The Central Park Conservancy, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to restoring, improving, and managing Central Park's grounds and facilities, offers this "official" site, which contains a wealth of information about what is arguably the world's most famous city park. Each of the site's sections contains useful or interesting information; the Then & Now section, for instance, offers an overview of Central Park's history, a bibliography with 43 entries for those seeking further information, and a list of movies with scenes set in the park. Another highlight of the site is the Virtual Park, which consists of a set of clickable maps through which users can explore 72 points of interest, each described in the affectionate style of a travel guidebook. The site's other sections include such features as events schedules, press releases, information on when and where particular varieties of flowers bloom, and a section devoted entirely to activities for families and children. This site will be especially useful to those who are planning a visit to Central Park, but other users will likely find it informative and entertaining as well.
Presented by the Smithsonian National Zoological Park and Fujifilm, this website offers a suite of fun, online activities designed to educate middle school students about habitat conservation. In one site activity, participants travel to central China to "help make decisions about a fictional forest reserve." In another activity, visitors conduct scientific research in an eastern US forest using a variety of tools and methods. A third activity enables site visitors to design a zoo habitat for giant pandas. For educators, the website supplies a cohesive curriculum which aligns with national science standards. For families, the site offers a collection of downloadable activity ideas such as Nature Drawing, and creating a Family Conservation Action Plan.
A study about the noise pollution found in six urban parks of Curitiba, Paran, Brazil. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) have been measured in points spread throughout the park, and interviews have been conducted with some park visitors. It has been found out that 17.83% out of the measurement sites have presented Leq levels over 65 dB(A), considered by the Preventive Medicine as the maximum level one can be exposed to without being exposed to health impairment risks, and 52.48% out of the meas sites do not satisfy the municipal law 10
Ferreira, Andressa M.; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Zannin, Paulo T.
We are presenting a list of the reptile species from Lençóis Maranhenses National Park (LMNP), Maranhão, Brazil, obtained during 235 days of field work. The study area is located in the contact zone between three major Neotropical ecosystems: Amazonia, Caatinga, and Cerrado. The PNLM encompasses the largest dune fields in Brazil, wide shrubby areas (restingas), lakes, mangroves, and many freshwater lagoons. We have recorded 42 species of reptiles in the area: 24 snakes, 12 lizards, two worm lizards, three turtles, and one alligator. About 81 % of the recorded species occurred only in restinga areas. Our data highlights the uniqueness of the PNLM in the context of the biomes that surround it and shows the importance of efforts to improve the conservation of reptiles living in the restinga, which currently comprise only about 20 % of the total area protected by the park, but which are the mesohabitat containing most of the reptile species in the Lençóis Maranhenses complex of habitats. PMID:23275751
Miranda, Jivanildo Pinheiro; Costa, João Carlos Lopes; Rocha, Carlos Frederico D
This study aims to evaluate soil contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. Soil samples (500 g) were collected every month over a 12-month period, from 25 parks in different parts of the city (northern, southern, eastern, western and central areas). Two 10-g aliquots of the material collected from each park were subjected to the centrifuge-flotation method to recover Toxocara spp. eggs. Twenty-four out of the 25 squares studied (96.0%) were contaminated and the number of eggs recovered ranged from 1 to 398 per sample. Eggs were recovered all over the year. Despite the number being greater in autumn (p < 0.001), there was no correlation between number egg number and average monthly temperature (r = -0.492; p = 0.148) or between egg number and monthly rainfall (r = -0.299; p = 0.402). Park localization does not influence egg presence (p = 0.7116). Because of the high level of contamination of the parks by Toxocara spp. eggs, prevention of contamination of public areas by larva migrans agents is indicated. PMID:23070451
Santarém, Vamilton Alvares; Pereira, Vanessa Cristina; Alegre, Beatriz Cristina Porto
This paper investigates the role of parking pricing and supply by time of day in whether to drive and park in the central business district (CBD). A stated preference survey of car drivers and public transport users was undertaken at a number of parking locations, public transit interchanges, and shopping centres in Sydney CBD during 1998. In the context of
David A. Hensher; Jenny King
Public parks, especially in developing countries, are places where stray animals run free and may contaminate the environment with different species of parasites. In an evaluation of environmental sanitation of these sites, soil samples were collected monthly from public parks in the Pelotas city, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. Eggs of the nematode Lagochilascaris sp. were found in a public playground. This is the first report of identification of this nematode in Southern Brazil. PMID:21974947
de Moura, Micaele Quintana; Jeske, Sabrina; Gallina, Tiago; Borsuk, Sibele; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Villela, Marcos Marreiro
Describes the creation of a glacial park on a university campus. Suggests that the park is a useful instructional resource that helps students relate classroom material to outdoor phenomena by visualizing and identifying glacial landforms, recognizing their spatial relationships, and understanding how glacial features originated. Offers advice for…
Pape, Bruce; Francek, Mark A.
...managed parking facility is not only...with a set management fee and reimbursement of a large part of its...operating the facility, but also...with a set management fee and reimbursement of a large part of its...operating the facility,...
The preferred site for both near-term aquaculture use and for extensive geothermal-based industrial park development are identified on the basis of geothermal resource potential, site ownership and leasing considerations, and other important non-energy considerations such as raw material, labor availability, and transportation systems. A planned mushroom farm using geothermal heating is described. (MHR)
Goering, S.W.; Connor, F.R.; Coury, G.E.
Examines the development of transborder conservation zones, known as "peace parks," in terms of their potential importance as proving grounds for international cooperation and sustainable development, and then in their role as symbols and outright manifestations of the peace process. Includes case studies of La Amistad Biosphere Reserve, Si-a-Paz,…
Weed, Timothy J.
This manual reflects the highlights of an urban park study developed and tested over a 6-year period at the Churchill School, an elementary school for children with learning disabilities. This book makes possible an integrated study that develops understandings in natural science and the social studies along with reading, writing, and language…
A faunal survey of mosquitoes was conducted in 1988 and 1989 at Savanna Portage State Park in north-central Minnesota (Aitkin County). Adults were sampled by sweep net around collectors, aspirator in vegetation, and CO2 traps in the park. Larvae were taken with dipper from various larval habitats. A total of 32 species were detected, including 16 new records for Aitkin County, MN. Prior to this survey, Aedes decticus and Culiseta melanura were reported in Minnesota once previously. PMID:21033060
Crane, Diann M; Moon, Roger D
Ground-truth (GT) events, accurately located with a precision of 5 km (GT5 event) and associated travel times to regional stations are important in developing precise velocity models. The low Brazilian seismicity, with only three continental earthquakes of magnitude five in the last three decades, and the low number of seismic stations explain the difficulty to detect events at regional distances. In the world maps of GT events, Brazil appears almost empty. In Stable Continental Interiors, like Brazil, it is difficult to find an event fulfilling all the GT5 prerequisites, particularly in respect with the number of picked phases and azimuthal gaps. Recently PTS-CTBTO has organized meeting and workshops to encourage seismologists from South and Central America to cooperate with the work of identifying GT5 events in these countries, with a goal of developing a 3-dimentional velocity model for this part of the globe not covered yet like Europe and North America. As a result we studied a recent magnitude 5 event in Central Brazil detected by few regional stations. Aftershock studies with local stations, showed a fault 5 km long. Taking the mainshock epicenter as the center of fault the maximum error would be minimal, 2.5 km, assuming the events were located with zero uncertainty. The parameters depth and origin time source were precisely determined using correlations between waveforms of six events and stations corrections. The event magnitudes range from 3.5 to 5.0 (mainshock, taken as reference event) recorded by regional and local stations. Events recorded at local and regional stations were used to determine the regional station corrections. These events were located only with data from local stations, assigning to the regional stations P and S phases zero weight in order to determine residuals for each regional stations used. The stations corrections were taken as the average of the residuals at each station. Precise pickings of P and S phases for the mainshock were determined using waveforms correlation between different events recorded in the same station in such way that you may read a poor phase based in clear one of similar event. This was based on the fact that events with sources close to each other have more or less the same seismic signature, i.e. have similar waveforms. The differences in size of the seismic sources that causes differences in spectral content were compensated by using the same band pass-filter for both events. This GT5 event in Central Brazil was recorded at more than 15 stations within 15 degrees distance and will help constrain 3D models in South America.
Barros, L. V.; Assumpcao, M.; Caixeta, D.
This work shows a study about the noise pollution found in six urban parks of Curitiba, Paran, Brazil. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) have been measured in points spread throughout the park, and interviews have been conducted with some park visitors. It has been found out that 52.48% out of the measurement sites did not satisfy the Municipal Law no. 10,625, which states the noise emission level of 55 dB(A) as the limit value for green areas. The results of the questionnaires applied to the local visitors have showed that 39% out of the interviewed people used to visit the park every day and that 75% out of them seek for the realization of a physical activity. During the realization of their activities in the parks, 22% out of the interviewed people pointed to the noise pollution as the source of annoyance and 28% out of them pointed the local security. In this sense, it has been verified that half of the analyzed parks were inserted in acoustically polluted areas, which incurs a real state depreciation in their vicinities.
Ferreira, Andressa C.; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Paz, Elaine C.; Zannin, Paulo T.
Based largely on the pioneering research of Bill Crocker, this site on the Canela Indians of Central Brazil is hosted by the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Designed to educate a general audience about the life and activities of the Canela, the site contains numerous sections that allow visitors to explore a world that few persons will be able to visit. First-time visitors will want to read the short essay ("About the Canela") before proceeding to the Daily Life chronology, which lists the activities of the Canela on an average day, including a men's council meeting and sing-dancing. A literature section offers numerous papers written by Bill Crocker on various aspects of Canela life, such as their initiation festivals and their relationships with ghosts. Finally, visitors will want to check out a short video showing Canela men engaging in one of their most unique daily activities, log racing.
Describes two conservation education programs that target local primary schools and use national parks in Malaysian Borneo (Kinabalu Park) and central Brazil (Morro do Diabo Park). Both were designed using a comprehensive systems evaluation model and both resulted in cognitive and affective gains for students. (LB)
Jacobson, Susan K.; Padua, Suzana M.
Preservice educators engaged in experiential, place-based learning through a semester-long assignment in which they observed a specific place in Central Park in Manhattan, New York, and kept a nature journal. The assignment was organized around two pivotal elements: direct, sensory experience and time in place. Both elements added vital dimensions…
This book describes New York City's Central Park East (CPE) Elementary School, which provides inner city children with the highest quality educators and pedagogy and is considered one of the most academically enriching U.S. schools. The book gives voice to young adults who emerged from poverty as a result of powerful experiences within CPE.…
Abstract We are presenting a list of the reptile species from Lençóis Maranhenses National Park (LMNP), Maranhão, Brazil, obtained during 235 days of field work. The study area is located in the contact zone between three major Neotropical ecosystems: Amazonia, Caatinga, and Cerrado. The PNLM encompasses the largest dune fields in Brazil, wide shrubby areas (restingas), lakes, mangroves, and many freshwater lagoons. We have recorded 42 species of reptiles in the area: 24 snakes, 12 lizards, two worm lizards, three turtles, and one alligator. About 81 % of the recorded species occurred only in restinga areas. Our data highlights the uniqueness of the PNLM in the context of the biomes that surround it and shows the importance of efforts to improve the conservation of reptiles living in the restinga, which currently comprise only about 20 % of the total area protected by the park, but which are the mesohabitat containing most of the reptile species in the Lençóis Maranhenses complex of habitats.
Miranda, Jivanildo Pinheiro; Costa, Joao Carlos Lopes; Rocha, Carlos Frederico D.
The aim of this work was to assess the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment and their sources found in protected regions of southeastern Brazil. Samples of sediments were collected at four National Parks: Itatiaia National Park (PNIT), Serra da Bocaina National Park (PNSB), Serra dos Orgãos National Park (PNSO) and Jurubatiba National Park (PNJUB). The National Parks studied comprise rainforests, altitudinal fields and ‘restinga’ environments located in the Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states. The sampling was conducted between 2002 and 2004 from June to September. In general, the environmental levels of PAHs found were similar to those in other remote areas around the globe. PNIT exhibited the highest median values of total PAHs in sediment (97 ng·g?1), followed by PNJUB (89 ng·g?1), PNSO (57 ng·g?1) and PNSB (27 ng·g?1). The highest levels of total PAHs (576 and 24430 ng·g?1) could be associated to a point source contamination where are characterizated for human activities. At PNSB and PNIT the PAH profiles were richer in 2 and 3 ring compounds, whereas at PNSO and PNJUB, the profiles exhibited 3 and 4 ring compounds. The phenanthrene predominance in most samples could indicate the influence of biogenic synthesis. The samples with a petrogenic pattern found in this study might be associated with the vicinity of major urban areas, highway traffic and/or industrial activities close to PNSO and PNIT. At PNIT and PNJUB, forest fires and slash and burn agricultural practices may drive the results towards a pyrolytic pattern.
Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Azeredo, Antonio; de Souza Pereira, Marcia; Paulo, Joao; Torres, Machado; Malm, Olaf
The aim of this work was to assess the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment and their sources found in protected regions of southeastern Brazil. Samples of sediments were collected at four National Parks: Itatiaia National Park (PNIT), Serra da Bocaina National Park (PNSB), Serra dos Orgãos National Park (PNSO) and Jurubatiba National Park (PNJUB). The National Parks studied comprise rainforests, altitudinal fields and 'restinga' environments located in the Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states. The sampling was conducted between 2002 and 2004 from June to September. In general, the environmental levels of PAHs found were similar to those in other remote areas around the globe. PNIT exhibited the highest median values of total PAHs in sediment (97 ng g(-1)), followed by PNJUB (89 ng g(-1)), PNSO (57 ng g(-1)) and PNSB (27 ng g(-1)). The highest levels of total PAHs (576 and 24430 ng g(-1)) could be associated to a point source contamination where are characterized for human activities. At PNSB and PNIT the PAH profiles were richer in 2 and 3 ring compounds, whereas at PNSO and PNJUB, the profiles exhibited 3 and 4 ring compounds. The phenanthrene predominance in most samples could indicate the influence of biogenic synthesis. The samples with a petrogenic pattern found in this study might be associated with the vicinity of major urban areas, highway traffic and/or industrial activities close to PNSO and PNIT. At PNIT and PNJUB, forest fires and slash and burn agricultural practices may drive the results towards a pyrolytic pattern. PMID:18472130
Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Azeredo, Antonio; Pereira, Márcia de Souza; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf
Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists. PMID:21845934
Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade
Clyomys Thomas, 1916 is a semifossorial rodent genus of spiny rats represented by only one species, Clyomys laticeps, which inhabits the tropical savannas and grasslands of central Brazil and eastern Paraguay. Here we describe a new karyotype of Clyomys laticeps found in populations of Emas National Park, Goiás state, Brazil. The four analyzed specimens had a diploid number (2n) of 32 and a fundamental autosome number (FN) of 54. Cytogenetic data include conventional staining, CBG and GTG-banding. The karyotype presents 12 meta/submetacentric pairs (1 to 12) and 3 pairs of acrocentrics (13 to 15) with gradual decrease in size. The X chromosome is a medium submetacentric and the Y is a medium acrocentric. The semifossorial habits together with habitat specificity could have contributed to the karyological variations found on this genus. PMID:24260659
Bezerra, Alexandra M R; Pagnozzi, Juliana M; Carmignotto, Ana Paula; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Rodrigues, Flávio H G
Abstract Clyomys Thomas, 1916 is a semifossorial rodent genus of spiny rats represented by only one species, Clyomys laticeps, which inhabits the tropical savannas and grasslands of central Brazil and eastern Paraguay. Here we describe a new karyotype of Clyomys laticeps found in populations of Emas National Park, Goiás state, Brazil. The four analyzed specimens had a diploid number (2n) of 32 and a fundamental autosome number (FN) of 54. Cytogenetic data include conventional staining, CBG and GTG-banding. The karyotype presents 12 meta/submetacentric pairs (1 to 12) and 3 pairs of acrocentrics (13 to 15) with gradual decrease in size. The X chromosome is a medium submetacentric and the Y is a medium acrocentric. The semifossorial habits together with habitat specificity could have contributed to the karyological variations found on this genus.
Bezerra, Alexandra M. R.; Pagnozzi, Juliana M.; Carmignotto, Ana Paula; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Rodrigues, Flavio H. G.
The aim of this study was to investigate blood meal sources of mosquitoes captured in municipal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify possible associations between mosquito species and their food preferences. Fourteen species of blood hosts of 510 engorged adult female mosquitoes were identified using PCR assays with a vertebrate-specific primer set based on cytochrome b mitochondrial DNA of the following vertebrates: birds, dogs, cats, rodents, humans, and other primates. Mosquitoes were captured using a manual aspirator, CDC traps in the canopy, CDC traps at ground level, and Shannon traps. With the exception of cats, all other vertebrates were used as hosts by mosquitoes in the parks. Statistical analysis failed to show any trend toward association between most culicid species captured and the sources of blood meals. Instead, they revealed random patterns, indicating that the mosquitoes fed on the most abundant or convenient blood meal sources. Although feeding preferences were observed in two species (birds in the case of Cx. nigripalpus and dogs in the case of Cx. quinquefasciatus), our results highlight the opportunistic feeding habits of the female mosquitoes in this study. PMID:24820567
de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Dos Santos Malafronte, Rosely; Miti Izumisawa, Clara; Souza Teixeira, Renildo; Natal, Licia; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo
With the objective of providing knowledge about the natural habitat of mosquito larvae, we conducted a study on the culicid fauna and identified larval habitat types at 3 different locations in the Serra do Mar State Park, Brazil, over the 12 months of 1991. We collected 1,425 larvae belonging to 23 species, of which the most frequent were Culex iridescens, Culex spp., Limatus durhami, and Trichoprosopon pallidiventer. The mosquito larval habitats presenting the greatest densities of specimens were bamboo, bromeliads, rubber boots, and streams. We observed that the culicids used a variety of containers as larval habitats and bred under a diversity of ecological conditions. Most of the habitats were natural, formed by bamboo, bromeliads, streams, and depressions in the ground and in rocks, along with artificial habitats consisting of rubber boots and abandoned metal cans. Seven species occurred preferentially in the internodes of closed bamboo stems, 6 in internodes of open stems, and 4 in bromeliads. PMID:21033051
Alencar, Jeronimo; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; De Oliveira, Renata Freitas Nunes; Silva, Julia Dos Santos; Pacheco, Juliana Barreto; Guimarães, Anthony Erico
Jaguars (Panthera onca) have been killed by local residents within the boundaries and lands surrounding Iguaçu National Park (INP), Brazil. Both jaguars and pumas (Puma concolor) occur in the region, however, livestock predation by pumas has rarely been reported. Our objective was to assess the local perceptions about jaguars and pumas. We identified two major factors that distinguished the perceptions
Valéria Amorim Conforti; Fernando Cesar Cascelli de Azevedo
Jaguars (Panthera onca) have been killed by local residents within the boundaries and lands surrounding Iguacu National Park (INP), Brazil. Both jaguars and pumas (Puma concolor) occur in the region, however, livestock predation by pumas has rarely been reported. Our objective was to assess the local perceptions about jaguars and pumas. We identified two major factors that dis- tinguished the
Sylvatic triatomines of the genus Rhodnius commonly fly into houses in Latin America, maintaining the risk of Chagas disease transmission in spite of control efforts. In the recent past, adult bugs collected inside houses in central Brazil were identified as R. prolixus, a primary disease vector whose natural geographical range excludes this region. Three nearly sibling species (R. neglectus, R.
Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves; Fernando Abad-Franch; Jonatas B. C. Ferreira; Daniella B. Santana; César A. Cuba Cuba
Explaining intra-plate seismicity is a challenging task. Different models have been proposed combining weak zones and stress concentration mechanisms. Here we propose that flexural deformation is a major factor to explain seismicity in Central Brazil. A SW-NE-oriented seismic zone between the Amazon and the São Francisco cratons coincides with high gravity anomalies, possibly due to a SW-NE belt of thin crust. The load from the high-density, shallow mantle rocks causes upper crustal compressional stresses up to 100 MPa in the 200 km wide seismic zone. Away from the central zone of horizontal compression, extensional stresses in the peripheral bulge balance the regional compression explaining the aseismic areas. Three other seismic clusters in Brazil also correlate with high gravity anomalies, suggesting that flexural deformation contributes significantly to explain mid-plate seismicity in Brazil.
AssumpçãO, Marcelo; Sacek, Victor
Between January and June 2008, we surveyed three flooded Igapó areas (>5 km2 in total) in Jaú National Park, Amazonas, Brazil. The objective of this note is to provide quantitative information on the\\u000a vocalisations of the giant otters inhabiting these areas. We encountered the giant otters in January, February, March and\\u000a April 2008. From one to five individuals were observed during
B. M. Bezerra; A. S. Souto; N. Schiel; G. Jones
We report the complete nucleotide sequences of geminiviruses of the genus Begomovirus infecting soybean (Glycine max) in central Brazil. Samples obtained from soybean plants collected at Santo Antonio de Goiás, Goiás State, showing typical symptoms of viral infection, were analyzed. Infection was confirmed by PCR-based amplification of a DNA-A fragment with universal begomovirus primers. Total DNA from infected plants was then subjected to rolling-circle amplification (RCA), and 2.6-kb molecules were cloned into plasmid vectors. Sequencing of the three DNA-A and two DNA-B clones thus obtained confirmed infection by three distinct begomoviruses: bean golden mosaic virus, Sida micrantha mosaic virus and okra mottle virus, the last of which was reported recently to be a novel virus infecting okra plants in Brazil. Begomovirus infection of soybean plants has been reported sporadically in Brazil and has generally not been considered to be of economic relevance. PMID:19636495
Fernandes, Fernanda R; Cruz, A R R; Faria, J C; Zerbini, F M; Aragão, Francisco J L
We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic distributions in CW Brazil. The Cerrado areas in the state of Goiás were found to be more suitable for the occurrence of synanthropic triatomines than the Amazon forest areas in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso. The variable that best explains the evaluated models is temperature seasonality. The results indicate that almost the entire region presents climatic conditions that are appropriate for at least one triatomine species. Therefore, it is recommended that entomological surveillance be reinforced in CW Brazil.
Pereira, Joyce Mendes; de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Sousa, Adair Vieira; de Paula, Aecio Moraes; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim; Gurgel-Goncalves, Rodrigo
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319...Fruits and Vegetables Â§ 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the...
...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319...Fruits and Vegetables Â§ 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the...
Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides 210Pb and 137Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on 210Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by 137Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R [the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction] and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP [1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP], retene to retene plus chrysene [Ret/(Ret + Chy)], and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene [Fl/(Fl + Py)] provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s.
YAN, BEIZHAN; ABRAJANO, TEOFILO A.; BOPP, RICHARD F.; CHAKY, DAMON A.; BENEDICT, LUCILLE A.; CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.
In the central region of Brazil, Tocantins (TO) province, the distribution of tectonic stresses are not well known; there is only a measurement of stress and no data from focal mechanisms.To understand the processes that occur during an earthquake, it is necessary to have a precise knowledge of the earthquake source parameters. This work shows that the focal mechanism of an earthquake can be obtained in reliable way using only information contained in its band-pass-filtered waveforms registered at a few stations.The inversion for the focal mechanism was made using the package ISOLA (Zahradnik et al., 2005, Sokos & Zahradnik, 2008) and MATLAB. The seismicity is associated with the Goiás -Tocantins (GO-TO) Seismic Range (SR) that crosses the central part of Brazil in a NE-SW direction. The obtained focal mechanisms are in agreement with the results obtained by Barros et al. (2012) for 5.0 mb earthquake in this region.The Green functions were calculated using the 1-D velocity model determined by Soares et al (2006) for a model of point source located above and below the hypocenter. Ten hypocenters were tested, 5 above and 5 below to the given hypocenter. All seismograms were corrected for instrument response, band-pass-filtered, integrated to obtain displacement, and finally inverted for the DC (double couple) focal mechanism. The optimal solution produced the best correlation between the observed and synthetic seismograms, in one of the 10 points tested. However, a new search was attempted for each point source located on a plane passing through the hypocenter's optimal previous solution. This plane is divided into a rectangular grid, whose separation depends on the physical dimensions of the source investigated. The centroid (center of gravity of the fault displaced), corresponds to the solution that produces the best fit between the observed data and synthetics.We can conclude that the resulting consistency and the stability of the solutions indicate that this inversion method can be applied in other regions, especially in Brazil, where the earthquakes are rare and usually recorded by few stations. the best fit between the observed data and synthetics.We can conclude that the resulting consistency and the stability of the solutions indicate that this inversion method can be applied in other regions, especially in Brazil, where the earthquakes are rare and usually recorded by few stations.
Sayao, E. A.; Barros, L. V.; Maffia, N.; Schmidt, K.; Quintero, R.
Land and Water Conservation; Hawaii Volcanoes National Park; Little Rock Central High School; and Arches National Park. Hearing on S. 1333, S. 2106, S. 2129, S. 2232, H.R. 2283 before the Subcommittee on National Parks, Historic Preservation, and Recreation of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.
A Senate hearing considered five bills related to the national parks. Of interest to the education community is S. 2232, which would establish Little Rock Central High School National Historic Site in Arkansas as a unit of the National Park Service. In 1957 the school became a center of controversy over school desegregation when nine African…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.
Twelve species of primates occur in the Amazon (Tapajs) National Park. The abundance of these species varies with habitat\\u000a type and extent of human disturbance. Seasonality of rainfall and river level significantly affect the abundance of primates\\u000a in seasonally inundated forest but not in upland forest types.
Lyn C. Branch
Jaú National Park is a large rain forest reserve that contains small populations of four caiman species. We sampled crocodilian populations during 30 surveys over a period of four years in five study areas. We found the mean abundance of caiman species to be very low (1.0 ± 0.5 caiman\\/km of shoreline), independent of habi- tat type (river, stream or
George Henrique Rebêlo; Luciana Lugli
A region 17 m in diameter at the center of the Parkes 64-m radio telescope was recently resurfaced to improve its efficiency at high frequencies. Calibration of the 17-m surface is discussed, and results are presented for observations of four continuum sources and ten water-vapor masers at 22 GHz using this section of the telescope. Improved position measurements are reported
J. L. Caswell; R. A. Batchelor; W. M. Goss; R. F. Haynes; K. J. Wellington; D. E. Yabsley; S. H. Knowles; M. Balister
Demographic data from 3 different historical periods of the Mekranoti-Kayapo Indians of Central Brazil were used to examine various explanations for historical changes in fertility among this group. The possible effects of warfare on Mekranoti fertility were also examined since warfare has had an important role in many preindustrial societies. The Mekranoti are a group of 285 relatively unacculturated Indians living in a single village in southern Para, Brazil. As in precontact days, their economy is based on slash and burn agriculture, hunting, and fishing. To assess Mekranoti fertility, pregnancy histories collected from all women 15 years or older as of December 1976 were used. In precontact years a woman who survived to age 50 could expect to give birth 6.5 times. During the contact years this average dropped to 5.6 and in the postcontact period it soared to almost 8.5. The drop in Mekranoti fertility from precontact to contact years corresponds with an increase in mortality. The direction of these changes would support a "health" argument about fertility, but the degrees of change do not. Whereas mortality increased markedly after 1955, fertility fell only slightly. The data are not consistent with the view that changes in lactation periods are responsible for fertility changes. The number of uses of contraceptives per reproductive woman year did not not vary much in the different historical periods and certainly could not account for differences in Mekranoti fertility. The data suggest that fertility changes over Mekranoti history may be due in part to sexual abstinence resulting either from postpartum sexual taboos or, more importantly, from a lack of husbands. Sex imbalances resulting from high male mortality in warfare and subsequent disruption of marriages by disease and death left many women without spouses for long periods of time. The findings are consistent with other studies that found lower fertility associated with male absence. The Mekranoti are unusual in having monogamy together with high male mortality from warfare. PMID:12339276
Background The aim of this study was to characterize the nutritional status of Xavante Indian children less than 10 years of age in Central Brazil and to evaluate the hypothesis of an association between child nutrition and socioeconomic differentiation in this population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2006 that included all children under the age of 10 from the Xavante village Pimentel Barbosa in Mato Grosso, Brazil. The data collected included weight, height, and sociodemographic information. Sociodemographic data were used to generate two indices ("income" and "wealth") and to determine the proportion of adults in each household. Descriptive analyses were performed for weight-for-age (W/A), height-for-age (H/A), and weight-for-height (W/H) using the NCHS and the WHO growth references. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using H/A and W/A as a response variables. Results Of a total of 246 children under the age of ten residing in the village, 232 (94.3%) were evaluated. Following the NCHS reference, 5.6% of children under the age of ten presented low W/A and 14.7% presented low H/A. Among children under the age of five, deficit percentages for weight and height were 4.5% and 29.9%, respectively, following the WHO curves. Among children < 2 years of age, H/A index variability was found to be directly related to child's age and inversely related to the proportion of adults in the household. Maternal BMI was positively associated with growth for children from 2 to 4 years of age, explaining 11.5% of the z-score variability for the H/A index. For children 5 years of age and older, the wealth index and maternal height were positively associated with H/A. No significant associations were found using W/A as the dependent variable. Conclusion This study demonstrated that undernutrition, in particular linear growth deficit, is a notable health issue for Xavante children. These findings contrast with the nutritional profile observed among Brazilian children nationally, which is characterized by a sharp decline in child undernutrition in recent decades, even in the poorest regions of the country. This discrepancy calls attention to the persistent health disparities that exist between indigenous and non-indigenous people in Brazil.
Tropical dry forests are the most threatened forest type in the world yet a paucity of research about them stymies development of appropriate conservation actions. The Paranã River Basin has the most significant dry forest formations in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil and is threatened by intense land conversion to pastures and agriculture. We examined changes in Paranã River Basin deforestation rates and fragmentation across three time intervals that covered 31 yr using Landsat imagery. Our results indicated a 66.3 percent decrease in forest extent between 1977 and 2008, with an annual rate of forest cover change of 3.5 percent. Landscape metrics further indicated severe forest loss and fragmentation, resulting in an increase in the number of fragments and reduction in patch sizes. Forest fragments in flatlands have virtually disappeared and the only significant forest remnants are mostly found over limestone outcrops in the eastern part of the basin. If current patterns persist, we project that these forests will likely disappear within 25 yr. These patterns may be reversed with creation of protected areas and involvement of local people to preserve small fragments that can be managed for restoration.
Bianchi, Carlos A.; Haig, Susan M.
Tocantins Structural Province (TSP) is the main tectonic feature in Central Brazil. It separates two main cratonic areas ( former continental plates): the Amazonian Craton to the West and the Sao Francisco Craton to the East. Recent geochronological data (U-Pb and Sm-Nd) and structural studies show that the actual structural framework of the province was developed during the Neoproterozoic. It is herein proposed that Brasiliano Orogenic Cycle in the TSP was developed in four broad tectonic stages: 1) an ocean opening stage began possibly 1270 Ma; 2) an island-arc system development stage started 1000 Ma and its amal- gamation lasted until ca. 800 Ma; 3) a continental collision stage began ca. 800 Ma with the accretion of the island-arcs to the upper Amazonian plate, the closure of the Goias Ocean and the development of a foreland basin upon the lower Sao Francisco plate; and 4) a post-collisional stage (650-500 Ma) with the development of transcurrent faults (Transbrasiliano lineaments), back-thrust reverse faults, and intrusion of alkalic granitic plutons.
Strieder, Adelir Jose; Suita, Marcos Tadeu de Freitas
Coal-fired power plants of the Taiwan Power Company are the main sources of CO2 emission in Taiwan. Due to the importation of coal mine and the need of cooling water circulation, power plants were built on the coast. Geological CO2 sequestration has been recognized as one of solutions for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emission by injecting CO2 captured from fossil fuel power plants into deep saline geologic formations. The Changhua Coastal Industrial Park (CCIP; 120.38° E, 24.11° N) in central Taiwan has been preliminary evaluated as one of potential sites for geological CO2 sequestration. The CCIP site has a sloping, layered heterogeneity formation with stagnant groundwater flow. Layers of sandstone and shale sequentially appeared to be the major components of geological formations with seaward transgression. Thickness of sedimentary formations gradually becomes thinner from east to west. Previous investigations [Chiao et al., 2010; Yu et al, 2011] did not find significant faults around this site. The TOUGHREACT/ECO2N model was employed with external mesh generator developed in this study to proceed to comprehensive assessments for CO2 injection into deep saline aquifers (salinity of 3%, pH of 7.2) at the CCIP site. A series of numerical experiments for investigating the physical, geochemical and its interactions included the deep saline-aquifer responses, CO2 plume migration, leakage risks, hydrogeochemistry processes, reservoir capacity and trapping mechanisms (i.e. hydrodynamics, capillarity, solubility, and mineral trapping) during and post CO2 injection were assessed. A 3-D lithological model applied in this study was conceptualized with two seismic profiles (along shore and cross shore) and one geological well nearby the study area. A total of 32 vertical layers was built with different porosities and permeabilities estimated from the TCDP-A borehole log samples adjusted with effects in geopressure differences. Cross-platform open source libraries of the CGAL and MathGL were integrated with wxDev-C++ and implemented in C/C++ programming languages that were aided in nested mesh generation and simulation result visualization. Two mesh systems were demonstrated in this study that including the relatively coarse (200 m resolution in horizontal) and 3-leve refinement (from 200 to 50 m resolution in horizontal) mesh systems. Assuming a single injection well located at the centroid point of simulation domain and injected as a depth of about 2700 meters beneath the mean sea level under isothermal condition (ambient temperature of 70°C) with a constant injection rate of 1 Mt/yr for the first 50 years. Geochemical system setting (i.e. initial mineral abundances, and their geochemistry kinetic properties) was adopted from Xu et al. . Preliminary simulation results shows that (1) CO2 plume cannot penetrate the caprock, (2) 3-level refinement mesh systems can reduce the numerical dispersion, (3) formation tilt (about 3.5 degree) not only generated the approximately round shape of the CO2 plume spreading but result the asymmetric patterns of the CO2 plume profile, and (4) capillarity trapping was not significant under stagnant groundwater flow condition.
Sung, R.; Li, M.
The distribution and relative abundance of sand fly species were studied in the municipality of Barreirinhas, Maranhão State, Brazil, around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, from January to June 2005, August 2004, July 2005, and September/2008. A total of 6,658 specimens were captured. The most frequent species were Lutzomyia whitmani (46.6%), L. longipalpis (29.9%), L. evandroi (17.1%), and L. lenti (4.8%), while L. termitophila, L. flaviscutellata, L. migonei, L. infraspinosa, L. sordellii, L. wellcomei, L. antunesi, and L. trinidadensis represented 1.6%. The presence of Leishmania vector species explains the high detection rate for tegumentary leishmaniasis in 2000 (308.2), 2001 (310.9), 2002 (338.2), and 2005 (313.6) and active foci of human visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Barreirinhas. PMID:20209223
Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Assunção Júnior, Antonildes Nascimento; Silva, Orleans; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto
Shigella flexnerii and Escherichia coli were the most frequent Gram-negative bacteria found in the mouth cavity and cloacae of the turtles Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis on beaches in the National Park of Araguaia, Brazil. Reptiles are known as Salmonella carriers, despite rarely isolated in these turtles.
de Morais, Paula Benevides; de Souza, Denise Rodrigues; de Sousa, Francisca Maria Pinheiro; de Oliveira, Kleverson Wessel; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio
A study of the mosquito fauna in the Iguaçu National Park focused on population behavior in four biotopes with different types of plant cover inside the Park. Systematic bimonthly diurnal and nocturnal human bait and Shannon trap captures were conducted in both forest and domiciliary environments over the course of 24 months. A total of 20,273 adult mosquito specimens belonging to 44 species were collected: Ochlerotatus serratus (10.3%), Haemagogus leucocelaenus (9.7%), Mansonia titillans (9.6%), and Chagasia fajardoi (8.8%) were the most frequently captured mosquitoes. Anopheles cruzii, Runchomyia theobaldi, Wyeomyia aporonoma, and Wy. confusa were captured almost exclusively in well-preserved areas with dense forest cover. Culex nigripalpus, Oc. pennai, Oc. serratus, Sabethes purpureus, and Sa. albiprivus were captured in three essentially sylvatic biotopes. Species captured in the forest areas around a dam were: An. albitarsis s.l., An. galvaoi, An. evansae, An. fluminensis, Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Cq. juxtamansonia, Wy. quasilongirostris, and Onirion personatum, Ch. fajardoi, Cq. fasciolata, Cq nitens, and Ma. titillans were the most frequently captured species in a residential area. PMID:12973575
Guimarães, Anthony Erico; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; de Mello, Rubens Pinto; Alencar, Jeronimo
Recent climate modeling suggests that the Amazon rainforest could exhibit considerable dieback under future climate change, a prediction that has raised considerable interest as well as controversy. To determine the likelihood and causes of such changes, we analyzed the output of 15 models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC/AR4) and a dynamic vegetation model VEGAS driven by these climate output. Our results suggest that the core of the Amazon rainforest should remain largely stable. However, the periphery, notably the southern edge, is in danger of drying out, driven by two main processes. First, a decline in precipitation of 24% in the southern Amazon lengthens the dry season and reduces soil moisture, despite of an increase in precipitation during the wet season, due to the nonlinear response in hydrology and ecosystem dynamics. Two dynamical mechanisms may explain the lower dry season precipitation: (1) a stronger north-south tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature gradient; (2) a general subtropical drying under global warming when the dry season southern Amazon is under the control of the subtropical high pressure. Secondly, evaporation will increase due to the general warming, thus also reducing soil moisture. As a consequence, the median of the models projects a reduction of vegetation by 20%, and enhanced fire carbon flux by 10-15% in the southern Amazon, central Brazil, and parts of the Andean Mountains. Because the southern Amazon is also under intense human influence, the double pressure of deforestation and climate change may subject the region to dramatic changes in the 21st century.
Yoon, J.; Zeng, N.; Cook, B.
The Park City Formation is an important unconformity-bounded, Upper Permian stratigraphic sequence. Established lithostratigraphic correlations within the unit can be reinterpreted within a sequence stratigraphic framework. Three major carbonate-rich parasequences occur. From bottom to top, these are the Grandeur, Franson, and Ervay. The Ervay is the main hydrocarbon-producing unit within the Park City. In the study area it generally consists of low-energy, restricted-to open-marine wackestones and packstones deposited that ranges from a submarine omission surface to an erosional exposure surface. The upper boundary is the Permo-Triassic regional unconformity. The Ervay exhibits several transgressive surfaces and possible thin condensed zones in cores and outcrops. These features, which commonly appear as high gamma-ray markers on logs, are characterized by phosphatic and skeletal lags, marine hardgrounds, and glauconite. Log correlations of these features allow stratal geometries to be determined. In the lower Ervay, transgressive units appear to onlap eastward. In the upper Ervay, geometries are primarily aggradational. Most Ervay hydrocarbon production is from structural traps. In at least one field, however, updip stratigraphic pinch-outs form traps. At a regional scale, or in analogous systems, the sequence stratigraphic approach may help define other pinch-outs, dolomitized trends, fairways of grainier facies, and areas where source and reservoir rocks are juxtaposed. The sequence stratigraphy of the Ervay parasequence also helps explain the complex reservoir zonations found throughout the study area.
Clark, W.J.; Hurley, N.F. (Marathon Oil Co., Littleton, CO (United States)); Choquette, P.W.; Hiatt, E.E.; Garfield, T.R.; Budd, D.A. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))
Relative contributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion sources of wood, petroleum, and coal were computed in sediments from Central Park Lake in New York City (NY, USA) by chemical mass balance based on several reliable source indicators. These indicators are the ratio of retene to the sum of retene and chrysene, the ratio of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene (DMP) to 1,7-DMP and 2,6-DMP, and the ratio of fluroanthene to fluroanthene and pyrene. The authors found that petroleum combustion-derived PAH fluxes generally followed the historical consumption data of New York State. Coal combustion-derived PAH flux peaked approximately in the late 1910s, remained at a relatively high level over the next 3 decades, then rapidly declined from the 1950s to the 1960s; according to historical New York State coal consumption data, however, there was a 2-peak trend, with peaks around the early 1920s and the mid-1940s. The 1940s peak was not observed in Central Park Lake, most likely because of the well-documented shift from coal to oil as the major residential heating fuel in New York City during the late 1930s. It was widely believed that the decreased PAH concentrations and fluxes in global sediments during the last century resulted from a major energy shift from coal to petroleum. The data, however, show that this shift occurred from 1945 through the 1960s and did not result in an obvious decline. The sharpest decrease, which occurred in the 1970s was not predominantly related to coal usage but rather was the result of multiple factors, including a decline in petroleum usage largely, the introduction of low sulfur-content fuel in New York City, and the introduction of emission-control technologies. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:985-992. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:24375577
Yan, Beizhan; Bopp, Richard F; Abrajano, Teofilo A; Chaky, Damon; Chillrud, Steven N
Sixteen nutria (Myocastor coypus) from a protected area in Curitiba, Brazil, were sampled to determine the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica eggs and intestinal parasites and the presence of snails in the habitat used by nutria. The overall prevalence rates were 56.25% (9) for F. hepatica eggs, 87.50% (14) for cestode eggs, 56.25% (9) for ascarid eggs, 50% (8) for coccidian (Eimeriidae) oocysts, and 56.25% (9) for Strongyloidea eggs. Fasciola hepatica eggs had an average size of 138 microm x 72 microm. The following mollusks were found: Physa cubensis, Physa marmorata, and Biomphalaria tenagophyla. These results suggest that the infected nutria could serve as a source of contamination for other animals, humans, and surface water. This is the first report about parasites in nutria in the state of Paraná, Brazil. PMID:19368247
El-Kouba, Maysa M A N; Marques, Sandra M T; Pilati, Célso; Hamann, Waldir
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an increasing health problem in Brazil because of encroachment of sprawling urban, agricultural, and cattle-raising areas into habitats of subfamily Sigmodontinae rodents, which serve as hantavirus reservoirs. From 1993 through June 2007, a total of 884 cases of HPS were reported in Brazil (case-fatality rate 39%). To better understand this emerging disease, we collected 89 human serum samples and 68 rodent lung samples containing antibodies to hantavirus from a 2,500-km-wide area in Brazil. RNA was isolated from human samples and rodent tissues and subjected to reverse transcription–PCR. Partial sequences of nucleocapsid protein and glycoprotein genes from 22 human and 16 rodent sources indicated only Araraquara virus and Juquitiba virus lineages. The case-fatality rate of HPS was higher in the area with Araraquara virus. This virus, which may be the most virulent hantavirus in Brazil, was associated with areas that have had greater anthropogenic changes.
Moreli, Marcos L.; de Sousa, Ricardo L.M.; Borges, Alessandra A.; de Figueiredo, Glauciane G.; Machado, Alex M.; Bisordi, Ivani; Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa K.; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Luiz E.; de Souza, Renato P.; de Souza, Luiza T.M.; Braconi, Carla T.; Harsi, Charlotte M.; de Andrade Zanotto, Paolo M.
In 1992 the National Park Service began a Level 1 Water Quality Data Inventory program to make available to park managers the water-resource information with which to best manage each park and plan for the future. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey ...
J. G. Brown
The contaminated soil with mammal feces is an important factor of risk to infection with zoonotic diseases. Amongst these zoonoses are visceral larva migrans and cutaneous larva migrans caused by Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp., respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs and hookworms (Ancylostoma spp.) in public parks and squares in the city of Guarulhos, a metropolitan area of São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected, between September and December 2010, and examined using the centrifugal flotation technique with sodium dichromate and zinc sulphate as well as the modified Baermann method. Notably, 35 (74.5%) of the 47 districts surveyed in Guarulhos possessed samples contaminated with Toxocara spp. and/or eggs or larvae of Ancylostoma spp. The frequency of Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp. in the samples from public areas was 68.1% and 46.8%, respectively. Overall, the eastern side of Guarulhos is the region with the highest occurrence of causative agents of larva migrans. In all collection sites, the presence of feces from dogs and cats accompanied by their owners and stray animals were observed. Notably, it is important to adopt measures to control dog and cat breeding, to treat infected animals, and provide health education to the population. PMID:22983290
Marques, Jacó Pereira; Guimarães, Catarina de Rezende; Boas, Ailton Vilas; Carnaúba, Paulo Usignolo; Moraes, Josué de
Jaú National Park is a large rain forest reserve that contains small populations of four caiman species. We sampled crocodilian populations during 30 surveys over a period of four years in five study areas. We found the mean abundance of caiman species to be very low (1.0 +/- 0.5 caiman/km of shoreline), independent of habitat type (river, stream or lake) and season. While abundance was almost equal, the species' composition varied in different waterbody and study areas. We analysed the structure similarity of this assemblage. Lake and river habitats were the most similar habitats, and inhabited by at least two species, mainly Caiman crocodilus and Melanosuchus niger. However, those species can also inhabit streams. Streams were the most dissimilar habitats studied and also had two other species: Paleosuchus trigonatus and P. palpebrosus. The structure of these assemblage does not suggest a pattern of species associated and separated by habitat. Trends in species relationships had a negative correlation with species of similar size, C. crocodilus and P. trigonatus, and an apparent complete exclusion of M. niger and P. trigonatus. Microhabitat analysis suggests a slender habitat partitioning. P. trigonatus was absent from river and lake Igapó (flooded forest), but frequent in stream Igapó. This species was the most terrestrial and found in microhabitats similar to C. crocodilus (shallow waters, slow current). Melanosuchus niger inhabits deep, fast moving waters in different study areas. Despite inhabiting the same waterbodies in many surveys, M. niger and C. crocodilus did not share the same microhabitats. Paleosuchus palpebrosus was observed only in running waters and never in stagnant lake habitats. Cluster analysis revealed three survey groups: two constitute a mosaic in floodplains, (a) a cluster with both M. niger and C. crocodilus, and another (b) with only C. crocodilus. A third cluster (c) included more species, and the presence of Paleosuchus species. There was no significant difference among wariness of caimans between disturbed and undisturbed localities. However, there was a clear trend to increase wariness during the course of consecutive surveys at four localities, suggesting that we, more than local inhabitants, had disturbed caimans. The factors that are limiting caiman populations can be independent of human exploitation. Currently in Amazonia, increased the pressure of hunting, habitat loss and habitat alteration, and there is no evidence of widespread recovery of caiman populations. In large reserves as Jaú without many disturbance, most caiman populations can be low density, suggesting that in blackwater environments their recovery from exploitation should be very slow. PMID:12189791
Rebêlo, G H; Lugli, L
The peopling, origins, and early prehistory of the Americas are topics of intense debate. However, few studies have used human remains to document and interpret patterns of health and lifestyle of Paleoamericans. This study provides the first investigation to characterize oral health in a series of early Holocene skeletal remains from Lagoa Santa, Brazil, a locality containing the remains of some of the earliest inhabitants of South America (10,000-7,000 BP). The sample is composed of 949 teeth and 1925 alveoli from an estimated 113 individuals excavated from 17 archaeological sites located in the State of Minas Gerais. We compare dental caries and abscess prevalence at Lagoa Santa to a large sample of human skeletons from the Western Hemisphere Project (WHP) database using both individual and tooth/alveolus count methods. In addition, antemortem tooth loss and tooth wear were analyzed in Lagoa Santa by sex and age. The results show that Lagoa Santa dental caries and abscess prevalence are significantly higher than observed among other hunter-gatherers included in the WHP database, except when abscess prevalence is considered by individual count. Adult females have less tooth wear coupled with higher prevalence of dental caries and antemortem tooth loss than adult males. These results point to an unexpected record of poor oral health at Lagoa Santa, especially among females. A diet based on a highly cariogenic combination of wild tubers and fruits is suggested as an explanation for the elevated rate, characterizing an early adaptation to a tropical environment in South America. Am J Phys Anthropol 154:11-26, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24449259
Da-Gloria, Pedro; Larsen, Clark Spencer
This paper examines the bene…ts of pricing of parking for a central planner and for private operators. We treat on street parking as a common property resource. Without pricing, con- gestion will be excessive close to the destination, and will fall omore rapidly that is socially optimal. The optimal pattern is attained under private ownership if each owner controls parking
Simon P. Andersonyand; André de Palmaz
Savanna ecosystems are controlled by the interactions between water and nutrient availability. The savannas of Central Brazil (Cerrado) are the second most extensive plant formation in tropical South America with two million km2 of area. The Cerrado landscape contains different ...
Past studies have observed seismicity occurring to depths near 40 km beneath the central Sierra Nevada in eastern California, but the cause of this unusual activity remains largely unknown. We use seismograms from a recent deployment of the Sierra Nevada EarthScope Project (SNEP) broadband array and interspersed USArray TA stations to study this deep crustal earthquake activity. From June of 2005 to May of 2006, we recorded 126 earthquakes in the central western flank of the Sierra Nevada that relocated in the depth range from 1.0 to 47.6 km. These earthquakes have small magnitudes (M < 3), occur at a rate of ~10 per month, and occasionally display repeating waveforms. The majority of the earthquakes fall into two distinct clusters. One cluster of earthquakes form a diffuse band under the low foothills north of Fresno and have focal depths mostly between 20 and 35 km. The second cluster underlies the higher western slope of the range in a more compact north-south band extending from the southern edge of Yosemite National Park to the San Joaquin River. These events have focal depths from near surface to 30 km, and are located above occasional deep, long-period (LP) events (Pitt, et al., SRL, 2002). We use P- and S-wave polarity picks and P/SH amplitude ratios to construct focal mechanisms for 23 of the larger, well-recorded earthquakes, 14 in the Foothills Cluster and 9 in the Yosemite Cluster. The focal mechanisms show dominantly near vertical and subhorizontal nodal planes, although several events do show clear normal or reverse mechanisms. Although there is some scatter, a majority of the mechanisms from the Foothills Cluster have S-to-SW steeply dipping T-axes. The majority of earthquakes in the Yosemite Cluster have P-axes moderately dipping to the SW and T-axes moderately dipping to the NE, similar to focal mechanisms of earthquakes associated with the recent magma intrusion event under Lake Tahoe (von Seggern, et al., BSSA, 2008). We suggest that the earthquakes in the Foothills Cluster are occurring in response to the downward pull of an attached piece of dense ultramafic batholith residue and the events in the Yosemite Cluster are related to post-delamination crustal magmatic processes.
Ryan, J. C.; Frassetto, A.; Hurd, O.; Zandt, G.; Gilbert, H.; Owens, T.; Jones, C.
Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country.
Silva, Jaqueline Raymondi; de Medeiros, Larissa Campos; dos Reis, Vinicius Pinho; Chavez, Juliana Helena; Munhoz, Thiago Demarchi; Borges, Gustavo Puia; Soares, Otavio Augusto Brioschi; de Campos, Carlos Henrique Coelho; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Baldani, Cristiane Divan; Silva, Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues; Faria, Joice Lara Maia; da Silva, Edson Elias; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes
The synoptic view and the repetitive acquisition of LANDSAT imagery provide precise information, in real-time, for monitoring preserved areas based on spectral, temporal and spatial properties. The purpose of this study was to monitor, with the use of multispectral imagery, the systematic annual burning, which causes the degradation of ecosystems in the National Park of Araguaia. LANDSAT imagery of channel 5 (0.6 a 0.7 microns) and 7 (0.8 a 1.1 microns), at the scale of 1:250.000, were used to identify and delimit vegetation units and burned area, based on photointerpretation parameter of tonality. The results show that the gallery forest can be discriminated from the seasonally flooded 'campo cerrado', and that 4,14% of the study area was burned. Conclusions point out that the LANDSAT images can be used for the implementation of environmental protection in national parks.
Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Dossantos, J. R.
The interpretation of LANDSAT multispectral imagery for geologic mapping of central southwest Bahia, Brazil is described. Surface features such as drainage, topography, vegetation and land use are identified. The area is composed of low grade Precambrian rocks covered by Mezozoic and Cenozoic sediments. The principal mineral prospects of economic value are fluorite and calcareous rocks. Gold, calcite, rock crystal, copper, potassium nitrate and alumina were also identified.
Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Ohara, T.
In this study, data on cattle depredation by puma (Puma concolor) and jaguar (Panthera onca) were recorded for six years (1998–2003) in a cattle ranch in central-western Brazil. Depredation represented 18.9% of the overall cattle mortality, being predominant on calves. In biomass, kills represented 0.4% (63.8kg\\/km2) of the ranch’s annual stock. In economic loss, kills represented 0.3% of the cattle
Francesca B. L. Palmeira; Peter G. Crawshaw; Claudio M. Haddad; Luciano M. Verdade
The circa 260 ka Shevlin Park Tuff is found throughout an area of some 400 square km west of the city of Bend, OR. The tuff is composed of several flow units, the lowest of which was mapped separately in the past as the Century Drive Tuff. We have found the Century Drive to be chemically and paleomagnetically similar to the Shevlin Park. The spatial distribution and pumice imbrication of the Shevlin Park suggest a source at an elevation near 2000 m on the Bend Highland 5-6 km east of Broken Top volcano. Deposition of the Shevlin Park may have been preceded by a Plinian airfall eruption, now mainly preserved in the Columbia Canal irrigation ditch, which is likely equivalent in the distal tephra record to the Summer Lake NN layer. Despite our extensive database of bulk pumice and glass geochemistry, we cannot corroborate an earlier correlation of the Shevlin Park with the Summer Lake JJ tephra. The Shevlin Park Tuff is compositionally bimodal, with black pumice ranging from 55-62% silica, and commonly paler silicic pumice from 64-68%. Lower flow units appear to contain proportionally more silicic pumice and slightly more fractionated (lower MgO) mafic pumice. Mafic pumice is much more heterogeneous for a given silica percentage than silicic pumice, especially in P, Fe/Mg, and Sr. Both types of pumice are crystal-poor, and thus the bulk pumice and glass compositions are similar. Phenocrysts present in pumice include plagioclase (dominantly reversely zoned An30-40, but ranging up to skeletal An82), two pyroxenes (typically reversely zoned), olivine (Fo71-76), magnetite, and ilmenite. The phenocryst assemblage and mineral chemistry of the Columbia Canal pumice are similar, with the exception of slightly more Fe-rich opx. Mixing of mafic and silicic magma appears to be the dominant process in the generation of the wide compositional range within the Shevlin Park. A simple mixing model can account for most of the major and trace element, and Sr isotopic variations. The wider range in Fe/Mg and Sr in the mafic pumices can be modeled with approximately 20% crystal fractionation, but variations in P, and in P/Zr ratio, cannot be explained by a fractionation model. The P variations suggest a three component mixing model of silicic magma and two mafic magmas, with the most fractionated mafic magma having the highest P and P/Zr. The latter magma may have resorbed apatite during its evolution to account for its higher P/Zr ratio.
Conrey, R. M.; Donnelly-Nolan, J.; Taylor, E. M.; Champion, D.; Bullen, T.
The carbonate Floridan aquifer system of central and southern Florida (south of a latitude of about 29 degrees north) is an invaluable resource with a complex framework that has previously been mapped and managed primarily in a subregional context according to geopolitical boundaries. As interest and use of the Floridan aquifer system in this area increase, a consistent regional hydrogeologic framework is needed for effective management across these boundaries. This study synthesizes previous studies on the Floridan aquifer system and introduces a new regional hydrogeologic conceptual framework, linking physical relations between central and southern Florida and between the west and east coastal areas. The differences in hydrogeologic nomenclature and interpretation across the study area from previous studies were identified and resolved. The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, middle confining unit, and Lower Floridan aquifer. This study introduces and delineates a new major, regional productive zone or subaquifer, referred to as the Avon Park permeable zone. This zone is contained within the middle confining unit and synthesizes an extensive zone that has been referred to differently in different parts of the study area in previous studies. The name of this zone derives from the description of this zone as the ?Avon Park highly permeable zone? in west-central Florida in a previous study. Additionally, this zone has been identified previously in southeastern Florida as the ?middle Floridan aquifer.? An approximately correlative or approximate time-stratigraphic framework was developed and was used to provide guidance in the identification and determination of aquifers, subaquifers, and confining units within the Floridan aquifer system and to determine their structural relations. Two stratigraphic marker horizons within the Floridan aquifer system and a marker unit near the top of the aquifer system were delineated or mapped. The marker horizons are correlative points in the stratigraphic section rather than a unit with upper and lower boundaries. The two marker horizons and the marker unit originated from previous studies, wherein they were based on lithology and correlation of geophysical log signatures observed in boreholes. The depths of these marker horizons and the marker unit were extended throughout the study area by correlation of natural gamma-ray logs between wells. The Floridan aquifer system includes, in ascending order, the upper part of the Cedar Keys Formation, Oldsmar Formation, Avon Park Formation, Ocala Limestone, Suwannee Limestone, and in some areas the lower part of the Hawthorn Group. The first marker horizon is in the lower part of the aquifer system near the top of the Oldsmar Formation and is associated with the top of distinctive glauconitic limestone beds that are present in some regions; the second marker horizon is near the middle of the aquifer system in the middle part of the Avon Park Formation. The marker unit lies at the top of a basal unit in the Hawthorn Group and provides a stratigraphic constraint for the top of the Floridan aquifer system. The marker horizons do not have distinguishing lithologic characteristics or a characteristic gamma-ray log pattern in all areas but are still thought to be valid because of correlation of the entire section and correlation of all sufficiently deep wells with gamma-ray logs. The Avon Park permeable zone is contained entirely within the Avon Park Formation; its position within the section is either near the middle Avon Park marker horizon or within a thick part of the section that extends several hundred feet above the marker horizon. This subaquifer is present over most of the study area and characteristically consists of thick units of dolostone and interbedded limestone, and limestone in its upper part. Permeability is primarily associated with fracturing. This subaquifer is well developed in west-cen
Reese, Ronald S.; Richardson, Emily
Cover of higher plants (in 4 × 4 m plots), groundwater table height, and water chemistry in boreholes were sampled at 43 sites\\u000a along three cross-sectional transects in a flat floodplain of the Upper Vltava River in the Šumava Mountains (Šumava National\\u000a Park, Czech Republic). The goal was to describe the relationships between vegetation and alluvial environment. Correlations\\u000a between hydrochemical and
Ivana Bufková; Karel Prach
Clinical Paracoccidioides spp. isolates from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) in Mato Grosso, Brazil exhibit different patterns of serologic reactivity. The results observed for reactions of radial immunodiffusion against the commonly used exoantigens containing a 43-kDa glycoprotein (gp43) suggest that this fungus exhibits major antigenic variability by geographic region. There is a phylogenetic gap between Paracoccidioides spp. isolates among different regions of Latin America. In particular, those from the central region of Brazil (i.e. Mato Grosso state) exhibit a lower rate of genetic similarity. We aimed at investigating the phylogenetic classification of clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. in Central Brazil and the different antigenic profiles that produce. Exoantigens were obtained from five clinical isolates: two P. brasiliensis (Pb166 and Pb2880) and three P. lutzii (PL2875, PL9840, and PL2912). The protein/glycoprotein profiles of P. lutzii exoantigens were different from each other. Isolate PL9840 exhibited the most distinct bands, and isolates PL2875 and PL2912 exhibited more diffuse bands and a very intense band between 50 and 60 kDa. P. brasiliensis isolates had similar protein profiles, exhibiting a low-intensity band at 220 kDa and a diffuse band between 50 and 60 kDa. P. lutzii isolates exhibit high species-specific antigen variability, which we have already been assessed in proteomic studies. PMID:24635832
Queiroz Júnior, Luiz de Pádua; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Tadano, Tomoko; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Takarara, Doracilde Terumi; Gegembauer, Gregory; Araujo, Leticia Mendes; Hahn, Rosane Christine
BACKGROUND: Hydropower plants provide more than 78 % of Brazil's electricity generation, but the country's reservoirs are potential new habitats for main vectors of malaria. In a case study in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil, habitat suitability of Anopheles darlingi was studied. Habitat profile was characterized by collecting environmental data. Remote sensing
Peter Zeilhofer; Emerson Soares dos Santos; Ana LM Ribeiro; Rosina D Miyazaki; Marina Atanaka dos Santos
Approximately 95 years after the original description, a nest of Melipona subnitida Ducke was rediscovered in the state of Maranhão, in a restinga ecosystem of the Barreirinhas municipality, Northeastern Brazil. The voucher specimens are deposited in the collection of the "Laboratório de Estudos sobre Abelhas" of the "Departamento de Biologia UFMA". PMID:18575706
Rêgo, Márcia; Albuquerque, Patrícia
We used eddy covariance technique to measure the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 between the atmosphere and an savanna in Central Brazil (locally known as cerrado), from February 2011 to February 2013, the data set included measurements of climatological variables. This part of brazilian savana has a long history of land cover change due to human activity, mainly due agricultural activity. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal variation in energy flux in areas of degraded, grass-dominated cerrado (locally known as campo sujo) in Central Brazil. The NEE variability is controlled mainly by solar radiation, temperature and air humidity on diel course. Seasonally, soil moisture and changes on land cover plays a strong role on the ecossystem. Daytime CO2 uptake under high irradiance averaged 4-12 ?mol m-2 s-1 in the wet season (October to April) and 0-3 ?mol m-2 s-1 on the dry season (May to September). The net sign of NEE is negative (sink) during of the wet season and positive (source) in the dry season.
Arruda, P. H.; Vourlitis, G. L.; Santanna, F. B.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.; Nogueira, J. D.
This research aims to propose a dynamic analysis for industrial cluster evolution based on the Lotka-Volterra model. Particularly, an empirical competition case between Southern and Central Taiwan Science Park (STSP and CTSP) will be adopted in this study to demonstrate the validity of the dynamic approach. The results reveal that the competitive relationship between STSP and CSTP may be a predator-prey interaction type. The existence of STSP and its investment growth will be a positive assistance for developing the latter CTSP area. Contrarily, the growth of CTSP will probably compete with the resource of STSP and inhibit the sustained growth of STSP. In addition, there do not exist an equilibrium point in the competition relationship of these two clusters recently, which the STSP and CTSP area could coexist with a sustained growth in this current short-term stage.
Yang, Chia-Han; Shyu, Joseph Z.; Li, Yimin
Background Importance of parasites in ecological and evolutionary interactions is being increasingly recognized. However, ecological data on parasites of important host species is still scanty. We analyze the patterns seen in the faecal parasites of tigers in the Tadoba National Park, India, and speculate on the factors and processes shaping the parasite community and the possible implications for tiger ecology. Results The prevalence and intensities were high and the parasite community was dominated by indirect life cycle parasites. Across all genera of parasites variance scaled with the square of the mean and there was a significant positive correlation between prevalence and abundance. There was no significant association between different types of parasites. Conclusions The 70 samples analyzed formed 14 distinct clusters. If we assume each of the clusters to represent individual tigers that were sampled repeatedly and that resident tigers are more likely to be sampled repeatedly, the presumed transient tigers had significantly greater parasite loads than the presumed resident ones.
Marathe, Rahul R; Goel, Shantanu S; Ranade, Sachin P; Jog, Maithili M; Watve, Milind G
The present study investigated the dynamic on a short-time scale in the vegetation in moist grassland of the Sete Cidades National Park, Piauí. Herb-subshrub layer samples was carried out in July 2007, 2009 and 2011. Changes in structural, floristic and functional traits in the community were assessed by species richness, diversity and similarity indices between those periods, as well as by hierarchical classification and ordination. Cluster and Principal Component Analyses identified functional groups according to 23 species trait state. To distinguish the contribution of space and time configuration in the community structure, we used the variance partition technique. The functional groups of chamaephytes and therophytes II were associated with wetter sites, while the groups of non-tussock hemicriptophytes I, tussock hemicriptophytes (FG4), and geophytes (FG5) were associated to the drier ones. We found a non-accelerated dynamics, at least on a short-time scale, represented by some descriptors in the community, such as the close similarity between the inventories and ordering of sampling transects in moist grassland. Therefore, besides considering the partition of the temporal niche as a mechanism for the co-existence of species, the heterogeneity of space dictated by environmental filters seems to determine the stability of the this grassland communities over time. PMID:25055092
Mendes, Mra; Silva Júnior, Mc; Castro, Aajf; Takahashi, Fsc; Munhoz, Cbr
The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992). A total of 24, 943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas. PMID:10656699
Guimarães, A E; Gentile, C; Lopes, C M; Mello, R P
This study aims to further the scientific understanding of the microbial quality and safety of grated cheese. Samples of grated cheese product (n?=?20) were obtained from markets in the central region of Brazil and submitted to microbiological analysis using conventional and alternative (Petrifilm™ and RIDA(®) plates) methodologies. Based only on the criteria from the Brazilian Health Ministry, all samples were considered adequate for consumption. However, most samples presented foreign substances and high levels of contamination by other hygiene indicator microorganisms, indicating failures in processing and possible risks to consumers. Despite the hygienic quality of the samples, the obtained results showed good correlation indexes and similarities between the conventional and the alternative methodologies, indicating their viability for the quality control of grated cheese. PMID:21524197
de Lima, Thaís Cristina Dias; da Silva, Patrícia Helena Caldeira; de Souza, Stefânia Márcia; Nero, Luís Augusto; Ferreira, Márcia de Aguiar
The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a population of recyclable waste collectors (n = 431) was assessed using a cross-sectional survey in all 15 cooperatives in the city of Goiânia, Central-West Brazil. The HCV prevalence was 1.6% (95% confidence interval: 0.6-3.6) and a history of sexually transmitted infections was independently associated with this infection. HCV RNA (corresponding to genotype 1; subtypes 1a and 1b) was detected in five/seven anti-HCV-positive samples. Although the study population reported a high rate (47.3%) of sharps and needle accidents, HCV infection was not more frequent in recyclable waste collectors than in the general Brazilian population.
Marinho, Thais Augusto; Lopes, Carmen Luci Rodrigues; Teles, Sheila Araujo; Reis, Nadia Rubia Silva; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; de Andrade, Andreia Alves; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel
Wildfires in tropical forest and savanna are a strong source of trace gas and particulate emissions to the atmosphere, but estimates of the continental-scale impacts are limited by large uncertainties in the rates of fire occurrence and biomass combustion. Satellite-based remote sensing offers promise for characterizing fire physical properties and impacts on the environment, but currently available sensors saturate over high-radiance targets and provide only indications of regions and times at which fires are extensive and their areal rate of growing as recorded in ash layers. Here we describe an approach combining satellite- and aircraft-based remote sensing with in situ measurements of smoke to estimate emissions from central Brazil. These estimates will improve global accounting of radiation-absorbing gases and particulates that may be contributing to climate change and will provide strategic data for fire management.
Riggan, Philip J.; Brass, James A.; Lockwood, Robert N.
In Central Amazon, Brazil, the tabanid Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann) was recorded attacking the native duck Cairina moschata (Linnaeus) (Anseriformes, Anatidae). The flight and behavior of the tabanid during the attacks and the host's defenses were videotaped and analyzed in slow motion. The tabanid was recorded flying rapidly around the heads of the ducks before landing. Landing always took place on the beak, and then the tabanid walked to the fleshy caruncle on the basal part of the beak to bite and feed. Firstly the duck defends itself through lateral harsh head movements, and then, when it is being bitten, it defends itself by rubbing its head on the body, or dipping the head into water, when swimming. If disturbed, the fly resumed the same pattern of flight as before and would generally try to land again on the same host and bite in the same place. This feeding activity was observed predominantly between 9:30 am and 4:30 pm and always in open areas, near aquatic environments, from June 1996 to January 1997, the dry season in Central Amazon. To test the attractiveness of other animals to P. cinereus, mammals, caimans and domestic and wild birds were placed in suitable habitat and the response of P. cinereus observed. P. cinereus did not attack these animals, suggesting that this species has a preference for ducks, which are plentiful in the region. PMID:12386706
Limeira-de-Oliveira, Francisco; Rafael, José Albertino; Henriques, Augusto Loureiro
We used microsatellite loci to test the paternity of two male jaguars involved in an infanticide event recorded during a long-term monitoring program of this species. Seven microsatellite primers originally developed for domestic cats and previously selected for Panthera onca were used. In order to deal with uncertainty in the mother's genotypes for some of the loci, 10000 values of
Thannya Nascimento Soares; Mariana P. C. Telles; Lucileide V. Resende; Leandro Silveira; Anah Tereza A. Jácomo; Ronaldo G. Morato; José Alexandre F. Diniz-Filho; Eduardo Eizirik; Rosana P. V. Brondani; Claudio Brondani
In South America, the largest savanna region is the Brazilian cerrado, in which there are few areas that become waterlogged in the rainy season. However, we found a small cerrado area in which the soil is poorly drained and becomes waterlogged at the end of the rainy season, allowing the appearance of a hyperseasonal cerrado. We investigated the soil-vegetation relationships in three vegetation forms: hyperseasonal cerrado, seasonal cerrado, and wet grassland. We collected vegetation and soil samples in these three vegetation forms and submitted obtained data to a canonical correspondence analysis. Our results showed a distinction among hyperseasonal cerrado, seasonal cerrado and wet grassland, which presented different floristic compositions and species abundances. The edaphic variables best related to the hyperseasonal and seasonal cerrados were sand, base saturation, pH, and magnesium. The wet grassland was related to higher concentrations of clay, organic matter, aluminium saturation, aluminium, phosphorus, and potassium. Although it is not possible to infer causal relationships based on our results, we hypothesize that the duration of waterlogging in the hyperseasonal cerrado may not be long enough to alter most of its soil characteristics, such as organic matter, phosphorus, and potassium, but may be long enough to alter some, such as pH and base saturation, as the soils under both cerrados were more similar to one another than to the soil under the wet grassland. Since waterlogging may alter soil characteristics and since these characteristics were enough to explain the plant community variation, we may conclude that water excess—permanent or seasonal—is one of the main factors to distinguish the three vegetation forms, which presented different floristic compositions and species abundances.
Amorim, Priscilla Kobayashi; Batalha, Marco Antônio
Explaining intraplate seismic activity has been a challenging task. Several different models have been proposed combining weak crustal zones and mechanisms of stress concentration. Here we propose that stress concentration due to flexural deformation is one of the most important factors to explain seismicity in Central Brazil, especially the SW-NE oriented seismic zone between the Amazon and the São Francisco cratons, called "Goiás-Tocantins Seismic Zone" (GTSZ). This activity has been usually associated with the TransBrasiliano Lineament (TBL), a major Paleozoic transcontinental feature. However, two observations cast doubt on a direct relationship with the Lineament. First, the seismic activity in the Tocantins province is parallel but not coincident with the TBL; secondly, the continental scale TransBrasiliano Lineament shows no seismic activity further to the NE (beneath the Parnaíba basin), while to the SW, the seismic activity follows an E-W and then N-S direction, not coincident with the TBL. On the other hand, the seismic zone coincides exactly with the trend of high isostatic gravity anomalies (above -20 mGal), which were interpreted as due to high-density mantle rocks beneath a belt of thin crust (roughly beneath the Goiás Magmatic Arc and the Central Massif). Upper crustal stresses due to flexural deformation were calculated with finite-element methods assuming a visco-elastic lithosphere overlying a very soft asthenosphere. The lithospheric load due to the shallow, high-density mantle rocks produces compressional stresses up to 100 MPa in the 200 km wide GTSZ. Regional compressive stresses from plate boundary forces combine with the local flexural stresses to reach seismogenic levels in the GTSZ. Away from the central zone of horizontal compression, extensional stresses (related to the peripheral bulge) balance the regional compression, which explains the aseismic areas. Three other seismic clusters (the N-S belt along the Eastern border of the Amazon craton near Carajás, the cluster of seismicity at the northern border of the Parecis Basin (Porto dos Gauchos Seismic Zone), and the active Pantanal Basin overlying the Paraguay foldbelt) are also located in areas of predominantly positive isostatic anomalies. For this reason we propose that similar compressional flexural stresses enhance the regional, plate-wide stresses up to seismogenic levels in other areas and are an important factor to explain the mid-plate seismicity in Brazil.
Assumpcao, M.; Sacek, V.
While many readers may be aware that trees grow in Brooklyn, few may be cognizant of the fact that, yes, a forest grows in Brooklyn. This urban forest just happens to be in the boroughÃ¢ÂÂs own lovely Prospect Park, designed by those giants of landscape architects, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. Often overlooked by some who are primarily concerned with that other large swath of green in the middle of Manhattan, Prospect Park contains a 90-acre meadow, a zoo, a celebrated performing arts festival, and a lake. Visitors to the Prospect Park Alliance website can learn all about these things, and also delve into the parkÃ¢ÂÂs history. Those planning a visit may wish to look at the Ã¢ÂÂGeneral InfoÃ¢ÂÂ and Ã¢ÂÂPlaces To GoÃ¢ÂÂ sections for a selection of brief descriptions and photographs. For those seeking a historical perspective the Ã¢ÂÂHistory & NatureÃ¢ÂÂ area is delightful. Here visitors can learn about the parkÃ¢ÂÂs historical development and creation, and learn more about those individuals responsible for the parkÃ¢ÂÂs design and aesthetic appeal. Finally, visitors should look at the online exhibit Ã¢ÂÂA Glimpse Of Prospect ParkÃ¢ÂÂ for a bit of visual perspective on the parkÃ¢ÂÂs history.
Prospect Park (New York, N.Y.)
In Central Brazil, half the area under sown pasture suffers from the phenomenon of pasture degradation; overgrazing is believed to be the main cause. Farmers' objectives and their links to the practice of overgrazing have been explored to obtain a better understanding of the decisions related to the setting of the stocking rate. A survey of beef cattle farmers was
F. P. Costa; T. Rehman
International efforts to address climate change by reducing tropical deforestation increasingly rely on indigenous reserves as conservation units and indigenous peoples as strategic partners. Considered win-win situations where global conservation measures also contribute to cultural preservation, such alliances also frame indigenous peoples in diverse ecological settings with the responsibility to offset global carbon budgets through fire suppression based on the presumed positive value of non-alteration of tropical landscapes. Anthropogenic fire associated with indigenous ceremonial and collective hunting practices in the Neotropical savannas (cerrado) of Central Brazil is routinely represented in public and scientific conservation discourse as a cause of deforestation and increased CO2 emissions despite a lack of supporting evidence. We evaluate this claim for the Xavante people of Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Reserve, Brazil. Building upon 23 years of longitudinal interdisciplinary research in the area, we used multi-temporal spatial analyses to compare land cover change under indigenous and agribusiness management over the last four decades (1973–2010) and quantify the contemporary Xavante burning regime contributing to observed patterns based on a four year sample at the end of this sequence (2007–2010). The overall proportion of deforested land remained stable inside the reserve (0.6%) but increased sharply outside (1.5% to 26.0%). Vegetation recovery occurred where reserve boundary adjustments transferred lands previously deforested by agribusiness to indigenous management. Periodic traditional burning by the Xavante had a large spatial distribution but repeated burning in consecutive years was restricted. Our results suggest a need to reassess overreaching conservation narratives about the purported destructiveness of indigenous anthropogenic fire in the cerrado. The real challenge to conservation in the fire-adapted cerrado biome is the long-term sustainability of indigenous lands and other tropical conservation islands increasingly subsumed by agribusiness expansion rather than the localized subsistence practices of indigenous and other traditional peoples.
Welch, James R.; Brondizio, Eduardo S.; Hetrick, Scott S.; Coimbra, Carlos E. A.
Twelve stream segments were sampled four times in 1998-1999 (one sampling per season) in the drainage basin of the upper São Francisco River (19 masculine 45'-21 masculine 25'S, 49 masculine 05'-51 masculine 30'W), situated in Serra da Canastra National Park, at altitudes ranging from 1,175 to 1,400 m. The macroalgae survey resulted in 30 species, with a predominance of Cyanophyta (12 species = 40%) and Chlorophyta (11 species = 36.5%) and a lower proportion of Rhodophyta (seven species = 23.5%). Two species, Klebsormidium rivulare (Chlorophyta) and Kyliniella latvica (Rhodophyta), were new records for Brazil. Capsosira sp. and Stigonema sp. (Cyanophyta) and the "Chantransia" stage of Batrachospermum (Rhodophyta) were the most widespread macroalgae, occurring in six sampling sites, whereas 11 species were found at only one site. The proportion of macroalgal morphological types were as follows: mats (33%), free filaments (27%), gelatinous filaments (27%), crusts (7%), tufts (3%), and gelatinous colonies (3%). The flora revealed few species in common (4%-8%) with stream macroalgae from other Brazilian regions. The macroalgal communities proved to have species richness values close to the highest values reported in previous studies. The patterns typical for stream macroalgal communities (patchy distribution and dominance of few species) were also found in this basin. However, the stream variables most influential in macroalgal distribution in this study (rocky substratum, low pH, high COD, water color, and current velocity) were essentially the same that best describe the limnological characteristics of this lotic ecosystem. In addition, this combination of variables differed sharply from results of previous studies in other Brazilian stream ecosystems. PMID:15029374
Necchi-Júnior, O; Branco, L H Z; Branco, C C Z
The national park system of Canada is extensive, stretching from Baffin Island to areas in British Columbia. The stated goal of the system is "to establish a system of national parks that represents each of Canada's distinct natural regions." First-time visitors to the site can use the Introduction area to learn more about the system, and there's also a Planning Your Visit link that's quite helpful. The basic document that most users will want to check out here is titled "National Parks System Plan" and it offers a broad overview of the 39 national parks in Canada. Visitors can learn about parks such as Aulavik, Prince Edward Island, and others by clicking over to the Find a National Park area. Naturalists and scientists can use the Species at Risk area to learn about what the Canadian government is doing to protect species such as the whooping crane and the seaside centipede lichen. Finally, the site is rounded out by the Managing Human Use link which talks about their long-range plans to ensure that the parks maintain a balance between visitors and conserving the natural areas.
This study presents reproductive parameter data gathered by direct observation over a 40-year period (1971-2011) of the provisioned free-ranging population of orangutans at Camp Leakey in Tanjung Puting National Park, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Age at first reproduction, interbirth interval (IBI), sex ratio at birth, and infant mortality for 19 female orangutans (11 first-generation wild-born ex-captive mothers and 8 second-generation mothers) are included in this analysis. Age at first reproduction among the first-generation mothers was similar to that among wild orangutans, while second-generation mothers had a significantly earlier age at first reproduction. IBIs were similar among first- and second-generation mothers and were significantly shorter than those recorded in studies of wild orangutan populations. There was an expected male-biased sex ratio at birth and a slightly higher than expected rate of infant mortality when compared to wild populations. Infant mortality was primarily seen among second-generation mothers who gave birth before the age of 12, and among first births of some first-generation mothers. These results lend support to the ecological energetics hypothesis, which predicts that increased diet quality leads to a faster rate of reproduction. PMID:23053615
Galdikas, Biruté Mary; Ashbury, Alison
We use Landsat images to quantify recent (2001 and 2010) glacier area coverage and its change within the recently established Central Karakoram National Park, CKNP, Northern Pakistan, including Baltoro and Biafo-Ispar glaciers, at Mt. K2 toe. Trends of climate variables (1980-2009) as provided by PMD of Pakistan for low altitude stations, are investigated, to assess possible effect of climate upon glaciers within the CKNP. The work was developed in fulfillment of the SEED and PAPRIKA projects, promoted and managed by the EvK2CNR Committee, aimed to promote social development in the CKNP area, and investigate water resources in upper Indus basin. We found substantially unchanged ice cover, which is consistent with recent the literature, suggesting the presence of the so called Karakoram Anomaly. The climate data display i) a slight decrease of Summer temperatures, possibly decreasing snow and ice melt, and ii) an increase of wet days during Winter, possibly increasing the number of snowfalls, and possibly of ice shielding via snow albedo. These joint effects, together with increasing debris coverage, may have in turn contributed to unchanged glacier area, in spite of the general warming trend. Our study highlights possible underlying mechanisms of the Karakoram Anomaly, and the need for further studies of climate variables at high altitudes, including snowfall accumulation, temperature and solar radiation, to understand more accurately glacier mass budgets and evolution in this area.
Minora, Umberto; Bocchiola, Daniele; D'Agata, Carlo; Maragno, Davide; Mayer, Cristoph; Lambrecht, Astrid; Mosconi, Boris; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Senese, Antonella; Compostella, Chiara; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina
A two-dimensional model of the Brazilian central crust and upper mantle was obtained from the traveltime interpretation of deep seismic refraction data from the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, each approximately 300 km long. When the lines were deployed, they overlapped by 50 km, forming an E-W transect approximately 530 km long across the Tocantins Province and western Sa??o Francisco Craton. The Tocantins Province formed during the Neoproterozoic when the Sa??o Francisco, the Paranapanema, and the Amazon cratons collided, following the subduction of the former Goia??s ocean basin. Average crustal VP and VP/VS ratios, Moho topography, and lateral discontinuities within crustal layers suggest that the crust beneath central Brazil can be associated with major geological domains recognized at the surface. The Moho is an irregular interface, between 36 and 44 km deep, that shows evidences of first-order tectonic structures. The 8.05 and 8.23 km s-1 P wave velocities identify the upper mantle beneath the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, respectively. The observed seismic features allow for the identification of (1) the crust has largely felsic composition in the studied region, (2) the absence of the mafic-ultramafic root beneath the Goia??s magmatic arc, and (3) block tectonics in the foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the northern Brasi??lia Belt during the Neoproterozoic. Seismic data also suggested that the Bouguer gravimetric discontinuities are mainly compensated by differences in mass distribution within the lithospheric mantle. Finally, the Goia??s-Tocantins seismic belt can be interpreted as a natural seismic alignment related to the Neoproterozoic mantle domain. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.
Soares, J. E.; Berrocal, J.; Fuck, R. A.; Mooney, W. D.; Ventura, D. B. R.
Background The aim of the present study was to estimate hepatitis B virus seroprevalence among first-time blood donors in the city of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State, in the central-western region of Brazil. Findings A retrospective analysis of first-time voluntary blood donor records, from January 2010 to December 2010, was conducted at the Hematology Center of Mato Grosso do Sul. The prevalence of the HBsAg and anti-HBc serological markers and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Chi-square analysis was performed between the seroprevalence previously found in 2001 and the one determined by the current study. Results were considered statistically significant if p < 0.05. Among 8,840 subjects, 269 (3.04%, 95% CI: 2.7-3.4) were positive for HBV markers. The prevalence rate of HBsAg was 0.19% (95% CI: 0.1-0.3) and anti-HBc alone was 2.85% (95% CI: 2.5-3.2). Conclusions There was no statistically significant difference regarding gender. However, an important association was observed between HBV infection and older age (p < 0.01). The seroprevalence of HBV infection in first-time blood donors diminished from 2001 to 2010 (p < 0.01). Such decrease suggests an improvement in the recruitment of safe donors, the positive impact of vaccination programs and the decreasing of HBV infection prevalence in the general population.
The continental shelf off the coast of central Brazil, extending from 10 to 16°S, is unusually narrow (~ 20 km) and rests on the São Francisco craton. The shelf break is located between the 45 and 50 m isobaths and coincides with major hinge-lines of the marginal basins. The shelf was exposed for most of the Quaternary period, particularly during the last 1 my, when the average sea level was - 62 m. Submarine geomorphology is strongly influenced by this extended sub-aerial exposure and reduced subsidence, resulting in widespread incisions on the shelf. During the limited episodes of shelf inundation, as is the case today, a few meters of non-framework grain assemblages dominated by coralline algae accumulated on the outer shelf, while quartz sands were restricted to water depths of less than 10-15 m. Mud accumulation on this unusually shallow shelf is aided by additional accommodation space provided by incisions and canyon heads indenting the shelf. Artisanal fisheries, targeting high-value commercial species associated with hard bottoms located on the outer shelf and shelf break, are the most important human use of this shelf. Data used in this study have been compiled from theses and previously conducted surveys and consist of four piston cores, 509 km of chirp subbottom profiles and side scan recordings, and 711 bottom grab samples that have been analyzed for various textural and compositional aspects.
Dominguez, José Maria Landim; da Silva, Rian Pereira; Nunes, Alina Sá; Freire, Antonio Fernando Menezes
This article describes the environmental education (EE) program developed in the neighboring community of Serra da Canastra National Park based on a research project focused on the maned wolf conservation. The article assesses three tools used to foster the community's participation in discussing local issues: (1) communal production of a book…
Bizerril, Marcelo Ximenes A.; Soares, Carla Cruz; Santos, Jean Pierre
This webpage of the National Park Service (NPS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) discusses the environments of coastlines - the narrow strips of land where national parks meet the sea. It covers the formation of waves and beaches, as well as how beaches move through longshore drift. Also included are plans for paper models of island coral reefs, which include shield volcanoes, fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls.
Irrigated areas in Brazil's Central São Francisco River Valley have experienced declines in productivity, which may be a reflection of changes in soil chemical properties due to management. This study was conducted to compare the chemical composition of soil solutions and cation exchange complexes in a five-year-old grove of irrigated mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Tommy Atkins) with that of an adjacent clearing in the native caatinga vegetation. A detailed physiographic characterization of the area revealed a subsurface rock layer, which was more undulating than the current land surface, and identified the presence of a very saline and sodic (1045 microS cm(-1), sodium adsorption ratio [SAR] = 5.19) ground water table. While changes in concentrations of Ca, Mg, and K could be attributed to direct management inputs (fertilization and liming with dolomite), increases in Na suggested average annual capillary rise from the ground water table of 28 L m(-2). Accordingly, soil salinity levels appeared to be more dependent on surface elevation than the elevation of the rock layer or sediment thickness. The apparent influence of land surface curvature on water redistribution and the solution chemistry was more pronounced under irrigated mango production. In general, salinity levels had doubled in the mango grove and nearly tripled under the canopies, after only five years of irrigation. Though critical saline or sodic conditions were not encountered, the changes observed indicate a need for more adequate monitoring and management of water and salt inputs despite the excellent water quality of the São Francisco River. PMID:12931897
Heck, R J; Tiessen, H; Salcedo, I H; Santos, M C
The expansion of tropical forest into savanna may potentially be a large carbon sink, but little is known about the patterns of carbon sequestration during transitional forest formation. Moreover, it is unclear how nutrient limitation, due to extended exposure to fire-driven nutrient losses, may constrain carbon accumulation. Here, we sampled plots that spanned a woody biomass gradient from savanna to transitional forest in response to differential fire protection in central Brazil. These plots were used to investigate how the process of transitional forest formation affects the size and distribution of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools. This was paired with a detailed analysis of the nitrogen cycle to explore possible connections between carbon accumulation and nitrogen limitation. An analysis of carbon pools in the vegetation, upper soil, and litter shows that the transition from savanna to transitional forest can result in a fourfold increase in total carbon (from 43 to 179 Mg C/ha) with a doubling of carbon stocks in the litter and soil layers. Total nitrogen in the litter and soil layers increased with forest development in both the bulk (+68%) and plant-available (+150%) pools, with the most pronounced changes occurring in the upper layers. However, the analyses of nitrate concentrations, nitrate:ammonium ratios, plant stoichiometry of carbon and nitrogen, and soil and foliar nitrogen isotope ratios suggest that a conservative nitrogen cycle persists throughout forest development, indicating that nitrogen remains in low supply relative to demand. Furthermore, the lack of variation in underlying soil type (>20 cm depth) suggests that the biogeochemical trends across the gradient are driven by vegetation. Our results provide evidence for high carbon sequestration potential with forest encroachment on savanna, but nitrogen limitation may play a large and persistent role in governing carbon sequestration in savannas or other equally fire-disturbed tropical landscapes. In turn, the link between forest development and nitrogen pool recovery creates a framework for evaluating potential positive feedbacks on savanna-forest boundaries. PMID:24669728
Pellegrini, Adam F A; Hoffmann, William A; Franco, Augusto C
The prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was investigated in 149 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Central-West Region of Brazil. Of these individuals, 19 were positive for HBV DNA, resulting in an occult HBV infection prevalence of 12.7% (19/149); six of these 19 individuals had anti-HBV core and/or anti-HBV surface antibodies and 13 were negative for HBV markers. All IDUs with occult hepatitis B reported sexual and/or parenteral risk behaviours. All HBV DNA-positive samples were successfully genotyped. Genotype D was the most common (17/19), followed by genotype A (2/19). These findings reveal a high prevalence of occult HBV infection and the predominance of genotype D among IDUs in Brazil's Central-West Region.
de Matos, Marcia Alves Dias; Ferreira, Renata Carneiro; Rodrigues, Fabiana Perez; Marinho, Tamiris Augusto; Lopes, Carmen Luci Rodrigues; Novais, Antonia Carlos Magalhaes; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra; Teles, Sheila Araujo; Souto, Francisco Jose Dutra; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel
4 SUMMARY: The percent composition, soluble and insoluble food fibers, oil fatty acids and minerals were determined in the mesocarp of fruits of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) populations grown in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Amino acids were also determined in one of the populations. The mean protein levels ranged from 1.8 to 2.7%, lipid levels ranged from 3.5 to
Lúcia K. O. Yuyama; Jaime P. L. Aguiar; Kaoru Yuyama; Charles R. Clement; Sonja H. M. Macedo; Deborah I. T. Fávaro; Claudia Afonso; Marina B. A. Vasconcellos; Sabria A. Pimentel; Elsa S. G. Badolato; Helio Vannucchi
Its never too early to begin planning your summer vacation, especially in the depths of winter; those with cabin fever can get a jump on their outdoor recreation plans at this site, provided by L.L. Bean. Users can search this database of over 1,400 state and national parks, forests, and wildlife refuges by state, region, and/or activities in which they are interested (including winter sports for all-season recreators). Search returns include contact information, an overview of the park/ forest and its highlights, photos, and a list of approved or available activities.
The Parking Garage Automation System (PGAS) is based on a technology developed by a NASA-sponsored project called Robot sensorSkin(TM). Merritt Systems, Inc., of Orlando, Florida, teamed up with NASA to improve robots working with critical flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The system, containing smart sensor modules and flexible printed circuit board skin, help robots to steer clear of obstacles using a proximity sensing system. Advancements in the sensor designs are being applied to various commercial applications, including the PGAS. The system includes a smartSensor(TM) network installed around and within public parking garages to autonomously guide motorists to open facilities, and once within, to free parking spaces. The sensors use non-invasive reflective-ultrasonic technology for high accuracy, high reliability, and low maintenance. The system is remotely programmable: it can be tuned to site-specific requirements, has variable range capability, and allows remote configuration, monitoring, and diagnostics. The sensors are immune to interference from metallic construction materials, such as rebar and steel beams. Inside the garage, smart routing signs mounted overhead or on poles in front of each row of parking spots guide the motorist precisely to free spaces.
Five series of single and stereo photographs display a range of natural conditions and fuel loadings in Cerrado ecosystems in central Brazil. Each group of photographs is accompanied by information summarizing vegetation composition, structure and biomass...
R. D. Ottmar R. E. Vihnanek H. S. Miranda M. N. Sato S. M. A. Andrade
Kittlitz's murrelets (Brachyramphus brevirostris) and marbled murrelets (B. marmoratus) are small diving seabirds and are of management concern because of population declines in coastal Alaska. In 2006-08, we conducted a study in Kenai Fjords National Park, south-central Alaska, to estimate the recent population size of Brachyramphus murrelets, to evaluate productivity based on juvenile to adult ratios during the fledgling season, and to describe and compare their use of marine habitat. We also attempted a telemetry study to examine Kittlitz's murrelet nesting habitat requirements and at-sea movements. We estimated that the Kittlitz's murrelet population was 671 ? 144 birds, and the marbled murrelet population was 5,855 ? 1,163 birds. Kittlitz's murrelets were limited to the heads of three fjords with tidewater glaciers, whereas marbled murrelets were more widely distributed. Population estimates for both species were lower in 2007 than in 2006 and 2008, possibly because of anomalous oceanographic conditions that may have delayed breeding phenology. During late season surveys, we observed few hatch-year marbled murrelets and only a single hatch-year Kittlitz's murrelet over the course of the study. Using radio telemetry, we found a likely Kittlitz's murrelet breeding site on a mountainside bordering one of the fjords. We never observed radio-tagged Kittlitz's murrelets greater than 10 kilometer from their capture sites, suggesting that their foraging range during breeding is narrow. We observed differences in oceanography between fjords, reflecting differences in sill characteristics and orientation relative to oceanic influence. Acoustic biomass, a proxy for zooplankton and small schooling fish, generally decreased with distance from glaciers in Northwestern Lagoon, but was more variable in Aialik Bay where dense forage fish schools moved into glacial areas late in the summer. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), capelin (Mallotus villosus) and Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) were important forage species for murrelets in Kenai Fjords. Euphausiids also may have been an important forage resource for Kittlitz's murrelets in turbid glacial outflows in shallow waters during daytime. Marbled murrelets generally were more tolerant to a wider range of foraging habitat conditions although they tended to avoid the ice-covered silty waters close to glaciers. In contrast, Kittlitz's murrelets preferred areas where the influence of tidewater glaciers was the greatest and where their distribution was determined largely by prey availability. This work highlights an important link between interannual variability in murrelet counts at sea and mesoscale oceanographic conditions that influence marine productivity and prey distribution.
Arimitsu, M.L.; Piatt, J.F.; Romano, M.D.; Madison, E.N.; Conaway, J.S.
This National Park Service website contains information on: the park history; park activities such as hiking and camping; and natural history such as the wildlife, geology and paleontology of the park. The kids' section contains coloring pages, a park trivia quiz, reference sections on the wildlife and natural history of the park, and information on Theodore Roosevelt and his involvement in the Badlands. There are also images of the wildlife and scenery of the park.
Forest and grassland clearing by means of prescribed fires in tropical areas of the world may be responsible for large inputs of fine particulates to the global atmosphere besides being a major source of trace gases. The major continents on which extensive biomass burning takes place are Africa and South America. Such agricultural practices of burning have been employed throughout man's existence, but the importance and significance of such burning relative to anthropogenic industrial emissions to the atmosphere has not until extremely recently been seriously studied. In August-September 1979 project "Brushfire 1979" took place based in Brasília, Brazil. The Air Quality Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research made ground level and aircraft measurements of trace gases (e.g. CO 2, CO, CH 4, N 2O, H 2, CH 3Cl, COS, NO, NO 2, O 3) and Florida State University sampled ground level aerosol emissions from grass and forest burnings. Aerosols were sampled using plastic 7-stage single orifice cascade impactors and FSU type linear and circular "streakers". Long term sampling was made of regional background for total particulates (<15 ?mad) with 2 h resolution using streakers and with impactors for 24 h resolution of 7 particle size fractions (<0.25 to >8 ?mad). Short term sampling within grass or forest fires was made using impactors incorporated into portable kits containing 4 miniature 12-18 V dc Brailsford pumps and a disposable dry cell power pack. Sampling times of 5-15 min were found optimal under these conditions. Grass fires were sampled in the savannah area northeast of Brasília and forest fires in the state of Mato Grosso on the southern edge of the dryland forest of the Amazon basin. Residual ash samples were collected. All of the samples were analyzed at Florida State University using PIXE for 15-20 elements including Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb and Sr. Computer reduction of the X-ray spectra was made using the "HEXB" program. One of the prominent features found was the large flux of small particles (<2.0 ?m) from both fire types. P, S and Cl were mostly small particle, Mg, Al, Si and K showed a bimodal distribution biased towards the small particle range, while Ca, Ti and Fe (crustal elements) predominated in the large particle mode. As Cl was found to be exclusively small particle, a formation mechanism in which HCl gas neutralizes small organic particles containing P and S may be hypothesized. A much more extensive field program for the summer of 1980 is planned to take place in the central Amazon basin using ground and airborne aerosol samplers, to capitalize on the work pioneered in this study.
Leslie, Alistair C. D.
Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefé, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT ? 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 56, and 1:500 in 2. Results suggest a high level contamination of the aquatic environment of the home range of these animals. PMID:21764516
Santos, P S; Albuquerque, G R; da Silva, V M F; Martin, A R; Marvulo, M F V; Souza, S L P; Ragozo, A M A; Nascimento, C C; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Silva, J C R
The structure and dynamics of approximately 64 ha of undisturbed gallery forest were studied over six years. Trees from 31 cm gbh (c. 10 cm dbh) were measured every three years from 1985. They were in 151 (10×20 m) permanent plots in the Gama forest in the Federal District of Brazil. Natural regeneration (individuals under 31 cm gbh) was measured
Jeanine Maria Felfili
Supraglacial debris plays a not negligible role in controlling magnitude and rates of buried ice melt (Østrem, 1959; Mattson et al., 1993). Knowledge on rock debris is essential to model ice melt (and consequently meltwater discharge) upon wide glacierized areas, as melt rates are mainly driven by debris thickness variability. This is particularly important for the Pamir-Himalaya-Karakoram area (PHK), where debris-covered glaciers are frequent (Smiraglia et al., 2007; Scherler et al., 2011) and where melt water from glaciers supports agriculture and hydropower production. By means of remote sensing techniques and field data, supraglacial debris can be detected, and then quantified in area and thickness. Supervised classifications of satellite imagery can be used to map debris on glaciers. They use different algorithms to cluster an image based on its pixel values, and Region Of Interests (ROIs) previously selected by the human operator. This can be used to obtain a supraglacial debris mask by which surface extension can be calculated. Moreover, kinetic surface temperature data derived from satellites (such as ASTER and Landsat), can be used to quantify debris thicknesses (Mihalcea et al., 2008). Ground Control Points (GCPs) are essential to validate the obtained debris thicknesses. We took the Central Karakoram National Park (CKNP) as a representative sample for PHK area. The CKNP is 12,000 km2 wide, with more than 700 glaciers, mostly debris covered (Minora et al., 2013). Among those we find some of the widest glaciers of the World (e.g: Baltoro). To improve the knowledge on these glaciers and to better model their melt and water discharge we proceeded as follows. Firstly we ran a Supervised Maximum Likelihood (SML) classification on 2001 and 2010 Landsat images to detect debris presence and distribution. Secondly we analyzed kinetic surface temperature (from Landsat) to map debris depth. This latter attempt took also advantage from field data of debris thickness and surface rock temperatures acquired in the study area since the ablation season 2004 (see Mihalcea et al., 2006; 2008b). A mean debris thickness of ca. 5.6 cm was found, probably greater than the local "critical value" (sensu Mattson et al., 1993). Moreover, our field data indicate a local critical value of about 5 cm, above which supraglacial debris thickness would lower ice melt rates compared to that of bare ice (Mihalcea et al., 2006). These findings suggest that in the CKNP area the abundant and extensive debris coverage may result in an actual reduction of buried ice melt. Moreover, Minora et al. (2013) reported quite stable conditions of glaciers in the CKNP area in the time window 2001-2011. This glacier behavior is consistent with the largely known "Karakoram Anomaly" (Hewitt, 2005) and requires further investigations. Among other possible important factors driving such a unique glacier trend, debris depth and distribution have to be considered. This work was carried out under the umbrella of the PAPRIKA project funded and managed by EvK2CNR Committee. The authors are also grateful to the SEED project (funded by the Pakistani and Italian Governments and managed by EvK2CNR).
Minora, Umberto; Mayer, Christoph; Bocchiola, Daniele; D'Agata, Carlo; Maragno, Davide; Lambrecht, Astrid; Vuillermoz, Elisa; smiraglia, claudio; diolaiuti, guglielmina
Intellectual disability is a complex, variable, and heterogeneous disorder, representing a disabling condition diagnosed worldwide, and the etiologies are multiple and highly heterogeneous. Microscopic chromosomal abnormalities and well-characterized genetic conditions are the most common causes of intellectual disability. Chromosomal Microarray Analysis analyses have made it possible to identify putatively pathogenic copy number variation that could explain the molecular etiology of intellectual disability. The aim of the current study was to identify possible submicroscopic genomic alterations using a high-density chromosomal microarray in a retrospective cohort of patients with otherwise undiagnosable intellectual disabilities referred by doctors from the public health system in Central Brazil. The CytoScan HD technology was used to detect changes in the genome copy number variation of patients who had intellectual disability and a normal karyotype. The analysis detected 18 CNVs in 60% of patients. Pathogenic CNVs represented about 22%, so it was possible to propose the etiology of intellectual disability for these patients. Likely pathogenic and unknown clinical significance CNVs represented 28% and 50%, respectively. Inherited and de novo CNVs were equally distributed. We report the nature of CNVs in patients from Central Brazil, representing a population not yet screened by microarray technologies.
Pereira, Rodrigo Roncato; Pinto, Irene Plaza; Minasi, Lysa Bernardes; de Melo, Aldaires Vieira; da Cruz e Cunha, Damiana Mirian; Cruz, Alex Silva; Ribeiro, Cristiano Luiz; da Silva, Claudio Carlos; de Melo e Silva, Daniela; da Cruz, Aparecido Divino
The difference between an architect and an engineer is sometimes confusing because their roles in building design can be similar. Students experience a bit of both professions by following a set of requirements and meeting given constraints as they create a model parking garage. They experience the engineering design process first-hand as they design, build and test their models. They draw a blueprint for their design, select the construction materials and budget their expenditures. They also test their structures for strength and find their maximum loads.
Integrated Teaching And Learning Program And Laboratory
The animal and its environment make up an integrated system, where each acts on the other. Tropical regions are characterized\\u000a by high levels of solar radiation and environmental temperature which may adversely affect animal production. This study carries\\u000a out a multivariate analysis of physical and physiological traits in sheep in the Federal District of Brazil to test the ability\\u000a to
Marlos Castanheira; Samuel Rezende Paiva; Helder Louvandini; Aline Landim; Maria Clorinda Soares Fiorvanti; Bruno Stefano Dallago; Patricia Spoto Correa; Concepta McManus
Background Vampire bats are important rabies virus vectors, causing critical problems in both the livestock industry and public health sector in Latin America. In order to assess the epidemiological characteristics of vampire bat-transmitted rabies, the authors conducted phylogenetic and geographical analyses using sequence data of a large number of cattle rabies isolates collected from a wide geographical area in Brazil. Methods Partial nucleoprotein genes of rabies viruses isolated from 666 cattle and 18 vampire bats between 1987 and 2006 were sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. The genetic variants were plotted on topographical maps of Brazil. Results In this study, 593 samples consisting of 24 genetic variants were analyzed. Regional localization of variants was observed, with the distribution of several variants found to be delimited by mountain ranges which served as geographic boundaries. The geographical distributions of vampire-bat and cattle isolates that were classified as the identical phylogenetic group were found to overlap with high certainty. Most of the samples analyzed in this study were isolated from adjacent areas linked by rivers. Conclusion This study revealed the existence of several dozen regional variants associated with vampire bats in Brazil, with the distribution patterns of these variants found to be affected by mountain ranges and rivers. These results suggest that epidemiological characteristics of vampire bat-related rabies appear to be associated with the topographical and geographical characteristics of areas where cattle are maintained, and the factors affecting vampire bat ecology.
Kobayashi, Yuki; Sato, Go; Mochizuki, Nobuyuki; Hirano, Shinji; Itou, Takuya; Carvalho, Adolorata AB; Albas, Avelino; Santos, Hamilton P; Ito, Fumio H; Sakai, Takeo
National parks have become important tourist attractions and tools for regional development. New international initiatives, such as PAN (Protected Area Network) Parks in Europe, now promote sustainable tourism in protected areas. This paper examines the sociocultural sustainability of tourism perceived by local stakeholders of Oulanka National Park in northeastern Finland. The central question concerns the role of PAN Parks certification
Riikka Puhakka; Simo Sarkki; Stuart P. Cottrell; Pirkko Siikamäki
Gravity waves observations were carried out at Palmas (10.16o S, 48.26o W) Brazil, between September 2007 and December 2008, using an all-sky airglow imager to measure the OH emis-sion. The gravity waves were divided in two groups following they morphology as band and ripples type waves. The main characteristics of the band type waves are: horizontal wavelength between 10-35 km; observed period raging from 5 to 25 minutes; observed phase speed between 5-60 m/s. Preferential propagation directions of the bands are northward and southward, show-ing a clear anisotropy. For the ripples the main wave parameters are: horizontal wavelength ranging between 5 and 15 km; observed period mainly distributed between 5 and 15 minutes and horizontal phase velocity from 5 to 30 m/s. The ripples showed the same anisotropy as in the preferential propagation direction as the band type waves. The gravity wave characteristics observed at Palmas were compared with other observations carried out in Brazil, showing simi-lar features. In order to explain the seasonal variation of the wave propagation direction, maps of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (ORL) were used to locate regions with intense deep con-vection (OLR < 220 W.m-2 ) in the lower atmosphere. During summer and autumn the wave sources regions are well correlated with deep convection areas located at west and northwest of Palmas.
Wrasse, Cristiano Max; Messias Almeida, Lazaro; Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Valentin Bageston, José; Pillat, Valdir G.; Lima, Washington L. C.
Arecaceae Schultz-Sch. (Palmae Juss.), a member of the monocotyledon group, is considered one of the oldest extant angiosperm families on Earth. This family is highly valuable because of its species diversity, its occurrence in a wide range of habitats, and its status as an integral part of the culture and the family-based economy of many traditional and nontraditional communities. The main objectives of this study were to perform an ethnobotanical study involving these palms and a "Quilombola" (Maroon) community in the municipality of Cavalcante, GO, Brazil. The variables gender, age, and formal schooling had no influence on the number of species recognized and used by the Kalungas. Ethnobotanical studies based on traditional knowledge in addition to use and management of palms are fundamental aspects for planning and appliance of public policies directed to the use of natural resources and improvement of life quality. PMID:24772040
Martins, Renata Corrêa; Filgueiras, Tarciso de Sousa; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino
Deposits of the Tamanduá River contain evidence for four major paleohydrologic stages in the last 33,000 years. A wet period between 33,000 and 20,000 14C yr B.P. produced a high water table that allowed organic-rich deposition in the Tamanduá valley. A dry interval 17,000-10,000 14C yr B.P. produced sandy deposits of braided channels and alluvial fans. River aggradation during this period probably resulted from a high sediment load promoted by intense slope erosion and from flash floods. A wet period after 10,000 and before 6000 14C yr B.P. was marked by reduced slope erosion and by high discharge that led to erosion of the valley fill. During that time forests developed widely in Brazil. A drier climate after 6000 14C yr B.P. caused a reduction of discharge but allowed a high water table to be maintained.
Turcq, Bruno; Pressinotti, Marcia M. N.; Martin, Louis
Female sex workers (FSWs) are considered a high-risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection due to their social vulnerability and factors associated with their work. We estimated the prevalence of HIV, and identified viral subtypes and risk factors among FSWs. A cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was conducted among 402 FSWs in Campo Grande city, Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. Participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire about sociodemograpic characteristics and risk behavior. Blood samples were collected for serological testing of HIV. Of the 402 FSWs, median age and age of initiating sex work were 25 years (Interquartile range [IQR]: 9) and 20 years (IQR: 6), respectively. The majority reported use of alcohol (88.5%), had 5-9 years (median: 9; IQR: 3) of schooling (54.5%), 68.6% had tattoos/body piercings, and 45.1% had more than seven clients per week (median: 7; IQR: 10). Only 32.9% of FSW reported using a condom with nonpaying partners in the last sexual contact. Prevalence of HIV infection was 1.0% (95% CI: 0.1-2.6%). Genotyping for HIV-1 performed on three samples detected subtypes B, C, and F1. Sex work in the Midwestern region of Brazil is characterized by reduced education, large numbers of clients per week, and inconsistent condom use, mainly with nonpaying partners. Although prevalence of HIV infection is currently low, elevated levels of high-risk sexual behavior confirm a need to implement prevention measures. Specific interventions targeting FSWs must emphasize the risk associated with both clients and nonpaying partners while providing knowledge about HIV prevention. PMID:24617659
Fernandes, Fernanda R P; Mousquer, Gina J; Castro, Lisie S; Puga, Marco A; Tanaka, Tayana S O; Rezende, Grazielli R; Pinto, Clarice S; Bandeira, Larissa M; Martins, Regina M B; Francisco, Roberta B L; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana R C
This National Park Service website provides a trip planner, information on natural and cultural history, publications, a park fact sheet for students, park maps, student bibliography, and a newspaper for kids. There is information on the geology, rock formations, mountain building, volcanism, and glaciation of the Teton Range. Educational resources for students and teachers consist of links to other National Park Service sites.
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been considered the major occupational risk agent for dentists. The Central West region of Brazil is considered an intermediate endemic pattern area, but currently there is no information about the HBV prevalence in dentists of Goiânia, Goiás. This study aimed at the detection of the HBV infection rate and risk factors for dentists of Goiânia and the comparison of the obtained data with the general population and other groups. A randomized sample of 680 professionals participated in this study. All dentists gave written consent for the procedure and filled out a questionnaire about risk factors. The HBV serological markers were analyzed using ELISA test and the presence of anti-HBc was observed in 41 (6.0%) of the dentists. None of them was HBsAg positive. Significant relationships with HBV positivity were observed with gender, the time working as a dentist and the use of incomplete personal protective equipment (PPE). The HBV prevalence found in this group of dentists was lower than the endemic pattern of the general population, other health care workers of the region and the dentists from other regions in Brazil. These results may indicate a positive impact of vaccination considering the high adherence of the dentists to the immunization program (98.4%). Finally, the use of complete PPE by the majority as well as other standard precautions recommended for health care workers could be responsible for the low HBV seroprevalence.
de Paiva, Enilza Maria Mendonca; Tiplle, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; de Paiva Silva, Eliane; de Paula Cardoso, Divina das Dores
This is the homepage of Glacier National Park. Users can access materials on the park's ecology and environment (plants and animals, biodiversity and air quality, geology, and fires), the culture and history of the park, park activities, and publications on naturalist activities. There are also video clips of park wildlife and scenery, a photo gallery, and live webcams. Links are provided to additional information, such as research activities on bear DNA and global climate change.
This National Park Service website contains environmental education units for elementary and middle school students which consist of activities centered around an environmental theme. These themes include biodiversity, habitats, natural adaptation, patterns and order in nature, environmental cycles and change, interactions and interdependence within an ecosystem, and water in the environment. There is also information on: planning a visit to the park; the wildlife, geology, cave exploration and paleontology of the park; the park history; and the role of fire in the park.
A study was performed on the ability of antivenoms, produced in Brazil and Costa Rica, to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic and coagulant activities of the venoms of 16 species of Central and South American snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Neutralization of lethality was studied by two different methods routinely used in the quality control of antivenoms at Instituto Butantan (IB) and Instituto Clodomiro Picado (ICP). Both antivenoms neutralized the majority of the venoms studied, but the values of effective doses 50% (ED(50)) differed markedly depending on the method used. In general, higher potencies were obtained with the method of ICP, where a challenge dose corresponding to 4 LD(50)s is used, than with the method of IB, where a challenge dose of 5 LD(50)s is employed. All venoms induced hemorrhagic activity in the mouse skin test, which was effectively neutralized by the two antivenoms. All venoms, except those of Porthidium nasutum and Bothriechis lateralis, induced coagulation of human plasma in vitro and both antivenoms were effective in the neutralization of this activity. In conclusion, our results provide evidence of an extensive cross reactivity between these antivenoms and Central and South American crotaline snake venoms. PMID:10758277
Bogarín, G; Morais, J F; Yamaguchi, I K; Stephano, M A; Marcelino, J R; Nishikawa, A K; Guidolin, R; Rojas, G; Higashi, H G; Gutiérrez, J M
OBJECTIVE: As the world population ages with an improved quality of life and sexual longevity, the prevalence of AIDS is rising among the elderly. The purpose of this study was to estimate the vulnerability to AIDS among individuals attending senior community centers in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHOD: This descriptive, exploratory investigation included 329 subjects selected in a probabilistic manner. Individuals with scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination indicating cognitive impairment were excluded from the analyses. Barthel's and Lawton's functional assessment scales were applied. Interviews were conducted to evaluate the presence of cognitive and behavioral factors associated with HIV transmission. RESULTS: Most subjects were non-dependent, fell within the 60- to 69-year age bracket and were female. A majority of individuals reported having knowledge about AIDS and were aware that the elderly are vulnerable to the disease. More than a quarter (26.9%) of the sample reported previous HIV testing. No participants reported drug use, homosexual orientation, or alcohol abuse. A minority of participants reported using medication for erectile dysfunction. Casual and multiple partners accounted for 12% and 34% of reported intercourse experiences, respectively. Condom use was reported by 14% of respondents. CONCLUSION: Unprotected sex was the primary factor accounting for vulnerability to AIDS among the elderly.
Driemeier, Marta; Maria Oliveira de Andrade, Sonia; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Mello Miranda Paniago, Anamaria; Venancio da Cunha, Rivaldo
Bioluminescence in beetles is found mainly in the Elateroidea superfamily (Elateridae, Lampyridae and Phengodidae). The Neotropical region accounts for the richest diversity of bioluminescent species in the world with about 500 described species, most occurring in the Amazon, Atlantic rainforest and Cerrado (savanna) ecosystems in Brazil. The origin and evolution of bioluminescence, as well as the taxonomic status of several Neotropical taxa in these families remains unclear. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of bioluminescent Elateroidea we sequenced and analyzed sequences of mitochondrial NADH2 and the nuclear 28S genes and of the cloned luciferase sequences of Brazilian species belonging to the following genera: (Lampyridae) Macrolampis, Photuris, Amydetes, Bicellonycha, Aspisoma, Lucidota, Cratomorphus; (Elateridae) Conoderus, Pyrophorus, Hapsodrilus, Pyrearinus, Fulgeochlizus; and (Phengodidae) Pseudophengodes, Phrixothrix, Euryopa and Brasilocerus. Our study supports a closer phylogenetic relationship between Elateridae and Phengodidae as other molecular studies, in contrast with previous morphologic and molecular studies that clustered Lampyridae/Phengodidae. Molecular data also supported division of the Phengodinae subfamily into the tribes Phengodini and Mastinocerini. The position of the genus Amydetes supports the status of the Amydetinae as a subfamily. The genus Euryopa is included in the Mastinocerini tribe within the Phengodinae/Phengodidae. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23868199
Amaral, Dt; Arnoldi, Fgc; Rosa, Sp; Viviani, Vr
We have determined the atmospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase, in aerosols, and in rain during the dry season (July--August 1985) in the Amazonia region of Brazil. At ground level the average concentrations of gas phase formic and acetic acid were 1.6 +- 0.6 and 2.2 +- 1.0 ppb, respectively. The diurnal behavior of both acids at ground level and their vertical distribution in the forest canopy point to the existence of vegetative sources as well as to production by chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Dry deposition of the gaseous acids appears to be a major sink. The concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase were about 2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations of the corresponding species in the atmospheric aerosol. About 50--60%/sub 0/ of the aerosol (total) formate and acetate were in the size fraction below 1.0 ..mu..m diameter.
Andreae, M.O.; Talbot, R.W.; Andreae, T.W.; Harriss, R.C.
In Brazil, large-scale land cover changes following extensive deforestations are expected to generate big impacts onto the climate and the environment over this area, with eventually many negative feedbacks on the global scale. Mato Grosso State, located in the central western Brazil, is known to be the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate. Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in this state due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. In this study, we specifically aim at doing more detailed analysis for the causes of deforestation and savannization in this area, with special attention to agriculture and cattle ranching industry at the municipal district level in this state. Using GIS techniques and remotely-sensed NOAA/AVHRR data, we created 5-year Digital Vegetation Model Maps characterizing LU/LC features for every five years during the 1981-2001 periods using the PCA first components of the NOAA/AVHRR multi-spectral data. Our results make it clear that: (1) LU/LC changes among the phases are of the following 3 major types: degradation, recovery or transition; (2) The changes in LU/LC features are concomitant with the advance of cattle ranching and corn production activities toward the northern parts of the state, and with the expansion of soybean production in the central and western Mato Grosso; (3) Most of the agro-pastoral business are found in the southern Mato Grosso where about 46% of the state's deforestation during the 1981-2001 period occurred; (4) Rates of vegetation change are larger over non-inhabited areas (56%), especially in the north, than over the populated zones in the south (42%). Moreover, this work sheds some new light on the patterns of the changes in LU/LC features (deforestation and savannization) for each municipal district of Mato Grosso. In general, the following activities are shown to be the main contributors to the deforestation of tropical rainforests in Mato Grosso: cattle ranches or corn croplands in northwestern, and soybean fields in the central areas. On the other side, savannization due to soybean or corn cultivation is found mainly in the west and the southeast, respectively. It has to be noted that corn production seems to bring forth more savannization impacts than soybean cultivation over this Brazilian state. All these findings highlight the non-sustainable characteristics of resources development processes occurring not only in Mato Grosso State, but also over all the tropical rainforests in the Amazonian Basin subcontinent.
Sanga-Ngoie, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.
Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park has experienced many hydrological and ecological modifications through out its history, both of natural as well as anthropogenic origin, which have affected its carbon storage capacity and carbon fluxes. The study of those variations has been carried out by the analysis of its sedimentary record (geochemistry and pollen) and historical data. The natural changes have a wider variation range than the anthropogenic ones, show repetitive patterns and the system reacts readjusting the equilibrium among its components. Anthropogenic effects depend on the direct or indirect impact on the wetlands of change and its intensity. In addition, the anthropogenic impacts have the capacity of breaking the natural balance of the ecosystem and the internal interactions. ?? 2006 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2006 Blackwell Munksgaard.
Dominguez-Castro, F.; Santisteban, J. I.; Mediavilla, R.; Dean, W. E.; Lopez-Pamo, E.; Gil-Garcia, M. J.; Ruiz-Zapata, M. B.
We investigate the strong magnetic and gravity anomalies of the Goiás Alkaline Province (GAP), a region of Late Cretaceous alkaline magmatism along the northern border of the Paraná Basin, Brazil. The alkaline complexes (eight of which are present in outcrops, two others inferred from magnetic signals) are characterized by a series of small intrusions forming almost circular magnetic and gravimetric anomalies varying from -4000 to +6000 nT and from -10 to +40 mGal, respectively. We used the Aneuler method and Analytical Signal Amplitude to obtain depth and geometry for mapped sources from the magnetic anomaly data. These results were used as the reference models in the 3D gravity inversion. The 3D inversion results show that the alkaline intrusions have depths of 10-12 km. The intrusions in the northern GAP follow two alignments and have different sizes. In the anomaly magnetic map, dominant guidelines correlate strongly with the extensional regimes that correlate with the rise of alkaline magmatism. The emplacement of these intrusions marks mechanical discontinuities and zones of weakness in the upper crust. According to the 3D inversion results, those intrusions are located within the upper crust (from the surface to 18 km depth) and have spheres as the preferable geometry. Such spherical shapes are more consistent with magmatic chambers instead of plug intrusions. The Registro do Araguaia anomaly (˜15 by 25 km) has a particular magnetic signature that indicates that the top is deeper than 1500 m. North of this circular anomaly are lineaments with structural indices indicating contacts on their edges and dikes/sills in the interiors. Results of 3D inversion of magnetic and gravity data suggest that the Registro do Araguaia is the largest body in the area, reaching 18 km depth and indicating a circular layered structure.
Dutra, Alanna C.; Marangoni, Yara R.; Junqueira-Brod, Tereza C.
We evaluate the hypothesis that decomposition and adsorption reactions operating in upland soils of headwater catchments control the concentration and composition of dissolved and fine particulate organic matter in rivers of the Amazon basin. In two contrasting first-order catchments characteristic of the central Amazon basin, we analyzed plant, litter, soil, groundwater, and stream water chemistry. Our results indicate that clear and persistent differences exist in the concentration and elemental composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in stream waters and groundwaters from the two catchments, due mainly to corresponding differences in soil texture and chemistry. Within the more oxide and clay rich Oxisols underlying terra firme forest, groundwater DOM concentrations were uniformly low (120 ?MC) and C/N ratios averaged 10. Conversely, within the oxide and clay deficient Spodosols underlying campinarana forest, groundwater DOM concentrations were greatly elevated (3000 ?MC), and C/N ratios averaged near 60. We found that, in the terra firme/Oxisol terrain, the majority of DOM contributions to the stream derived from the riparian zone, while in the campinarana/Spodosol terrain, upland groundwater contributions could account for the concentration and composition of DOM in the stream. The implications of our findings are that in the terra firme terrains which dominate the region, upland soil profiles are not the site of definitive processes which impart compositional signatures to organic matter carried by the largest rivers of the Amazon basin, as was hypothesized. Instead, we suggest that definitive reactions are focused primarily in the river corridor.
McClain, Michael E.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Brandes, Jay A.; Pimentel, Tania P.
This research is funded through an interagency agreement with NASA. The research in this project is contributing to assessments of the effects of land use in central Brazil on: 1) the stocks and cycling rates of carbon and nutrient cycling; 2) the function and structure of soil ...
Plant litter from selected tree species has been used for improving soil productivity in low-input systems of secondary vegetation in Central Amazon, leading to different conditions for invertebrates. Soil invertebrate assemblages were monitored to test the effects of adding litter types of contrasting nutritional quality and periods of exposure on the development of the community. We established four second growth plots with 80 subplots of 3 m 2 from which the original litter was removed and replaced in 60 subplots. Twenty subplots received Hevea brasiliensis leaves, 20 others Carapa guianensis leaves, and another 20 an equal mixture of H. brasiliensis, C. guianensis and Vismia guianensis. Twenty subplots were left with the original litter. Litter and mineral soil (5 cm deep) sub-horizons were collected after 45, 100, 160, 240 and 300 days of exposure. The invertebrates were extracted using Kempson apparatus. At the day 210, the litter was replenished to match the surrounding litter. Regression analyses showed no significant effect of litter type, but the period of exposure did affect the community in both sub-horizons. Only after the litter replenishment, the type of litter and periods of exposure affected the community in the litter sub-horizon. Because we tried to isolate the effects of litter composition from other large-scale phenomena, several factors interfered in the experiment and potential problems were identified to optimize the investigation. The sampling design must be improved by using a larger number of subsamples for each kind of litter within each plot. Coarse parameters of Order and Family were suited to detect major environmental patterns on soil invertebrates, but taxonomic resolution to species and/or morphospecies is required to detect more subtle effects. Future manipulations should also be done on a longer time scale, and the replicates need to be spread over larger areas to capture the natural variations within the ecosystems.
Santos, Evanira M. R.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Luizão, Flávio J.
This National Park Service website contains information on: saving the habitats of peregrine falcons; the water cycle; becoming a junior ranger; and ranger-led school programs, which contain student field activities about the history, biology and geology of the park. Teacher resources include information on a library for educators at the visitor center of the park and teacher guides for preparing to visit the park. The kids' section explains what rangers do, gives tips on leaving no trace in the park, provides a history of Mount Desert Island, and contains an activity to match some park animals to their habitats.
This Park Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with caves and other karst features. Where appropriate, park sites contain park geology information, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Mammoth Cave National Park, Sequoia National Park, and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways.
Thirteen years after devastating forest fires burned over 1.6 million acres in Yellowstone National Park, the scars are still evident. In this simulated natural color ASTER image, burned areas appear gray, in contrast to the dark green of unburned forests. The image covers an area of 60 x 63 km. This image was acquired on July 2, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the technologies needed to explore the universe and search for life beyond our home planet.Size: 60 x 63 km (37.2 x 39.1 miles) Location: 44.7 deg. North lat., 110.7 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: July 2, 2001
The scope of this paper is to shed light on the therapeutic itineraries of transvestites from Santa Maria in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. The study sought to follow the complex trajectories followed by transvestites in their quest for health care. Field research was conducted between January and November 2012 with transvestites from different cities in the state who were living in Santa Maria at the time. It involved qualitative methodology using ethnographic research. The results showed that the interviewees avoid institutionalized health services, opting for other forms of health care. In this respect, it is noteworthy that of the group of 49 transvestites who were included in this study, 48 sought health care in "African religion groups" or "batuque" ("drumming"), as they refer to them. The transvestites stated that they opted for "African religion groups" as they saw them as places that were able to afford forms of care and protection, without questioning bodily changes and sexual orientation. This article may help to shed light on some of the unusual trajectories of transvestites in their quest for health care. PMID:25014306
Souza, Martha Helena Teixeira de; Signorelli, Marcos Claudio; Coviello, Denise Martin; Pereira, Pedro Paulo Gomes
The development of mold of environmental origin in honey affects its quality and leads to its deterioration, so yeasts and molds counts have been used as an important indicator of hygiene levels during its processing, transportation and storage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of yeasts and molds contamination and their correlation with moisture and acidity levels in Apis mellifera L. honey from central Brazil. In 20% of the samples, the yeasts and molds counts exceeded the limit established by legislation for the marketing of honey in the MERCOSUR, while 42.8% and 5.7% presented above-standard acidity and moisture levels, respectively. Although samples showed yeasts and molds counts over 1.0 × 102 UFC.g?1, there was no correlation between moisture content and the number of microorganisms, since, in part of the samples with above-standard counts, the moisture level was below 20%. In some samples the acidity level was higher than that established by legislation, but only one sample presented a yeasts and molds count above the limit established by MERCOSUR, which would suggest the influence of the floral source on this parameter. In general, of the 35 samples analyzed, the quality was considered inadequate in 45.7% of cases.
Ananias, Karla Rubia; de Melo, Adriane Alexandre Machado; de Moura, Celso Jose
The percent composition, soluble and insoluble food fibers, oil fatty acids and minerals were determined in the mesocarp of fruits of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) populations grown in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Amino acids were also determined in one of the populations. The mean protein levels ranged from 1.8 to 2.7%, lipid levels ranged from 3.5 to 11.1%, the nitrogen free fraction ranged from 24.3 to 35%, food fiber ranged from 5.2% to 8.7%, and energy ranged from 179.1 to 207.4 kcal%. All essential, as well as non-essential, amino acids were present, with tryptophan and methionine presenting the lowest mean concentrations. The mono-unsaturated oleic acid predominated in the oil, ranging from 42.8 to 60.8%, and palmitic acid was the most abundant saturated fatty acid, ranging from 24.1 to 42.3%. Among the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid was the most abundant, with a maximum of 5.4% in Pampa-8. The most important mineral elements were potassium, selenium and chromium, respectively corresponding to 12%, 9% and 9% of daily recommended allowances. Considering the nutritional potential of the fruit, we suggest its more frequent incorporation into the diet of the Amazonian population. PMID:12701237
Yuyama, Lúcia K O; Aguiar, Jaime P L; Yuyama, Kaoru; Clement, Charles R; Macedo, Sonja H M; Fávaro, Deborah I T; Afonso, Claudia; Vasconcellos, Marina B A; Pimentel, Sabria A; Badolato, Elsa S G; Vannucchi, Helio
Located on the Colorado Plateau in southeastern Utah, Canyonlands National Park preserves 337,598 acres of diverse natural and cultural treasures. The park is home to 628 species of vascular plants, 31 fish (although most of these are non-native), ten amp...
This National Park Service (NPS) website contains details about Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico. It highlights the natural resources of the park, such as the wilderness, wildlife and caves. The geologic history and formation of caves is covered in detail. There is a teacher's guide with activities, field trip ideas, and factsheets about the park. Topics covered include rocks, erosion, speleothems, mapping caves, fossils, plants and animals, cave bats and fire. Links are provided for more information.
This booklet provides profiles of career opportunities in the National Park Service. Careers profiled include park ranger, park police, guard, administrator, design and construction, and maintenance, trade and craft positions, and other opportunities. Each career description includes information on some or all of the following: duties; location;…
National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.
In this online interactive, learners are introduced to the basic function of Geographic Information System (GIS) maps in relation to national parks. Recognizable park boundaries are presented and learners are given the option to add layers such as lakes, rivers and visitor centers, until the learner is able to identify the park map from a list of choices.
Service, National P.
The National Park Service has produced a data base of boundaries for its National Parks. A copy of this data was downloaded from the National Parks Service ftp site by Region 10. These digital boundaries represent the best guess and data that could be collected in a short time....
The partitioning of rain water into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss when passing through plant canopies depends on properties of the respective plant species, such as leaf area and branch angles. In heterogeneous vegetation, such as tropical forest or polycultural systems, the presence of different plant species may consequently result in a mosaic of situations with respect to quantity and quality of water inputs into the soil. As these processes influence not only the water availability for the plants, but also water infiltration and nutrient leaching, the understanding of plant effects on the repartitioning of rain water may help in the optimization of land use systems and management practices. We measured throughfall and stemflow in a perennial polyculture (multi-strata agroforestry), monocultures of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) for fruit and for palmito, a monoculture of cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), spontaneous fallow and primary forest during one year in central Amazonia, Brazil. The effect on rain water partitioning was measured separately for four useful tree species in the polyculture and for two tree species in the primary forest. Throughfall at two stem distances, and stemflow, differed significantly between tree species, resulting in pronounced spatial patterns of water input into the soil in the polyculture system. For two tree species, peach palm for fruit (Bactris gasipaes) and Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa), the water input into the soil near the stem was significantly higher than the open-area rainfall. This could lead to increased nutrient leaching when fertilizer is applied close to the stem of these trees. In the primary forest, such spatial patterns could also be detected, with significantly higher water input near a palm (Oenocarpus bacaba) than near a dicotyledonous tree species (Eschweilera sp.). Interception losses were 6·4% in the polyculture, 13·9 and 12·3% in the peach palm monocultures for fruit and for palmito, respectively, 0·5% in the cupuaçu monoculture and 3·1% in the fallow. With more than 20% of the open-area rainfall, the highest stemflow contributions to the water input into the soil were measured in the palm monocultures and in the fallow.
Schroth, Götz; Ferreira da Silva, Luciana; Wolf, Marc-Andree; Geraldes Teixeira, Wenceslau; Zech, Wolfgang
This National Park Service site describes the biology of Great Basin's plants and animals; geology and ecology of the Lehman Caves; air quality of the park; and past human activities in the Great Basin such as farming, ranching, and gold mining. There is a list of historical, geological, and archeological dates important to the park and an instructor guide containing activities such as creating a nature notebook and adopting a tree. There is also information on: planning a visit to the park and the Lehman Caves, park projects such as weeding out non-native plants and the reintroduction of Bonneville Cutthroat Trout, and a self-guided geology field trip.
As summer enters full swing, more and more people will travel to America's numerous amusement parks and traveling carnivals. Quite a few of these people would do well to take a look at the Theme Park Insider website for reviews of various parks and the best (and worst) attractions at each particular place of amusement before they venture onto the open road. Edited by Robert Niles, the site contains reviews of new amusement park rides, an "Accident Watch" (which documents the latest accidents at each park), and reviews of theme park hotels as well. The site also has a number of discussion boards for visitors to chime in with their own take on a number of topics, such as which rides have the longest rides and general amusement park lore.
The Chicago Park District is one of the largest municipal park systems in the United States, containing over 8,100 acres of green space. All told, the District has 580 parks, including two city conservatories, a number of historic lagoons, and the iconic Clarence Buckingham Memorial Fountain. This website allows visitors the opportunity to learn about the District's mission, history, and long-range planning for existing parks and potential new sites. On the homepage, visitors can use the Find a Park feature to learn about these diverse spaces. Additionally, they can use the I Want To area to learn about park permits, volunteering, and reporting problems within the park system. The Events area is quite a find, as visitors can learn about some of the hundreds of events sponsored each year by the District. Finally, visitors can also use the Doing Business area to learn about the various entrepreneurial activities which are possible via the District.
This is the homepage of the National Park Service. It features links to subpages on special topics such as Parks and Recreation, which inludes links to individual national park pages, and History and Culture, which includes archeological, anthropological, and historical material. The Nature and Science pages feature classroom materials and information on the uses of science in protecting and restoring park ecosystems and research projects which are being conducted in the park system. The Interpretation and Education pages include games, online activities, and material for younger students who are researching park topics, as well as classroom materials for teachers. There are also links to the Park Service online bookshop, news articles, and special features.
The Winter Park chain of lakes (Lakes Maitland, Virginia, Osceola, and Mizell) has a combined area of about 900 acres, an immediate drainage area of about 3,100 acres, and mean depths ranging from 11 to 15 feet. The lakes are an important recreational resource for the surrounding communities, but there is concern about the possible effects of stormwater runoff and seepage of nutrient-enriched ground water on the quality of water in the lakes. The lakes receive water from several sources: rainfall on lake surfaces, inflow from other surface-water bodies, stormflow that enters the lakes through storm drains or by direct runoff from land adjacent to the lakes and ground-water seepage. Water leaves the lakes by evaporation, surface outflow, and ground-water outflow. Of the three, only surface outflow can be measured directly. Rainfall, surface inflow and outflow, and lake-stage data were collected from October 1, 1989, to September 30, 1992. Stormflow, evaporation and ground-water inflow and outflow were estimated for the 3 years of the study. Ground-water outflow was calculated by evaluating the rate of lake-stage decline during dry periods. Estimated ground-water outflow was compared to downward leakage rates estimated by ground-water flow models. Lateral ground-water inflow from surficial sediments was calculated as the residual of the flow budget. Flow budgets were calculated for the 3 years of the study. In water year 1992 (a year with about average rainfall), inflow consisted of rainfall, 48 inches; stormflow, 15 inches; surface inflow, 67 inches; and ground water, 40 inches. The calculated outflows were evaporation, 47 inches; surface outflow, 90 inches; and ground water, 33 inches. Water-quality data also were used to calculate nutrient budgets for the lakes. Bimonthly water samples were collected from the lakes and at surface inflow and outflow sites, and were analyzed for physical characteristics, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, major ions, the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus, and chlorophyll (collected at lake sites only). Specific conductance ranged from about 190 to 230 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius in Lakes Maitland, Virginia and Osceola and from about 226 to 260 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius in Lake Mizell. The median concentrations of total ammonia-plus-organic nitrogen in all the lakes ranged from 0.79 to 0.99 milligrams per liter. Median total phosphorus concentrations ranged from less than 0.02 to 0.20 milligrams per liter. Stormwater samples were collected for 17 storms at one storm-drain site and 16 storms at another storm-drain site on Lake Osceola. Median total nitrogen concentrations at the sites were 2.23 and 3.06 milligrams per liter and median total phosphorus concentrations were 0.34 and 0.40 milligrams per liter. The water quality in the Winter Park lakes generally is fair to good, based on a trophic-state index used by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection for assessing the tropic state of Florida lakes. This index was determined from median total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and chlorophyll-a concentrations, and median Secchi-disk transparency for all lakes for the period September 1989 to June 1992. Based on a one-time sampling of 20 sites around the lakes, surficial ground-water quality is highly variable. Nutrient concentrations were highly variable and could not be correlated to the proximity of septic tanks. Fertilizer probably is the primary source of nutrients in the surficial ground water. Nutrient budgets were calculated for the lakes for the 3 years of the study. The most variable source of nutrient loading to the lakes is stormwater. Nutrient-loading modeling indicates that reduction of nutrients in stormflow probably would improve lake-water quality. However, even with complete removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from stormwater, the lakes might still be mesotrophic with respect to both nutrients during periods of below ave
Phelps, G. G.; German, E. R.
The Bananal Plain spreading on the Middle Araguaia River basin in Central Brazil at the Cerrado-Amazonia ecotone is a unique system that sustains the largest seasonal wetlands of the Cerrado biome. The huge Bananal Plain is an intracratonic sedimentary basin filled with Pleistocene sediments of the Araguaia formation. Covering approximately two million hectares, the Bananal Island is a major geomorphologic feature of the Bananal plain. Fieldwork and the analysis of a temporal series of MODIS-VI and Landsat ETM images allowed us to discriminate Cerrado phyto-physiognomies on the Bananal Island. Maps of vegetation and geomorphologic units were created, and from the correlation between landforms and vegetation types we identified morpho-vegetation units. Our approach allowed us to postulate that Pleistocene landforms strongly influence, if not dominate, the distribution of vegetation units. For example, the distribution of current gallery forest is not only controlled by active floodplains, but also by alluvial belts abandoned by avulsion. Additionally, arboreal Cerrado vegetation is supported by laterite developed on the sediments of the Araguaia Formation. Some of these inactive landforms are in part modified by the present day geomorphologic processes and colonized by successional vegetation that varies from alluvial forest to Cerrado. Characterized by a very flat landscape with a hindered drainage, the muddy sediments of the Araguaia Formation and the high seasonal rainfall favor the development of regional seasonal wetlands. The Bananal plain is a key area for understanding the Quaternary climatic and biogeographic changes in tropical South America. The control exerted by relict Quaternary landforms on the current vegetation units demonstrates the strong links between geomorphologic aspects of the landscape and ecological patterns. This multidisciplinary approach provides a better understanding of the biogeographic patterns in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone, which is useful for identifying and designing areas for conservation.
Valente, C. R.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ferreira, L. G.
The Caldas Novas dome (Goiaás state, central Brazil) lies in the southern segment of the Neoproterozoic Bras?´lia belt (center of the Tocantins Province) between the Goiás magmatic arc and the margin of the ancient São Francisco plate. The core of the dome comprises rocks of the Meso-Neoproterozoic Paranoá group (passive margin psamitic-pelitic sediments and subgreenschist facies) covered by a nappe of the Neoproterozoic Araxá group (backarc basin pelitic-psamitic sediments and volcanics of greenschist facies, bitotite zone). Hot underground waters that emerge along fractures in the Paranoá quartzite and wells in the Araxá schist have made the Caldas Novas dome an international tourist attraction. A recent detailed structural analysis demonstrates that the dome area was affected by a D 1-D 3 Brasiliano cycle progressive deformation in the ˜750-600 Ma interval (published U-Pb and Sm-Nd data). During event D 1, a pervasive layer-parallel foliation developed coeval the regional metamorphism. Event D 2 (intense F 2 isoclinal folding) was responsible for the emplacement of the nappe. D 1 and D 2 record a regime of simple shear (top-to-SE relative regional movement) due to a WNW-ESE subhorizontal compression ( ?1). Event D 3 records a WSW-ENE compression, during which the dome rose as a large-scale F 3 fold, possibly associated with a duplex structure at depth. During the dome's uplift, the layers slid back and down in all directions, giving way to gravity-slide folds and an extensional crenulation cleavage. A set of brittle fractures and quartz veins constitutes the record of a late-stage D 4 event important for understanding the thermal water reservoir.
D'el-Rey Silva, Luiz José Homem; Wolf Klein, Percy Boris; Walde, Detlef Hans-Gert
Established in 1980, the National Association for Olmsted Parks (NAOP) is a coalition of various design and preservation professionals concerned with the legacy of landscape work left by noted landscape designer Frederick Law Olmsted Sr. and his colleagues. On their website, visitors can learn about Olmsted's primary works via a master list of design projects by his firm and some profiles of some of his most prominent work, including Central Park and the landscape at the Biltmore Estate. Scholars will want to look through the "Research" area for resources that include a set of suggested links and an extensive bibliography. Visitors will also want to look at the "News and Publications" area for more details about the NAOP's work and their newsletter.
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) may impact the clinical course of tuberculosis (TB). Both infections are highly endemic in Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in TB patients in Central-West Brazil and to perform a genetic characterisation of the respective isolates. Of the 402 patients, six (1.49%) were positive for anti-HTLV and five (1.24%; 95% confidence interval: 0.46-3.05) were infected with HTLV-1/2. Genetic characterisation demonstrated that the four HTLV-1 isolates belonged to the Transcontinental subgroup A of the Cosmopolitan subtype a and that the HTLV-2 isolate belonged to subtype a (HTLV-2a/c). The prevalence of HTLV infection observed in this study is higher than that observed in local blood donors and the HTLV-1 and 2 subtypes identified are consistent with those circulating in Brazil.
Kozlowski, Aline Garcia; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; de Matos, Marcia Alves Dias; Teles, Sheila Araujo; Araujo, Joao Alves; Otsuki, Koko; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel
The transmission of Leishmania involves several species of sand flies that are closely associated with various parasites and reservoirs, with differing transmission cycles in Brazil. A study on the phlebotomine species composition has been conducted in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which has intense occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. In order to study the sand flies populations and their seasonality, CDC light traps (HP model) were distributed in 15 houses which presented at least one case of CL or VL and in five urban parks (green areas). Collections were carried out three nights monthly from September 2010 to August 2011. A total of 1064 phlebotomine specimens were collected belonging to two genera and seventeen species: Brumptomyia brumpti, Lutzomyia bacula, Lutzomyia cortelezzii, Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia intermedia, Lutzomyia neivai, Lutzomyia whitmani, Lutzomyia christenseni, Lutzomyia monticola, Lutzomyia pessoai, Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lutzomyia brasiliensis, Lutzomyia lutziana, and Lutzomyia sordellii. L. longipalpis, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in Brazil, was the most frequent species, accounting for 76.9% of the total, followed by L. lenti with 8.3%, this species is not a proven vector. Green and urban areas had different sand flies species composition, whereas the high abundance of L. longipalpis in urban areas and the presence of various vector species in both green and urban areas were also observed. Our data point out to the requirement of control measures against phlebotomine sand flies in the municipality of Divinópolis and adoption of strategies aiming entomological surveillance. PMID:23178219
Nascimento, Bruno Warlley Leandro; Saraiva, Lara; Neto, Rafael Gonçalves Teixeira; Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy Serra e; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Belo, Vinícius Silva; Silva, Eduardo Sérgio da; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade
People might know Tennessee for its fabulous Great Smoky Mountains, but have you ever heard of the Cedars of Lebanon or Fall Creek Falls? Oh yes, those two gems are just a small part of the Tennessee State Park system. After looking at some of the beautiful images on the Tennessee State Parks homepage, visitors can explore the Popular Places People Want to Go section to get a taste of the diverse hiking trails, restaurants, camp sites, and other features that are contained throughout the park system. Visitors can also look over over a dozen topical areas, including What to do?, Park Information, and Resource Management. Policy enthusiasts will appreciate the "Estimated Economic Impacts of Tennessee State Parks" report, that is also featured on the homepage, and travelers will love the "Upcoming Events at Tennessee State Parks" area, as it provides a taste of what they might expect on a visit to the Volunteer State.
This National Park Service website contains an online park guide, cave tour information, park maps and news, photographs of the caves and trails, and an educational section. Educational resources include planning a field trip to Mammoth Cave, curricula for teachers, fact sheets for kids, an environmental educational program, a glossary of cave terms, information on becoming a Mammoth Cave Junior Ranger, and links to other cave education sites.
This National Park Service site describes the desert and oasis ecosystems of Joshua Tree National Park as well as the cultural history of humans occupying the area. Nature sections describe the animals, plants, cryptobiotic crusts, and the geology of the park. There are sections on environmental factors such as air quality, disturbed lands, exotic species and fire ecology. There is also information on natural history and cultural history education programs provided for different grade levels.
Background Hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are a major burden to public health worldwide. Routine antenatal HIV-1 screening to prevent maternal-infant transmission is universally recommended. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of and potential risk factors for HCV and HIV infection among pregnant women who attended prenatal care under the coverage of public health in Central Brazil. Methods Screening and counselling for HIV and HCV infections was offered free of charge to all pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) in the public health system, in Goiania city (~1.1 million inhabitants) during 2004–2005. Initial screening was performed on a dried blood spot collected onto standard filter paper; positive or indeterminate results were confirmed by a second blood sample. HCV infection was defined as a positive or indeterminate sample (EIA test) and confirmed HCV-RNA technique. HIV infection was defined according to standard criteria. Factors associated with HIV and HCV infections were identified with logistic regression. The number needed to screen (NNS) to prevent one case of infant HIV infection was calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation method. Results A total of 28,561 pregnant women were screened for HCV and HIV-1 in ANC. Mean maternal age was 23.9 years (SD = 5.6), with 45% of the women experiencing their first pregnancy. Prevalence of HCV infection was 0.15% (95% CI 0.11%–0.20%), and the risk increased with age (p < 0.01). The prevalence of anti-HIV infection was 0.09% (95% CI 0.06%–0.14%). Black women had a 4.9-fold (95% CI 1.42–16.95) greater risk of HIV-1 infection compared to non-black women. NNS to prevent one case of infant HIV infection ranged from 4,141 to 13,928. Conclusion The prevalence of HIV and HCV infections were low among pregnant women, with high acceptability rates in the opt-in strategy in primary care. Older maternal age was a risk factor for HCV and antenatal HCV testing does not fulfill the requirements for screening recommendation. The finding of higher risk of HIV-1 infection among black women despite being in consonance with the HIV-1 ethnic pattern in some American regions cannot be ruled out to be a surrogate marker of socio-economic condition.
Progress obtained in analysis aerogammaspectrometric and aeromagnetic survey data for the north-central region of the state of Goias (Brazil) are presented. The results obtained have allowed not only determination of the abundances of naturally radioactive elements but also new insights into the processes that determine the radiometric characteristics of the main soil types. There are indications that the radioelement abundances of soils are not only related to their physical properties, but also chemical characteristics of source rocks from which they are derived. For example, oxisol soils derived from the felsic source rocks of the Mara Rosa and Green stone belts have equivalent uranium (eU) values higher than 1.7 ppm, while those derived from source rocks of the relatively more basic Uruaçu Group and sediment sequences of Proterozoic age are characterized by eU contents of less than 1 ppm. Oxisol soils of the Median massif, ultisol soils of the Paranoá, Canastra and Araxá Groups, cambisol soils of the Araí Group and plintosol soils of the Bambuí Group constitute an intermediate class with eU contents in the range of 1-1.3 ppm. Equivalent thorium abundances of soil types display similar trends, the range of variation being 4-16 ppm. Potassium abundances on the other hand are rather uniform with values in the range of 1-1.3%, the only exception being the sedimentary sequences of Proterozoic age, which has a mean value of 0.7%. These observations have been considered as indicative of characteristic features of tropical soils in the study area. In this context, we point out the possibility of using results of aerogammaspectrometry surveys as a convenient complementary tool in identifying geochemical zoning of soils in tropical environments. The ratios of eU/K are found to fall in the range of 1-1.7, which is typical of common soils. The ratios of eTh/K exhibit a relatively wide interval, with values in the range of 4-16. The ratios of eTh/eU are found to have values in the range of 2-12. Also, there appears to be a rather reasonable association between the spatial distributions of positive anomalies of the radioelement ratios with the lineaments derived from the vertical derivative of the magnetic field. The map of the analytic signal of the magnetic field also reveals a similar association. Such associations imply that the processes which determine evolutionary trends of soil types are somehow related to the events that control the development of structural features in subsurface layers. PMID:23085188
Guimaraes, Suze Nei P; Hamza, Valiya M; da Silva, Joney Justo
This National Park Service website offers reference sections on: park wildlife such as reptiles, pronghorns, and the Gunnison prairie dog; the archaeology of park petroglyphs, including some that may be solar calendars; the geology and main features of the Painted Desert; paleontology, which describes dinosaurs of the area; and petrified wood, which explains the petrification process and how the different colors of petrified wood are produced. There are also tips for avoiding diseases such as hantavirus, the plague, and rabies while in the park.
The former small west-central Colorado town of Bostwick Park barely made a blip on most maps and atlases, if it even showed up at all. A small farming community of roughly fortyfive families, the town offered little in the way of tourist attractions, whic...
T. R. Linenberger
Students will research various types of amusement park rides and use their findings to design a feasible ride of their own. They will summarize their findings and present their ride design to the class. Each student will then write a persuasive letter to a local amusement park describing the reasons their ride design is the best.
This Yellowstone National Park website provides a fact sheet with a wide range of physical and cultural information. Key topics include general park facts, wildlife, flora, geology, Yellowstone Lake, cultural resources, visitation, facilities, roads, trails, and the latitude/longitude of several significant features.
Park, Yellowstone N.
This Yellowstone National Park Map is a handy way to quickly find locations and buildings located in the park. It is currently the most detailed map of Yellowstone national park that can be viewed online. The pull down menu has Yellowstone features such as geyser basins, campgrounds, trails, mountains, and historical points and park structures. Popular geysers, and park locations such as Norris geyser basin, Yellowstone visitor centers, park housing, lodging, and park dining can be easily found. All Yellowstone National Park named structures are indexed so you can easily find the sites that you want to locate.
Census, Nps S.
While there are many sites on existing amusement parks, this particular Web site contains detailed information on "pleasure palaces" that have gone out of business or that have since been demolished. Created and maintained by Joel Styer, the site features an interactive map of the United States that allows visitors to click on any one of the states to find out information about now-defunct amusement parks. Many of the former parks have additional material available for viewing, such as photographs, postcards, and brief essays and personal remembrances. Also, there is an extensive links page, which directs visitors to other sites dealing with different aspects of amusement park memorabilia such as popular rides from the past and newsgroups. The site also has different contact information for persons seeking to donate materials and recollections related to amusement parks.
The Neoproterozoic Bras?´lia Belt, in central Brazil, includes in its eastern part a thick pile of sediments deposited and deformed along the western margin of the São Francisco-Congo Craton. Several lithostratigraphic units are identified (the Ara?´, Paranoá, Serra da Mesa, Araxá, Ibiá, Vazante, Canastra and Bambu?´ groups) and have been traditionally interpreted as part of a passive margin association (<1.2 Ga), with sediments being derived from Archaean or Paleoproterozoic continental sources to the north and east. Nd isotopic signatures of fine-grained detrital sediments of the several rock units of the belt were investigated in order to assess: (i) the nature and average crustal residence ages of the source areas, and (ii) the tectonic significance of the different sedimentary units in respect to the evolution of the Bras?´lia Belt. TDM model ages of the ca. 1.2-0.9 Ga old Paranoá and Canastra rhythmites, shales and phyllites vary within the interval between 1.9 and 2.3 Ga, suggesting relatively uniform Paleoproterozoic continental sources within the São Francisco continent. The sediments of the detritic/carbonatic Vazante Group also display Paleoproterozoic model ages indicating, however, a distinct shift towards slightly younger TDM values (1.7-2.1 Ga). These three sequences are interpreted as the typical representatives of the passive margin sequence, with dominance of Paleoproterozoic sources. The Ibiá and Araxá groups show a bimodal distribution of model age values, with a set of samples displaying TDM values between 1.8 and 2.1 Ga (similar to the passive margin sequence), and another set with younger model ages, between ca. 1.0 and 1.3 Ga. Younger sources such as those represented by the Neoproterozoic Goiás Magmatic Arc (0.93-0.64 Ga) in the west, are required to explain the young model ages for these sediments. Immature sediments (feldspathic micaschists) within the magmatic arc, in fact, have TDM model ages mostly between 1.0 and 1.2 Ga, indicating that the original sediments represent products of erosion of the arc itself. Therefore, part of the rock units that have been mapped as Araxá and Ibiá groups can be deeper water equivalents of a passive margin sequence (sediments with Paleoproterozoic model ages). However, another part has been clearly deposited under the influence of an island arc source, most probably in a back-arc basin. The Bambu?´ Group sediments (<0.8 Ga?), at the top of the sequence, also indicate the presence of a young source. TDM model ages vary between ca. 1.4 and 1.9 Ga. However, the distribution pattern of TDM values is more uniform, being intermediate between the Neoproterozoic juvenile source and the Paleoproterozoic continental source area. The Bambu?´ Group is interpreted as a post-inversion sequence, with detrital sediments being mostly derived from erosion of a mountain range in the west, after accretion of the Goiás Magmatic Arc.
Pimentel, M. M.; Dardenne, M. A.; Fuck, R. A.; Viana, M. G.; Junges, S. L.; Fischel, D. P.; Seer, H. J.; Dantas, E. L.
The identification of pathogens of viral (Rotavirus, Coronavirus), parasitic (Toxocara spp.) and bacterial (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Rhodococcus equi) origin shed in feces, and the virulence profile of R. equi and E. coli isolates were investigated in 200 samples of sand obtained from 40 parks, located in central region of state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using different diagnostic methods. From 200 samples analyzed, 23 (11.5%) strains of R. equi were isolated. None of the R. equi isolates showed a virulent (vapA gene) or intermediately virulent (vapB gene) profiles. Sixty-three (31.5%) strains of E. coli were identified. The following genes encoding virulence factors were identified in E. coli: eae, bfp, saa, iucD, papGI, sfa and hly. Phylogenetic classification showed that 63 E. coli isolates belonged to groups B1 (52.4%), A (25.4%) and B2 (22.2%). No E. coli serotype O157:H7 was identified. Eggs of Toxocara sp. were found in three parks and genetic material of bovine Coronavirus was identified in one sample of one park. No Salmonella spp. and Rotavirus isolates were identified in the samples of sand. The presence of R. equi, Toxocara sp, bovine Coronavirus and virulent E. coli isolates in the environment of parks indicates that the sanitary conditions of the sand should be improved in order to reduce the risks of fecal transmission of pathogens of zoonotic potential to humans in these places. PMID:24294244
Fernandes, M C; Takai, S; Leite, D S; Pinto, J P A N; Brandão, P E; Santarém, V A; Listoni, F J P; Da Silva, A V; Ribeiro, M G
The Cerrado is a tropical savanna in which herbaceous vegetation (mainly C4 grasses) coexists with trees and shrubs. It covers more than two million square kilometers and accounts for 22% of the total area of Brazil. In general, cerrado soils are old, deep, well drained, well s...
This study, conducted by Walsh Investment Company, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report shows the results of a study done for the proposed construction and operation of a Western-style hotel in the city of Magadan, Russia. The s...
This park and preserve extends nearly 200 miles from east to west, including some 8.1 million acres in the central Brooks Range in north central Alaska. Included on the website are details about park geology, flora and fauna, climate, and taiga forest, as well as photographs, visitor information, and selected links.
Introduction Little is known about the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in populations from inner cities, especially in Central Brazil. Thus the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV infection, and to analyze the factors associated with HBV infection, in a population of first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, Central Brazil. Methods A total of 984 individuals were interviewed and gave blood samples to detect serological markers of HBV (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Results An overall prevalence of 6.9% was found for HBV, with constituent prevalence rates of 3.6% and 11.6%, in subjects classified as fit and unfit to donate blood according the epidemiological screening, respectively. Only three individuals were positive for anti-HBs alone, suggesting previous vaccination against HBV. The variables of prior blood transfusion (OR = 2.3), tattoo/piercing (OR = 2.1), illicit drug use (OR = 2.3), sex with a partner with hepatitis (OR = 14.7), and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR = 2.9) were independently associated with HBV-positivity. These data suggested a low endemicity of hepatitis B in the studied population. Conclusion The findings of low hepatitis B immunization coverage and the association of hepatitis B with risky behavior highlight that there is a need to intensify hepatitis B prevention programs in the southwest region of Goiás.
dos Anjos, Giulena Rosa Leite Cardoso; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; Brunini, Sandra Maria; Teles, Sheila Araujo
Using the first 30 minutes of the film Jurassic Park, the student will audit it for violations of safety rules and regulations, OSHA violations, and violations of HASP's. Access to the activity required free and quick registration with ATEEC.
When habitat becomes fragmented, populations of species may become increasingly isolated. In the absence of habitat corridors, genetic structure may develop and populations risk reductions in genetic diversity from increased genetic drift and inbreeding. Deforestation of the Cerrado biome of Brazil, particularly of the dry forests within the Parana˜ River Basin, has incrementally occurred since the 1970s and increased forest fragmentation within the region. We performed landscape genetic analyses of Pfrimer’s parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri), a globally endangered endemic to the region, to determine if forest fragmentation patterns were associated with genetic structuring in this species. We used previously generated satellite imagery that identified the locations of Parana˜ River Basin forest fragments in 1977, 1993/94, and 2008. Behavioral data quantifying the affinity of Pfrimer’s parakeet for forest habitat was used to parameterize empirically derived landscape conductance surfaces. Though genetic structure was observed among Pfrimer’s parakeet populations, no association between genetic and geographic distance was detected. Likewise, least cost path lengths, circuit theorybased resistance distances, and a new measure of least cost path length complexity could not be conclusively associated with genetic structure patterns. Instead, a new quantity that encapsulated connection redundancy from the 1977 forest fragmentation data provided the clearest associations with pairwise genetic differentiation patterns (Jost’s D: r = 0.72, P = 0.006; FST: r = 0.741, P = 0.001). Our analyses suggest a 35-year or more lag between deforestation and its effect on genetic structure. Because 66 % of the Parana˜ River Basin has been deforested since 1977, we expect that genetic structure will increase substantially among Pfrimer’s Parakeet populations in the future, especially if fragmentation continues at its current pace.
Susan M Haig;Mark P Miller;Carlos Bianchi;Tom Mullins
A National Park Service (NPS) site primarily composed of three main sections corresponding to the following program areas within the Geologic Resources Division (GRD): Disturbed Lands Restoration and Abandoned Mineral Lands (AML), Mineral Management Programs, and Geology and Soils Programs. Of these, the first two consist principally of textual resources pertaining to Park System procedures, policies, and regulations - as well as reports on example restoration projects with a focus on stream corridor restoration, bioengineering, riparian management, and revegetation. Perhaps of most interest to educators will be the third main program area, the Geology and Soils Programs section. Here are included textual resources pertaining to NPS-GRD programs on cave and karst formations, coastal and shoreline geology, paleontology, soils (e.g., soil biology and soil surveying), geological indicators (geoindicators), and stratigraphy. Lastly, a searchable photographic collection and geologic glossary are available.
This Great Basin National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, visitor information, and teacher features (educational resources and links for teaching geology using National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the region's biogeography, glacial history, and the Lehman Caves. A park map and a features/relief map of the Great Basin National Park are included.
Little information is available about the factors controlling soil C and N transformations in natural tropical forests and tree-based cropping systems. The aim of this work was to study the effects of single trees on soil microbiological activities from plantations of timber and non-timber species as well as species of primary and secondary forests in the Central Amazon. Soil samples
Oleg V. Menyailo; Johannes Lehmann; Manoel da Silva Cravo; Wolfgang Zech
Conflicts between humans and big cats have been known for centuries throughout the world, but have intensified in recent decades. Recently, attacks by Panthera onca on humans in Brazil have been brought to the forefront through exposure in the press and because of the severity of the attacks. We report 3 cases of patients attacked by jaguars in provoked and predatory situations. Two patients survived the attacks and one died. Attack mechanisms and lesions in victims are discussed. The attacks demonstrate a real risk of accidents from jaguars in certain regions, such as the Pantanal and the Amazon. PMID:21396857
Neto, Manoel Francisco Campos; Garrone Neto, Domingos; Haddad, Vidal
The authors studied a species of Leishmania which is the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso, Brazil. The parasite displays unusual characteristics which do not fit exactly into either the L. mexicana or L. brasiliensis complexes. The buoyant density DNA resembles that of the L. mexicana complex but the culture and hamster inoculation results resemble those of the L. brasiliensis complex. Further comparative studies are required to elucidate the relationship of the Mato Grosso Leishmania to the L. mexicana complex. PMID:999353
Barbosa, W; Moreira, M C; Souza, M; Souza, J M; Rassi, D M; Gerais, B B; Oliveira, R L
Background: This study examined demographics, injury pattern, and hospital outcome in patients injured in winter resort terrain parks. Methods: The study included patients ?12 years of age who presented to a regional trauma center with an acute injury sustained at a winter resort. Emergency department (ED) research assistants collected patient injury and helmet use information using a prospectively designed questionnaire. ED and hospital data were obtained from trauma registry and hospital records. Results: Seventy-two patients were injured in a terrain park, and 263 patients were injured on non-terrain park slopes. Patients injured in terrain parks were more likely to be male [68/72 (94%) vs. 176/263 (67%), p<0.0001], younger in age [23 ± 7 vs. 36 ± 17, p<0.0001], live locally [47/72 (65%) vs. 124/263 (47%), p=0.006], use a snowboard [50/72 (69%) vs. 91/263 (35%), p<0.0001], hold a season pass [46/66 (70%) vs. 98/253 (39%), p<0.0001], and sustain an upper extremity injury [29/72 (40%) vs. 52/263 (20%), p<0.001] when compared to patients injured on non-terrain park slopes. There were no differences between the groups in terms of EMS transport to hospital, helmet use, admission rate, hospital length of stay, and patients requiring specialty consultation in the ED. Conclusions: Patients injured in terrain parks represent a unique demographic within winter resort patrons. Injury severity appears to be similar to those patients injured on non-terrain park slopes.
Moffat, Craig; McIntosh, Scott; Bringhurst, Jade; Danenhauer, Karen; Gilmore, Nathan; Hopkins, Christy L.
Aripuana Park was established in 1969 to give the still isolated Surui and other Broad-Belt Indians a chance of survival at the time when Brazil was launching its "conquest of the Amazon". The Park is situated on both sides of the Upper Aripuana and extends to the Roosevelt and Juruena rivers. The Indians are located at the sources of the…
The genus Amazophrynella, as currently recognized (Fouquet et al. 2012a, b), is represented by four nominal species (Frost 2014; Rojas et al. 2014) but the tadpoles of only one species, Amazophrynella minuta (Melin) from Ecuador, have been described (Duellman & Lynch 1969; Duellman 1978). Amazophrynella manaos Rojas, Carvalho, Gordo, Ávila, Farias and Hrbek, 2014 occurs in the leaf litter of terra firme forest in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Guiana region (Rojas et al. 2014). The tadpole of this species was briefly described in diagrammatic drawings by Hero (1990) as Dendrophryniscus minutus. Herein, we provide a detailed description of this tadpole based on individuals at 12 stages of development collected in five different sites, including the type locality, at Central Amazonia, Brazil. PMID:24990056
Menin, Marcelo; Pegorini, Reysi Jhayne; De Carvalho, Vinicius Tadeu; Rojas, Rommel Roberto; Gordo, Marcelo
Presents some solutions to overcrowded parking on college campuses. Tips on selecting sites for parking garages, making parking decks blend with adjacent communities, and turning parking garages into multi use facilities are addressed. (GR)
This activity engages learners in examining data pertaining to the disappearing glaciers in Glacier National Park. After calculating percentage change of the number of glaciers from 1850 (150) to 1968 (50) and 2009 (26), students move on to the main glacier-monitoring content of the module--area vs. time data for the Grinnell Glacier, one of 26 glaciers that remain in the park. Using a second-order polynomial (quadratic function) fitted to the data, they extrapolate to estimate when there will be no Grinnell Glacier remaining (illustrating the relevance of the question mark in the title of the module).
Mcllrath, University O.; Curriculum/serc, Spreadsheets A.
Biodiversity corridors comprise a mosaic of land uses connecting fragments of natural forest across a landscape. Two such corridors have been established along the eastern coast of Brazil: the Serra do Mar and the Central da Mata Atlântica corridors, along which most of the coastal plains are restinga areas. In this study, we analyze the present status of the endemic and endangered terrestrial vertebrates of both corridors. We sampled 10 restingas in both corridors, recording species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Some restingas harbor a relatively large number of endemic species,and two main regions of endemism can be identified along the restingas of both corridors: the coastal restingas from northern Espirito Santo State to southern Bahia State (between Linhares, ES, and Tarancoso, BA), and the coastal region between the restingas of Maricá and Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State. Six species of terrestrial vertebrates considered threatened with extinction are found in the restingas of Serra do Mar and Central da Mata Atlântica biodiversity corridors (Liolaemus lutzae, Formicivora littoralis, Mimus gilvus, Schistochlamys melanopis, and Trinomys eliasi). The region located between the restinga of Maricá and that of Jurubatiba is of special relevance for the conservation of vertebrate species of the restingas of the corridors because a considerable number of threatened species of terrestrial vertebrates are found there. We strongly recommend efforts to develop checklists of threatened faunas for the States of Espirito Santo and Bahia. PMID:16025914
Rocha, C F D; Van Sluys, M; Bergallo, H G; Alves, M A S
In this work we investigate the cold front passage effects on sensible and latent heat flux in a tropical hydroelectric reservoir. The study area, Itumbiara reservoir (Goiás State/Brazil) at the beginning of the austral winter, is characterized by the presence of a weak thermal stratification and the passage of several cold fronts from higher latitudes of South America. Sensible and latent heat fluxes were estimated considering the atmospheric boundary layer stability. In situ and MODIS water surface temperature data were used to adjust the coefficients for momentum and heat exchanges between water and atmosphere and spatialize the sensible and latent heat fluxes. The results showed that during a cold front event the sensible heat flux can be up to five times greater than the flux observed before. The latent heat flux tends to decrease during the cold front but increase again after the passage. The highest values of heat loss were observed at littoral zone and some Reservoir's embayment. The heat loss intensification can be separated in two moments: first, during the cold front passage, when the wind speed increases and the air temperature decreases; second, after the cold front passage, with air humidity decreasing. This can be considered a key process to understanding the heat loss in the Itumbiara reservoir.
Curtarelli, Marcelo; Alcântara, Enner; Rennó, Camilo; Stech, José
To assess the presence of the four main viruses responsible for human acute gastroenteritis in a hydrographic network impacted by a disordered urbanization process, a 1-year study was performed involving water sample collection from streams in the hydrographic basin surrounding the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Thirteen surface water sample collection sites, including different areas of human settlement characterized as urban, rural, and primary forest, located in the Tarumã-Açu, São Raimundo, Educandos, and Puraquequara microbasins, were defined with a global positioning system. At least one virus was detected in 59.6% (31/52) of the water samples analyzed, and rotavirus was the most frequent (44.2%), followed by human adenovirus (30.8%), human astrovirus (15.4%), and norovirus (5.8%). The viral contamination observed mainly in the urban streams reflected the presence of a local high-density population and indicated the gastroenteritis burden from pathogenic viruses in the water, principally due to recreational activities such as bathing. The presence of viral genomes in areas where fecal contamination was not demonstrated by bacterial indicators suggests prolonged virus persistence in aquatic environments and emphasizes the enteric virus group as the most reliable for environmental monitoring. PMID:18065620
Miagostovich, Marize P; Ferreira, Fabiana F M; Guimarães, Flávia R; Fumian, Túlio M; Diniz-Mendes, Leonardo; Luz, Sérgio Luiz B; Silva, Luciete A; Leite, José Paulo G
savanna (locally known as cerrado) composes 24% of Brazil and is characterized by high climatic variation; however, patterns of energy exchange are poorly understood, especially for mixed grasslands (locally known as campo sujo). We used eddy covariance to measure latent (Le) and sensible (H) heat flux of a mixed grassland and linked meteorological and remote sensing data to determine the controls on these fluxes. We hypothesized that (1) seasonal variations in H and Le would be large due to variations in precipitation; (2) ecosystem phenology, estimated using the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), would be the best predictor of seasonal variation in Le; and (3) cerrado, transitional, and humid evergreen forests would have similar rates of average annual Le despite large seasonal variation in cerrado Le. Our data suggest that campo sujo exhibits large seasonal fluctuations in energy balance that are driven by rainfall and that responses to rainfall pulses are rapid and dynamic, especially during the dry season. Path analysis indicated that temporal variations in the EVI did not significantly affect Le or Gc, but this was because all three variables (EVI, Le, and Gc) responded similarly to temporal variations in surface water availability. Compared to other tropical ecosystems, wetter sites had higher rates of Le during the dry season but similar rates during the wet season when water was not limiting. Over annual time periods, average rates of Le increased significantly as average annual rainfall increased, due to dry-season water limitations in the more seasonal tropical ecosystems.
Rodrigues, Thiago R.; Vourlitis, George L.; Lobo, Francisco de A.; Oliveira, Renan G.; Nogueira, José de S.
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is an endemic disease in the north-west of Paraná state, Brazil, where it occurs in humans and dogs. Few studies have been undertaken on the occurrence of the disease in other domestic animals and horses. In this study we investigated the infection of horses by Leishmania in ACL-endemic rural areas. Direct agglutination test (DAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were employed. Fifty-five horses from rural areas in the municipalities of Doutor Camargo, Ourizona, São Jorge do Ivaí, Ivatuba and Santa Fé (Agua do O) were analysed. DAT-detected antibody titres varied from 10 to 640, and 42 (76.3%) animals presented titres > or =20. PCR analyses led to the detection of Leishmania (Viannia) DNA in the blood samples of three (7.1%) of 42 animals. The presence of anti-L. (V.) braziliensis antibodies and Leishmania (Viannia) DNA in horses from endemic areas suggests their participation in the ACL transmission cycle. PMID:18331518
Vedovello Filho, D; Jorge, F A; Lonardoni, M V C; Teodoro, U; Silveira, T G V
Current problems within the national parks are detailed and the author determines the crux of the problems to be the inability of the National Park Service to control concessionnaires and resist pressure from natural resource developers. Changes in future national parks policy stressing more planning are advocated. (BT)
Haefele, Mina Hamilton
In this math activity, learners build Peppy the dog the best trail and park for running around. Learners calculate the perimeter and area of Peppy's park and modify the shape of the park to observe how the perimeter and area change. This activity guide contains a material list, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.
Houston, Children'S M.
Design an auxiliary parking system based on fuzzy control on the basis of ultrasonic radar system. It could give an auxiliary instruction to drivers when parking through fuzzy reasoning of distance and gradient. The simulation results show the validity of this system. The decision-making is in line with the parking rules.
Cheng Anyu; Dai Hongda
Describes an aviation trades training program offered by the Clover Park schools in Washington which exposes students to all facets of the aviation industry from record keeping to air traffic control in addition to the specific skill of piloting the aircraft. (BR)
This paper presents a new Permo-Triassic paleomagnetic pole for South America based on impact-related material from the Araguainha Dome. The relative position of southern and northern continents in Pangea between the Carboniferous and the Triassic has been a topic of intense debate for almost half a century, since when T. Irving has shown dramatic inconsistencies between the original A. Wegener's Pangea and the then-available paleomagnetic data. Recent compilations of paleomagnetic poles for both hemispheres of Pangea (Laurussia and Gondwana) seem to concur that part of those inconsistencies are related to the quality of the Carboniferous to Triassic paleomagnetic record and emphasize the urgent need for high-quality data for this time period. Permo-Triassic paleomagnetic data for South America were obtained mainly from sedimentary rocks, which are inherently affected by several recording problems such as inclination shallowing or remagnetization, also presenting large uncertainties in their ages. Thus, it is necessary to improve the database with paleomagnetic poles derived from igneous rocks carrying stable thermoremanent magnetization that can be easily dated. However, volcanic rocks are scarce for this time period at the central part of the continent. In this way, we targeted the well-dated melt impact material from the Araguainha dome. The Araguainha Dome is the biggest and oldest complex impact structure yet recognized in South America. It is 40 km wide and has excavated about 2500 meters of the sedimentary rocks of the Paraná basin, reaching the basement crystalline rocks. A multi-method dating of the impact melts provided a precise age for the impact at 254.7 ± 2.5 Ma overlapping the Permo-Triassic limit. The same impact-related melt sheets and dykes were sampled for paleomagnetic studies in 23 sites (138 specimens). Alternating field and thermal demagnetization indicate stable, usually univectorial magnetizations carried by magnetite and hematite. All sites but one show coherent directions along the same normal polarity with a resulting mean at Dec = 356.4°; Inc = -38.7°; N = 22; k = 95.6; ?95 = 3.2°, and a paleomagnetic pole at Lat= -83.7; Lon=340.2; K=87.6; A95=3.3°; SB=8.1°. The pole matches the apparent polar wander path built from a selection of high-quality poles from the West Gondwana (Domeier et al., 2012, Tectonophysics, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2011.10.021). Our result provides a strong constraint on the position of Gondwana at the Permo-Triassic boundary and favors the Pangea A reconstruction.
Brandt, D.; Yokoyama, E.; Trindade, R. I.; Tohver, E.
Mount Rainier National Park (MORA) comprises 969 square km of area on the western slope of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington State. Nine major river basins drain the flanks of Mount Rainier, the Park's prominent geological formation. Glacial s...
T. J. Tyler C. D. McIntire B. Samora R. L. Hoffman G. L. Larson
There is a willingness by many people to pay more for property located close to parks and open space than for property that does not offer this amenity This process of 'capitalisation' of park land into increased prop erty values is termed the 'proximate principle'. The paper traces the central role of the proximate principle in persuading local governments to
John L. Crompton
The Lincoln Park neighborhood in Chicago is home to a number of architectural landmarks, including 19th century mansions with bold mansard roofs, a former seminary on the grounds of DePaul University, and other delights. In 2000, DePaul sociologist Wanda Harold set out to photograph a number of these unique structures. This digital collection includes 200 of her images, and this project was made possible in part through a grant from the Library Services and Technology Act. First-time visitors can get started by using a clickable map of Lincoln Park to explore the photos, and they can also browse around by architect or street. Visitors shouldn't miss the photos of the workers' cottages at 1756 N. Clybourn and 2715 N. Kenmore Avenue. Overall, the site is a nice resource for students of Chicago architecture and urban geography.
Structural analysis coupled with Sm-Nd isotope data and a detailed description of the geology of the Santa Terezinha-Campos Verdes emerald district (Goiás State, Central Brazil) constrain the evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bras?´lia belt. The area is composed of tectonic slices of Archean-Paleoproterozoic gneiss, a Meso-Neoproterozoic metavolcanic sedimentary sequence called the Santa Terezinha sequence, and crustal-derived intrusive rocks such as mylonitic (ortho)gneiss and a syntectonic porphyry granite. It underwent a Neoproterozoic greenschist facies polyphase ductile deformation (D 1-D 3). Structures indicate an event of rotational deformation along a typical frontal ramp dipping gently to the west (i.e. an event of simple shear with top to ESE relative regional movement due to a subhorizontal WNW-ESE compression). A Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 577±77 Ma for the intrusive rocks constrains the timing of at least part of the deformation/metamorphism in the area. Primary and metamorphic planar structures (mainly D 1-D 2) strike SW-NE and dip at low to moderate angles to the NW in the northern part of the area. However, they gradually rotate to SSE in the central SE part, where the Peixe River synclinorium is developed. This synclinorium is also the nest of the D 2 sheath folds that control emerald ore shoots. The Santa Cruz dome is a basement-cored, major elliptic structure in the SW of the area. The Santa Terezinha sequence represents a back-arc basin that received input from the Neoproterozoic Goiás magmatic arc to the west and the São Francisco ancient continental margin to the east. The basal and upper sections of this sequence correlate, respectively, with other passive margin and back-arc sequences of the Bras?´lia belt.
D'el-Rey Silva, Luiz José Homem; Barros Neto, Leonel de Souza
If world development is to continue, per capita energy use in the developing world must increase to levels in the developed world. Restrictions on how much CO2 mankind can responsibly put into the atmosphere complicate the task further. Studies show that by 2050 the world will require an additional 10-30 terawatts (TW) of carbon free power, at least as much additional, as the 10 TW generated today with fossil fuel. Neither mined uranium nor renewable energy is capable of sustained power production at this level. This paper proposes, an "energy park", a self contained unit a square mile or two in area which supplies about 7 GW of electrical power or hydrogen, emits no CO2, has little or no proliferation problem, and cleans up its own waste. Most of the energy is supplied by conventional nuclear power plants. However the nuclear fuel is bred by a fusion reactor, which is the key to the energy park. The waste cleanup is done by a combination of fission, fusion, and patience. There is neither long time storage nor long distance travel for materials with proliferation risk or long lived radio nuclides. Thus only thorium comes into the park, and only electricity and hydrogen go out.
Rocking the Parks: Geological Stories of the National Parks is an online book by Richard B. Alley of Penn State Universities e-Education Institute. The site contains thirty chapters that relate geology and the US National Parks, such as plate tectonics and Death Valley, volcanoes and Yellowstone, and glaciers and Yosemite. Each Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) file can be downloaded and viewed free of charge.
Alley, Richard B.
Two isolates of Beauveria bassiana and one of Purpureocillium lilacinum (=Paecilomyces lilacinus) were found infecting Amblyomma cajennense engorged females collected on horses (0.15% infection rate from a total of 1982 specimens) and another two isolates of P. lilacinum and one Metarhizium anisopliae detected in soils (2.1% from 144 samples) collected in typical pasture habitats of this tick in Central Brazil from October 2009 to March 2011. Fungi were isolated from soils with Rhipicephalus sanguineus as surrogate baits. No fungi were found in ticks or soils during the driest months (May to August). Testing pathogenicity of fungi all R. sanguineus females were killed regardless of the isolate and fungi sporulated abundantly on the cadavers. A. cajennense was less susceptible to infection with P. lilacinum within 20 days than R. sanguineus. All three fungal species probably act as natural antagonists of A. cajennense particularly in the rainy season and have interest for integrate control of vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. PMID:22459109
D'Alessandro, Walmirton B; Humber, Richard A; Luz, Christian
Spectral analysis of data acquired in twelve different aeromagnetic surveys of central Brazil has led to new insights in the magnetic characteristics of the lithosphere in the structural provinces of Tocantins and São Francisco. Since centroid-based spectral magnetic methods do not model the spectrum explicitly, they are used for the first time in conjunction with the matched filtering spectral modeling method to verify that appropriate slope segments are fit when determining source depths. The Tocantins province is characterized by subdued variations in the thickness of magnetized layers, most of which may be associated with structural discontinuities and subcrustal intrusions. In contrast, variations in thickness of magnetized crustal layers are more prevalent in the São Francisco province. The depths to the bottom of magnetized crust in the Tocantins province are, in general, less than 30-35 km, whereas they reach depths greater than 40 km in the São Francisco province. In parts of São Francisco craton, the depths to the bottom of magnetized crust are greater than the crustal thickness determined from seismic refraction and receiver function studies. However, these are indistinguishable in terms of resolution of the two methods. Analysis of heat flow data and results of thermal modeling indicate depths of Curie isotherms consistent with estimates from spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data. Hence the possibility that the uppermost part of mantle under the São Francisco craton may be ferromagnetic cannot be dismissed.
Guimarães, S. N. P.; Ravat, D.; Hamza, V. M.
Background Vampire bat related rabies harms both livestock industry and public health sector in central Brazil. The geographical distributions of vampire bat-transmitted rabies virus variants are delimited by mountain chains. These findings were elucidated by analyzing a high conserved nucleoprotein gene. This study aims to elucidate the detailed epidemiological characters of vampire bat-transmitted rabies virus by phylogenetic methods based on 619-nt sequence including unconserved G-L intergenic region. Findings The vampire bat-transmitted rabies virus isolates divided into 8 phylogenetic lineages in the previous nucleoprotein gene analysis were divided into 10 phylogenetic lineages with significant bootstrap values. The distributions of most variants were reconfirmed to be delimited by mountain chains. Furthermore, variants in undulating areas have narrow distributions and are apparently separated by mountain ridges. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the 619-nt sequence including G-L intergenic region is more useful for a state-level phylogenetic analysis of rabies virus than the partial nucleoprotein gene, and simultaneously that the distribution of vampire bat-transmitted RABV variants tends to be separated not only by mountain chains but also by mountain ridges, thus suggesting that the diversity of vampire bat-transmitted RABV variants was delimited by geographical undulations.
THE EDUCATIONAL PARK, THE MIDDLE SCHOOL--A REPORT ON MATERIAL ON FILE IN THE BERKELEY UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT RESEARCH OFFICE AND SOME ADDITIONAL SOURCES FROM THE BERKELEY SCHOOLS' PROFESSIONAL LIBRARY. (TITLE SUPPLIED)
A REVIEW OF LITERATURE OUTLINING THE MAIN ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF EDUCATIONAL PARKS AND MIDDLE SCHOOLS IS PRESENTED. EDUCATIONAL PARKS ARE DISTINGUISHED BY THEIR LARGE SIZE (FROM 10,000 TO 25,000 STUDENTS), CENTRAL LOCATION, ADMINISTRATIVE CENTRALIZATION, AND DECENTRALIZED SCHOOL DESIGN. THE ADVANTAGES OF EDUCATIONAL PARKS INCLUDE (1) A…
DUNN, SUSAN V.
This National Park Service (NPS) site provides links to geolgy field notes about National Parks, National Monuments, and National Recreation Areas having to do with geology and human use (such as mining). Information includes geology, photographs, multimedia tools, park maps, visitor information, geologic research, and additional links. Parks covered include Klondike Gold Rush National Historic Park, Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument, and more.
This page is an introduction to the 75 million years of accumulation and intermittent periods of erosion that has resulted in the Badlands National Park. The history of the Oglicene beds of the Park, one of the world's richest vertebrate fossil sites, is also described. A downloadable PDF that describes the erosion that is responsible for the geology of the Park in more detail is linked to the site.
National Park Service (NPS)
Jackson Park Housing Complex (JPHC), located in central Kitsap County, Washington, consists of an off-site family housing area for military personnel stationed in the Bremerton area and Naval Hospital Bremerton (NHB), located immediately north of the mili...
The rotor is a device that can be found in many amusement parks. In the literature there are various articles about this topic. The rotor is a hollow cylindrical room, covered inside with canvas and which can be rotated about the central vertical axis. People stand upright, with their backs against the internal face of the device. When it reaches…
Plant fertility is a central subject of many questions in plant evolutionary and conservation biology. Pollen availability, abiotic resources, and flowering pattern can limit fruit and seed production. Open pollination and pollen supplementation studies are used to estimate any pollen limitation in natural populations. To study the impact of these factors on the reproductive success of Vriesea gigantea, an epiphytic bromeliad in the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil, its fertility in four natural populations in Itapuã State Park was assessed by considering plant and inflorescence size, flower production, fruit and seed set, flower and fruit set pattern, and seed viability and germination rate. Supplemental pollination in adult plants was used to determine whether fruit production in V. gigantea is limited by reception of pollen. The results showed that V. gigantea has a high production of flowers, fruits, and seeds. Seeds are highly viable in all populations, presenting an average germination rate of 94% (SE ± 3.5). Plants of V. gigantea from Itapuã State Park are highly fertile. The high proportion of fruit and seed set after manual hand pollination indicates that the species is self-compatible. Pollination treatments showed evidence of pollinator limitation in the Itapuã State Park population. PMID:21636436
Paggi, Gecele M; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Silveira, Lucas C T; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria H; Bered, Fernanda
The autophagy protein BECN1/Beclin 1 is known to play a central role in autophagosome formation and maturation. The results presented here demonstrate that BECN1 interacts with the Parkinson disease-related protein PARK2. This interaction does not require PARK2 translocation to mitochondria and occurs mostly in cytosol. However, our results suggest that BECN1 is involved in PARK2 translocation to mitochondria because loss of BECN1 inhibits CCCP- or PINK1 overexpression-induced PARK2 translocation. Our results also demonstrate that the observed PARK2-BECN1 interaction is functionally important. Measurements of the level of MFN2 (mitofusin 2), a PARK2 substrate, demonstrate that depletion of BECN1 prevents PARK2 translocation-induced MFN2 ubiquitination and loss. BECN1 depletion also rescues the MFN2 loss-induced suppression of mitochondrial fusion. In sum, our results demonstrate that BECN1 interacts with PARK2 and regulates PARK2 translocation to mitochondria as well as PARK2-induced mitophagy prior to autophagosome formation. PMID:24879156
Choubey, Vinay; Cagalinec, Michal; Liiv, Joanna; Safiulina, Dzhamilja; Hickey, Miriam A; Kuum, Malle; Liiv, Mailis; Anwar, Tahira; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Kaasik, Allen
This resource from the National Park Service contains a wealth of information central to the growing field of environmental toxicology. The site consists of a searchable encyclopedia of 118 environmental contaminants, from Acenaphthene to Zinc. With information on chemical elements, compounds, and products, the EC Encyclopedia also serves as a reference for determining the potential impact of the concentration of a certain substance. Entries are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format and include background information, specific threats, and other related material. Complete reference information (the Referenc.pdf file) is also available.
In this paper, we present joint research activities in com- puter vision and sensor networks for a distributed surveil- lance of urban parks. Distributed visual surveillance of ur- ban environments is one of the most interesting scenario in Ambient Intelligence; in addition, the automated monitor- ing of public parks, often crowded by children and adults, is still a very difficult
Luca Benini; Elisabetta Farella
For more than 17years the US National Park Service has been developing the methods, processes and skills required to effectively manage the soundscapes of the National Parks. The author and his company have had the honor of providing technical acoustics related assistance throughout much of this period. This article presents his reflections on the process, its technical and political complexities,
Nicholas P. Miller
The relationship between normal and strike-slip faults in Valley of Fire State Park, Nevada, and its implications for stress rotation and partitioning of deformation in the east-central Basin and Range
This study expands on our earlier studies of the evolution of fracturing and faulting in the Jurassic aeolian Aztec Sandstone exposed over a large area in the Valley of Fire State Park, southeastern Nevada. Based on a nearly three-dimensional data set collected from 200-m-high cliff-face exposures with stair-case morphology composed of steep and flat parts, we find that a series of inclined, relatively low-angle normal faults and their splay fractures are precursors of the strike-slip fault network that we previously documented. We discuss the significance of this finding in terms of the tectonics of the broader area, stress rotation, partitioning of deformation, and the development of fracture clusters with compartmentalization of the structures as a function of spatial, depositional and deformational domains.
Aydin, Atilla; de Joussineau, Ghislain
Current National Parks Service's design policy is summarized and the manner in which this policy produces national park transportation, planning, visitor center siting, architecture, preservation, and exhibits, is detailed. Organizations lobbying for better parks are listed. (BT)
Carpenter, Edward K.
A study is presented of the mosaic encompassing the original residents of the area, park administrators, military forces and Washington officials. An overview of the park's history detailing critical periods in the parks development is provided.
S. C. Strickland
...be waived during National Park Week. All Americans can visit www...have fun. During National Park Week, we reaffirm our need to maintain...proclaim April 16 through April 24, 2011, as National Park Week. I encourage all Americans...
The Kalaupapa National Historical Park Museum Management Plan identifies a series of collections management issues facing the park and presents corresponding actions to address them. The park is currently managing an archives estimated at 137,000 items; a...
B. Sullivan C. DeRooy J. Bayless K. Bush S. Buchel
This Guadalupe Mountains National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the geologic history of Guadalupe Mountains' ancient marine fossil reef and the structural geology of the Mountains' Western Escarpment (including the Frijole Ranch area, the Pine Springs area, and the Capitan Limestone structures). The park maps section includes a map of the Capitan Reef today.
This site contains park maps, visitor information, details about park geology, and a teacher feature (lessons for teaching science using National Park examples) for Canyonlands National Park in Utah. It discusses the creation of the canyons by the Green and Colorado rivers, as well as the geologic and human histories of the park. Also covered is information about the surrounding mountains (La Sals, Abajos, and Henry Mountains), the famous Upheaval Dome, The Maze, The Needles, and arches found within the park.
Petrified Forest National Park was established to preserve large deposits of petrified wood and to prevent removal of the wood by the public. Site featues include park geology information, maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and resources for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the park's geologic history, structural geology, petrified wood, and dinosaur fossils. The maps section includes a map of the park itself and the surrounding area.
In scope of an IWRM concept for the Federal District, Western Central Brazil we developed a planning support tool, which enables non-experts to test the effects of land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) on landscape processes and landscape functions (LPF) related to sediment generation and retention. For this purpose we developed the web-based tool Letsmap do Brasil. The tool has two principal layers. The upper layer contains information on land use and its effect on LPF, i.e. sediment retention, runoff control, nitrogen loss control and agronomic value. The parameterized relation between land use and LPF is the core of the whole system. For each LPF a value specific to land use has been assigned. A second layer contains information on landscape properties and potentials (LPP), e.g. potential for sediment input in river networks and runoff potential. By linking land use and LPPs the system provides a spatially explicit assessment of effects of LULCC on landscape processes and functions (LPF). Letsmap do Brasil might have two major purposes. (1) It will support decision-making in river basin management and sediment management. By creating their own land-use/cover pattern non-expert users are enabled to test effects of LULCC on LPFs. (2) It will support and train non-experts to participate in decision processes in land-use planning. Because of its high adaptability, transparency, and simple handling Letsmap do Brasil might be used as tool in river basin management and land-use planning. PMID:23254313
Lorz, C; Neumann, C; Bakker, F; Pietzsch, K; Weiß, H; Makeschin, F
The parking strategy is an iterative approach to DNA sequencing. Each iteration consists of sequencing a novel portion of target DNA that does not overlap any previously sequenced region. Subject to the constraint of no overlap, each new region is chosen randomly. A parking strategy is often ideal in the early stages of a project for rapidly generating unique data. As a project progresses, parking becomes progressively more expensive and eventually prohibitive. We present a mathematical model with a generalization to allow for overlaps. This model predicts multiple parameters, including progress, costs, and the distribution of gap sizes left by a parking strategy. The highly fragmented nature of the gaps left after an initial parking strategy may make it difficult to finish a project efficiently. Therefore, in addition to our parking model, we model gap closing by walking. Our gap-closing model is generalizable to many other strategies. Our discussion includes modified parking strategies and hybrids with other strategies. A hybrid parking strategy has been employed for portions of the Human Genome Project.
Roach, Jared C.; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Siegel, Andrew F.
This collection of images shows geologic features in many of the country's national parks. The collection is searchable by park name, state, year, or by the name of the photograph. Each photo is accompanied by a brief caption that provides the photographer's name, the date, and a description of the photo.
These educational resources of the Everglades National Park include classroom activities, information for school visits with or without a ranger, teacher resources such as reference material on the geology and biology of the park, and recommended study resources. The classroom activities involve water resources, endangered species, extinction, and the food chain.
Based in Carson City, the Nevada Division of State Parks helps to preserve and promote notable parts of the Nevada natural and cultural environment. One of the goals of their website is to provide visitors with "an introduction to the other side of Nevada, the side that is wild scenic and full of western history." First-time visitors may wish to click on the "State parks map" area to learn more about the location of the state parks, and the interactive map also includes direct links to each site. Scholars and students of park management will want to click on over to the "Park General and Resource Management Plans" area. Here they can learn about the completed general management plans for parks such as the Mormon Station and the Valley of Fire, and learn about plans that are currently under review. Visitors looking for helpful information about upcoming events can look over the "Other Park News!" area on the right hand side of the homepage. Finally, there's also detailed information about park fees, several photo galleries, and news releases.
With the rapid growth of motorization, public parking has become a distinct problem influences urban development and people's life quality. Unscientific method of urban planning and lagging of related studies lead to parking problem becoming more and more seriously day by day. The propose of this paper is to put forward several solutions for public parking problem, including parking management policies, building with construction parking policies, regional differentiation policy, parking industrial policy, self-parking policy and so on, from the point of regulatory plan and related policy. It is significant to guide new urban areas construction and improve the parking situation.
Hu, Hongbing; Wen, Zhaokang
Motor vehicles and commercialism have generated serious problems within the national park system. A Conservation Foundation suggests new directions in management for the National Park Service. (Editors)
Sm–Nd isotope systematics and REE data for leucotroctolites and their amphibolitized equivalents of the Niquelândia Complex upper layered series, central Brazil: further constraints for the timing of magmatism and high-grade metamorphism
The Barro Alto, Niquelândia, and Cana Brava Complexes are major Proterozoic layered intrusions in central Brazil that were affected by high-grade metamorphism with associated ductile deformation during the Neoproterozoic (770–795Ma). Recent studies recognized that the Niquelândia Complex comprises two petrologically distinct and tectonically juxtaposed magmatic systems: a younger Upper Layered Series to the west and an older Lower Layered Series
C. F. Ferreira Filho; M. M. Pimentel
This new addition to The National Park Service's website provides an overview of a huge array of research projects being conducted in US National Parks. Scientific studies are listed and summarized here (by Park), and include research on Nitrogen fixation, Neotropical migratory birds, meadow restoration, glacier research, and monitoring of wolf populations, to name a few. In addition, a list of Partners in Scientific Research is available at the site, as are current and archived copies of the agency's quarterly research and resource management bulletin Park Science. The exceptional value of the site is that it provides what most researchers don't have: detailed insights into different components (and scales) of the same ecosystem. Application procedures are included for those interested in conducting research at National Parks.
Service., United S.
Over the past century, a host of photographers have documented the grounds and buildings of the National Parks for the National Park Service, and in doing so have created a collection that contains over two million images. Some of these eminent photographers include such personages as Jack Boucher, Arno B. Cammerer, and Abbie Rowe. The National Park Service has recently placed 2000 of these images online, and added a fine search feature so that users can look for images by year, photographer, theme, parksite, or keyword. Some of these images included early photographs of the Virgin Islands National Park, rangers on location in Yosemite National Park, and Canyon de Chelly National Monument. The site is rounded out with links to other digital image archives, such as those housed on the American Memory website at the Library of Congress.
From 2005 to 2009, 147 ticks found on 32 wild animals from or referred to two zoobotanical parks (Parque Zoobotânico Arruda\\u000a Câmara and Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos) located in northeastern Brazil were identified. Ticks found on two veterinarians working\\u000a in one of the parks (i.e., Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos), after return from forested areas within the park’s territory, were\\u000a also
Filipe Dantas-Torres; Débora R. A. Ferreira; Louise M. de Melo; Polly-Ana C. P. Lima; Daniel B. Siqueira; Luciana C. Rameh-de-Albuquerque; Adriana V. de Melo; Janaina A. C. Ramos
Today, the Lincoln Park neighborhood on Chicago's North Side is a relatively affluent area, complete with Victorian mansions and rather tony elevator apartment buildings. By the late 1940s, the area was experiencing the same type of urban disinvestment as other inner-city neighborhoods throughout the United States. In the early 1960s, the city of Chicago, working with funds from the federal government, began an ambitious urban renewal program designed to reduce the density of the built environment in the community and to remove "blighted" properties. This excellent collection from the DePaul University Libraries Digital Collections contains over 400 documents related to this ambitious project, including maps, zoning documents, policy statements, neighborhood organization planning documents, and photographs. First-time visitors may wish to start with the first document here, "A Brief Explanation of the Urban Community Conservation Act." Moving on, visitors can view the rest of the documents by title, thumbnail, subject, and brief description.
A number of studies have been initiated to explore how to improve the soundscape quality in urban parks. However, good soundscape quality in parks cannot be provided without a thorough understanding of the complex relationships among sound, environment, and individuals. As acoustic comfort is considered to be an important outcome of soundscape quality, this study investigates the relative impacts of the factors influencing acoustic comfort evaluation by formulating a multivariate ordered logit model. This study also explores the inter-relationships among acoustic comfort evaluation, acceptability of the environment, and preference to stay in a park using a path model. A total of 595 valid responses were obtained from interview surveys administered in four parks in Hong Kong while objective sound measurements were carried out at the survey spots concurrently. The findings unveil that acoustic comfort evaluation, besides visual comfort evaluation of landscape, also plays an important role on users' acceptability of the urban park environment. Compared with all the studied acoustic related factors, acoustic comfort evaluation serves as a better proxy for park users' preference to stay in urban parks. Hearing the breeze will significantly increase the likelihood of individuals in giving high acoustic comfort evaluation. Conversely, hearing the sounds from heavy vehicles or sounds from bikes will significantly reduce the likelihood in giving a high acoustic evaluation. PMID:22501055
Tse, Man Sze; Chau, Chi Kwan; Choy, Yat Sze; Tsui, Wai Keung; Chan, Chak Ngai; Tang, Shiu Keung
Broadband and long-period magnetotelluric soundings were collected along a 560 km E-W profile in a region in central Brazil subjected to Neoproterozoic collision tectonics and Archean to Cretaceous magmatic events. The profile crosses the northeast part of Phanerozoic sediments and volcanics of the Parana basin, the southern extension of the Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Brasilia belt, locally pervaded by Cretaceous alkaline magmas of the Alto Paranaiba igneous province (APIP), and Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover and Archean exposed basement of the southern Sao Francisco craton. 2D conductivity structures derived by joint inversions of the TE and TM polarization modes and a separate inversion of the tipper components show signatures of the past tectonomagmatic events that affected the area. A gravity-defined suture zone beneath the Parana basin related to the Neoproterozoic collision of the Sao Francisco and Parana blocks is detected in the models as a subvertical conductor extending from crustal to upper mantle depths. Deep underthrusting of organic graphite-bearing metasediments in the suture zone is proposed to explain the increase of electrical conductivity. A similar conductivity signature beneath the sedimentary covered region of the Sao Francisco craton is interpreted as another suture zone. This previously undetected feature can be associated either with a trace of a much older event preserved in the cratonic rocks or an expression of accretionary events generating the larger Neoproterozoic San Franciscan plate. Isolated high-conductivity anomalies at midcrustal depths below the Parana and APIP provinces are interpreted as residues of the emplacement of Cretaceous mafic-ultramafic volcanics. A low resistivity wedge into the lithosphere is highlighted at the topmost upper mantle beneath the APIP volcanic complex, coincidental with a zone of low velocity defined by seismic tomography. Geochemical evidences indicate that the alkaline magmatism stemmed from a metasomatized upper mantle at only slightly raised temperatures. Although related to the same magmatic process, the seismic and conductivity anomalies are presently centered at different depths and probably triggered by different sources. Interconnected carbon at the topmost mantle is the most likely candidate to explain the high conductivity whereas the low seismic velocity can be related to either compositional or temperature variations. Conductivity anomalies at different depths in the southern segment of the Sao Francisco cratonic lithosphere suggest that it was significantly affected by the several magmatic episodes it has experienced throughout its geological history. Enhanced conductivity at lower crust can be genetically related to massive basaltic intrusions whereas upper mantle high conductivity can be related to refertilization by infiltrations of low degree basaltic melts from deeper-sourced metasomatic processes.
Padilha, Antonio; Bologna, Mauricio; Vitorello, Icaro; Padua, Marcelo
Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant problem for patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy. This situation has never been studied in Mato Grosso state, central Brazil. This study was conducted aiming to estimate the prevalence of the anti-HCV and the incidence of seroconversion in the main metropolitan region of the state. Methods 433 patients from the six hemodialysis units were interviewed and anti-HCV was tested by a third-generation enzyme immunoassay. An open cohort of patients who tested negative for anti-HCV at the entry of the study was created and seroconversions was assessed monthly. The staff responsible for the units were interviewed to assess whether the infection control measures were being followed. Logistic and Cox regression analysis were performed in order to assess risk factor to HCV. Results The entry on the study took place between January 2002 and June 2005. 73 out of 433 (16.9%, CI95%: 13.3–20.8) was found to be anti-HCV reactive. The multivariate analysis indicated as risk factors associated to anti-HCV the duration of the hemodialysis treatment, the number of transfusions received, and the unit of treatment. An open cohort of 360 patients who tested negative for anti-HCV was created, with a following average of 24 (± 15) months. Forty seroconversions were recorded corresponding to an incidence density of 4.6/1000 patient-months, ranges 0 to 30 among the units. Cox regression indicated the time of hemodialysis (RR = 2.2; CI95%: 1.1–4.6; p < 0.05) and the unit where treatment was performed (RR = 42.4; CI95%: 9.9–180.5; p < 0.05) as risk factors for seroconversion. The three units with highest anti-HCV prevalence and incidence were identified as those that more frequently failed to apply control measures. Conclusion The study demonstrated high prevalence and incidence of anti-HCV in some of the hemodialysis units. Time on hemodialysis therapy was an independent factor associated to HCV. Blood transfusion was associated with anti-HCV in initial survey but was not important in incident cases. Failure of applying control meaures was more evident in units with the highest HCV prevalence and incidence. The results suggest that nosocomial transmission was the main spread factor of HCV in the studied population.
Santos, Marcelo AM; Souto, Francisco JD
This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: There were 7 children at the park. Then 4 more showed up. How many children were at the park all together? There were 7 children at the park. Some more...
This source provides a series of 34 historic photographs of well-known geologic landmarks in Yellowstone National Park. The photographs can be viewed individually or as part of a tour that begins at Old Faithful and proceeds in a clockwise route around the park. The images were created by digital manipulation of antique stereographs and they may be viewed as black and white photos or in 3-D using special stereographic glasses.
Phil, Stoffer; Team, Usgs W.
The paper deals with the actual situation in the Slovak Republic concerning the logistics parks development. It presents the theoretical base of the logistics park development, i.e. the comparative analysis, SWOT analysis, transport infrastructure survey, marketing study and marketing plan for logistics park. It also presents the basic characteristic of logistics park, logistics chains and activities connected with the transport,
Regarding a single industry as the target, industry logistics park is the professional logistics park that is specially planned according to industry characteristics. Considering that the industry logistics park has special functions, such as economize on resources, improvement of logistics efficiency and service quality, protection of the environment and so on, industry logistics park's planning and design is different from
Guo Yi; Zhang Xinxin
Independence National Historical Park, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is operated by the National Park Service. The park was authorized by an Act of Congress on June 28, 1948, and formally established on July 4, 1956. The mission of Independence National Historical Park is to preserve its stories, buildings, and artifacts as a source of…
National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Philadelphia, PA. Independence National Historical Park.
Objectives. We studied whether park size, number of features in the park, and distance to a park from participants' homes were related to a park being used for physical activity. Methods. We collected observational data on 28 specific features from 33 parks. Adult residents in surrounding areas (n = 380) completed 7-day physical activity logs that included the location of
Andrew T. Kaczynski; Luke R. Potwarka; Brian E. Saelens
Searching for a vacant parking space in a congested area or a large parking lot and preventing auto theft are major concerns to our daily lives. In this paper, we propose a new smart parking scheme for large parking lots through vehicular communication. The proposed scheme can provide the drivers with real-time parking navigation service, intelligent anti- theft protection, and
Rongxing Lu; Xiaodong Lin; Haojin Zhu; Xuemin Shen
Understanding factors that strengthen community support for ecotourism and conservation is key to a successful ecotourism project. This study of Five Blues Lake National Park in central Belize explored attitudes towards ecotourism and conservation of local people living adjacent to and co-managing a national park. The authors conducted attitudinal surveys of residents of Saint Margarets village in 1995 and in
Patrick J. Holladay; Alison A. Ormsby
Though virtually fifty years separate contemporary sociology from publication of Introduction to the Science of Sociology by Park and Burgess, this volume proposes an orientation to the descipline still worthy of consideration. (Author)
In conducting the study, the National Research Council's Committee on Improving the Science and Technology Programs of the National Park Service originally set out to evaluate the scope and organization of current NPS natural and social science by perform...
Describes using the movie "Jurassic Park" as a foundation for a middle school interdisciplinary unit involving science, math, language arts, history, and geography. Suggested books and activities are presented. (PR)
Shams, Marcia; Boteler, Trina
There is no true substitute for visiting one of America's great national parks, but this website, designed "to present the natural, cultural, and historical resources of our national parks," is a nice surrogate for an in-person jaunt. On the homepage, visitors can select a park or theme from several dozen headings, including National Mall, Whiskeytown, Glaciers, and Devils Tower. Within each area, visitors can examine a series of high-quality images, along with four or five sections that address different aspects of each topic or specific park. Perhaps the most useful elements of the site are the very fine resources for teachers. Clicking on the Teachers' Lounge area will bring up a number of high-quality educational articles, lesson plans, and educational standards guidelines. All told, there are 14 different lesson plans here, which are complemented by links to external resources and additional readings. [KMG
This site provides links to geology fieldnotes about National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas that are part of the Colorado Plateau. Each park site provides links to visitor information, photographs, park maps, multimedia resources, and teacher features (tools for teaching geology with National Park examples). Some of the areas linked to this site include: Dinosaur National Monument, Mesa Verde National Park, and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.
This report documents the process that the National Park Services and two consultants used at Yellowstone National Park to introduce environmentally preferable cleaning products. Grand Teton National Park implemented a similar program started in April 199...
S. Wakefiled A. Ferre
The Jamari complex (gabbro-diorite-tonalite/enderbite-granodiorite/charnoenderbite) represents a Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.76-1.74 Ga) magmatic arc emplaced along the southwestern Amazonian Craton in central-eastern Rondônia, Brazil. Comprising metaplutonic and metasedimentary rocks, the Jamari complex constitutes the polydeformed Paleoproterozoic basement of Rondônia state. Together with regional data from the Rondônia-Juruena Province, our findings suggest that the southwestern border of the Amazonian Craton was the site of magmatic arc evolution from at least ca. 1.78 to 1.63 Ga. Elemental geochemical data show that intermediate/acid orthogneisses are metaluminous to mildly peraluminous, and have a medium to high-K, calc-alkaline signature, suggesting that they were formed in an immature Andean-type magmatic arc. Gabbros have signatures similar to tholeiites of active continental margin and diorites show characteristics compatible with rocks of tholeiite/calc-alkaline active continental margin volcanic arc. The chemical data of the Jamari complex felsic plutonic rocks show general trends of increasing contents of incompatible elements (K2O, Rb, Nb, Th, La, Ba and Sr) and decreasing contents of compatible elements (Ni, V, Sc, MgO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, CaO and TiO2) with increasing SiO2. Although these variations are consistent with closed system fractional crystallization processes, the wide variation of Rb/Zr, La/Sm, K/Rb, Nb/Y, Th/Y and Th/Yb in the felsic rocks may indicate random crustal contamination during the evolution of these rocks. Normalized trace element patterns show enrichment in LILEs (Rb, Ba, K, Th and Ce) relative to HFSEs (Nb, Zr, P and Ti) and are very similar to calc-alkaline subduction-related rocks from orogenic belts. The Jamari complex represents the western extension of similar metaplutonic rocks (Juruena Complex, Mato Grosso), occurring along some 500 km of the Paleoproterozoic Madeirinha orogen (1.78-1.63 Ga). During this event the rocks were metamorphosed under upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions that only mildly disturbed their igneous characteristics. Zircon U-Pb crystallization ages (ID-TIMS, SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS) set the acretional phase of the magmatic arc in Rondônia between 1.76 and 1.74 Ga. Metamorphic mineral paragenesis and textural features in these rocks, combined with geochronologic data, indicate that metamorphic conditions in the study area reached the granulite facies (T = ca. 750-800 °C, P = 7 to 8 kbar) in a tectonothermal collisional event that occurred between 1.67 and 1.63 Ga. The Jamari complex in this region was subsequently reworked during the Rondonian-San Ignácio Orogeny (1.50-1.30 Ga), a tectonic episode characterized by crytical metamorphic mineral assemblages and anatexis, suggesting upper-amphibolite-facies metamorphism. The youngest tectonic event recognized in the Jamari complex is associated with tectonic reactivation, deformation, thermal overprint, and magmatism related to the Sunsás Orogeny (1.30-0.95 Ga). Its effects are represented by extensive development of shear zones (Ji-Paraná system), mylonitic belts, rifts and sedimentary deposits, and post-collisional A-type intrusions. Nd isotopic data of the high-grade orthogneisses show a wide range of ?Nd values (-1.5 to +5.6) and a wide spectrum of TDM model-ages, from 1.79 to 2.2 Ga. These values demonstrate that the crustal generation processes involved juvenile mantle sources and variable proportions of older recycled crust.
Scandolara, Jaime E.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Dantas, Elton L.; Souza, Valmir S.
This National Park Service site contains general information on planning a visit to the park; information on plants, animals, geology, cliff dwellings, surface archaeological sites, and history of the park; and a classroom activities section. School group activities at the park include identifying geologic formations, seeing museum videos and dioramas, going on trails and tours, and attending evening campground programs. Classroom activities involve the use of a park map, the development of ancestral Puebloan society from about AD 1 to AD 1300, and the history of the National Park Service.
This National Park Service (NPS) site provides links to geology field notes providing information about National Parks, National Monuments, and National Recreation Areas that have to do with plate tectonics. The site also has illustrations and descriptions of different plate boundaries. The parks are divided into categories depending on which type of plate boundary they are located on. This includes divergent boundaries(active and ancient), convergent boundaries (ocean-ocean, continent-continent, continent-ocean), transform faults, hot spots, and accreted terrains. Parks referenced include Virgin Islands National Park, Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, and many more.
Badlands National Park, located in southwestern South Dakota, consists of 244,000 acres of sharply eroded buttes, pinnacles and spires blended with the largest, protected mixed grass prairie in the United States. Features include information on park geology, maps, photographs, visitor information, links to related publications, and lesson plans for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history during the Eocene and Oligocene epochs and the rich fossil deposits found there. Maps of the park and the surrounding area are included.
This document contains a comprehensive bibliography of the published works, and a short biography, of Dr. Chul Park. The contents of this bibliography were compiled primarily from the NASA RECON data base. The RECON citations have been modified to appear in a uniform format with all other listed citations . These other citations were located by computer searches in the INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, and Chemical Abstracts data bases, as well as through the cooperation of Dr. Chul Park, and his associates in the Reacting Flow Environments Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. All citations are presented in an approximate reverse chronological order from the present date. This work was created to honor the occasion of Dr. Chul Park's retirement on December 14, 1994, after 27 years of distinguished government service at the NASA Ames Research Center.
Gochberg, Lawrence A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Park, Chul
...Historical Park. 7.37 Section 7.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM Â§ 7.37 Jean Lafitte...
...Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM Â§ 7.78 Harpers Ferry...
As participants in the Climate Friendly Parks program, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks belong to a network of parks that are putting climate friendly behavior at the forefront of sustainability planning in national parks. By conducting an emission...
The report includes basic historical data relating to Guadalupe Mountains National Park. While the report was written to assist the park planners, much of the information is also of general interest. The study identifies the historical themes relevant to ...
During this last year of the century, the list of National Park Service areas identified with paleontological resources has grown to 134. Along with redwoods, grizzlies, geysers, and ancient ruins, the national parks preserve a remarkable record of life e...
V. L. Santucci L. McClelland
Vandalism nationally costs park and recreation departments over $500 million a year. This handbook, therefore, is designed to help park and recreation administrators systematically address vandalism as a management issue with solutions that have been prov...
M. L. Christiansen
Hearts N' Parks is a national, community-based program supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA). It is designed to help local agencies promote heart healthy lifestyle change...
Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…
This Capitol Reef National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, visitor information, and a teacher feature (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). Geologic data includes descriptions of the Waterpocket Fold, a monocline formed in the Laramide Orogeny and made of sedimentary rock. Also covered is erosion, and details about the Cathedral Valley outcrop of gypsum. This formation is Permian to Cretaceous in age (270-80 million years old).
This National Park Service (NPS) website highlights the environment and ecosystems found in Canyonlands National Park. Topics include animals in the park (amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish and mammals), plant life (cacti, grasses, lichens, mosses, liverworts, trees, shrubs and wildflowers), environmental factors (air quality, invasive species, endangered fish, noise pollution, peregrine falcons and bighorn sheep), and natural features (deserts, pools, rivers and stream, geology). Links are provided to downloadable brochures and reports on park research activities and additional information on wildlife and plants.
Parks have a variety of functions for residents and are important for urban landscape planning. The healthy growth of urban park trees requires regular irrigation. To reduce the pressure of high groundwater levels and to avoid wasting groundwater resources, proper groundwater extraction for irrigating park trees in the Taipei Basin is regarded as a reciprocal solution of sustainable groundwater management and preserving excellent urban landscapes. Therefore, this study determines pristine groundwater use for irrigating park trees in the metropolitan Taipei Basin under the spatiotemporal uncertainty condition of water quality. First, six hydrochemical parameters in groundwater associated with an irrigation water quality standard were collected from a 12-year survey. Upper, median and lower quartiles of the six hydrochemical parameters were obtained to establish three thresholds. According to the irrigation water quality standard, multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK) was adopted to probabilistically evaluate the integration of the six hydrochemical parameters. Entropy was then applied to quantify the spatiotemporal uncertainty of the hydrochemical parameters. Finally, locations, which have high estimated probabilities for the median-quartile threshold and low local uncertainty, are suitable for pumping groundwater for irrigating park trees. The study results demonstrate that MVIK and entropy are capable of characterizing the spatiotemporal uncertainty of groundwater quality parameters and determining suitable parks of groundwater utilization for irrigation. Moreover, the upper, median and lower quartiles of hydrochemical parameters are served as three estimated thresholds in MVIK, which is robust to assessment predictions. Therefore, this study significantly improves the methodological application and limitation of MVIK for spatiotemporally analyzing environmental quality compared with the previous related works. Furthermore, the analyzed results indicate that 64 parks in this basin are recommended to use groundwater for irrigating trees. Most of the recommended parks are located in the central and northern foothill regions. The result findings can help government administrators establish a reciprocal plan of sustainable groundwater utilization and preserving excellent park landscapes in the Taipei Basin. Keywords: Park; Irrigation; Groundwater; Uncertainty; Multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK); Entropy
Jang, Cheng-Shin; Kuo, Yi-Ming
With the opening of China's efforts to increase, the service levels of logistics industry should be improved and more powerful logistics park should be built. Logistics park is important infrastructures to modern logistics industry, at present, logistics parks is land development hot issue own to its superiority on accumulative and radiation effect. For the railway as a less polluting in
Ping Guo; Desheng Zhang
This National Park Service (NPS) website discusses the geology of Virgin Islands National Park, examining the coral reefs that line this park, forests of the island, and the history of the area. There are maps and photos, and links to visitor information and additional resources.
This paper examines the impacts of different ways of parking on environmental effects, mainly vehicle emissions and air pollution. Vehicle energy consumption and the urban air quality at street level, related to location and design of parking establishments, need to be assessed and quantified. In addition, the indoor parking environment needs attention.This paper gives a description of a methodological approach
Paul G. Höglund
This National Park Service (NPS) website examines the geology of Kenai Fjords National Park in Alaska. It highlights the glacier-carved valleys, 1964 Alaskan earthquake, nunataks (peaks), and wildlife of the park. There are links to visitor information, maps, and additional resources.
Moon Park has been proposed as an International Space Year (ISY) event for international cooperative efforts. Moon Park will serve as a terrestrial demonstration of a prototype lunar base and provide research and educational opportunities. The kind of data that can be obtained in the Moon Park facilities is examined taking the minimum number of lunar base residents as an example.
Kuriki, Kyoichi; Saito, Takao; Ogawa, Yukimasa
This Yellowstone National Park website contains thousands of photographs of the Park. Images are organized by category including fire, thermal features, mammals, park structures, petrified trees, water, weather, scenics, and more. The photographs may be freely downloaded and more are being added through time.
Park, Yellowstone N.
Introduction Health system reforms are undertaken with the aim of improving equity of access to health care. Their impact is generally analyzed based on health care utilization, without distinguishing between levels of care. This study aims to analyze inequities in access to the continuum of care in municipalities of Brazil and Colombia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a survey of a multistage probability sample of people who had had at least one health problem in the prior three months (2,163 in Colombia and 2,167 in Brazil). The outcome variables were dichotomous variables on the utilization of curative and preventive services. The main independent variables were income, being the holder of a private health plan and, in Colombia, type of insurance scheme of the General System of Social Security in Health (SGSSS). For each country, the prevalence of the outcome variables was calculated overall and stratified by levels of per capita income, SGSSS insurance schemes and private health plan. Prevalence ratios were computed by means of Poisson regression models with robust variance, controlling for health care need. Results There are inequities in favor of individuals of a higher socioeconomic status: in Colombia, in the three different care levels (primary, outpatient secondary and emergency care) and preventive activities; and in Brazil, in the use of outpatient secondary care services and preventive activities, whilst lower-income individuals make greater use of the primary care services. In both countries, inequity in the use of outpatient secondary care is more pronounced than in the other care levels. Income in both countries, insurance scheme enrollment in Colombia and holding a private health plan in Brazil all contribute to the presence of inequities in utilization. Conclusions Twenty years after the introduction of reforms implemented to improve equity in access to health care, inequities, defined in terms of unequal use for equal need, are still present in both countries. The design of the health systems appears to determine access to the health services: two insurance schemes in Colombia with different benefits packages and a segmented system in Brazil, with a significant private component.
Brewer 087 is located in Research Triangle Park NC, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instru...
The lush forests of Egmont National Park, on New Zealand's North Island, contrast with the pasturelands outside the circular park boundaries. The unique shape of the park results from its first protection in 1881, which specified that a forest reserve would extend in a 9.6 km radius from the summit of Mt. Taranaki (named Mt. Egmont by Captain Cook). The park covers about 33,500 hectares and Mt. Egmont stands at 2518 m. The volcano began forming 70,000 years ago, and last erupted in 1755. A series of montane habitats occur in procession up the flanks of the volcano-from rainforest, to shrubs, to alpine, and finally snow cover. Image STS110-726-6, was taken by Space Shuttle crewmembers on 9 April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.
The document serves as a guide for historic restoration and is addressed to all residents of the LeDroit Park Historic District. The guide describes the history of the area from its beginning after the Civil War as an affluent white suburb, its evolution ...
In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…
This biography for younger readers describes the life of Rosa Parks, the Alabama black woman whose refusal to give up her seat on a segregated bus helped establish the civil rights movement. The book is introduced by an overview of the movement by Andrew Young and a timeline indicating major historical events from 1954 through 1968. Highlights in…
The seasonal dynamics of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) was investigated in the rhizosphere of two fruit species in a terra firme (upland) ecosystem in Central Amazonia. Two host species (Theobroma grandiflorum and Paullinia cupana) and nine sampling months (August, September and December\\/1998, February, April, May and December\\/1999, February and May\\/2000) were studied in a completely randomized design, with five replications,
Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira; Luiz Antonio de Oliveira
The Seattle Parks & Recreation Sherwood History Files are the work of one Donald N. Sherwood, who worked as an engineer for the department for 22 years. In the course of his work, he began compiling sketch maps of the parks, and annotating them with historical tidbits and other pieces of information. Also, he began writing individual histories for each facility when the information didn't quite fit on the maps. This site afford interested parties access to these remarkable and truly unusual documents. All told, there are over 80 separate files here, documenting unique pieces of the Seattle parks landscape, including Alki Beach Park, Golden Gardens Park, and the celebrated Gas Works Park on Lake Union. For anyone with an interest in parks and recreation management or the Emerald City, this site will be a most welcome find.
Micropaleontological and isotope-geochronological investigations of calcareous sedimentary rocks and volcanites dredged out from the central portion of the submarine Vitoria-Trindade Ridge during the 24th cruise of R/V Akademik Vavilov have been conducted. It has been established based on micropaleontological analysis, which included determination of the species composition of foraminifera and nannoplankton, that the sequence of sedimentary rocks having a pelagic nature formed on the slopes of the volcanic seamounts in the central portion of the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge from the Early to Mid-Miocene to the Holocene; a good correlation between the degree of lithification of these rocks and their age is observed. It has also been established that the carbonate platforms on the abraded tops of the Davis Seamount and the Dogaressa Bank, which are located in the east-central portion of the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge, started forming in the Early Miocene (19-24 Ma). It has been determined using local U-Pb dating of zircon grains with a SHRIMP-II high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer that the volcanites forming the upper portion of the volcanic rock sequence of the Jaseur Seamount (29.8 ± 6.6 Ma) located in the west-central portion of the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge date to the Oligocene. The investigations conducted have confirmed the opinion that the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge formed in general because of the activity of the hot spot located under the volcanic Trindade and Martin Vaz Islands. However, separate extended lenticular segments of this ridge existed for a long time as single structures, within which the age of the seamounts was not linearly dependent on the distance from the location of the hot spot. Lenses of hot mantle matter that form at the sublithospheric level as a result of impulses of plume activity and move along with the lithospheric plate play a defining role in the development of individual segments forming the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge.
Skolotnev, S. G.; Bylinskaya, M. E.; Golovina, L. A.; Ipat'eva, I. S.
Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas), Bartonella sp., Hepatozoon sp. and Cytauxzoon felis are prominent pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts. The present study aimed to detect the presence of DNA from hemoplasmas, Bartonella sp., Hepatozoon sp. and Cytauxzoon felis, and then confirm it by means of sequencing, in blood samples from cats in Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. From February 2009 to February 2011, blood samples with added EDTA were collected from 163 cats that were being housed in four different animal shelters in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil and from 15 cats that were admitted to the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT). Out of the 178 cats sampled, 15 (8.4%) were positive for hemoplasmas: four (2.2%) for Mycoplasma haemofelis, 12 (6.7%) for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and one (0.5%) for 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. One cat (0.5%), a patient that was attended at the veterinary hospital, was coinfected with M. haemofelis, 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and 'Candidatus M. turicensis', based on sequencing confirmation. Four cats were positive for Bartonella spp.: three (1.7%) for B. henselae and one (0.5%) for B. clarridgeiae. None of the animals showed Cytauxzoon sp. or Hepatozoon sp. DNA in their blood samples. This study showed that cats housed in animal shelters in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, are exposed to hemoplasmas and Bartonella species. PMID:24142170
Miceli, Natasha Gandolfi; Gavioli, Fernando Antonio; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; André, Marcos Rogério; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco; Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques de; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias
Most of the work done by parks and golf course workers is performed outside, and they are subject to risks similar to those of other outdoor workers, such as temperature and weather-related problems, infectious diseases, and poisonous plants, snakes, and spiders. They are also exposed to physical hazards related to noise and operation of heavy equipment. Chemical hazards result from use of pesticides and solvents. This chapter reviews pertinent OSHA regulations, pre-placement strategies, and medical surveillance exams, and recommends preventive programs. More research is needed to determine specific hazards and work-related injury and illness rates for parks and golf course workers, so that effective preventive programs can be designed. PMID:11107230
Over the years since its origins in the late 1880s, the Bronx Park has been expanded several times. In 1891, the city of New York allotted 250 acres of the park to the New York Botanical Garden, and in 1897 assigned 250 more to the Bronx Zoo. This particular digital collection brings together postcards of the grounds held by the Wildlife Conservation Society Library and the Garden's LuEsther T. Mertz Library. The collection here includes over 450 postcards, which visitors can browse by subject headings, including Zoo animals, Paths and walkways, and Bronx River. The Zoo animals area is well worth a look, as it features a range of animals, including a Noah's Ark exhibit, camels, and Indian elephants. It's an amazing archive of documents related to one of the most famous zoos in the United States, and historians and others will find it quite marvelous.
The National Park Service (NPS) operates digital cameras at many parks in the lower 48 states, Alaska, and Hawaii to help educate the public on air quality issues. These cameras often show the effects of air pollution, especially visibility impairment. Because the cameras are typically located near air quality monitoring sites, their web pages display other information along with the photo, such as current levels of ozone, particulate matter, or sulfur dioxide, visual range, and weather conditions. The digital photos are usually updated every 15 minutes, while air quality data values are revised hourly. Charts of the last ten days of hourly weather, ozone, particulate matter, or sulfur dioxide data are also available. The cameras are accessible by clicking on an interactive map.
What can you do in the great Oregon outdoors? From the world of Cannon Beach to the wild and rugged Snake River, the experiences are diverse, to say the least. The homepage features dramatic vistas, isolated lighthouses, and a whole range of wonderful images to entice visitors. In the Visit area, there is an interactive map of the state that will help plan any trip. Here visitors can select Activities and Facilities to look for specific amenities. Moving along, the Event Calendar area allows visitors to look for upcoming events at a specific park or by category. Policy folks will appreciate the About Us area, as it includes detailed information on the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department's budget, their annual report, information about upcoming initiatives, and construction projects.
The weatherization and insulation of a presently unheated frame park building and the installation of a Trombe wall on the south side of the structure for passive solar heating are planned. The major objectives of the project are to increase the exposure of local residents and visitors to passive solar technology and to demonstrate the applicability of passive solar technology to residential, commercial and recreational buildings. Some changes in the original plans are discussed. Five blueprints illustrate the planned improvements. (LEW)
Within Europe there are more than 380 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) distributed across 10 instrument parks in 6 countries. At least 120 of these OBS are wideband or broadband, over 260 can be deployed for at least 6 months at a time and 140 for at least one year. New parks are planned in two other European countries, which should add over 70 OBSs to this "fleet". However, these parks are under the control of individual countries or universities and hence to date this has made it difficult to organize large-scale experiments, especially for seismologists without marine experience. There has recently been an initiative to coordinate the use of these distributed instruments and their data products, to encourage large-scale experiments, possibly with onshore and offshore components, by seismologists who have not necessarily used OBSs before. The ongoing or planned developments include: Helping scientists with marine-specific formalities such as ship requests; clearer explanations of the noise floors of OBS instrumentation; improved clarity of instrument pricing and availability; standardized data output formats and data validation; and archiving in established seismological data centers. These efforts should allow improved experiment design in scientifically interesting regions with an offshore component and an easier, clearer way to organize large-scale, multi-country experiments. We will present details of this initiative to help organize large-scale experiments, the particularities of OBS sensors and marine deployments, the available instrumentation and new developments.
Crawford, W.; Brisbourne, A.; D'Anna, G.; Flüh, E. R.; Galve, A.; Graindorge, D.; Harmon, N.; Henstock, T.; Klingelhöfer, F.; Mangano, G.; Matias, L.; Peirce, C.; Sallares, V.; Schmidt-Aursch, M.; Tilmann, F.; Voss, P.
Using data from different spacecraft and some powerful computer technology, visualizers at the Goddard Space Flight Center present you with a collection of American cities in a way you have never seen them before. Starting with our camera high above the Earth, we rush in towards the surface at what would be an impossible speed for any known vehicle. Passing though layers of atmosphere, the colors of our destinations shimmer with their own unique characteristics, and suddenly we find ourselves floating in virtual space just above the ground.
Shirah, Greg; Mitchell, Horace; Newcombe, Marte; Williams, Darrel
Using data from different spacecraft and some powerful computer technology, visualizers at the Goddard Space Flight Center present you with a collection of American cities in a way you have never seen them before. Starting with our camera high above the Earth, we rush in towards the surface at what would be an impossible speed for any known vehicle. Passing though layers of atmosphere, the colors of our destinations shimmer with their own unique characteristics, and suddenly we find ourselves floating in virtual space just above the ground.
Shirah, Greg; Mitchell, Horace; Newcombe, Marte; Williams, Darrel
This Theodore Roosevelt National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history and the region's role in shaping Theodore Roosevelt's conservation efforts while he was President. The section also contains a link to information on the geology of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. The park maps section contains an area map as well as two maps detailing the North and South Units of the Park.
The National Park Service has developed this exemplary set of educational resources which draws on their greatest assets, namely national parks from Maine to Utah. The materials are specifically designed for teaching geology, but it's easy to see how these items could be incorporated into general science classes. The main area on their homepage features over a dozen teacher guides and park programs that feature detailed geology lessons that draw on the landscapes of Yosemite National Park and the dynamic volcanoes of Hawaii. On the right side of the page, visitors can scan through the "Highlights" area to learn more about online park images, park maps, and even peruse a calendar of upcoming educator workshops. The site is rounded out by the "Geology Books and Media" area, which features information about technical reports, textbooks, and geology-themed children's books.
The enabling legislation creating Great Basin National Park calls for the National Park Service (NPS) to protect, manage, and administer the park in such manner as to conserve and protect the scenery as well as the natural, geologic, historic, and archaeological resources of the park. NPS policies require that each unit of the National Park System develop and implement a
R. W. Jacobs; M. Flora
This Death Valley National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology using National Park examples). The Park Geology section contains an exaggerated cross-section showing the vertical rise within Death Valley. A link is provided to Death Valley's expanded geology page.
This park is located on the Colorado Plateau near Moab, Utah, and contains many arches and sculpted sedimentary rocks. The visible rock formations in the park are the Entrada and Navajo sandstones. Covered topics include the formation of arches in stages, different types of arches, as well as sizes and names (Delicate Arch being the most famous). The site also provides visitor information, photos, maps, additional links, and a teacher feature (tools for teaching geology with National Park examples).
This project, conducted by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), documents changes over time in the landscape of Glacier National Park, particularly the retreat of the park's glaciers. The project involves pairing historic photos from the park's archives with recent photos to illustrate how the landscape has changed. Users can view and download the photos in pairs with dates and a caption describing the scene and the changes that have taken place.
This paper describes the architecture and design of ParkNet, a mobile sensor network consisting of vehicles, which collects and disseminates real-time information about the availability of parking spaces in urban areas. We outline the broad challenges in real-time data collection and consumption by a mobile sensor network, as well as the design issues specific to ParkNet. Sensor nodes in ParkNet
Suhas Mathur; Sanjit Kaul; Marco Gruteser; Wade Trappe
A rich literature indicates that individuals of lower socio-economic status engage in less leisure time physical activity than individuals of higher socio-economic status. However, the source of the difference is believed to be, in part, due to differential access to resources that support physical activity. However, it has not been shown as to whether equal access to parks can mitigate differences in leisure time physical activity. Using systematic direct observation, we quantified physical activity in neighborhood parks in a large Southern California city located in areas with high, medium, and a low percentage of households in poverty. We documented how neighborhood parks are managed and programmed and also interviewed both a sample of park users and a random sample of households within a mile radius of the parks. We found that parks are used less in high-poverty areas compared to medium- and low-poverty area parks, even after accounting for differences in size, staffing, and programming. The strongest correlates of park use were the number of part time staff, the number of supervised and organized programs, and knowing the park staff. Perceptions of safety were not relevant to park use among those interviewed in the park, however it had a small relationship with reported frequency of park use among local residents. Among park users, time spent watching electronic media was negatively correlated with the frequency of visiting the park. Future research should test whether increasing park staffing and programming will lead to increased park use in high-poverty neighborhoods.
Cohen, Deborah; Han, Bing; Derose, Kathryn; Williamson, Stephanie; Marsh, Terry; Rudick, Jodi; McKenzie, Thomas L.
This Park Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with sand dunes. Where appropriate for each park, links are provided to maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as Death Valley and Mojave National Preserve, along with less well-known areas such as the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore in Michigan and the Wright Brothers National Memorial in North Carolina.
This article presents the findings of the first major visitor survey conducted at the Central Rhodope Mountain Complex, situated in northern Greece. The study area is one of a number of sites planned to become National Parks under a recent initiative of the Greek government. We used a logistic regression method to define significant predictors of visitors’ awareness and attitude
Ioannis Machairas; Tasos Hovardas
The National Park Service recognizes the importance of preserving, conserving, and protecting water resources within its boundaries. Water resources, whether as large as the Colorado River or as small as a seep in Ernie's Country of Canyonlands National Park, play a distinctive role in linking ecosystems and , in general, provide habitat for a number of organisms. To protect park
Lynn Cudlip; Kevin Berghoff; David Vana-Miller
Asurvey of U.S. National Park Service (NPS) rangers examined perceived isolation, personality, and organizational variables. Park areas in a variety of isolated and nonisolated settings were sampled. Statistical indices in this study address issues of isolation previously noted as important in NPS areas. Indices relating to park distance from small urban areas reflect substantial elements of perceived isolation ratings. Models
Historically, the US National Park Service (NPS) has been an uneasy, often unwelcome, presence in rural communities. Broader recent acceptance of non-traditional types of national park units has opened the door to more positive collaborative relationships between the NPS and rural communities. I present three case studies of ‘partnership parks’ that vary from extensive federal land ownership while retaining traditional
Elisabeth M Hamin
This document evaluates the Parks as Resources for Knowledge in Science (PARKS) project which supports environmental education in 36 National Parks across the United States and provides curriculum-based learning opportunities that integrate National Science Education Standards for teachers and students. Contents include: (1) "Executive…
Wiltz, L. Kate
The floodplains of Tortuguero, in northeastern Costa Rica, stand as one of the richest plant-species regions in Central America. In this paper, we present the annotated check-list of vascular plants that are present within the rainforest of Tortuguero National Park (TNP), a 26 604h land that protects most of the biological diversity of these plains. Our list resulted from collections made in 2012, as well as the examination of material mantained at the Herbarium of the National Biodiversity Institute of Costa Rica, INBio (ATTA Database) and in the TROPICOS database. A total of 732 vascular plant species included in 413 genera are known to the Park. Two of these species have limited distributions and are endemic to Costa Rica: Pseuderanthemum pittieri (Acanthaceae) and Paullinia austin-smithii (Sapindaceae). Ninety species have known ethnobotanical uses. The high diversity in plant species reported here for the forest environments of Tortuguero contrasts with the low species diversity previously reported in the palm-swamps that characterize the riverine habitats within the Park. PMID:24459756
Hurtado-Hernández, Priscilla M; González-Ramírez, José A
Fish communities were sampled from eight sites within Hot Springs National Park. Fish were collected by seining and electrofishing during base-flow periods in July and October 2003. All individuals were identified to species. More than 1,020 individuals were collected, representing 24 species. The number of species collected at the sites ranged from 5 to 19. Central stoneroller, orangebelly darter, and longear sunfish were among the more abundant fish species at most sites. These species are typical of small streams in this area. An expected species list incorrectly listed 35 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 24 of the 51 expected species (47 percent). No species collected in 2003 were federally-listed threatened or endangered species. However, two species collected at Hot Springs National Park may be of special interest to National Park Service managers and others. The Ouachita madtom is endemic to the Ouachita Mountains and is listed as a species of special concern by the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission. The grass carp, which is a native of eastern Asia, is present in Ricks Pond; one individual was collected and no other grass carp were observed. The introduction of grass carp into the United States is a controversial issue because of possible (but undocumented) harmful effects on native species and habitats.
Petersen, James C.; Justus, B. G.
The jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp.) are the most abundant group in the fishing landing in Manaus. However, just command and control management strategies have been used by the fishery governmental agency in the region without the power to enforce centralized decisions. The fishermen and their culture represent a source of information on dynamics of the resources and aquatic environments, fundamental in making possible the co-management of the fishing resources. The present study aims to contribute to management through identification of common information available in scientific and traditional knowledge about the jaraquis' bio-ecology. There were 57 semi-structured interviews recorded with fishermen of Manaus and rural areas of Manacapuru in 2002 concerning biological and ecological aspects. Similarity was observed between scientific and traditional knowledge in the following items: size of first sexual maturation, spawning type, parental care, trophic relationships and migratory behavior, as well as in some aspects of the mortality and growth of the species. However, there was less ethnoicthyological information on fecundity and the determination of the age and growth of adult fish. Common information would be used preferably by agencies to start an effective and technical dialogue with commercial and riverine fishermen to design management plans in a decentralized strategy.
Background Road-killed wild animals have been classified as sentinels for detecting such zoonotic pathogens as Leishmania spp., offering new opportunities for epidemiological studies of this infection. Methods This study aimed to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania chagasi DNA by PCR in tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, mesenteric lymph node and adrenal gland) from 70 road-killed wild animals. Results DNA was detected in tissues of one Cavia aperea (Brazilian guinea pig), five Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), one Dasypus septemcinctus (seven-banded armadillo), two Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), one Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris (capybara), two Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), one Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), two Sphiggurus spinosus (porcupine) and one Tamandua tetradactyla (lesser anteater) from different locations in the Central Western part of São Paulo state. The Leishmania chagasi DNA were confirmed in mesenteric lymph node of one Cerdocyon thous. Results indicated common infection in wild animals. Conclusions The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting the environmental occurrence of Leishmania spp. and L. chagasi, as well as determining natural wild reservoirs and contributing to understand the host-parasite interaction.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the DMFT index, in 207 adolescents aged 12 years old, from 8 public and private schools of the central west area of São Paulo State. From a sample of 380 12 year-old adolescents, both genders, 207 were examined. We used the index DMFT, CBI for weight, measured of stature and applied a questionnaire about alimentary habits, characteristic anthropometrics and physical activity. Regarding body weight, 55.93% was normal, 35.59% had low weight, and 8.47% were pre-obese in private schools. In the public schools, 52.03% had normal weight, 41.22% had low weight, 4.73% were pre-obese and 2.03% were obese, without significant difference (p=0.45). The DMFT of public schools was 2.16, compared to 0.23 in private schools (p<0.05), with 39.2% of caries-free individuals in public schools and 88.1% in private schools. There was no correlation between the increase in BMI and the increase in DMFT. There was negative correlation between socioeconomic conditions and dental caries. It was concluded that, even though the pre-obese and obese groups presented a higher frequency of food ingestion, obesity was not correlated with the increase in dental caries. However, the socioeconomic conditions were determinant for this occurrence. PMID:21049158
Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho; Goya, Suzana; Sant'Anna, Rute Moreira de Freitas; Silva, Henrique Mendes; Sales-Peres, André de Carvalho; Silva, Ricardo Pianta Rodrigues da; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Bastos, José Roberto de Magalhães
Elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic data on metatexites, diatexites, orthogneisses and charnockites from the central Ribeira Fold Belt indicate that they are LILE-enriched weakly peraluminous granodiorites. Harker and Th-Hf-La correlation trends suggest that these rocks represent a co-genetic sequence, whereas variations on CaO, MnO, Y and HREE for charnockites can be explained by garnet consumption during granulitic metamorphism. Similar REE patterns and isotopic results of ?Nd565 = -5.4 to -7.3 and 87Sr/ 86Sr 565 = 0.706-0.711 for metatexites, diatexites, orthogneisses and charnockites, as well as similar TDM ages between 2.0 and 1.5 Ga are consistent with evolution from a relatively homogeneous and enriched common crustal (metasedimentary) protolith. Results suggest a genetic link between metatexites, diatexites, orthogneisses and charnockites and a two-step process for charnockite development: (a) generation of the hydrated igneous protoliths by anatexis of metasedimentary rocks; (b) continuous high-grade metamorphism that transformed the "S-type granitoids" (leucosomes and diatexites) into orthogneisses and, as metamorphism and dehydration progressed, into charnockites.
Bento dos Santos, Telmo M.; Munhá, José M.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Fonseca, Paulo E.
Amphibians evolved from fishes about 360 million years ago and were the first vertebrates adapted to life on land. The word amphibian means "double life." It refers to the life history of many amphibians, which spend part of their life in water and part on land. There are three major groups of amphibians: salamanders, frogs, and toads, and caecilians. Salamanders, frogs, and toads can be found in Olympic National Park (ONP), but caecilians live only in tropical regions. Many amphibians are generalist predators, eating almost any prey they can fit into their mouths.
U.S. Geological Survey
This educational resource from the Everglades National Park provides a variety of activities for grades K-6. Covering a wide variety of life science subjects, lesson plans include habitat, food chains, biodiversity, and more. A geography lesson is included, but is most applicable for those living in Florida. There are lots of additional teacher resources for honing up on Everglades-related topics, as well as reading lists for students and teachers. These lesson plans provide some good information that can be incorporated into science or geography classrooms, regardless of where the students live.
...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...accompanied by a uniformed National Park Service employee. However, the...demonstrable value to the National Park Service in its management or...
...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...supervision of employees of the National Park Service, no person shall enter any...demonstrable value to the National Park Service in its management or...
...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...September 14, 1950, which the National Park Service recognized as base lands appurtenant...grazing recognized by the National Park Service. (iv) If title to...
...Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01...Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...taking into consideration public health and safety, natural and cultural resource...
The United States Park Police is a unique organization within the National Park Service (NPS). It is the oldest NPS component, predating its adoptive parent by half a century (or more, some would argue). Its personnel wear distinctive uniforms, perform sp...
The choice of a site for a national park includes an evaluation of the natural beauty and value of the physical geography as well as socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding area. For some parks, consideration of the human geography was of little import because of the sparse population, but in other cases (primarily in the East), whole communities were displaced
Margaret F. Boorstein
This report defines the concept of parking management and explores how parking management can be used to improve air quality, support mass transit, reduce energy consumption and improve the amenities of life in urban areas. Specific aspects of this analysis were developments of a...
Playgrounds traditionally have been found in both schools and parks in America. Each year, parent-teacher associations and school administrations, as well as park and recreation departments, spend millions of dollars to provide playground structures. However, since 1981, HPER professionals and the public have become increasingly aware that these…
Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna; Olsen, Heather
Logistics parks as infrastructures promoting modern logistics, have an extremely important role in the modern logistics system. This article firstly analyses the logistics services process of logistics parks, and finds out the elements of logistics services quality. Then, the paper designs a service quality evaluation model through analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation methods. The evaluation model could help
Feng Ning; Zhang Mingli; Tang Saili
This National Park Service site provides geological history, visitor information, maps, and selected links for further details. This park is located on the Keweenaw Peninsula on Lake Superior in Michigan, situated on a 1.1 billion year old (Precambrian) continental rift. The history is traced back to the days of copper mining by the Calumet and Hecla Mining Company.
Layout, control, and sign posting in the design of parking facilities is discussed emphasizing self parking and automated control. Considerations such as site, traffic, function of the facility, city codes, and sizes are related to design considerations. Traffic control factors are related to the direction and placement of cars and the collection…
McConochie, William R.
Recounts the restructuring and resulting survival of Park University (Missouri) over the last decade. A process of evaluating the university's competitive strategy resulted in changes in tuition pricing; development of the Park School of Distance Learning, which serves primarily military installations; minority student marketing; and development…
Breckon, Donald; Gibb, John
This work deals with the parking manoeuvres problem for a wheeled mobile robot (WMR). The robot has the same non-holonomic kinematic constraint that has a car vehicle. This constraint makes the robot having its direction always tangent to the trajectory. Two sub-cases of parking problems are considered. These are forward and backward maneuvers, aiming to stabilize the robot at a
Amar KHOUKHI; Luc BARON; Marek BALAZINSKI
Discussed is a geology education program which includes hikes, lectures, naturalist training sessions, workshops, writing, collecting, upgrading park facilities, and producing exhibits in state parks in the Lake Michigan District of Wisconsin. The importance of public education and sources of public information are stressed. (CW)
Schneider, Allan F.
Education continues to operate as an enclave of elite culture and is battling for interest and respect with the mass media, technology, and the popular arts. These cultures must be brought together. Using the creative ideas generated by theme parks is an effective method of importing popular culture into the schools. Theme parks provide a total…
King, Margaret J.
Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution.
Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang
What is geologic heritage, you ask? In short, it "encompasses the significant geologic features, landforms, and landscapes characteristic of our Nation." The National Park Service has a special program to document these sites and to provide the public with resources about these unique destinations. The materials here are divided into four featured programs: Fossil Resources, Geologic Heritage Conservation, Park Geology Tour, and Cave and Karst Resources. Using the Park Geology Tour, visitors can search through thematic areas such as glaciers, fossils, and plate tectonics to find highlights from a vast array of National Park units. The Cave and Karst Resources program brings together resources on some of the over 4,900 caves in the National Park system, along with detailed photo galleries, newsletters, and brochures. Finally, under Fossil Resources visitors can find information about National Fossil Day and even helpful lesson plans for teachers.
Maintaining elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelti) herds that frequent Lewis and Clark National Historical Park (NHP) is central to the park’s purpose of preserving the historic, cultural, scenic, and natural resources. Elk were critical to sustaining the members of the Lewis and Clark expedition by providing food and clothing over the winter of 1805-1806. Today, elk viewing opportunities in the park and surrounding region generate broad appeal with the visiting public, which number over 250,000 per year at the Fort Clatsop visitor center. This protocol describes procedures for monitoring trends in the use of the Fort Clatsop area by Roosevelt elk. Specific objectives of elk monitoring in Lewis and Clark NHP are to measure the relative use and proportion of area used by elk during winter in the Fort Clatsop Unit of the park, and the rate at which elk are sighted from roads in and around the park. Relative use and the proportion of area used by elk are determined from elk fecal pellet surveys conducted every other year in the Fort Clatsop park unit. Pairs of observers visit a systematic array of permanent plots in the fall to clear them of elk fecal pellets, and return to the plots in late winter to count elk fecal pellets that have accumulated during winter. Half of the subplots are counted by two independent observers, which allows for the estimation of relative use and proportion of area occupied by elk with analyses of detection biases that account for unseen elk pellet groups. Standardized road surveys are conducted in and near the Fort Clatsop park unit three or four times monthly during alternate months. Data from road surveys are used to quantify the rate that park visitors would be expected to see elk, when driving the selected set of routes. The monitoring protocol is based on three field seasons of development and testing. The protocol narrative describes the background, rationale, sampling design, field methods, analytical methods, data management, reporting, personnel requirements, and operational requirements for elk monitoring in Lewis and Clark NHP. The sampling design reflects tradeoffs between statistical and ecological considerations, safety, and current budget considerations. The protocol provides adequate power to detect a doubling or halving of elk use in the Fort Clatsop unit and surrounding areas within 15 years. Step-by-step guidance for planning and completing the monitoring tasks are in the attached standard operating procedures (SOPs). Information on the status and trends of elk use in Lewis and Clark NHP will allow park managers to assess the effects on elk of restoration programs within the park, build community partnerships, and identify potential linkages between regional land use changes and elk use of the Park. Lewis and Clark NHP has an active ecological restoration program that aims to recreate, where possible, ecological conditions that Lewis and Clark encountered. The restoration program includes an extensive exotic plant removal program, wetland restoration, and silvicultural treatments that will hasten development of late-seral conditions in recently acquired forest lands of the Fort Clatsop park unit. In the future, monitoring results can be used to test for spatial associations between ecological restoration treatments and relative use by elk. The park also plans to feature results from elk monitoring prominently in its educational outreach activities to help interpret the historical and current ecological context of the Lewis and Clark story, and engender public support for the park mission and management activities. Although NPS does not manage non-park lands, information about trends in the distribution of elk use will be valuable in public outreach and discussions with other partnering agencies and regional private landowners.
Kurt J Jenkins;Paul Griffin;John R. Boetsch;Carla Cole
This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological profile of dental caries in the central western region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, focusing on 12-year-old children by gender, comparing the DMFT index in fluoridated and non-fluoridated cities. The study used data from the Epidemiological Surveys in the State of São Paulo, 1998, pertaining to the 10th Regional Health Directorate, including 8 cities. The sample consisted of 485 schoolchildren, both boys and girls, distributed by city. In Pederneiras (a medium-sized city with a fluoridated water supply), DMFT was 7.06, higher than the Brazilian national mean for 1986. Boys showed a higher prevalence of dental caries than girls, showing a new trend for dental caries in the region. There was no statistically significant difference between DMFT in municipalities of the same size, regardless of the presence or absence of fluoride in the water supply, thus suggesting a "convergence" phenomenon, possibly due to the intake of other sources of fluoride and the presence of a "halo" effect. Prevalence of caries in the region was "high", with a DMFT of 4.82, thus failing to reach the goals set for the year 2000. PMID:12244360
Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho; Bastos, José Roberto de Magalhães
Background Modifying the built environment by improving parks is potentially a sustainable way to increase population level physical activity. Despite considerable investment in parks and park renovations, few natural experiments on the impact of improving amenities on park use and park-based physical activity have been conducted. REVAMP is a natural experiment that aims to examine whether park improvement increases overall park usage, park-based physical activity and active travel to and from the park in the intervention compared with the control park over a two-year period; and to identify which specific aspects of the park refurbishment attracts park visitors and encourages park users to be more active. This paper describes the methods of the REVAMP study. Methods The intervention park is a large regional park (329 hectares) located in a low socio-economic status (SES) area in the north-eastern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. The control park is a regional park (120 hectares) located in a high SES area in the eastern suburbs of Melbourne. Multiple methodologies to evaluate the impact of the park renovation are being employed including: cross-sectional surveys of local residents living near the two parks, direct observations of park users, intercept surveys with park users, and electronic monitoring of path usage and car traffic within the parks. Baseline measures were conducted in April-May 2013 (T1), and an innovative play space suitable for children of all ages and abilities was installed at the intervention park between September 2013 and February 2014. Follow-up measures will be repeated in April-May 2014 (T2) and April-May 2015 (T3). All methodologies will be completed at both the intervention and control parks at all three time-points, with the exception of the cross-sectional survey of local residents which will only be conducted at T1 and T3. Conclusion This research will inform future park developments, and will contribute to creating an evidence base of the impact of park refurbishment, and the development of natural experiment methodology. Trial Registration Current controlled trial ISRCTN50745547, registration date 11.1.2014.
The Happy Hollow Park and Zoo participates in conservation and propagation of rare and endangered species by providing hands-on experience with many animals along with the education that's necessary to secure the future of endangered species. The Zoo is in partnership with a number of organizations, including the Belize Audubon Society, the Bushmeat Crisis Task Force, the Center for Ecosystem Survival, the Orangutan Conservancy, and the Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, to help educate the public and raise funds to protect endangered species. The interactive exhibit, Backyard Habitat, was constructed in partnership with Watershed Watch by the Happy Hollow staff using conservation grant dollars. It provides visitors with ideas on how they might turn their own backyard into wildlife habitats. Guests may also obtain a handy pamphlet at this exhibit, Invite Wildlife Into Your Backyard. Educational programs also include Pre-K classes, teacher/classroom programs, camps, Scouts programs and Zoofaris guided tours.
In this chapter I deploy a synthesis of methods I term virtual literacy ethnography to investigate the diverse literacy practices of the Schome Park project (SPP). This project worked with teenagers on the first European "closed" (i.e. protected) island in the 3D virtual world Teen Second LifeTM (TSL) as described in the previous chapter. Firstly I introduce an ethnographic perspective on this lengthy, rich project and reflect on my own interpretive approach. Introducing my own focus of interest, the new literacy practices fostered by the environment and in particular activities I judge to be especially creative, I begin to develop the methodology of a "virtual literacy ethnography". I show how the diverse multimodal affordances of the communicative domains are imaginatively exploited by the students, supported by peers and staff in an environment characterised by "fluid leadership". I include some analysis of literacy work around a genre traditionally valued by educators, a dictionary, which I was not involved in at the time. I suggest this is an exemplar literacy practice, creative in itself and illustrative of the methodological possibilities and of course limitations linked with the technologies utilised. Traditional distinctions between "reading" and "writing" become permeable in interesting ways as new creative practices, fostered by the environment of the Schome Park programme, emerged. I offer support for Kress's (2005) claim that changes in writing and reading practices amount to a "revolution in the world of communication." In conclusion, I claim that virtual literacy ethnography, as I have proposed it here, can be fruitful in exploring the complexity and creativity of the students' literacy practices, although more developmental work is needed.
This site of the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS) highlights the geologic history of Death Valley National Park in Nevada and California. The story begins 1.8 billion years ago with the formation of rocks and continues through uplift, faulting, volcanism, early animals of the area, glaciers, and the making of deserts and dunes. A geologic timescale connects to specific events in the history of Death Valley. There are topographic maps of the area, a field trip of the park, an image gallery, and technical papers available to download.
This National Park Service (NPS) site details Yosemite National Park in California with information such as geology, photographs, links to maps and other facts, and visitor information. Yosemite's landscape is shaped by alpine glaciation landforms such as moraines, plucking, scouring, and U-shaped valleys. Part of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, formation of the area began 500 million years ago (Cambrian). This site details the geologic history of the park up to the present time with continued evolution through weathering and erosion. Also discussed are the wilderness and vegetation (sub-alpine and Sequoia groves).
A cooperative ERTS-1 investigation involving U. S. Geological Survey, National Park Service, and Environmental Research Institure of Michigan (ERIM) personnel has as its goal the preparation of terrain classification maps for the entire Yellowstone National Park. Excellent coverage of the park was obtained on 6 August 1972 (frame 1015-17404). Preliminary terrain classification maps have been prepared at ERIM by applying multispectral pattern recognition techniques to ERTS-MSS digital taped data. The color coded terrain maps are presented and discussed. The discussion includes qualitative and quantitative accuracy estimates and discussion of processing techniques.
Thomson, F. J.; Roller, N. E. G.
In urban environments, green roofs provide a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings. However, little research has been done on the non-plant biota associated with green roofs, which likely affect their functionality. For the current study, we evaluated whether or not green roofs planted with two native plant communities in New York City functioned as habitats for soil fungal communities, and compared fungal communities in green roof growing media to soil microbial composition in five city parks, including Central Park and the High Line. Ten replicate roofs were sampled one year after planting; three of these roofs were more intensively sampled and compared to nearby city parks. Using Illumina sequencing of the fungal ITS region we found that green roofs supported a diverse fungal community, with numerous taxa belonging to fungal groups capable of surviving in disturbed and polluted habitats. Across roofs, there was significant biogeographical clustering of fungal communities, indicating that community assembly of roof microbes across the greater New York City area is locally variable. Green roof fungal communities were compositionally distinct from city parks and only 54% of the green roof taxa were also found in the park soils. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed that park soils had greater microbial biomass and higher bacterial to fungal ratios than green roof substrates. City park soils were also more enriched with heavy metals, had lower pH, and lower quantities of total bases (Ca, K, and Mg) compared to green roof substrates. While fungal communities were compositionally distinct across green roofs, they did not differentiate by plant community. Together, these results suggest that fungi living in the growing medium of green roofs may be an underestimated component of these biotic systems functioning to support some of the valued ecological services of green roofs.
McGuire, Krista L.; Payne, Sara G.; Palmer, Matthew I.; Gillikin, Caitlyn M.; Keefe, Dominique; Kim, Su Jin; Gedallovich, Seren M.; Discenza, Julia; Rangamannar, Ramya; Koshner, Jennifer A.; Massmann, Audrey L.; Orazi, Giulia; Essene, Adam; Leff, Jonathan W.; Fierer, Noah
Japan, as one of the most developed country in logistics field in the world, has developed its logistics parks earlier. This paper takes Japan's logistics park as the subject in research. By analyzing Japan's experiences of developing logistics parks, this paper tempts to find out problems in China's logistics parks and put forward suggestions for further development and construction .The
Logistics park is a product of modem Logistics. One of the most important and fundamental problems about logistics park is the planning of logistics park. The reasonable layout planning of logistics park would effectively lower the work intensity and difficulty of internal logistics, which also would improve the competitive ability of enterprise. The influence of logistics sequence and amount of
A study examined how older adults in five large American cities use their local parks. Specifically, the study examined: (1) user motivation and satisfaction; (2) logistics of park use; (3) onsite behavior and attitudes; and (4) criticisms of the park environment. Implications for park management are given. (Author/PP)
Godbey, Geoffrey; Blazey, Michael
Germany, as one of the most developed country in logistics field in the world, has developed its logistics parks earlier. This paper takes Germany's logistics park as the subject in research. By analyzing Germany's experiences of developing logistics parks, this paper tempts to find out problems in China's logistics parks and put forward suggestions for further development and construction.
...Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM Â§ 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...
Speakers and discussions at this one day conference were dedicated to building for quality education, with major emphasis on the concept of educational parks. The five major speeches are--(1) Advantages and Disadvantages of Educational Parks, (2) Educational Parks: Appalachian Style, emphasizing a twist in the park idea in order to accommodate…
Transportation problems stemming from expanding park visitation are a major concern of national park system officials. Visitor use during peak seasons strain the capacity of visitor facilities, park roads, and parking facilities and threaten sensitive natural and cultural resources. This article focuses on meeting the needs of visitors and the alternative means of transporting those visitors. Well-conceived visitor transportation systems
W D Byrne; E J Schumm
...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM Â§ 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...commercial automobiles and buses to Mesa Verde National Park, contained in Â§...
...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM Â§ 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...commercial automobiles and buses to Mesa Verde National Park, contained in Â§...
9. VIEW FROM MANY PARKS CURVE (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) OF HORSESHOE PARK, SHOWING FALL RIVER ROAD FAINTLY AT LEFT AT BASE OF SHEEP MOUNTAIN AND CROSSING ALLUVIAL FAN FROM LAWN LAKE FLOOD. - Fall River Road, Between Estes Park & Fall River Pass, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7.2...THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM Â§ 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a) Fishing. Fishing in Crater Lake and park streams is permitted from May...
The National Park System received 278.9 million recreation visits in 2011. Park visitors spent $12.95 billion in local gateway regions (within roughly 60 miles of the park). Visitors staying overnight outside the park (in motels, hotels, cabins, and bed a...
E. Mahoney T. Herbowicz Y. Cui
This article examines the distribution of parks in Baltimore, Maryland, as an environmental justice issue. In addition to established methods for measuring distribution of and access to parks, we employ a novel park service area approach that uses Thiessen polygons and dasymetric reapportioning of census data to measure potential park congestion as an equity outcome measure. We find that a
Christopher G. Boone; Geoffrey L. Buckley; J. Morgan Grove; Chona Sister
10. Historic view, Central Power Plant (Building 108) construction. View to northwest, 1904. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 9760, USM #F108N10, 6/1/04 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Central Power Plant, Attached to northeast end of Building 107 at intersection of Third Avenue & Ninth Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA
11. Historic view, Central Power Plant (Building 108) construction. View to northwest, 1916. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS9761, USN #2438, 11/2/16 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Central Power Plant, Attached to northeast end of Building 107 at intersection of Third Avenue & Ninth Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA
9. Historic view, Central Power Plant (Building 108) construction. View to northwest, 1903. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 9760, USN #F108N9, 12/1/03 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Central Power Plant, Attached to northeast end of Building 107 at intersection of Third Avenue & Ninth Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA
Less than half of youth engage in sufficient physical activity to achieve health benefits. Key environmental factors of park\\u000a and recreation spaces may influence youth physical activity. We sought to ascertain youth characteristics and behaviors that\\u000a attract youth to parks with specific amenities and encourage physical activity while at the parks in a rural, predominantly\\u000a Latino community. We examined the
Cynthia K. PerryBrain; Brain E. Saelens; Beti Thompson
This paper compares participation in Detroit city parks and surrounding regional parks by black and white Detroit residents. Black Detroit residents participate more than whites in Detroit city parks, but less than whites in surrounding region parks. The paper explores a variety of explanations for these findings including “marginality”; (economic barriers), subcultural preferences, and interracial relations. Marginality plays some role
Patrick C. West
The objectives of this slide presentation are to (1) Describe the general characteristics of the Earth Parking Orbit (EPO) and Translunar Injection (TLI) (2) List the general activities that occurred during EPO (4) State what went into verifying a working...
This visitor study report profiles a systematic random sample of Yellowstone National Park (NP) visitors during July 23-29, 2011. In total, 1314 questionnaires were distributed to visitor groups. Of those, 900 questionnaires were returned, resulting in a ...
C. Kulesza J. Gramann S. J. Hollenhorst Y. Le
The National Park Service Data and Information Web site contains several helpful links for data related to the Parks. The Data Clearinghouse link has national and regional data sets such as civil war and land status data, local and regional historic and scenic trails data sets, and information on the Virgin Islands in a well designed and easily browseable format. The Interactive Map Center allows visitors to explore the National Parks using interactive interfaces, while other links explain the National Park Service's standards and specifications, and how to use metadata correctly with other data. The unique and limited scope of the data makes the site a good example of how the Web is increasingly becoming an excellent source for hard-to-find free information.
The second phase of the Council's Regional and Metropolitan Parks Report has re-evaluated the regional facilities of the phase one report in relation to new definitions, criteria, and standards; recently adopted goals, objectives, and policies; and variou...
L. D. Leitner
...Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES Â§ 263.10 Parking. (a) No person, unless otherwise authorized by a posted traffic sign or...
We are pleased to submit this annual report for Everglades National Park. 1998 continued a record of progress in meeting the challenges and opportunities of preserving this great natural treasure for the benefit of current and future generations of Americ...
An asymmetric exclusion process type process, where cars move forward along a closed road that starts and terminates at a parking garage, displays dynamic phase transitions into two types of condensate phases where the garage becomes macroscopically occupied. The total car density ?o and the exit probability ? from the garage are the two control parameters. At the transition, the number of parked cars Np diverges in both cases, with the length of the road Ns, as Np~Nyps with yp=1/2. Towards the transition, the number of parked cars vanishes as Np~?? with ?=1, ?=|?-?*| or ?=|?*o-?o| being the distance from the transition. The transition into the normal phase represents also the onset of transmission of information through the garage. This gives rise to unusual parked car autocorrelations and car density profiles near the garage, which depend strongly on the group velocity of the fluctuations along the road.
Ha, Meesoon; den Nijs, Marcel
...AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Traffic and Vehicular Regulations Â§ 265.17 Parking permits. No person, except visitors, shall...
Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago's recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, w...
N. Vasquez W. Dorsey
Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of ChicagoÃ¢Â?Â?s recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park Hospital has chosen green building strategies to help make the area a better place to live and work.
William Dorsey; Nelson Vasquez
New U-Pb ages for zircon and titanite obtained by LA-MC-ICPMS are reported for post-collisional granites from the central Ribeira belt (Rio de Janeiro State, southeast Brazil). These post-collisional, I-type, megaporphyritic and equigranular leucogranite plutons and dykes intrude high-grade metasedimentary units, orthogneisses, and migmatites within the root zone of the deeply eroded Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Ribeira belt. The ages obtained are: 511.2 ± 6.9 Ma (zircon) for the Suruí Granite; 490.3 ± 8.7 Ma (zircon) for a cross-cutting dyke of the pegmatitic facies of the Andorinha Granite from the same outcrop; 480.7 ± 6.1 Ma (zircon) for the Frades Granite; 488.7 ± 4.2 Ma (titanite) for the Nova Friburgo Granite; and 490.9 ± 9.8 Ma (zircon) for the Sana Granite. These new U-Pb ages and those compiled from the literature for post-orogenic intrusions distributed ˜400 km along the strike of the orogen (Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo States), define two separate intervals for magmatic activity, which are consistent with mineralogical and structural signatures. The magmatic intervals consist of an older Cambrian magmatic pulse occurred at ca.512 Ma (Pedra Branca, Suruí and Buarama plutons), and a younger Ordovician event at ca. 486 Ma (Mangaratiba, Favela, Andorinha, Frades, Nova Friburgo and Sana granites). The Cambrian pulse post-dates the end of the first and main collisional phase by ca. 35 m.y. It also post-dates the onset of the second collisional episode by ca. 20 m.y. The late-Ordovician magmatic pulse post-dates the end of the second collisional episode by ca. 25 m.y. In map view, the alignment of the post-collisional plutons and stocks depicts a sinuous belt running along the eroded roots of central/northern Ribeira and Araçuaí belts. This granite belt probably marks the zone where preferential heating and melting of lower continental crust took place, either caused by breaking off of subducted slab, or by the extensional collapse of hot, overthickened continental crust.
Valeriano, Claudio de Morisson; Tupinambá, Miguel; Simonetti, Antonio; Heilbron, Monica; de Almeida, Julio Cesar Horta; do Eirado, Luiz Guilherme
Visitors to Shenandoah National Park (SNP) enjoy the animal and plant life and the scenery but may not realize how vulnerable these features are to various threats, such as invasion of exotic plants and insects, improper use of park resources by humans, and air and water pollution. The National Park Service strives to protect natural resources from such threats to ensure that the resources will be available for enjoyment now and in the future. Because SNP has limited influence over the air pollution that envelops the region, acidic deposition--commonly known as acid rain--is one of the more challenging threats facing park managers. With the help of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists, park managers can understand how acid rain interacts with ground- and surface-water resources, which enables them to explain why reductions in air pollution can help preserve park resources. Such understanding also provides essential insight into ecosystem processes, as managers strive to unravel and resolve other environmental problems that are interrelated to acid rain.
Rice, Karen C.; Deviney, Frank A., Jr.; Olson, Gordon
This paper presents a new concept of energy supply system named Lunar Energy Park (LEP) as one of the next-generation clean energy sources. In this concept, electricity is generated by nuclear power plants built on the moon and then transmitted to receiving stations on the earth by laser beam through transporting systems situated in geostationary orbit. The lunar nuclear power plants use a high-efficiency composite energy conversion system consisting of thermionic and thermoelectric generators to change nuclear thermal energy into electricity directly. The nuclear resources are considered to be available from the moon, and nuclear fuel transport from earth to moon is not necessary. Because direct energy conversion systems are employed, the lunar nuclear plants can be operated and controlled by robots and are maintenance-free, and so will cause no pollution to humans. The key technologies for LEP include improvements of conversion efficiency of both thermionic and thermoelectric converters, and developments of laser-beam power transmission technology as well. The details, including the construction of lunar nuclear plants, energy conversion and energy transmission systems, as well as the research plan strategies for this concept are reviewed.
Niino, Masayuki; Kisara, Katsuto; Chen, Lidong
The website for the Dry Tortugas, a group of seven islands 70 miles off the coast of Key West, and a National Park site, will warm visitors instantly with its photos of the blue and green waters and sun-kissed lands. The website also offers visitors lots of background on these islands that are "near-pristine natural resources including sea grass beds, fisheries, and sea turtle and bird nesting habitat." On the left hand side of the homepage are links to "History and Culture", "Photos and Multimedia", "Nature and Science", and "For Kids". The "History and Culture" section called "Places" provides the Tortugas' history as a "ship trap" with the subcategories "Windjammer Shipwreck", "Fort Jefferson" and "Lighthouses". Visitors shouldn't miss checking out the "Preservation" category, which includes "Submerged Cultural Resources". Visitors can view a short slide show of the underwater cultural treasures on which archaeological survey crews conduct condition assessments. Some of the treasures include cannons and anchors that now reside in the South Florida Collections Management Center.
Investigation of Serum Microcystin Concentrations Among Dialysis Patients, Brazil, 1996 Elizabeth D. Hilborn 1, Wayne W. Carmichael 2, Sandra M.F.O. Azevedo 3 1- USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 2- Wright State University, Dayton, OH 3- Federal Univers...
The failure to control Rhyzopertha dominica in Brazil has been recorded in many storage units where the insecticide deltamethrin was used to protect grains. Samples from these and other pest populations were taken to investigate their tolerance. Ten strains from Brazil (BR1–10) and one laboratory strain from Imperial College at Silwood Park (UK1), were exposed to deltamethrin on filter paper.
I Lorini; D. J Galley
Background Urban parks have received attention in recent years as a possible environmental factor that could encourage physical activity, prevent obesity, and reduce the incidence of chronic conditions. Despite long hypothesized benefits of parks for mental health, few park studies incorporate mental health measures. Aims of the Study To test the association between proximity to urban parks and psychological distress. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of individual health survey responses. Data were collected for a study of capital improvements of neighborhood parks in Los Angeles. A survey was fielded on a sample of residential addresses, stratified by distance from the park (within 400m, 800m, 1.6 km, and 3.2km; N=1070). We used multiple regression to estimate the relationship between the psychological distress as measured by the MHI-5 (outcome variable) and distance to parks (main explanatory variable), controlling for observed individual characteristics. Results Mental health is significantly related to residential distance from parks, with the highest MHI-5 scores among residents within short walking distance from the park (400m) and decreasing significantly over the next distances. The number of visits and physical activity minutes are significantly and independently related to distance, although controlling for them does not reduce the association between distance and mental health. Discussion and Limitations This paper provides a new data point for an arguably very old question, but for which empirical data are sparse for the US. A nearby urban park is associated with the same mental health benefits as decreasing local unemployment rates by 2 percentage points, suggesting at least the potential of environmental interventions to improve mental health. The analysis is cross-sectional, making it impossible to control for important confounders, including residential selection. Implications for Health Policy Mental health policy has traditionally focused on individual-centered interventions. Just as health policy for preventable chronic illnesses has shifted attention to modifiable environmental determinants, population mental health may benefit substantially from environmental interventions. Implications for Future Research Policy evaluations should incorporate mental health measures when assessing neighborhood improvement programs and physical environments. Many recent and ongoing studies have excluded mental health measure in the belief that they are too burdensome for respondents or irrelevant. If a causal relationship is confirmed, then ameliorating neighborhood conditions and physical environments could represent a scalable way to improve mental health issues for large populations.
Sturm, Roland; Cohen, Deborah
...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-AKR-ANIA-11187; 9924-PYS] National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence...Teleconference AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION:...
...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-BSAD-CONC-13365...Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Leasing Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION:...
The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park (C&O Canal) extends 184.5 miles along the Potomac River, a treasure hidden in plain sight. From Georgetown in the District of Columbia to Cumberland, Maryland, the park preserves a wealth of our natio...
The Park Service has taken positive steps to enhance branding and recognition of the parks through more uniform design standards for signage and publications. To carry that work forward, we call on Congress to simplify as far as possible the more than two...
Twelve grassland sites were sampled inside and outside the Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP), South Africa to assess changes in grasshopper assemblages to grazing by indigenous mammals inside the park compared to grazing by domestic cattle outside. The MZNP has been restored from cattle-grazed farmland to indigenous mammal parkland for 62 years. The number of grasshopper species and families inside
S. Gebeyehu; M. J. Samways
A recent paper in this journal (Solecki and Welch, 1995) describes how urban parks that lie between racially different neighborhoods can become “green walls” or barriers to use and appreciation. Although this phenomenon is well grounded in the experience of many who plan for, manage, and live near parks in racially and ethnically segregated cities, an analysis of the authors'
Paul H. Gobster
Voyageurs National Park was created in 1975. This beautifully forested and lake-dominated landscape shared between Minnesota and Canada has few roads and must be seen by water. The islands and Kabetogama Peninsula are part of the Canadian Shield, some of the oldest exposed rock in the world. Voyageurs National Park boasts many unique landscape and climatic attributes, and like most mid-latitude regions of the northern hemisphere climate change is in play there. The statistical signals of change in the climate record are evident from both temperature and precipitation measurements. The history of these measurements goes back over 100 years. Additionally, studies and measurements of the lakes and general ecosystem already show some consequences of these climate changes. Mean temperature measurements are generally warmer than they once were, most notably in the winter season. Minimum temperatures have changed more than maximum temperatures. Precipitation has trended upward, but has also changed in character with greater frequency and contribution from thunderstorm rainfalls across the park. In addition variability in annual precipitation has become more amplified, as the disparity between wet and dry years has grown wider. Some changes are already in evidence in terms of bird migration patterns, earlier lake ice-out dates, warmer water temperatures with more algal blooms, decline in lake clarity, and somewhat longer frost-free seasons. Climate change will continue to have impacts on Voyageurs National Park, and likely other national parks across the nation. Furthermore scientists may find that the study, presentation, and discussion about climate impacts on our national parks is a particularly engaging way to educate citizens and improve climate literacy as we contemplate what adaptation and mitigation policies should be enacted to preserve the quality of our national parks for future generations.
Seeley, M. W.
Urban parks play an important role in cities; they regulate the environmental conditions because of its microclimate and human comfort (15°C-20°C for temperature and 30%-50% for humidity). The park coverage is quite important to preserve a good life quality, the World Health Organization (WHO) suggests a surface of 9 to 11m2/hab. In Mexico, the urbanization has drastically changed the landscape. It has become much more important to build economical and profitable spaces rather than increase the vegetal coverage. The city of Toluca is one of the most important cities in Mexico with an urban growth rate high, which represents a barely vegetation of 4m2/hab. The aim of this study was to analyze the climate effect that urban parks have in the city of Toluca. This was reached by temperature and moisture measurements in urban parks and nearby areas during autumn-winter period, 2012-2013.It was performed 20 measurements trough inside and outside transects of 4 parks with a HM70 Hand-Held Humidity (±0.60…100%) and Temperature Meter (±0.2°C). The transected areas were divided into homogeneous sections (e.g. same vegetation). To determine the possible microclimate similarities between park sections, a cluster analysis was made. In general, it was found that temperature can be decreased whilst moisture can be increased in a range of 1-3°C and 4-8% respectively. The cluster analysis made possible to perceive that these variation ranges are due to several factors such as: traffic jam, the amount of pedestrians, vegetal coverage and water bodies as well as hour and season in where transects were performed. Finally, the study allows features proposing that parks must have in order to optimize the human comfort.
Bobadilla Lagunas, E.; Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Arévalo Mejía, R.; Magaña-Lona, D.; Romero Contreras, T.
Chytridiomycosis is a fatal disease associated with amphibian population declines and extinctions worldwide. In a protected area in central Spain, the Peñalara Natural Park, the disease almost extirpated the population of Alytes obstetricans over only a few years, but did not apparently affect other amphibians. We present new observations documenting the occur- rence of the disease in other species. In
Jaime Bosch; Iñigo Martínez-Solano
Hantavirus activity in 39 National Parks in the eastern and central United States was surveyed by testing 1,815 small mammals of 38 species for antibody reactive to Sin Nombre virus. Antibody-positive rodents were found throughout the area sampled, and in most biotic communities. Antibody was detected in 7% of 647 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus ), 2% of 590 white-footed mice
JAMES N. MILLS; JERRY M. JOHNSON; THOMAS G. KSIAZEK; BARBARA A. ELLIS; PIERRE E. ROLLIN; TERRY L. YATES; MICHAEL O. MANN; MARK R. JOHNSON; MARIEL L. CAMPBELL; JENNIFER MIYASHIRO; MICHAEL PATRICK; MICHAEL ZYZAK; DAVE LAVENDER; MARK G. NOVAK; KARINA SCHMIDT; C. J. PETERS; JAMES E. CHILDS
In response to a request from the US Department of the Interior, National Park Service, an investigation was begun into possible hazardous exposures for workers fighting the Arch Rock Fire (SIC-0851) in Yosemite National Park, California. The survey assessed exposure to carbon-monoxide (630080) (CO), sulfur-dioxide (7446095) (SO2), nitrogen-dioxide (10102440), respirable particulate matter, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, aldehydes, and acid gases. Samples of new and washed bandannas, often used for respiratory protection by firefighters, were also measured to determine the pore size. Cross shift changes in lung function, CO levels in exhaled breath, and respiratory and central nervous system symptoms were monitored. The study determined that there was a hazard at the operation, with three CO exposure concentrations being above the adjusted guideline of 21 parts per million (ppm) and two of the 11 exposure concentrations for SO2 being above the NIOSH recommended exposure limit of 2.0 ppm.
Reh, C.M.; Letts, D.; Deitchman, S.
Surface ozone concentrations are high throughout Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR), as demonstrated by direct monitoring at multiple sites within JOTR. Multiple years of data from continuous ozone monitors and passive samplers indicate that the highest ozone concentrations occur in the northwest corner of JOTR, and decrease as one moves to the south and east. Analysis of long-term (1994–2010) hourly data from the Black Rock monitoring station indicates that average summertime ozone concentrations have remained essentially constant, with a concurrent decrease in the number, and magnitude, of high ozone events. Calculation of ozone exposure indices suggests that ozone concentrations may be high enough to adversely affect local flora, especially in the northwestern region of the park. Back-trajectory analysis using the HYSPLIT model suggests that most of the ozone measured in JOTR is transported into the park from a high source area (Los Angeles and surrounding suburbs) to the west.
Burley, Joel D.; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Ray, John D.; Schilling, Susan; Allen, Edith B.
The Schome Park Programme set out to extend thinking about what the education system for the information age (Schome) should be like. The first three phases of the programme spanned 13 months and involved the use of Schome Park, our "closed" island(s) in Teen Second LifeTM (TSL) virtual world alongside a wiki and forum. During this time approximately two hundred 13-17 year olds and around 50 adults were given access to Schome Park. Having explained the context in which this work took place the paper outlines the initial educational design underpinning the programme and describes some of the activities which took place. It goes on to explore some dimensions of practice which emerged from the data analysis towards the end of Phase 3, focusing on learner experiences of experimentation, playfulness, curriculum, choice, participation and the expression of the learner voice.
Twining, Peter; Footring, Shri
...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2410-OYC] Notice of Extension...Rainier National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice...concession contract, the National Park Service intends to request an...
... 2013-07-01 false National Park Service solid waste responsibilities...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM Â§ 6.8 National Park Service solid waste...
... 2009-07-01 false National Park Service solid waste responsibilities...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM Â§ 6.8 National Park Service solid waste...
...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Continuation of...Yosemite National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice...concession contract, the National Park Service intends to request a...
... 2010-07-01 false National Park Service solid waste responsibilities...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM Â§ 6.8 National Park Service solid waste...
Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify ...
A. E. Gibbs B. M. Richmond S. A. Cochran
Several extragalactic HI surveys using a 21-cm 13-beam focal plane array will begin in late 1996 using the Parkes 64-m telescope. These surveys are designed to detect efficiently nearby galaxies that have failed to be identified optically because of low optical surface brightness or high optical extinction. We discuss scientific and technical aspects of the multibeam receiver including astronomical objectives, feed, receiver and correlator design and data acquisition. A comparison with other telescopes shows that the Parkes multibeam receiver has significant speed advantages for any large-area 21- cm galaxy survey in the velocity range range 0 - 14000 km per sec.
Staveley-Smith, L.; Wilson, W. E.; Bird, T. S.; Disney, M. J.; Ekers, R. D.; Freeman, K. C.; Haynes, R. F.; Sinclair, M. W.; Vaile, R. A.; Webster, R. L.; Wright, A. E.
20. Photocopy of National Park Service photograph, US Department of Interior, Washington, DC. Photograph No. 8005.B, 4 July 1963. CASCADE FROM ABOVE - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
12. Photocopy of photograph, National Park Service, US Department of Interior, Washington, DC. Photograph No. 9525-A, 15 December 1965 ARMILLARY SPHERE AT EXEDRA - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
124. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the flat top manor porch, carriage road, and pasture. View looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC
128. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the stone faced bridge on the bass lake carriage trail. Facing west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC
125. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of carriage trail and flat top mountain from cone cemetery. Looking north-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC
127. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the flat top manor from the bass lake carriage road. Looking north-northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC
View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, from building 746 parking lot across Walnut Avenue; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA
Partial southwest side and view of stairway to parking area - Glacier Park Villas, Edna Sears Graham Cabin, South of Lake McDonald Lodge on Lake Mcdonald Lodge Loop Road, Lake McDonald, Flathead County, MT
3. EXTERIOR, VIEW TO NORTHEAST, AT NEW SITE (HERITAGE PARK). SHERMAN-GILBERT HOUSE AT LEFT; BUSHYLEAD HOUSE IN CENTER; CHRISTIAN HOUSE AT RIGHT - Sherman-Gilbert House, Heritage Park, San Diego, San Diego County, CA
The National Park Service recommends that 28,335 acres of Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park be designated by Congress as wilderness. Environmental impacts discussed include ecological, social and economic considerations. The values of these impact...
This park is home to the Fairweather Mountains, which formed during the Laramide Orogeny, as well as many glaciers. The site includes introductory information about glacial formation and icebergs, links to park maps, and visitor information.
8. Detail of Clingman's Dome parking area looking NW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Clingmans Dome Road, Between Newfound Gap Road & Clingmans Dome, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN
272. GENERAL VIEW INTO KIEFFER PARK. VIEW WEST DOWN LANGLEY ROAD THROUGH BASE FENCE AND GATE INTO KIEFFER PARK HOUSING AREA. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI
Secretary Salazar at the podium, behind him left to right Craig Obey, Vice President of the National Parks Conservation Association, Tom Kiernan, President of the National Parks Conservation Association and Terry Jones, President of the Wolftrap Foundation....
Water resource inventory and monitoring activities are integral components of resource management at Morristown National Historical Park. The Water Resources Scoping Report assists park management by: (1) providing an overview of existing water resource i...
2. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER CHALK CREEK, NEAR MT. PRINCETON HOT SPRINGS. VIEW UPSTREAM - Denver South Park & Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Chalk Creek, near Mount Princeton Hot Spring, Romley (historical), Chaffee County, CO
1. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER CHALK CREEK, NEAR MT. PRINCETON HOT SPRINGS. VIEW DOWNSTREAM - Denver South Park & Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Chalk Creek, near Mount Princeton Hot Spring, Romley (historical), Chaffee County, CO
In 2005 and 2006, Adams National Historical Park piloted expanded shuttle service, with the aim of promoting car-free access for its visitors. This report evaluates the 2006 season of operation. Adams National Historical Park (NHP) is located approximatel...
E. Chan J. Bryan M. Sorrell P. Christner S. Lian
This paper analyzes the proportion of investment about logistic park between government and corporation, and builds the model to analyze the proportion of investment in the logistic park's basal establishments and vehicles between government and corporation. The paper explains the applicability of the model, and gives an example. It is helpful to develop the logistic park.
Zhang Peilin; Dai Hang
In China, almost every metropolitan has one or even more Logistics Parks planned. Unfortunately most of built Logistic Parks are not very well in revenue and operation. In order to visually present the activities and functions of Logistics Park, a graphical and structured modeling method, IDEFO is chosen, for it can be used to demonstrate the logistics processes, activities and
Cunlu Zhang; Xiaolan Chen; Yongbo Feng; Ruibin Luo
As an important phase in the plan of Logistics Park, traffic volume forecast and traffic assignment are always the research focus.In this paper, the improved traffic volume non-repeated coefficient method was introduced to forecast the Traffic Volume of Logistics Park, based on the results, system optimization assignment model was used for traffic assignment of Logistics Park with the aid of
Haiyao Xie; Shouwen Ji; Jinsheng Shen; Xiangyu Han
In this paper we study a logistics park location planning problem in which logistics park has variable capacities related to the park size that is decided in the given range and the size ranges are different in every potential location site. We introduce the design modes to deal with the nonlinear tracts cost function and obtain an integer programming model.
Jianxun Tang; Lixin Tang
The site planning of the logistics park is a significant process of the construction of logistic system. An appropriate site planning of the logistics park could promote the development of regional economy, social environment and logistics corporation. This article demonstrates the principle of the site planning of the logistics park and analyzes the Baumol-Wolfe Method, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), CFLP
Liu Xiaohui; Wang Lin; Zhang Lu; Ning Jinhua; Zhao Xueyu
In this study we determine the areal footprint of parking lots in the Great Lakes Basinand outline policies to provide smart growth of parking lots. Our poster addresses the question: “what is the areal footprint and the ensuing economic and ecological consequences of parking lots?”. Our research addresses whether land use in the in the Great Lakes is efficient and
Amélie Y Davis; Bryan C Pijanowski; Kimberly D Robinson; Paul B Kidwell
The duties of the National Park Service have grown dramatically since its creation in 1916. One area in which the Park Service has had to assume a major new role is in law enforcement. This paper addresses the issue of law enforcement in the National Park Service from the perspective of the rangers. It finds that rangers appear to accept
Dennis L. Soden; Worth H. Hester
This paper describes the operation principles of an extended custom power park (CPP). The proposed park is more effective when it is compared to the conventional power parks regarding the yield of improving both current and voltage quality of linear and nonlinear loads using dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), active power filter (APF), static transfer switch (STS) and diesel generator (DG).
M. Emin Meral; Ahmet Teke; K. Cagatay Bayindir; Mehmet Tumay
Describes the history of National Parks and the controversy over their use. Emphasizing the lack of definitive legislation, Frederick Law Olmsted's original philosophy for establishing national parks is proposed for defining the role of parks today. Concludes that activities not directly enhancing nature (e.g., ski runs) are not appropriate in the…
Sax, Joseph L.
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virgin Islands National Park. 7.74 Section...THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM Â§ 7.74 Virgin Islands National Park. (a) [Reserved...States Coast Guard and Territory of the Virgin Islands. (e) Fishing. (1)...
This is a report on an inquiry into some of the social/political/ecological problems of the national parks of the United States. The authors examined the impact of man on the national parks and concluded that the parks now face dangers from within, in addition to the older and more generally recognized external pressures for economic exploitation…
Darling, F. Fraser; Eichhorn, Noel D.
Documentation of the arrival of exotic vascular plants in Yellowstone National Park has been sporadic. An annotated checklist of exotic vascular plants is presented, with information about the approximate arrival time in the park of each species and the current extent of the infestation. Yellowstone's flora includes 187 exotic vascular plant species (14.8% of the flora), and the park has
Jennifer J. Whipple
The pollination ecology of four species of Castilleja was studied in the Berkeley Park- Yakima Park area of Mt. Rainier National Park, Washington, from 2 July to 13 August 1970. One species, C. cryptantha, was found to be self-pollinating, while the other three, C. miniata, C. oreopola, and C. rupicola, are primarily hummingbird-pollinated. Bumble- bees were observed to forage on
W. JAMES DUFFIELD
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Channel Islands National Park. 7.84 Section 7...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM Â§ 7.84 Channel Islands National Park. (a) [Reserved...the following areas: (i) Anacapa Island. Northside to exterior boundary of...
In this article, the author presents the life and legacy of Rosa Parks. The author highlights four children's books that accurately portray Parks as an activist and acknowledge the broader context of her life's story--and the years of struggle of the black community against Jim Crow laws. The four children's books share Rosa Park's story in ways…
Redwood National and State Parks (REDW), Lassen Volcanic National Park (LAVO), and Whiskeytown National Recreation Area (WHIS) have museum and archive collections that reflect their rich heritage and biodiversity. This Museum Management Plan describes an ...
J. Bayless J. OBarr K. Kvam M. Benterou S. Floray
...Interior, National Park Service, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Mosca...Interior, National Park Service, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Mosca...responsibility of the superintendent, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve. A...
...Park and Preserve? 13.954 Section 13.954 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve...
Outlines the history of the educational role of the National Park Service under various leaders. Details the types of educational outreach programs that are thriving today and discusses their merits and successes. (DDR)
On July 6, 1999, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a request from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for assistance in conducting an ergonomic evaluation of National Park Service (NPS) personn...
D. J. Habes R. B. Dick R. L. Tubbs F. R. Biggs S. E. Burt
In order to evaluate the operation conditions of operating logistics parks systematically, and promote their development, this article build an integrated evaluation system using analytic hierarchy process. This system include 4 Classes of guidelines layer indicators which reflect the operating basis, operating capacity, operating efficiency and operating potential, as well as 66 index layers indicators, and then illustrate how to
Zhou Ren; Zhou Yang
An amusement park is a large physics laboratory, full of rotating and accelerated coordinate systems. The forces are experienced throughout the body and can be studied with simple equipment or with electronics depending on age and experience. In this paper, we propose adaptations of classical physics experiments for use on traditional rides.…
Bagge, Sara; Pendrill, Ann-Marie
This document is a Management Plan for the Olympic Park Reserve within Waitakere and Auckland Cities. The Plan has been developed as a guide for the protection, use and development of the Reserve, with an emphasis on managing its organised and informal recreation while recognising its cultural heritage and ecological rehabilitation opportunities.
Vicksburg National Military Park was established on February 21, 1899, to commemorate the campaign, siege, and defense of Vicksburg, Mississippi, and to preserve the history of the battles and operations of the siege and defense on the ground where they w...
Under the National Resource Evaluation (NURE), massive amounts of geological, geochemical, and geophysical data, covering the entire conterminous 48 states and Alaska, are being collected and made public. In addition to NURE goals, these data are applicable to various other researches on and in the vicinity of lands controlled by the National Park Service. Airborne geophysical and hydrogeochemical survey NURE
ERDA has engaged MIT\\/Lincoln Laboratory in its field tests and applications project for solar photovoltaic systems. This paper describes one of the applications of the project: namely, the placement, test and monitoring of solar photovoltaic systems that serve installations of the U.S. National Park Service (NPS). Attention is given to site selection procedures and an NPS photovoltaic site investigation summary
P. O. Jarvinen; C. R. Peatfield; H. Haiges
In the fall of 1974, the Nassau County Library System conducted a study of the New Hyde Park Public Library at the request of that library's directing board. Relevant documents and statistics were reviewed, building usage was studied, and the library staff and community organizations were questioned. The library was analyzed in terms of the…
Nassau Library System, Garden City, NY.
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, founded in 1868, is supported in its goals and purposes by its reference library. The library offers a full range of services based on its specialized reference collections. It addition to a description of these features, the paper contains an introduction to zoos as societal entities, and the future trends in information requirements of zoos are
Joyce M. Shaw
Describes the range of services offered by the Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens reference library, and discusses the concept of zoos as societal entities and future trends in their information requirements. A bibliography of 20 articles on library and information services in zoos and aquariums is included. (17 references) (Author/CLB)
Shaw, Joyce M.
THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT IS TO PROVIDE VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION STUDENTS PREPARING FOR EMPLOYMENT IN THE PARK AND LANDSCAPING FIELD WITH READING MATERIAL AND A GUIDE FOR STUDY. THE MATERIAL WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS ON THE BASIS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS. THE MATERIAL WAS TESTED IN…
FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY
A formula for assessing specific risk of lightning strikes is provided. Recent legal cases are used to illustrate potential liability. Six actions park managers can take to minimize danger from lightning are presented, and commonsense rules which should be publicly posted are listed. (MT)
Frydenlund, Marvin M.
It became clear in 1979 that commercial poaching was drastically reducing the num- bers of rhino in Luangwa Valley and the Zambian Government, through its National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) and the World Wildlife Fund, responded by setting up Save the Rhino Trust (SRT). Neither past nor present numbers and distribution of these animals were sufficiently known to provide
Explores the effects of community values on Highland Park High School's strong emphasis on academic achievement. The author concludes that high achievers benefit from this approach while mediocre or nonacademically inclined students are neglected. For journal availability, see SO 509 295. (AM)
Lightfoot, Sara Lawrence
Describes a partnership between Oak Park Middle School in Decatur, Alabama, and the General Electric Company that features the use of the quality circle approach. Not only were teachers, administrators, and parents organized into school quality circles, but students also formed quality circles to solve problems at the school. (CH)
The present book opens with an account of a buffalo hunt in the company of soldiers in one of the national parks in Uganda. One buffalo was hit close to the heart but fled away as if it was not fatally wounded. The soldiers seeing it flee, fired more rounds of ammunition at it until, with limbs broken, the buffalo
This chapter from the Yellowstone Resources and Issues Handbook 2012 describes a variety of issues in Yellowstone National Park: Aquatic Invaders, Bear Management, Bioprospecting, Bison Management, Climate Change, the Northern Range, Sustaining and Greening Practices, Wilderness, Winter Use, and Wolf Restoration.
Park, Yellowstone N.; National Park Service, U. S.
I am pleased to submit this annual report for Everglades National Park. The year 2000 was one of continued accomplishment on behalf of preserving this unique national treasure. It was also a year of new beginnings as exciting new directions were charted f...
A survey of the mammalian community of West River Memorial Park in New Haven, Connecticut identified 21 species of mammals representing seven taxonomic orders and 13 families. This community of mammals is dominated by resilient-generalist species commonly found in urban environments and\\/or associated with tidal salt marshes. The white- footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) was the most abundant small mammal captured.
Harvey R. Smith
Discusses in depth the film "Cartas del parque" ("Letters from the Park"), the first of six films in the "Amores Dificiles" series. Notes that the film is pervaded by the traditional overdetermination of gender roles. Suggests that an intrusive and authoritative narrator makes of this both a "readerly" and a "writerly" film. (RS)
A total of 600 adolescents (301 males and 299 females) in grades 9-12 from 21 schools in the metropolitan Atlanta area were interviewed to gather information on their perceptions of National Park Service rangers. Four general dimensions of a ranger's role...
F. P. Noe
One of three studies of child care which addressed a variety of planning and site planning issues of concern to the Montgomery County Planning Board in Silver Spring, Maryland, this study reports findings related to the location of child care facilities in park settings. Principal purposes of the study were to: (1) analyze the community impact of…
Giegerich & Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.
This article profiles Newbery Award-winning author Linda Sue Park, a special breed of author who writes so convincingly about the past it is as if she herself has actually lived these stories from a time long gone. She has provided such spectacular glimpses into Korea's storied past with books such as "A Single Shard" (Clarion, 2001), "The Kite…
A microcomputer can generate reports which allow park managers to better schedule crews, equipment and budget. Historical information on spending trends, man-hour distribution, and equipment useage are useful for reports and for justification of requested funds. Various potential uses of the computer data are described. (MT)
Provides safety considerations for snowshoe travel on iced waterways such as those of Algonquin Park (Ontario). Addresses what season is safe for waterway travel, how to determine the strength of the ice, reasonable travel time per day, what to do if you fall through the ice, and appropriate sites for winter camping. (LP)
Learn how 18-year-old Misra and her teen advocacy group, A.C.T.I.O.N., successfully lobbied for a bus route to take her community’s residents to a hard-to-reach city park, in this video from Earth Island Institute's New Leaders Initiative.
Foundation, Wgbh E.
In this research, we introduce FPGA based fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The benefit of using FPGA based FLC compare to software FLC is that the computation time reduction. Using this FLC, we design automated car back parallel parking system also with complete FPGA based controller. We build a small-scaled robot car and test on a real environment with VHDL code
Keith Gowan; Jason Nery; Henrick Han; Tony Sheng; Howard Li; Fakhreddine Karray; Insop Song
In this paper, we propose graph theory model to the layout planning of airport logistics park. First, several commonly used facilities layout methods were introduced and a comparative analysis was made out respectively. Secondly, an empirical study of Ningbo airport logistics park was carried out based on graph theory to the layout planning of core facilities for this park. Finally,
Changbing Jiang; Lijun Bai; Wenwen Zheng
Gaseous air pollutants, including ozone and sulfur dioxide, are of concern to the National Park Service (NPS). Pollutants like these can affect park unit biological resources as well as the health of park unit residents and visitors. The NPS established a...
Gaseous air pollutants, including ozone and sulfur dioxide, are of concern to the National Park Service (NPS). Pollutants like these can affect park unit biological resources as well as the health of park unit residents and visitors. The NPS established a...
Gaseous air pollutants, including ozone and sulfur dioxide, are of concern to the National Park Service (NPS). Pollutants like these can affect park unit biological resources as well as the health of park unit residents and visitors. The NPS established a...