Rudloe, Jack

    2006-05-10

    The sea squirt Ecteinascidia turbinata produces the powerful drug ET743. In this study Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS) are systematically used to measure elemental and molecular species in a Florida Keys mangrove ecosystem that contains the sea squirt. ICP-AES is used to measure the concentration of 27 elements down to the parts per billion level in 16 organisms and 3 sediment samples that reside in the mangrove ecosystem including turtle grass, blue crabs, fire sponge, and lettuce slugs. MALDI-MS is used to search for ET743 in these same organisms and sediment samples. A mass spectral feature corresponding to ET743 is identified in the extract of the sea squirt, red mangrove root (Rhizophera mangle), the schoolmaster snapper (Lutjanus griseus), and a sediment sample taken from the ecosystem. We use MALDI-MS to study the impact that various environmental conditions, such as UV light, I(2), cation binding (Fe(+3), Zn(+2), Pb(+2), Cu(+2)), metal oxide nanoparticles (FeO, CuO, TiO(2), ZnO, Al(2)O(3)), a common mineral (CaCO(3)), and extremes in acidity (0.1 M HCl, 0.1 M NaOH) have on the ET743 structure. The data provide potential structures (degradation products, metal-ligand complexes, etc.) that might be present in organism or sedimentary extracts that are similar to ET743. We are studying the marine geochemistry of this ecosystem so a broth can be developed and tested for producing this marine natural product. PMID:16644544

  6. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sheila M. W.; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or “plate-sized” fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen’s revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (−3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen’s revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations. PMID:23865225

  7. New tissue-dwelling species of Philometra Costa, 1845 and Philometroides Yamaguti, 1935 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2016-09-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new species of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from females collected in marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia: Philometra gracilis n. sp. and Philometroides branchiarum n. sp. from tissues behind the gills and gill arches, respectively, of the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) (Lutjanidae), and Philometroides stomachicus n. sp. from the stomach wall of the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Lacépède) (Sciaenidae). Philometra gracilis differs from other congeners described from the Lutjanidae mainly in the presence of large caudal projections, short gravid females (28-42 mm long), the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly far anterior to the level of the nerve-ring, the site in the host and its geographical distribution. Philometroides branchiarum is mainly characterised by the possession of conspicuous, sclerotised oesophageal teeth and very short gravid females (6-8 mm long), whereas P. stomachicus can be differentiated by the body length of gravid females (85-90 mm), the length of the oesophagus (2.67 mm) representing 3% of the body length, the maximum width/body length ratio of gravid females (1:28-32), cuticular bosses densely distributed throughout the body but absent from the oesophageal region, the absence of oesophageal teeth and caudal projections, and the site in the host. The presence of P. gracilis and P. branchiarum in L. johnii and that of P. stomachicus in P. diacanthus confirm the possibility of the coexistence of more philometrid species in different sites within sympatric specimens of one and the same definitive host. PMID:27522363

  8. An Invasive Fish and the Time-Lagged Spread of Its Parasite across the Hawaiian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Michelle R.; Aeby, Greta; Vignon, Matthias; Meguro, Yu-ichiro; Rigby, Mark; Runyon, Christina; Toonen, Robert J.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to limit the impact of invasive species are frustrated by the cryptogenic status of a large proportion of those species. Half a century ago, the state of Hawai'i introduced the Bluestripe Snapper, Lutjanus kasmira, to O'ahu for fisheries enhancement. Today, this species shares an intestinal nematode parasite, Spirocamallanus istiblenni, with native Hawaiian fishes, raising the possibility that the introduced fish carried a parasite that has since spread to naïve local hosts. Here, we employ a multidisciplinary approach, combining molecular, historical, and ecological data to confirm the alien status of S. istiblenni in Hawai'i. Using molecular sequence data we show that S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are genetically affiliated with source populations in French Polynesia, and not parasites at a geographically intermediate location in the Line Islands. S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are a genetic subset of the more diverse source populations, indicating a bottleneck at introduction. Ecological surveys indicate that the parasite has found suitable intermediate hosts in Hawai'i, which are required for the completion of its life cycle, and that the parasite is twice as prevalent in Hawaiian Bluestripe Snappers as in source populations. While the introduced snapper has spread across the entire 2600 km archipelago to Kure Atoll, the introduced parasite has spread only half that distance. However, the parasite faces no apparent impediments to invading the entire archipelago, with unknown implications for naïve indigenous Hawaiian fishes and the protected Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. PMID:23468894

  9. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers’ Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mill, Aileen C.; Rushton, Stephen P.; Stead, Selina M.

    2016-01-01

    In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers’ recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay). We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE) based on fishers’ reports of typical good days’ catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum), humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), African pompano (Alectis ciliaris), giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers’ knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large, yet

  10. The paraty artisanal fishery (southeastern Brazilian coast): ethnoecology and management of a social-ecological system (SES)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to give recommendations to the management of Paraty fishery in Brazil through an interplay of local and scientific knowledge. In particular, the objectives are the following: 1) to describe the Paraty fishery; 2) to compare the fishermen’s local ecological knowledge with recorded fish landings and previous studies in Paraty; 3) to combine the data on local fishing and on local/Caiçara livelihoods with the SES (social-ecological systems) Model. The methods include a systematic survey of fishing in Tarituba and Praia Grande, which are located in the northern end and the central part of the Paraty municipality, respectively. For four days each month, systematic data on catches at landing points were collected, as well as macroscopic gonad analysis data for the fishes Centropomus parallelus and C. undecimalis (snook, robalo), Epinephelus marginatus (grouper, garoupa), Scomberomorus cavalla (King mackerel, cavala), and Lutjanus synagris (Lane snapper, vermelho). Spring and summer are important seasons during which some species reproduce, and the integration of fishing periods for some target species could assist in fishing management through the use of closed seasons. Fishermen could obtain complementary earnings from tourism and from the “defeso system” (closed season including a salary payment) to conserve fishing stocks. The SES model facilitates an understanding of the historical context of fishing, its economic importance for local livelihoods, the constraints from conservation measures that affect fishermen, and the management processes that already exist, such as the defeso. If used to integrate fishing with complementary activities (tourism), such a system could improve the responsibility of fishermen regarding the conservation of fish stocks. PMID:22738073

  11. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb. PMID:25070289

  12. Modeling Coral Reef Fish Home Range Movements in Dry Tortugas, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Nicholas A.; Ault, Jerald S.

    2014-01-01

    Underestimation of reef fish space use may result in marine reserves that are too small to effectively buffer a portion of the stock from fishing mortality. Commonly used statistical home range models, such as minimum convex polygon (MCP) or 95% kernel density (95% KD) methods, require the exclusion of individuals who move beyond the bounds of the tracking study. Spatially explicit individual-based models of fish home range movements parameterized from multiple years of acoustic tracking data were developed for three exploited coral reef fishes (red grouper Epinephelus morio, black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci, and mutton snapper Lutjanus analis) in Dry Tortugas, Florida. Movements were characterized as a combination of probability of movement, distance moved, and turning angle. Simulations suggested that the limited temporal and geographic scope of most movement studies may underestimate home range size, especially for fish with home range centers near the edges of the array. Simulations provided useful upper bounds for home range size (red grouper: 2.28 ± 0.81 km2 MCP, 3.60 ± 0.89 km2 KD; black grouper: 2.06 ± 0.84 km2 MCP, 3.93 ± 1.22 km2 KD; mutton snapper: 7.72 ± 2.23 km2 MCP, 6.16 ± 1.11 km2 KD). Simulations also suggested that MCP home ranges are more robust to artifacts of passive array acoustic detection patterns than 95% KD methods. PMID:24558320

  13. The Paraty artisanal fishery (southeastern Brazilian coast): ethnoecology and management of a social-ecological system (SES).

    PubMed

    Begossi, Alpina; Salyvonchyk, Svetlana; Nora, Vinicius; Lopes, Priscila F; Silvano, Renato A M

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to give recommendations to the management of Paraty fishery in Brazil through an interplay of local and scientific knowledge. In particular, the objectives are the following: 1) to describe the Paraty fishery; 2) to compare the fishermen's local ecological knowledge with recorded fish landings and previous studies in Paraty; 3) to combine the data on local fishing and on local/Caiçara livelihoods with the SES (social-ecological systems) Model. The methods include a systematic survey of fishing in Tarituba and Praia Grande, which are located in the northern end and the central part of the Paraty municipality, respectively. For four days each month, systematic data on catches at landing points were collected, as well as macroscopic gonad analysis data for the fishes Centropomus parallelus and C. undecimalis (snook, robalo), Epinephelus marginatus (grouper, garoupa), Scomberomorus cavalla (King mackerel, cavala), and Lutjanus synagris (Lane snapper, vermelho). Spring and summer are important seasons during which some species reproduce, and the integration of fishing periods for some target species could assist in fishing management through the use of closed seasons. Fishermen could obtain complementary earnings from tourism and from the "defeso system" (closed season including a salary payment) to conserve fishing stocks. The SES model facilitates an understanding of the historical context of fishing, its economic importance for local livelihoods, the constraints from conservation measures that affect fishermen, and the management processes that already exist, such as the defeso. If used to integrate fishing with complementary activities (tourism), such a system could improve the responsibility of fishermen regarding the conservation of fish stocks. PMID:22738073

  14. Seascape-scale trophic links for fish on inshore coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jean P.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Fry, Brian; Olds, Andrew D.; Connolly, Rod M.

    2014-12-01

    It is increasingly accepted that coastal habitats such as inshore coral reefs do not function in isolation but rather as part of a larger habitat network. In the Caribbean, trophic subsidies from habitats adjacent to coral reefs support the diet of reef fishes, but it is not known whether similar trophic links occur on reefs in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we test whether reef fishes in inshore coral, mangrove, and seagrass habitats are supported by trophic links. We used carbon stable isotopes and mathematical mixing models to determine the minimum proportion of resources from mangrove or seagrass habitats in the diet of five fish species from coral reefs at varying distances (0-2,200 m) from these habitats in Moreton Bay, Queensland, eastern Australia. Of the fish species that are more abundant on reefs near to mangroves, Lutjanus russelli and Acanthopagrus australis showed no minimum use of diet sources from mangrove habitat. Siganus fuscescens utilized a minimum of 25-44 % mangrove sources and this contribution increased with the proximity of reefs to mangroves ( R 2 = 0.91). Seagrass or reef flat sources contributed a minimum of 14-78 % to the diet of Diagramma labiosum, a species found in higher abundance on reefs near seagrass beds, but variation in diet among reefs was unrelated to seascape structure. Seagrass or reef flat sources also contributed a minimum of 8-55 % to a fish species found only on reefs ( Pseudolabrus guentheri), indicating that detrital subsidies from these habitats may subsidize fish diet on reefs. These results suggest that carbon sources from multiple habitats contribute to the functioning of inshore coral reef ecosystems and that trophic connectivity between reefs and mangroves may enhance production of a functionally important herbivore.

  15. Evidence for climate-driven synchrony of marine and terrestrial ecosystems in northwest Australia.

    PubMed

    Ong, Joyce J L; Rountrey, Adam N; Zinke, Jens; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Grierson, Pauline F; O'Donnell, Alison J; Newman, Stephen J; Lough, Janice M; Trougan, Mélissa; Meekan, Mark G

    2016-08-01

    The effects of climate change are difficult to predict for many marine species because little is known of their response to climate variations in the past. However, long-term chronologies of growth, a variable that integrates multiple physical and biological factors, are now available for several marine taxa. These allow us to search for climate-driven synchrony in growth across multiple taxa and ecosystems, identifying the key processes driving biological responses at very large spatial scales. We hypothesized that in northwest (NW) Australia, a region that is predicted to be strongly influenced by climate change, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon would be an important factor influencing the growth patterns of organisms in both marine and terrestrial environments. To test this idea, we analyzed existing growth chronologies of the marine fish Lutjanus argentimaculatus, the coral Porites spp. and the tree Callitris columellaris and developed a new chronology for another marine fish, Lethrinus nebulosus. Principal components analysis and linear model selection showed evidence of ENSO-driven synchrony in growth among all four taxa at interannual time scales, the first such result for the Southern Hemisphere. Rainfall, sea surface temperatures, and sea surface salinities, which are linked to the ENSO system, influenced the annual growth of fishes, trees, and corals. All four taxa had negative relationships with the Niño-4 index (a measure of ENSO status), with positive growth patterns occurring during strong La Niña years. This finding implies that future changes in the strength and frequency of ENSO events are likely to have major consequences for both marine and terrestrial taxa. Strong similarities in the growth patterns of fish and trees offer the possibility of using tree-ring chronologies, which span longer time periods than those of fish, to aid understanding of both historical and future responses of fish populations to climate variation

  16. Evaluation of ToxA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus lysate on humoral immune response and immune-related genes in Pacific red snapper.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Maldonado-García, Minerva; Guluarte, Crystal; León-Gallo, Amalia; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Ascencio, Felipe; Hirono, Ikuo; Angulo, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Immunogenicity of ToxA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus lysate was evaluated in a double immunostimulation scheme in Pacific red snapper after V. parahaemolyticus infection. Three groups of Pacific red snapper were intraperitonealy (i.p.) injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group), ToxA of V. parahaemolyticus (ToxA-Vp group) or V. parahaemolyticus lysate (lysate-Vp group) (first injection, day 1; second injection, day 7). Fish were subsequently infected with live V. parahaemolyticus. Humoral immune parameters in skin mucus and serum were evaluated on days 1, 7, 8 and 14 days post-immunostimulation and 7 days post-infection. Moreover expression of immune-related genes was quantified by real time PCR in head-kidney leukocytes, spleen, liver, and intestine. The ToxA-Vp-treated group showed a higher anti-protease and catalase activity in skin mucus when compared with the PBS group. Measurements of SOD and CAT activities showed an increment in both activities a day after the second boost with ToxA-Vp or lysate-Vp. Interestingly, IgM levels in mucus and transcripts were enhanced followed the ToxA-Vp treatment even after challenge. Furthermore, IL-1β was strongly expressed in all analyzed cell or tissues followed ToxA-Vp or Vp-lysate treatments. Finally, SOD and CAT gene expression was up-regulated in fish immunostimulated with either treatment ToxA-Vp or lysate-Vp, mainly after infection in head-kidney leukocytes and intestine. This is the first study where the effects of ToxA from V. parahaemolyticus in the immune system of Pacific red snapper was evaluated. These results suggest that ToxA-Vp would positively affect humoral immune response and up-regulate expression of genes involved in the immune system function; and could help in the control of V. parahaemolyticus infection in Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru, an economic important fish in Mexico. PMID:27417232

  17. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers' Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity.

    PubMed

    Lavides, Margarita N; Molina, Erina Pauline V; de la Rosa, Gregorio E; Mill, Aileen C; Rushton, Stephen P; Stead, Selina M; Polunin, Nicholas V C

    2016-01-01

    In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers' recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay). We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE) based on fishers' reports of typical good days' catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum), humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), African pompano (Alectis ciliaris), giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers' knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large, yet wide

  18. Tracing carbon flow through coral reef food webs using a compound-specific stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Kelton W; Thorrold, Simon R; Houghton, Leah A; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs support spectacularly productive and diverse communities in tropical and sub-tropical waters throughout the world's oceans. Debate continues, however, on the degree to which reef biomass is supported by new water column production, benthic primary production, and recycled detrital carbon (C). We coupled compound-specific stable C isotope ratio (δ(13)C) analyses with Bayesian mixing models to quantify C flow from primary producers to coral reef fishes across multiple feeding guilds and trophic positions in the Red Sea. Analyses of reef fishes with putative diets composed primarily of zooplankton (Amblyglyphidodon indicus), benthic macroalgae (Stegastes nigricans), reef-associated detritus (Ctenochaetus striatus), and coral tissue (Chaetodon trifascialis) confirmed that δ(13)C values of essential amino acids from all baseline C sources were both isotopically diagnostic and accurately recorded in consumer tissues. While all four source end-members contributed to the production of coral reef fishes in our study, a single-source end-member often dominated dietary C assimilation of a given species, even for highly mobile, generalist top predators. Microbially reworked detritus was an important secondary C source for most species. Seascape configuration played an important role in structuring resource utilization patterns. For instance, Lutjanus ehrenbergii showed a significant shift from a benthic macroalgal food web on shelf reefs (71 ± 13 % of dietary C) to a phytoplankton-based food web (72 ± 11 %) on oceanic reefs. Our work provides insights into the roles that diverse C sources play in the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems and illustrates a powerful fingerprinting method to develop and test nutritional frameworks for understanding resource utilization. PMID:26590916

  19. Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Jimenez-Marrero, N. M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M.; Williams, E.H., Jr.; Bonde, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The most pressing problem in the effective management of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size/age class, and the cause of death. The spatial distribution of stranding events was not uniform, with the north, northeast, and south coasts having the highest numbers. Six clusters representing the highest incidence included the areas of Fajardo and Ceiba, Bahia de Jobos, Toa Baja, Guayanilla, Cabo Rojo, and Rio Grande to Luquillo. The number of reported cases has increased at an average rate of 9.6%/yr since 1990. The seasonality of stranding events showed a bimodal pattern, from February through April and in August and September. Most identified causes of death were due to human interaction, especially captures and watercraft collisions. Natural causes usually involved dependent calves. From 1990 through 1995, most deaths were attributed to watercraft collisions. A reduction in anthropogenic mortality of this endangered species can be accomplished only through education and a proactive management and conservation plan that includes law enforcement, mortality assessment, scientific research, rescue and rehabilitation, and inter- and intraagency cooperation.

  20. Parameterization of Parton Distributions Functions Based on Self-Organizing Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loitiere, Y.; Honkanen, H.; Liuti, S.

    2006-11-01

    Neural network algorithms have been recently applied to construct Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) parametrizations which provide an alternative to standard global fitting procedures [1]. In this contribution we propose a different technique, namely an interactive neural network algorithm using Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) [2]. SOMs generate a nonuniform projection from a high dimensional data space onto a low dimensional one (usually 1 or 2 dimensions) by clustering similar PDF representations together. Our SOMs are trained on progressively narrower selections of data samples. The selection criterion is that of convergence towards a neighborhood of the experimental data. Our procedure utilizes all available data on deep inelastic scattering in the kinematical region of 0.001 <=x <= 0.75, and 1 <=Q^2 <= 100 GeV^2, with a cut on the final state invariant mass, W^2 >= 10 GeV^2. Our main goal is to provide a fitting procedure that, at variance with standard neural network approaches, allows for an increased control of the systematic bias. SOMs, in fact, enable the user to directly control the data selection procedure at various stages of the process. [1] L. Del Debbio, S. Forte, J. I. Latorre, A. Piccione and J. Rojo, [NNPDF Collaboration], JHEP 0503, 080 (2005). [2] T. Kohonen, ``Self Organizing Maps,'' Springer-Verlag, 1997.

  1. Growing wheat in Biosphere 2 under elevated CO2: observations and modeling.

    PubMed

    Tubiello, F N; Mahato, T; Morton, T; Druitt, J W; Volk, T; Marino, B D

    1999-01-01

    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Yecora Rojo) was grown in the intensive agricultural biome (IAB) of Biosphere 2 during the l995-l996 winter/spring season. Environmental conditions were characterized by a day/night temperature regime of 27/17 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) levels around 45%, mean atmospheric CO2 concentration of 450 ppmv, and natural light conditions with mean intensities about half of outside levels. Weekly samples of above-ground plant matter were collected throughout the growing season and phenological events recorded. A computer model, CERES-Wheat, previously tested under both field and controlled conditions, was used to simulate the observed crop growth and to help in data analysis. We found that CERES-Wheat simulated the data collected at Biosphere 2 to within 10% of observed, thus suggesting that wheat growth inside the IAB was comparable to that documented in other environments. The model predicts phenological stages and final dry matter (DM) production within l0% of the observed data. Measured DM production rates, normalized for light absorbed by the crop. suggested photosynthetic efficiencies intermediate between those observed under optimal field conditions and those recorded in NASA-Controlled Ecological Life-Support Systems (CELSS). We suggest that such a difference can be explained primarily in terms of low light levels inside the IAB, with additional effects due to elevated CO2 concentrations and diffuse light fractions. PMID:11542248

  2. Density and distribution of water boatmen and brine shrimp at a major shorebird wintering area in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tripp, K.J.; Collazo, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Cabo Rojo salt flats are an important wintering area for migratory shorebirds. Their quality is intimately related to prey availability, as prey are needed to meet energetic requirements. Understanding prey dynamics is, therefore, a key element of shorebird conservation plans. To this end, we monitored the density and distribution of water-boatmen (Trichocorixa spp.) and brine shrimp (Artemia spp.) in relation to water salinity from September to November of 1994 and 1995. Salinity ranged from 4 to 292 ppt, and gradients were related to hydrological alterations (e.g., salt extraction) and connection to the ocean. Brine shrimp were restricted to areas of highest salinity (??? 106 ppt), whereas water-boatmen to areas of lowest salinity ( 100 ppt. Lowering water salinity did not result in osmolal related mortality. Results underscored the sensitivity of water boatmen to high salinity, particularly when the difference in salinity between the 'source' and 'destination' localities widened. Water boatmen density increased in one lagoon as salinity decreased from 65 to 47 ppt. On the basis of our experiments, local adult survivorship improved and immigration and subsequent survival of adults, if any, was not hindered. The density of nymphs also suggested that hatching occurred concurrently. The foraging value of the salt flats can be enhanced by maintaining salinity at < 65 ppt in selected management units and minimizing differences in salinity concentrations among them.

  3. Indentation hardness: A simple test that correlates with the dissipated-energy predictor for fatigue-life in bovine pericardium membranes for bioprosthetic heart valves.

    PubMed

    Tobaruela, Almudena; Rojo, Francisco Javier; García Paez, José María; Bourges, Jean Yves; Herrero, Eduardo Jorge; Millán, Isabel; Alvarez, Lourdes; Cordon, Ángeles; Guinea, Gustavo V

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the variation of hardness with fatigue in calf pericardium, a biomaterial commonly used in bioprosthetic heart valves, and its relationship with the energy dissipated during the first fatigue cycle that has been shown to be a predictor of fatigue-life (García Páez et al., 2006, 2007; Rojo et al., 2010). Fatigue tests were performed in vitro on 24 pericardium specimens cut in a root-to-apex direction. The specimens were subjected to a maximum stress of 1MPa in blocks of 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 cycles. By means of a modified Shore A hardness test procedure, the hardness of the specimen was measured before and after fatigue tests. Results showed a significant correlation of such hardness with fatigue performance and with the energy dissipated in the first cycle of fatigue, a predictor of pericardium durability. The study showed indentation hardness as a simple and reliable indicator of mechanical performance, one which could be easily implemented in improving tissue selection. PMID:26849027

  4. The uptake of NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ by intact wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings. I. Induction and kinetics of transport systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, S. S.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The inducibility and kinetics of the NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ transporters in roots of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum cv Yercora Rojo) were characterized using precise methods approaching constant analysis of the substrate solutions. A microcomputer-controlled automated high performance liquid chromatography system was used to determine the depletion of each N species (initially at 1 millimolar) from complete nutrient solutions. Uptake rate analyses were performed using computerized curve-fitting techniques. More precise estimates were obtained for the time required for the extent of the induction of each transporter. Up to 10 and 6 hours, respectively, were required to achieve apparent full induction of the NO3- and NO2- transporters. Evidence for substrate inducibility of the NH4+ transporters requiring 5 hours is presented. The transport of NO3- was mediated by a dual system (or dual phasic), whereas only single systems were found for transport of NO2- and NH4+. The Km values for NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ were, respectively, 0.027, 0.054, and 0.05 millimolar. The Km for mechanism II of NO3- transport could not be defined in this study as it exhibited only apparent first order kinetics up to 1 millimolar.

  5. Host Range of a Population of Pratylenchus vulnus in Commercial Fruit, Nut, Citrus, and Grape Rootstocks in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pinochet, J; Verdejo, S; Soler, A; Canals, J

    1992-12-01

    In a host-range study carried out under greenhouse conditions, a total of 37 commercial fruit tree, grape, and citrus rootstocks were tested for their reaction to a population of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus, in Spain. Twenty-five rootstocks had a Pf/Pi > 1.5. These included almond (Desmayo Rojo, 1143), apple (EM-9, EM-106), avocado (Hass), cherry (Santa Lucia 64, Camil, M x M 14, Masto de Montafiana), grape (41-B, Fercal, Ritcher 110), hazelnut (Pauetet), loquat (Nadal), peach (Montclar, GF-305), pear (OHF-333), pistachio (P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebinthus), plum (San Julian 655-2, Montizo, Pixy, Myrobalan 605), and walnut (Serf). The peach rootstock Nemaguard and the grape 161-49 had Pf/Pi between 1.0 and 1.5 (slightly higher than inoculation level). All the tested citrus (Alemow, rough lemon, Carrizo citrange, sour orange, Troyer citrange, Citrumelo), plus three grape (SO4, Vitis rupestris, 1103-P), and the olive rootstock Arbequina had a Pf/Pi < 1.0. PMID:19283047

  6. Growing wheat in Biosphere 2 under elevated CO2: observations and modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tubiello, F. N.; Mahato, T.; Morton, T.; Druitt, J. W.; Volk, T.; Marino, B. D.

    1999-01-01

    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Yecora Rojo) was grown in the intensive agricultural biome (IAB) of Biosphere 2 during the l995-l996 winter/spring season. Environmental conditions were characterized by a day/night temperature regime of 27/17 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) levels around 45%, mean atmospheric CO2 concentration of 450 ppmv, and natural light conditions with mean intensities about half of outside levels. Weekly samples of above-ground plant matter were collected throughout the growing season and phenological events recorded. A computer model, CERES-Wheat, previously tested under both field and controlled conditions, was used to simulate the observed crop growth and to help in data analysis. We found that CERES-Wheat simulated the data collected at Biosphere 2 to within 10% of observed, thus suggesting that wheat growth inside the IAB was comparable to that documented in other environments. The model predicts phenological stages and final dry matter (DM) production within l0% of the observed data. Measured DM production rates, normalized for light absorbed by the crop. suggested photosynthetic efficiencies intermediate between those observed under optimal field conditions and those recorded in NASA-Controlled Ecological Life-Support Systems (CELSS). We suggest that such a difference can be explained primarily in terms of low light levels inside the IAB, with additional effects due to elevated CO2 concentrations and diffuse light fractions.

  7. Exposure to Rabies in Small Indian Mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) from Two Regions in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Are R; Johnson, Shylo R; Gilbert, Amy T; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-10-01

    The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) was introduced to several Caribbean Islands to control rat (Rattus spp.) damage to sugarcane plantations. Mongooses failed at suppressing rat populations and are now considered pests throughout most of their introduced range. Importantly, mongooses are rabies reservoirs on several Caribbean Islands. In Puerto Rico, mongooses have been implicated in up to 70% of reported animal rabies cases. There is no rabies vaccination program for wildlife in Puerto Rico, and data on rabies in mongooses are limited. We conducted a serosurvey of mongooses in two different ecologic environments in Puerto Rico: El Yunque National Forest and Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge. We collected 119 serum samples from 112 mongooses, 44 (39.3%) of which were positive for rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies. We also collected oral swabs from 147 mongooses, including 88 from which we also collected serum. No oral swabs were positive for rabies virus RNA. Our data support previous research suggesting rabies virus is circulating within the mongoose population on Puerto Rico. PMID:26251987

  8. The Uptake of NO3−, NO2−, and NH4+ by Intact Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Sham S.; Huffaker, Ray C.

    1986-01-01

    The inducibility and kinetics of the NO3−, NO2−, and NH4+ transporters in roots of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum cv Yercora Rojo) were characterized using precise methods approaching constant analysis of the substrate solutions. A microcomputer-controlled automated high performance liquid chromatography system was used to determine the depletion of each N species (initially at 1 millimolar) from complete nutrient solutions. Uptake rate analyses were performed using computerized curve-fitting techniques. More precise estimates were obtained for the time required for and the extent of the induction of each transporter. Up to 10 and 6 hours, respectively, were required to achieve apparent full induction of the NO3− and NO2− transporters. Evidence for substrate inducibility of the NH4+ transporters requiring 5 hours is presented. The transport of NO3− was mediated by a dual system (or dual phasic), whereas only single systems were found for transport of NO2− and NH4+. The Km values for NO3−, NO2−, and NH4+ were, respectively, 0.027, 0.054, and 0.05 millimolar. The Km for mechanism II of NO3− transport could not be defined in this study as it exhibited only apparent first order kinetics up to 1 millimolar. PMID:11539085

  9. Distribution of a Community of Mammals in Relation to Roads and Other Human Disturbances in Gabon, Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    ón a Carreteras y Otras Perturbaciones Humanas en Gabón, Africa Central Resumen Presentamos el primer estudio a nivel de comunidad de la relación entre carreteras y otras perturbaciones humanas con la distribución de mamíferos en Gabón (África central). Nuestro sitio de estudio está dentro de una concesión petrolera en un paisaje litoral heterogéneo. Realizamos muestreos a lo largo de 199 transectos lineales e instalamos cámaras trampa en 99 de ellos para documentar la presencia y abundancia de mamíferos. Utilizamos modelos lineales generalizados con efectos mixtos para documentar las asociaciones entre variables relacionadas con el ecosistema (cobertura de suelo, topografía e hidrología), carreteras (tipo de revestimiento, ancho de derecho de vía, condición, tipo de vehículos que utilizan la carretera, nivel de tráfico, afiliación de los usuarios y el tipo general de carretera) y otras perturbaciones humanas (urbanización, agricultura, caza, tala, recolecta y actividades industriales) y la abundancia o presencia de 17 especies o grupos de mamíferos incluyendo elefantes (Loxodonta cyclotis), búfalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), cerdo rojo de río (Potomochoerus porcus), ungulados pequeños, gorila (Gorilla gorilla), chimpancé (Pan troglodytes), chacal con rayas a los lados (Canis adustus), carnívoros, monos y roedores de talla grande. Ciertos tipos de carreteras y otras perturbaciones humanas estuvieron asociadas negativamente con la abundancia o presencia de elefantes, búfalos, gorilas, sitatungas, algunos monos y antílopes. Los patrones de asociación de mamíferos con carreteras y otras perturbaciones humanas fueron diversos e incluyen asociaciones positivas con la presencia de carreteras (cerdo rojo de río, algunos monos y antílopes), agricultura (sitatunga, carnívoros pequeños y roedores de talla grande) y actividades industriales (sitatunga, cerdo rojo de río, antílope rojo y chacal con rayas a los lados

  10. Women and vulnerability to depression: some personality and clinical factors.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Jesús M; Rojo, Nieves; Staats, Arthur W

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the role of sex differences and personality in vulnerability to depression. Sex differences in personality and some clinical variables are described. We also assess the value of the variables that revealed significant sex differences as predictors of vulnerability to depression. In a group of adult participants (N = 112), 50% males and 50% females (mean age = 41.30; SD = 15.09; range 17-67), we studied sex differences in the three-factor personality model, using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Form A (EPQ-A; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975), and in the Five-Factor Personality Model, with the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI; Costa & McCrae, 1985). The following clinical scales were used: the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979), the Schizotypy Questionnaire (STQ; Claridge & Broks, 1984; Spanish version, Carrillo & Rojo, 1999), the THARL Scales (Dua, 1989, 1990; Spanish version, Dua & Carrillo, 1994) and the Adjustment Inventory (Bell, 1937; Spanish version, Cerdá, 1980). Subsequently, simple linear regression analysis, with BDI scores as criterion, were performed to estimate the value of the variables as predictors of vulnerability to depression. The results indicate that a series of personality variables cause women to be more vulnerable to depression than men and that these variables could be explained by a negative emotion main factor. Results are discussed within the framework of the psychological behaviorism theory of depression. PMID:15139246

  11. Effect of crop development on biogenic emissions from plant populations grown in closed plant growth chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, J. H.; Stutte, G. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Biomass Production Chamber at John F. Kennedy Space Center is a closed plant growth chamber facility that can be used to monitor the level of biogenic emissions from large populations of plants throughout their entire growth cycle. The head space atmosphere of a 26-day-old lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Waldmann's Green) stand was repeatedly sampled and emissions identified and quantified using GC-mass spectrometry. Concentrations of dimethyl sulphide, carbon disulphide, alpha-pinene, furan and 2-methylfuran were not significantly different throughout the day; whereas, isoprene showed significant differences in concentration between samples collected in light and dark periods. Volatile organic compounds from the atmosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Yecora Rojo) were analysed and quantified from planting to maturity. Volatile plant-derived compounds included 1-butanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, nonanal, benzaldehyde, tetramethylurea, tetramethylthiourea, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran. Concentrations of volatiles were determined during seedling establishment, vegetative growth, anthesis, grain fill and senescence and found to vary depending on the developmental stage. Atmospheric concentrations of benzaldehyde and nonanal were highest during anthesis, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran concentrations were greatest during grain fill, and the concentration of the tetramethylurea peaked during senescence.

  12. Effect of CO/sub 2/ enrichment on growth and reproduction of wheat grown under low oxygen. [Triticum aestivum

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrave, M.E.; Scheld, H.W.; Strain, B.R.

    1987-04-01

    Two cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cvs Sonoita and Yecoro Rojo) were grown to maturity in a Phytotron B chamber within four sub-chambers which imposed two CO/sub 2/ levels (350 or 1000 ppm) at either ambient (21%) or low oxygen (5%). Techniques of growth analysis were used to characterize changes in plant carbon budgets imposed by the gas regimes. Large increases in leaf area were seen in the low oxygen treatments, due primarily to a stimulation of tillering. No necrosis was observed in roots developing at 5% oxygen but rather root development increased dramatically. Flowering was much delayed in the low oxygen, 350 ppm carbon dioxide regime and the spikes which did develop did not mature. While one cultivar (Sonoita) did not respond to CO/sub 2/ enrichment (1000 ppm) at ambient oxygen in terms of increases in leaf area and head number, carbon dioxide enrichment overcame the low oxygen effect on flowering in both cultivars. The results demonstrate a previously unknown interaction between carbon dioxide enrichment and low oxygen as they affect reproduction and may help elucidate the nature of low-oxygen-induced infertility.

  13. Survival of Potentially Pathogenic Human-Associated Bacteria in the Rhizosphere of Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Anabelle; Garland, Jay L.; Lim, Daniel V.

    1996-01-01

    Plants may serve as reservoirs for human-associated bacteria (H-AB) in long-term space missions containing bioregenerative life support systems. The current study examined the abilities of five human-associated potential pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli, to colonize and grow in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat, a candidate crop for life support. All of these bacteria have been recovered from past NASA missions and present potential problems for future missions. The abilities of these organisms to adhere to the roots of axenic five-day-old wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora rojo) were evaluated by enumeration of the attached organisms after a one hour incubation of roots in a suspension (approximately 10(exp 8 cu/ml)) of the H-AB. Results showed that a greater percentage of P. aeruginosa cells adhered to the wheat roots than the other four H-AB. Similarly incubated seedlings were also grown under attempted axenic conditions for seven days to examine the potential of each organism to proliferate in the rhizosphere (root colonization capacity). P. cepacia and P. aeruginosa showed considerable growth. E. coli and S. aureus showed no significant growth, and S. pyogenes died off in the wheat rhizosphere. Studies examining the effects of competition on the survival of these microorganisms indicated that P. aeruginosa was the only organism that survived in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat in the presence of different levels of microbial competition.

  14. Survival of potentially pathogenic human-associated bacteria in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat.

    PubMed

    Morales, A; Garland, J L; Lim, D V

    1996-07-01

    Plants may serve as reservoirs for human-associated bacteria (H-AB) in long-term space missions containing bioregenerative life support systems. The current study examined the abilities of five human-associated potential pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli, to colonize and grow in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat, a candidate crop for life support. All of these bacteria have been recovered from past NASA missions and present potential problems for future missions. The abilities of these organisms to adhere to the roots of axenic five-day-old wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora rojo) were evaluated by enumeration of the attached organisms after a one hour incubation of roots in a suspension (approximately 10(8) cfu ml-1) of the H-AB. Results showed that a greater percentage of P. aeruginosa cells adhered to the wheat roots than the other four H-AB. Similarly incubated seedlings were also grown under attempted axenic conditions for seven days to examine the potential of each organism to proliferate in the rhizosphere (root colonization capacity). P. cepacia and P. aerogiunosa showed considerable growth, E. coli and S. aureus showed no significant growth, and S. pyogenes died off in the wheat rhizosphere. Studies examining the effects of competition on the survival of these microorganisms indicated that P. aeruginosa was the only organism that survived in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat in the presence of different levels of microbial competition. PMID:11539850

  15. Physicochemical characterization of pure persimmon juice: nutritional quality and food acceptability.

    PubMed

    González, Eva; Vegara, Salud; Martí, Nuria; Valero, Manuel; Saura, Domingo

    2015-03-01

    Technological process for production of non-astringent persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. "Rojo Brillante") juice was described. The degree of fruit ripening expressed as color index (CI) varied between 12.37 and 16.33. Persimmon juice was characterized by determining physicochemical quality parameters as yield, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), organic acids, and main sugars. A thermal treatment of 90 ºC for 10 s was effective in controlling naturally occurring microorganisms for at least 105 d of storage without significantly affecting production of soluble brown pigments (BPs) and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant capacity and acceptability of juice by panelists. Storage time affected all and each of the above parameters, reducing BPs, TPC and antioxidant capacity but increasing 5-HMF content. Refrigerated storage enhanced the acceptability of the juices. This information may be used by the juice industry as a starting point for production of pure persimmon juices. PMID:25619747

  16. Influence of thermal treatment and storage on astringency and quality of a spreadable product from persimmon fruit.

    PubMed

    Castelló, M L; Heredia, A; Domínguez, E; Ortolá, M D; Tarrazó, J

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this work was to develop osmodehydrated products from cubes of persimmon (var. Rojo Brillante), which could be spread as a jam but keeping the typical aroma, flavour and colour of fresh fruit. The application of a thermal treatment in the filling stage has been studied, with or without a later pasteurisation step at 90°C for 20min. These spreadable products were stored at room temperature or in refrigeration. The chemical composition, pH, aw, colour, astringency, antioxidant capacity and the growth of yeast, moulds and aerobic mesophiles were analysed after the manufacture process and throughout the storage (approximately 3.5months). Sensorial analyses were also performed after 24h of being prepared and after 49days of refrigeration. The product obtained without thermal treatment was the best since it maintained the characteristic persimmon colour better and showed higher antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, it was the best, according to the panel, not only for appearance but also for flavour. PMID:25212138

  17. Genetic analysis of carbon isotope discrimination and agronomic characters in a bread wheat cross.

    PubMed

    Ehdaie, B; Waines, J G

    1994-09-01

    Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) has been suggested as a selection criterion to improve transpiration efficiency (W) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Cultivars 'Chinese Spring' with low A (high W) and 'Yecora Rojo' with high Δ (low W) were crossed to develop F1, F2, BC1, and BC2 populations for genetic analysis of Δ and other agronomic characters under well-watered (wet) and water-stressed (dry) field conditions. Significant variation was observed among the generations for Δ only under the wet environment. Generation x irrigation interactions were not significant for Δ. Generation means analysis indicated that additive gene action is of primary importance in the expression of Δ under nonstress conditions. Dominance gene action was also detected for Δ, and the direction of dominance was toward higher values of Δ. The broad-sense and the narrow-sense heritabilities for Δ were 61 % and 57% under the wet conditions, but were 48% and 12% under the draughted conditions, respectively. The narrow-sense heritabilities for grain yield, above-ground dry matter, and harvest index were 36%, 39%, and 60% under the wet conditions and 21%, 44%, and 20% under dry conditions, respectively. The significant additive genetic variation and moderate estimate of the narrow-sense heritability observed for Δ indicated that selection under wet environments should be effective in changing Δ in spring bread wheat. PMID:24186257

  18. Continuous hydroponic wheat production using a recirculating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Owens, L. P.; Hinkle, C. R.; Prince, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    Continuous crop production, where plants of various ages are growing simultaneously in a single recirculating nutrient solution, is a possible alternative to batch production in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System. A study was conducted at John F. Kennedy Space Center where 8 trays (0.24 sq m per tray) of Triticum aestivum L. Yecora Rojo were grown simultaneously in a growth chamber at 23 C, 65 percent relative humidity, 1000 ppm CO2, continuous light, with a continuous flow, thin film nutrient delivery system. The same modified Hoagland nutrient solution was recirculated through the plant trays from an 80 L reservoir throughout the study. It was maintained by periodic addition of water and nutrients based on chemical analyses of the solution. The study was conducted for 216 days, during which 24 trays of wheat were consecutively planted (one every 9 days), 16 of which were grown to maturity and harvested. The remaining 8 trays were harvested on day 216. Grain yields averaged 520 g m(exp -2), and had an average edible biomass of 32 percent. Consecutive yields were unaffected by nutrient solution age. It was concluded that continual wheat production will work in this system over an extended period of time. Certain micronutrient deficiencies and toxicities posed problems and must be addressed in future continuous production systems.

  19. Dynamics of carbon dioxide exchange of a wheat community grown in a semi-closed environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    1989-01-01

    A wheat (Triticum aestivum Yecora Rojo) community was grown in the semi-closed conditions of the NASA/KSC Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). Experiments were conducted to determine whole community carbon dioxide exchange rates as influenced by growth and development, carbon dioxide concentration, time within the photoperiod, irradiance, and temperature. Plants were grown at a population of about 1500 per sq meter using a 20 hour light/4 hour dark daily regime. Light was supplied by HPS vapor lamps and irradiance was maintained in the range of 590 to 675 mu mol per sq meter. The temperature regime was 20 C light/16 C dark and nutrients were supplied hydroponically as a thin film. Fractional interception of PPF by the community increased rapidly during growth reaching a maximum of 0.96, 24 days after planting. This time corresponded to canopy closure and maximum rates of net photosynthesis (NP). Net daily CO2 utilization rates were calculated to day 48 and a 4th order regression equation integrated to obtain total moles of CO2 fixed by the community. This procedure may be useful for monitoring and prediction of biomass yields in a closed ecology life support system (CELSS).

  20. Characterization and quantitation of phenolic compounds in new apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, David; Egea, José; Gil, María I; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2005-11-30

    Thirty-seven apricot varieties, including four new releases (Rojo Pasión, Murciana, Selene, and Dorada) obtained from different crosses between apricot varieties and three traditional Spanish cultivars (Currot, Mauricio, and Búlida), were separated according to flesh color into four groups: white, yellow, light orange, and orange (mean hue angles in flesh were 88.1, 85.0, 77.6, and 72.4, respectively). Four phenolic compound groups, procyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonols, and anthocyanins, were identified by HPLC-MS/MS and individually quantified using HPLC-DAD. Chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, procyanidins B1, B2, and B4, and some procyanidin trimers, quercetin 3-rutinoside, kaempferol 3-rhamnosyl-hexoside and quercetin 3-acetyl-hexoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, and 3-glucoside, were detected and quantified in the skin and flesh of the different cultivars. The total phenolics content, quantified as the addition of the individual compounds quantified by HPLC, ranged between 32.6 and 160.0 mg 100 g(-1) of edible tissue. No correlation between the flesh color and the phenolic content of the different cultivars was observed. PMID:16302775

  1. Carotenoids from new apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) varieties and their relationship with flesh and skin color.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, David; Egea, José; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Gil, María I

    2005-08-10

    Thirty-seven apricot varieties, including four new releases (Rojo Pasión, Murciana, Selene, and Dorada) obtained from different crosses between apricot varieties and three traditional Spanish cultivars (Currot, Mauricio, and Búlida), were separated according to flesh color into four groups. The L*, a*, b*, hue angle, and chroma color measurements on the skin and flesh as well as other quality indices including flesh firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and pH were plotted against the total carotenoid content measured by HPLC. Among the 37 apricot varieties, the total carotenoid content ranged from 1,512 to 16,500 microg 100 g(-1) of edible portion, with beta-carotene as the main pigment followed by beta-cryptoxanthin and gamma-carotene. The wide range of variability in the provitamin A content in the apricot varieties encouraged these studies in order to select the breeding types with enhanced carotenoid levels as the varieties with a higher potential health benefit. The carotenoid content was correlated with the color measurements, and the hue angle in both flesh and peel was the parameter with the best correlation (R = 0.92 and 0.84, respectively). An estimation of the carotenoid content in apricots could be achieved by using a portable colorimeter, as a simple and easy method for field usage applications. PMID:16076120

  2. Sandstone caves on Venezuelan tepuis: Return to pseudokarst?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, R.; Lánczos, T.; Gregor, M.; Schlögl, J.; Šmída, B.; Liščák, P.; Brewer-Carías, Ch.; Vlček, L.

    2011-09-01

    Venezuelan table mountains (tepuis) host the largest arenite caves in the world. The most frequently used explanation of their origin so far was the "arenization" theory, involving dissolution of quartz cement around the sand grains and subsequent removing of the released grains by water. New research in the two largest arenite cave systems - Churi-Tepui System in Chimanta Massif and Ojos de Cristal System in Roraima Tepui showed that quartz dissolution plays only a minor role in their speleogenesis. Arenites forming the tepuis are not only quartzites but they display a wide range of lithification and breakdown, including also loose sands and sandstones. Speleogenetic processes are mostly concentrated on the beds of unlithified sands which escaped from diagenesis by being sealed by the surrounding perfectly lithified quartzites. Only the so-called "finger-flow" pillars testify to confined diagenetic fluids which flowed in narrow channels, leaving the surrounding arenite uncemented. Another factor which influenced the cave-forming processes by about 30% was lateritization. It affects beds formed of arkosic sandstones and greywackes which show strong dissolution of micas, feldspars and clay minerals, turning then to laterite ("Barro Rojo"). The main prerequisite to rank caves among karst phenomena is dissolution. As the dissolution of silicate minerals other than quartz appears to play not only a volumetrically important role but even a trigger role, these arenitic caves may be ranked as karst.

  3. A ground-based comparison of nutrient delivery technologies originally developed for growing plants in the spaceflight environment.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, D M; Dreschel, T W; Musgrave, M E

    2000-01-01

    A ground-based comparison of plant nutrient delivery systems that have been developed for microgravity application was conducted for dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Yecora Rojo') and rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica rapa L. CrGC#1-33) plants. These experiments offer insight into nutrient and oxygen delivery concerns for greenhouse crop production systems. The experiments were completed over a 12-day period to simulate a typical space shuttle-based spaceflight experiment. The plant materials, grown either using the porous-tube nutrient delivery system, the phenolic foam support system, or a solidified agar nutrient medium, were compared by plant-growth analysis, root zone morphological measurements, elemental composition analysis, and alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity assay. The results of these analyses indicate that the porous tube plant nutrient delivery and the phenolic foam systems maintain plant growth at a higher level than the solidified agar gel medium system. Root zone oxygenation problems associated with the agar system were manifested through biochemical and morphological responses. The porous tube nutrient delivery system outperformed the other two systems on the basis of plant growth analysis parameters and physiological indicators of root zone aeration. This information is applicable to the current crop production techniques used in greenhouse-controlled environments. PMID:17654790

  4. Post-settlement Life Cycle Migration Patterns and Habitat Preference of Coral Reef Fish that use Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats as Nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocheret de la Morinière, E.; Pollux, B. J. A.; Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.

    2002-08-01

    Mangroves and seagrass beds have received considerable attention as nurseries for reef fish, but comparisons have often been made with different methodologies. Thus, relative importance of different habitats to specific size-classes of reef fish species remains unclear. In this study, 35 transects in 11 sites of mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reef were surveyed daily, in and in front of a marine bay on the island of Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles). The density and size-frequency of nine reef fish species (including herbivores, zoobenthivores and piscivores) was determined during a five-month period using a single methodology, viz. underwater visual census. All species were ' nursery species ' in terms of their high densities of juveniles in mangroves or seagrass beds. Relative density distribution of the size-classes of the selected species over mangroves and seagrass beds suggested high levels of preference for either mangroves or seagrass beds of some species, while other species used both habitats as a nursery. Spatial size distribution of the nine species suggested three possible models for Post-settlement Life Cycle Migrations (PLCM). Haemulon sciurus, Lutjanus griseus, L. apodus, and Acanthurus chirurgus appear to settle and grow up in bay habitats such as mangroves and seagrass beds, and in a later stage migrate to the coral reef (Long Distance PLCM). Juveniles of Acanthurus bahianus and Scarus taeniopterus were found only in bay habitats at close proximity to the coral reef or on the reef itself, and their migration pattern concerns a limited spatial scale (Short Distance PLCM). Some congeneric species carry out either Long Distance PLCM or Short Distance PLCM, thereby temporarily alleviating competition in reef habitats. Haemulon flavolineatum, Ocyurus chrysurus and Scarus iserti displayed a Stepwise PLCM pattern in which smallest juveniles dwell in the mouth of the bay, larger individuals then move to habitats deeper into the bay, where they grow up

  5. [Species and size composition of fishes in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Mexican central Pacific].

    PubMed

    González-Sansón, Gaspar; Aguilar-Betancourt, Consuelo; Kosonoy-Aceves, Daniel; Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Flores-Ortega, Juan Ramón; Hinojosa-Larios, Angel; de Asís Silva-Bátiz, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Coastal lagoons are considered important nursery areas for many coastal fishes. Barra de Navidad coastal lagoon (3.76km2) is important for local economy as it supports tourism development and artisanal fisheries. However, the role of this lagoon in the dynamics of coastal fish populations is scarcely known. Thus, the objectives of this research were: to characterize the water of the lagoon and related weather conditions, to develop a systematic list of the ichthyofauna, and to estimate the proportion of juveniles in the total number of individuals captured of most abundant species. Water and fish samples were collected between March 2011 and February 2012. Physical and chemical variables were measured in rainy and dry seasons. Several fishing gears were used including a cast net, beach purse seine and gillnets of four different mesh sizes. Our results showed that the lagoon is most of the time euhaline (salinity 30-40ups), although it can be mixopolyhaline (salinity 18-30ups) during short periods. Chlorophyll and nutrients concentrations suggested eutrophication in the lagoon. Mean water temperature changed seasonally from 24.9 degrees C (April, high tide) to 31.4 degrees C (October, low tide). Considering ichthyofauna species, a total of 36 448 individuals of 92 species were collected, 31 of them adding up to 95% of the total of individuals caught. Dominant species were Anchoa spp. (44.6%), Diapterus peruvianus (10.5%), Eucinostomus currani (8.1%), Cetengraulis mysticetus (7.8%), Mugil curema (5.2%) and Opisthonema libertate (4.5%). The lagoon is an important juvenile habitat for 22 of the 31 most abundant species. These included several species of commercial importance such as snappers (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. colorado and L. novemfasciatus), snook (Centropomus nigrescens) and white mullet (Mugil curema). Other four species seem to use the lagoon mainly as adults. This paper is the first contribution on the composition of estuarine ichthyofauna in Jalisco

  6. [Seasonal and spatial structure of reef fish community in San Jose Island, Gulf of California, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Barjau, Emelio; Rodríguez-Romero, Jesús; Galván, Felipe; Gutiérrez, Francisco; López, Juana

    2012-06-01

    The Gulf of California is one of the most fish diverse areas of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. In spite of its economic value, few works have considered fish community studies for optimum management. With the aim to determine the seasonal and spatial variation of fish communities in eight locations around the San José Island, some ecological research was conducted from March 2001 to February 2002. For this, visual censuses were used in 48 transects of 100x5m (500m2); specific analysis such as diversity values, the relative abundance and the biological value indexes were undertaken, and a principal component analysis applied. Our results clearly showed two climatic seasons of cold and warm waters. A total number of 26 608 organisms of 112 species and 76 genera of fishes were identified. We used the relative abundance index to determine the most important species, which were: Abudefduf troschelii, Thalassoma lucasanum, Stegastes rectifraenum, Mulloidichthys dentatus, Chromis atrilobata, Lutjanus argentiventris and Scarus ghobban. February was the month with the lowest diversity with a value of 3.12bits/ind. and October was the most diverse (4.13bits/ind.). According to the biological value index (BVI) and considering the climatic seasons, the fish species with the highest score during cold months were: A. troschelii, M. dentatus, S. ghobban, S. rectifraenum and T lucasanum. Besides, for warmer months, the same fish species were observed but in different order and abundance: A. troschelii, S. ghobban, S. rectifraenum, T lucasanum and M. dentatus. Using the biological value index, 13 species were those which had a higher overall score. The locations by the Eastern side of the island had a greater number of species and abundance of fish. The principal component analysis (PCA) applied using the seasonal data, species richness, diversity, equity, number of species and total abundance during the warmer months also a PCA within spatial data, showed that location in

  7. Effects of preservation methods of muscle tissue from upper-trophic level reef fishes on stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N)

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, James A.; Rozar, Katherine L.; Adams, Charles S.; Wall, Kara R.; Switzer, Theodore S.; Winner, Brent L.; Hollander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Research that uses stable isotope analysis often involves a delay between sample collection in the field and laboratory processing, therefore requiring preservation to prevent or reduce tissue degradation and associated isotopic compositions. Although there is a growing literature describing the effects of various preservation techniques, the results are often contextual, unpredictable and vary among taxa, suggesting the need to treat each species individually. We conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of four preservation methods of muscle tissue from four species of upper trophic-level reef fish collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico (Red Grouper Epinephelus morio, Gag Mycteroperca microlepis, Scamp Mycteroperca phenax, and Red Snapper Lutjanus campechanus). We used a paired design to measure the effects on isotopic values for carbon and nitrogen after storage using ice, 95% ethanol, and sodium chloride (table salt), against that in a liquid nitrogen control. Mean offsets for both δ13C and δ15N values from controls were lowest for samples preserved on ice, intermediate for those preserved with salt, and highest with ethanol. Within species, both salt and ethanol significantly enriched the δ15N values in nearly all comparisons. Ethanol also had strong effects on the δ13C values in all three groupers. Conversely, for samples preserved on ice, we did not detect a significant offset in either isotopic ratio for any of the focal species. Previous studies have addressed preservation-induced offsets in isotope values using a mass balance correction that accounts for changes in the isotope value to that in the C/N ratio. We tested the application of standard mass balance corrections for isotope values that were significantly affected by the preservation methods and found generally poor agreement between corrected and control values. The poor performance by the correction may have been due to preferential loss of lighter isotopes and corresponding

  8. Diet shifts of Caribbean grunts (Haemulidae) and snappers (Lutjanidae) and the relation with nursery-to-coral reef migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocheret de la Morinière, E.; Pollux, B. J. A.; Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.

    2003-08-01

    The spatial size distribution of grunts and snappers have previously indicated the separation of juveniles in nursery habitats from the adults on the coral reef. This implies life cycle migrations from nursery habitats (such as seagrass beds and mangroves) to the coral reef. If diet shifts are related to such migrations, then the diets of these fish must change before or around the fish size at which such migrations take place. A wide size range of juveniles of two grunt species ( Haemulon sciurus and Haemulon flavolineatum) and of two snapper species ( Lutjanus apodus and Ocyurus chrysurus) were caught in seagrass beds and mangroves, and their gut contents identified and quantified. Regression analysis between fish size and dietary importance of small crustaceans showed a negative relationship in all four species. Positive relations were found for H. sciurus, L. apodus and O. chrysurus between fish length and the dietary importance of decapods, and for L. apodusand O. chrysurus between fish length and prey fish importance. Critical changes in the fish diets with fish size were examined by application of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). The CCA yielded three clusters of size-classes of fishes with similar diets, and application of a Mantel test showed that each of these clusters had significantly different diets, and that each cluster diet was significantly specialised. The size at which a fish species 'switched' from one cluster to another was compared with size-at-maturity data and with the typical size at which these species migrate from the nursery habitats to the coral reef. H. sciurus and H. flavolineatum may be prompted to migrate from the nursery habitats to coral reef habitats because of dietary changes, or because of the development of the gonads. For L. apodus and O. chrysurus, a dietary changeover forms a more likely explanation for nursery-to-reef migrations than does sexual maturation because these species reach maturity at sizes much larger

  9. Beyond the transect: an alternative microchemical imaging method for fine scale analysis of trace elements in fish otoliths during early life.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Nicole; Fowler, Ashley M; Parkinson, Kerryn; Bishop, David P; Ganio, Katherine; Doble, Philip A; Booth, David J; Hare, Dominic J

    2014-10-01

    Microchemical analysis of otolith (calcified 'ear stones' used for balance and orientation) of fishes is an important tool for studying their environmental history and management. However, the spatial resolution achieved is often too coarse to examine short-term events occurring in early life. Current methods rely on single points or transects across the otolith surface, which may provide a limited view of elemental distributions, a matter that has not previously been investigated. Imaging by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) permits microchemical analyses of short-term events in early life with high (<10 μm) resolution, two-dimensional (2D) visualization of elemental distributions. To demonstrate the potential of this method, we mapped the concentrations of Sr and Ba, two key trace elements, in a small number of juvenile otoliths of neon damselfish (Pomacentrus coelestis) using an 8 μm beam diameter (laser fluence of 13.8 ± 3.5 Jcm(-2)). Quantification was performed using the established method by Longerich et al. (1996), which is applied to 2D imaging of a biological matrix here for the first time. Accuracy of >97% was achieved using a multi-point non matrix-matched calibration of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 610 and 612 (trace elements in glass) using Longerich's calculation method against the matrix-matched standard FEBS-1 (powdered red snapper [Lutjanus campechanus] otolith). The spatial resolution achieved in the otolith corresponded to a time period of 2 ± 1 days during the larval phase, and 4 ± 1 days during the post-settlement juvenile phase. This method has the potential to improve interpretations of early life-history events at scales corresponding to specific events. While the images showed gradients in Sr and Ba across the larval settlement zone more clearly than single transects, the method proved sample homogeneity throughout the structure; demonstrating that 2D scanning has no

  10. Comparative phylogeography of the western Indian Ocean reef fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsa, Philippe; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hubert, Nicolas; Muths, Delphine; Mou-Tham, Gérard; Kulbicki, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Assessing patterns of connectivity at the community and population levels is relevant to marine resource management and conservation. The present study reviews this issue with a focus on the western Indian Ocean (WIO) biogeographic province. This part of the Indian Ocean holds more species than expected from current models of global reef fish species richness. In this study, checklists of reef fish species were examined to determine levels of endemism in each of 10 biogeographic provinces of the Indian Ocean. Results showed that the number of endemic species was higher in the WIO than in any other region of the Indian Ocean. Endemic species from the WIO on the average had a larger body size than elsewhere in the tropical Indian Ocean. This suggests an effect of peripheral speciation, as previously documented in the Hawaiian reef fish fauna, relative to other sites in the tropical western Pacific. To explore evolutionary dynamics of species across biogeographic provinces and infer mechanisms of speciation, we present and compare the results of phylogeographic surveys based on compilations of published and unpublished mitochondrial DNA sequences for 19 Indo-Pacific reef-associated fishes (rainbow grouper Cephalopholis argus, scrawled butterflyfish Chaetodon meyeri, bluespot mullet Crenimugil sp. A, humbug damselfish Dascyllus abudafur/Dascyllus aruanus, areolate grouper Epinephelus areolatus, blacktip grouper Epinephelus fasciatus, honeycomb grouper Epinephelus merra, bluespotted cornetfish Fistularia commersonii, cleaner wrasse Labroides sp. 1, longface emperor Lethrinus sp. A, bluestripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira, unicornfishes Naso brevirosris, Naso unicornis and Naso vlamingii, blue-spotted maskray Neotrygon kuhlii, largescale mullet Planiliza macrolepis, common parrotfish Scarus psicattus, crescent grunter Terapon jarbua, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus) and three coastal Indo-West Pacific invertebrates (blue seastar Linckia laevigata, spiny lobster

  11. Ciguatera fish toxicity in French Polynesia: size does not always matter.

    PubMed

    Gaboriau, Matthias; Ponton, Dominique; Darius, H Taiana; Chinain, Mireille

    2014-06-01

    Accumulation of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in tropical reef fish tissues during their life is responsible of the most prevalent human seafood intoxication in the South Pacific called Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP). It has been assumed for a long time that CTXs are transferred and accumulated along the trophic food chain, and consequently that smaller individuals within a given fish species are safer to eat than larger ones. However, the relationship between toxicity and fish size has been studied for a limited number of species only and the conclusions are often contradictory. The toxicity of 856 fishes from 59 different species sampled in six islands in French Polynesia between 2003 and 2011 was assessed by Receptor Binding Assay. Among them, 45 species × island and 32 families × island for which the number of individuals was ≥6 allowed testing the relationship between toxicity and size. Except for six specimens of Lutjanus bohar caught in Fakarava (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.854), the 44 remaining species × island showed no significant increase of CTXs concentration with fish total length (TL). Moreover, the proportion of toxic individuals decreased significantly for Epinephelus polyphekadion from Fakarava (n = 24; P < 0.05) and Kyphosus cinerascens from Raivavae (n = 29; P < 0.05), while no significant variation was detected for the other 43 species × island. At the family level, only three positive and three negative relationships between size and CTXs concentration were observed among the 32 family × island analyzed. No relationship between the proportion of toxic fish within a family and the relative total length of individuals were observed. The lack of relationship between toxicity and size observed for most of the species and families from the six islands suggests that fish size cannot be used as an efficient predictor of fish toxicity in French Polynesia. These results highlight the need for improving our knowledge about metabolic processes

  12. Effects of preservation methods of muscle tissue from upper-trophic level reef fishes on stable isotope values (δ (13)C and δ (15)N).

    PubMed

    Stallings, Christopher D; Nelson, James A; Rozar, Katherine L; Adams, Charles S; Wall, Kara R; Switzer, Theodore S; Winner, Brent L; Hollander, David J

    2015-01-01

    Research that uses stable isotope analysis often involves a delay between sample collection in the field and laboratory processing, therefore requiring preservation to prevent or reduce tissue degradation and associated isotopic compositions. Although there is a growing literature describing the effects of various preservation techniques, the results are often contextual, unpredictable and vary among taxa, suggesting the need to treat each species individually. We conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of four preservation methods of muscle tissue from four species of upper trophic-level reef fish collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico (Red Grouper Epinephelus morio, Gag Mycteroperca microlepis, Scamp Mycteroperca phenax, and Red Snapper Lutjanus campechanus). We used a paired design to measure the effects on isotopic values for carbon and nitrogen after storage using ice, 95% ethanol, and sodium chloride (table salt), against that in a liquid nitrogen control. Mean offsets for both δ (13)C and δ (15)N values from controls were lowest for samples preserved on ice, intermediate for those preserved with salt, and highest with ethanol. Within species, both salt and ethanol significantly enriched the δ (15)N values in nearly all comparisons. Ethanol also had strong effects on the δ (13)C values in all three groupers. Conversely, for samples preserved on ice, we did not detect a significant offset in either isotopic ratio for any of the focal species. Previous studies have addressed preservation-induced offsets in isotope values using a mass balance correction that accounts for changes in the isotope value to that in the C/N ratio. We tested the application of standard mass balance corrections for isotope values that were significantly affected by the preservation methods and found generally poor agreement between corrected and control values. The poor performance by the correction may have been due to preferential loss of lighter isotopes and

  13. Effects of replacing fishmeal with animal by-products meal supplementation in diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of mangrove red snapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam; Akhtar, Rukhsana; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing

    2007-07-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 75 d to evaluate the nutritive value of a mixture of animal by-products (MAB) as a possible protein source in diets for juvenile mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (mean initial body weight, 30 g). Fish were fed one of five isonitrogenous diets (40% crude protein) replacing 0, 25% (MAB25), 50% (MAB50), 75% (MAB75) and 100% (MAB100) of fish meal protein with similar percentages of MAB. The MAB consisted of 25% cow liver meal, 20% leather meal, 20% meat and bone meal, 15% blood meal, 10% APC (poultry feather meal), 8% poultry manure dried, 1.5% choline and 0.5% chromic oxide. After 75 d of feeding, fish fed with diets MAB50, MAB75 and MAB100 exhibited significantly lower growth performance than that of fish fed with control and MAB25 diets. The optimum level of MAB was estimated to be 23%. Replacement of fish meal by MAB23% showed the following performance: maximum weight gain, 510%; SGR, 2.39% and FCE, 2.83%. The MAB substitution up to 75% of fish meal protein in diets did not show differences in apparent protein digestibility (83.6% for MAB25, 79.2% for MAB50, 78.7% for MAB75) compared with control (83.4%), whereas in MAB100 group digestibility (65.3%) was significantly lower than in other groups. The apparent phosphorus absorption of test diet groups was significantly higher (37.1% for MAB25, 28.5% for MAB50, 55.6% for MAB75 and 54.5% for MAB100) than that of control (11.2%). The levels of protein and ash in the whole body, carcass and viscera increased as MAB substitution in diets increased, whereas lipids and moisture remained consistent among all treatment groups. These results showed that approximately 23% of fish meal protein could be replaced by a mixture of animal by-products for juvenile snapper growing from 30 g to 167 g in 75 d without compromising growth performance and feed efficiency.

  14. Biogeography of tropical Indo-West Pacific parasites: a cryptic species of Transversotrema and evidence for rarity of Transversotrematidae (Trematoda) in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Cribb, Thomas H; Adlard, Robert D; Bray, Rodney A; Sasal, Pierre; Cutmore, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    We sought transversotrematid trematodes from French Polynesian fishes by examining 304 individual scaled fishes of 53 species from seven families known to harbour the family elsewhere. A single species was found at two locations in the Tuamotus Archipelago on two species of Chaetodontidae (Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon ephippium) and one species of Lutjanidae (Lutjanus gibbus). The species closely resembles Transversotrema borboleta Hunter & Cribb, 2012 from chaetodontids and lutjanids of the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) but differs from it consistently in 8 base positions of ITS2 rDNA. This level of variation exceeds that between some clearly morphologically distinct pairs of species of Transversotrema and the form from French Polynesia is thus interpreted as a distinct, though cryptic, species and named Transversotrema polynesiae n. sp. The new species forms part of a complex of species, here characterised as the T. borboleta complex, associated with chaetodontids and lutjanids in the tropical Indo-West Pacific. Most of the putative species within this complex are yet to be described. Comparison of identical numbers of matched samples of fishes from French Polynesia, Heron Island (southern GBR) and Lizard Island (northern GBR) revealed 1, 4 and 10 species of Transversotrema respectively suggesting that the French Polynesian fauna is depauperate for this family. In addition to those species apparently missing from suitable hosts in French Polynesia, several species from further west infect fishes (especially Nemipteridae) that are themselves absent from French Polynesia. This dramatic east-west decline in richness contrasts strongly with what is known for monogeneans, which appear to maintain their richness over the same scale, and is more precipitate than is known for other groups of trematodes. The decline might be explained in part by the absence of the as yet unknown first intermediate hosts in French Polynesia. However, we predict that it is explained

  15. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance. PMID:26658051

  16. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, “Rojo Pasión” and “Z506-7”, resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance. PMID:26658051

  17. A data base of crop nutrient use, water use, and carbon dioxide exchange in a 2O square meter growth chamber: I. Wheat as a case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Berry, W. L.; Mackowiak, C.; Corey, K. A.; Sager, J. C.; Heeb, M. M.; Knott, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    A data set is given describing the daily nutrient uptake, gas exchange, environmental conditions, and carbon (C), and nutrient partitioning at harvest for the entire canopy and root system of a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yecora Rojo). The data were obtained from a 20 m2 stand of wheat plants grown from planting to maturity in a closed, controlled environment, and include daily nutrient uptake [macronutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S); and micronutrients, iron (Fe), boron (B), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo)], canopy carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rates, and transpiration. Environmental factors such as relative humidity, air temperature, nutrient solution temperature, pH and electrical conductivity, and photoperiod were controlled in the chamber to specific set points. A detailed description of biomass yield for each of the 64 plant growth trays comprising the 20 m2 of growth area is also provided, and includes dry weights of grain, straw, chaff, and roots, along with the concentration of nutrients in different plant tissues and the percent carbohydrate, fat, and protein. To our knowledge, this information represents one of the most extensive data sets available for a canopy of wheat grown from seed to maturity under controlled environmental and nutritional conditions, and thus may provide useful information for model development and validation. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might be required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar indicating when adjustments in set points and occasional equipment or sensor failures occurred.

  18. A Data Base of Crop Nutrient Use, Water Use, and Carbon Dioxide Exchange in a 20 Square Meter Growth Chamber. Part 1; Wheat as a Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Berry, Wade L.; Mackowiak, Cheryl; Corey, Kenneth A.; Sager, John C.; Heeb, Margaret M.; Knott, William M.

    1993-01-01

    A data set is given describing the daily nutrient uptake, gas exchange, environmental conditions, and carbon (C), and nutrient partitioning at harvest for the entire canopy and root system of a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yecora Rojo). The data were obtained from a 20 sq m stand of wheat plants grown from planting to maturity in a closed, controlled environment, and include daily nutrient uptake [macronutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S); and micronutrients, iron (Fe), boron (B), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo)], canopy carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rates, and transpiration. Environmental factors such as relative humidity, air temperature, nutrient solution temperature, pH and electrical conductivity, and photoperiod were controlled in the chamber to specific set points. A detailed description of biomass yield for each of the 64 plant growth trays comprising the 20 sq m of growth area is also provided, and includes dry weights of grain, straw, chaff, and roots, along with the concentration of nutrients in different plant tissues and the percent carbohydrate, fat, and protein. To our knowledge, this information represents one of the most extensive data sets available for a canopy of wheat grown from seed to maturity under controlled environmental and nutritional conditions, and thus may provide useful information for model development and validation. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might he required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar indicating when adjustments in set points and occasional equipment or sensor failures occurred.

  19. ALHAMBRA-survey: a new tool for photo-z calibrations in absence of spec-z information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molino Benito, A.; Benitez Lozano, N.; The Alhambra-Team

    2013-05-01

    La estimación de los desplazamientos al rojo (redshift) de las galaxias, derivados mediante fotometría multi-banda, se conoce con el nombre de photometric redshifts (photo-z). Es bien sabido que la precisión alcanzable por estas técnicas puede verse incrementada si se dispone de una muestra espectroscópica de galaxias (cuyos redshifts (spec-z) sean conocidos) con la que re-calibrar los puntos cero fotométricos. (Coe et al. 2006, Ilbert et al. 2008, Molino et al. 2012 in prep). ALHAMBRA-survey, que es un cartografiado extragaláctico (de ˜4 grados cuadrados) dedicado a la realización de un estudio de la evolución de las propiedades y contenido del Universo (Moles et al. 2005, 2008), presenta solapamientos parciales con otros cartografiados espectroscópicos ya existentes con el objetivo de validar y mejorar la precisión de sus photo-z. Sin embargo, dada la variabilidad fotométrica entre sus campos, resulta ineficiente extrapolar las correcciones de punto cero, introduciendo sesgos de inhomogeneidad en la precisión de los resultados. En este trabajo se presenta una nueva metodología que permite mejorar la calibración de los puntos cero fotométricos mediante la utilización de la información estadística proporcionada por los propios photo-z. Mediante esta técnica resulta posible no sólo mejorar la precisión de las estimaciones sino, además, soslayar la necesidad de obtener grandes muestras espectroscópicas.

  20. In situ detection of apoptotic cells by TUNEL in the gill epithelium of the developing brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    PubMed Central

    ROJO, M. C.; GONZALEZ, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Apoptosis is a form of naturally occurring cell death during development and it is characterised by extensive DNA fragmentation. Apoptosis is easily detected in the gill epithelium of brown trout embryos in ultrathin sections (Rojo et al. 1997). Here we provide the first biochemical evidence for apoptosis in the gill epithelium of brown trout embryos, using in situ end-labelling of DNA breaks (Gavrieli et al. 1992). Embryos at d 57 of development as well as those at hatching, were processed to analyse the distribution of apoptotic cells in the gills. The extent of apoptosis revealed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling method technique is considerably greater than apoptosis detected by nuclear morphology. This method revealed that apoptosis was frequent at hatching, although it was also present during embryonic development. The presence and distribution of stained nuclei were different depending on the developmental stage. In embryos of 57 d, apoptotic flattened nuclei were dispersed in the gill epithelium, whereas at hatching, they were mainly grouped in the tips of the filaments and in the gill arches. TUNEL also revealed a distinct pattern of nuclear staining: at hatching, the intense staining covered the entire cell, but in embryos it was restricted to the nucleus. These results show the functional relevance of apoptosis at hatching, when apoptosis seems to be the unique process by which cell numbers in the gill epithelium are adjusted, in order to prepare for the new extrinsic conditions affecting the free-living life of alevins. PMID:9877294

  1. Maps Showing Composition of Surficial Sediments on the Insular Shelf of Southwestern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shideler, Gerald L.

    1980-01-01

    The limited availability of onshore sand deposits for use in construction appears to be a future major problem in Puerto Rico (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1972; Committee on Puerto Rico and the Sea, 1974). Consequently, the mining of offshore sand deposits as supplemental sources of construction aggregate may becom e necessary. For this reason, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Department of Natural Resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico have conducted investigations of potential offshore sand deposits on the Puerto Rico insular shelf. This report provides information on the composition of surficial sediments on the southwestern Puerto Rico shelf (fig. 1), an area that may be one of the more favorable potential sites for offshore sand resources. Water depths over most of the study area are less than 22 meters (m). The sea floor is composed of live and dead patch and fringing reefs, areas of rock exposures, and sedim ent-covered areas. The adjacent coastline includes prominent embaym ents and a conspicuous rock promontory (Cabo Rojo) connected by a tombolo to the mainland of Puerto Rico. The study area is in the belt of northeast trade winds. Waves approach the coast predominantly from the southeast, resulting in a predominantly westward littoral drift along the south coast (Grove and Trumbull, 1978). Local sand movement on the southern shelf is shown by an active sand wave field south of Bah1a Sucia in which the sand wave crests have migrated toward the southwest (Grove and Trumbull, 1978). The presence of the sand wave field suggests that large volumes of sand having potential for mining are locally present in the study area.

  2. GPS Constraints on Lesser Antilles Forearc Motion and Rigid Caribbean Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A. M.; Stein, S.; Sella, G.; Dixon, T. H.; Calais, E.; Jansma, P. E.

    2005-05-01

    We are using a decade of Global Positioning System data to address two tectonic problems of the Caribbean (CA) plate; 1) Whether a forearc sliver exists along the Lesser Antilles forearc and if so what is its dynamics and location, and 2) Whether the Caribbean plate is deforming internally. We approach this problem by developing GPS-derived velocity vectors at sites within the CA plate and its boundaries and comparing them to four decades of earthquake data. In a number of subduction zones, misfits between slip vectors and predicted convergence azimuths from Euler vectors suggest the presence of a forearc sliver, where trench-parallel motion is accommodated along a strike-slip fault system. Such a situation may be occurring at the eastern boundary of the CA plate along the Lesser Antilles (LA) forearc, where the North America (NA) plate subducts obliquely. Comparing slip vectors of shallow (0-60 km) thrust events to the predicted motions of GPS-based Euler vectors show a systematic northerly misfit, suggesting a trench-parallel component of motion taken up by the forearc sliver. This possibility can be tested with GPS data from the forearc. In addition, we use new GPS data to constrain the internal rigidity of the plate. Previous GPS work yielded a possible upper bound on internal deformation of 4-6 mm/yr. With an expansion in the data set on critically located stations in the CA plate (SANA, ROJO, CRO1 and AVES), we have computed new sets of Euler vector pairs for the CA-NA and CA-South America plate pairs.

  3. Speciation of arsenic in bulk and rhizosphere soils from artisanal cooperative mines in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Jose A; Arocena, Joselito M; Faz, Angel

    2015-11-01

    Soils near artisanal and small-scale gold mines (ASGM) have high arsenic (As) contents due to the presence of arsenopyrite in gold ores and accelerated accumulations due to mine wastes disposal practices and other mining activities. We determined the content and speciation to understand the fate and environmental risks of As accumulations in 24 bulk and 12 rhizosphere soil samples collected in the Virgen Del Rosario and the Rayo Rojo cooperative mines in the highlands of Bolivia. Mean total As contents in bulk and rhizosphere soils ranged from 13 to 64 mg kg(-1) and exceeded the soil environmental quality guidelines of Canada. Rhizosphere soils always contained at least twice the As contents in the bulk soil. Elemental mapping using 4×5 μm synchrotron-generated X-ray micro-beam revealed As accumulations in areas enriched with Fe. Results of As-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (As-XANES) showed that only As(V) species was detectable in all samples regardless of As contents, size fractions and types of vegetation. Although the toxicity of As(V) is less than As(III), we suggest that As uptake of commonly-grazed vegetation by alpaca and llama must be determined to fully understand the environmental risks of high As in soils near ASGM in Bolivia. In addition, knowledge on the speciation of the As bio-accessible fraction will provide another useful information to better understand the fate and transfer of As from soils into the food chain in environments associated with the ASGM in Bolivia and other parts of the world. PMID:25577694

  4. A data base of crop nutrient use, water use, and carbon dioxide exchange in a 2O square meter growth chamber: I. Wheat as a case study.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M; Berry, W L; Mackowiak, C; Corey, K A; Sager, J C; Heeb, M M; Knott, W M

    1993-01-01

    A data set is given describing the daily nutrient uptake, gas exchange, environmental conditions, and carbon (C), and nutrient partitioning at harvest for the entire canopy and root system of a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yecora Rojo). The data were obtained from a 20 m2 stand of wheat plants grown from planting to maturity in a closed, controlled environment, and include daily nutrient uptake [macronutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S); and micronutrients, iron (Fe), boron (B), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo)], canopy carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rates, and transpiration. Environmental factors such as relative humidity, air temperature, nutrient solution temperature, pH and electrical conductivity, and photoperiod were controlled in the chamber to specific set points. A detailed description of biomass yield for each of the 64 plant growth trays comprising the 20 m2 of growth area is also provided, and includes dry weights of grain, straw, chaff, and roots, along with the concentration of nutrients in different plant tissues and the percent carbohydrate, fat, and protein. To our knowledge, this information represents one of the most extensive data sets available for a canopy of wheat grown from seed to maturity under controlled environmental and nutritional conditions, and thus may provide useful information for model development and validation. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might be required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar indicating when adjustments in set points and occasional equipment or sensor failures occurred. PMID:11538007

  5. Local annual survival and seasonal residency rates of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) in Puerto rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, S.M.; Collazo, J.A.; Alldredge, M.W.; Harrington, B.A.; Lewis, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    We report seasonal residency and local annual survival rates of migratory Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) at the Cabo Rojo salt flats, Puerto Rico. Residency rate (daily probability of remaining on the flats) was 0.991 ?? 0.001 (x?? ?? SE), yielding a mean length of stay of 110 days. This finding supports the inclusion of the Caribbean as part of the species' winter range. Average estimated percentage of fat was low but increased throughout the season, which suggests that birds replenish some spent fat reserves and strive for energetic maintenance. Local annual survival rate was 0.62 ?? 0.04, within the range of values reported for breeding populations at Manitoba and Alaska (0.53-0.76). The similarity was not unexpected because estimates were obtained annually but at opposite sites of their annual migratory movements. Birds captured at the salt flats appeared to be a mix of birds from various parts of the breeding range, judging from morphology (culmen's coefficient of variation = 9.1, n = 106). This suggested that origin (breeding area) of birds and their proportion in the data should be ascertained and accounted for in analyses to glean the full conservation implications of winter-based annual survival estimates. Those data are needed to unravel the possibility that individuals of distinct populations are affected by differential mortality factors across different migratory routes. Mean length of stay strongly suggested that habitat quality at the salt flats was high. Rainfall and tidal flow combine to increase food availability during fall. The salt flats dry up gradually toward late January, at the onset of the dry season. Semipalmated Sandpipers may move west to other Greater Antilles or south to sites such as coastal Surinam until the onset of spring migration. They are not an oversummering species at the salt flats. Conservation efforts in the Caribbean region require understanding the dynamics of this species throughout winter to protect

  6. Observation and Analysis of a Single-Chord Stellar Occultation by Kuiper Belt Object (50000) Quaoar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Allen B.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Person, M. J.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Bosh, A. S.; Levine, S.; Naranjo, O. A.; Navas, G. R.; Gulbis, A.; Winters, J. G.; Bianco, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Williams-MIT collaboration (www.stellaroccultations.info) predicted and observed a stellar occultation of 2UCAC 26260847 (mag 14.35) by KBO 50000 Quaoar (mag 18.9) on 8/9 July 2013. Observations were attempted from a total of five sites in Chile, Venezuela, and Massachusetts. Only one site, Llano del Hato National Astronomical Observatory in Venezuela, had a positive detection of the occultation, giving us a single chord on Quaoar. All other sites were cloudy. The light curve from the 8/9 July 2013 event has been analyzed with the assumption that Quaoar is ellipsoidal or spherical, placing bounds on some of Quaoar’s properties: diameter (> 1138 ± 25 km), density (< 1.82 ± 0.28 g cm-3), and albedo (< 0.14 ± 0.10). An independent prediction of the occultation’s shadow path by Fraser, Gwyn, et al. (2013) suggests that the chord is near-equatorial, which means that our bounds on Quaoar’s properties are closer to estimates. We will compare our result with that of the 11 February 2011 single-chord occultation detected by Sallum et al. (2011) and Person et al. (2011). A subsequent attempt to observe a second Quaoar occultation, that of 12/13 July 2013 in South Africa, failed because of cloudy weather. This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary Astronomy grants NNX08AO50G and NNH11ZDA001N to Williams College, NNX10AB27G to MIT, and USRA grant #8500-98-003 to Lowell Observatory. We thank Steven P. Souza at Williams, and other collaborators in planning and carrying out the various observations: including Libardo Zerpa, Joresly Villarreal, Richard Rojas, and Jorge Moreno at Llano del Hato, and Patricio Rojo and Matias Jones at Cerro Calan/U. Chile.

  7. Wheat Phenological Development and Growth Studies As Affected by Drought and Late Season High Temperature Stress under Arid Environment.

    PubMed

    Ihsan, Muhammad Z; El-Nakhlawy, Fathy S; Ismail, Saleh M; Fahad, Shah; Daur, Ihsanullah

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential for adaptability and tolerance of wheat genotypes (G) to an arid environment. We examined the influence of drought stress (DS) (100, 75, and 50% field capacity), planting times (PT) (16-November, 01-December, 16-December and 01-January), and G (Yocoro Rojo, FKAU-10, Faisalabad-08, and Galaxy L-7096) on phenological development, growth indices, grain yield, and water use efficiency of drip-irrigated wheat. Development measured at five phenological growth stages (GS) (tillering, jointing, booting, heading, and maturity) and growth indices 30, 45, 60, and 75 days after sowing (DAS) were also correlated with final grain yield. Tillering occurred earlier in DS plots, to a maximum of 31 days. Days to complete 50% heading and physiological crop maturity were the most susceptible GS that denoted 31-72% reduction in number of days to complete these GS at severe DS. Wheat G grown with severe DS had the shortest grain filling duration. Genotype Fsd-08 presented greater adaptability to studied arid climate and recorded 31, 35, and 38% longer grain filling period as compared with rest of the G at 100-50% field capacity respectively. December sowing mitigated the drought and delayed planting effects by producing superior growth and yield (2162 kg ha(-1)) at severe DS. Genotypes Fsd-08 and L-7096 attained the minimum plant height (36 cm) and the shortest growth cycle (76 days) for January planting with 50% field capacity. At severe DS leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate and net assimilation rate were decreased by 67, 57, 34, and 38% as compared to non-stressed plots. Genotypes Fsd-08 and F-10 were the superior ones and secured 14-17% higher grain yield than genotype YR for severely stressed plots. The correlation between crop growth indices and grain yield depicted the highest value (0.58-0.71) at 60-75 DAS. So the major contribution of these growth indices toward grain yield was at the start of reproductive phase. It

  8. Impact of Duality Violations on Spectral Sum Rule analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catà, Oscar

    2007-02-01

    Recent sum rule analyses on the two-point correlator have led to significant discrepancies in the values found for the OPE condensates, most dramatically in the dimension eight condensate and to a lesser extent in the dimension six one [R. Barate et al., ALEPH Collaboration, Eur. Phys. J. C 4 (1998) 409; K. Ackerstaff et al., OPAL Collaboration, Eur. Phys. J. C 7 (1999) 571, arXiv:hep-ex/9808019; S. Peris, B. Phily and E. de Rafael, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 (2001) 14, arXiv:hep-ph/0007338; S. Friot, D. Greynat and E. de Rafael, JHEP 0410 (2004) 043, arXiv:hep-ph/0408281; M. Davier, L. Girlanda, A. Hocker and J. Stern, Phys. Rev. D 58 (1998) 096014, arXiv:hep-ph/9802447; B.L. Ioffe and K.N. Zyablyuk, Nucl. Phys. A 687 (2001) 437, arXiv:hep-ph/0010089. K.N. Zyablyuk, Eur. Phys. J. C 38 (2004) 215, arXiv:hep-ph/0404230; J. Bijnens, E. Gamiz and J. Prades, JHEP 0110 (2001) 009, arXiv:hep-ph/0108240; C.A. Dominguez and K. Schilcher, Phys. Lett. B 581 (2004) 193, arXiv:hep-ph/0309285; J. Rojo and J. I. Latorre, JHEP 0401 (2004) 055, arXiv:hep-ph/0401047; V. Cirigliano, E. Golowich and K. Maltman, Phys. Rev. D 68 (2003) 054013, arXiv:hep-ph/0305118; S. Ciulli, C. Sebu, K. Schilcher and H. Spiesberger, Phys. Lett. B 595 (2004) 359, arXiv:hep-ph/0312212. S. Narison, arXiv:hep-ph/0412152]. Precise knowledge of these condensates is of relevance in kaon decays [M. Knecht, S. Peris and E. de Rafael, Phys. Lett. B 457 (1999) 227, arXiv:hep-ph/9812471; J.F. Donoghue and E. Golowich, Phys. Lett. B 478 (2000) 172, arXiv:hep-ph/9911309; M. Knecht, S. Peris and E. de Rafael, Phys. Lett. B 508 (2001) 117, arXiv:hep-ph/0102017] and therefore it seems mandatory to assess the actual impact of what is commonly neglected in spectral sum rules, most prominently the issue of duality violations. We will explicitly compute them in a toy model and show that they are a priori non-negligible.

  9. Wheat Phenological Development and Growth Studies As Affected by Drought and Late Season High Temperature Stress under Arid Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ihsan, Muhammad Z.; El-Nakhlawy, Fathy S.; Ismail, Saleh M.; Fahad, Shah; daur, Ihsanullah

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential for adaptability and tolerance of wheat genotypes (G) to an arid environment. We examined the influence of drought stress (DS) (100, 75, and 50% field capacity), planting times (PT) (16-November, 01-December, 16-December and 01-January), and G (Yocoro Rojo, FKAU-10, Faisalabad-08, and Galaxy L-7096) on phenological development, growth indices, grain yield, and water use efficiency of drip-irrigated wheat. Development measured at five phenological growth stages (GS) (tillering, jointing, booting, heading, and maturity) and growth indices 30, 45, 60, and 75 days after sowing (DAS) were also correlated with final grain yield. Tillering occurred earlier in DS plots, to a maximum of 31 days. Days to complete 50% heading and physiological crop maturity were the most susceptible GS that denoted 31–72% reduction in number of days to complete these GS at severe DS. Wheat G grown with severe DS had the shortest grain filling duration. Genotype Fsd-08 presented greater adaptability to studied arid climate and recorded 31, 35, and 38% longer grain filling period as compared with rest of the G at 100–50% field capacity respectively. December sowing mitigated the drought and delayed planting effects by producing superior growth and yield (2162 kg ha−1) at severe DS. Genotypes Fsd-08 and L-7096 attained the minimum plant height (36 cm) and the shortest growth cycle (76 days) for January planting with 50% field capacity. At severe DS leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate and net assimilation rate were decreased by 67, 57, 34, and 38% as compared to non-stressed plots. Genotypes Fsd-08 and F-10 were the superior ones and secured 14–17% higher grain yield than genotype YR for severely stressed plots. The correlation between crop growth indices and grain yield depicted the highest value (0.58–0.71) at 60–75 DAS. So the major contribution of these growth indices toward grain yield was at the start of reproductive

  10. Maternal Blood, Plasma, and Breast Milk Lead: Lactational Transfer and Contribution to Infant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ananya; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Smith, Donald; Lupoli, Nicola; Mercado-García, Adriana; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Background: Human milk is a potential source of lead exposure. Yet lactational transfer of lead from maternal blood into breast milk and its contribution to infant lead burden remains poorly understood. Objectives: We explored the dose–response relationships between maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk to better understand lactational transfer of lead from blood and plasma into milk and, ultimately, to the breastfeeding infant. Methods: We measured lead in 81 maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk samples at 1 month postpartum and in 60 infant blood samples at 3 months of age. Milk-to-plasma (M/P) lead ratios were calculated. Multivariate linear, piecewise, and generalized additive models were used to examine dose–response relationships between blood, plasma, and milk lead levels. Results: Maternal lead levels (mean ± SD) were as follows: blood: 7.7 ± 4.0 μg/dL; plasma: 0.1 ± 0.1 μg/L; milk: 0.8 ± 0.7 μg/L. The average M/P lead ratio was 7.7 (range, 0.6–39.8) with 97% of the ratios being > 1. The dose–response relationship between plasma lead and M/P ratio was nonlinear (empirical distribution function = 6.5, p = 0.0006) with the M/P ratio decreasing by 16.6 and 0.6 per 0.1 μg/L of plasma lead, respectively, below and above 0.1 μg/L plasma lead. Infant blood lead level (3.4 ± 2.2 μg/dL) increased by 1.8 μg/dL per 1 μg/L milk lead (p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.3). Conclusions: The M/P ratio for lead in humans is substantially higher than previously reported, and transfer of lead from plasma to milk may be higher at lower levels of plasma lead. Breast milk is an important determinant of lead burden among breastfeeding infants. Citation: Ettinger AS, Roy A, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Smith DR, Lupoli N, Mercado-García A, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Tellez-Rojo MM, Hu H, Hernández-Avila M. 2014. Maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk lead: lactational transfer and contribution to infant exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:87–92; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  11. Preliminary Public Design Report for the Texas Clean Energy Project: Topical Report - Phase 1, June 2010-July 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Mattes, Karl

    2012-02-01

    completed contracts for the sale of all of the urea and most of the CO2. Significant progress was made on the contracts for the purchase of coal feedstock from Cloud Peak Energy’s Cordero Rojo mine and the sale of electricity to CPS Energy, as well as a memorandum of understanding with the Union Pacific Railroad (UPRR) for delivery of the coal to the TCEP site.

  12. Gas exchange characteristics of wheat stands grown in a closed, controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M; Corey, K A; Sager, J C; Knott, W M

    1993-01-01

    Information on gas exchange of crop stands grown in controlled environments is limited, but is vital for assessing the use of crops for human life-support in closed habitats envisioned for space. Two studies were conducted to measure gas exchange of wheat stands (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) grown from planting to maturity in a large (20 m2 canopy area), closed growth chamber. Daily rates of dark-period respiration and net photosynthesis of the stand were calculated from rates of CO2 build-up during dark cycles and subsequent CO2 drawdown in the light (i.e., a closed-system approach). Lighting was provided as a 20-h photoperiod by high-pressure sodium lamps, with canopy-level photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) ranging from 500 to 800 micromoles m-2 s-1 as canopy height increased. Net photosynthesis rates peaked near 27 micromoles CO2 m-2 s-1 at 25 d after planting, which corresponded closely with stand closure, and then declined slowly with age. Similarly, dark-period respiration rates peaked near 14 micromoles CO2 m-2 s-1 at 25 d and then gradually declined with age. Responses to short-term changes in irradiance after canopy closure indicated the stand light compensation point for photosynthesis to be near 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPFD. Tests in which CO2 concentration was raised to approximately 2000 micromoles mol-1 and then allowed to draw down to a compensation point showed that net photosynthesis was nearly saturated at > 1000 micromoles mol-1; below approximately 500 micromoles mol-1, net photosynthesis rates dropped sharply with decreasing CO2. The CO2 compensation point for photosynthesis occurred near 50 micromoles mol-1. Short-term (24 h) temperature tests showed net photosynthesis at 20 degrees C > or = 16 degrees C > 24 degrees C, while dark-period respiration at 24 degrees C > 20 degrees C > 16 degrees C. Rates of stand evapotranspiration peaked near Day 25 and remained relatively constant until about Day 75, after which rates declined

  13. Childhood Blood Lead Levels and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Cross-Sectional Study of Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Siying; Hu, Howard; Sánchez, Brisa N; Peterson, Karen E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; Wright, Robert O.; Basu, Niladri; Cantonwine, David E.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that blood lead levels are positively associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-symptoms in children. However, the associations between lead exposure and ADHD subtypes are inconsistent and understudied. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the association of low-level concurrent lead exposure with subtypes of ADHD symptoms in 578 Mexican children 6–13 years of age. Methods: We measured concurrent blood lead levels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). We administered the Conners’ Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) to mothers to evaluate their children’s ADHD symptoms. We used imputation to fill missing values in blood lead levels and used segmented regression models adjusted for relevant covariates to model the nonlinear relationship between blood lead and ADHD symptoms. Results: Mean ± SD blood lead levels were 3.4 ± 2.9 μg/dL. In adjusted models, a 1-μg/dL increase in blood lead was positively associated with Hyperactivity and Restless-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, but only in children with blood lead level ≤ 5 μg/dL. Blood lead was not associated with Inattentive symptoms or overall ADHD behavior. Conclusions: In this population of Mexican children, current blood lead level among children with low exposure (≤ 5 μg/dL) was positively associated with hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, but not with inattentiveness. These results add to the existing evidence of lead-associated neurodevelopmental deficits at low levels of exposure. Citation: Huang S, Hu H, Sánchez BN, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schnaas L, Mercado-García A, Wright RO, Basu N, Cantonwine DE, Hernández-Avila M, Téllez-Rojo MM. 2016. Childhood blood lead levels and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a

  14. Subsidence History of the Laguna Salada Basin in Northeastern Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, J.; Martin-Barajas, A.; Herguera, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Salton Trough region in southern California and the Mexicali valley in northwestern Mexico are areas of (i) rapid subsidence due to trans-tension along the San Andreas-Imperial fault system, and (ii) high flux of sediments transported by the Colorado River, all of which confer this region with a high potential to preserve a complete record of climatic and tectonic activity information. Here we present the subsidence history of the Laguna Salada basin, and the history of activity of the master bounding faults on its eastern side. The Laguna Salada is a lacustrine basin located west of the Mexicali valley and to the south of the Salton Trough. Sedimentological as well as time series analyses performed on two 42 m-long cores drilled in the center of the basin, estimated to span the past 50 and 70KaBP, indicate a modulation of the late Quaternary stratigraphy by cyclic variations in lake level driven by Milankovitch forcing. Based on these results we derive the long-term history of the basin from a gamma-ray log recovered from a 2.8 km-deep geothermal borehole drilled by the Mexican Power Company adjacent to the Laguna Salada fault. The stratigraphy of the deep borehole reveals a history of activity pulses related to the initial breakage of the Laguna Salada fault and its interaction with neighboring faults. A first pulse started at 1.5 Ma and records the initiation of the Laguna Salada fault and rapid uplift of the crystalline block of the Sierra Cucapa. A second pulse started around 1 Ma, and is very likely related to the hard linking of the Laguna Salada fault with the Cañada David detachment by the Cañon Rojo fault. The onset of the Laguna Salada fault at 1.5 Ma appears to be synchronous with an early Pleistocene regional fault reorganization among the San Jacinto, San Andreas and Elsinore fault systems in southern California, suggesting that this reorganization may have affected a large area from San Gorgonio pass to the northern Gulf of California.

  15. Hurdle technology applied to prickly pear beverages for inhibiting Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    García-García, R; Escobedo-Avellaneda, Z; Tejada-Ortigoza, V; Martín-Belloso, O; Valdez-Fragoso, A; Welti-Chanes, J

    2015-06-01

    The effect of pH reduction (from 6·30-6·45 to 4·22-4·46) and the addition of antimicrobial compounds (sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate) on the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in prickly pear beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of Villanueva (V, Opuntia albicarpa) and Rojo Vigor (RV, Opuntia ficus-indica) varieties during 14 days of storage at 25°C, was evaluated. RV variety presented the highest microbial inhibition. By combining pH reduction and preservatives, reductions of 6·2-log10 and 2·3-log10 for E. coli and S. cerevisiae were achieved respectively. Due to the low reduction of S. cerevisiae, pulsed electric fields (PEF) (11-15 μs/25-50 Hz/27-36 kV cm(-1)) was applied as another preservation factor. The combination of preservatives, pH reduction and PEF at 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for V variety, and 11 μs/50 Hz, 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for RV, had a synergistic effect on S. cerevisiae inhibition, achieving at least 3·4-log10 of microbial reduction immediately after processing, and more than 5-log10 at fourth day of storage at 25°C maintained this reduction during 21 days of storage (P > 0·05). Hurdle technology using PEF in combination with other factors is adequate to maintain stable prickly pear beverages during 21 days/25°C. Significance and impact of the study: Prickly pear is a fruit with functional value, with high content of nutraceuticals and antioxidant activity. Functional beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of this fruit represent an alternative for its consumption. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are micro-organisms that typically affect fruit beverage quality and safety. The food industry is looking for processing technologies that maintain quality without compromising safety. Hurdle technology, including pulsed electric fields (PEF) could be an option to achieve this. The combination of PEF, pH reduction and preservatives is an alternative to obtain safe and minimally processed

  16. Complete Boson-Fermion Model of Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Llano, Manuel

    2003-03-01

    ). Collaborators: J. Batle, M. Casas, M. Fortes, F.J. Sevilla, M.A. Solis, O. Rojo, V.V. Tolmachev.

  17. Physiologic and metabolic responses of wheat seedlings to elevated and super-elevated carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Kasahara, Hirokazu; Kopka, Joachim; Erban, Alexander; Fehrl, Ines; Kaplan, Fatma; Zhao, Wei; Littell, Ramon C.; Guy, Charles; Wheeler, Raymond; Sager, John; Mills, Aaron; Levine, Howard G.

    2008-12-01

    The metabolic consequence of suboptimal (400 μmol mol -1 or ppm), near-optimal (1500 ppm) and supra-optimal (10,000 ppm) atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations [CO 2] was investigated in an attempt to reveal plausible underlying mechanisms for the differential physiological and developmental responses to increasing [CO 2]. Both non-targeted and targeted metabolite profiling by GC-MS and LC-MS were employed to examine primary and secondary metabolites in wheat ( Triticum aestivum, cv Yocoro rojo) continuously exposed to these [CO 2] levels for 14, 21 and 28 days. Metabolite profile was altered by both [CO 2] and physiological age. In general, plants grown under high [CO 2] exhibited a metabolite profile characteristic of older plants under ambient CO 2. Elevated [CO 2] resulted in higher levels of phosphorylated sugar intermediates, though no clear trend in the content of reducing sugars was observed. Transient starch content was enhanced by increasing [CO 2] to a much greater extent at 10,000 ppm CO 2 than at 1500 ppm CO 2. The percentage increase of starch content resulting from CO 2 enrichment declined as plants develope. In contrast, elevated [CO 2] promoted the accumulation of secondary metabolites (flavonoids) progressively to a greater extent as plants became mature. Elevated [CO 2] to 1500 ppm induced a higher initial growth rate, while super-elevated [CO 2] appeared to negate such initial growth promotion. However, after 4 weeks, there was no difference in vegetative growth between 1500 and 10,000 ppm CO 2-grown plants, both elevated CO 2 levels resulted in an overall 25% increase in biomass over the control plants. More interestingly, elevated atmospheric [CO 2] reduced evapotranspiration rate (ET), but further increase to the supra-optimal level resulted in increased ET (a reversed trend), i.e. ET at 1500 ppm < ET at 10,000 ppm < ET at 400 ppm. The differential effect of elevated and super-elevated CO 2 on plants was further reflected in the nitrogen

  18. Unicapsula species (Myxosporea: Trilosporidae) of Australian marine fishes, including the description of Unicapsula andersenae n. sp. in five teleost families off Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Miller, T L; Adlard, R D

    2013-08-01

    A survey of the myxosporean fauna of Australian marine fishes revealed the presence of three previously unreported species of Unicapsula (Multivalvulida: Trilosporidae) from sites off Southeast Queensland, off Lizard Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, and from Jurien Bay in Western Australia. Morphometric data (spore, polar capsule and caudal appendage dimensions) combined with Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used for species identification and to explore relationships among these taxa. The four species of Unicapsula for which DNA data are now available for comparative purposes (Unicapsula andersenae n. sp., Unicapsula pflugfelderi, Unicapsula seriolae and Unicapsula pyramidata) formed a well-supported monophyletic sister clade to the other major multivalvulidan group, the Kudoidae. The combined morphometric and genetic diagnostic approach identified an undescribed taxon, U. andersenae n. sp., from the muscle of Argyrosomus japonicus, Acanthopagrus australis and Eleutheronema tetradactylum off the Southeast Queensland coast and in Lutjanus russellii and Sillago ciliata off Lizard Island. Intra-specific variation within U. andersenae n. sp. varied from 2-4 (0.2-0.4%) nucleotides over the SSU region to 2-20 (0.3-3.2%) over the LSU region. Inter-specific variation between U. andersenae n. sp. and the other three species for which genetic sequence data are now available ranged from 15-66 (3-6.5%) nucleotides over the SSU region to 103-120 (17.6-21.2%) nucleotides over the LSU region. The host distribution observed here for U. andersenae n. sp. (five fish species from five different fish families) represents the broadest specificity known for a single species of Unicapsula. U. pyramidata Naidjenova & Zaika 1970, whose spore morphology and presence of caudal appendages immediately distinguish it from other species, was recovered from the nemipterid, Scolopsis monogramma

  19. Texas Clean Energy Project: Topical Report, Phase 1 - February 2010-December 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Mattes, Karl

    2012-11-01

    required to complete the financing of the project. In general, STCE completed project definition, a front-end, engineering and design study (FEED), applied for and received its Record of Decision (ROD) associated with the NEPA requirements summarized in a detailed Environmental Impact Statement. A topical report covering the results of the FEED is the subject of a separate report submitted to the DOE on January 26, 2012. References to the FEED report are contained herein. In December 2011, STCE executed fixed-price turnkey EPC contracts and a long-term O&M agreement with industry-leading contractors.. Other work completed during Phase 1 includes execution of all major commercial input and offtake agreements. STCE negotiated long-term agreements for power, CO2 and urea offtake. A contract for the purchase of coal feedstock from Cloud Peak Energy’s Cordero Rojo mine was executed, as well as a memorandum of understanding with the Union Pacific Railroad (UPRR) for delivery of the coal to the TCEP site. An MOU for natural gas supply was completed with ONEOK, and a long-term water supply agreement was completed with a private landowner. In addition, STCE secured options for easements and rights-of-way, completed a transmission study, executed an interconnection agreement and devoted substantial effort to debt and conventional and tax equity structuring to position the Project for project financing, currently scheduled for closing on December 31, 2012.

  20. Texas Clean Energy Project: Decision Point Application, Section 2: Topical Report - Phase 1, February 2010-October 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Mattes, Karl

    2013-09-01

    additional work required to complete the financing of the Project. In general, STCE completed project definition, a front-end, engineering and design study (FEED), applied for and received its Record of Decision (ROD) associated with the NEPA requirements summarized in a detailed Environmental Impact Statement. A topical report covering the results of the FEED is the subject of a separate report submitted to the DOE on January 26, 2012. References to the FEED report are contained herein. In August 2013, STCE executed fixed-price turnkey EPC contracts and previously, in December 2011 a long-term O&M agreement, with industry-leading contractors. Other work completed during Phase 1 includes execution of all commercial input and offtake agreements required for project financing. STCE negotiated long-term agreements for power, CO2 and urea offtake. A contract for the purchase of coal feedstock from Cloud Peak Energy’s Cordero Rojo mine was executed, as well as necessary agreements (supplementing the tariff) with the Union Pacific Railroad (UPRR) for delivery of the coal to the TCEP site. STCE executed firm agreements for natural gas transportation with ONEOK for long-term water supply with a private landowner. In addition, STCE secured options for critical easements and rights-of-way, completed and updated a transmission study, executed an interconnection agreement and has agreed a target October 31, 2013 financial closing date with debt and conventional and tax equity.

  1. PREFACE: XVII Congress of Bioengineering and VI Clinical Engineering Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Darío

    2011-09-01

    at least 12 different countries. In the three days of planned activities, more than 800 participants were registered and over 2000 people visited the associated expo. Several symposia and thematic meetings were held simultaneously. Around 207 works were presented, each evaluated by two referees, and 181 presentations were finally accepted. The organizers of the Congress proposed that the 14 best works be published in the Journal of Physics Conference Series. A few of the speakers deserve a special mention: James Lin, PhD, USA, Wireless noninvasive sensing and physiological signatures and vital signs; Luis Kun, PhD, USA, Biomedical Engineering and Global Health Transformation: A vision of opportunities and challenges; Mario Munich, PhD, USA, Avances en Robótica y Aplicaciones en Salud (Advances in robotics and health applications); Jose Folgueras, PhD, Cuba, Generación de productos de alto valor agregado a través del conocimiento (Generating products adding value through knowledge); Daniel Goroso, PhD, Brazil, Avanço e tecnología en Medicina Física y Rehabilitación (Advances in technology in physical medicine and rehab); Adolfo Spangenberg, PhD, Brazil, Telemedicine and Health - New perspectivas in development countries; Francisco Rojo Pérez, PhD, Spain, Propiedades del Comportamiento Mecánico y la rotura de la aorta humana (Properties of mechanical behaviour and rupture of the human aorta); and Eduardo de Forteza, PhD, Argentina, La fusión del humanismo médico y la tecnología (Fusion between medical humanism and technology), among others. We would like to thank the institutions, universities, government bodies, and private enterprises that supported and facilitated this Congress, and the members of the Organizing Commitee: Eng David Astegiano (Science and Technology State Minister), Eng Carlos Cerruti (Past President of the Rosario Tecnology Center), Eng Viviana Rotger (Past President of SABI) and MSc Guillermo Civetta (Manager of RTP). The members of the

  2. Earthquake Rupture Complexity Evidence from Field Observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Fletcher, J. M.; Rockwell, T. K.; Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Teran, O.; Akciz, S. O.

    2010-12-01

    Field observations provide strong evidence for four intriguing aspects of rupture process complexity for the 4 April 2010 El Mayor - Cucapah - Indiviso earthquake. First, the southern “fork” of the rupture exhibits two splays just to the northwest of the event epicenter, both with nearly pure right-lateral faulting. Teleseismic source modeling by others indicates normal slip on deep fault surface preceded the shallow strike-slip faulting, and our field observations from the fork area indicate that the earliest phase of strike-slip faulting did not involve a significant normal faulting component. Second, as rupture propagated to the northwest along the Pescadores fault, slip ended abruptly on this fault and transferred across a complex zone to the Borrego fault (although the Pescadores fault continues farther and would have seemed an easier route to follow). This stepover is called the Puerta Accommodation Zone (PAZ) which extends 11 km along-strike within an elevated portion of the Cucapah massif and accommodates a left step (transpressional) that measures less than 2 km across-strike. Though partly obscured by rockfalls in the steep terrain here, only discontinuous faulting of up to one meter reached the ground surface, yet imagery differencing by others indicates several meters of continuous subsurface slip throughout this section. This 11 km region of reduced and discontinuous slip is one of the longest surface rupture jumps ever observed, with lengthy and continuous surface faulting on either side. The SE end of the stepover coincides spatially with the Canon Rojo embayment where the M7.2 1892 surface rupture propagated onto a second fault forming an abrupt corner in its surface trace. Hence, the surface rupture and slip distribution pattern in 2010 appears to have been influenced by stress changes induced by the 1892 event. Thirdly, from the NW end of the transition section, the Borrego fault continues to the NNW with strong east-down slip obliquity. Along

  3. PREFACE: XVII Congress of Bioengineering and VI Clinical Engineering Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Darío

    2011-09-01

    at least 12 different countries. In the three days of planned activities, more than 800 participants were registered and over 2000 people visited the associated expo. Several symposia and thematic meetings were held simultaneously. Around 207 works were presented, each evaluated by two referees, and 181 presentations were finally accepted. The organizers of the Congress proposed that the 14 best works be published in the Journal of Physics Conference Series. A few of the speakers deserve a special mention: James Lin, PhD, USA, Wireless noninvasive sensing and physiological signatures and vital signs; Luis Kun, PhD, USA, Biomedical Engineering and Global Health Transformation: A vision of opportunities and challenges; Mario Munich, PhD, USA, Avances en Robótica y Aplicaciones en Salud (Advances in robotics and health applications); Jose Folgueras, PhD, Cuba, Generación de productos de alto valor agregado a través del conocimiento (Generating products adding value through knowledge); Daniel Goroso, PhD, Brazil, Avanço e tecnología en Medicina Física y Rehabilitación (Advances in technology in physical medicine and rehab); Adolfo Spangenberg, PhD, Brazil, Telemedicine and Health - New perspectivas in development countries; Francisco Rojo Pérez, PhD, Spain, Propiedades del Comportamiento Mecánico y la rotura de la aorta humana (Properties of mechanical behaviour and rupture of the human aorta); and Eduardo de Forteza, PhD, Argentina, La fusión del humanismo médico y la tecnología (Fusion between medical humanism and technology), among others. We would like to thank the institutions, universities, government bodies, and private enterprises that supported and facilitated this Congress, and the members of the Organizing Commitee: Eng David Astegiano (Science and Technology State Minister), Eng Carlos Cerruti (Past President of the Rosario Tecnology Center), Eng Viviana Rotger (Past President of SABI) and MSc Guillermo Civetta (Manager of RTP). The members of the

  4. MicroCT vs. Hg porosimetry: microporosity in commercial stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusi, N.; Martinez-Martinez, J.; Barberini, V.; Galimberti, L.

    2009-04-01

    Decay of rocks, due both to extrinsic and intrinsic factors, can show up in several different forms, such as neoformation of minerals, decohesion of grains and/or crystals, magnification of previous defects, new discontinuities, etc. Intrinsic factors include the type of material, its properties and microstructure, in particular porosity and microporosity. Extrinsic factors relate to atmosphere and usage of the material itself. Rock degradation has several heavy consequences for commercial stones, such as increase of permeability, loss of material, loss of mechanical strength; these consequences are of crucial importance for conservation of historical buildings. Aim of this study is to compare microporosity of some massive commercial stones by means of X ray microtomography, a non destructive technique, and Hg porosimetry. Nine of the most used Spanish limestones and dolostones have been analysed. The lithotypes have been chosen for their homogeneous mineralogical composition (calcitic or dolomitic) and for their low porosity; some of them have been widely used in Spain for historical buildings. Different lithotypes have been described in thin section: Ambarino (A) and Beige Serpiente (BS): brecciated dolostone, composed by microcrystalline dolomitic clasts, in a dolomitic and/or calcitic microcrystalline matrix. Amarillo Triana (AT): yellow dolomitic marble, with fissures filled up by calcite and Fe oxides. Blanco Alconera (BA): a white-pink homogeneous limestone, with veins. Blanco Tranco (BT): a homogeneous white calcitic marble, without any fissures and/or fractures. Crema Valencia (CV): a pinkish limestone, characterized by abundant stilolythes, filled mainly by quartz (80%) and kaolin (11%). Gris Macael (GM): a calcitic marble wiht darker and lighter beds, conferring a strong anisotropy. Rojo Cehegin (RC): a red fossiliferous limestone with white calcitic veins. Travertino Blanco (TB): a massive white calcitic travertine. Prismatic samples of about 2x1x1 cm

  5. 3D characterization of crack propagation in building stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusi, N.; Martinez-Martinez, J.; Crosta, G. B.

    2012-04-01

    Opening of fractures can strongly modify mechanical characteristics of natural stones and thus significantly decrease stability of historical and modern buildings. It is commonly thought that fractures origin from pre-existing structures of the rocks, such as pores, veins, stylolythes (Meng and Pan, 2007; Yang et al., 2008). The aim of this study is to define relationships between crack formation and textural characteristics in massive carbonate lithologies and to follow the evolution of fractures with loading. Four well known Spanish building limestones and dolostones have been analysed: Amarillo Triana (AT): a yellow dolomitic marble, with fissures filled up by calcite and Fe oxides or hydroxides; Blanco Tranco (BT): a homogeneous white calcitic marble with pore clusters orientated parallel to metamorphic foliation; Crema Valencia (CV): a pinkish limestone (mudstone), characterized by abundant stilolythes, filled mainly by quartz (80%) and kaolin (11%); Rojo Cehegin (RC): a red fossiliferous limestone (packstone) with white veins, made up exclusively by calcite in crystals up to 300 micron. All lithotypes are characterized by homogeneous mineralogical composition (calcitic or dolomitic) and low porosity (<10%). Three cores 20 mm in diameter have been obtained for each lithotype. Uniaxial compressive tests have been carried out in order to induce sample fracturing by a series of successive steps with application of a progressive normal stress. Crack propagation has been checked after each stress level application by microCT-RX following Hg impregnation of the sample (in a Hg porosimeter). Combination of both tests (microCT-RX and Hg porosimeter) guarantees a better characterization of small defects and their progressive propagation inside low-porous rocks than by employing solely microCT-RX (Fusi et al., 2009). Due to the reduced dimensions of sample holder (dilatometers) in porosimeter, cores have been cut with a non standard h/d = 1.5. Several cycles of: a) Hg

  6. MicroCT vs. Hg porosimetry: microporosity in commercial stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusi, N.; Martinez-Martinez, J.; Barberini, V.; Galimberti, L.

    2009-04-01

    Decay of rocks, due both to extrinsic and intrinsic factors, can show up in several different forms, such as neoformation of minerals, decohesion of grains and/or crystals, magnification of previous defects, new discontinuities, etc. Intrinsic factors include the type of material, its properties and microstructure, in particular porosity and microporosity. Extrinsic factors relate to atmosphere and usage of the material itself. Rock degradation has several heavy consequences for commercial stones, such as increase of permeability, loss of material, loss of mechanical strength; these consequences are of crucial importance for conservation of historical buildings. Aim of this study is to compare microporosity of some massive commercial stones by means of X ray microtomography, a non destructive technique, and Hg porosimetry. Nine of the most used Spanish limestones and dolostones have been analysed. The lithotypes have been chosen for their homogeneous mineralogical composition (calcitic or dolomitic) and for their low porosity; some of them have been widely used in Spain for historical buildings. Different lithotypes have been described in thin section: Ambarino (A) and Beige Serpiente (BS): brecciated dolostone, composed by microcrystalline dolomitic clasts, in a dolomitic and/or calcitic microcrystalline matrix. Amarillo Triana (AT): yellow dolomitic marble, with fissures filled up by calcite and Fe oxides. Blanco Alconera (BA): a white-pink homogeneous limestone, with veins. Blanco Tranco (BT): a homogeneous white calcitic marble, without any fissures and/or fractures. Crema Valencia (CV): a pinkish limestone, characterized by abundant stilolythes, filled mainly by quartz (80%) and kaolin (11%). Gris Macael (GM): a calcitic marble wiht darker and lighter beds, conferring a strong anisotropy. Rojo Cehegin (RC): a red fossiliferous limestone with white calcitic veins. Travertino Blanco (TB): a massive white calcitic travertine. Prismatic samples of about 2x1x1 cm