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Impact of wildfires on the megafauna of Emas National Park, central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the impact of two wildfires, in 1994 and 1995, on the large mammal fauna of Emas National Park, central Brazil. The 1994 fire burned 100 per cent of the park's grassland and after the fire, in a c. 2000-ha survey area, the authors found 16 giant anteaters Myrmecophaga tridactyla, two giant armadillos Priodontes maximus and one tapir

Leandro Silveira; Henrique G. Rodrigues; Anah Tereza de Almeida; Jose Alexandre; F. Diniz Filho


Central Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As one of the worldâ??s greatest urban green spaces, Central Park is loved by dyed-in-the wool New Yorkers as well as visitors to the city. This reverential website provides detailed information about this fine public space and the activities that take place within its confines. On this site, visitors can look over maps of the park, learn about the parkâ??s many attractions, and browse a selection of photographs of this fine urban paradise. The homepage contains much of this material, along with a â??Central Park Newsâ? feature, which provides news updates about goings on throughout Central Park. For those planning a visit to the park, the Events area will be most useful, as it provides information about such pastimes as rock climbing, ice skating lessons, and yoga.



@central park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Central Park Conservancy, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to restoring, improving, and managing Central Park's grounds and facilities, offers this "official" site, which contains a wealth of information about what is arguably the world's most famous city park. Each of the site's sections contains useful or interesting information; the Then & Now section, for instance, offers an overview of Central Park's history, a bibliography with 43 entries for those seeking further information, and a list of movies with scenes set in the park. Another highlight of the site is the Virtual Park, which consists of a set of clickable maps through which users can explore 72 points of interest, each described in the affectionate style of a travel guidebook. The site's other sections include such features as events schedules, press releases, information on when and where particular varieties of flowers bloom, and a section devoted entirely to activities for families and children. This site will be especially useful to those who are planning a visit to Central Park, but other users will likely find it informative and entertaining as well.


Central Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.



Evaluation of noise pollution in urban parks of Curitiba, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study about the noise pollution found in six urban parks of Curitiba, Paran, Brazil. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) have been measured in points spread throughout the park, and interviews have been conducted with some park visitors. It has been found out that 17.83% out of the measurement sites have presented Leq levels over 65 dB(A), considered by the

Andressa M. Ferreira; Fabiano B. Diniz; Paulo T. Zannin



Smithsonian National Zoological Park: Conservation Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conservation Central is an online a habitat education program sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution's National Zoological Park. It explores the temperate forest, home of the giant panda and black bear. Site materials include online activities such as designing a habitat for giant pandas, a virtual trip to a forest reserve in China, and virtual exploration and research in a temperate forest. There is also a conservation curriculum for intermediate-level (middle school) students, suggestions for outdoor activities for families, and a gallery where users can share their conservation ideas with others.


Smithsonian National Zoological Park: Conservation Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by the Smithsonian National Zoological Park and Fujifilm, this website offers a suite of fun, online activities designed to educate middle school students about habitat conservation. In one site activity, participants travel to central China to "help make decisions about a fictional forest reserve." In another activity, visitors conduct scientific research in an eastern US forest using a variety of tools and methods. A third activity enables site visitors to design a zoo habitat for giant pandas. For educators, the website supplies a cohesive curriculum which aligns with national science standards. For families, the site offers a collection of downloadable activity ideas such as Nature Drawing, and creating a Family Conservation Action Plan.


Reptiles from Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Maranhão, northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract We are presenting a list of the reptile species from Lençóis Maranhenses National Park (LMNP), Maranhão, Brazil, obtained during 235 days of field work. The study area is located in the contact zone between three major Neotropical ecosystems: Amazonia, Caatinga, and Cerrado. The PNLM encompasses the largest dune fields in Brazil, wide shrubby areas (restingas), lakes, mangroves, and many freshwater lagoons. We have recorded 42 species of reptiles in the area: 24 snakes, 12 lizards, two worm lizards, three turtles, and one alligator. About 81 % of the recorded species occurred only in restinga areas. Our data highlights the uniqueness of the PNLM in the context of the biomes that surround it and shows the importance of efforts to improve the conservation of reptiles living in the restinga, which currently comprise only about 20 % of the total area protected by the park, but which are the mesohabitat containing most of the reptile species in the Lençóis Maranhenses complex of habitats. PMID:23275751

Miranda, Jivanildo Pinheiro; Costa, João Carlos Lopes; Rocha, Carlos Frederico D.



Evaluation of the noise pollution in urban parks of Curitiba, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work shows a study about the noise pollution found in six urban parks of Curitiba, Paran, Brazil. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) have been measured in points spread throughout the park, and interviews have been conducted with some park visitors. It has been found out that 52.48% out of the measurement sites did not satisfy the Municipal Law no.

Andressa C. Ferreira; Fabiano B. Diniz; Elaine C. Paz; Paulo T. Zannin



The Canela Indians of Northeastern Central Brazil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based largely on the pioneering research of Bill Crocker, this site on the Canela Indians of Central Brazil is hosted by the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Designed to educate a general audience about the life and activities of the Canela, the site contains numerous sections that allow visitors to explore a world that few persons will be able to visit. First-time visitors will want to read the short essay ("About the Canela") before proceeding to the Daily Life chronology, which lists the activities of the Canela on an average day, including a men's council meeting and sing-dancing. A literature section offers numerous papers written by Bill Crocker on various aspects of Canela life, such as their initiation festivals and their relationships with ghosts. Finally, visitors will want to check out a short video showing Canela men engaging in one of their most unique daily activities, log racing.



Eco-industrial park development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a tool for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of eco-industrial parks (EIPs) is an emerging concept that is being spread worldwide as a new industrial model that can reconcile the three dimensions of sustainability: social, economic and environmental. In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, EIPs were launched through formal legislation as a means to foster sustainable development and to ameliorate the distress caused by unplanned urban and

Lilian Bechara Elabras Veiga; Alessandra Magrini



Central Michigan University's Glacial Park: Instruction through Landscaping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the creation of a glacial park on a university campus. Suggests that the park is a useful instructional resource that helps students relate classroom material to outdoor phenomena by visualizing and identifying glacial landforms, recognizing their spatial relationships, and understanding how glacial features originated. Offers advice for…

Pape, Bruce; Francek, Mark A.




E-print Network

1 PERIL OR PROMISE?--BUILDING A SCIENCE PARK IN CENTRAL TAIWAN Cheng-Hui Lucy Chen and Rueyming constructing Central Taiwan Science Park expediently in 2002. Pressured to cooperate, local residents have in the global economic race has brought unequal impacts on some of its rural communities. Keywords: science park

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Tijuca National Park: two pioneering restorationist initiatives in Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil.  


As a contribution to the environmental history of the Tijuca National Park, we report on two pioneering restorationist initiatives and list its the mammal species now found in this urban park. The Tijuca National Park (TNP), a 3,200 ha urban park covered by secondary tropical forest, is located within Rio de Janeiro, in southeastern Brazil. The two restorationist initiatives were a pioneer tropical forest restoration project in the nineteenth century and a fauna management project in the 70' s. The mammal list presented here was based on specimens in the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro and on publications. The mammal community of TNP is composed of 49 species, of which 11 are on regional red lists, and four are on the 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Occurrence of these threatened species and the park history itself made the TNP a priority site for studying conservation, management, and monitoring. Besides maintaining fauna and flora (including threatened species) diversity, the park benefits the population of Rio de Janeiro by providing water, green areas, and recreational and touristic opportunities. PMID:17299933

Freitas, S R; Neves, C L; Chernicharo, P



A new karyotype for the spiny rat Clyomys laticeps (Thomas, 1909) (Rodentia, Echimyidae) from Central Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract Clyomys Thomas, 1916 is a semifossorial rodent genus of spiny rats represented by only one species, Clyomys laticeps, which inhabits the tropical savannas and grasslands of central Brazil and eastern Paraguay. Here we describe a new karyotype of Clyomys laticeps found in populations of Emas National Park, Goiás state, Brazil. The four analyzed specimens had a diploid number (2n) of 32 and a fundamental autosome number (FN) of 54. Cytogenetic data include conventional staining, CBG and GTG-banding. The karyotype presents 12 meta/submetacentric pairs (1 to 12) and 3 pairs of acrocentrics (13 to 15) with gradual decrease in size. The X chromosome is a medium submetacentric and the Y is a medium acrocentric. The semifossorial habits together with habitat specificity could have contributed to the karyological variations found on this genus. PMID:24260659

Bezerra, Alexandra M. R.; Pagnozzi, Juliana M.; Carmignotto, Ana Paula; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Rodrigues, Flávio H. G.



A new karyotype for the spiny rat Clyomys laticeps (Thomas, 1909) (Rodentia, Echimyidae) from Central Brazil.  


Clyomys Thomas, 1916 is a semifossorial rodent genus of spiny rats represented by only one species, Clyomys laticeps, which inhabits the tropical savannas and grasslands of central Brazil and eastern Paraguay. Here we describe a new karyotype of Clyomys laticeps found in populations of Emas National Park, Goiás state, Brazil. The four analyzed specimens had a diploid number (2n) of 32 and a fundamental autosome number (FN) of 54. Cytogenetic data include conventional staining, CBG and GTG-banding. The karyotype presents 12 meta/submetacentric pairs (1 to 12) and 3 pairs of acrocentrics (13 to 15) with gradual decrease in size. The X chromosome is a medium submetacentric and the Y is a medium acrocentric. The semifossorial habits together with habitat specificity could have contributed to the karyological variations found on this genus. PMID:24260659

Bezerra, Alexandra M R; Pagnozzi, Juliana M; Carmignotto, Ana Paula; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Rodrigues, Flávio H G



Central Park: A Humanities Curriculum for Children with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual reflects the highlights of an urban park study developed and tested over a 6-year period at the Churchill School, an elementary school for children with learning disabilities. This book makes possible an integrated study that develops understandings in natural science and the social studies along with reading, writing, and language…

Wurtzel, Claire


Central America's "Peace Parks" and Regional Conflict Resolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the development of transborder conservation zones, known as "peace parks," in terms of their potential importance as proving grounds for international cooperation and sustainable development, and then in their role as symbols and outright manifestations of the peace process. Includes case studies of La Amistad Biosphere Reserve, Si-a-Paz,…

Weed, Timothy J.



Pupils and Parks: Environmental Education in National Parks of Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two conservation education programs that target local primary schools and use national parks in Malaysian Borneo (Kinabalu Park) and central Brazil (Morro do Diabo Park). Both were designed using a comprehensive systems evaluation model and both resulted in cognitive and affective gains for students. (LB)

Jacobson, Susan K.; Padua, Suzana M.




PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to assess the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment and their sources found in protected regions of southeastern Brazil. Samples of sediments were collected at four National Parks: Itatiaia National Park (PNIT), Serra da Bocaina National Park (PNSB), Serra dos Orgãos National Park (PNSO) and Jurubatiba National Park (PNJUB). The National Parks studied comprise rainforests, altitudinal fields and ‘restinga’ environments located in the Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states. The sampling was conducted between 2002 and 2004 from June to September. In general, the environmental levels of PAHs found were similar to those in other remote areas around the globe. PNIT exhibited the highest median values of total PAHs in sediment (97 ng·g?1), followed by PNJUB (89 ng·g?1), PNSO (57 ng·g?1) and PNSB (27 ng·g?1). The highest levels of total PAHs (576 and 24430 ng·g?1) could be associated to a point source contamination where are characterizated for human activities. At PNSB and PNIT the PAH profiles were richer in 2 and 3 ring compounds, whereas at PNSO and PNJUB, the profiles exhibited 3 and 4 ring compounds. The phenanthrene predominance in most samples could indicate the influence of biogenic synthesis. The samples with a petrogenic pattern found in this study might be associated with the vicinity of major urban areas, highway traffic and/or industrial activities close to PNSO and PNIT. At PNIT and PNJUB, forest fires and slash and burn agricultural practices may drive the results towards a pyrolytic pattern. PMID:18472130

Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Azeredo, Antonio; de Souza Pereira, Márcia; Paulo, João; Torres, Machado; Malm, Olaf



Soil Communities of Central Park, New York City: A Biodiversity Melting Pot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of earth's biodiversity lives in and makes up the soil, but the majority of soil biodiversity has yet to be characterized or even quantified. This may be especially true of urban soil systems. The last decade of advances in molecular, technical and bioinformatic techniques have contributed greatly to our understanding of belowground biodiversity, from global distribution to species counts. Yet, much of this work has been done in ';natural' systems and it is not known if established patterns of distribution, especially in relation to soil factors hold up in urban soils. Urban soils are intensively managed and disturbed, often by effects unique to urban settings. It remains unclear how urban pressures influence soil biodiversity, or if there is a defined or typical ';urban soil community'. Here we describe a study to examine the total soil biodiversity - Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya- of Central Park, New York City and test for patterns of distribution and relationships to soil characteristics. We then compare the biodiversity of Central Park to 57 global soils, spanning a number of biomes from Alaska to Antarctica. In this way we can identify similarities and differences in soil communities of Central Park to soils from ';natural' systems. To generate a broad-scale survey of total soil biodiversity, 596 soil samples were collected from across Central Park (3.41 km2). Soils varied greatly in vegetation cover and soil characteristics (pH, moisture, soil C and soil N). Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology we characterized the complete soil community from 16S rRNA (Bacteria and Archaea) and 18S rRNA gene sequences (Eukarya). Samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. To compare Central Park to the 57 global soils the complete soil community of the global soils was also characterized using Illumina sequencing technology. All samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. The total measured biodiversity in Central Park was high: >540,000 bacterial and archaeal species; and >97,000 eukaryotic species (as determined using a 97% sequence similarity cutoff). The most dominant bacterial phyla include Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia and Actinobacteria, and Archaea represent 1-8% of the sequences. Additionally, the distribution patterns of Acidobacteria and consequently beta-diversity, was strongly related to soil pH. The most dominant eukaryotic taxa include many Protists (Rhizara, Gregarinia), Fungi (Basidiomycota, Ascomycota), and Metazoa (Nematodes, Rotifers, Arthropods and Annelids). No single soil factor could predict eukaryotic distribution. Central Park soil diversity was strikingly similar to the diversity of the 57 global soils. Central Park and the global soils had similarities in alpha diversity, taxon abundances. Interestingly, there was significant overlap in a number of dominant species between Central Park and the global soils. Together these results represent the most comprehensive analysis of soil biodiversity conducted to date. Our data suggest that even well-studied locations like Central Park harbor very high levels of unexplored biodiversity, and that Central Park biodiversity is comparable to soil biodiversity found globally.

Ramirez, K. S.; Leff, J. W.; Wall, D. H.; Fierer, N.



Behavioral Responses of Gorillas to Habituation in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We monitored the impact of habituation for tourism through changes in gorillas' behavior during the habituation process at Bai Hokou (Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic) from August 1996 to December 1999. From August 1998 onwards we focused on one gorilla group: the Munye. During the habituation process, it became increasingly easier to locate and to remain with the gorillas.

Allard Blom; Chloe Cipolletta; Arend M. H. Brunsting; Herbert H. T. Prins



Sustaining Change: The Struggle to Maintain Identity at Central Park East Secondary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Central Park East Secondary School (CPESS) in East Harlem was one of the most highly acclaimed and successful schools to come out of the period of school reform in the 1980s from which the Coalition of Essential Schools emerged. Noted progressive educator Deborah Meier founded CPESS in 1985 not as a reform model, but as a continuation of the…

Suiter, Diane



Paleotectonic implications of arkose beds in Park Shale (Middle Cambrian), Bridger Range, south-central Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cambrian System in the Bridger Range of south-central Montana is part of a 450 to 500-m (1475 to 1640-ft) thick transgressive-regressive sequence of fine-grained clastic and carbonate rocks. In south-central Montana, the Park Shale is 50 m (165 ft) of green, micaceous shale with interbedded siltstone at the base and intercalated limestone at the top. However, in the northern

J. C. Fryxell; D. L. Smith



Three distinct begomoviruses associated with soybean in central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the complete nucleotide sequences of geminiviruses of the genus Begomovirus infecting soybean (Glycine max) in central Brazil. Samples obtained from soybean plants collected at Santo Antonio de Goiás, Goiás State, showing typical\\u000a symptoms of viral infection, were analyzed. Infection was confirmed by PCR-based amplification of a DNA-A fragment with universal\\u000a begomovirus primers. Total DNA from infected plants was

Fernanda R. Fernandes; A. R. R. Cruz; J. C. Faria; F. M. Zerbini; Francisco J. L. Aragão



Diversity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.  


Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists. PMID:21845934

Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade



A 750-year fire history based on lake sediment records in central Yellowstone National Park, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 750-year fire history was reconstructed for the Central Plateau of Yellowstone National Park from the deep-water sediments of five lakes. The charcoal record from a large lake provided a chronology of regional fires. Data from four small lakes were used to study local and extralocal fires. The co-occurrence of abundant charcoal and high magnetic-susceptibility values at the same stratigraphic

Sarah H. Millspaugh; Cathy Whitlock



Seasonal reproduction in Mexican cottontail rabbits Sylvilagus cunicularius in La Malinche National Park, central Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexico has the largest number of leporid species in the world but most have been little studied. The endemic Mexican cottontailSylvilagus cunicularius (Waterhouse, 1848) is the largest Mexican rabbit, and although not in danger of extinction, it is increasingly threatened.\\u000a Since little is known about its annual pattern of reproduction, we studied this species in La Malinche National Park, central

Jorge Vázquez; Armando J. Martínez Chacón; Robyn Hudson; Luisa Rodríguez-Martínez; Margarita Martínez-Gómez




Microsoft Academic Search

Success in implementing the Central Industrial Park project required clearing a 500-acre site for a new General Motors assembly plant, at a public sector cost of more than $200 million, in less than two years, to meet a deadline set by the corporation; clearance involved relocation of 3.500 people and more than 100 businesses, and demolition of 1,500 structures. Despite

Lynn Bachelor



Local perceptions of jaguars ( Panthera onca) and pumas ( Puma concolor) in the Iguaçu National Park area, south Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jaguars (Panthera onca) have been killed by local residents within the boundaries and lands surrounding Iguaçu National Park (INP), Brazil. Both jaguars and pumas (Puma concolor) occur in the region, however, livestock predation by pumas has rarely been reported. Our objective was to assess the local perceptions about jaguars and pumas. We identified two major factors that distinguished the perceptions

Valéria Amorim Conforti; Fernando Cesar Cascelli de Azevedo



Mosquito communities in Nova Iguaçu Natural Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  


ABSTRACT. In order to gather information on the culicid fauna of Nova Iguaçu Municipal Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, adult and immature stages were collected with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light traps, and dippers and suction tubes, respectively. In all, 828 adult and 990 immature specimens were collected belonging to 12 genera. Among the species collected were Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. fluviatilis, Ae. scapularis, Haemagogus leucocelaenus, and Psorophora ferox that are considered of potential medical importance. Culicids used a variety of larval habitats and bred under diverse ecological conditions, mostly in natural water containers formed by bamboo, bromeliad, ground depression, rock pool, stream, tree hole, and in artificial containers such as abandoned bathtub, car carcass, abandoned sink, plastic cup, waste tire, and water tank. Species richness and diversity increased from lower to higher forest cover and was highest in sites with highest diversity and high number of larval habitats. PMID:25102590

Correa, Fabiana F; Gleiser, Raquel M; Leite, Paulo J; Fagundes, Ezequias; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Mello, Cecilia F; Gredilha, Rodrigo; Alencar, Jeronimo



Vascular plant community composition from the campos rupestres of the Itacolomi State Park, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract Campos rupestres are rare and endangered ecosystems that accommodate a species-rich flora with a high degree of endemism. Here, we make available a dataset from phytosociological surveys carried out in the Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. All species in a total of 30 plots of 10 x 10 m from two study sites were sampled. Their cardinality, a combination of cover and abundance, was estimated. Altogether, we registered occurrences from 161 different taxa from 114 genera and 47 families. The families with the most species were Poaceae and Asteraceae, followed by Cyperaceae. Abiotic descriptions, including soil properties such as type, acidity, nutrient or aluminum availability, cation exchange capacity, and saturation of bases, as well as the percentage of rocky outcrops and the mean inclination for each plot, are given. This dataset provides unique insights into the campo rupestre vegetation, its specific environment and the distribution of its diversity.

Leyh, Werner; Miazaki, Angela S.; Meira-Neto, João A.A.



Blood meal sources of mosquitoes captured in municipal parks in São Paulo, Brazil.  


The aim of this study was to investigate blood meal sources of mosquitoes captured in municipal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify possible associations between mosquito species and their food preferences. Fourteen species of blood hosts of 510 engorged adult female mosquitoes were identified using PCR assays with a vertebrate-specific primer set based on cytochrome b mitochondrial DNA of the following vertebrates: birds, dogs, cats, rodents, humans, and other primates. Mosquitoes were captured using a manual aspirator, CDC traps in the canopy, CDC traps at ground level, and Shannon traps. With the exception of cats, all other vertebrates were used as hosts by mosquitoes in the parks. Statistical analysis failed to show any trend toward association between most culicid species captured and the sources of blood meals. Instead, they revealed random patterns, indicating that the mosquitoes fed on the most abundant or convenient blood meal sources. Although feeding preferences were observed in two species (birds in the case of Cx. nigripalpus and dogs in the case of Cx. quinquefasciatus), our results highlight the opportunistic feeding habits of the female mosquitoes in this study. PMID:24820567

de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; Miti Izumisawa, Clara; Souza Teixeira, Renildo; Natal, Licia; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo



Fertility and pacification among the Mekranoti of Central Brazil.  


Demographic data from 3 different historical periods of the Mekranoti-Kayapo Indians of Central Brazil were used to examine various explanations for historical changes in fertility among this group. The possible effects of warfare on Mekranoti fertility were also examined since warfare has had an important role in many preindustrial societies. The Mekranoti are a group of 285 relatively unacculturated Indians living in a single village in southern Para, Brazil. As in precontact days, their economy is based on slash and burn agriculture, hunting, and fishing. To assess Mekranoti fertility, pregnancy histories collected from all women 15 years or older as of December 1976 were used. In precontact years a woman who survived to age 50 could expect to give birth 6.5 times. During the contact years this average dropped to 5.6 and in the postcontact period it soared to almost 8.5. The drop in Mekranoti fertility from precontact to contact years corresponds with an increase in mortality. The direction of these changes would support a "health" argument about fertility, but the degrees of change do not. Whereas mortality increased markedly after 1955, fertility fell only slightly. The data are not consistent with the view that changes in lactation periods are responsible for fertility changes. The number of uses of contraceptives per reproductive woman year did not not vary much in the different historical periods and certainly could not account for differences in Mekranoti fertility. The data suggest that fertility changes over Mekranoti history may be due in part to sexual abstinence resulting either from postpartum sexual taboos or, more importantly, from a lack of husbands. Sex imbalances resulting from high male mortality in warfare and subsequent disruption of marriages by disease and death left many women without spouses for long periods of time. The findings are consistent with other studies that found lower fertility associated with male absence. The Mekranoti are unusual in having monogamy together with high male mortality from warfare. PMID:12339276

Werner, D



Nutritional status and growth of indigenous Xavante children, Central Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to characterize the nutritional status of Xavante Indian children less than 10 years of age in Central Brazil and to evaluate the hypothesis of an association between child nutrition and socioeconomic differentiation in this population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2006 that included all children under the age of 10 from the Xavante village Pimentel Barbosa in Mato Grosso, Brazil. The data collected included weight, height, and sociodemographic information. Sociodemographic data were used to generate two indices ("income" and "wealth") and to determine the proportion of adults in each household. Descriptive analyses were performed for weight-for-age (W/A), height-for-age (H/A), and weight-for-height (W/H) using the NCHS and the WHO growth references. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using H/A and W/A as a response variables. Results Of a total of 246 children under the age of ten residing in the village, 232 (94.3%) were evaluated. Following the NCHS reference, 5.6% of children under the age of ten presented low W/A and 14.7% presented low H/A. Among children under the age of five, deficit percentages for weight and height were 4.5% and 29.9%, respectively, following the WHO curves. Among children < 2 years of age, H/A index variability was found to be directly related to child's age and inversely related to the proportion of adults in the household. Maternal BMI was positively associated with growth for children from 2 to 4 years of age, explaining 11.5% of the z-score variability for the H/A index. For children 5 years of age and older, the wealth index and maternal height were positively associated with H/A. No significant associations were found using W/A as the dependent variable. Conclusion This study demonstrated that undernutrition, in particular linear growth deficit, is a notable health issue for Xavante children. These findings contrast with the nutritional profile observed among Brazilian children nationally, which is characterized by a sharp decline in child undernutrition in recent decades, even in the poorest regions of the country. This discrepancy calls attention to the persistent health disparities that exist between indigenous and non-indigenous people in Brazil. PMID:22236407



Disturbance and recovery of the macroflora of a seagrass ( Halodule wrightii Ascherson) meadow in the Abrolhos Marine National Park, Brazil: an experimental evaluation of anchor damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anchor damage due to tourist visitation is becoming increasingly intense in the Abrolhos Marine National Park, Brazil, and is probably detrimental to the biota associated with the seagrass beds. In this study the effects of anchor damage on an algal dominated seagrass (Halodule wrightii) bed in the national park were measured and assessed. The mean size of anchor scars was

Joel C Creed; Gilberto M Amado Filho



Late Quaternary Environmental and Climatic Changes in Central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoenvironmental changes dating back to 30,000 yr B.P. documented in a pollen record from central Brazil (lat. 19°S) permit the reconstruction of climatic changes related to shifts of the Antarctic polar fronts. The paleoclimatic inferences were obtained by a study of modern vegetation and pollen distribution, taking into account present-day climatic parameters. At 30,000 yr B.P. the climate must have been warmer and moister than today judging from the high amount of tree pollen taxa characteristic of floodplain forest. From 17,000 to 14,000 yr B.P. the climate was drier although tree pollen percentages were relatively high. After 12,000 yr B.P. Araucaria forest elements increased, suggesting a moister and cooler climate. The Araucaria forest disappeared during a short interval between 11,000 and 10,000 yr B.P. This could be related to the Younger Dryas event. At the beginning of the Holocene the climate became cool and moist again, as indicated by the reexpansion of the Araucaria forest. The latter was progressively replaced by a mesophytic semideciduous forest indicating warmer and drier climate after 8500 yr B.P. At 5000 yr B.P. an arid interval was followed by the expansion of mesophytic semideciduous forest elements.

Ledru, Marie-Pierre



Deforestation trends of tropical dry forests in central Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tropical dry forests are the most threatened forest type in the world yet a paucity of research about them stymies development of appropriate conservation actions. The Paranã River Basin has the most significant dry forest formations in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil and is threatened by intense land conversion to pastures and agriculture. We examined changes in Paranã River Basin deforestation rates and fragmentation across three time intervals that covered 31 yr using Landsat imagery. Our results indicated a 66.3 percent decrease in forest extent between 1977 and 2008, with an annual rate of forest cover change of 3.5 percent. Landscape metrics further indicated severe forest loss and fragmentation, resulting in an increase in the number of fragments and reduction in patch sizes. Forest fragments in flatlands have virtually disappeared and the only significant forest remnants are mostly found over limestone outcrops in the eastern part of the basin. If current patterns persist, we project that these forests will likely disappear within 25 yr. These patterns may be reversed with creation of protected areas and involvement of local people to preserve small fragments that can be managed for restoration.

Bianchi, Carlos A.; Haig, Susan M.



[Seasonal dynamics of Amblyomma ticks (Acari:Ixodidae) in an urban Park of Londrina City, Parana, Brazil].  


Ticks are important to public health due to diseases they transmit to animals and humans and, economic losses they cause to livestock production. Among other agents, such as Babesia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, the Rickettsia are the most important pathogens transmitted by ticks in Brazil. Worldwide there are about 870 tick species described and, of these, 55 species were already reported in Brazil, being the genus Amblyomma the most numerous with 33 species. The A. cajennense is the principal tick involved in the transmission of the Brazilian Spotted Fever. New cases of the disease, in some regions of Brazil, have been associated with the increment of the capybara population, wild animal considered primary host for A. cajennense and A. dubitatum. The objectives of this work were to identify and study the population dynamic of free-living ticks species presents in the Arthur Thomas Municipal Park, where lives a group of capybaras, among other wild animals and birds. From August 2006 to July 2007, free-living nymph and adult tick stages were collected using carbon dioxide traps, and for larvae capture was used the technique of the dragging with white flannel. All the ticks captured were transported to the laboratory, fixed in ethanol, counted and identified by morphological criteria. The three stages of the genus Amblyomma spp were present all over the 12 months of the studied period. Larvae and nymphs were present in the park all over the year with population peaks in both semesters of the studied period. Adult of A. cajennense were more abundant on the ground of the park during the spring-summer months and, A. dubitatum presented populational peaks in September/ October, 2006 and July, 2007. Considering these data it can be concluded that visitors and people that work in the park are exposed to the ticks all over the year, with larger risk of attacks in the hottest months. PMID:20059815

Toledo, Roberta Dos S; Tamekuni, Katia; Haydu, Valeska B; Vidotto, Odilon



Mapping Soil Erosion Factors and Potential Erosion Risk for the National Park "Central Balkan"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil erosion is widely recognised environmental problem. The report aims at presenting the main results from assessment and mapping of the factors of sheet water erosion and the potential erosion risk on the territory of National Park "Central Balkan". For this purpose, the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was used for predicting soil loss from erosion. The influence of topography (LS-factor) and soil erodibility (K-factor) was assessed using small-scale topographic and soil maps. Rainfall erosivity (R-factor) was calculated from data of rainfalls with amounts exceeding 9.5 mm from 14 hydro-meteorological stations. The values of the erosion factors (R, K and LS) were presented for the areas of forest, sub-alpine and alpine zones. Using the methods of GIS, maps were plotted presenting the area distribution among the classes of the soil erosion factors and the potential risk in the respective zones. The results can be used for making accurate decisions for soil conservation and sustainable land management in the park.

Ilieva, Diliana; Malinov, Ilia



Future drying of the southern Amazon and central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent climate modeling suggests that the Amazon rainforest could exhibit considerable dieback under future climate change, a prediction that has raised considerable interest as well as controversy. To determine the likelihood and causes of such changes, we analyzed the output of 15 models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC/AR4) and a dynamic vegetation model VEGAS driven by these climate output. Our results suggest that the core of the Amazon rainforest should remain largely stable. However, the periphery, notably the southern edge, is in danger of drying out, driven by two main processes. First, a decline in precipitation of 24% in the southern Amazon lengthens the dry season and reduces soil moisture, despite of an increase in precipitation during the wet season, due to the nonlinear response in hydrology and ecosystem dynamics. Two dynamical mechanisms may explain the lower dry season precipitation: (1) a stronger north-south tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature gradient; (2) a general subtropical drying under global warming when the dry season southern Amazon is under the control of the subtropical high pressure. Secondly, evaporation will increase due to the general warming, thus also reducing soil moisture. As a consequence, the median of the models projects a reduction of vegetation by 20%, and enhanced fire carbon flux by 10-15% in the southern Amazon, central Brazil, and parts of the Andean Mountains. Because the southern Amazon is also under intense human influence, the double pressure of deforestation and climate change may subject the region to dramatic changes in the 21st century.

Yoon, J.; Zeng, N.; Cook, B.



Paleotectonic implications of arkose beds in Park Shale (Middle Cambrian), Bridger Range, south-central Montana  

SciTech Connect

The Cambrian System in the Bridger Range of south-central Montana is part of a 450 to 500-m (1475 to 1640-ft) thick transgressive-regressive sequence of fine-grained clastic and carbonate rocks. In south-central Montana, the Park Shale is 50 m (165 ft) of green, micaceous shale with interbedded siltstone at the base and intercalated limestone at the top. However, in the northern Bridger Range, the lower 30 m (100 ft) is a prominent interval of interbedded arkosic sandstone and micaceous shale. These arkosic sandstone beds are localized in the northern Bridger Range and are unknown in the southern Bridgers and in Cambrian outcrops of surrounding areas. The occurrence of Park sandstone beds that contain orthoclase and plagioclase grains and pebbles of quartzofeldspathic gneiss requires 1) the presence of a localized island of Precambrian crystalline rock, an erosional remnant that must have risen at least 200 m (650 ft) above the surrounding Cambrian/Precambrian erosion surface and was exposed above the depositional interface through most of the Middle Cambrian, or 2) an island of Precambrian crystalline rock that was exposed by late Middle Cambrian reactivation of zones of Precambrian structural weakness. The most spatially and lithologically feasible tectonic feature along which late Middle Cambrian movement might have produced an island or series of islands is the Willow Creek-Jefferson Canyon fault zone, along which significant movement occurred during deposition of the LaHood Formation (Precambrian Y); the fault zone structurally divides the northern and southern parts of the Bridger Range, and later Paleozoic movement has been documented along this zone.

Fryxell, J.C.; Smith, D.L.



Biogeographic patterns in below-ground diversity in New York City's Central Park are similar to those observed globally.  


Soil biota play key roles in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, however, compared to our knowledge of above-ground plant and animal diversity, the biodiversity found in soils remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we present an assessment of soil biodiversity and biogeographic patterns across Central Park in New York City that spanned all three domains of life, demonstrating that even an urban, managed system harbours large amounts of undescribed soil biodiversity. Despite high variability across the Park, below-ground diversity patterns were predictable based on soil characteristics, with prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities exhibiting overlapping biogeographic patterns. Further, Central Park soils harboured nearly as many distinct soil microbial phylotypes and types of soil communities as we found in biomes across the globe (including arctic, tropical and desert soils). This integrated cross-domain investigation highlights that the amount and patterning of novel and uncharacterized diversity at a single urban location matches that observed across natural ecosystems spanning multiple biomes and continents. PMID:25274366

Ramirez, Kelly S; Leff, Jonathan W; Barberán, Albert; Bates, Scott Thomas; Betley, Jason; Crowther, Thomas W; Kelly, Eugene F; Oldfield, Emily E; Shaw, E Ashley; Steenbock, Christopher; Bradford, Mark A; Wall, Diana H; Fierer, Noah




Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental procedure for the extraction of hydrogen from natural ; hydrous silicate minerals is outlined. The D\\/H ratios, water, and fluorine ; contents were determined for coexisting biotite, hornblende, and chlorite from ; rocks of the east-central Sierra Nevada and Yosemite National Park regions. ; These data are discussed in relation to the petrogenesis of the principal rock ;




Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Post-Top Lighting at Central Park in New York City  

SciTech Connect

A review of five post-top light-emitting diode (LED) pedestrian luminaires installed in New York City's Central Park for possible replacement to the existing metal halide post-top luminaire. This report reviews the energy savings potential and lighting delivered by the LED post-top luminaires.

Myer, Michael; Goettel, Russell T.; Kinzey, Bruce R.



Diameter increment and growth patterns for individual tree growing in Central Amazon, Brazil  

E-print Network

Diameter increment and growth patterns for individual tree growing in Central Amazon, Brazil, Niro Higuchi* INPA, Tropical Forestry Department, National Institute for Amazon Research, Caixa Postal 478, 69011-970 Manaus-AM, Brazil Received 27 March 2001; accepted 7 July 2001 Abstract Information

Chambers, Jeff


Siphonaptera of small rodents and marsupials in the Pedra Branca State Park, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  


In an region of Atlantic Rainforest corresponding to the geopolitical area of the Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, 160 small mammals were captured, of which 64 rodents and 96 marsupials from October 2005 to October 2007. There were collected in these hosts six flea species from three families (Ctenophthalmidae, Rhopalopsyllidae and Pulicidae), totalizing 162 specimens. Adoratopsylla (Tritopsylla) intermedia intermedia was the most common species found, followed by Polygenis (Polygenis) occidentalis occidentalis. Philander frenatus and Micoureus paraguayanus were reported as new hosts to Adoratopsylla (Tritopsylla) intermedia intermedia and P. o. occidentalis was reported for the first time in the city of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:20385060

Oliveira, Heloiza H; Almeida, Adilson B; Carvalho, Raimundo W; Gomes, Valmir; Serra-Freire, Nicolau M; Quinelato, Igor; Carvalho, Acácio G



Twentieth century atmospheric metal fluxes into Central Park Lake, New York City  

SciTech Connect

It is generally assumed that declining atmospheric lead concentrations in urban centers during the 1970s and 1980s were due almost entirely to the progressive introduction of unleaded gasoline. However, most environmental data are from monitoring programs that began only two to three decades ago, which limits their usefulness. Here, trace metal and radionuclide data from sediment cores in Central Park Lake provide a record of atmospheric pollutant deposition in New York City through the 20th century, which suggests that leaded gasoline combustion was not the dominant source of atmospheric lead for NYC. Lead deposition rates, normalized to known Pb-210 atmospheric influxes, were extremely high, reaching maximum values from the late 1930s to early 1960s, decades before maximum emissions from combustion of leaded gasoline. Temporal trends of lead, zinc, and tin deposition derived from the lake sediments closely resemble the history of solid waste incineration in New York City. Furthermore, widespread use of solid waste incinerators in the United States and Europe over the last century suggests that solid waste incineration may have provided the dominant source of atmospheric lead and several other metals to many urban centers.

Chillrud, S.N.; Simpson, H.J. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory] [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; Bopp, R.F. [RPI, Troy, NY (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences] [and others] [RPI, Troy, NY (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences; and others



Twentieth Century Atmospheric Metal Fluxes into Central Park Lake, New York City  

PubMed Central

It is generally assumed that declining atmospheric lead concentrations in urban centers during the 1970s and 1980s were due almost entirely to the progressive introduction of unleaded gasoline. However, most environmental data are from monitoring programs that began only two to three decades ago, which limits their usefulness. Here, trace metal and radionuclide data from sediment cores in Central Park Lake provide a record of atmospheric pollutant deposition in New York City through the 20th century, which suggests that leaded gasoline combustion was not the dominant source of atmospheric lead for NYC. Lead deposition rates, normalized to known Pb-210 atmospheric influxes, were extremely high, reaching maximum values (>70 ?g cm?2 yr?1) from the late 1930s to early 1960s, decades before maximum emissions from combustion of leaded gasoline. Temporal trends of lead, zinc, and tin deposition derived from the lake sediments closely resemble the history of solid waste incineration in New York City. Furthermore, widespread use of solid waste incinerators in the United States and Europe over the last century suggests that solid waste incineration may have provided the dominant source of atmospheric lead and several other metals to many urban centers. PMID:21850150




Molecular Tracers of Saturated and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Inputs into Central Park Lake, New York City  

PubMed Central

Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides 210Pb and 137Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on 210Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by 137Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R [the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction] and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP [1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP], retene to retene plus chrysene [Ret/(Ret + Chy)], and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene [Fl/(Fl + Py)] provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s. PMID:16201624




Volatile Light Hydrocarbon Compositions of the Central American Arc and Yellowstone National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of organic compounds in volcanic and geothermal emissions has generally been attributed to the degradation of previously existing crustal organic material. Samples collected from areas of documented high sedimentary content are therefore expected to contain a higher quantity and greater diversity of hydrocarbons than samples collected in areas with more pronounced mantle input. We sampled 17 fumaroles and hot springs in Central America and 26 in Yellowstone National Park in order to examine the relationship between the physical and chemical characteristics of the sampling location and hydrocarbon distribution. El Salvador and Honduras gas samples were analyzed for inorganic compounds, light hydrocarbons and C isotopes of methane. Collection temperatures of the El Salvador samples ranged between 78 and 875° C. Values of ? 13C-CH4 for the El Salvador samples vary between -32 and -30 ‰ , while the Honduras samples range between -39 and -24 ‰ . These values fall within the accepted range for thermogenic methane (marine source rock -40 to -30 ‰ and humic source rock -30 to -25 ‰ ). Of the hydrocarbons, methane was present in the greatest concentration, although hydrocarbons up to pentane were detected. At the highest temperatures, pentane was the only higher hydrocarbon and it was present in one sample (C1/C5 of 34), whereas in the lower temperature samples hydrocarbon variability and quantity was greater (C1/C3 of 41 to 448; C1/C4 of 132 to 2463; C1/C5 of 277 to 6305). Hydrocarbon amounts and diversity were much higher in samples with lower 3He/4He ratios (3.99 to 6.38 Rc/RA) than in samples with high ratios (6.67 to 7.56 Rc/RA). In Yellowstone National Park, gas samples were collected from sites within the caldera (3He/4He of 4.73 to 15.47 Rc/RA), along the caldera rim, and outside of the caldera. Temperatures range from 12 to 94° C. These samples have been analyzed for inorganic compounds, light hydrocarbons, and C isotopes of CO2. The ? 13C-CO2 values of the samples range from -4 to -1 ‰ , with the lightest values seen along the caldera rim and outside the caldera, while the heaviest values are seen primarily at sites inside the caldera. The lighter C isotope values fall within the range of magmatic CO2 (-8 to -4 ‰ ). To produce the heavier values, magmatic carbon may have mixed with limestone-derived CO2 (? 13C = 0). Relationships between light hydrocarbon compositions, major element gas chemistry and isotopic variations within these geothermal systems will be discussed.

Burnett, B. J.; Fischer, T. P.; Sharp, Z. D.; Hilton, D. R.; de Leeuw, D.



Molecular tracers of saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon inputs into Central Park Lake, New York City  

SciTech Connect

Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on {sup 210}Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by {sup 137}Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R (the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction) and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP (1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP), retene to retene plus chrysene (Ret/(Ret + Chy)), and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene (Fl/(Fl + Py))) provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s. 33 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Beizhan Yan; Teofilo A. Abrajano; Richard F. Bopp; Damon A. Chaky; Lucille A. Benedict; Steven N. Chillrud [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States). Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences



Enterobacteriaceae in mouth and cloaca of podocnemis expansa and P. Unifilis (testudines: chelonia) populations of national park of araguaia plains, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Shigella flexnerii and Escherichia coli were the most frequent Gram-negative bacteria found in the mouth cavity and cloacae of the turtles Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis on beaches in the National Park of Araguaia, Brazil. Reptiles are known as Salmonella carriers, despite rarely isolated in these turtles. PMID:24031664

de Morais, Paula Benevides; de Souza, Denise Rodrigues; de Sousa, Francisca Maria Pinheiro; de Oliveira, Kleverson Wessel; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio



Checklist of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera) from Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract In order to contribute to the butterflies’ biodiversity knowledge at Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, a study based on collections using Van Someren-Rydon traps and active search was performed. In this study, a total of 395 butterflies were collected, of which 327 were identified to species or morphospecies. 263 specimens were collected by the traps and 64 were collected using entomological hand-nets; 43 genera and 60 species were collected and identified. PMID:25535482

Nery, Izabella; Carvalho, Natalia



Spatial Patterns in Fish Assemblages of Ilha Grande National Park, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to characterize spatial trends in composition and structure of the fish assemblages in Ilha Grande\\u000a National Park, located on the Upper Paraná River. Fish were caught bimonthly between October 2001 and August 2002 with gillnets\\u000a of different mesh sizes at 10 sampling sites. Over the course of the study, 9,858 fish were collected, representing

Gilmar Baumgartner; Éder André Gubiani; Rosilene Luciana Delariva; Paulo Vanderlei Sanches



Changes in Determinants of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Popa Mountain Park, Central Myanmar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implementing effective conservation requires an understanding of factors affecting deforestation and forest degradation. Previous studies have investigated factors affecting deforestation, while few studies have examined the determinants of both of deforestation and forest degradation for more than one period. To address this gap, this study examined factors influencing deforestation and forest degradation during 1989-2000 and 2000-2005 in the Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar. We applied multinomial logistic regression (MNL) using land cover maps derived from Landsat images as the dependent variables as well as spatial and biophysical factors as the independent variables. The MNL models revealed influences of the determinants on deforestation and forest degradation changes over time. For example, during 1989-2000, deforestation from closed forest was positively correlated to the distance from the park boundary and was negatively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope, western aspect and elevation. On the other hand, during 2000-2005, deforestation of closed forest was positively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope and western aspect, and negatively correlated with distance from the park boundary and elevation. Similar scenarios were observed for the deforestation of open forest and forest degradation of closed forest. The study also found most of the determinants influenced deforestation and forest degradation differently. The changes in determinants of deforestation and forest degradation over time might be attributable to the general decrease in resource availability and to the effect of conservation measures conducted by the park.

Htun, Naing Zaw; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yoshida, Shigejiro



Acerola pollinators in the savanna of Central Brazil: temporal variations in oil-collecting bee richness  

E-print Network

Acerola pollinators in the savanna of Central Brazil: temporal variations in oil-collecting bee of flowering. The analysis of pollen loads showed grains of 16 plant species and four pollen types belonging nesting resources and to enhance the bee diversity in agroecosystems. Centridini / agriculture



EPA Science Inventory

Savanna ecosystems are controlled by the interactions between water and nutrient availability. The savannas of Central Brazil (Cerrado) are the second most extensive plant formation in tropical South America with two million km2 of area. The Cerrado landscape contains different ...


Abstract The savannas (cerrado) of south-central Brazil are currently subjected to frequent anthropogenic burning,  

E-print Network

Abstract The savannas (cerrado) of south-central Brazil are currently subjected to frequent, seed- lings of a common Brazilian savanna tree, Keilmeyera coriacea, were grown at 350 ppm and 700 ppm of anthropogenic burning in the Brazilian savannas. Key words Savanna · Cerrado · Fire · Elevated CO2

Jackson, Robert B.


7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...America and Brazil. 319.56-25 Section 319.56-25 Agriculture Regulations of the...Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and...Santo and all areas in the State of Rio Grande del Norte that contain...



Future drying of the southern Amazon5 and central Brazil6  

E-print Network

1 1 2 3 4 Future drying of the southern Amazon5 and central Brazil6 7 8 Brian Cook1 , Ning Zeng1;2 Abstract21 Recent climate modeling suggests that the Amazon rainforest could exhibit dieback under22 future these climate output. Our results suggest that the core of the Amazon rainforest should27 remain largely stable

Zeng, Ning



EPA Science Inventory

The Cerrado of central Brazil is one of the largest savannah regions on Earth. The stressors affecting ecosystems in this region, including deforestation, fire, soil degradation, unwise agricultural practices, climate change, and urbanization, are all experienced in many U. S. ec...


Molluscan fauna from core 25B, Whipray Basin, central Florida Bay, Everglades National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Molluscan assemblages preserved in an 80-cm core from Whipray Basin in central Florida Bay, Everglades National Park, illustrate changes in the environmental conditions within the basin over the last two centuries. Salinity remained polyhaline to euhaline throughout the time of deposition (1800-1997), with alternating periods of stability and increased fluctuations. Since 1800, a Brachidontes assemblage has characterized Whipray Basin and the dominant faunal components have remained the same in terms of presence and absence of species. However, patterns of dominance and diversity within the Brachidontes assemblage have changed and these changes indicate fluctuations in the environment. The period from 1815 to 1857 was distinguished by an abundance of molluscs dwelling on seagrass and sub-aquatic vegetation. Faunal richness and abundance were high and stable, and epiphytic molluscs flourished. Polyhaline conditions existed, although periods of slightly lower salinities occurred. The period from 1862 to 1894 appears unstable based on fluctuations in molluscan faunal richness, abundance, and dominant species. The epiphytic molluscs experienced significant shifts (? >30%) associated with changes in sub-aquatic vegetation. The changes in epiphytic molluscs from 1871 to 1913 may be indicative of a seagrass die-off. The period from 1899 to 1950 was the most stable section of the core in terms of changes in the molluscan fauna. Faunal richness and abundance reached highs of 31 groups and 726 individuals per sample during this period and epiphytic molluscs were prevalent. Beginning in 1955, faunal groups experienced high amplitude fluctuations in abundance; this pattern continued through the second half of the 20th century. Fluctuating salinity, changes in vegetation, and reduced water quality (low O2, increased nutrients and/or reduced clarity) oxygen supply) have characterized the past 50 years. These changes preceded a seagrass die-off in 1987-88 and may be related to the causes of the die-off. Whether the cause of the changes seen in Whipray Basin is natural or a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors, the amount of change in the molluscan fauna in the last 50 years clearly exceeds the preceding 150 years.

Trappe, Carleigh A.; Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn



Land and Water Conservation; Hawaii Volcanoes National Park; Little Rock Central High School; and Arches National Park. Hearing on S. 1333, S. 2106, S. 2129, S. 2232, H.R. 2283 before the Subcommittee on National Parks, Historic Preservation, and Recreation of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Senate hearing considered five bills related to the national parks. Of interest to the education community is S. 2232, which would establish Little Rock Central High School National Historic Site in Arkansas as a unit of the National Park Service. In 1957 the school became a center of controversy over school desegregation when nine African…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.


Presence of Fasciola hepatica in feral nutria (Myocastor coypus) living in a public park in Brazil.  


Sixteen nutria (Myocastor coypus) from a protected area in Curitiba, Brazil, were sampled to determine the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica eggs and intestinal parasites and the presence of snails in the habitat used by nutria. The overall prevalence rates were 56.25% (9) for F. hepatica eggs, 87.50% (14) for cestode eggs, 56.25% (9) for ascarid eggs, 50% (8) for coccidian (Eimeriidae) oocysts, and 56.25% (9) for Strongyloidea eggs. Fasciola hepatica eggs had an average size of 138 microm x 72 microm. The following mollusks were found: Physa cubensis, Physa marmorata, and Biomphalaria tenagophyla. These results suggest that the infected nutria could serve as a source of contamination for other animals, humans, and surface water. This is the first report about parasites in nutria in the state of Paraná, Brazil. PMID:19368247

El-Kouba, Maysa M A N; Marques, Sandra M T; Pilati, Célso; Hamann, Waldir



Numerical assessments of geological CO2 sequestration in the Changhua Coastal Industrial Park, Central Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal-fired power plants of the Taiwan Power Company are the main sources of CO2 emission in Taiwan. Due to the importation of coal mine and the need of cooling water circulation, power plants were built on the coast. Geological CO2 sequestration has been recognized as one of solutions for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emission by injecting CO2 captured from fossil fuel power plants into deep saline geologic formations. The Changhua Coastal Industrial Park (CCIP; 120.38° E, 24.11° N) in central Taiwan has been preliminary evaluated as one of potential sites for geological CO2 sequestration. The CCIP site has a sloping, layered heterogeneity formation with stagnant groundwater flow. Layers of sandstone and shale sequentially appeared to be the major components of geological formations with seaward transgression. Thickness of sedimentary formations gradually becomes thinner from east to west. Previous investigations [Chiao et al., 2010; Yu et al, 2011] did not find significant faults around this site. The TOUGHREACT/ECO2N model was employed with external mesh generator developed in this study to proceed to comprehensive assessments for CO2 injection into deep saline aquifers (salinity of 3%, pH of 7.2) at the CCIP site. A series of numerical experiments for investigating the physical, geochemical and its interactions included the deep saline-aquifer responses, CO2 plume migration, leakage risks, hydrogeochemistry processes, reservoir capacity and trapping mechanisms (i.e. hydrodynamics, capillarity, solubility, and mineral trapping) during and post CO2 injection were assessed. A 3-D lithological model applied in this study was conceptualized with two seismic profiles (along shore and cross shore) and one geological well nearby the study area. A total of 32 vertical layers was built with different porosities and permeabilities estimated from the TCDP-A borehole log samples adjusted with effects in geopressure differences. Cross-platform open source libraries of the CGAL and MathGL were integrated with wxDev-C++ and implemented in C/C++ programming languages that were aided in nested mesh generation and simulation result visualization. Two mesh systems were demonstrated in this study that including the relatively coarse (200 m resolution in horizontal) and 3-leve refinement (from 200 to 50 m resolution in horizontal) mesh systems. Assuming a single injection well located at the centroid point of simulation domain and injected as a depth of about 2700 meters beneath the mean sea level under isothermal condition (ambient temperature of 70°C) with a constant injection rate of 1 Mt/yr for the first 50 years. Geochemical system setting (i.e. initial mineral abundances, and their geochemistry kinetic properties) was adopted from Xu et al. [2006]. Preliminary simulation results shows that (1) CO2 plume cannot penetrate the caprock, (2) 3-level refinement mesh systems can reduce the numerical dispersion, (3) formation tilt (about 3.5 degree) not only generated the approximately round shape of the CO2 plume spreading but result the asymmetric patterns of the CO2 plume profile, and (4) capillarity trapping was not significant under stagnant groundwater flow condition.

Sung, R.; Li, M.



Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil.  


Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country. PMID:24037110

Silva, Jaqueline Raymondi; Medeiros, Larissa Campos de; Reis, Vinicius Pinho dos; Chavez, Juliana Helena; Munhoz, Thiago Demarchi; Borges, Gustavo Puia; Soares, Otavio Augusto Brioschi; Campos, Carlos Henrique Coelho de; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Baldani, Cristiane Divan; Silva, Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues; Faria, Joice Lara Maia; Silva, Edson Elias da; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes



Variants of Human Papillomavirus Types 53, 58 and 66 Identified in Central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study on molecular characterization of human papillomaviruses occurring in Central Brazil, describes two variants each of HPV-53 and HPV-58 and one variant of HPV-66 detected in samples from smears of women showing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II (CIN II). Samples were assayed by PCR using MY09\\/MY11 consensus primers, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism typing. The five isolates

Daniela Marreco Cerqueira; GeniNoceti de Lima Camara; Márcio Rojas da Cruz; Evandro Oliveira Silva; Marcelo de Macedo BrÍgido; LucianoGonçalves de Souza Carvalho; Cláudia Renata Fernandes Martins



Cattle depredation by puma ( Puma concolor) and jaguar ( Panthera onca) in central-western Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, data on cattle depredation by puma (Puma concolor) and jaguar (Panthera onca) were recorded for six years (1998–2003) in a cattle ranch in central-western Brazil. Depredation represented 18.9% of the overall cattle mortality, being predominant on calves. In biomass, kills represented 0.4% (63.8kg\\/km2) of the ranch’s annual stock. In economic loss, kills represented 0.3% of the cattle

Francesca B. L. Palmeira; Peter G. Crawshaw; Claudio M. Haddad; Luciano M. Verdade



Photogeologic mapping in central southwest Bahia, using LANDSAT-1 multispectral images. [Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interpretation of LANDSAT multispectral imagery for geologic mapping of central southwest Bahia, Brazil is described. Surface features such as drainage, topography, vegetation and land use are identified. The area is composed of low grade Precambrian rocks covered by Mezozoic and Cenozoic sediments. The principal mineral prospects of economic value are fluorite and calcareous rocks. Gold, calcite, rock crystal, copper, potassium nitrate and alumina were also identified.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Ohara, T.



Metamorphic PT evolution of granulites in the central Ribeira Fold Belt, SE Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudosections, geothermobarometric estimates and careful petrographic observations of gneissic migmatites and granulites\\u000a from Neoproterozoic central Ribeira Fold Belt (SE Brazil) were performed in order to quantify the metamorphic P-T conditions\\u000a during prograde and retrograde evolution of the Brasiliano Orogeny. Results establish a prograde metamorphic trajectory from\\u000a amphibolite facies conditions to metamorphic peak (T = 850 ± 50 °C; P =

Telmo M. Bento dos Santos; José M. Munhá; Colombo C. G. Tassinari; Paulo E. Fonseca; Coriolano Dias Neto



Evaluation of mutagenic potential of contaminated atmosphere at Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo – SP, Brazil, using the Tradescantia stamen-hair assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trad-SHM assay was used to check mutagenic potential of atmospheric contamination at Ibirapuera Park, located in São Paulo city, Brazil, and variation of risk along the year, besides determining which Tradescantia clone, BNL 4430 or KU-20, better indicates risk. Thirty pots of both clones were exposed during one-year period (September, 2002–August, 2003). Twenty inflorescences were taken from each clone twice

Maria Izildinha Ferreira; Marisa Domingos; Heliana de A. Gomes; Paulo H. N. Saldiva; João V. de Assunção



Parks Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research your park and convince me it is the best one. Choose your park and find at least 7 GREAT facts !!! Denali National Park Grand Canyon National Park Great Smoky Mountains National Park Mount Rainier National Park Olympic National Park Rocky Mountain National Park Yellowstone National Park Yosemite National Park Zion National Park Zion National Park 2 ...

Mrs. Guy



Ticks associated with armadillo (Euphractus sexcinctus) and anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) of Emas National Park, State of Goias, Brazil.  


This study was conducted in October 1998 and November 1999 in the Emas National Park (131,868 ha), a savanna-type cerrado region situated in the far south of Goias State, Brazil, near the geographic center of South America (15 degrees -23 degrees S; 45 degrees -55 degrees W). Animals were captured with the aid of nets and anesthetized (15 mg/kg ketamine + 1 mg/kg xylasine) in order to collect ticks for identification and to establish laboratory colonies. They included giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) (n = 4) and yellow armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) (n = 6). Free-living ticks (larvae, nymphs, and adults) were collected from the field by using a 1 x 2-m flannel cloth. Free-living ticks were identified as Amblyomma sp., A. cajennense, and A. triste. Adult ticks collected from anteaters were identified as Amblyomma cajennense and A. nodosum and from armadillos as A. pseudoconcolor and A. nodosum. The relevance of these host-tick relationships to possible mechanisms underlying emergence of tick-borne pathogens of importance to public health is discussed. PMID:12381607

Bechara, Gervasio H; Szabo, M P J; Almeida Filho, W V; Bechara, J N; Pereira, R J G; Garcia, J E; Pereira, Marcelo C



Distribution and abundance of four caiman species (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae) in Jaú National Park, Amazonas, Brazil.  


Jaú National Park is a large rain forest reserve that contains small populations of four caiman species. We sampled crocodilian populations during 30 surveys over a period of four years in five study areas. We found the mean abundance of caiman species to be very low (1.0 +/- 0.5 caiman/km of shoreline), independent of habitat type (river, stream or lake) and season. While abundance was almost equal, the species' composition varied in different waterbody and study areas. We analysed the structure similarity of this assemblage. Lake and river habitats were the most similar habitats, and inhabited by at least two species, mainly Caiman crocodilus and Melanosuchus niger. However, those species can also inhabit streams. Streams were the most dissimilar habitats studied and also had two other species: Paleosuchus trigonatus and P. palpebrosus. The structure of these assemblage does not suggest a pattern of species associated and separated by habitat. Trends in species relationships had a negative correlation with species of similar size, C. crocodilus and P. trigonatus, and an apparent complete exclusion of M. niger and P. trigonatus. Microhabitat analysis suggests a slender habitat partitioning. P. trigonatus was absent from river and lake Igapó (flooded forest), but frequent in stream Igapó. This species was the most terrestrial and found in microhabitats similar to C. crocodilus (shallow waters, slow current). Melanosuchus niger inhabits deep, fast moving waters in different study areas. Despite inhabiting the same waterbodies in many surveys, M. niger and C. crocodilus did not share the same microhabitats. Paleosuchus palpebrosus was observed only in running waters and never in stagnant lake habitats. Cluster analysis revealed three survey groups: two constitute a mosaic in floodplains, (a) a cluster with both M. niger and C. crocodilus, and another (b) with only C. crocodilus. A third cluster (c) included more species, and the presence of Paleosuchus species. There was no significant difference among wariness of caimans between disturbed and undisturbed localities. However, there was a clear trend to increase wariness during the course of consecutive surveys at four localities, suggesting that we, more than local inhabitants, had disturbed caimans. The factors that are limiting caiman populations can be independent of human exploitation. Currently in Amazonia, increased the pressure of hunting, habitat loss and habitat alteration, and there is no evidence of widespread recovery of caiman populations. In large reserves as Jaú without many disturbance, most caiman populations can be low density, suggesting that in blackwater environments their recovery from exploitation should be very slow. PMID:12189791

Rebêlo, G H; Lugli, L



Exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi and other tick-borne pathogens in Gettysburg National Military Park, South-Central Pennsylvania, 2009.  


Since 1998, Lyme disease cases have increased in south-central Pennsylvania, which includes Gettysburg National Military Park (NMP). Limited information is available about tick populations or pathogens in this area, and no data regarding frequency of tick bites or prevention measures among Gettysburg NMP employees are available. To address these gaps, ticks were collected, classified, and replaced (to minimize disruptions to tick populations) at two sites within Gettysburg NMP during April-September, 2009, among eight nonremoval samplings. On two additional occasions during May and June, 2009, ticks were collected and removed from the two original sites plus 10 additional sites and tested for tick-borne pathogens by using PCR. A self-administered anonymous survey of Gettysburg NMP employees was conducted to determine knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding tick-borne diseases. Peak Ixodes scapularis nymph populations were observed during May-July. Of 115 I. scapularis ticks tested, 21% were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, including 18% of 74 nymphs and 27% of 41 adults; no other pathogen was identified. The entomologic risk index was calculated at 1.3 infected nymphs/hour. An adult and nymph Amblyomma americanum were also found, representing the first confirmed field collection of this tick in Pennsylvania, but no pathogens were detected. The survey revealed that most park employees believed Lyme disease was a problem at Gettysburg NMP and that they frequently found ticks on their skin and clothing. However, use of personal preventive measures was inconsistent, and 6% of respondents reported contracting Lyme disease while employed at Gettysburg NMP. These findings indicate a need to improve surveillance for tick bites among employees and enhance prevention programs for park staff and visitors. PMID:24689815

Han, George S; Stromdahl, Ellen Y; Wong, David; Weltman, Andre C



Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into Central Park Lake, New York City, over a century of deposition.  


Relative contributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion sources of wood, petroleum, and coal were computed in sediments from Central Park Lake in New York City (NY, USA) by chemical mass balance based on several reliable source indicators. These indicators are the ratio of retene to the sum of retene and chrysene, the ratio of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene (DMP) to 1,7-DMP and 2,6-DMP, and the ratio of fluroanthene to fluroanthene and pyrene. The authors found that petroleum combustion-derived PAH fluxes generally followed the historical consumption data of New York State. Coal combustion-derived PAH flux peaked approximately in the late 1910s, remained at a relatively high level over the next 3 decades, then rapidly declined from the 1950s to the 1960s; according to historical New York State coal consumption data, however, there was a 2-peak trend, with peaks around the early 1920s and the mid-1940s. The 1940s peak was not observed in Central Park Lake, most likely because of the well-documented shift from coal to oil as the major residential heating fuel in New York City during the late 1930s. It was widely believed that the decreased PAH concentrations and fluxes in global sediments during the last century resulted from a major energy shift from coal to petroleum. The data, however, show that this shift occurred from 1945 through the 1960s and did not result in an obvious decline. The sharpest decrease, which occurred in the 1970s was not predominantly related to coal usage but rather was the result of multiple factors, including a decline in petroleum usage largely, the introduction of low sulfur-content fuel in New York City, and the introduction of emission-control technologies. PMID:24375577

Yan, Beizhan; Bopp, Richard F; Abrajano, Teofilo A; Chaky, Damon; Chillrud, Steven N




EPA Science Inventory

The report, in three parts, describes the characteristics of the Cleveland (OH) area electroplating industry and an approach and design for a centralized facility to treat cyanide and heavy metal wastes generated by this industry. The facility is termed the Resource Recovery Park...


Pay Parking Permit Parking  

E-print Network

Buildings Parkings Pay Parking Permit Parking Information(student) Legend Information(security) Bus SCIENCES RECREATION &ATHLETICS BURNABY MOUN TAIN CONSE RVATION AREA Residence Lane Lot H P Rideshare


Measurements of CO2 exchange over a mixed-grassland savanna in Central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used eddy covariance technique to measure the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 between the atmosphere and an savanna in Central Brazil (locally known as cerrado), from February 2011 to February 2013, the data set included measurements of climatological variables. This part of brazilian savana has a long history of land cover change due to human activity, mainly due agricultural activity. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal variation in energy flux in areas of degraded, grass-dominated cerrado (locally known as campo sujo) in Central Brazil. The NEE variability is controlled mainly by solar radiation, temperature and air humidity on diel course. Seasonally, soil moisture and changes on land cover plays a strong role on the ecossystem. Daytime CO2 uptake under high irradiance averaged 4-12 ?mol m-2 s-1 in the wet season (October to April) and 0-3 ?mol m-2 s-1 on the dry season (May to September). The net sign of NEE is negative (sink) during of the wet season and positive (source) in the dry season.

Arruda, P. H.; Vourlitis, G. L.; Santanna, F. B.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.; Nogueira, J. D.



Patterns of diversity and abundance of carrion insect assemblages in the natural park "hoces del río riaza" (central Spain).  


The patterns of diversity and abundance of the carrion insect species in the different habitats of the Natural Park "Hoces del Río Riaza" (central Spain) were studied with the use of carrion-baited traps. Representativeness of the inventories was assessed with the calculation of randomized species richness curves and nonparametric estimators. Coleoptera families, Silphidae and Dermestidae, and Diptera families, Calliphoridae and Muscidae, were dominant in every sampling habitat, but differences in the patterns of diversity and abundance were found. Lusitanian oakwood and riparian forest were the most diverse habitats with high abundance of saprophagous species, whereas more open (i.e., exposed to continuous sunlight during the day) habitats showed lower diversity values and a different species composition and distribution of species abundance, favoring thermophilous species and necrophagous species with high tolerance to different environmental conditions. Differences in the bioclimatical features of the sampled habitats are suggested to explain the composition and diversity of the carrion insect assemblages in different environments. PMID:25368080

Baz, Arturo; Cifrián, Blanca; Martín-Vega, Daniel



[Cultural factors associated with the seclusion disease in Alto Xingu (Central Brazil)].  


This article presents an anthropological approach to the symbolic aspects of the disease, considering traditional representations about the puberty seclusion syndrome which affects adolescent indians from the Upper Xingu region (Central Brazil), in a comparative perspective with the clinical-epidemiological approach. The traditional nosological category and its etiological implications in indigenous medicine and culture are contrasted with the western medical category - a peripheral neuropathy, possibly of toxic origin - identified in some cases of the syndrome. An epidemiological analysis of the data collected from the traditional point of view shows relations with events of cultural origin, associated with social and political contexts and with the nature of cross-cultural relations. Moreover, this culture-bound syndrome presents some methological issues for western medicine, particularly for biomedical and social-epidemiological approaches. Finally, the authors make explicit some cultural assumptions characteristic of modern western society, underlying the procedures used by the scientific disciplines involved. PMID:15798857

Verani, C; Morgado, A



Assessing fire emissions from tropical savanna and forests of central Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wildfires in tropical forest and savanna are a strong source of trace gas and particulate emissions to the atmosphere, but estimates of the continental-scale impacts are limited by large uncertainties in the rates of fire occurrence and biomass combustion. Satellite-based remote sensing offers promise for characterizing fire physical properties and impacts on the environment, but currently available sensors saturate over high-radiance targets and provide only indications of regions and times at which fires are extensive and their areal rate of growing as recorded in ash layers. Here we describe an approach combining satellite- and aircraft-based remote sensing with in situ measurements of smoke to estimate emissions from central Brazil. These estimates will improve global accounting of radiation-absorbing gases and particulates that may be contributing to climate change and will provide strategic data for fire management.

Riggan, Philip J.; Brass, James A.; Lockwood, Robert N.



Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil  

PubMed Central

Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned. PMID:25242952

Braga, Ísis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura



The recent changes of the supra-glacial debris cover in the Central Karakoram National Park (CKNP, Pakistan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent investigations of glacier changes in the Karakoram show that there is no clear signal of glacier recession, observed in other mountain ranges like e.g. Himalaya. In contrast, the glaciers in the Karakoram seem to be rather stable with an exceptionally large number of surging events during the last decades. Also elevation changes do not show a unique signal with some glaciers with a mass gain, while other glaciers show ice loss. This phenomenon, well known as "Karakoram anomaly", could be partially explained by the large number of debris covered glaciers in this mountain range. Debris covered glaciers characterized by debris thicknesses deeper than the "critical value" usually display rather passive glaciers tongues, where changes in the balance conditions first result in thickness changes and reactions in geometry lag behind. In this contribution we present results from investigations which focus on the Central Karakoram National Park (CKNP, Pakistan) in the period 2001-2011. The CKNP is an extensive protected nature area in the Karakoram Region, Pakistan, with an area of more than 12,000 km² and a glacier area of more than 30%. We evaluated the glacier coverage in the park and its changes based on Landsat images of 2001 and 2011. Our analysis of the debris cover distribution on glaciers in the CKNP reveals a rather wide distribution of supra-glacial debris, which is much larger than in other mountain ranges. The total debris covered area is 23% of the glacier area and 34 % of the ablation area. Moreover the debris cover has increased by almost 10% during the last ten years, indicating generally negative balance conditions for this period. The distribution of the debris cover is clearly depending on altitude, with a maximum at 4300 m a.s.l., while the maximum glacier cover is found at about 5100 m a.s.l. As debris cover is a fundamental parameter for mass balance models, our results will be a basis for new calculations of the ice melt variations for the main part of the Karakoram glaciers.

Minora, Umberto; Mayer, Christoph; Bocchiola, Daniele; D'Agata, Carlo; Maragno, Davide; Lambrecht, Astrid; Mosconi, Boris; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina



Multitask remote sensing supporting the development of environmental policies for National Park regions in the Central European Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

National park regions are strongly influenced by heterogeneous patterns of human impact varying both in time as well as in space. Developing management issues to support regional planning has to focus on the specific National Park region itself. Integration of the municipalities of the region is a must. The collection and exchange of spatial informations of the region has to

Elmar Csaplovics



Flexural Stresses are a Major Factor to Enhance Intraplate Seismicity in Central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explaining intraplate seismic activity has been a challenging task. Several different models have been proposed combining weak crustal zones and mechanisms of stress concentration. Here we propose that stress concentration due to flexural deformation is one of the most important factors to explain seismicity in Central Brazil, especially the SW-NE oriented seismic zone between the Amazon and the São Francisco cratons, called "Goiás-Tocantins Seismic Zone" (GTSZ). This activity has been usually associated with the TransBrasiliano Lineament (TBL), a major Paleozoic transcontinental feature. However, two observations cast doubt on a direct relationship with the Lineament. First, the seismic activity in the Tocantins province is parallel but not coincident with the TBL; secondly, the continental scale TransBrasiliano Lineament shows no seismic activity further to the NE (beneath the Parnaíba basin), while to the SW, the seismic activity follows an E-W and then N-S direction, not coincident with the TBL. On the other hand, the seismic zone coincides exactly with the trend of high isostatic gravity anomalies (above -20 mGal), which were interpreted as due to high-density mantle rocks beneath a belt of thin crust (roughly beneath the Goiás Magmatic Arc and the Central Massif). Upper crustal stresses due to flexural deformation were calculated with finite-element methods assuming a visco-elastic lithosphere overlying a very soft asthenosphere. The lithospheric load due to the shallow, high-density mantle rocks produces compressional stresses up to 100 MPa in the 200 km wide GTSZ. Regional compressive stresses from plate boundary forces combine with the local flexural stresses to reach seismogenic levels in the GTSZ. Away from the central zone of horizontal compression, extensional stresses (related to the peripheral bulge) balance the regional compression, which explains the aseismic areas. Three other seismic clusters (the N-S belt along the Eastern border of the Amazon craton near Carajás, the cluster of seismicity at the northern border of the Parecis Basin (Porto dos Gauchos Seismic Zone), and the active Pantanal Basin overlying the Paraguay foldbelt) are also located in areas of predominantly positive isostatic anomalies. For this reason we propose that similar compressional flexural stresses enhance the regional, plate-wide stresses up to seismogenic levels in other areas and are an important factor to explain the mid-plate seismicity in Brazil.

Assumpcao, M.; Sacek, V.



Granulomatous pneumonia due to Spirocerca lupi in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This case report describes the anatomic pathology findings in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central-western region of Brazil presenting granulomatous pneumonia associated with intralesional infection by Spirocerca lupi. Both wolves had multiple, white, 1-1.5 cm in diamet...


Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil  

EPA Science Inventory

Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...



EPA Science Inventory

The Central West Region in Brazil has been the focus of intense agricultural expansion since the 1970s and, nowadays, a large area of native cerrado has been converted to agricultural use. The expansion was accompanied by intensive use of fertilizer, irrigation and management pra...


Late Holocene Phytolith and Carbon-Isotope Record from a Latosol at Salitre, South-Central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of paleovegetation records inferred from soil phytolith assemblages and SOM (soil organic matter) carbon isotope analysis was examined in light of previous pollen and charcoal reconstructions. The sampled latosol is located in south-central Brazil (Salitre), at a boundary between forest and cerrado. The derived mean age of phytoliths and SOM at each level is the result of a

Anne Alexandre; Jean-Dominique Meunier; Andre Mariotti; Francois Soubies



The mega capture of the negro river, central amazônia, brazil: a novel feature revealed by SRTM data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Central Amazonia, Brazil, the Solimoes and Negro rivers converge to form the Amazonas, the largest river in the world. Interferometric-derived topographic data, generated during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), indicate that the present-day lower course of the Negro River is the result of a mega fluvial capture governed by neotectonics. The data indicated that the ancient confluence of

Raimundo Almeida-Filho; Fernando P. Miranda; Carlos H. Beisl



Indigenous Burning as Conservation Practice: Neotropical Savanna Recovery amid Agribusiness Deforestation in Central Brazil  

PubMed Central

International efforts to address climate change by reducing tropical deforestation increasingly rely on indigenous reserves as conservation units and indigenous peoples as strategic partners. Considered win-win situations where global conservation measures also contribute to cultural preservation, such alliances also frame indigenous peoples in diverse ecological settings with the responsibility to offset global carbon budgets through fire suppression based on the presumed positive value of non-alteration of tropical landscapes. Anthropogenic fire associated with indigenous ceremonial and collective hunting practices in the Neotropical savannas (cerrado) of Central Brazil is routinely represented in public and scientific conservation discourse as a cause of deforestation and increased CO2 emissions despite a lack of supporting evidence. We evaluate this claim for the Xavante people of Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Reserve, Brazil. Building upon 23 years of longitudinal interdisciplinary research in the area, we used multi-temporal spatial analyses to compare land cover change under indigenous and agribusiness management over the last four decades (1973–2010) and quantify the contemporary Xavante burning regime contributing to observed patterns based on a four year sample at the end of this sequence (2007–2010). The overall proportion of deforested land remained stable inside the reserve (0.6%) but increased sharply outside (1.5% to 26.0%). Vegetation recovery occurred where reserve boundary adjustments transferred lands previously deforested by agribusiness to indigenous management. Periodic traditional burning by the Xavante had a large spatial distribution but repeated burning in consecutive years was restricted. Our results suggest a need to reassess overreaching conservation narratives about the purported destructiveness of indigenous anthropogenic fire in the cerrado. The real challenge to conservation in the fire-adapted cerrado biome is the long-term sustainability of indigenous lands and other tropical conservation islands increasingly subsumed by agribusiness expansion rather than the localized subsistence practices of indigenous and other traditional peoples. PMID:24349045

Welch, James R.; Brondízio, Eduardo S.; Hetrick, Scott S.; Coimbra, Carlos E. A.



Indigenous burning as conservation practice: neotropical savanna recovery amid agribusiness deforestation in Central Brazil.  


International efforts to address climate change by reducing tropical deforestation increasingly rely on indigenous reserves as conservation units and indigenous peoples as strategic partners. Considered win-win situations where global conservation measures also contribute to cultural preservation, such alliances also frame indigenous peoples in diverse ecological settings with the responsibility to offset global carbon budgets through fire suppression based on the presumed positive value of non-alteration of tropical landscapes. Anthropogenic fire associated with indigenous ceremonial and collective hunting practices in the Neotropical savannas (cerrado) of Central Brazil is routinely represented in public and scientific conservation discourse as a cause of deforestation and increased CO2 emissions despite a lack of supporting evidence. We evaluate this claim for the Xavante people of Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Reserve, Brazil. Building upon 23 years of longitudinal interdisciplinary research in the area, we used multi-temporal spatial analyses to compare land cover change under indigenous and agribusiness management over the last four decades (1973-2010) and quantify the contemporary Xavante burning regime contributing to observed patterns based on a four year sample at the end of this sequence (2007-2010). The overall proportion of deforested land remained stable inside the reserve (0.6%) but increased sharply outside (1.5% to 26.0%). Vegetation recovery occurred where reserve boundary adjustments transferred lands previously deforested by agribusiness to indigenous management. Periodic traditional burning by the Xavante had a large spatial distribution but repeated burning in consecutive years was restricted. Our results suggest a need to reassess overreaching conservation narratives about the purported destructiveness of indigenous anthropogenic fire in the cerrado. The real challenge to conservation in the fire-adapted cerrado biome is the long-term sustainability of indigenous lands and other tropical conservation islands increasingly subsumed by agribusiness expansion rather than the localized subsistence practices of indigenous and other traditional peoples. PMID:24349045

Welch, James R; Brondízio, Eduardo S; Hetrick, Scott S; Coimbra, Carlos E A



The utilization of orbital images as an adequate form of control of preserved areas. [Araguaia National Park, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The synoptic view and the repetitive acquisition of LANDSAT imagery provide precise information, in real-time, for monitoring preserved areas based on spectral, temporal and spatial properties. The purpose of this study was to monitor, with the use of multispectral imagery, the systematic annual burning, which causes the degradation of ecosystems in the National Park of Araguaia. LANDSAT imagery of channel 5 (0.6 a 0.7 microns) and 7 (0.8 a 1.1 microns), at the scale of 1:250.000, were used to identify and delimit vegetation units and burned area, based on photointerpretation parameter of tonality. The results show that the gallery forest can be discriminated from the seasonally flooded 'campo cerrado', and that 4,14% of the study area was burned. Conclusions point out that the LANDSAT images can be used for the implementation of environmental protection in national parks.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Dossantos, J. R.



Car Park 31 Car Park 23  

E-print Network

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Tobar, Michael


Seismic characteristics of central Brazil crust and upper mantle: A deep seismic refraction study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A two-dimensional model of the Brazilian central crust and upper mantle was obtained from the traveltime interpretation of deep seismic refraction data from the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, each approximately 300 km long. When the lines were deployed, they overlapped by 50 km, forming an E-W transect approximately 530 km long across the Tocantins Province and western Sa??o Francisco Craton. The Tocantins Province formed during the Neoproterozoic when the Sa??o Francisco, the Paranapanema, and the Amazon cratons collided, following the subduction of the former Goia??s ocean basin. Average crustal VP and VP/VS ratios, Moho topography, and lateral discontinuities within crustal layers suggest that the crust beneath central Brazil can be associated with major geological domains recognized at the surface. The Moho is an irregular interface, between 36 and 44 km deep, that shows evidences of first-order tectonic structures. The 8.05 and 8.23 km s-1 P wave velocities identify the upper mantle beneath the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, respectively. The observed seismic features allow for the identification of (1) the crust has largely felsic composition in the studied region, (2) the absence of the mafic-ultramafic root beneath the Goia??s magmatic arc, and (3) block tectonics in the foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the northern Brasi??lia Belt during the Neoproterozoic. Seismic data also suggested that the Bouguer gravimetric discontinuities are mainly compensated by differences in mass distribution within the lithospheric mantle. Finally, the Goia??s-Tocantins seismic belt can be interpreted as a natural seismic alignment related to the Neoproterozoic mantle domain. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

Soares, J.E.; Berrocal, J.; Fuck, R.A.; Mooney, W.D.; Ventura, D.B.R.



Ordovician A-type granitoid magmatism on the Ceará Central Domain, Borborema Province, NE-Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present field relationships, major and trace element geochemistry and U-Pb SHRIMP and ID-TIMS geochronology of the A-type Ordovician Quintas pluton located in the Ceará Central Domain of the Borborema Province, in northeastern Brazil. This pluton presents a concentric geometry and is composed mainly of syenogranite, monzogranite, quartz syenite to quartz monzodiorite, monzogabbro and diorite. Its geochemical characteristics [SiO2 (52-70%), Na2O/K2O (1.55-0.65), Fe2O3/MgO (2.2-7.3), metaluminous to sligthly alkaline affinity, post-collisional type in (Y + Nb) × Rb diagram, and A-type affinity (Ga > 22 ppm, Nb > 20 ppm, Zn > 60 ppm), REE fractioned pattern with negative Eu anomaly] are coherent with post-collisional A2-type granitoids. However, the emplacement of this pluton is to some extent temporally associated with the deposition of the first strata of the Parnaíba intracratonic basin, attesting also to a purely anorogenic character (A1-type granitoid). The emplacement of this pluton is preceded by one of the largest known orogenesis of the planet (Neoproterozoic Pan-African/Brasiliano) and, if it is classified as an A2-type granitoid, it provides interesting constraints about how long can last A2-type magmatic activity after a major collisional episode, arguably triggered by disturbance of the underlying mantle, a topic extensively debated in the geoscience community.

Castro, Neivaldo A.; Ganade de Araujo, Carlos E.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Osako, Liliane S.; Nutman, Alan A.; Liu, Dunyi



Occult hepatitis B virus infection among injecting drug users in the Central-West Region of Brazil  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was investigated in 149 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Central-West Region of Brazil. Of these individuals, 19 were positive for HBV DNA, resulting in an occult HBV infection prevalence of 12.7% (19/149); six of these 19 individuals had anti-HBV core and/or anti-HBV surface antibodies and 13 were negative for HBV markers. All IDUs with occult hepatitis B reported sexual and/or parenteral risk behaviours. All HBV DNA-positive samples were successfully genotyped. Genotype D was the most common (17/19), followed by genotype A (2/19). These findings reveal a high prevalence of occult HBV infection and the predominance of genotype D among IDUs in Brazil's Central-West Region. PMID:23778654

de Matos, Márcia Alves Dias; Ferreira, Renata Carneiro; Rodrigues, Fabiana Perez; Marinho, Tamíris Augusto; Lopes, Carmen Luci Rodrigues; Novais, Antônia Carlos Magalhães; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Souto, Francisco José Dutra; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel



The Aripuana Park and the Polonoroeste Programme. IWGIA Document No. 59.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Polonoroeste program is a World Bank-funded colonization project in central Brazil. This document looks at the indigenous peoples of the Aripuana Park which lies in the path of the development plan. The main objective of the $1.5 billion project is to pave a highway from Cuiaba to Porto Velho. The project consists of the highway, colonization…

Junqueira, Carmen; Mindlin, Betty


Soil chemical changes under irrigated mango production in the Central São Francisco River Valley, Brazil.  


Irrigated areas in Brazil's Central São Francisco River Valley have experienced declines in productivity, which may be a reflection of changes in soil chemical properties due to management. This study was conducted to compare the chemical composition of soil solutions and cation exchange complexes in a five-year-old grove of irrigated mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Tommy Atkins) with that of an adjacent clearing in the native caatinga vegetation. A detailed physiographic characterization of the area revealed a subsurface rock layer, which was more undulating than the current land surface, and identified the presence of a very saline and sodic (1045 microS cm(-1), sodium adsorption ratio [SAR] = 5.19) ground water table. While changes in concentrations of Ca, Mg, and K could be attributed to direct management inputs (fertilization and liming with dolomite), increases in Na suggested average annual capillary rise from the ground water table of 28 L m(-2). Accordingly, soil salinity levels appeared to be more dependent on surface elevation than the elevation of the rock layer or sediment thickness. The apparent influence of land surface curvature on water redistribution and the solution chemistry was more pronounced under irrigated mango production. In general, salinity levels had doubled in the mango grove and nearly tripled under the canopies, after only five years of irrigation. Though critical saline or sodic conditions were not encountered, the changes observed indicate a need for more adequate monitoring and management of water and salt inputs despite the excellent water quality of the São Francisco River. PMID:12931897

Heck, R J; Tiessen, H; Salcedo, I H; Santos, M C



Linking Community Communication to Conservation of the Maned Wolf in Central Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the environmental education (EE) program developed in the neighboring community of Serra da Canastra National Park based on a research project focused on the maned wolf conservation. The article assesses three tools used to foster the community's participation in discussing local issues: (1) communal production of a book…

Bizerril, Marcelo Ximenes A.; Soares, Carla Cruz; Santos, Jean Pierre



Response toward novel stimuli in a group of tufted capuchins (Cebus libidinosus) in Brasília National Park, Brazil.  


We investigated responses toward novel foods and novel objects by wild capuchins that routinely exploit visitors' foods in Brasília National Park. Given the capuchins' daily exposure to human foods and objects, we expected them to be more explorative toward novel foods and objects compared to capuchins that are not habituated to visitors. However, since the safety and palatability of potential foods have to be learned, we also expected the capuchins to be cautious about eating novel foods, as has been reported for wild and captive capuchins. Stimuli were presented on a platform in four experimental conditions: familiar food (FF), novel food (NF), familiar food plus novel object (FF+O), and novel food plus novel object (NF+O). Latencies to approach and contact the platform, and to approach and to ingest food did not differ across conditions. Nevertheless, the capuchins were significantly more responsive (measured in terms of interest, manipulation, etc.) toward familiar foods than novel foods, and ate significantly more of the former. In other words, their explorative response toward novel foods led to little consumption. Our results do not support the "readiness to eat" hypothesis, according to which a lower readiness to eat and food neophobia are the consequences of the presence of a distracting novel object. The finding that capuchins explore novel stimuli but remain cautious about eating novel foods supports the view that neophilia and neophobia are motivationally independent responses. PMID:17216622

Sabbatini, Gloria; Stammati, Margherita; Tavares, Maria Clotilde H; Visalberghi, Elisabetta



Temporal change in species and functional plant traits in the moist grassland on the Sete Cidades National Park, Piauí, Brazil.  


The present study investigated the dynamic on a short-time scale in the vegetation in moist grassland of the Sete Cidades National Park, Piauí. Herb-subshrub layer samples was carried out in July 2007, 2009 and 2011. Changes in structural, floristic and functional traits in the community were assessed by species richness, diversity and similarity indices between those periods, as well as by hierarchical classification and ordination. Cluster and Principal Component Analyses identified functional groups according to 23 species trait state. To distinguish the contribution of space and time configuration in the community structure, we used the variance partition technique. The functional groups of chamaephytes and therophytes II were associated with wetter sites, while the groups of non-tussock hemicriptophytes I, tussock hemicriptophytes (FG4), and geophytes (FG5) were associated to the drier ones. We found a non-accelerated dynamics, at least on a short-time scale, represented by some descriptors in the community, such as the close similarity between the inventories and ordering of sampling transects in moist grassland. Therefore, besides considering the partition of the temporal niche as a mechanism for the co-existence of species, the heterogeneity of space dictated by environmental filters seems to determine the stability of the this grassland communities over time. PMID:25055092

Mendes, M R A; Silva Júnior, M C; Castro, A A J F; Takahashi, F S C; Munhoz, C B R



Nitrous oxide fluxes and nitrogen cycling along a pasture chronosequence in Central Amazonia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes and soil nitrogen (N) cycling following forest conversion to pasture in the central Amazon near Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Two undisturbed forest sites and 27 pasture sites of 0.5 to 60 years were sampled once each during wet and dry seasons. In addition to soil-atmosphere fluxes of N2O we measured 27 soil chemical, soil microbiological and soil physical variables.

Soil N2O fluxes were higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Fluxes of N2O from forest soils always exceeded fluxes from pasture soils and showed no consistent trend with pasture age. At our forest sites, nitrate was the dominant form of inorganic N both during wet and dry season. At our pasture sites nitrate generally dominated the inorganic N pools during the wet season and ammonium dominated during the dry season. Net mineralization and nitrification rates displayed large variations. During the dry season net immobilization of N was observed in some pastures. Compared to forest sites, young pasture sites (?2 years) had low microbial biomass N and protease activities. Protease activity and microbial biomass N peaked in pastures of intermediate age (4 to 8 years) followed by consistently lower values in older pasture (10 to 60 years). The C/N ratio of litter was low at the forest sites (~25) and rapidly increased with pasture age reaching values of 60-70 at pastures of 15 years and older.

Nitrous oxide emissions at our sites were controlled by C and N availability and soil aeration. Fluxes of N2O were negatively correlated to leaf litter C/N ratio, NH4+-N and the ratio of NO3--N to the sum of NO3--N + NH4+-N (indicators of N availability), and methane fluxes and bulk density (indicators of soil aeration status) during the wet season. During the dry season fluxes of N2O were positively correlated to microbial biomass N, ?-glucosidase activity, total inorganic N stocks and NH4+-N. In our study region, pastures of all age emitted less N2O than old-growth forests, because of a progressive decline in N availability with pasture age combined with strongly anaerobic conditions in some pastures during the wet season.

Wick, B.; Veldkamp, E.; de Mello, W. Z.; Keller, M.; Crill, P.



Magnetic Fabric of the Aquidauana Formation, western border of the Paraná Basin Central Brazil: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glaciogenic sedimentation (Carboniferous-Permian) on the western border of the Paraná Basin is represented by reddish-brown strata of the Aquidauana Formation. Subsurface data suggest that this Formation is equivalent to the Itararé Group, which contains the most extensive lithological record of Gondwana glaciation in the world. The Aquidauna Formation crops out as an NNE-SSW-oriented elongated belt at the western portion of the Maracaju-Campo Grande Plateau in Mato Grosso do Sul State (Central part of Brazil), and extents to the north up to Mato Grosso and Goias states. This Formation is composed of a variety of types of sandstones, siltites, and mudstones. The magnetic studies were performed on sites of undeformed reddish-brown sandstones, siltites, and mudstones, which crop out mainly in Mato Grosso do Sul State. Magnetic fabrics were determined on oriented cylindrical specimens (2.54 cm x 2.2 cm) using anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Rock-magnetic analyses reveal that both magnetite and hematite are the main magnetic minerals in the majority of the analyzed sites. Regarding the eingenvector orientations, the sites usually gave good results. The analysis at the individual-site scale defines two AMS fabric types. The first type shows Kmin perpendicular to the bedding plane, while Kmax and Kint are scattered within the bedding plane itself. This fabric is usually interpreted as primary (sedimentary-compactional), typical of undeformed sediments and is dominant among the sites. The second type shows good clustering of the AMS principal axes with Kmin still either perpendicular or sub-perpendicular to the bedding plane. This fabric type could be interpreted as a combination of sedimentary-compactional and tectonic contributions if some strain markers or evidence for tectonic deformation had been found in the studied area. On the other hand, the tight Kmax grouping in this fabric type could be explained by the action of currents since they cause Kmax to be aligned sub-parallel to the paleocurrent direction.

Raposo, M. B.



Linking vegetation pattern to hydrology and hydrochemistry in a montane river floodplain, the Šumava National Park, Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cover of higher plants (in 4 × 4 m plots), groundwater table height, and water chemistry in boreholes were sampled at 43 sites\\u000a along three cross-sectional transects in a flat floodplain of the Upper Vltava River in the Šumava Mountains (Šumava National\\u000a Park, Czech Republic). The goal was to describe the relationships between vegetation and alluvial environment. Correlations\\u000a between hydrochemical and

Ivana Bufková; Karel Prach



Evidence of Teleconnections between the Peruvian central Andes and Northeast Brazil during extreme rainfall events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge about changes in regional circulation and physical processes associated with extreme rainfall events in South America is limited. Here we investigate such events over the Mantaro basin (MB) located at (10°S-13°S; 73°W-76°W) in the central Peruvian Andes and Northeastern Brazil (NEB), located at (9°S-15°S; 39°W-46°W). Occasional dry and wet spells can be observed in both areas during the austral summer season. The main goal of this study is to investigate potential teleconnections between extreme rainfall events in MB and NEB during austral summer. We define wet (dry) spells as periods that last for at least 3 (5) consecutive days with rainfall above (below) the 70 (30) percentile. To identify the dates of ocurrence of these events, we used daily accumulated rainfall data from 14 climate stations located in the Mantaro basin for the period 1965 to 2002. In NEB we defined a rainfall index which is based on average daily gridded rainfall data within the region for the same period. Dry (wet spells) in the MB are associated with positive (negative) OLR anomalies which extend over much of the tropical Andes, indicating the large-scale nature of these events. At 200 hPa anomalous easterly (westerly) zonal winds aloft accompany wet (dry) spells. Composite anomalies of dry spells in MB reveal significant contemporaneous precipitation anomalies of the opposite sign over NEB, which suggest that intraseasonal precipitation variability over the two regions may be dynamically linked. Indeed upper-tropospheric circulation anomalies over the central Andes extend across South America and appear to be tied to an adjustment in the Bolivian High-Nordeste Low system. Dry (wet) spells in NEB are equally associated with a large-scale pattern of positive (negative) OLR anomalies; however, there are no related significant OLR anomalies over the MB during these events. Dry (wet) spells are associated with robust patterns of anomalous wind fields at both low and upper levels, caused by a changing position of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) toward the southwest (northeast). But, there is no coincident robust pattern of wind anomalies over the Mantaro Basin. In conclusion, dry spells in the Mantaro basin appear to be dynamically linked to wet spells in NEB, since 62% of all dry events in MB coincide with wet spells in NEB (35% of all events). The dynamical link explaining the observed teleconnection and the resulting dipole pattern between precipitation extremes in the MB and NEB region, respectively, appears to be related to intraseasonal variability in the Bolivian High - Nordeste Low system. Only 26.53% of all wet spells, however, coincide with dry spells in NEB (12.15% of all events). While circulation anomalies that affect precipitation extremes in the MB have the potential to also affect the precipitation characteristics in NEB, the opposite is not the case. Extreme events in NEB are primarily affected by NE-SW displacement in the SACZ, a mechanism that is of little relevance for precipitation extremes in the MB.

Sulca, J. C.; Vuille, M. F.; Silva, F. Y.; Takahashi, K.



Thin lithosphere between the Amazonian and São Francisco cratons, in central Brazil, revealed by seismic P-wave tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of P-wave traveltime seismic tomography in central Brazil unravel the upper-mantle velocity structure and its relationship with the tectonic framework. Data were recorded between 2008 and 2012 at 16 stations distributed over the study area, and were added to the database used by Rocha et al. to improve the resolution of anomalies, and to image the surrounding regions. The main objective was to observe the upper-mantle boundary zone between the Amazonian and São Francisco cratons, represented by mobile belts, inside the Tocantins Province, and to study the lithosphere related to the collision between these two cratons during the Neoproterozoic. A set of low-velocity anomalies was observed crossing the study area in the NE-SW direction, in agreement with the main trend of the Transbrasiliano lineament. The region where the anomalies are located was interpreted as the zone separating the Amazonian and São Franciscan palaeoplates. There is a good correlation between the low-velocity anomalies and the high seismicity of this region, suggesting that it is a region of weakness, probably related to lithospheric thinning. High velocities were observed under the Amazonian and São Francisco cratons. A model is proposed for the lithospheric subsurface in central Brazil, emphasizing the boundary zone between the main palaeoplates in the study area. After merging both databases, the low-velocity anomalies in the central part of the study area suggest tectonic partitioning of the lithosphere. Synthetic tests show that the tomography results are robust.

de Azevedo, Paulo Araújo; Rocha, Marcelo Peres; Soares, José Eduardo Pereira; Fuck, Reinhardt A.



Soil-vegetation relationships in hyperseasonal cerrado, seasonal cerrado, and wet grassland in Emas National Park (central Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In South America, the largest savanna region is the Brazilian cerrado, in which there are few areas that become waterlogged in the rainy season. However, we found a small cerrado area in which the soil is poorly drained and becomes waterlogged at the end of the rainy season, allowing the appearance of a hyperseasonal cerrado. We investigated the soil-vegetation relationships in three vegetation forms: hyperseasonal cerrado, seasonal cerrado, and wet grassland. We collected vegetation and soil samples in these three vegetation forms and submitted obtained data to a canonical correspondence analysis. Our results showed a distinction among hyperseasonal cerrado, seasonal cerrado and wet grassland, which presented different floristic compositions and species abundances. The edaphic variables best related to the hyperseasonal and seasonal cerrados were sand, base saturation, pH, and magnesium. The wet grassland was related to higher concentrations of clay, organic matter, aluminium saturation, aluminium, phosphorus, and potassium. Although it is not possible to infer causal relationships based on our results, we hypothesize that the duration of waterlogging in the hyperseasonal cerrado may not be long enough to alter most of its soil characteristics, such as organic matter, phosphorus, and potassium, but may be long enough to alter some, such as pH and base saturation, as the soils under both cerrados were more similar to one another than to the soil under the wet grassland. Since waterlogging may alter soil characteristics and since these characteristics were enough to explain the plant community variation, we may conclude that water excess—permanent or seasonal—is one of the main factors to distinguish the three vegetation forms, which presented different floristic compositions and species abundances.

Amorim, Priscilla Kobayashi; Batalha, Marco Antônio



Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil.  


Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefé, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT ? 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 56, and 1:500 in 2. Results suggest a high level contamination of the aquatic environment of the home range of these animals. PMID:21764516

Santos, P S; Albuquerque, G R; da Silva, V M F; Martin, A R; Marvulo, M F V; Souza, S L P; Ragozo, A M A; Nascimento, C C; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Silva, J C R



Aerosol emissions from forest and grassland burnings in the southern amazon basin and central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest and grassland clearing by means of prescribed fires in tropical areas of the world may be responsible for large inputs of fine particulates to the global atmosphere besides being a major source of trace gases. The major continents on which extensive biomass burning takes place are Africa and South America. Such agricultural practices of burning have been employed throughout man's existence, but the importance and significance of such burning relative to anthropogenic industrial emissions to the atmosphere has not until extremely recently been seriously studied. In August-September 1979 project "Brushfire 1979" took place based in Brasília, Brazil. The Air Quality Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research made ground level and aircraft measurements of trace gases (e.g. CO 2, CO, CH 4, N 2O, H 2, CH 3Cl, COS, NO, NO 2, O 3) and Florida State University sampled ground level aerosol emissions from grass and forest burnings. Aerosols were sampled using plastic 7-stage single orifice cascade impactors and FSU type linear and circular "streakers". Long term sampling was made of regional background for total particulates (<15 ?mad) with 2 h resolution using streakers and with impactors for 24 h resolution of 7 particle size fractions (<0.25 to >8 ?mad). Short term sampling within grass or forest fires was made using impactors incorporated into portable kits containing 4 miniature 12-18 V dc Brailsford pumps and a disposable dry cell power pack. Sampling times of 5-15 min were found optimal under these conditions. Grass fires were sampled in the savannah area northeast of Brasília and forest fires in the state of Mato Grosso on the southern edge of the dryland forest of the Amazon basin. Residual ash samples were collected. All of the samples were analyzed at Florida State University using PIXE for 15-20 elements including Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb and Sr. Computer reduction of the X-ray spectra was made using the "HEXB" program. One of the prominent features found was the large flux of small particles (<2.0 ?m) from both fire types. P, S and Cl were mostly small particle, Mg, Al, Si and K showed a bimodal distribution biased towards the small particle range, while Ca, Ti and Fe (crustal elements) predominated in the large particle mode. As Cl was found to be exclusively small particle, a formation mechanism in which HCl gas neutralizes small organic particles containing P and S may be hypothesized. A much more extensive field program for the summer of 1980 is planned to take place in the central Amazon basin using ground and airborne aerosol samplers, to capitalize on the work pioneered in this study.

Leslie, Alistair C. D.



Occurrence of invertebrate-pathogenic fungi in a Cerrado ecosystem in Central Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biological diversity of microorganisms in natural environments is threatened worldwide by human activities. In a protected area of Cerrado, Goiás State, Brazil, naturally occurring invertebrate-pathogenic fungi were isolated from soils, slurries and water samples collected during the dry season in 2...


Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: multiresistant tick.  


The aim of the present study was to assess the acaricide resistance of tick populations in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), which has not previously been reported. Fifty-four cattle farms were visited and specimens of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were collected and subjected to the adult immersion test, using nine commercial acaricides in the amidine, pyrethroid and organophosphate groups. Climatic data, including monthly precipitation, were recorded. The results from the present study demonstrated that seven of the acaricides analyzed presented mean efficacy values of less than 95%, with large differences among the products tested. Nine of them exhibited satisfactory and unsatisfactory acaricide results on at least one farm. In conclusion, the farms located in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, exhibited populations of R. (Boophilus) microplus with variable degrees of susceptibility to different acaricides, thus suggesting that resistance to the active compounds exists. It is suggested that treatment protocols should be implemented at the beginning of winter and summer, using the acaricides that showed efficacy in the adult immersion test. PMID:25271453

Machado, Fabrício Amadori; Pivoto, Felipe Lamberti; Ferreira, Maiara Sanitá Tafner; Gregorio, Fabiano de Vargas; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; Sangioni, Luís Antônio



Screening for Intellectual Disability Using High-Resolution CMA Technology in a Retrospective Cohort from Central Brazil  

PubMed Central

Intellectual disability is a complex, variable, and heterogeneous disorder, representing a disabling condition diagnosed worldwide, and the etiologies are multiple and highly heterogeneous. Microscopic chromosomal abnormalities and well-characterized genetic conditions are the most common causes of intellectual disability. Chromosomal Microarray Analysis analyses have made it possible to identify putatively pathogenic copy number variation that could explain the molecular etiology of intellectual disability. The aim of the current study was to identify possible submicroscopic genomic alterations using a high-density chromosomal microarray in a retrospective cohort of patients with otherwise undiagnosable intellectual disabilities referred by doctors from the public health system in Central Brazil. The CytoScan HD technology was used to detect changes in the genome copy number variation of patients who had intellectual disability and a normal karyotype. The analysis detected 18 CNVs in 60% of patients. Pathogenic CNVs represented about 22%, so it was possible to propose the etiology of intellectual disability for these patients. Likely pathogenic and unknown clinical significance CNVs represented 28% and 50%, respectively. Inherited and de novo CNVs were equally distributed. We report the nature of CNVs in patients from Central Brazil, representing a population not yet screened by microarray technologies. PMID:25061755

Pereira, Rodrigo Roncato; Pinto, Irene Plaza; Minasi, Lysa Bernardes; de Melo, Aldaires Vieira; da Cruz e Cunha, Damiana Mirian; Cruz, Alex Silva; Ribeiro, Cristiano Luiz; da Silva, Cláudio Carlos; de Melo e Silva, Daniela; da Cruz, Aparecido Divino



Ecological distribution of stream macroalgal communities from a drainage basin in the Serra da Canastra National Park, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.  


Twelve stream segments were sampled four times in 1998-1999 (one sampling per season) in the drainage basin of the upper São Francisco River (19 masculine 45'-21 masculine 25'S, 49 masculine 05'-51 masculine 30'W), situated in Serra da Canastra National Park, at altitudes ranging from 1,175 to 1,400 m. The macroalgae survey resulted in 30 species, with a predominance of Cyanophyta (12 species = 40%) and Chlorophyta (11 species = 36.5%) and a lower proportion of Rhodophyta (seven species = 23.5%). Two species, Klebsormidium rivulare (Chlorophyta) and Kyliniella latvica (Rhodophyta), were new records for Brazil. Capsosira sp. and Stigonema sp. (Cyanophyta) and the "Chantransia" stage of Batrachospermum (Rhodophyta) were the most widespread macroalgae, occurring in six sampling sites, whereas 11 species were found at only one site. The proportion of macroalgal morphological types were as follows: mats (33%), free filaments (27%), gelatinous filaments (27%), crusts (7%), tufts (3%), and gelatinous colonies (3%). The flora revealed few species in common (4%-8%) with stream macroalgae from other Brazilian regions. The macroalgal communities proved to have species richness values close to the highest values reported in previous studies. The patterns typical for stream macroalgal communities (patchy distribution and dominance of few species) were also found in this basin. However, the stream variables most influential in macroalgal distribution in this study (rocky substratum, low pH, high COD, water color, and current velocity) were essentially the same that best describe the limnological characteristics of this lotic ecosystem. In addition, this combination of variables differed sharply from results of previous studies in other Brazilian stream ecosystems. PMID:15029374

Necchi-Júnior, O; Branco, L H Z; Branco, C C Z



Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil 1. Dry season  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the atmospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase, in aerosols, and in rain during the dry season (July--August 1985) in the Amazonia region of Brazil. At ground level the average concentrations of gas phase formic and acetic acid were 1.6 +- 0.6 and 2.2 +- 1.0 ppb, respectively. The diurnal behavior of both

M. O. Andreae; R. W. Talbot; T. W. Andreae; R. C. Harriss



Characterization of drought stress environments for upland rice and maize in central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought stresses arise when the combination of rainfall and soil water supply are insufficient to meet the transpiration needs\\u000a of the crop. In the Cerrado region of Goiás state, Brazil, summer rainfall is typically greater than 1000 mm. However, drought\\u000a stress can occur during rain-free periods of only 1–3 weeks, since roots are frequently restricted to shallow depths due to\\u000a Al-induced acidity

Alexandre Bryan Heinemann; Michael Dingkuhn; Delphine Luquet; Jean Claude Combres; Scott Chapman



New apatite fission-track data reflecting the landscape evolution using the example of the southeastern passive continental margin in Central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-temperature thermochronolgy like AFT yield a well established tool to understand and reconstruct the rift to post-rift evolution of the passive continental margin in Brazil. The aim of the study is to quantify the temperature, exhumation, uplift, and long-term dynamic evolution of the topography of the southeastern passive continental margin in the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina (Central Brazil)

Markus Karl; Ulrich A. Glasmacher; Peter C. Hackspacher; Ana O. B. Franco-Magalhaes



2001-2010 glacier changes in the Central Karakoram National Park: a contribution to evaluate the magnitude and rate of the "Karakoram anomaly"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karakoram is one of the most glacierized region worldwide, and glaciers therein are the main water resource of Pakistan. The attention paid to this area is increasing, because the evolution of its glaciers recently depicted a situation of general stability, known as "Karakoram Anomaly", in contrast to glacier retreat worldwide. Here we focused our attention upon the glacier evolution within the Central Karakoram National Park (CKNP, a newborn park of this region, ca. 12 162 km2 in area) to assess the magnitude and rate of such anomaly. By means of Remote Sensing data (i.e.: Landsat images), we analyzed a sample of more than 700 glaciers, and we found out their area change between 2001 and 2010 is not significant (+27 km2 ± 42 km2), thus confirming their stationarity. We analyzed climate data, snow coverage from MODIS, and supraglacial debris presence, as well as potential (con-) causes. We found a slight decrease of summer temperatures (down to -1.5 °C during 1980-2009) and an increase of wet days during winter (up +3.3 days yr-1 during 1980-2009), possibly increasing snow cover duration, consistently with MODIS data. We further detected considerable supra-glacial debris coverage (ca. 20% of the glacier area which rose up to 31% considering only the ablation area), which could have reduced buried ice melting during the last decade. These results provide further ground to uphold the existence of the Karakoram Anomaly, and present an useful template for assessment of water availability within the glaciers of the CKNP.

Minora, U.; Bocchiola, D.; D'Agata, C.; Maragno, D.; Mayer, C.; Lambrecht, A.; Mosconi, B.; Vuillermoz, E.; Senese, A.; Compostella, C.; Smiraglia, C.; Diolaiuti, G.



Intestinal Parasites in Gorillas, Chimpanzees, and Humans at Mondika Research Site, Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report prevalences and eggs\\/protozoa per g (EPG; PPG) of helminths and protozoa in gorillas, chimpanzees, agile mangabeys, indigenous Ba'Aka and Bantu, and western researchers at a remote field site in the Central African Republic. We examined fecal samples for eggs, larvae, proglottids, cysts, amoeba, trophozoites, and flagellates. For helminths, strongylates were most prevalent, infecting 82–94% of nonhuman primates (NH)

Alecia A. Lilly; Patrick T. Mehlman; Diane Doran



Zircon and sphene U-Pb geochronology of Upper Proterozoic volcanic-arc rock units from southwestern Goiás, central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U-Pb isotopic measurements were performed on zircon and sphene fractions separated from three different calc-alkaline, arc-type metaplutonic and metavolcanic rock units from southwestern Goiás, central Brazil. An upper intercept age of 899±7 Ma was obtained for the Arenópolis orthogneisses. Metamorphic recrystallization of these rocks occurred at ca. 637 Ma, as revealed by a concordant sphene analysis. Zircons from a meta-rhyolite from a metamorphosed island arc complex in the same area (the Arenópolis volcano-sedimentary sequence), yielded an upper intercept age of 929±8 Ma. Sphenes from the same sample revealed a metamorphic recrystallization age of ca. 594 Ma. A sheared meta-rhyolite from the Jaupaci volcano-sedimentary sequence, exposed ca. 80 km further to the east, is considerably younger, with an upper intercept age of 764±14 Ma. The sphene ages in the Arenópolis rocks are similar to whole-rock Rb-Sr isochrons obtained for strongly sheared meta-rhyolites of the Jaupaci sequence (594±37 Ma) and in the Fazenda Nova area (600±31 Ma). These dates most probably reflect the development of important steep-dipping strike slip shear zones that characterize the metamorphic basement of southwestern Goiás. The protoliths of all three rock units originated in the Upper Proterozoic supracrustal fold belts of Tocantins Province in central Brazil. The zircon U-Pb ages suggest more than one period of arc magmatism in southwestern Goiás between ca. 900 and 700 Ma, preceding the main tectonic/metamorphic event of the Brasiliano Orogeny at ca. 600 Ma.

Pimentel, M. M.; Heaman, L.; Fuck, R. A.


Holocene environmental changes in the Central Amazon Basin inferred from Lago Calado (Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holocene environments have been reconstructed by sedimentological, mineralogical geochemical and high resolution pollen analysis of a 1190cm-long core from Lago Calado near Manaus in Central Amazonia. The sediment core, dated by eight AMS-radiocarbon dates, has a basal age of 8330±5014Cyrbp and documents the landscape development from a river valley before 828014Cyrbp to a lake environment. This change is related to

Hermann Behling; Gertrud Keim; Georg Irion; Wolfgang Junk; J. Nunes de Mello



Use and diversity of palm (Arecaceae) resources in Central Western Brazil.  


Arecaceae Schultz-Sch. (Palmae Juss.), a member of the monocotyledon group, is considered one of the oldest extant angiosperm families on Earth. This family is highly valuable because of its species diversity, its occurrence in a wide range of habitats, and its status as an integral part of the culture and the family-based economy of many traditional and nontraditional communities. The main objectives of this study were to perform an ethnobotanical study involving these palms and a "Quilombola" (Maroon) community in the municipality of Cavalcante, GO, Brazil. The variables gender, age, and formal schooling had no influence on the number of species recognized and used by the Kalungas. Ethnobotanical studies based on traditional knowledge in addition to use and management of palms are fundamental aspects for planning and appliance of public policies directed to the use of natural resources and improvement of life quality. PMID:24772040

Martins, Renata Corrêa; Filgueiras, Tarciso de Sousa; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino



Use and Diversity of Palm (Arecaceae) Resources in Central Western Brazil  

PubMed Central

Arecaceae Schultz-Sch. (Palmae Juss.), a member of the monocotyledon group, is considered one of the oldest extant angiosperm families on Earth. This family is highly valuable because of its species diversity, its occurrence in a wide range of habitats, and its status as an integral part of the culture and the family-based economy of many traditional and nontraditional communities. The main objectives of this study were to perform an ethnobotanical study involving these palms and a “Quilombola” (Maroon) community in the municipality of Cavalcante, GO, Brazil. The variables gender, age, and formal schooling had no influence on the number of species recognized and used by the Kalungas. Ethnobotanical studies based on traditional knowledge in addition to use and management of palms are fundamental aspects for planning and appliance of public policies directed to the use of natural resources and improvement of life quality. PMID:24772040

Martins, Renata Corrêa; Filgueiras, Tarciso de Sousa



New geological and single-zircon Pb evaporation data from the Central Guyana Domain, southeastern Roraima, Brazil: Tectonic implications for the central region of the Guyana Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metagranitoid rocks, mylonites, leucogneisses and granulites occur in the Central Guyana Domain (CGD) near the UatumÖAnauá Domain (UAD) boundary, southeastern Roraima (Brazil). These rocks are oriented along NE-SW and E-W trends and dip to NW and N, respectively. Single-zircon Pb evaporation results yielded 1724 ± 14 Ma and 1889 ± 3 Ma for a syn-kinematic foliated hornblende-biotite monzogranite and a granodioritic mylonite, respectively. These results point to a new tectonic event (Itã Event) in the area in addition to the 1.94-1.93 Ga (late- to post-Transamazonian) and the 1.35-0.98 Ga (K'Mudku) thermal tectonic events. This new event may be related, at least locally, with the evolution of the Columbia Supercontinent. In addition, the Itã Fault System is younger than 1.89 Ga (granodioritic mylonite age), contrasting with the Barauana high-grade lineament and 1.94 Ga polydeformed rocks, pointing to the needs of a major revision of lithostratigraphic column currently proposed for the CGD as well as the CGD and UAD boundary.

Almeida, Marcelo E.; Macambira, Moacir J. B.; Valente, Sérgio de C.




EPA Science Inventory

This research is funded through an interagency agreement with NASA. The research in this project is contributing to assessments of the effects of land use in central Brazil on: 1) the stocks and cycling rates of carbon and nutrient cycling; 2) the function and structure of soil ...


Sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) from forest areas in Botucatu municipality, central western São Paulo State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The study of the distribution and ecology of sandfly species is essential for epidemiological surveillance and estimation of the transmission risk of Leishmania spp. infection. Findings In the present study, sandflies were captured in native fragmented forest areas in Rubião Júnior district, Botucatu municipality, São Paulo state, Brazil, between September 2001 and January 2005. A minimum of two automatic light traps were installed per night from 6 pm to 8 am, in different months, resulting in approximately 900 collecting hours. During this period, 216 sandfly specimens of sixteen species were captured. Pintomyia monticola and Brumptomyia guimaraesi were the most abundant with 56 specimens (25.93%) captured per species, followed by Pintomyia fischeri 28 (12.96%) and Psathyromyia pascalei 18 (8.33%). Other captured species were Lutzomyia amarali, Sciopemyia sordellii, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Nyssomyia whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Pintomyia bianchigalatiae, Pintomyia misionensis, Brumptomyia carvalheiroi, Brumptomyia cardosoi, Brumptomyia cunhai, Brumptomyia nitzulescui, Brumptomyia brumpti and Brumptomyia spp. represented by 58 (26.85%) specimens. Conclusions Although less frequently found, the presence of Pintomyia fischeri, Nyssomyia whitmani and Migonemyia migonei, known vectors of Leishmania braziliensis, indicates risk of American cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence. Moreover, the absence of Lutzomyia longipalpis-the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi, which is the agent of American visceral leishmaniasis-suggests that there is no risk of introduction and establishment of this disease in the studied area. PMID:23849624



Use of heat tolerance traits in discriminating between groups of sheep in central Brazil.  


The animal and its environment make up an integrated system, where each acts on the other. Tropical regions are characterized by high levels of solar radiation and environmental temperature which may adversely affect animal production. This study carries out a multivariate analysis of physical and physiological traits in sheep in the Federal District of Brazil to test the ability to separate groups of animals and determine which traits are most important in the adaptation of animal to heat stress. The variables studied included coat thickness, number and length of hairs, pigmentation of the skin and coat, number of sweat glands as well as heart and respiratory rates, rectal and skin temperatures, sweating rate, and blood parameters. Five groups of ten animals were used depending on breed (Bergamasca, crossbred, or Santa Inês) or coat color (Santa Inês--brown, white, and black). The data underwent multivariate statistical analyses including cluster, discriminate, and canonical, using Statistical Analysis System--SAS®. The tree diagram showed clear distances between groups studied and canonical analysis was able to separate individuals in groups, especially Bergamasca and white Santa Inês. The canonical correlation redundancy analysis showed that coat reflectance as well as hair length and number of hairs per unit area were the most useful in explaining changes in physiological traits. Skin and coat traits such as hair length, coat reflectance, percentage of epithelial area occupied by sweat glands, skin reflectance and thickness, as well as heart and breathing rates were the most important in separating these groups. PMID:20652407

Castanheira, Marlos; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Louvandini, Helder; Landim, Aline; Fiorvanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; Dallago, Bruno Stefano; Correa, Patricia Spoto; McManus, Concepta



Molecular phylogeny of Neotropical bioluminescent beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) in southern and central Brazil.  


Bioluminescence in beetles is found mainly in the Elateroidea superfamily (Elateridae, Lampyridae and Phengodidae). The Neotropical region accounts for the richest diversity of bioluminescent species in the world with about 500 described species, most occurring in the Amazon, Atlantic rainforest and Cerrado (savanna) ecosystems in Brazil. The origin and evolution of bioluminescence, as well as the taxonomic status of several Neotropical taxa in these families remains unclear. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of bioluminescent Elateroidea we sequenced and analyzed sequences of mitochondrial NADH2 and the nuclear 28S genes and of the cloned luciferase sequences of Brazilian species belonging to the following genera: (Lampyridae) Macrolampis, Photuris, Amydetes, Bicellonycha, Aspisoma, Lucidota, Cratomorphus; (Elateridae) Conoderus, Pyrophorus, Hapsodrilus, Pyrearinus, Fulgeochlizus; and (Phengodidae) Pseudophengodes, Phrixothrix, Euryopa and Brasilocerus. Our study supports a closer phylogenetic relationship between Elateridae and Phengodidae as other molecular studies, in contrast with previous morphologic and molecular studies that clustered Lampyridae/Phengodidae. Molecular data also supported division of the Phengodinae subfamily into the tribes Phengodini and Mastinocerini. The position of the genus Amydetes supports the status of the Amydetinae as a subfamily. The genus Euryopa is included in the Mastinocerini tribe within the Phengodinae/Phengodidae. PMID:23868199

Amaral, D T; Arnoldi, F G C; Rosa, S P; Viviani, V R



2001-2010 glacier changes in the Central Karakoram National Park: a contribution to evaluate the magnitude and rate of the "Karakoram anomaly"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use Landsat images to quantify recent (2001 and 2010) glacier area coverage and its change within the recently established Central Karakoram National Park, CKNP, Northern Pakistan, including Baltoro and Biafo-Ispar glaciers, at Mt. K2 toe. Trends of climate variables (1980-2009) as provided by PMD of Pakistan for low altitude stations, are investigated, to assess possible effect of climate upon glaciers within the CKNP. The work was developed in fulfillment of the SEED and PAPRIKA projects, promoted and managed by the EvK2CNR Committee, aimed to promote social development in the CKNP area, and investigate water resources in upper Indus basin. We found substantially unchanged ice cover, which is consistent with recent the literature, suggesting the presence of the so called Karakoram Anomaly. The climate data display i) a slight decrease of Summer temperatures, possibly decreasing snow and ice melt, and ii) an increase of wet days during Winter, possibly increasing the number of snowfalls, and possibly of ice shielding via snow albedo. These joint effects, together with increasing debris coverage, may have in turn contributed to unchanged glacier area, in spite of the general warming trend. Our study highlights possible underlying mechanisms of the Karakoram Anomaly, and the need for further studies of climate variables at high altitudes, including snowfall accumulation, temperature and solar radiation, to understand more accurately glacier mass budgets and evolution in this area.

Minora, Umberto; Bocchiola, Daniele; D'Agata, Carlo; Maragno, Davide; Mayer, Cristoph; Lambrecht, Astrid; Mosconi, Boris; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Senese, Antonella; Compostella, Chiara; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina



Habitat suitability mapping of Anopheles darlingi in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant reservoir, Mato Grosso, Central Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Hydropower plants provide more than 78 % of Brazil's electricity generation, but the country's reservoirs are potential new habitats for main vectors of malaria. In a case study in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil, habitat suitability of Anopheles darlingi was studied. Habitat profile was characterized by collecting environmental data. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were applied to extract additional spatial layers of land use, distance maps, and relief characteristics for spatial model building. Results Logistic regression analysis and ROC curves indicate significant relationships between the environment and presence of An. darlingi. Probabilities of presence strongly vary as a function of land cover and distance from the lake shoreline. Vector presence was associated with spatial proximity to reservoir and semi-deciduous forests followed by Cerrado woodland. Vector absence was associated with open vegetation formations such as grasslands and agricultural areas. We suppose that non-significant differences of vector incidences between rainy and dry seasons are associated with the availability of anthropogenic breeding habitat of the reservoir throughout the year. Conclusion Satellite image classification and multitemporal shoreline simulations through DEM-based GIS-analyses consist in a valuable tool for spatial modeling of A. darlingi habitats in the studied hydropower reservoir area. Vector presence is significantly increased in forested areas near reservoirs in bays protected from wind and wave action. Construction of new reservoirs under the tropical, sub-humid climatic conditions should therefore be accompanied by entomologic studies to predict the risk of malaria epidemics. PMID:17343728

Zeilhofer, Peter; Santos, Emerson Soares dos; Ribeiro, Ana LM; Miyazaki, Rosina D; Santos, Marina Atanaka dos



Floristic composition and similarity of 15 hectares in Central Amazon, Brazil.  


The Amazon region is one of the most diverse areas in the world. Research on high tropical forest diversity brings up relevant contributions to understand the mechanisms that result and support such diversity. In the present study we describe the species composition and diversity of 15 one-ha plots in the Amazonian terra firme dense forest in Brazil, and compare the floristic similarity of these plots with other nine one-ha plots. The 15 plots studied were randomly selected from permanent plots at the Embrapa Experimental site, Amazonas State in 2005. The diversity was analysed by using species richness and Shannon's index, and by applying the Sorensen's index for similarity and unweighted pair-group average (UPGMA) as clustering method. Mantel test was performed to study whether the differences in species composition between sites could be explained by the geographic distance between them. Overall, we identified 8 771 individuals, 264 species and 51 plant families. Most of the species were concentrated in few families and few had large number of individuals. Families presenting the highest species richness were Fabaceae (Faboideae: 22spp., Mimosoideae: 22spp.), Sapotaceae: 22spp., Lecythidaceae: 15 and Lauraceae: 13. Burseraceae had the largest number of individuals with 11.8% of the total. The ten most abundant species were: Protium hebetatum (1 037 individuals), Eschweilera coriacea (471), Licania oblongifolia (310), Pouteria minima (293), Ocotea cernua (258), Scleronema micranthum (197), Eschweilera collina (176), Licania apelata (172), Naucleopsis caloneura (170) and Psidium araca (152), which represented 36.5% of all individuals. Approximately 49% of species had up to ten individuals and 13% appeared only once in all sampled plots, showing a large occurrence of rare species. Our study area is on a forest presenting a high tree species diversity with Shannon's diversity index of 4.49. The dendrogram showed two groups of plots with low similarity between them (less than 0.25), and the closer the plots were one to another, more similar in species composition (Mantel R = 0.3627, p < 0.01). The 15 plots in our study area share more than 50% of their species composition and represent the group of plots that have the shortest distance between each other. Overall, our results highlight the high local and regional heterogeneity of environments in terra firme forests, and the high occurrence of rare species, which should be considered in management and conservation programs in the Amazon rainforest, in order to maintain its structure on the long run. PMID:22208103

da Silva, Kátia Emidio; Martins, Sebastião Venancio; Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares; Santos, Nerilson Terra; de Azevedo, Celso Paulo; Matos, Francisca Dionizia de Almeida; do Amaral, Ieda Leão



Litter manipulation and associated invertebrate fauna in secondary forest, central Amazonia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant litter from selected tree species has been used for improving soil productivity in low-input systems of secondary vegetation in Central Amazon, leading to different conditions for invertebrates. Soil invertebrate assemblages were monitored to test the effects of adding litter types of contrasting nutritional quality and periods of exposure on the development of the community. We established four second growth plots with 80 subplots of 3 m 2 from which the original litter was removed and replaced in 60 subplots. Twenty subplots received Hevea brasiliensis leaves, 20 others Carapa guianensis leaves, and another 20 an equal mixture of H. brasiliensis, C. guianensis and Vismia guianensis. Twenty subplots were left with the original litter. Litter and mineral soil (5 cm deep) sub-horizons were collected after 45, 100, 160, 240 and 300 days of exposure. The invertebrates were extracted using Kempson apparatus. At the day 210, the litter was replenished to match the surrounding litter. Regression analyses showed no significant effect of litter type, but the period of exposure did affect the community in both sub-horizons. Only after the litter replenishment, the type of litter and periods of exposure affected the community in the litter sub-horizon. Because we tried to isolate the effects of litter composition from other large-scale phenomena, several factors interfered in the experiment and potential problems were identified to optimize the investigation. The sampling design must be improved by using a larger number of subsamples for each kind of litter within each plot. Coarse parameters of Order and Family were suited to detect major environmental patterns on soil invertebrates, but taxonomic resolution to species and/or morphospecies is required to detect more subtle effects. Future manipulations should also be done on a longer time scale, and the replicates need to be spread over larger areas to capture the natural variations within the ecosystems.

Santos, Evanira M. R.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Luizão, Flávio J.



Evaluation of Noise Pollution in Urban Parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study provides an evaluation of noise pollution in six Urban Parks located in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Equivalent\\u000a noise levels (L\\u000a eq) were measured in 303 points (each point measured during 3 min) spread throughout the Parks. Measured values were confronted\\u000a with local legislation (Law 10625) allowed limits, and the Parks were thus classified as “acoustically polluted

Paulo Henrique Trombetta Zannin; Andressa Maria Coelho Ferreira; Bani Szeremetta



National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online directory focuses on national parks throughout the country that offer educational opportunities. Where possible, it includes the following information for each: the type of support offered, including educational materials, access to a naturalist or specialists, and classes/workshops; and mailing address and contact information. In addition, a link to the National Park Service's Web site is included.


Park It!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

Sartorius, Tara Cady



Energy balance with Landsat images in irrigated central pivots with corn crop in the São Paulo State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy balance (EB) components were quantified in a commercial farm with corn crop, irrigated by central pivots, in the Northwestern side of São Paulo state, Southeast Brazil. The SAFER (Simple Algorithm For Evapotranspiration Retrieving) was applied to retrieve the latent heat flux (?E), considering six pivots, covering irrigated areas from 74 to 108 ha. With ?E quantified and considering soil heat flux (G) as a fraction of net radiation (Rn), the sensible heat flux (H) was acquired as a residual in the energy balance equation. Seven Landsat satellite images, covering all corn crop stages from 23 April 2010 to 29 August 2010, allowed relating the energy balance components according to the accumulated degree-days (DDac) from the planting to harvest dates. The average Rn values ranging from 5.2 to 7.2 MJ m-2 day-1, represented 30 to 45% of global solar radiation (RG). Considering the variation of the energy balance components along the corn crop growing seasons, the average ranges for ?E, H and G were respectively 0.0 to 6.4 MJ m-2 day-1, -1.5 to 6.7 MJ m-2 day-1 and 0.1 to 0.6 MJ m-2 day-1. The fraction of the available energy (Rn - G) used as ?E was from 0.0 to 1.3 indicated a good irrigation management, insuring that the water deficit could not be the reason of any yield reduction. Although Rn did not reflected well the crop stages, its partition strongly depended on these stages. ?E higher than Rn and the negative H/Rn, happening sometimes along the corn growing seasons, occurred after the vegetative growth and before the harvest times, indicated heat advection from the surrounding areas to the irrigation pivots, which represented an additional energy source for the evaporative process. The models applied here with only the visible and infrared bands of the Landsat sensor are very useful for the energy balance analyses, considering the size of the corn crop irrigation pivots in Southeast Brazil, when subsidizing a rational irrigation water application in corn crop.

Teixeira, Antônio H. d. C.; Hernandez, Fernando B. T.; Andrade, Ricardo G.; Leivas, Janice F.; Bolfe, Edson L.



Distribution of throughfall and stemflow in multi-strata agroforestry, perennial monoculture, fallow and primary forest in central Amazonia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partitioning of rain water into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss when passing through plant canopies depends on properties of the respective plant species, such as leaf area and branch angles. In heterogeneous vegetation, such as tropical forest or polycultural systems, the presence of different plant species may consequently result in a mosaic of situations with respect to quantity and quality of water inputs into the soil. As these processes influence not only the water availability for the plants, but also water infiltration and nutrient leaching, the understanding of plant effects on the repartitioning of rain water may help in the optimization of land use systems and management practices. We measured throughfall and stemflow in a perennial polyculture (multi-strata agroforestry), monocultures of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) for fruit and for palmito, a monoculture of cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), spontaneous fallow and primary forest during one year in central Amazonia, Brazil. The effect on rain water partitioning was measured separately for four useful tree species in the polyculture and for two tree species in the primary forest. Throughfall at two stem distances, and stemflow, differed significantly between tree species, resulting in pronounced spatial patterns of water input into the soil in the polyculture system. For two tree species, peach palm for fruit (Bactris gasipaes) and Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa), the water input into the soil near the stem was significantly higher than the open-area rainfall. This could lead to increased nutrient leaching when fertilizer is applied close to the stem of these trees. In the primary forest, such spatial patterns could also be detected, with significantly higher water input near a palm (Oenocarpus bacaba) than near a dicotyledonous tree species (Eschweilera sp.). Interception losses were 6·4% in the polyculture, 13·9 and 12·3% in the peach palm monocultures for fruit and for palmito, respectively, 0·5% in the cupuaçu monoculture and 3·1% in the fallow. With more than 20% of the open-area rainfall, the highest stemflow contributions to the water input into the soil were measured in the palm monocultures and in the fallow.

Schroth, Götz; Ferreira da Silva, Luciana; Wolf, Marc-Andree; Geraldes Teixeira, Wenceslau; Zech, Wolfgang



Population dynamics of Aceodromus convolvuli (Acari: Mesostigmata: Blattisociidae) on spontaneous plants associated with Jatropha curcas in central Brazil.  


Spontaneously growing plants are commonly considered competitors of cultivated plants. Owing to the lack of specificity of many arthropods, spontaneous plants may be attacked by the same arthropods that attack cultivated plants and they may also harbor natural enemies of organisms harmful to cultivated plants. Aceodromus convolvuli Muma (Blattisociidae) has been reported recently in relatively large numbers in Tocantins state, central Brazil, mostly on Helicteres guazumifolia Kunth (Malvaceae). Very little has been reported about the population dynamics of blattisociid mites under field conditions. The objective of this work was to study the population dynamics of A. convolvuli in Gurupi, Tocantins state, to evaluate its possible interaction with associated mites. Monthly samples were taken from leaves of the 11 most abundant and frequent spontaneous plants in a Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) plantation. About 96.5 % of the specimens of A. convolvuli were collected in the rainy season. The patterns of variation of the population of A. convolvuli and of predators belonging to the family Phytoseiidae were similar, but A. convolvuli was much more numerous than all phytoseiid specimens combined. Highly significant correlations were observed between A. convolvuli densities and relative humidity or diversity of spontaneous plants. When only mites on H. guazumifolia were considered, highly significant correlation was also observed between densities of A. convolvuli and of mites of the family Tetranychidae. The results suggested that A. convolvuli could be a predator of tenuipalpid and/or tetranychid mites. Studies about its biology are needed to determine its preferred food sources and potential as biological control agent. PMID:24943489

Cruz, Wilton P; Sarmento, Renato A; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Teodoro, Adenir V; Rodrigues, Diego M; de Moraes, Gilberto J



Relationships among vegetation, geomorphology and hydrology in the Bananal Island tropical wetlands, Araguaia River basin, Central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bananal Plain spreading on the Middle Araguaia River basin in Central Brazil at the Cerrado-Amazonia ecotone is a unique system that sustains the largest seasonal wetlands of the Cerrado biome. The huge Bananal Plain is an intracratonic sedimentary basin filled with Pleistocene sediments of the Araguaia formation. Covering approximately two million hectares, the Bananal Island is a major geomorphologic feature of the Bananal plain. Fieldwork and the analysis of a temporal series of MODIS-VI and Landsat ETM images allowed us to discriminate Cerrado phyto-physiognomies on the Bananal Island. Maps of vegetation and geomorphologic units were created, and from the correlation between landforms and vegetation types we identified morpho-vegetation units. Our approach allowed us to postulate that Pleistocene landforms strongly influence, if not dominate, the distribution of vegetation units. For example, the distribution of current gallery forest is not only controlled by active floodplains, but also by alluvial belts abandoned by avulsion. Additionally, arboreal Cerrado vegetation is supported by laterite developed on the sediments of the Araguaia Formation. Some of these inactive landforms are in part modified by the present day geomorphologic processes and colonized by successional vegetation that varies from alluvial forest to Cerrado. Characterized by a very flat landscape with a hindered drainage, the muddy sediments of the Araguaia Formation and the high seasonal rainfall favor the development of regional seasonal wetlands. The Bananal plain is a key area for understanding the Quaternary climatic and biogeographic changes in tropical South America. The control exerted by relict Quaternary landforms on the current vegetation units demonstrates the strong links between geomorphologic aspects of the landscape and ecological patterns. This multidisciplinary approach provides a better understanding of the biogeographic patterns in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone, which is useful for identifying and designing areas for conservation.

Valente, C. R.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ferreira, L. G.



Parks Canada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The national park system of Canada is extensive, stretching from Baffin Island to areas in British Columbia. The stated goal of the system is "to establish a system of national parks that represents each of Canada's distinct natural regions." First-time visitors to the site can use the Introduction area to learn more about the system, and there's also a Planning Your Visit link that's quite helpful. The basic document that most users will want to check out here is titled "National Parks System Plan" and it offers a broad overview of the 39 national parks in Canada. Visitors can learn about parks such as Aulavik, Prince Edward Island, and others by clicking over to the Find a National Park area. Naturalists and scientists can use the Species at Risk area to learn about what the Canadian government is doing to protect species such as the whooping crane and the seaside centipede lichen. Finally, the site is rounded out by the Managing Human Use link which talks about their long-range plans to ensure that the parks maintain a balance between visitors and conserving the natural areas.



Kittlitz's and Marbled Murrelets in Kenai Fjords National Park, South-Central Alaska: At-Sea Distribution, Abundance, and Foraging Habitat, 2006-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kittlitz's murrelets (Brachyramphus brevirostris) and marbled murrelets (B. marmoratus) are small diving seabirds and are of management concern because of population declines in coastal Alaska. In 2006-08, we conducted a study in Kenai Fjords National Park, south-central Alaska, to estimate the recent population size of Brachyramphus murrelets, to evaluate productivity based on juvenile to adult ratios during the fledgling season, and to describe and compare their use of marine habitat. We also attempted a telemetry study to examine Kittlitz's murrelet nesting habitat requirements and at-sea movements. We estimated that the Kittlitz's murrelet population was 671 ? 144 birds, and the marbled murrelet population was 5,855 ? 1,163 birds. Kittlitz's murrelets were limited to the heads of three fjords with tidewater glaciers, whereas marbled murrelets were more widely distributed. Population estimates for both species were lower in 2007 than in 2006 and 2008, possibly because of anomalous oceanographic conditions that may have delayed breeding phenology. During late season surveys, we observed few hatch-year marbled murrelets and only a single hatch-year Kittlitz's murrelet over the course of the study. Using radio telemetry, we found a likely Kittlitz's murrelet breeding site on a mountainside bordering one of the fjords. We never observed radio-tagged Kittlitz's murrelets greater than 10 kilometer from their capture sites, suggesting that their foraging range during breeding is narrow. We observed differences in oceanography between fjords, reflecting differences in sill characteristics and orientation relative to oceanic influence. Acoustic biomass, a proxy for zooplankton and small schooling fish, generally decreased with distance from glaciers in Northwestern Lagoon, but was more variable in Aialik Bay where dense forage fish schools moved into glacial areas late in the summer. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), capelin (Mallotus villosus) and Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) were important forage species for murrelets in Kenai Fjords. Euphausiids also may have been an important forage resource for Kittlitz's murrelets in turbid glacial outflows in shallow waters during daytime. Marbled murrelets generally were more tolerant to a wider range of foraging habitat conditions although they tended to avoid the ice-covered silty waters close to glaciers. In contrast, Kittlitz's murrelets preferred areas where the influence of tidewater glaciers was the greatest and where their distribution was determined largely by prey availability. This work highlights an important link between interannual variability in murrelet counts at sea and mesoscale oceanographic conditions that influence marine productivity and prey distribution.

Arimitsu, M.L.; Piatt, J.F.; Romano, Marc D.; Madison, E.N.; Conaway, J.S.



University of Campus Parking Garage  

E-print Network

University of Zurich Oerlikon Campus Parking Garage Eisfeld SChliErEn StatiOn OErlikOn StatiOn main Garage am Central University of Zurich irchel Campus University of Zurich Schlieren Campus limmat Parking-bill-PlatZ bahnhOf OErlikOn OSt SChliErEn StatiOn OErlikOn StatiOn SChliErEn ZEntrUm/ bahnhOf SChliErEn bahnh

Zürich, Universität


Park Shorelines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage of the National Park Service (NPS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) discusses the environments of coastlines - the narrow strips of land where national parks meet the sea. It covers the formation of waves and beaches, as well as how beaches move through longshore drift. Also included are plans for paper models of island coral reefs, which include shield volcanoes, fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls.


Airborne geophysical surveys in the north-central region of Goias (Brazil): implications for radiometric characterization of tropical soils.  


Progress obtained in analysis aerogammaspectrometric and aeromagnetic survey data for the north-central region of the state of Goias (Brazil) are presented. The results obtained have allowed not only determination of the abundances of naturally radioactive elements but also new insights into the processes that determine the radiometric characteristics of the main soil types. There are indications that the radioelement abundances of soils are not only related to their physical properties, but also chemical characteristics of source rocks from which they are derived. For example, oxisol soils derived from the felsic source rocks of the Mara Rosa and Green stone belts have equivalent uranium (eU) values higher than 1.7 ppm, while those derived from source rocks of the relatively more basic Uruaçu Group and sediment sequences of Proterozoic age are characterized by eU contents of less than 1 ppm. Oxisol soils of the Median massif, ultisol soils of the Paranoá, Canastra and Araxá Groups, cambisol soils of the Araí Group and plintosol soils of the Bambuí Group constitute an intermediate class with eU contents in the range of 1-1.3 ppm. Equivalent thorium abundances of soil types display similar trends, the range of variation being 4-16 ppm. Potassium abundances on the other hand are rather uniform with values in the range of 1-1.3%, the only exception being the sedimentary sequences of Proterozoic age, which has a mean value of 0.7%. These observations have been considered as indicative of characteristic features of tropical soils in the study area. In this context, we point out the possibility of using results of aerogammaspectrometry surveys as a convenient complementary tool in identifying geochemical zoning of soils in tropical environments. The ratios of eU/K are found to fall in the range of 1-1.7, which is typical of common soils. The ratios of eTh/K exhibit a relatively wide interval, with values in the range of 4-16. The ratios of eTh/eU are found to have values in the range of 2-12. Also, there appears to be a rather reasonable association between the spatial distributions of positive anomalies of the radioelement ratios with the lineaments derived from the vertical derivative of the magnetic field. The map of the analytic signal of the magnetic field also reveals a similar association. Such associations imply that the processes which determine evolutionary trends of soil types are somehow related to the events that control the development of structural features in subsurface layers. PMID:23085188

Guimaraes, Suze Nei P; Hamza, Valiya M; da Silva, Joney Justo




E-print Network

O ACCESSIBILITY ELEVATOR ACCESSIBLE PARKING ACCESSIBLE ENTRY CURB CUT PARKING GARAGE PARKING GARAGE........................ 45 Communications Museum ........................... 22 Computer Science.................................................... 80 Development................................................ 12 Dining Services

Gera, Ralucca


Alaska Park Science National Park Service  

E-print Network

Alaska Park Science National Park Service Alaska Support Office 2525 Gambell Street Anchorage, Alaska 99503-2892 PhotographcourtesyofAlutiiqMuseumandHeritageCenter NationalParkServicephotograph #12;Alaska Park Science Connections to Natural and Cultural Resource Studies in Alaska's National Parks


Car Parking and Access Car Parking  

E-print Network

Car Parking and Access Car Parking Parking permits are provided free of charge for visitors of the car parks on campus for the duration of the conference. The number of available spaces, and the location, will depend on demand for car parking for University business on any given date. Unfortunately

Sussex, University of


Mapping distribution and thickness of supraglacial debris in the Central Karakoram National Park: main features and implications to model glacier meltwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supraglacial debris plays a not negligible role in controlling magnitude and rates of buried ice melt (Østrem, 1959; Mattson et al., 1993). Knowledge on rock debris is essential to model ice melt (and consequently meltwater discharge) upon wide glacierized areas, as melt rates are mainly driven by debris thickness variability. This is particularly important for the Pamir-Himalaya-Karakoram area (PHK), where debris-covered glaciers are frequent (Smiraglia et al., 2007; Scherler et al., 2011) and where melt water from glaciers supports agriculture and hydropower production. By means of remote sensing techniques and field data, supraglacial debris can be detected, and then quantified in area and thickness. Supervised classifications of satellite imagery can be used to map debris on glaciers. They use different algorithms to cluster an image based on its pixel values, and Region Of Interests (ROIs) previously selected by the human operator. This can be used to obtain a supraglacial debris mask by which surface extension can be calculated. Moreover, kinetic surface temperature data derived from satellites (such as ASTER and Landsat), can be used to quantify debris thicknesses (Mihalcea et al., 2008). Ground Control Points (GCPs) are essential to validate the obtained debris thicknesses. We took the Central Karakoram National Park (CKNP) as a representative sample for PHK area. The CKNP is 12,000 km2 wide, with more than 700 glaciers, mostly debris covered (Minora et al., 2013). Among those we find some of the widest glaciers of the World (e.g: Baltoro). To improve the knowledge on these glaciers and to better model their melt and water discharge we proceeded as follows. Firstly we ran a Supervised Maximum Likelihood (SML) classification on 2001 and 2010 Landsat images to detect debris presence and distribution. Secondly we analyzed kinetic surface temperature (from Landsat) to map debris depth. This latter attempt took also advantage from field data of debris thickness and surface rock temperatures acquired in the study area since the ablation season 2004 (see Mihalcea et al., 2006; 2008b). A mean debris thickness of ca. 5.6 cm was found, probably greater than the local "critical value" (sensu Mattson et al., 1993). Moreover, our field data indicate a local critical value of about 5 cm, above which supraglacial debris thickness would lower ice melt rates compared to that of bare ice (Mihalcea et al., 2006). These findings suggest that in the CKNP area the abundant and extensive debris coverage may result in an actual reduction of buried ice melt. Moreover, Minora et al. (2013) reported quite stable conditions of glaciers in the CKNP area in the time window 2001-2011. This glacier behavior is consistent with the largely known "Karakoram Anomaly" (Hewitt, 2005) and requires further investigations. Among other possible important factors driving such a unique glacier trend, debris depth and distribution have to be considered. This work was carried out under the umbrella of the PAPRIKA project funded and managed by EvK2CNR Committee. The authors are also grateful to the SEED project (funded by the Pakistani and Italian Governments and managed by EvK2CNR).

Minora, Umberto; Mayer, Christoph; Bocchiola, Daniele; D'Agata, Carlo; Maragno, Davide; Lambrecht, Astrid; Vuillermoz, Elisa; smiraglia, claudio; diolaiuti, guglielmina



Park Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Its never too early to begin planning your summer vacation, especially in the depths of winter; those with cabin fever can get a jump on their outdoor recreation plans at this site, provided by L.L. Bean. Users can search this database of over 1,400 state and national parks, forests, and wildlife refuges by state, region, and/or activities in which they are interested (including winter sports for all-season recreators). Search returns include contact information, an overview of the park/ forest and its highlights, photos, and a list of approved or available activities.


Free Parking David Tarboton  

E-print Network

. GREEN permit holders may park in any Green or Yellow parking area. STUDENT ATHLETIC FACILITY TERRACE ENG STL STL STANLAUBPRACTICE FACILITY 1 2 2 BBT 3 3 4 Student Parking Areas BLUE permit holders may area. Misc. Parking Areas PUBLIC PAY PARKING Rates are posted at each site. STATE VEHICLE PARKING 1

Tarboton, David


Behavioral flexibility of a group of bearded capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) in the National Park of Brasília (Brazil): consequences of cohabitation with visitors.  


Increasing urbanization and deforestation have enhanced the opportunities of contact between humans and monkeys and the impact of human activities on primate behavior is receiving growing attention. This study explores whether activity budgets and diet of a group of capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) inhabiting the area of the swimming pools of the National Park of Brasília is affected by the presence of visitors providing food to them. During one year, both in the dry and the wet seasons, we scored capuchins' behavior via scan sampling every ten minutes. Results showed that this group spent less time foraging for wild foods than other comparable groups living in similar habitats. Moreover, capuchins relied more on human food during the dry season, when pulpy fruits were less available, than in the wet season. Our findings confirm other studies on different monkey species that have shown that access to human food decreases the time spent foraging for wild food and the home range size. They also show that capuchins are able to modify their diet, to exploit alternative food sources, and to change their activity budget in response to the availability of new food opportunities and to seasonal food availability. PMID:19197485

Sabbatini, G; Stammati, M; Tavares, M C H; Visalberghi, E



Population-based surveillance of pediatric pneumonia: use of spatial analysis in an urban area of Central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the spatial distribution of childhood community-acquired pneumonia de- tected through prospective surveillance in Goiâ- nia, Brazil. Three spatial analysis techniques were applied to detect intra-urban geographic aggregation of pneumonia cases: Kernel method, nearest neighbor hierarchical technique, and spatial scan statistic. A total of 724 pneumonia cases confirmed by chest radiography were iden- tified from May 2000 to

Lúcia Sampaio; Simonne Almeida; Celina Maria Turchi Martelli; Renato Maurício de Oliveira


GIS and ordination techniques for evaluation of environmental impacts in informal settlements: A case study from Cuiabá, central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the environmental impacts caused by informal occupation in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. In 10 selected districts, an assessment of 35 environmental indicators was conducted, evaluating secondary data as well as field survey results, air photo interpretation and geographical information system (GIS) analysis. A matrix approach was then applied to quantify the magnitude and relevance

Peter Zeilhofer; Valdinir Piazza Topanotti




EPA Science Inventory

The Cerrado is a tropical savanna in which herbaceous vegetation (mainly C4 grasses) coexists with trees and shrubs. It covers more than two million square kilometers and accounts for 22% of the total area of Brazil. In general, cerrado soils are old, deep, well drained, well s...


Differences between two climatological periods (2001-2010 vs. 1971-2000) and trend analysis of temperature and precipitation in Central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the IWAS/Água-DF project, this study focuses on changes in mean surface air temperature and accumulated precipitation in Central Brazil over the past 40 years. It has two main objectives: (1) comparison between two climatological periods (2001-2010 and 1971-2000) and (2) trend analysis of climate variables. Time series of meteorological and rain gauge stations from Central Brazil have been organized in a databank, which contains tools for homogeneity tests. From that, 4 temperature and 55 precipitation time series were sufficient homogeneous, while 1 temperature and 5 precipitation time series were identified as inhomogeneous. Reliable spatial distribution was produced using proper interpolation method. Trends and significance levels were calculated by Rapp's estimator of slope and Mann-Kendall test, respectively. The most important results of the comparisons and trend analysis in the last four decades are: (1) marked increase in annual and seasonal mean surface air temperature, (2) evident decreases of accumulated rainfall in winter and autumn, and (3) apparent increase of precipitation amounts in the rainy season.

Borges, Pablo de Amorim; Franke, Johannes; do Santos Silva, Fabrício Daniel; Weiss, Holger; Bernhofer, Christian



New apatite fission-track data reflecting the landscape evolution using the example of the southeastern passive continental margin in Central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-temperature thermochronolgy like AFT yield a well established tool to understand and reconstruct the rift to post-rift evolution of the passive continental margin in Brazil. The aim of the study is to quantify the temperature, exhumation, uplift, and long-term dynamic evolution of the topography of the southeastern passive continental margin in the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina (Central Brazil) along different transects. The working area shows the active evolution since the Early Cretaceous with altitudes up to 1400 m a.s.l and partly deep incised valleys. The first transect crosses the Ponta Grossa Arch with Devonian to Jurassic sediments in an NE-SW direction from the escarpment (Escarpa Devoniana) of the Serra Mantiquera in the NE to the escarpment in the SE built up of the overlying Early Cretaceous flood basalts of the Serra Urtigueira. The second transect drops down perpendicular to the coast where the eastern escarpment of the Serra Geral (up to 1400 m a.s.l) reaches nearly the coast. The highlands consist of Cretaceous flood basalts whereas the coastal lowlands constist of Precambrian metamorphic and intrusive rocks. Previous apatite fission-track data of the states of Parana and Santa Catarina provide ages between 144 (5) Ma (Gallgher et al., 1994) and 25 (1.8) Ma (Franco-Magalhaes, A.O.B., subm.) and show different post-rift reactivation from the Cretaceous to the Paleogene. But none of the studies indicate a clear relationship between age distribution and topography or age distribution and stratigraphic age. This study is based on samples taken along the transects within the working area. The results will provide new insigths into the evolution of the southeastern passive continental margin in Central Brazil concerning the thermal, exhumation, and uplift history of the Brazilian passive continental margin.

Karl, Markus; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Hackspacher, Peter C.; Franco-Magalhaes, Ana O. B.



Associations between forest fragmentation patterns and geneticstructure in Pfrimer’s Parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri), an endangered endemic to central Brazil’s dry forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

When habitat becomes fragmented, populations of species may become increasingly isolated. In the absence of habitat corridors, genetic structure may develop and populations risk reductions in genetic diversity from increased genetic drift and inbreeding. Deforestation of the Cerrado biome of Brazil, particularly of the dry forests within the Parana˜ River Basin, has incrementally occurred since the 1970s and increased forest fragmentation within the region. We performed landscape genetic analyses of Pfrimer’s parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri), a globally endangered endemic to the region, to determine if forest fragmentation patterns were associated with genetic structuring in this species. We used previously generated satellite imagery that identified the locations of Parana˜ River Basin forest fragments in 1977, 1993/94, and 2008. Behavioral data quantifying the affinity of Pfrimer’s parakeet for forest habitat was used to parameterize empirically derived landscape conductance surfaces. Though genetic structure was observed among Pfrimer’s parakeet populations, no association between genetic and geographic distance was detected. Likewise, least cost path lengths, circuit theorybased resistance distances, and a new measure of least cost path length complexity could not be conclusively associated with genetic structure patterns. Instead, a new quantity that encapsulated connection redundancy from the 1977 forest fragmentation data provided the clearest associations with pairwise genetic differentiation patterns (Jost’s D: r = 0.72, P = 0.006; FST: r = 0.741, P = 0.001). Our analyses suggest a 35-year or more lag between deforestation and its effect on genetic structure. Because 66 % of the Parana˜ River Basin has been deforested since 1977, we expect that genetic structure will increase substantially among Pfrimer’s Parakeet populations in the future, especially if fragmentation continues at its current pace.

Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Leonard F.; Bianchi, Carlos; Mullins, Thomas D.



Theodore Roosevelt National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website contains information on: the park history; park activities such as hiking and camping; and natural history such as the wildlife, geology and paleontology of the park. The kids' section contains coloring pages, a park trivia quiz, reference sections on the wildlife and natural history of the park, and information on Theodore Roosevelt and his involvement in the Badlands. There are also images of the wildlife and scenery of the park.


High Resolution Remote Sensing based Quantification of the Remnant Vegetation Cover in the Araguaia River Basin, Central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Araguaia\\/Tocantins watershed, with 380,000 km2 drainage basin towards the north portion of Brazil, is one of the major fluvial and phyto-physiognomic system in South America. Its headwaters are situated in the southern portion of the Brazilian savannas (locally known as Cerrado biome), considered one of the world's biodiversity hotspot. Based on 2006 high spatial resolution CCD imagery (20m) of

Manuel Eduardo Ferreira; Laerte Guimarães Ferreira; Edgardo Manuel Latrubesse; Fausto Miziara



Prospect Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While many readers may be aware that trees grow in Brooklyn, few may be cognizant of the fact that, yes, a forest grows in Brooklyn. This urban forest just happens to be in the boroughâ??s own lovely Prospect Park, designed by those giants of landscape architects, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. Often overlooked by some who are primarily concerned with that other large swath of green in the middle of Manhattan, Prospect Park contains a 90-acre meadow, a zoo, a celebrated performing arts festival, and a lake. Visitors to the Prospect Park Alliance website can learn all about these things, and also delve into the parkâ??s history. Those planning a visit may wish to look at the â??General Infoâ? and â??Places To Goâ? sections for a selection of brief descriptions and photographs. For those seeking a historical perspective the â??History & Natureâ? area is delightful. Here visitors can learn about the parkâ??s historical development and creation, and learn more about those individuals responsible for the parkâ??s design and aesthetic appeal. Finally, visitors should look at the online exhibit â??A Glimpse Of Prospect Parkâ? for a bit of visual perspective on the parkâ??s history.

Prospect Park (New York, N.Y.)


Local discourses and international initiatives: sociocultural sustainability of tourism in Oulanka National Park, Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

National parks have become important tourist attractions and tools for regional development. New international initiatives, such as PAN (Protected Area Network) Parks in Europe, now promote sustainable tourism in protected areas. This paper examines the sociocultural sustainability of tourism perceived by local stakeholders of Oulanka National Park in northeastern Finland. The central question concerns the role of PAN Parks certification

Riikka Puhakka; Simo Sarkki; Stuart P. Cottrell; Pirkko Siikamäki



Campsite impact management: A survey of National Park Service backcountry managers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Though a central purpose for the creation and management of parks, visitation inevitably affects the natural resources of parks. This is particularly true at campsites, where visitation and its effects are concentrated. This paper presents partial results from a survey of National Park Service managers regarding general strategies and specific actions implemented by park managers to address campsite impact problems.

Marion, J.L.; Stubbs, C.J.



Environmental and geochemical record of human-induced changes in C storage during the last millennium in a temperate wetland (Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park, central Spain)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park has experienced many hydrological and ecological modifications through out its history, both of natural as well as anthropogenic origin, which have affected its carbon storage capacity and carbon fluxes. The study of those variations has been carried out by the analysis of its sedimentary record (geochemistry and pollen) and historical data. The natural changes have a wider variation range than the anthropogenic ones, show repetitive patterns and the system reacts readjusting the equilibrium among its components. Anthropogenic effects depend on the direct or indirect impact on the wetlands of change and its intensity. In addition, the anthropogenic impacts have the capacity of breaking the natural balance of the ecosystem and the internal interactions. ?? 2006 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2006 Blackwell Munksgaard.

Dominguez-Castro, F.; Santisteban, J.I.; Mediavilla, R.; Dean, W.E.; Lopez-Pamo, E.; Gil-Garcia, M. J.; Ruiz-Zapata, M. B.



Park It!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The difference between an architect and an engineer is sometimes confusing because their roles in building design can be similar. Students experience a bit of both professions by following a set of requirements and meeting given constraints as they create a model parking garage. They experience the engineering design process first-hand as they design, build and test their models. They draw a blueprint for their design, select the construction materials and budget their expenditures. They also test their structures for strength and find their maximum loads.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program and Laboratory,


National Environmental Research Parks  

SciTech Connect

The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

Not Available



Estimation of PAHs dry deposition and BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) study at Urban, Industry Park and rural sampling sites in central Taiwan, Taichung  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in gas phase and particle bound were measured simultaneously at industrial (INDUSTRY), urban (URBAN), and rural areas (RURAL) in Taichung, Taiwan. And the PAH concentrations, size distributions, estimated PAHs dry deposition fluxes and health risk study of PAHs in the ambient air of central Taiwan were discussed in this study. Total PAH concentrations

Guor-Cheng Fang; Kuan-Foo Chang; Chungsying Lu; Hsunling Bai



Endemic and threatened tetrapods in the restingas of the biodiversity corridors of Serra do Mar and of the Central da Mata Atlântica in eastern Brazil.  


Biodiversity corridors comprise a mosaic of land uses connecting fragments of natural forest across a landscape. Two such corridors have been established along the eastern coast of Brazil: the Serra do Mar and the Central da Mata Atlântica corridors, along which most of the coastal plains are restinga areas. In this study, we analyze the present status of the endemic and endangered terrestrial vertebrates of both corridors. We sampled 10 restingas in both corridors, recording species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Some restingas harbor a relatively large number of endemic species,and two main regions of endemism can be identified along the restingas of both corridors: the coastal restingas from northern Espirito Santo State to southern Bahia State (between Linhares, ES, and Tarancoso, BA), and the coastal region between the restingas of Maricá and Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State. Six species of terrestrial vertebrates considered threatened with extinction are found in the restingas of Serra do Mar and Central da Mata Atlântica biodiversity corridors (Liolaemus lutzae, Formicivora littoralis, Mimus gilvus, Schistochlamys melanopis, and Trinomys eliasi). The region located between the restinga of Maricá and that of Jurubatiba is of special relevance for the conservation of vertebrate species of the restingas of the corridors because a considerable number of threatened species of terrestrial vertebrates are found there. We strongly recommend efforts to develop checklists of threatened faunas for the States of Espirito Santo and Bahia. PMID:16025914

Rocha, C F D; Van Sluys, M; Bergallo, H G; Alves, M A S



Violations & Enforcement Parking Violation Definitions  

E-print Network

Vehicles parked on a grade should have the emergency brake set. Keys should never be left in the ignition - · Improper parking and failure to park within lines Improper parking includes parking compact vehicles

Hong, Jason I.


Seasonal variation in energy balance and canopy conductance for a tropical savanna ecosystem of south central Mato Grosso, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

savanna (locally known as cerrado) composes 24% of Brazil and is characterized by high climatic variation; however, patterns of energy exchange are poorly understood, especially for mixed grasslands (locally known as campo sujo). We used eddy covariance to measure latent (Le) and sensible (H) heat flux of a mixed grassland and linked meteorological and remote sensing data to determine the controls on these fluxes. We hypothesized that (1) seasonal variations in H and Le would be large due to variations in precipitation; (2) ecosystem phenology, estimated using the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), would be the best predictor of seasonal variation in Le; and (3) cerrado, transitional, and humid evergreen forests would have similar rates of average annual Le despite large seasonal variation in cerrado Le. Our data suggest that campo sujo exhibits large seasonal fluctuations in energy balance that are driven by rainfall and that responses to rainfall pulses are rapid and dynamic, especially during the dry season. Path analysis indicated that temporal variations in the EVI did not significantly affect Le or Gc, but this was because all three variables (EVI, Le, and Gc) responded similarly to temporal variations in surface water availability. Compared to other tropical ecosystems, wetter sites had higher rates of Le during the dry season but similar rates during the wet season when water was not limiting. Over annual time periods, average rates of Le increased significantly as average annual rainfall increased, due to dry-season water limitations in the more seasonal tropical ecosystems.

Rodrigues, Thiago R.; Vourlitis, George L.; Lobo, Francisco de A.; Oliveira, Renan G.; Nogueira, José de S.



Prevalence of Hypertension and Associated Factors in an Indigenous Community of Central Brazil: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors among the native indigenous of Jaguapiru village in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Method A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with adult indigenous aged 18 years or more. The subjects' blood pressure was measured twice, and the mean of the two measurements was calculated. Body weight, height, capillary blood glucose and waist circumference were measured. Pregnant women, individuals using glucocorticoids, and non-indigenous villagers and their offspring were excluded. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted on the socio-demographic and clinical independent variables. Interactions between independent variables were also tested. Results We included 1,608 native indigenous eligible to the research. The prevalence of hypertension was 29.5% (95% CI: 27–31.5), with no significant difference between the genders. For both men and women, diastolic hypertension was more common than systolic hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among obese, diabetic, and older participants, as well as those who consumed alcohol, had a lower educational level, or had a family history of hypertension. There was no association between hypertension and tobacco smoking or family income. Conclusion Hypertension among the indigenous from Jaguapiru village was similar to the prevalence in the Brazilians, but may have a more negative effect in such disadvantaged population. The associated factors we found can help drawing prevention policies. PMID:24489710

Oliveira, Geraldo F.; Oliveira, Teresinha R. R.; Ikejiri, Adauto T.; Andraus, Mariela P.; Galvao, Tais F.; Silva, Marcus T.; Pereira, Maurício G.



Environmental implications of jatropha biofuel from a silvi-pastoral production system in central-west Brazil.  


We present a life cycle assessment of synthetic paraffinic kerosene produced from Jatropha curcas. The feedstock is grown in an intercropping arrangement with pasture grasses so that Jatropha is coproduced with cattle. Additional innovations are introduced including hybrid seeds, detoxification of jatropha seedcake, and cogeneration. Two fuel pathways are examined including a newly developed catalytic decarboxylation process. Sensitivities are examined including higher planting density at the expense of cattle production as well as 50% lower yields. Intercropping with pasture and detoxifying seedcake yield coproducts that are expected to relieve pressure on Brazil's forests and indirectly reduce environmental impacts of biofuel production. Other innovations also reduce impacts. Results of the baseline assessment indicate that innovations would reduce impacts relative to the fossil fuel reference scenario in most categories including 62-75% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, 64-82% reduction in release of ozone depleting chemicals, 33-52% reduction in smog-forming pollutants, 6-25% reduction in acidification, and 60-72% reduction in use of nonrenewable energy. System expansion, which explicitly accounts for avoided deforestation, results in larger improvements. Results are robust across allocation methodologies, improve with higher planting density, and persist if yield is reduced by half. PMID:23713609

Bailis, Rob; Kavlak, Goksin



Descriptive ecology of bat flies (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) associated with vampire bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in the cerrado of Central Brazil.  


We studied the ectoparasitic bat flies of three phyllostomid vampire bat species. Bats were collected monthly from April 2004-March 2005 in caves within the Cafuringa Environmental Protection Area in the Federal District of Brazil. A total of 1,259 specimens from six species in the Streblidae family were collected from 332 bats. High host affinity from the sampled bat fly species and high prevalence of bat flies confirms the primary fly-host associations (Strebla wiedemanni, Trichobius parasiticus and Trichobius furmani with Desmodus, Trichobius diaemi and Strebla diaemi with Diaemus and T. furmani with Diphylla). Male flies outnumbered females in several associations. Some of the observed associations (e.g., Strebla mirabilis with Desmodus and S. mirabilis, Trichobius uniformis and S. wiedemanni with Diphylla) were inconclusive and the causes of the associations were unclear. There are several explanations for these associations, including (i) accidental contamination during sampling, (ii) simultaneous capture of several host species in the same net or (iii) genuine, but rare, ecological associations. Although various species of vampire bats share roosts, have similar feeding habits and are close phylogenetic relatives, they generally do not share ectoparasitic streblid bat flies. T. diaemi and S. diaemi associations with Diaemus youngi have not been previously reported in this region. PMID:21537676

Aguiar, Ludmilla Moura de Souza; Antonini, Yasmine



Characteristic study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for fine and coarse particulates at Pastureland near Industrial Park sampling site of central Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of ambient air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in a farm area (Tunghai University Pastureland) between August 2001 and April 2002 in central Taiwan, Taichung. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected on quartz filters, the collected sample was extracted with a dichloromethane (DCM)\\/n-hexane mixture (50\\/50, v\\/v) for 24h, and then the extracts were subjected to gas chromatography–mass

Guor-Cheng Fang; Yuh-Shen Wu; Jyh-Cherng Chen; Peter Pi-Cheng Fu; Cheng-Nan Chang; Tse-Tsung Ho; Ming-Hsiang Chen



Fruit consumption and seed dispersal of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae) by the lowland tapir in the cerrado of Central Brazil.  


Fruit phenology observations and consumption of Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae) were analyzed during seven months in an area of cerrado stricto sensu. We analysed 81 fecal samples collected at six different places of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in central Brazilian cerrado. In addition, from the feces of five tapirs at the Brasília Zoo to which fruit had been offered, seeds were collected and used in germination tests. The results suggest that the tapir is an important fruit consumer and a potential seed disperser of D. mollis. In the field, however, fruit consumption was found to be very low, probably because of both fruit palatability and the low density of frugivores, especially tapirs. The possibility that the original dispersal agents of D. mollis seeds belonged to the South American Pleistocene megafauna is discussed. PMID:16341418

Bizerril, M X A; Rodrigues, F H G; Hass, A



Seasonal variation in energy balance and canopy conductance for a tropical savanna ecosystem of south-central Mato Grosso, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical savanna (locally known as cerrado) comprises 24% of Brazil and is characterized by high temporal (climatic) and spatial (land cover) variation, biodiversity, and human activity. However, temporal variations in energy exchange are poorly understood, especially for mixed-grasslands (locally known as campo-sujo), making current and future patterns of energy balance highly uncertain. We used eddy covariance to measure latent (Le) and sensible (H) heat flux of a mixed-grassland, and linked meteorological and remote-sensing data to determine the controls on these fluxes. We hypothesized that (1) seasonal variations in H and Le would be large due to variations in precipitation, (2) ecosystem phenology, estimated using the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), would be the best predictor of seasonal variation in Le, and (3) cerrado, transitional, and humid evergreen forests would have similar rates of average annual Le despite large seasonal variation in cerrado Le. We found that campo-sujo exhibits large seasonal fluctuations in energy balance that are driven by rainfall, and that responses to rainfall pulses are rapid and dynamic, especially during the dry season. Seasonal variations in the EVI did not affect energy fluxes; however, when energy fluxes were normalized with net radiation (Rn), the EVI was found to significantly affect the amount of available energy dissipated by H, Le, and G, indicating an important ground surface feedback on energy partitioning. Compared to other tropical ecosystems, cerrado exhibited substantially more seasonal variation in energy flux density than forested tropical ecosystems. For example, cerrado had lower rates of Le during the dry season, due to water limitations, but higher rates of wet-season Le than tropical forests, which were likely limited by radiation due to frequent cloud cover. Overall, these seasonal variations caused average annual rates of Le to be similar between cerrado, transitional, and humid evergreen forests.

Rodrigues, T. R.; Vourlitis, G. L.; Lobo, F. D.; de Oliveira, R. G.; Nogueira, J. D.



Intelligent parking systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic concepts of the parking reservation system and parking revenue management system are discussed in this paper. The proposed “intelligent” parking space inventory control system that is based on a combination of fuzzy logic and integer programming techniques makes “on line” decisions whether to accept or reject a new driver’s request for parking. In the first step of the

Dusan Teodorovic; Panta Lucic



National Park Service Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet offers information on the employment needs of and career opportunities in the National Park Service. General information on the Service and employment is followed by specific information on these career opportunities: park ranger, park aide and technician, park police, administrative careers, and maintenance, trade, and craft…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.


Grand Teton National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website provides a trip planner, information on natural and cultural history, publications, a park fact sheet for students, park maps, student bibliography, and a newspaper for kids. There is information on the geology, rock formations, mountain building, volcanism, and glaciation of the Teton Range. Educational resources for students and teachers consist of links to other National Park Service sites.


BR-319: Brazil's Manaus-Porto Velho highway and the potential impact of linking the arc of deforestation to central amazonia.  


Brazil's BR-319 Highway linked Manaus, in the state of Amazonas, to Porto Velho, Rondônia, until it became impassable in 1988. Now it is proposed for reconstruction and paving, which would facilitate migration from the "Arc of Deforestation" in the southern part of the Amazon region to new frontiers farther north. The purpose of the highway, which is to facilitate transport to São Paulo of products from factories in the Manaus Free Trade Zone, would be better served by sending the containers by ship to the port of Santos. The lack of a land connection to Manaus currently represents a significant barrier to migration to central and northern Amazonia. Discourse regarding the highway systematically overestimates the highway's benefits and underestimates its impacts. A variety of changes would be needed prior to paving the highway if these potential impacts are to be attenuated. These include zoning, reserve creation, and increased governance in various forms, including deforestation licensing and control programs. More fundamental changes are also needed, especially the abandonment of the long-standing tradition in Brazil of granting squatters' rights to those who invade public land. Organizing Amazonian occupation in such a way that road construction and improvement cease to lead to explosive and uncontrolled deforestation should be a prerequisite for approval of the BR-319 and other road projects for which major impacts are expected. These projects could provide the impetus that is needed to achieve the transition away from appropriation of public land by both small squatters and by grileiros (large-scale illegal claimants). A delay in reconstructing the highway is advisable until appropriate changes can be effected. PMID:16990982

Fearnside, Philip M; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima



Wind Cave National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website contains environmental education units for elementary and middle school students which consist of activities centered around an environmental theme. These themes include biodiversity, habitats, natural adaptation, patterns and order in nature, environmental cycles and change, interactions and interdependence within an ecosystem, and water in the environment. There is also information on: planning a visit to the park; the wildlife, geology, cave exploration and paleontology of the park; the park history; and the role of fire in the park.


Glacier National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of Glacier National Park. Users can access materials on the park's ecology and environment (plants and animals, biodiversity and air quality, geology, and fires), the culture and history of the park, park activities, and publications on naturalist activities. There are also video clips of park wildlife and scenery, a photo gallery, and live webcams. Links are provided to additional information, such as research activities on bear DNA and global climate change.


Geology, petrology and geochemistry of the "Americano do Brasil" layered intrusion, central Brazil, and its Ni-Cu sulfide deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "Americano do Brasil" Complex (ABC) is part of a cluster of coeval synorogenic mafic-ultramafic intrusions emplaced during the Brasiliano/Pan-African Orogenic Cycle in Brazil. The medium-sized ABC consists of interlayered dunite, peridotite, websterite, and gabbronorite. High Fo values of olivine (up to Fo88) and the crystallization sequence of the ABC (Ol + Chr ? Ol + Opx + Chr ? Cpx + Opx ? Opx + Pl + Cpx ? Opx + Pl + Cpx + Ilm + Mag) suggest crystallization from tholeiitic high-MgO parental magmas. Light rare earth element (REE)-enriched mantle-normalized REE profiles and ?Nd(T) values of +2.4 for cumulate rocks from the ABC suggest a depleted mantle source for the parental magma. The ABC Ni-Cu sulfide deposit (3.1 Mt at 1.12 wt.% Ni and 1.02 wt.% Cu) consists of three distinctively different orebodies (S1, S2, and G2). The S2 orebody, an unusual occurrence of stratiform massive sulfide hosted by dunite and peridotite in the interior of a layered intrusion, results from sulfides accumulated at the transient base of the magma chamber following a new influx of parental magma. The G2 orebody has an irregular and roughly cylindrical shape, consisting mainly of net-textured sulfides. The G2 orebody is hosted by peridotite and pyroxenite and located stratigraphically below the S1 orebody. S2 and G2 orebodies are characterized by low Cu/Cu + Ni ratios (mainly below 0.4). The S1 orebody, hosted by websterite and gabbronorite in the more fractionated sequence of the ABC, is a cluster of several irregular discontinuous orebodies of Ni-Cu disseminated sulfides. The sulfides of the S1 orebody have high Cu/Cu + Ni ratios (mainly between 0.5 and 0.8) and are highly depleted in PGE. The S1 orebody is interpreted to result from a later event of sulfide segregation in the magma chamber, possibly following the event that originated the G2 orebody. The bulk of ?34S values for sulfides of the ABC orebodies and their host rocks fall in the range of 0 ± 2‰. Higher ?34S values (between 3‰ and 5‰) are restricted to pyrite from xenoliths of gneiss located close to the S1 orebody and sulfides from the S1 orebody. Crustal xenoliths and chemical data (lithogeochemistry and sulfur isotope composition) provide evidence of crustal contamination of the igneous rocks hosting the S1 orebody, suggesting that sulfur saturation was induced by contamination with sulfide-bearing crustal rocks. The ABC deposit is an example of Ni-Cu sulfide mineralization hosted by synorogenic mafic-ultramafic intrusions. The S2 orebody is the first documented example of an economic stratiform massive sulfide orebody located within layered intrusions, expanding the opportunities for exploration of Ni-Cu sulfides in orogenic regions worldwide.

E Silva, Jonas Mota; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca; Bühn, Bernhard; Dantas, Elton Luiz



The Santa Terezinha-Campos Verdes emerald district, central Brazil: structural and Sm-Nd data to constrain the tectonic evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bras?´lia belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural analysis coupled with Sm-Nd isotope data and a detailed description of the geology of the Santa Terezinha-Campos Verdes emerald district (Goiás State, Central Brazil) constrain the evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bras?´lia belt. The area is composed of tectonic slices of Archean-Paleoproterozoic gneiss, a Meso-Neoproterozoic metavolcanic sedimentary sequence called the Santa Terezinha sequence, and crustal-derived intrusive rocks such as mylonitic (ortho)gneiss and a syntectonic porphyry granite. It underwent a Neoproterozoic greenschist facies polyphase ductile deformation (D 1-D 3). Structures indicate an event of rotational deformation along a typical frontal ramp dipping gently to the west (i.e. an event of simple shear with top to ESE relative regional movement due to a subhorizontal WNW-ESE compression). A Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 577±77 Ma for the intrusive rocks constrains the timing of at least part of the deformation/metamorphism in the area. Primary and metamorphic planar structures (mainly D 1-D 2) strike SW-NE and dip at low to moderate angles to the NW in the northern part of the area. However, they gradually rotate to SSE in the central SE part, where the Peixe River synclinorium is developed. This synclinorium is also the nest of the D 2 sheath folds that control emerald ore shoots. The Santa Cruz dome is a basement-cored, major elliptic structure in the SW of the area. The Santa Terezinha sequence represents a back-arc basin that received input from the Neoproterozoic Goiás magmatic arc to the west and the São Francisco ancient continental margin to the east. The basal and upper sections of this sequence correlate, respectively, with other passive margin and back-arc sequences of the Bras?´lia belt.

D'el-Rey Silva, Luiz José Homem; Barros Neto, Leonel de Souza



National Park Service: Tour of Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tour of Park geologic resources includes pages specific to individual National Parks, Monuments, Recreation Areas, Preserves, Seacoasts, Reserves, and Recreation Areas. These pages are indexed by park name, state, or by one of the following topics: basin and range, caves, Colorado Plateau, fossils, glaciers, hot springs, human use, mountain building, oldest rocks, plate tectonics, river systems, sand dunes, shoreline geology, or volcanoes. Organization of each of the pages typically follows a NPS template with categories for park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia, and "teacher features" (educational resources and links for teaching geology with National Park examples.) Common subjects that are addressed at various park sites include: minerals, rocks, fossils, cave and karst systems, coastlines, glaciers, volcanoes, faults, landforms, landslides, structures, fluvial systems, sediments, soils, stratigraphic relations, processes that form or act on geologic features and their chemical compositions, and the history of the planet and its life forms.


Combined use of the centroid and matched filtering spectral magnetic methods in determining thermomagnetic characteristics of the crust in the structural provinces of Central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral analysis of data acquired in twelve different aeromagnetic surveys of central Brazil has led to new insights in the magnetic characteristics of the lithosphere in the structural provinces of Tocantins and São Francisco. Since centroid-based spectral magnetic methods do not model the spectrum explicitly, they are used for the first time in conjunction with the matched filtering spectral modeling method to verify that appropriate slope segments are fit when determining source depths. The Tocantins province is characterized by subdued variations in the thickness of magnetized layers, most of which may be associated with structural discontinuities and subcrustal intrusions. In contrast, variations in thickness of magnetized crustal layers are more prevalent in the São Francisco province. The depths to the bottom of magnetized crust in the Tocantins province are, in general, less than 30-35 km, whereas they reach depths greater than 40 km in the São Francisco province. In parts of São Francisco craton, the depths to the bottom of magnetized crust are greater than the crustal thickness determined from seismic refraction and receiver function studies. However, these are indistinguishable in terms of resolution of the two methods. Analysis of heat flow data and results of thermal modeling indicate depths of Curie isotherms consistent with estimates from spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data. Hence the possibility that the uppermost part of mantle under the São Francisco craton may be ferromagnetic cannot be dismissed.

Guimarães, S. N. P.; Ravat, D.; Hamza, V. M.



Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection and high rate of response to hepatitis B virus Butang vaccine in adolescents from low income families in Central Brazil.  


In order to evaluate the seroepidemiology and response to Butang vaccine in adolescents from low income families in Central Brazil, blood samples of 664 adolescents were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) markers, and multiple logistical regression analysis was carried out to determine variables associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection markers. further, three 20 microg Butang vaccine doses were offered to all susceptible individuals (n = 304). Among those who accepted them (n = 182), the seroresponse was evaluated in 170 individuals by quantitative anti-HBs. an overall hbv prevalence of 5.9% was found: four adolescents were HBsAg positive, 24 were anti-HBc, anti-HBs-reactive, and 11 were anti-HBc only. The analyse of risk factors showed that age 16-19 years, place of birth outside Goiás, school B and body piercing were statistically associated with HBV infection markers (p < 0.05). All 170 adolescents responded to Butang, and a geometric mean titer (gmt) of 4344 mUI/ml was obtained. these results reinforce the importance of hepatitis b vaccine in adolescents despite of the hbv regional endemicity, and suggest that three doses of 20 microg of the Butang should guarantee protective anti-hbs levels to individuals at a critical time for hepatitis b acquiring such as latter adolescence and adulthood. PMID:16862317

Oliveira, Michele Dias da S; Martins, Regina M B; Matos, Marcos A; Ferreira, Renata C; Dias, Márcia A; Carneiro, Megmar A S; Junqueira, Ana Luiza N; Teles, Sheila A



Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil).  


The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti), native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50) than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish. PMID:21717855

Luiz, Tatiane Ferraz; Velludo, Marcela Roquetti; Peret, Alberto Carvalho; Rodrigues Filho, Jorge Luiz; Peret, André Moldenhauer



Frugivory and seed dispersal of Miconia theaezans (Bonpl.) Cogniaux (Melastomataceae) by birds in a transition palm swamp: gallery forest in Central Brazil.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate potential avian dispersers of Miconia theaezans by dietary habits in the Cerrado of Central Brazil. Forty-two hours and 40 minutes of focal tree observation were conducted between 7:00 AM and 5:00 PM. For each bird species that consumed the fruit, we registered: the time they remained on the plant, the total amount of fruit they consumed, foraging tactics and strategies to consume the fruit. Five-hundred and fifty-nine units of fruit were consumed in 47 visits by seven bird species. Thraupidae was the most frequent and representative family and Tangara cayana was the main consumer. The Tachyphonus rufus had the highest rate of intake of the entire fruit, however the rates were not significantly different among the visitors. The most-used foraging tactic by all species was to consume the fruit while "perched" (95.74% of the visits). The most commonly-used consumption strategy was to mandibulate the fruit and swallow all the contents (65.12%). Omnivores were the predominant visitors (71.43%) and made most of the visits (89.36%). All visiting species could act as potential dispersers of M. theaezans, which demonstrates the low selectiveness of this pioneer plant towards its frugivorous. PMID:22437381

Borges, M R; Melo, C



Epidemiology of vampire bat-transmitted rabies virus in Goiás, central Brazil: re-evaluation based on G-L intergenic region  

PubMed Central

Background Vampire bat related rabies harms both livestock industry and public health sector in central Brazil. The geographical distributions of vampire bat-transmitted rabies virus variants are delimited by mountain chains. These findings were elucidated by analyzing a high conserved nucleoprotein gene. This study aims to elucidate the detailed epidemiological characters of vampire bat-transmitted rabies virus by phylogenetic methods based on 619-nt sequence including unconserved G-L intergenic region. Findings The vampire bat-transmitted rabies virus isolates divided into 8 phylogenetic lineages in the previous nucleoprotein gene analysis were divided into 10 phylogenetic lineages with significant bootstrap values. The distributions of most variants were reconfirmed to be delimited by mountain chains. Furthermore, variants in undulating areas have narrow distributions and are apparently separated by mountain ridges. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the 619-nt sequence including G-L intergenic region is more useful for a state-level phylogenetic analysis of rabies virus than the partial nucleoprotein gene, and simultaneously that the distribution of vampire bat-transmitted RABV variants tends to be separated not only by mountain chains but also by mountain ridges, thus suggesting that the diversity of vampire bat-transmitted RABV variants was delimited by geographical undulations. PMID:21059233



Park Geology: Tour of National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A great site from the National Park Service, Geologic Resources Division provides information on geologic features of our national parks. The site is aimed at a young audience (K-8), but is a pleasure to browse for anyone. Organizing the site by geologic features (e.g., Hot Springs, Oldest Rocks, and Volcanoes) allows readers to compare the geology of various national parks and explore maps, photos and other related links.


Acadia National Park: Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website contains information on: saving the habitats of peregrine falcons; the water cycle; becoming a junior ranger; and ranger-led school programs, which contain student field activities about the history, biology and geology of the park. Teacher resources include information on a library for educators at the visitor center of the park and teacher guides for preparing to visit the park. The kids' section explains what rangers do, gives tips on leaving no trace in the park, provides a history of Mount Desert Island, and contains an activity to match some park animals to their habitats.


Tour of Park Geology: Cave and Karst Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Park Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with caves and other karst features. Where appropriate, park sites contain park geology information, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Mammoth Cave National Park, Sequoia National Park, and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways.


Characterization of secondary metabolites, biological activity and glandular trichomes of Stachys tymphaea Hausskn. from the Monti Sibillini National Park (Central Apennines, Italy).  


Stachys tymphaea (Lamiaceae) is a perennial herb growing in forest openings and dry meadows of central and southern Italy. It was investigated for the first time here, determining the content of secondary metabolites, the micromorphology of glandular trichomes, the histochemical localization of secretion, and the biological activity of the volatile oil, namely, the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. The plant showed a peculiar molecular pattern, being rich of biophenolic compounds as flavonoids, phenylethanoid glycosides, and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, but poor of iridoids, which are known as marker compounds of the genus Stachys. The essential oil was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, revealing a high percentage of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (54.6%), with germacrene D (30.0%) and (E)-?-farnesene (12.4%) as the most abundant compounds, while other main components were representatives of the diterpenes (19.2%), represented mainly by (E)-phytol (11.9%). This composition supported the taxonomic relationships in the genus Stachys, which comprises oil-poor species producing essential oils rich in hydrocarbons, with germacrene D as one of the predominant components. The micromorphological study revealed three types of glandular hairs, i.e., Type A peltate trichomes, being the primary sites of essential oil biosynthesis, Type B short-stalked trichomes, typical mucopolysaccharide producers, and Type C long capitate trichomes, secreting a complex mixture of both lipophilic and hydrophilic substances, with a major phenolic fraction. Moreover, the MTT assay revealed the potential of the volatile oil to inhibit A375, HCT116, and MDA-MB 231 tumor cells lines (IC50 values of 23.9-34.4??g/ml). PMID:24591315

Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Nicoletti, Marcello; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Vitali, Luca Agostino; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Petrelli, Dezemona; Maleci Bini, Laura; Giuliani, Claudia; Maggi, Filippo



Staunton State Park Biological Inventory  

E-print Network

Staunton State Park Biological Inventory Prepared by: Susan Spackman, David Anderson, Jeremy Siemers, Phyllis Pineda, and Jill Handwerk Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University: Colorado State Parks, Jefferson and Park Counties, Colorado December, 1999 #12;Staunton State Park


Carlsbad Caverns National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website contains details about Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico. It highlights the natural resources of the park, such as the wilderness, wildlife and caves. The geologic history and formation of caves is covered in detail. There is a teacher's guide with activities, field trip ideas, and factsheets about the park. Topics covered include rocks, erosion, speleothems, mapping caves, fossils, plants and animals, cave bats and fire. Links are provided for more information.


Study on the Control Strategy of Parking Guidance System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parking guidance system (PGS) is one part of ITS (Intelligence Transport Systems). At present the existing central problem is that the system control structure is ambiguous and the information of parking space issuance isn't timely and exact; its form is single and it hasn't the forecast function. Through the analysis for the route characteristic of big city the paper

Wang Zehe; Yi Jinggang; Liu Jiangtao; Zhang Xiuhua




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Onondaga Cave State Park is located in the north central portion of the Ozarks near Leasburg, Missouri. The park is known for two extensive cave systems, Onondaga Cave and Cathedral Cave. Both of these cave systems have active streams (1-2 cfs at baseflow) which have unknown recharge areas. As a man...


Parks In Partnership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 50 National Park Service (NPS) sites interpret Native cultures or early Native contact with Europeans. In about 30 of those, American Indians, Alaska Natives, or Native Hawaiians, in partnership with the NPS, present their own heritage and issues. Describes Native-run aspects of Sitka National Historical Park, Glacier National Park, and…

Bowman, Sally-Jo



National Parks: Past, Present  

E-print Network

conservation career in 1972 as a ranger-naturalist in Yellowstone National Park and has held several other) for his "outstanding contributions to conservation history, national park policy, and the understandingNational Parks: Past, Present and Future Wallace Stegner Center · Nineteenth Annual Symposium

Tipple, Brett



EPA Science Inventory

The National Park Service has produced a data base of boundaries for its National Parks. A copy of this data was downloaded from the National Parks Service ftp site by Region 10. These digital boundaries represent the best guess and data that could be collected in a short time....


Name That Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, learners are introduced to the basic function of Geographic Information System (GIS) maps in relation to national parks. Recognizable park boundaries are presented and learners are given the option to add layers such as lakes, rivers and visitor centers, until the learner is able to identify the park map from a list of choices.



Orienting Park Visitors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To utilize park facilities to their fullest, visitors must be well-oriented to the park's physical layout. The results of a study undertaken at Rocky Mountain National Park indicate that information should be readily accessible and easy to use. (DF)

Ormrod, Richard K.




E-print Network


Saidak, Filip


Diagenesis of Paleozoic playa-lake and ephemeral-stream deposits from the Pimenta Bueno Formation, Siluro-Devonian (?) of the Parecis Basin, central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Parecis Basin is a large intracratonic rift located in central Brazil and filled with Paleozoic carbonate, evaporite and siliciclastic sediments. The occurrence of gas seeps has recently attracted significant exploration interest by the Brazilian petroleum agency and by Petrobras. The continuously cored PB-01-RO well provided the first opportunity to study the depositional environments, diagenetic evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the largely unknown sedimentary successions of the Parecis Basin. The cored lithologies, belonging to the Siluro-Devonian (?) Pimenta Bueno Formation, are interpreted as deposited in playa-lake and ephemeral-stream environments. The deposits display a strong facies control on the diagenetic mineral assemblages and evolution. Diagenetic minerals in the ephemeral-stream deposits include eogenetic hematite and smectitic clay coats and quartz cement, and the mesogenetic process includes precipitation of sulfates (anhydrite and barite) and carbonates (calcite, dolomite and kutnahorite-ankerite-huntite), followed by partial dissolution of these carbonates and sulfates, and of feldspar grains. Telogenetic processes include the precipitation of hematite and kaolinite within secondary pores, and the replacement of anhydrite by gypsum. A second burial phase and mesodiagenesis is indicated by the precipitation of discrete K-feldspar crystals within moldic pores after dissolved feldspars, and by the illitization of etched, telogenetic kaolinite. The playa-lake deposits show early diagenetic dolomitization of lime mud, precipitation of anhydrite nodules and extensive silicification. The anhydrite nodules were replaced by gypsum and chalcedony during telodiagenesis. Potential source rocks are locally represented by organic shales. The fluvial sandstones show fair reservoir quality and limited compaction, as indicated by their intergranular volume, suggesting that the succession has undergone moderate burial. Potential seals for hydrocarbon accumulations are provided by the evaporites and playa-lake mudstones. The presence of an active petroleum system in the basin, as indicated by the gas seeps, suggests a good hydrocarbon exploration potential for the Parecis Basin, gas and stresses the importance of studying the depositional and diagenetic evolution of its sedimentary successions.

Goldberg, K.; Morad, S.; Al-Aasm, I. S.; De Ros, L. F.



Identity and relationships of the Arboreal Caatinga among other floristic units of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) of north-eastern and Central Brazil  

PubMed Central

The tree species composition of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) in north-eastern and central Brazil is analyzed to address the following hypotheses: (1) variations in species composition are related to both environment (climate and substrate) and spatial proximity; (2) SDTF floristic units may be recognized based on peculiar composition and environment; and (3) the Arboreal Caatinga, a deciduous forest occurring along the hinterland borders of the Caatinga Domain, is one of these units and its flora is more strongly related to the caatinga vegetation than to outlying forests. The study region is framed by the Brazilian coastline, 50th meridian west and 21st parallel south, including the Caatinga Domain and extensions into the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado Domains. Multivariate and geostatistic analyses were performed on a database containing 16,226 occurrence records of 1332 tree species in 187 georeferenced SDTF areas and respective environmental variables. Tree species composition varied significantly with both environmental variables and spatial proximity. Eight SDTF floristic units were recognized in the region, including the Arboreal Caatinga. In terms of species composition, its tree flora showed a stronger link with that of the Cerrado Dry Forest Enclaves. On the other hand, in terms of species frequency across sample areas, the links were stronger with two other units: Rock Outcrops Caatinga and Agreste and Brejo Dry Forests. There is a role for niche-based control of tree species composition across the SDTFs of the region determined primarily by the availability of ground water across time and secondarily by the amount of soil mineral nutrients. Spatial proximity also contributes significantly to the floristic cohesion of SDTF units suggesting a highly dispersal-limited tree flora. These units should be given the status of eco-regions to help driving the conservation policy regarding the protection of their biodiversity. PMID:22423333

Santos, Rubens M; Oliveira-Filho, Ary T; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Queiroz, Luciano P; Cardoso, Domingos B O S; Rodal, Maria J N



A Web-based planning support tool for sediment management in a meso-scale river basin in Western Central Brazil.  


In scope of an IWRM concept for the Federal District, Western Central Brazil we developed a planning support tool, which enables non-experts to test the effects of land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) on landscape processes and landscape functions (LPF) related to sediment generation and retention. For this purpose we developed the web-based tool Letsmap do Brasil. The tool has two principal layers. The upper layer contains information on land use and its effect on LPF, i.e. sediment retention, runoff control, nitrogen loss control and agronomic value. The parameterized relation between land use and LPF is the core of the whole system. For each LPF a value specific to land use has been assigned. A second layer contains information on landscape properties and potentials (LPP), e.g. potential for sediment input in river networks and runoff potential. By linking land use and LPPs the system provides a spatially explicit assessment of effects of LULCC on landscape processes and functions (LPF). Letsmap do Brasil might have two major purposes. (1) It will support decision-making in river basin management and sediment management. By creating their own land-use/cover pattern non-expert users are enabled to test effects of LULCC on LPFs. (2) It will support and train non-experts to participate in decision processes in land-use planning. Because of its high adaptability, transparency, and simple handling Letsmap do Brasil might be used as tool in river basin management and land-use planning. PMID:23254313

Lorz, C; Neumann, C; Bakker, F; Pietzsch, K; Weiß, H; Makeschin, F



National Association for Olmsted Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1980, the National Association for Olmsted Parks (NAOP) is a coalition of various design and preservation professionals concerned with the legacy of landscape work left by noted landscape designer Frederick Law Olmsted Sr. and his colleagues. On their website, visitors can learn about Olmsted's primary works via a master list of design projects by his firm and some profiles of some of his most prominent work, including Central Park and the landscape at the Biltmore Estate. Scholars will want to look through the "Research" area for resources that include a set of suggested links and an extensive bibliography. Visitors will also want to look at the "News and Publications" area for more details about the NAOP's work and their newsletter.


Guadalupe Mountains National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website offers information on: planning a visit to the park; natural resources such as the geology, wildlife, plants, and wildland fires of the park; cultural history including that of the Mescalero Apaches and the Buffalo Soldiers; and park management issues. A description of the Permian geology of the park includes the rock exposures (composed of reef, back-reef, fore-reef, and basin sediments) which form the ancient fossil reef known as the Capitan Reef of the ancient Delaware Sea.


Big Bend National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the National Park Service's homepage for Big Bend National Park. It features links to information on the park's three major environments (mountain, desert, and river) and information on the park's wildlife, geology, and historic and cultural information. The nature and science section has information on the park's animals, plants, ecosystems, and environment. The educational page for teachers includes field trip planning materials, curriculum materials, and professional development information. A kids' page has links to activities, games, and puzzles. There are also links to a photo/multimedia gallery and to news articles.


Great Basin National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service site describes the biology of Great Basin's plants and animals; geology and ecology of the Lehman Caves; air quality of the park; and past human activities in the Great Basin such as farming, ranching, and gold mining. There is a list of historical, geological, and archeological dates important to the park and an instructor guide containing activities such as creating a nature notebook and adopting a tree. There is also information on: planning a visit to the park and the Lehman Caves, park projects such as weeding out non-native plants and the reintroduction of Bonneville Cutthroat Trout, and a self-guided geology field trip.


Capitol Reef National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website provides an in-depth look at Capitol Reef National Park in Utah. Specifically, this covers the geology and natural resources of the park. There is a general overview of the geology of this area including the Waterpocket fold, Colorado Plateau, Cathedral Valley and erosion. There is a description of various rock colors and how they form, as well as a detailed stratigraphic column illustrating the names, thicknesses, and ancient environments of rocks and formations that exist in the park. The Natural Resources section discusses some of the history and archeology of the park, as well as birds, mammals, plants, reptiles and environmental problems.


Orchard Pollination in Capitol Reef National Park, Utah, USA. Honey Bees or Native Bees?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unlike most National Parks in the United States, Capitol Reef National Park in central Utah includes an agricultural component. The Park surrounds 22 rosaceous fruit orchards started over a century ago by Mormon pioneers. During bloom, hives of the alien honey bee are imported to pollinate the flow...


The National Park Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the National Park Service. It features links to subpages on special topics such as Parks and Recreation, which inludes links to individual national park pages, and History and Culture, which includes archeological, anthropological, and historical material. The Nature and Science pages feature classroom materials and information on the uses of science in protecting and restoring park ecosystems and research projects which are being conducted in the park system. The Interpretation and Education pages include games, online activities, and material for younger students who are researching park topics, as well as classroom materials for teachers. There are also links to the Park Service online bookshop, news articles, and special features.


Chicago Park District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicago Park District is one of the largest municipal park systems in the United States, containing over 8,100 acres of green space. All told, the District has 580 parks, including two city conservatories, a number of historic lagoons, and the iconic Clarence Buckingham Memorial Fountain. This website allows visitors the opportunity to learn about the District's mission, history, and long-range planning for existing parks and potential new sites. On the homepage, visitors can use the Find a Park feature to learn about these diverse spaces. Additionally, they can use the I Want To area to learn about park permits, volunteering, and reporting problems within the park system. The Events area is quite a find, as visitors can learn about some of the hundreds of events sponsored each year by the District. Finally, visitors can also use the Doing Business area to learn about the various entrepreneurial activities which are possible via the District.



Theme Park Insider  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As summer enters full swing, more and more people will travel to America's numerous amusement parks and traveling carnivals. Quite a few of these people would do well to take a look at the Theme Park Insider website for reviews of various parks and the best (and worst) attractions at each particular place of amusement before they venture onto the open road. Edited by Robert Niles, the site contains reviews of new amusement park rides, an "Accident Watch" (which documents the latest accidents at each park), and reviews of theme park hotels as well. The site also has a number of discussion boards for visitors to chime in with their own take on a number of topics, such as which rides have the longest rides and general amusement park lore.

Niles, Robert.


Yellowstone National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website highlights the nature and features found in this park. It provides information about the geology of park (Old Faithful, Mammoth Hot Springs, Norris, Canyon, West Thumb, Bridge Bay, Tower-Roosevelt), geothermal features (hot springs, mud pots, fumaroles, geysers), wildlife (bison, wolves, mountain lions, elk, birds, bears, coyotes), fish, fire, wetland resources, and the famous sand verbena plant found only in Yellowstone. There are also many publications dealing with environmental assessments, project reports and park plans available to download. The history and archeology of the park are covered as well. Live webcams show visitors updated images of Old Faithful, Mammoth Hot Springs and a fire camera on Mt. Washburn. Online tours also take visitors to the Old Faithful area, the South section of the park, the North section of the park and to Mammoth Hot Springs.


Climatic events during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in the Upper Parana River: Correlation with NE Argentina and South-Central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most Quaternary studies in Brazil are restricted to the Atlantic Coast and are mainly based on coastal morphology and sea level changes, whereas research on inland areas is largely unexplored. The study area lies along the Paraná River, state of Paraná, Brazil, at 22° 43?S latitude and 53° 10?W longitude, where the river is as yet undammed. Paleoclimatological data were

JoseH C. Stevaux



Imitation, Simulation, and Schizophrenia Sohee Park14  

E-print Network

the ability of patients with schizophrenia to imitate the behaviors demonstrated by others. The resultsImitation, Simulation, and Schizophrenia Sohee Park1­4 , Natasha Matthews2 , and Crystal Gibson2 2 of these actions. Imitation plays a central role in human social behavior by mediating diverse forms of social

Park, Sohee


Fruit and Spice Park Park n r a n  

E-print Network

1 Fruit and Spice Park Park n r a n 24801 S.W. 187th Avenue Homestead, Florida 33031 Main: 305-247 in 1924 and organi ed in 1926. n 1944 Mar Heinlein ecame the rst Superintendent of the Redland Fruit & Spice Park. The park is now known as the Preston B. Bird/Mar Heinlein Fruit & Spice Park. The South ade

Koptur, Suzanne


Effect of public opinion on national park planning in Turkey: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

National park plans are mainly prepared by a central planning team of the National Parks of Turkey. In this article, a model\\u000a is presented that proposes a different approach to preparing national park plans. The study is based on a questionnaire distributed\\u000a among the residents of the villages just outside a selected national park in Turkey and the relevant local

Sümer Gülez



U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of granite-gneiss complexes and implications for the evolution of the Central Brazil Archean Terrain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is a first attempt to unravel the Archean multi-stage metaplutonic assemblage of the Meso/Neoarchean terrane of the State of Goiás, Central Brazil, by means of the U-Pb SHRIMP zircon and Sm-Nd techniques. Two stages of granitic plutonism, spanning ca. 140 m.y., were precisely established for the accretion of the gneiss protoliths. The earliest stage embraces tonalitic to granodioritic and minor granitic orthogneisses with Nd juvenile signature, emplaced from ca. 2845 to ca. 2785 Ma, interpreted as the roots of an early arc. Inherited zircon xenocrysts and Nd isotopic data indicate that the juvenile magmas underwent contamination from a sialic crust as old as 3.3 Ga, from which there are, so far, no recognizable exposures. The second stage comprises granodioritic to granitic gneisses and lasted from ca. 2711 to 2707 Ma. Based on their Nd isotopic signatures and on inherited zircon crystals, their protoliths are interpreted as dominantly crustal-derived. The SHRIMP data from zircon crystals did not depict a Paleoproterozoic overprinting on the Archean gneisses, which is due to geological processes with prevailing temperatures below the isotopic stability of the U/Pb/Th system in the mineral. These processes comprise crustal extension and intrusion of a mafic dike swarm at ca. 2.3 Ga, followed by low grade events mostly related to shear zones between ca. 2.15 and 2.0 Ga. The study also revealed the extent of the Pan- African tectono-thermal overprinting on the Archean orthogneisses. Most of the zircon populations show morphological evidence of metamorphic peripheral recrystallization dated between ca. 750 and 550 Ma. One of the banded gneisses with a crystallization age of ca. 2700 Ma (2 ?) has a more complex zircon population including magmatic new grains, which yielded a precise 206Pb/238U crystallization age of 590 ± 10 Ma (2 ?). These new grains are interpreted to have grown in anatectic veins injected within strongly sheared gneiss.The data characterize a widespread Pan-African-aged metamorphic overprinting, culminating with localized anatexis of the Archean orthogneisses.

Queiroz, Cláudia Lima; Jost, Hardy; da Silva, Luiz Carlos; McNaughton, Neal J.



Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.



Tennessee State Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

People might know Tennessee for its fabulous Great Smoky Mountains, but have you ever heard of the Cedars of Lebanon or Fall Creek Falls? Oh yes, those two gems are just a small part of the Tennessee State Park system. After looking at some of the beautiful images on the Tennessee State Parks homepage, visitors can explore the Popular Places People Want to Go section to get a taste of the diverse hiking trails, restaurants, camp sites, and other features that are contained throughout the park system. Visitors can also look over over a dozen topical areas, including What to do?, Park Information, and Resource Management. Policy enthusiasts will appreciate the "Estimated Economic Impacts of Tennessee State Parks" report, that is also featured on the homepage, and travelers will love the "Upcoming Events at Tennessee State Parks" area, as it provides a taste of what they might expect on a visit to the Volunteer State.


Restoring naturalness to national parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

National park resource management planning requires ecological information describing the objectives to be achieved. This information must be quantitative and unambiguous. Since most acts creating United States national parks, beginning with the Yellowstone National Park Act of 1872, specify that these parks should be maintained in a natural condition, resource management objectives for each national park must be defined in

Thomas M. Bonnicksen; Edward C. Stone



A Desert Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service site describes the desert and oasis ecosystems of Joshua Tree National Park as well as the cultural history of humans occupying the area. Nature sections describe the animals, plants, cryptobiotic crusts, and the geology of the park. There are sections on environmental factors such as air quality, disturbed lands, exotic species and fire ecology. There is also information on natural history and cultural history education programs provided for different grade levels.


Utah Park Brochure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You have been asked to create a brochure for one of Utah\\'s many state or national parks to advertise to potential visitors. Overview: After reading Deathwatch, you have now become somewhat of an expert on desert life and survival. Because of your knowledge, you have been asked to create a brochure for one of the state or national parks here in Utah. First, you will select the park or ...

Mrs. Kingsford



Mapping the National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a collection of maps documenting the history, cultural aspects and geological formations of areas that eventually became National Parks. The areas highlighted are Acadia National Park, Yellowstone National Park, the Grand Canyon, and the Great Smoky Mountains. The collection consists of approximately 200 maps dating from the 17th century to the present, reflecting early mapping of these areas. This database is searchable by keyword, geographic location, subject, map creator, or title.


ARTS & SCIENCES Paradise Park  

E-print Network

COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES Paradise Park Moderation in Belief The Attraction of Sedimentary Rocks SCIENCES Gauging Protein Activity in Cancer Treatment ... The Attraction of Sedimentary Rocks ... Davis

Napier, Terrence


Petrified Forest National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website offers reference sections on: park wildlife such as reptiles, pronghorns, and the Gunnison prairie dog; the archaeology of park petroglyphs, including some that may be solar calendars; the geology and main features of the Painted Desert; paleontology, which describes dinosaurs of the area; and petrified wood, which explains the petrification process and how the different colors of petrified wood are produced. There are also tips for avoiding diseases such as hantavirus, the plague, and rabies while in the park.


Geology Fieldnotes: Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This park and preserve extends nearly 200 miles from east to west, including some 8.1 million acres in the central Brooks Range in north central Alaska. Included on the website are details about park geology, flora and fauna, climate, and taiga forest, as well as photographs, visitor information, and selected links.


Transportation and Parking Changes & Reminders  

E-print Network

with Prox Cards: o Hold Prox Card Still within 18 inches of the Reader o Do not waive Prox Card in front of Reader #12;Visitor Parking REMEMBER - Weekend Parking Garage Rate - Weekend visitors to campus must park

Huang, Jianyu


Splendor In The Parks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Civilization is more and more intruding on the esthetic and recreational resources of the National Park System. Increased attention must be paid to controlling noise, pollution, and even the effects of urban lighting which detract from the enjoyment of the parks. (RE)

Smith, Anthony Wayne



Glacier (?) National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spreadsheets Across the Curriculum/Geology of National Parks module. Students examine data about the disappearing glaciers in the park; after calculating percentage change in the number of glaciers from 1850 to 2000, they interpolate to estimate when Grinnell glacier will be gone.

Module by: Judy McIlrath, University of South Florida Cover Page by: Len Vacher and Denise Davis, University of South Florida


Acadia National Park Panorama  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A panorama of Acadia National Park with Dorr and Cadillac Mountains on the right side, taken from Cadillac Mountain Road. At 1,528 feet in elevation, Cadillac Mountain is the highest point in Acadia National Park, and is composed of a unique granite, the Cadillac Mountain granite unit....


Bryce Canyon National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bryce Canyon National Park website contains geology, history, and nature reference sections as well as maps, a photo gallery, and information for planning a trip to the park. The kids page includes the GeoDetectives earth history and physical earth science program. This program has units on earth systems, rocks and minerals, landforms, hydrology, plate tectonics, and paleontology.


Yellowstone National Park Facts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website provides a fact sheet with a wide range of physical and cultural information. Key topics include general park facts, wildlife, flora, geology, Yellowstone Lake, cultural resources, visitation, facilities, roads, trails, and the latitude/longitude of several significant features.

Yellowstone National Park


Mammoth Cave National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The homepage of Mammoth Cave National Park provides visitors with information on tour schedules, surface activities, lodging and camping, and tips on touring caves. Teachers can access an extensive selection of curricular materials, fact sheets and activities for kids, a glossary, and links to other educational programs and sites. Other materials include maps and publications, an image gallery, and links to the park's newsletter.


Amusement Park Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will research various types of amusement park rides and use their findings to design a feasible ride of their own. They will summarize their findings and present their ride design to the class. Each student will then write a persuasive letter to a local amusement park describing the reasons their ride design is the best.

Janet Fox



PARKING OFFICER Position Information  

E-print Network

or emergency situations. Make and set up signs for VIP guests or events, emtpy pay permit machines, provide and parking facilities and the ability to act and resolve parking and traffic problems. Ability to write)594-7099. EM Equal Employment Opportunity SDSU IS AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER AND DOES NOT DISCRIMINATE

Ponce, V. Miguel


Yellowstone National Park Interactive Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park Map is a handy way to quickly find locations and buildings located in the park. It is currently the most detailed map of Yellowstone national park that can be viewed online. The pull down menu has Yellowstone features such as geyser basins, campgrounds, trails, mountains, and historical points and park structures. Popular geysers, and park locations such as Norris geyser basin, Yellowstone visitor centers, park housing, lodging, and park dining can be easily found. All Yellowstone National Park named structures are indexed so you can easily find the sites that you want to locate.



The Brazilian Indigenous Problem and Policy: The Aripuana Park. AMAZIND/IWGIA Document No. 19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aripuana Park was established in 1969 to give the still isolated Surui and other Broad-Belt Indians a chance of survival at the time when Brazil was launching its "conquest of the Amazon". The Park is situated on both sides of the Upper Aripuana and extends to the Roosevelt and Juruena rivers. The Indians are located at the sources of the…

Chiappino, Jean


Florida State Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The modern Florida State Parks system was created in 1935, and their programs include parks all the way from the St. Augustine area to the Keys. Their homepage brings together cultural, historical, and scientific materials related to the various sites in the state system. The website includes information on each park, along with interactive features on African American sites in the state and notable battlegrounds. Along the top of the page, visitors can use sections such as "Find a Park" and "Stay the Night" to plan their journey through the state. Each park entry also contains information about the site's history, along with detailed information about ranger programs, special music events, and so on. Finally, visitors can stay in touch via Twitter and other social media.


Defunct Amusement Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While there are many sites on existing amusement parks, this particular Web site contains detailed information on "pleasure palaces" that have gone out of business or that have since been demolished. Created and maintained by Joel Styer, the site features an interactive map of the United States that allows visitors to click on any one of the states to find out information about now-defunct amusement parks. Many of the former parks have additional material available for viewing, such as photographs, postcards, and brief essays and personal remembrances. Also, there is an extensive links page, which directs visitors to other sites dealing with different aspects of amusement park memorabilia such as popular rides from the past and newsgroups. The site also has different contact information for persons seeking to donate materials and recollections related to amusement parks.


Central Chemical Engineering & Process Techniques Cite this article: Park S, Mann J, Li N (2013) Targeted Inhibitor Design: Lessons from Small Molecule Drug Design, Directed Evolution, and Vaccine Re-  

E-print Network

) Targeted Inhibitor Design: Lessons from Small Molecule Drug Design, Directed Evolution, and Vaccine Re Evolution, and Vaccine Research Sheldon Park*, Jasdeep Mann and Naiyi Li Department of Chemical design, protein engineering and vaccine research are used to illustrate the point. INTRODUCTION Protein

Park, Sheldon


Design a Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are invited to imagine the park of their dreams! In small groups, learners place moveable pieces on a grid, iterating on their plan together to create a plan for a community park. A variety of park features are offered as choices to include on the map, including a playground, skate park, water features, picnic areas, trails, and more. Like real-world projects, the plan is limited by the realities of space and funds. For younger learners, groups are limited to choosing less than 10 features. Learners ages 9 and up are limited not by the number of features, but by their cost in terms of points: They are challenged to keep track of the points on the park features cards and use less than 250 total points. Some park features, including a natural wetland and ice cream shop, promise to provide revenue back to the community and are worth points. Others, like a skate park or swimming pool, "cost" points. This activity is part of a curriculum designed to engage learners in hands-on engineering challenges.



Parks awash in light pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first-ever nationwide survey of light pollution impacts on the U.S. National Park System has found that light pollution is a pervasive threat to national parks, and interferes with visitors' ability to observe stars and the night sky. The survey, which queried National Park Service (NPS) staff, found that dark night skies are a vital park resource, and that light

Randy Showstack



How to Park: Teen Drivers  

E-print Network

is missing in this picture. As much as you drive your car, it's actu- ally parked 95% of the time! Parking is important to master because: · Almost 70% of vehicular crashes happen while parking. · 14% of all insurance. · 30% of drivers feel it's okay to tap another car's bumper when parallel parking (but it isn't okay

Das, Suman


SECTION FOUR: Parking & Traffic Violations  

E-print Network

assessed under the authority of York University Parking and Traffic Regulations within 30 calendar days) Legal action (v) Additional service charges SECTION FIVE: Parking & Traffic Violations 5.0 If a driverSECTION FOUR: Parking & Traffic Violations 4.0 PARKING PRIVILEGES CANCELLED re: Failure to pay


Ticks on captive and free-living wild animals in northeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2005 to 2009, 147 ticks found on 32 wild animals from or referred to two zoobotanical parks (Parque Zoobotânico Arruda\\u000a Câmara and Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos) located in northeastern Brazil were identified. Ticks found on two veterinarians working\\u000a in one of the parks (i.e., Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos), after return from forested areas within the park’s territory, were\\u000a also

Filipe Dantas-Torres; Débora R. A. Ferreira; Louise M. de Melo; Polly-Ana C. P. Lima; Daniel B. Siqueira; Luciana C. Rameh-de-Albuquerque; Adriana V. de Melo; Janaina A. C. Ramos



Pacific Historic Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed to support and fund educational materials and interpretive programs for four National Parks throughout the Pacific (including the Kalaupapa National Historical Park), the Pacific Historic Parks organization has a visually enticing website. On the homepage, visitors will find information about their work in four sections, including "Education" and "Locations". First-time visitors may want to start by looking over the "Locations" area. Here they will find information about each park, complete with a Google Map interface that will let them learn more about each site. In the "Education" area, visitors can download a copy of their educational brochure and also take a look at several of their booklets for educators. Moving on, the "Audio Tour" area contains a copy of the accompanying brochure for an audio tour narrated by actor Jamie Lee Curtis.


Kruger National Park  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... and to the right of image center is the Palabora Copper Mine, and the water body near upper right is Lake Massingir in Mozambique. ... South Africa showing Kruger Park, the Palabora Copper Mine, and Lake Massingir. project:  MISR category:  ...




E-print Network

is for adults using Edinburgh's mental health services. 2010 Craigmillar received the Green Flag Award WIAT of Multiple Deprivation 2009 Before WIAT The park and castle have a long history dating back to the 1300s. One


Jurassic Park Safety Audit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the first 30 minutes of the film Jurassic Park, the student will audit it for violations of safety rules and regulations, OSHA violations, and violations of HASP's. Access to the activity required free and quick registration with ATEEC.


Anomalous delays of teleseismic P waves in Yellowstone National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

TELESEISMIC P waves recorded by a short-period seismic network, comprising 12 stations, in Yellowstone National Park, show anomalous delays of 1-2 s in their travel times in the central region of the park relative to the surrounding area. To explain this phenomenon, I propose that a substantial body of low velocity material is present beneath the park, with horizontal dimensions of several tens of kilometres; it may be the magma chamber associated with the volcanism of Yellowstone (ref. 1, and G. P. Eaton et al., unpublished). ?? 1975 Nature Publishing Group.

Iyer, H.M.



Inequities in access to health care in different health systems: a study in municipalities of central Colombia and north-eastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Introduction Health system reforms are undertaken with the aim of improving equity of access to health care. Their impact is generally analyzed based on health care utilization, without distinguishing between levels of care. This study aims to analyze inequities in access to the continuum of care in municipalities of Brazil and Colombia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a survey of a multistage probability sample of people who had had at least one health problem in the prior three months (2,163 in Colombia and 2,167 in Brazil). The outcome variables were dichotomous variables on the utilization of curative and preventive services. The main independent variables were income, being the holder of a private health plan and, in Colombia, type of insurance scheme of the General System of Social Security in Health (SGSSS). For each country, the prevalence of the outcome variables was calculated overall and stratified by levels of per capita income, SGSSS insurance schemes and private health plan. Prevalence ratios were computed by means of Poisson regression models with robust variance, controlling for health care need. Results There are inequities in favor of individuals of a higher socioeconomic status: in Colombia, in the three different care levels (primary, outpatient secondary and emergency care) and preventive activities; and in Brazil, in the use of outpatient secondary care services and preventive activities, whilst lower-income individuals make greater use of the primary care services. In both countries, inequity in the use of outpatient secondary care is more pronounced than in the other care levels. Income in both countries, insurance scheme enrollment in Colombia and holding a private health plan in Brazil all contribute to the presence of inequities in utilization. Conclusions Twenty years after the introduction of reforms implemented to improve equity in access to health care, inequities, defined in terms of unequal use for equal need, are still present in both countries. The design of the health systems appears to determine access to the health services: two insurance schemes in Colombia with different benefits packages and a segmented system in Brazil, with a significant private component. PMID:24479581



The National Park Service: Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A National Park Service (NPS) site primarily composed of three main sections corresponding to the following program areas within the Geologic Resources Division (GRD): Disturbed Lands Restoration and Abandoned Mineral Lands (AML), Mineral Management Programs, and Geology and Soils Programs. Of these, the first two consist principally of textual resources pertaining to Park System procedures, policies, and regulations - as well as reports on example restoration projects with a focus on stream corridor restoration, bioengineering, riparian management, and revegetation. Perhaps of most interest to educators will be the third main program area, the Geology and Soils Programs section. Here are included textual resources pertaining to NPS-GRD programs on cave and karst formations, coastal and shoreline geology, paleontology, soils (e.g., soil biology and soil surveying), geological indicators (geoindicators), and stratigraphy. Lastly, a searchable photographic collection and geologic glossary are available.


A study of assessment indicators for environmental sustainable development of science parks in Taiwan.  


This study adopted the ecological footprint calculation structure to calculate the ecological footprints of the three major science parks in Taiwan from 2008 to 2010. The result shows that the ecological footprints of the Hsinchu Science Park, the Central Taiwan Science Park, and the Southern Taiwan Science Park were about 3.964, 2.970, and 4.165 ha per capita. The ecological footprint (EF) of the Central Taiwan Science Park was the lowest, meaning that the influence of the daily operations in the Central Taiwan Science Park on the environment was rather low. Secondly, the population density was relatively high, and the EF was not the highest of the Hsinchu Science Park, meaning that, while consuming ecological resources, the environmental management done was effective. In addition, the population density in Southern Taiwan Science Park is 82.8 units, lower than that of Hsinchu Science Park, but its ecological footprint per capita is 0.201 units, higher than Hsinchu, implying its indicator management has space for improvement. According to the analysis result above, in the science parks, the percentages of high-energy-consuming industries were rather high. It was necessary to encourage development of green industries with low energy consumption and low pollution through industry transformation. PMID:23322506

Chen, Han-Shen; Chien, Li-Hsien; Hsieh, Tsuifang



A novel parking service using wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parking is costly and limited in almost every major city in the world. The misparking aggravates the competition of parking slots. Innovative parking systems for meeting near-term parking demand are needed. A probabilistic approach is addressed to model the misparking of the current parking system. To provide an intelligent parking services and to eliminate the misparking, a wireless-based parking service

Gongjun Yan; Michele C. Weigle; Stephan Olariu



Geology Fieldnotes: Great Basin National Park, Nevada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Great Basin National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, visitor information, and teacher features (educational resources and links for teaching geology using National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the region's biogeography, glacial history, and the Lehman Caves. A park map and a features/relief map of the Great Basin National Park are included.


Urban Parks: Constraints on Park Visitation  

E-print Network

may not cause them to participate unless there is a simultaneous effort to promote positive attitudes about the outdoors, help people develop their skills, and ensure visitor safety (Crawford and Godbey). Lack of Time Lack of time is the reason... overcome the problem. Leisure constraints are those factors that limit people?s participation in or enjoyment of leisure activities and services (e.g., parks and programs). There are several types of constraints. Lack of Interest and Skills Early...

Scott, David



Tour of Park Geology: Oldest Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This park geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with the oldest known rocks. The parks are divided at this site into East and West. Where appropriate, for each park, links are provided to park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology using National Park examples). Parks listed include: Voyaguers National Park, Keweenaw National Historic Park, Lake Meade National Recreation Area, and many more.


Park Geology: Tour of Basin and Range Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides links to tours of individual National Parks within the Basin and Range region. Where appropriate for each park, links are provided to park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features. Some of the parks have an expanded geology page that features the geologic time, history, plate tectonics, rocks and minerals, and a virtual field trip of the park. Of particular note is the teacher feature section, which provides educational resources and links for teaching geology with National Park examples.


ProvincialParks,Trails,Beaches,andProtectedAreas Provincial Parks, Trails, Beaches,  

E-print Network

ProvincialParks,Trails,Beaches,andProtectedAreas Provincial Parks, Trails, Beaches, and Protected PARKS, TRAILS, BEACHES, AND PROTECTED AREAS TO THE STEERING PANEL February 2010 Cape Chignecto Provincial Park--Gerry Lunn #12;ProvincialParks,Trails,Beaches

Charles, Anthony



Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FACING NORTHWEST TOWARD NORTHERN END OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA



Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FACING NORTHEAST OF NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA


Community initiatives and individual action on and around Mount Kenya National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mount Kenya is situated in the Central Highlands of Kenya. The national park includes all land above 10,500 feet (3,200m) and two salient, Sirimon and Naro Moru, which reach further down. The park is 715 km2 and it was gazetted a national park in 1949. The surrounding forest reserves add another 1,820 km2 of protected area, making Mount Kenya the

Ulf Carlsson; Christian Lambrechts


Geology of National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered what it would be like to take a historic tour of the Colorado River Canyon? Wonder no more, as this site from the U.S. Geological Survey makes just such a sojourn possible. Drawing on thousands of historic and contemporary photographs, views, documents, and other items, the USGS has created these fine 3D and photographic tours of dozens of national parks. On the site, visitors will find an alphabetical list of the parks, along with links to the 3D image galleries, standard image galleries, and selected online field guides. There's a great deal to recommend here, but visitors should definitely look at the stereograph images from the Powell Survey Expeditions of the Colorado River from 1871 and 1872 (in the "Other park-related resources" section) and the guidebook titled "Where's the San Andreas Fault?" Along with providing entertaining edification, this site might also spark some ideas for an upcoming trip.


Parking space detection using ultrasonic sensor in parking assistance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with parking space detection by using ultrasonic sensor. Using the multiple echo function, the accuracy of edge detection was increased. After inspecting effect on the multiple echo function in indoor experiment, we applied to 11 types of vehicles in real parking environment and made experiments on edge detection with various values of resolution. We can scan parking

Wan-Joo Park; Byung-Sung Kim; Dong-Eun Seo; Dong-Suk Kim; Kwae-Hi Lee



Hawaii hydrogen power park Hawaii Hydrogen Power Park  

E-print Network

Hawaii hydrogen power park H Hawaii Hydrogen Power Park 2003 Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Merit Review Meeting 19-22 May 2003 Maurice Kaya, PI, State of Hawaii Dr. Rick Rocheleau, PI, University of Hawaii Mitch Ewan, Project Manager, University of Hawaii #12;Hawaii hydrogen power park H Objectives


NASA Research Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A massive addition to the NASA Ames Research Park is detailed on this site. Although the project is not scheduled to be completed until 2015, it has been in the planning stages for several years and 2003 marks the beginning of Phase 1. The 98-page NASA Ames Development Plan is available for public viewing online. The new facilities will be designed to accommodate research in "information technology, nanotechnology, biotechnology, and astrobiology." Several other news articles and formal documents about the project can be downloaded as well. The design, construction, and staffing of the new research park will reportedly generate 7,000 high-tech jobs.


Carbon Park Environmental Impact Assessment  

E-print Network

of offsetting the University's carbon footprint, promoting biodiversity and establishing easily maintained Carbon Park Environmental Impact Assessment A B.E.S.T. Project By, Adam Bond 2011 #12; Bishop's University Carbon Park


A framework for understanding community resident perceptions of Masoala National Park, Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Protected areas (PAs) represent a central strategy in biodiversity conservation worldwide. Yet many PAs are weakened by people-PA conflicts resulting from the separation of natural resource protection from human considerations. Research at Masoala National Park in Madagascar focused on the following questions: (1) What are the factors that influence residents' perceptions of the Park and restrictions on use of




Geology Fieldnotes: Catoctin Mountain Park, Maryland  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains Catoctin Mountain Park information, a park map, and visitor information. A general cultural history of the park is given, from the first human inhabitants to its development into a park. Also mentioned are recreational attractions and Cunningham Falls State Park, located next to Catoctin. This park lies in the Appalachian Mountain chain.


Vision-based automated parking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to overcome a situation of monitoring and managing a parking area using a vision based automated parking system. With the rapid increase of cars the need to find available parking space in the most efficient manner, to avoid traffic congestion in a parking area, is becoming a necessity in car park management. Current car park

Hamada R. H. AI-Absi; J. D. D. Devaraj; P. Sebastian; Yap Vooi Voon



Tour of Park Geology: Shoreline Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides links to shoreline geology fieldnotes for National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas. When appropriate, fieldnotes include visitor information, geology, maps, photographs, multimedia resources, geologic research, and teacher features (lessons for teaching geology with National Park examples). Some of the parks included on this site: Acadia National Park, Everglades National Park, and Padre Island National Seashore.


HOURGLASS FIRE Pingree Park Vicinity  

E-print Network

HOURGLASS FIRE Pingree Park Vicinity July 1-July 7, 1994 P.N. Omi Pingree Park overview, September Pingree Park campus and Hourglass Reservoir. Summer lightning commonly occurs throughout the Rocky. Initial attack was conducted by personnel of the Arapaho-Roosevelt National Forest who arrived at the fire


The human ecology of parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores a human ecological approach to the study of people and parks. A human ecological perspective is outlined, along with the key units of analysis in human ecology. A theoretical framework for treating parks as human ecosystems is developed. Several ecological processes relevant to understanding human activity within parks are discussed, including adaptation, competition, and succession. The paper

Gary E. Machlis; Donald R. Field; Fred L. Campbell



Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) publication discusses Dry Tortugas National Park in Florida. This system consists of 7 small islands off the coast of Key West. The site discusses the history of this area, as well as the marine setting of the park.


Park Policy for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current problems within the national parks are detailed and the author determines the crux of the problems to be the inability of the National Park Service to control concessionnaires and resist pressure from natural resource developers. Changes in future national parks policy stressing more planning are advocated. (BT)

Haefele, Mina Hamilton




E-print Network

. Brochures are available at City Hall. CRANBROOK HILL GREENWAY Cranbrook Hill Greenway has over 25 km of multi-use trails that are open year round for activities such as biking, hiking and skiing. The Greenway HILL GREENWAYCRANBROOK HILL GREENWAY FORT GEORGE PARK FORT GEORGE PARK RAINBOW PARKRAINBOW PARK MOORE

Northern British Columbia, University of


Parking for Fans with Disabilities  

E-print Network

Parking for Fans with Disabilities UVA D3 Lot at Massie and Arlington Welcome to the dedicated parking area for fans with disabilities at Massie and Arlington, also known as the UVA D3 lot! This FREE parking area is provided for fans attending UVA football games. It is adjacent to UVA's Law School and J

Acton, Scott


Parks or Prisons?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a simulation activity in which students assume the role of grizzly bears in Banff National Park. Concepts such as species diversity, fitness, natural selection, habitat loss, extinction, and population dynamics are discussed. Children learn how human activities can affect the bear's reproductive success. Lists materials, instructional…

Thomson, Gareth



Exploring Jurassic Park.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several student-tested activities built around "Jurassic Park." The activities feature students engaged in role-playing scenarios, investigative research projects, journal writing and communications skills activities, cooperative learning groups, and learning experiences that make use of reading skills and mathematical knowledge. (PR)

Simmons, Patricia E.; Wiley, Clyde



Parking & Transportation Services Sustainability &  

E-print Network

Systems ­ will allow for up-to-the-minute counts of available parking space. #12;o Real-time Travel. The University is committed to advancing the public good and improving the human condition. Overall Excellence. · 1993 Association for Commuter Transportation Merit Award ­ in recognition of travel demand management

Minnesota, University of


Amusement Park Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Amusement Park Physics Website helps the user to learn more about how physics laws affect the designs of roller coasters, bumper car collisions, carousels, free fall rides, and pendulum rides. A highlight of the site is the opportunity to design a roller coaster and experiment with bumper car collisions.




Parking Procedures GUIDELINES  

E-print Network

10, 2014 PURPOSE: To establish guidelines for the regulation of parking on the Washington University outside of the Clayton Garage is regulated due to more high demand for the other facilities. Clayton and a report may be forwarded to the parker's department for disposition. All vehicles on the Medical Center

Grant, Gregory


Summer 2012 Pingree Park  

E-print Network

& Laurel see map on other side) and fill out the Pingree Park Housing Reservation, Mon-Fri from 9:00 am transfer students Jan 30 - Feb 3 - Only current Sophomores Feb 6 - 17 - Open enrollment (space available-50705] Prerequisites: BZ 110 & 111 or BZ 120 or LIFE 103; MATH 118 (LAND 220/LIFE 220, LIFE 320, F 210, and/or BZ 223


KALELE ROAD Parking Office  

E-print Network

Hall Keller Hall Edmondson Hall Gateway House Orvis Auditorium Music Building Complex Speech Pathology Environ. Health Transportation Services Landscaping No Vehicle Access No Public Vehicle Access No Public Kiosk Bachman Kiosk Entrance Kiosk Gym 1 Gym 2 UH Parking Access St. Francis School University Health


Industrial parks as ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial ecology and metabolism provide a conceptual framework for the transformation of our production and consumption system into a transition toward sustainable development. This is consistent with the expressed views of a wide range of industrial and business associations. Burnside Industrial Park in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, provides an opportunity to investigate the application of the concept to small businesses. The

R. Côté; J. Hall



Yellowstone National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yellowstone National Park was established on March 1, 1872, as the first national park in the world. The overwhelming and unique beauty found in this natural wonder is truly difficult to describe.This Topic In Depth begin with the excellent National Park Service's (1) official Yellowstone Web Site, which contains the park's history, virtual field trips, park information, visitor guides, web cams, kids pages, and more. The next site offered by EarthTalk Studios is called Yellowstone Geographic. This extensive and graphically reliant site contains superb interactive activities related to the park and comes close to its goal of being "the best Yellowstone Web Site on the planet." The third site from called Weird Geology: Geysers explores the workings of Yellowstone's famous geysers with descriptions, photographs, illustrations, and a movie of an eruption. The next site from Exploratorium is a learning activity called Geyser: Cyclic Hot Water Fountain. With the help of their teacher, students build a working model of a geyser from common chemical equipment. From the University of Michigan, Meg Streepey's Geysers and the Earth's Plumbing Systems Web Site describes (for more advanced students) how geysers work, including how to analyze their thermal and hydrologic regimes. Another research site, from the University of Utah's College of Mines and Earth Sciences, is the GPS Surveys of the Yellowstone Hotspot and the Wasatch Fault, Utah. Objectives of the study are "to measure and understand the spatial and temporal variations of the crustal deformation produced by the interaction between lithospheric plate motion and the asthenospheric hotspot." The last two sites are from the USGS, the first of which is the Yellowstone River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment Program site. It contains a project description, available data, and other relevant information. The last site, Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, is a facility that is designed for observing volcanic and earthquake activity in the park. This site also contains a project description, volcanic data, maps, descriptions of volcanic rock, a frequently asked questions link, and more.

Brieske, Joel A.



The Glória quartz-monzodiorite: isotopic and chemical evidence of arc-related magmatism in the central part of the Paleoproterozoic Mineiro belt, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.  


The Glória quartz-monzodiorite, one of the mafic plutons of the Paleoproterozoic Mineiro belt, is intrusive into banded gneisses, amphibolites, schists and phyllites of the Rio das Mortes greenstone belt, in the southern portion of the São Francisco Craton, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite yields a SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 2188 +/- 29 Ma, suggesting a tectonic relationship with the pre-collisional phase of the Mineiro belt. According to the Nd isotopic evidence (epsilonNd(T) = -3.4; T DM = 2.68 Ga) the original magmas was formed by a mixture among Archean crustal material and Paleoproterozoic juvenile magma. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite shows metaluminous and calc-alkaline tendency with intermediate K content, comparable to that of volcanic-arc rocks. The primary mineralogical assemblage was partly modified by metamorphism, dated between 2131-2121 Ma in nearby coeval plutons. Such metamorphism is significantly older than the reported metamorphic episodes of the Mineiro belt in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region (2059-2041 Ma) in the eastern portion of the study area. This evidence, together with chemical and isotopic data from other mafic and felsic plutons coeval with the Glória quartz-monzodiorite, indicate a tectonic and magmatic migration within the Mineiro belt from west to east. PMID:16936942

Avila, Ciro A; Teixeira, Wilson; Cordani, Umberto G; Barrueto, Héctor R; Pereira, Ronaldo M; Martins, Veridiana T S; Dunyi, Liu



The relationship between normal and strike-slip faults in Valley of Fire State Park, Nevada, and its implications for stress rotation and partitioning of deformation in the east-central Basin and Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study expands on our earlier studies of the evolution of fracturing and faulting in the Jurassic aeolian Aztec Sandstone exposed over a large area in the Valley of Fire State Park, southeastern Nevada. Based on a nearly three-dimensional data set collected from 200-m-high cliff-face exposures with stair-case morphology composed of steep and flat parts, we find that a series of inclined, relatively low-angle normal faults and their splay fractures are precursors of the strike-slip fault network that we previously documented. We discuss the significance of this finding in terms of the tectonics of the broader area, stress rotation, partitioning of deformation, and the development of fracture clusters with compartmentalization of the structures as a function of spatial, depositional and deformational domains.

Aydin, Atilla; de Joussineau, Ghislain



USGS: Geology in the Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey Geology in the Parks Web site is a cooperative project of the USGS Western Earth Surface Processes Team and the National Park Service. This extensive site covers geologic maps, plate tectonics, rocks and minerals, geologic time, US geologic provinces, park geology of the Mojave, Sunset Crater, Lake Mead, North Cascades, Death Valley, Yosemite National Park, and much more. Descriptions, graphics, photographs, and animations all contribute to this informative and interesting Web site making it a one stop, all encompassing, resource for everything geology and US national park related.


Tour of Park Geology: Fossils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas that contain fossils. Where appropriate, for each park, links are provided to park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as the Grand Canyon, Dinosaur National Monument, Yellowstone, and Death Valley, along with less well-known areas such as the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument in Oregon.


Parking: an effective strategy described.  


A hospital car park needs to balance the demands of patients, visitors, and staff, without, for example, compromising emergency vehicles' access to the Accident & Emergency Department. However, with car ownership on the rise, the half a million car parking spaces across all Trust sites in England may not be enough to meet future demand. Philip Herring, managing director of VINCI Park UK, which designs, finances, builds, and operates, car parks for a variety of sectors, argues that having in place an effective strategy for future parking is vital to meet the growing needs of patients, visitors, and staff, as well as budgetary and environmental commitments. PMID:24397228

Herring, Philip



1.94-1.93 Ga charnockitic magmatism from the central part of the Guyana Shield, Roraima, Brazil: Single-zircon evaporation data and tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Age and origin of the charnockitic rocks of the central part of the Guyana Shield have been a matter of discussion. These rocks have been interpreted either as Transamazonian granulites metamorphosed around 2.02 Ga or as 1.56 Ga old igneous charnockites. Recently, most of the Roraima charnockitic rocks have been recognized as igneous rocks and included into the Serra da Prata Suite (SPS). Five Pb-Pb single-zircon evaporation ages were obtained for samples representative of different facies of the SPS and these constrained the age of the charnockitic magmatism between 1943 ± 5 Ma and 1933 ± 2 Ma. This charnockitic magmatism may be related to a post-collisional setting after the evolution of the Cauarane-Coeroeni Belt (˜2.00 Ga), or may represent a post-collisional (or intracontinental?) magmatism related to orogenic activities along the plate margins around 1.95-1.94 Ga.

Fraga, Lêda Maria; Macambira, Moacir Jose Buenano; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Costa, João Batista Sena



Numerical Simulations of the Hydrothermal System at Lassen Volcanic National Park  

SciTech Connect

The hydrothermal system in the vicinity of Lassen Volcanic National Park contains a central region of fluid upflow in which steam and liquid phases separate, with steam rising through a parasitic vapor-dominated zone and liquid flowing laterally toward areas of hot spring discharge south of the Park. A simplified numerical model was used to simulate the 10,000-20,000 year evolution of this system and to show that under certain circumstances fluid withdrawal from hot-water reservoirs south of the Park could significantly alter the discharge of steam from thermal areas within the Park.

Sorey, Michael L.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.



Lateral moraine age in Park Valley, Tararua Range, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent geomorphologie and sedimentologic investigations in Park Valley, in the central Tararua Range, have identified several landforms of glacial erosion and deposition, including cirque basins, a U?shaped glacial valley, and a lateral moraine ridge. The presence of Kawakawa tephra (Aokautere Ash) within loess c. 50 cm beneath the surface of the moraine has indicated that the moraine was formed prior

Martin S. Brook



In search of traditional bio-ecological knowledge useful for fisheries co-management: the case of jaraquis Semaprochilodus spp. (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae) in Central Amazon, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp.) are the most abundant group in the fishing landing in Manaus. However, just command and control management strategies have been used by the fishery governmental agency in the region without the power to enforce centralized decisions. The fishermen and their culture represent a source of information on dynamics of the resources and aquatic environments, fundamental in making possible the co-management of the fishing resources. The present study aims to contribute to management through identification of common information available in scientific and traditional knowledge about the jaraquis' bio-ecology. There were 57 semi-structured interviews recorded with fishermen of Manaus and rural areas of Manacapuru in 2002 concerning biological and ecological aspects. Similarity was observed between scientific and traditional knowledge in the following items: size of first sexual maturation, spawning type, parental care, trophic relationships and migratory behavior, as well as in some aspects of the mortality and growth of the species. However, there was less ethnoicthyological information on fecundity and the determination of the age and growth of adult fish. Common information would be used preferably by agencies to start an effective and technical dialogue with commercial and riverine fishermen to design management plans in a decentralized strategy. PMID:20525294



Molecular detection of Leishmania spp. in road-killed wild mammals in the Central Western area of the State of São Paulo, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Road-killed wild animals have been classified as sentinels for detecting such zoonotic pathogens as Leishmania spp., offering new opportunities for epidemiological studies of this infection. Methods This study aimed to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania chagasi DNA by PCR in tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, mesenteric lymph node and adrenal gland) from 70 road-killed wild animals. Results DNA was detected in tissues of one Cavia aperea (Brazilian guinea pig), five Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), one Dasypus septemcinctus (seven-banded armadillo), two Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), one Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris (capybara), two Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), one Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), two Sphiggurus spinosus (porcupine) and one Tamandua tetradactyla (lesser anteater) from different locations in the Central Western part of São Paulo state. The Leishmania chagasi DNA were confirmed in mesenteric lymph node of one Cerdocyon thous. Results indicated common infection in wild animals. Conclusions The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting the environmental occurrence of Leishmania spp. and L. chagasi, as well as determining natural wild reservoirs and contributing to understand the host-parasite interaction. PMID:24963288



Initial analysis from a lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires in the central and western portion of the São Paulo State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central and western portion of the Sao Paulo State has large areas of sugar cane plantations, and due to the growing demand for biofuels, the production is increasing every year. During the harvest period some plantation areas are burnt a few hours before the manual cutting, causing significant quantities of biomass burning aerosol to be injected into the atmosphere. During August 2010, a field campaign has been carried out in Ourinhos, situated in the south-western region of Sao Paulo State. A 2-channel Raman Lidar system and two meteorological S-Band Doppler Radars are used to indentify and quantify the biomass burning plumes. In addiction, CALIPSO Satellite observations were used to compare the aerosol optical properties detected in that region with those retrieved by Raman Lidar system. Although the campaign yielded 30 days of measurements, this paper will be focusing only one case study, when aerosols released from nearby sugar cane fires were detected by the Lidar system during a CALIPSO overpass. The meteorological radar, installed in Bauru, approximately 110 km northeast from the experimental site, had recorded "echoes" (dense smoke comprising aerosols) from several fires occurring close to the Raman Lidar system, which also detected an intense load of aerosol in the atmosphere. HYSPLIT model forward trajectories presented a strong indication that both instruments have measured the same air masss parcels, corroborated with the Lidar Ratio values from the 532 nm elastic and 607 nm Raman N2 channel analyses and data retrieved from CALIPSO have indicated the predominance of aerosol from biomass burning sources.

da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Held, Gerhard; Nakaema, Walter M.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; Bassan, Jose M.; Landulfo, Eduardo



2012-13 UT Basketball Parking Information Campus Parking: On weekdays, the majority of parking on campus requires a basketball  

E-print Network

2012-13 UT Basketball Parking Information Campus Parking: On weekdays, the majority of parking on campus requires a basketball parking permit beginning at 4:00pm.* On weekends, the same is true but times DURING WEEKDAY BASKETBALL GAMES: The following parking areas will be designated for students with a valid

Tennessee, University of


Rocking the Parks: Geological Stories of the National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rocking the Parks: Geological Stories of the National Parks is an online book by Richard B. Alley of Penn State Universities e-Education Institute. The site contains thirty chapters that relate geology and the US National Parks, such as plate tectonics and Death Valley, volcanoes and Yellowstone, and glaciers and Yosemite. Each Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) file can be downloaded and viewed free of charge.

Alley, Richard B.


77 FR 53826 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-YELL-10569; 2310-0070-422...1024-AE10 Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY: National Park Service,...



77 FR 73919 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-YELL-11802; PPWONRADE2...1024-AE10 Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY: National Park Service,...



UNIVERSITY of HOUSTON Parking and Transportation Services  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY of HOUSTON Parking and Transportation Services Proposed FY14 and FY15 Parking Rates March ­ April Auxiliary Services Parking and Transportation Shared Governance Committee - Transportation of University of Houston parking and transportation programs. 2. To improve and maintain parking infrastructure

Bittner, Eric R.


National Park Service Exotic Plant Management Teams  

E-print Network

National Park Service Exotic Plant Management Teams Tony Pernas National Park Service Southeast Region Office National Park Service Biological Resource Management Division #12;· Protect native · Host Park; · Team Composition; · Steering Committees. #12;National Park Service Units in Florida ( 2

Watson, Craig A.


Intelligent Parking Negotiation Based on Agent Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the parking problems in the metropolises, a new approach integrating active pattern for parking guidance information system composed of parks, cars and parking information service center and traffic management center is proposed. A multi-phase navigation method based on a two-layer traffic map is employed for parking routes negotiation and guidance. The system is implemented based on

Li Yang; Ma Rongguo; Wang Longfei



Tour of Park Geology: Human Use Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides links to geolgy field notes about National Parks, National Monuments, and National Recreation Areas having to do with geology and human use (such as mining). Information includes geology, photographs, multimedia tools, park maps, visitor information, geologic research, and additional links. Parks covered include Klondike Gold Rush National Historic Park, Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument, and more.


Public Responses to National Park Environmental Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioral responses of urban and semirural residents to a newly initiated national park environmental policy are investigated. The policy broadly involves the reduction of service facilities within the park and a concomitant emphasis on the park's natural environment. It is disclosed that (1) awareness of the park policy and (2) overt patronage of the park are related to relative

Geoffrey C. Smith; David Alderdice



Tour of Park Geology: River Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides links to National Parks, Monuments, Preserves, Rivers, and Recreation Areas with fluvial landforms. Park links provide maps, photographs, geologic and historical information, and teacher features (links for teaching tools). Parks in this category include Big Bend National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Buffalo National River, and more.


Terrein / car park: Inleveren bij / submit to  

E-print Network

Procedure: Terrein / car park: Inleveren bij / submit to: Info: Vul a.u.b. uw gegevens in / please terrein, voor de duur van: Requests access to the car park(s) mentioned above for the period of voorbehoud kan van toepassing zijn. You can request access rights for the local car park(s) on one campus

Galis, Frietson


Geology of the National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides information about United States Geological Survey (USGS) resources and activities associated with National Parks. Users can choose from a selection of links that access items on park geology, virtual trips, research projects, and general topics such as plate tectonics, rocks and minerals, shorelines, glaciers, and many more. Links to geologic information for individual parks are arranged by alphabet, by state, or by geologic province.


National Parks WebQuest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web-based activity challenges students to use a variety of internet resources to learn about several dimensions of national parks. Each student's research assignment focuses on one component of a park, such as its history, biology, geology, or tourist appeal. Students must keep track of important points and their references. Once research is complete, students come together and teach each other about their specific research domain, culminating in a holistic understanding of the park features.

Mrs. Phillip


Geology of Badlands National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is an introduction to the 75 million years of accumulation and intermittent periods of erosion that has resulted in the Badlands National Park. The history of the Oglicene beds of the Park, one of the world's richest vertebrate fossil sites, is also described. A downloadable PDF that describes the erosion that is responsible for the geology of the Park in more detail is linked to the site.

National Park Service (NPS)


Visits to national parks: Effects of park characteristics and spatial demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the relationship between the number of visits to national parks and their characteristics is crucial for park planning and management. Visitation has a key role in existing national parks, but also in assessing the social and economic impacts of new parks. This study examined how the natural characteristics of a park, the recreation facilities and services inside a park

Marjo Neuvonen; Eija Pouta; Jenni Puustinen; Tuija Sievänen




Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present joint research activities in com- puter vision and sensor networks for a distributed surveil- lance of urban parks. Distributed visual surveillance of ur- ban environments is one of the most interesting scenario in Ambient Intelligence; in addition, the automated monitor- ing of public parks, often crowded by children and adults, is still a very difficult

Luca Benini; Elisabetta Farella


Garage Parking n Visitors may park in garages  

E-print Network

and students and do not require a permit Garage Parking Rates* 0 - 30 minutes No Charge 30 minutes - 1 hour $ 3 All spaces on campus require a valid UT Permit or the display of a paid parking receipt n All garages Computational Engineering & Sciences...B2 ADH Almetris Duren Residence Hall ..........A1 AFP Athletics Field

Raizen, Mark G.


Designing for ecology : the ecological park  

E-print Network

This thesis aims to define a) what an ecological park is, and b) whether it is a new model in park design. Reference to the literature on landscape ecology is used to analyze the natural ecological merit of these parks, ...

Power, Andres M



Salute to the National Park Service  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current National Parks Service's design policy is summarized and the manner in which this policy produces national park transportation, planning, visitor center siting, architecture, preservation, and exhibits, is detailed. Organizations lobbying for better parks are listed. (BT)

Carpenter, Edward K.



National Park Service: Nature and Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the nature and science portal for the National Park Service. Visitors can access information on air quality in the national parks, wildlife health and management, invasive species, threatened and endangered species, and others. Geologic materials include park geology tours, minerals management in and adjacent to parks, disturbed lands restoration, and others. Water-related materials include wetlands in parks, fisheries, water quality and flow issues, and others. Additional materials include park soundscapes, laws and regulations, publications, and news articles.


Geology Fieldnotes: Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Petrified Forest National Park was established to preserve large deposits of petrified wood and to prevent removal of the wood by the public. Site featues include park geology information, maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and resources for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the park's geologic history, structural geology, petrified wood, and dinosaur fossils. The maps section includes a map of the park itself and the surrounding area.


MIDDLE PARK Conservation Action Plan  

E-print Network

. 2009). Both species are listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act by US Fish and WildlifeMIDDLE PARK Conservation Action Plan 2011 Update Plant Species of Focus: Kremmling milkvetch .......................................................................................................................... 15 Attachment 1. Additional key species and plant communities in the Middle Park area .... 16


Amusement park injuries and deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media coverage of amusement park injuries has increased over the past several years, raising concern that amusement rides may be dangerous. Amusement park fatalities and increases in reported injuries have prompted proposed legislation to regulate the industry. Since 1979, the medical literature has published reports of 4 subdural hematomas, 4 internal carotid artery dissections, 2 vertebral artery dissections, 2 subarachnoid

Robert J. Braksiek; David J. Roberts



An Amusement Park Physics Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

Moll, Rachel F.



Hospital Specialty Clinics Park Center  

E-print Network

(MCW) A. Health Research Center B. MCW Medical Education Building C. MCW Basic Science Building D. MACCDrive Research Park Center Campus Map for Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW), Milwaukee Regional Medical Center Center Mental Health Complex Curative Blood Center Research Institute Research Park Center Fitness Center


Hospital Specialty Clinics Park Center  

E-print Network

* 18* 13 19* 1. Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) A. Health Research Center B. MCW Medical Education's Hospital Offices) 15. Research Park Center 16. Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin Sargeant Health Research Park (left) is shown reduced in scale compared to the Milwaukee Regional Medical Center (above


An Intelligent Parking Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing number of vehicle on the road, parking has become a huge problem for people in urban area such as Kuala Lumpur. The lack of information displayed while parking is taking place has frustrated many consumers mainly in shopping complexes and office buildings. One of the reasons is that the consumer has to take more time in searching

Yamani Idna Idris; Emran Mohd


Parking Services Rules and Regulations  

E-print Network

.4 Liability 3 2 Two Wheeled Vehicles 4 2.1 Motorcycles / Mopeds / Scooters 4 3 Parking Permits 4 3.1 General Immobilization 13 4.17 Suspension of Parking Privileges 13 5 Appeals 13 5.1 Submission of Appeals 13 5.2 Appeal. Exceptions to regulations, temporary regulations and enforcement suspensions are valid only for when and how

Moore, Paul A.


Can Twitter save Bletchley Park?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bletchley Park is the historic site of secret British codebreaking activities during World War II and birthplace of the modern computer. The work carried out there is said to have shortened WWII by two years, saving possibly 22 million lives. The Park is now a museum, with a 26 acre site, many exhibitions and working rebuilds of machines such as

Sue Black; Jonathan P. Bowen; Kelsey Griffin



Microbiology in Yellowstone National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes how Yellowstone National Park is a focal point for cutting-edge microbiology research and how it provides a valuable setting for outreach education. Topics include questions for park officials, extremophiles, microbe diversity and evolution, educational outreach, and suggested reading.

Ward David


Nevada Division of State Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Carson City, the Nevada Division of State Parks helps to preserve and promote notable parts of the Nevada natural and cultural environment. One of the goals of their website is to provide visitors with "an introduction to the other side of Nevada, the side that is wild scenic and full of western history." First-time visitors may wish to click on the "State parks map" area to learn more about the location of the state parks, and the interactive map also includes direct links to each site. Scholars and students of park management will want to click on over to the "Park General and Resource Management Plans" area. Here they can learn about the completed general management plans for parks such as the Mormon Station and the Valley of Fire, and learn about plans that are currently under review. Visitors looking for helpful information about upcoming events can look over the "Other Park News!" area on the right hand side of the homepage. Finally, there's also detailed information about park fees, several photo galleries, and news releases.


Wheeling and Dealing in the National Parks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motor vehicles and commercialism have generated serious problems within the national park system. A Conservation Foundation suggests new directions in management for the National Park Service. (Editors)

Howe, Sydney



Science in the National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new addition to The National Park Service's website provides an overview of a huge array of research projects being conducted in US National Parks. Scientific studies are listed and summarized here (by Park), and include research on Nitrogen fixation, Neotropical migratory birds, meadow restoration, glacier research, and monitoring of wolf populations, to name a few. In addition, a list of Partners in Scientific Research is available at the site, as are current and archived copies of the agency's quarterly research and resource management bulletin Park Science. The exceptional value of the site is that it provides what most researchers don't have: detailed insights into different components (and scales) of the same ecosystem. Application procedures are included for those interested in conducting research at National Parks.

United States. National Park Service.


National Park Service Photo Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past century, a host of photographers have documented the grounds and buildings of the National Parks for the National Park Service, and in doing so have created a collection that contains over two million images. Some of these eminent photographers include such personages as Jack Boucher, Arno B. Cammerer, and Abbie Rowe. The National Park Service has recently placed 2000 of these images online, and added a fine search feature so that users can look for images by year, photographer, theme, parksite, or keyword. Some of these images included early photographs of the Virgin Islands National Park, rangers on location in Yosemite National Park, and Canyon de Chelly National Monument. The site is rounded out with links to other digital image archives, such as those housed on the American Memory website at the Library of Congress.


The Civil Rights Movement and the Future of the National Park System in a Racially Diverse America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. National Park System contains places of world-renowned beauty and tremendous historical significance that represent some of the central values and experiences in American culture, democracy, and freedom for everyone, for all time. However, the vast majority of visitors to these parks are white, which has increasingly been seen as a problem as it suggests a lack of full

Joe Weber; Selima Sultana



U-Pb LA-MC-ICPMS geochronology of Cambro-Ordovician post-collisional granites of the Ribeira belt, southeast Brazil: Terminal Brasiliano magmatism in central Gondwana supercontinent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New U-Pb ages for zircon and titanite obtained by LA-MC-ICPMS are reported for post-collisional granites from the central Ribeira belt (Rio de Janeiro State, southeast Brazil). These post-collisional, I-type, megaporphyritic and equigranular leucogranite plutons and dykes intrude high-grade metasedimentary units, orthogneisses, and migmatites within the root zone of the deeply eroded Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Ribeira belt. The ages obtained are: 511.2 ± 6.9 Ma (zircon) for the Suruí Granite; 490.3 ± 8.7 Ma (zircon) for a cross-cutting dyke of the pegmatitic facies of the Andorinha Granite from the same outcrop; 480.7 ± 6.1 Ma (zircon) for the Frades Granite; 488.7 ± 4.2 Ma (titanite) for the Nova Friburgo Granite; and 490.9 ± 9.8 Ma (zircon) for the Sana Granite. These new U-Pb ages and those compiled from the literature for post-orogenic intrusions distributed ˜400 km along the strike of the orogen (Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo States), define two separate intervals for magmatic activity, which are consistent with mineralogical and structural signatures. The magmatic intervals consist of an older Cambrian magmatic pulse occurred at ca.512 Ma (Pedra Branca, Suruí and Buarama plutons), and a younger Ordovician event at ca. 486 Ma (Mangaratiba, Favela, Andorinha, Frades, Nova Friburgo and Sana granites). The Cambrian pulse post-dates the end of the first and main collisional phase by ca. 35 m.y. It also post-dates the onset of the second collisional episode by ca. 20 m.y. The late-Ordovician magmatic pulse post-dates the end of the second collisional episode by ca. 25 m.y. In map view, the alignment of the post-collisional plutons and stocks depicts a sinuous belt running along the eroded roots of central/northern Ribeira and Araçuaí belts. This granite belt probably marks the zone where preferential heating and melting of lower continental crust took place, either caused by breaking off of subducted slab, or by the extensional collapse of hot, overthickened continental crust.

Valeriano, Claudio de Morisson; Tupinambá, Miguel; Simonetti, Antonio; Heilbron, Monica; de Almeida, Julio Cesar Horta; do Eirado, Luiz Guilherme



Pseudosinkhole occurrences in Brasilia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brasilia, the capital city of Brazil, is located in the central region of the country. Climate in the area is semitropical with an annual rainfall of 1500 mm. The geological environment in the area consists of low-grade metamorphic rocks. Slates of varying colors, metasiltstone, and quartzite beds are present. Over the Precambrian rocks is a lateritic layer varying in thickness

A. F. Mendonça; A. C. B. Pires; J. G. C. Barros



Parks, wilderness and recreation  

SciTech Connect

Parks and wilderness are a unique experiment in public ownership and management with no significant counterparts in our national experience. Despite occasional controversy, the propriety of large-scale federal land ownership and management was a settled issue long before the era of big national government or federal regulation began. This gave rise to a paradox with greater continuity in federal policy and public perception of land policy on one hand and the dislocating of old, established federal land management bureaucracies on the other. The author shows in the history of the wilderness movement that the American system is capable of producing real change; that reform is possible even if the methods are unexpected. Sharing the power among the administration, courts, and legislature opens the process to a range of interest groups with different opportunities for access. As values change, the system makes transitions manageable.

Sax, J.L.



Lincoln Park Neighborhood Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today, the Lincoln Park neighborhood on Chicago's North Side is a relatively affluent area, complete with Victorian mansions and rather tony elevator apartment buildings. By the late 1940s, the area was experiencing the same type of urban disinvestment as other inner-city neighborhoods throughout the United States. In the early 1960s, the city of Chicago, working with funds from the federal government, began an ambitious urban renewal program designed to reduce the density of the built environment in the community and to remove "blighted" properties. This excellent collection from the DePaul University Libraries Digital Collections contains over 400 documents related to this ambitious project, including maps, zoning documents, policy statements, neighborhood organization planning documents, and photographs. First-time visitors may wish to start with the first document here, "A Brief Explanation of the Urban Community Conservation Act." Moving on, visitors can view the rest of the documents by title, thumbnail, subject, and brief description.


Modelling the gap size distribution of parked cars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the distribution of distances between parked cars in a number of roads in central London. We compare the results with models of random sequential adsorption, or random car parking models, as they are often called. Our empirical results do not agree with these models, and hence we introduce alternative models for the parking process. The first model we propose is one where cars can only park if the space is greater than or equal to a chosen minimum size; where the extra space can be used for manoeuvering. The results of this model suggest that in addition to a deposition process, a re-positioning process is required to explain our empirical results. Hence, we introduce a further model where at each time step, with probability p, a car is randomly placed on a line if the space is empty and with probabilty 1-p, is placed in a space but then rolls to the nearest parked car so that it is y distance from the nearest car with probability f(y). We concentrate on two specific probabilities f(y) and find that for one case, the gap size distribution agrees with the empirical results.

Rawal, S.; Rodgers, G. J.



Chicago Public Library: Millennium Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The transformation of the area east of Michigan Avenue from an industrial wasteland into the vibrant and heavily-used Millennium Park is truly a remarkable tale in Chicago's recent history. The apocryphal tale says that Mayor Richard M. Daley looked out from his dentist's office and envisioned a public park that would be comparable to other grand spaces in the city. The construction of Millennium Park took quite some time, but when the park was finished in 2004, most people were quite happy with it. This digital collection from the Chicago Public Library brings together over 5,100 images of the park at various phases of its construction. Visitors can view a highlights file of 154 images, and they can wander through topical areas like Cloud Gate, Crown Fountain, and Lurie Garden. Visitors interested in broad vistas of the entire setting should click on Full Park. Finally, visitors can use the tabs on the left-hand side of the page to look at architectural renderings and models of the park's various sections.



Aftermath of Griffith Park Fire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In mid-May 2007, wind-driven flames raced through Griffith Park in Los Angeles, forcing hasty evacuations and threatening numerous famous landmarks and tourist spots, such as the Los Angeles Zoo and the Hollywood Sign. Ultimately, no one was injured in the fire, which may have been started by a cigarette. About 800 acres burned in the urban park, which is itself a Hollywood landmark, having been the location for several movies, including Rebel Without A Cause. This image of the park was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on June 6, 2007, about a month after the fire. ASTER detects both visible and infrared wavelengths of light, and both kinds have been used to make this image. Vegetation appears in various shades of red, while the burned areas appear charcoal. Roads and dense urban areas appear purplish-gray or white. Water is dark blue. Large burned areas are evident in the northwest and southeast parts of the park, with scattered smaller patches along the southern margin. Some botanical gardens and parts of a bird sanctuary, as well as some park structures like restrooms, were destroyed. The park's unburned, natural vegetation appears brick red, while the irrigated golf courses adjacent to the park are bright red. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.



Park and chill : redesign parking garage in Hong Kong  

E-print Network

What are the aesthetics of urban infrastructure? Urban infrastructure has remained isolated to human activities. We all share memory and experience with urban infrastructure, e.g. we drive on the same roads and park our ...

Ting, Sze Ngai



1.OA At the Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: There were 7 children at the park. Then 4 more showed up. How many children were at the park all together? There were 7 children at the park. Some more...



Parking Slot Markings Recognition for Automatic Parking Assist System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a monocular vision based parking-slot-markings recognition algorithm, which is used to automate the target position selection of automatic parking assist system. Peak-pair detection and clustering in Hough space recognize marking lines. Specially, one-dimensional filter in Hough space is designed to utilize a priori knowledge about the characteristics of marking lines in bird's eye view edge image. Modified

Ho Gi Jung; Dong Suk Kim; Pal Joo Yoon; Jaihie Kim



Yellowstone National Park: Historic 3-D Photographs Featuring Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This source provides a series of 34 historic photographs of well-known geologic landmarks in Yellowstone National Park. The photographs can be viewed individually or as part of a tour that begins at Old Faithful and proceeds in a clockwise route around the park. The images were created by digital manipulation of antique stereographs and they may be viewed as black and white photos or in 3-D using special stereographic glasses.

Stoffer Phil


Autonomous parking carrier for intelligent vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider a parking method for autonomous vehicle in an underground car park. The implemented method is decomposed into three tasks. Starting from configuration given by the vehicle owner, the first one is the motion control of the vehicle from his residence to the car park. After joining the underground car park thanks to the implementation of

E. Seignez; A. Lambert; T. Maurin



Nontraditional uses of the National parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

National parks are increasingly attracting visitors with diverse and sometimes unusual expectations, often referred to as nontraditional activities. The purposes of this study were: (1) identify which recreation activities were seen as inappropriate to national parks, (2) identify reasons for inappropriateness, (3) relate these reasons to perceptions of the meaning of national parks.Two hundred eleven visitors to seven Park Service

Robert G. White; Richard Schreyer



Mojave National Preserve Joshua Tree National Park  

E-print Network

Death Valley Mojave National Preserve Joshua Tree National Park National Park National Training Los Angeles San Diego Needles Blythe Salton Sea Anza- Borrego State Park San Bernardino National Contingent Corridor Deleted Corridor Land Status BLM National Park Service Forest Service Military USFWS

Laughlin, Robert B.


Man Sik Park Symmetry and Separability In  

E-print Network

Man Sik Park Symmetry and Separability In Spatial-Temporal Processes Man Sik Park, Montserrat Fuentes Symmetry and Separability In Spatial-Temporal Processes 1 #12;Man Sik Park Motivation · In general-pollution data. Symmetry and Separability In Spatial-Temporal Processes 2 #12;Man Sik Park Research Objectives 1


The international politics of national parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

National parks are the keystone institutions of environmental conservation. Because national parks make certain lands part of the state itself, international agencies and nongovernmental organizations that promote national parks propose, in effect, to alter the state, as well as the local economy and state relations with social groups. Has international political pressure caused states to create national parks? I consider

Karen M. O'Neill




E-print Network

February 2014 STAFF APPLICATION FOR CAR PARKING Car Parks Office Security & Portering The 2014 fee for staff car parking is 0.75% of gross annual salary or £192.00, whichever is lower. Changes) Model (Focus) Colour 1. 2. Car Parks In Order Of Preference 1st : 2nd : 3rd : The following

Davies, Christopher



E-print Network

February 2014 STUDENT APPLICATION FOR CAR PARKING Car Parks Office Security & Portering Limited spaces are available in the Cranbrook car parks for students living at Senghennydd Court only. The charge for car parking for session 2013/14 is £132.00, exclusive of VAT, payable in advance. CHEQUES

Davies, Christopher


Standard structures For roadside, car parks,  

E-print Network

Standard structures For roadside, car parks, visitor information, wayfinding & waymarking Forestry visitor centres. Suitable locations At road entrance to car park/driveway Symbols Up to 5 symbols is for Entrances to medium-sized car parks Suitable locations At road entrance to car park Symbols Up to 3 symbols


Industrial park management in the Chinese environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China many investments especially from foreign companies are located in industry parks. However, the general situation and management perspectives of developing Chinese industrial parks are not very clear to the westerners. With the rapid development, industrial parks will play a key role in China's economy, therefore, those issues relating with China's industrial parks need to be further discussed. This

Yong Geng; Zhao Hengxin



SPARK: A New VANET-Based Smart Parking Scheme for Large Parking Lots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Searching for a vacant parking space in a congested area or a large parking lot and preventing auto theft are major concerns to our daily lives. In this paper, we propose a new smart parking scheme for large parking lots through vehicular communication. The proposed scheme can provide the drivers with real-time parking navigation service, intelligent anti- theft protection, and

Rongxing Lu; Xiaodong Lin; Haojin Zhu; Xuemin Shen



The socio?economic impact of an urban park: the case of Wilderness National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of South Africa’s national parks are based in rural areas, although a few parks – such as Wilderness National Park (WNP) – are situated in an urban area. This park differs from other national parks in several ways: it is not fenced in, it has very few animal species and it is a marine (fresh and salt water) reserve.

Melville Saayman; Petrus Van der Merwe; Andrea Saayman; Maria Elizabeth Mouton




Microsoft Academic Search

Forillon National Park and Bonaventure Island and Perce Rock National Park, on the Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec, both established in the I970s, mesh unique geologic landscapes, biogeographic ecosystems, and human geographic environments. While Forillon is a Canadian national park, Bonaventure Island and Perce Rock, though actually a Quebec provincial park, is referred to as a Quebec national park because of its

Margaret F. Boorstein


University of Aberdeen Car Parking Policy 1.0 Why have a car parking policy?  

E-print Network

Document1 University of Aberdeen Car Parking Policy 1.0 Why have a car parking policy to such an extent that its current car park capacity is not sufficient to provide parking for all staff to improve and develop the University further, there is a need to control our car parking facilities

Pym, David J.


Criteria for Car Parking Allocation System Criteria for Car Parking Allocation System  

E-print Network

Criteria for Car Parking Allocation System Criteria for Car Parking Allocation System 2014-15 Criteria for Car Parking All #12;The issue and control of car parking permits is vested in Estates Services. The annual charges are incorporated in the application form. The car parking charges will be deducted from

Mottram, Nigel


Views of the National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is no true substitute for visiting one of America's great national parks, but this website, designed "to present the natural, cultural, and historical resources of our national parks," is a nice surrogate for an in-person jaunt. On the homepage, visitors can select a park or theme from several dozen headings, including National Mall, Whiskeytown, Glaciers, and Devils Tower. Within each area, visitors can examine a series of high-quality images, along with four or five sections that address different aspects of each topic or specific park. Perhaps the most useful elements of the site are the very fine resources for teachers. Clicking on the Teachers' Lounge area will bring up a number of high-quality educational articles, lesson plans, and educational standards guidelines. All told, there are 14 different lesson plans here, which are complemented by links to external resources and additional readings. [KMG


Renovation proposal for Fenway Park  

E-print Network

As the oldest stadium in baseball history, the existing structure of Fenway Park presents problems such as limiting seating capacity and obstructed views, caused by the columns supporting the second level. Opened in 1912, ...

Aldana Urrutia, Luis Pedro




E-print Network

, forage, and habitat for bees, butterflies,and birds. Mary Park Hall Community Garden: Students can grow:// Habitat Gardens: The Campus maintains gardens with over 150 species of native plants that provide food


Travel Operations College Park 300  

E-print Network

occurs first). 5. Estimated Expenses Fill in the estimated expenses for #5A through #5G. 5. A. Conference at an event (refer to 5.G.). #12;Travel Operations College Park 300 Em ail: travel@fu llerton .edu EMPLOYEE

de Lijser, Peter


Travel Operations College Park 300  

E-print Network

occurs first). 5. Estimated Expenses Fill in the estimated expenses for #5A through #5G. 5. A. Conference at an event (refer to 5.G.). #12;Travel Operations College Park 300 Email: EMPLOYEE

de Lijser, Peter


Morris Park Ave Rhinelander Ave  

E-print Network

Albert Einstein College of Medicine ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE JACK AND PEARL RESNICK CAMPUS Building 19. Einstein Boiler Plant JACOBI MEDICAL CENTER 20. Nurses' Residence MEDICAL PARK EINSTEIN PROGRAM LOCATIONS Glass Building Ob/Gyn Private Practice

Kenny, Paraic


The Science Behind Jurassic Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Science Behind Jurassic Park" is an html document describing how world renowned paleontologist Jack Horner is using computers and CAT scan machines to peer inside 30 million year old dinosaur fossils.


Modelling gap-size distribution of parked cars using random-matrix theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply the random-matrix theory to the car-parking problem. For this purpose, we adopt a Coulomb gas model that associates the coordinates of the gas particles with the eigenvalues of a random matrix. The nature of interaction between the particles is consistent with the tendency of the drivers to park their cars near to each other and in the same time keep a distance sufficient for manoeuvring. We show that the recently measured gap-size distribution of parked cars in a number of roads in central London is well represented by the spacing distribution of a Gaussian unitary ensemble.

Abul-Magd, A. Y.



Elk winter foraging at fine scale in Yellowstone National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The link between landscape properties and foraging decisions by herbivores remains unclear, but such knowledge is central\\u000a to the understanding of plant–herbivore dynamics. Our goal was to determine whether fine-scale foraging paths of free-ranging\\u000a elk (Cervus canadensis) respond to spatial structure of habitats in Yellowstone National Park. During winter 2002 we gathered elk-foraging information\\u000a by following snow tracks in open

Daniel Fortin; Juan M. Morales; Mark S. Boyce



Tour of Park Geology: Colorado Plateau  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides links to geology fieldnotes about National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas that are part of the Colorado Plateau. Each park site provides links to visitor information, photographs, park maps, multimedia resources, and teacher features (tools for teaching geology with National Park examples). Some of the areas linked to this site include: Dinosaur National Monument, Mesa Verde National Park, and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.


Arches National Park - Nature and Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website highlights the natural resources of Arches National Park, in addition to the sandstone arches for which the park is famous. Details about the park include the animals that inhabit the area (amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles), natural features (deserts, geologic formations, pools, potholes and soils), environmental factors facing the park (invasive species, perigrine falcons, bighorn sheep), and plants (cacti, grasses, lichens, mosses, liverworts, trees, shrubs and wildflowers).



Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper presents an InfoStation-based multi-agent system facilitating a Car Parking Locator service provision within a University Campus. The system network architecture is outlined, illustrating its functioning during the service provision. A detailed description of the Car Parking Locator service is given and the system entities’ interaction is described. System implementation approaches are also considered. Keywords: InfoStations, intelligent agents,multi-agent

Ivan Ganchev; Máirtín O'droma; Damien Meere



EPA Science Inventory

Investigation of Serum Microcystin Concentrations Among Dialysis Patients, Brazil, 1996 Elizabeth D. Hilborn 1, Wayne W. Carmichael 2, Sandra M.F.O. Azevedo 3 1- USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 2- Wright State University, Dayton, OH 3- Federal Univers...


Multinational underground nuclear parks  

SciTech Connect

Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

Myers, C.W. [Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F650, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Giraud, K.M. [Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, 1550 Oxen Lane NE, P.O. Box 411, Burlington, KS 66839-0411 (United States)



Two-touch type parking slot marking recognition for target parking position designation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a target parking position designation method based on parking slot marking recognition for automatic parking system. To reduce the search range and memory requirement, the driver designates two seed-points which are the end-point of two line-segments separating the target parking slot from adjacent parking slots. As the method does not require marking line separating parking area from

Ho Gi Jung; Dong Suk Kim; Pal Joo Yoon; Jaihie Kim



Centrality Indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Centrality indices are to quantify an intuitive feeling that in most networks some vertices or edges are more central than\\u000a others. Many vertex centrality indices were introduced for the first time in the 1950s: e.g., the Bavelas index [50, 51],\\u000a degree centrality [483] or a first feedback centrality, introduced by Seeley [510]. These early centralities raised a rush\\u000a of research

Dirk Koschützki; Katharina Anna Lehmann; Leon Peeters; Stefan Richter; Dagmar Tenfelde-podehl; Oliver Zlotowski



Mesa Verde National Park: Educational Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service site contains general information on planning a visit to the park; information on plants, animals, geology, cliff dwellings, surface archaeological sites, and history of the park; and a classroom activities section. School group activities at the park include identifying geologic formations, seeing museum videos and dioramas, going on trails and tours, and attending evening campground programs. Classroom activities involve the use of a park map, the development of ancestral Puebloan society from about AD 1 to AD 1300, and the history of the National Park Service.


Geology Fieldnotes: Badlands National Park, South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Badlands National Park, located in southwestern South Dakota, consists of 244,000 acres of sharply eroded buttes, pinnacles and spires blended with the largest, protected mixed grass prairie in the United States. Features include information on park geology, maps, photographs, visitor information, links to related publications, and lesson plans for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history during the Eocene and Oligocene epochs and the rich fossil deposits found there. Maps of the park and the surrounding area are included.


Tour of Park Geology: Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides links to tours of National Parks, National Monuments, and Recreation Areas associated with major mountain building periods. The parks are divided into groups by mountain building events: Appalachian, Laramide, and others. Where appropriate, links are provided to park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multi-media, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as: Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, Shenandoah National Park, Devils Tower National Monument, Mt. Rushmore National Monument, Yosemite National Park, and more.


Tour of Park Geology: Plate Tectonics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides links to geology field notes providing information about National Parks, National Monuments, and National Recreation Areas that have to do with plate tectonics. The site also has illustrations and descriptions of different plate boundaries. The parks are divided into categories depending on which type of plate boundary they are located on. This includes divergent boundaries(active and ancient), convergent boundaries (ocean-ocean, continent-continent, continent-ocean), transform faults, hot spots, and accreted terrains. Parks referenced include Virgin Islands National Park, Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, and many more.


Eco-hydrologic role of urban parks in Queretaro City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban parks are essential for the well-being and comfort of urban zones, vegetation plays an important role in the water balance, but these areas rarely are considered as urban infrastructure, this is why studies are necessary to assess the eco-hydrological role of urban parks and the micro climate effect of them in adjacent areas. The study is carried out during the raining seasons of 2010 and 2011 in six urban parks located in the central area of the Queretaro valley: Alameda Centro, Alamos, Alcanfores Norte, Arboledas, Cerro de las campanas and Queretaro 2000. This work aims to measure and modeling the rainfall interception process from measuring some random plots into the urban parks, also to evaluate the water balance and the runoff that is spilled to the drainage system. According to previous studies it is expected that vegetation intercepts more than 60% of total rainfall so the runoff in urban areas decrease, also to quantify the available water volume to infiltrate to aquifer recharge.

Medina Frutos, S.; Gonzalez-Sosa, E.; Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Gutierrez-Lopez, M. A.; Ciaq



Lichens of the U. S. national parks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium. Copyright ?? 2005 by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.



Bibliography of Doctor Chul Park  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains a comprehensive bibliography of the published works, and a short biography, of Dr. Chul Park. The contents of this bibliography were compiled primarily from the NASA RECON data base. The RECON citations have been modified to appear in a uniform format with all other listed citations . These other citations were located by computer searches in the INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, and Chemical Abstracts data bases, as well as through the cooperation of Dr. Chul Park, and his associates in the Reacting Flow Environments Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. All citations are presented in an approximate reverse chronological order from the present date. This work was created to honor the occasion of Dr. Chul Park's retirement on December 14, 1994, after 27 years of distinguished government service at the NASA Ames Research Center.

Gochberg, Lawrence A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Park, Chul



Amusement park injuries and deaths.  


Media coverage of amusement park injuries has increased over the past several years, raising concern that amusement rides may be dangerous. Amusement park fatalities and increases in reported injuries have prompted proposed legislation to regulate the industry. Since 1979, the medical literature has published reports of 4 subdural hematomas, 4 internal carotid artery dissections, 2 vertebral artery dissections, 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 1 intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and 1 carotid artery thrombosis with stroke, all related to roller coaster rides. In this article, we review reports of amusement park injuries in the medical literature and Consumer Product Safety Commission data on the overall risk of injury. We also discuss the physics and the physiologic effects of roller coasters that may influence the type and severity of injuries. Although the risk of injury is low, emergency physicians are advised to include participation on thrill rides as part of their history, particularly when evaluating patients presenting with neurologic symptoms. PMID:11782733

Braksiek, Robert J; Roberts, David J



76 FR 72003 - Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1843-SZM] Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park donate-- (aa) the Great Falls State Park, including facilities any portion of the Great Falls State Park agreed to between the...



76 FR 70483 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Operational Updates on Park Activities which will...Landscape Rehabilitation, Park Projects, FY12 Appropriations and the Citizens Open...ask questions on any park activity. [[Page...Superintendent, Gettysburg National Military Park,...



75 FR 64148 - General Regulation: National Park System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Mountains National Park, Tennessee; Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona; Everglades National Park, Florida; and Hawaii Volcanoes National Parks, Hawaii--preserve nature's many and varied gifts to the Nation. The other two-thirds of the...



36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests...INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...



36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests...INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...



36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests...INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...



36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests...INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...



36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests...INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...



Great Zoom out of New York, NY: Central Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using data from different spacecraft and some powerful computer technology, visualizers at the Goddard Space Flight Center present you with a collection of American cities in a way you have never seen them before. Starting with our camera high above the Earth, we rush in towards the surface at what would be an impossible speed for any known vehicle. Passing though layers of atmosphere, the colors of our destinations shimmer with their own unique characteristics, and suddenly we find ourselves floating in virtual space just above the ground.

Greg Shirah



Parking & Transportation Department RESIDENT -PERSONAL INFORMATION  

E-print Network

Parking & Transportation Department RESIDENT - PERSONAL INFORMATION Date know if you are interested in: Public Transportation Car Pool Van Pool _____________________________________________________________________________________ Please be sure to contact the Parking & Transportation Department with any changes to your information, i

Oliver, Douglas L.


City of New York Parks & Recreation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New York City's Department of Parks & Recreation oversees 29,000 acres of land, and more than 1,700 parks, playgrounds, and recreation facilities located throughout the five boroughs. Their website provides a great starting point for a virtual visit undaunted by weather. Take a virtual tour along the Bronx River, watch video clips from "It's My Park" (also aired every weekday at 11:00 a.m. on NYC life (channel 25)), and browse the photo gallery, which includes selections from the Parks Photo Archive, dating back to 1856, and the Parks' Flickr Group, with visitor-contributed photos. There are also seasonal features: for February, Black History Month, there's an events listing, an inventory of permanent sculptures honoring African-Americans in the Parks, African American Namesake Parks, and a photo gallery entitled The African American Experience. And of course, there's a Groundhog Day page, presenting the history of weather prediction by the rodent in the NYC Parks.


Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

Ruehrwein, Dick


The Floral Park Traverse, Glacier National Park Jen poses with Hidden Lake in the background.  

E-print Network

The Floral Park Traverse, Glacier National Park Jen poses with Hidden Lake in the background to Logan Pass) into Floral Park, where we had lunch. Me with Sperry Glacier and Gunsight Mountain on viewer along Avalanche Lake basin to the distant peaks in the north of the Park. It was beautiful off

Bardsley, John


Smart Parking Management Field Test: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In almost every major city in the U.S. and internationally, parking problems are ubiquitous. It is well known that the limited availability of parking contributes to roadway congestion, air pollution, and driver frustration and that the cost of expanding traditional parking capacity is frequently prohibitive. However, less research has addressed the effect of insufficient parking at transit stations on transit

Susan Shaheen



Light Stripe Projection based Parking Space Detection for Intelligent Parking Assist System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel light stripe projection based free parking space recognition method in order to overcome the common drawbacks of existing vision based target parking position designation methods in dark indoor parking site. 3D information of parking site is recognized by light stripe projection method. By analyzing the 3D information, system can recognize discontinuous points, pivot, and opposite-site

Ho Gi Jung; Dong Suk Kim; Pal Joo Yoon; Jaihie Kim



Welcome to Diamond Light Source Parking Visitors can park outside Diamond  

E-print Network

Welcome to Diamond Light Source Parking ­ Visitors can park outside Diamond House, or if that is full, in the Visitor car park. Users should park around the ring. On Arrival ­ Diamond does not have 8500). Then take a seat 2 and wait for your Diamond contact to collect you. Users ­ Fast track users

Crowther, Paul


An exploration of the relationship between use of parks and access, park appeal, and communication effectiveness  

E-print Network

as four objective distances from household to nearest park using both Euclidian and Network measures, and by subjective self-reported measures of ability to access parks on foot or by bicycle. Appeal is concerned with the influence of parks? perceived... Statistics for Network ?, ?, ? and 1 Mile ....................................................... 66 Table 4.3 Access on Foot or By Bicycle and Park User Simple Logistic Statistics...

Walker, Jamie Rae



University of Aberdeen Car Parking Policy -v2 0.docx University of Aberdeen Car Parking Policy  

E-print Network

University of Aberdeen Car Parking Policy - v2 0.docx University of Aberdeen Car Parking Policy 1.0 Why have a car parking policy? The University of Aberdeen is aware of the importance of corporate. The University has developed to such an extent that its current car park capacity is not sufficient to provide

Levi, Ran


77 FR 60461 - United States v. Standard Parking Corporation, KSPC Holdings, Inc. and Central Parking...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and all tangible and intangible assets used by Defendants primarily...Court of the trustee's accounting, including any yet unpaid...United States. VII. ASSET PRESERVATION A. Until...necessary to comply with the Asset Preservation...



77 FR 75254 - List of Units of the National Park System Exempt From the Provisions of the National Parks Air...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...annually. Exempt parks are as follows: Big Bend National Park, TX Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park, CO Capulin Volcano National Monument, NM Carlsbad Caverns National Park, NM Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, AZ Coronado National...



75 FR 3488 - Acadia National Park; Bar Harbor, ME; Acadia National Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Acadia National Park; Bar Harbor, ME; Acadia National Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Meeting...C. App. 1, Sec. 10), that the Acadia National Park Advisory Commission will hold a...



Geology Fieldnotes: Capitol Reef National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Capitol Reef National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, visitor information, and a teacher feature (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). Geologic data includes descriptions of the Waterpocket Fold, a monocline formed in the Laramide Orogeny and made of sedimentary rock. Also covered is erosion, and details about the Cathedral Valley outcrop of gypsum. This formation is Permian to Cretaceous in age (270-80 million years old).


Acadia National Park - Nature and Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website highlights the natural resources of Acadia National Park. Resources discussed include animals (amphibians, birds and fish), plants (ferns, freshwater plants, grasses, mosses, liverworts and wildflowers), environmental factors (fire regime, pests, nonnative species, weather, water quality and air quality), and natural features of the park (beaches, coastline, forests, geologic formations, intertidal and subtidal zones, mountains, and wetlands). There are related documents about the park's air and water quality available to download.


Nature and Science at Canyonlands National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website highlights the environment and ecosystems found in Canyonlands National Park. Topics include animals in the park (amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish and mammals), plant life (cacti, grasses, lichens, mosses, liverworts, trees, shrubs and wildflowers), environmental factors (air quality, invasive species, endangered fish, noise pollution, peregrine falcons and bighorn sheep), and natural features (deserts, pools, rivers and stream, geology). Links are provided to downloadable brochures and reports on park research activities and additional information on wildlife and plants.


Geology Fieldnotes: Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can access park geology information, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and resources for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Grand Canyon's geologic history, structural geology, and features a question-and-answer section about the canyon. The history of the canyon as a park and environmental issues surrounding it are also discussed. A geologic cross section of the canyon showing the various rock layers is included.


Urban Parks: The Value of Small Urban Parks, Plazas and Other Outdoor Spaces  

E-print Network

park can be as small as a single house lot. Some of the very best urban parks in America are smaller than 100 x 100 feet. The best size depends on the location of the park and its design. Design is what makes a park great. A well-designed park... social capital can form, and small, urban parks are some of the very best spaces for this. The most urgent need in most cities * Associate Professors, Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, and Extension Specialists, The Texas A&M University System...

Shafer, Carl Scott; Jacob, John



Tour of Park Geology: Hot Springs/Geothermal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides links to National Parks with hot springs or geothermal activity. Where appropriate, links are provided to geology, visitor information, photographs, park maps, multimedia resources, geologic research, and additional links. Parks at this site include Hot Springs National Park, Lassen Volcano National Park, and more.


Privacy Impact Assessment OFEO Smithsonian Parking  

E-print Network

Privacy Impact Assessment OFEO Smithsonian Parking I. System Identification 1. IT System Name and Operations Monthly Parking Program run by Office of Protection Services. II. Privacy Assessment 1. What of the parking facility. All privacy related information contained within the database is relevant

Mathis, Wayne N.


Yellowstone National Park Online Slide File  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website contains thousands of photographs of the Park. Images are organized by category including fire, thermal features, mammals, park structures, petrified trees, water, weather, scenics, and more. The photographs may be freely downloaded and more are being added through time.

Yellowstone National Park



E-print Network

TA's WANTED PINGREE PARK -- SUMMER 2012 NR 220 Natural Resources Ecology & Measurements-0710, Pingree Park NR 220 website - include, but are not limited to, criminal history, national sex offender search and motor vehicle history


NORTH PARK PHACELIA Conservation Action Plan  

E-print Network

NORTH PARK PHACELIA Conservation Action Plan 2011 Update North Park phacelia © Frank Weston Plant Panjabi, S. and B. Neely. 2011. North Park Phacelia Conservation Action Plan 2011 Update. Prepared for the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. #12;3 I. Introduction This document identifies conservation


Parking, energy consumption and air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impacts of different ways of parking on environmental effects, mainly vehicle emissions and air pollution. Vehicle energy consumption and the urban air quality at street level, related to location and design of parking establishments, need to be assessed and quantified. In addition, the indoor parking environment needs attention.This paper gives a description of a methodological approach

Paul G. Höglund



Air pollution vulnerabiity of 22 midwestern parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution increases in United States national parks as sources grow closer. As this happens, biota will be increasingly affected. Can it be determined in advance which parks will be more impacted by these air pollutants that others? This study of 22 park units in the midwestern United States attempted to answer this question. Plant lists were compiled for the

J. P. Bennett; N. Banerjee



Development of advanced parking assistance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first to apply a multilevel driver assistance system in the development of a system to aid in the parking process. The development of this system is described within the iCAN (intelligent car navigation systems) project framework. A parking assistance system, parking administration system, and employed sensor system are described. The general architecture of a driver assistance

Massaki Wada; Kang Sup Yoon; Hideki Hashimoto



Intelligent parking reservation service on the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The described intelligent parking service is a part of an ITS (intelligent transportation system) in which parking facilities are conceived of in terms of various new functions which they can provide. This service does not simply manage the internal operations of a parking facility; rather, it is designed to be compatible with a wide range of aspects that are intertwined

K. Inaba; M. Shibui; T. Naganawa; M. Ogiwara; N. Yoshikai



Alluvial Fan, Rocky Mountain National Park  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Alluvial Fan is a fan-shaped area of disturbance in Rocky Mountain National Park. It was created on July 15, 1982, when the earthen Lawn Lake Dam above the area gave way, flooding the Park and nearby town of Estes Park with more than 200 million gallons of water. Enormous boulders were displaced...


78 FR 24323 - National Park Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8961 of April 19, 2013 National Park Week, 2013 By the President of the United be passed on. During National Park Week, we celebrate the wonders entrusted to...summon us to experience it firsthand. This week, the National Park Service will make...



Urban parks: green spaces or green walls?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parks as an urban landscape feature serve many functions as providers of passive and active recreation, environmental benefits, and wildlife habitat. The research presented herein explores the concept that urban parks may also function as a boundary landscape separating neighborhoods of distinct socioeconomic characteristics. When an urban park functions as a boundary, it impoverishes neighborhoods because it often leads to

William D. Solecki; Joan M. Welch



Public Responses to National Park Environmental Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the behavioral responses of urban and semirural residents to a newly initiated Canadian national park environmental policy. The policy involved the reduction of service facilities within the park and a concomitant emphasis on the park's natural environment. (BT)

Smith, Geoffrey C.; Alderdice, David



Natural fire management in National Parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evolving understanding of ecological processes, together with ambiguities in National Park Service policy, have led to multiple interpretations of the role of management in our large natural area National Parks. National Park Service management policies must be dynamic and responsive to changes in scientific knowledge and societal values. We propose that the principal aim of NPS resource management in

David J. Parsons; David M. Graber; James K. Agee; Jan W. van Wagtendonk



Geology Fieldnotes: Acadia National Park, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website highlights the geology of Acadia National Park. The story begins 500 million years ago, and goes through rock cycles, formations (Ellsworth, Bar Harbor, and Cranberry formations), intrusions, the Ice Age, glacial features, and development of shore patterns. There are area and park maps, photos, and links to additional information.


Seeking Mountains Field Trip Jasper National Park  

E-print Network

Seeking Mountains Field Trip Jasper National Park December 14-15, 2012 Jasper National Park of Jasper is one of only four communities located in a Canadian national park. We have arranged a special. The field trip includes as follows: a welcome reception at the Jasper Yellowhead Museum and Archives

MacMillan, Andrew


Geology Fieldnotes: Glacier National Park, Montana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glaciers have played an important role in shaping this park, which is part of the Rocky Mountain chain and shares a border with Canada's Waterton Lakes National Park. Information on this site includes park geology, visitor information, photographs, and links to other resources.


Moon Park: A research and educational facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moon Park has been proposed as an International Space Year (ISY) event for international cooperative efforts. Moon Park will serve as a terrestrial demonstration of a prototype lunar base and provide research and educational opportunities. The kind of data that can be obtained in the Moon Park facilities is examined taking the minimum number of lunar base residents as an example.

Kuriki, Kyoichi; Saito, Takao; Ogawa, Yukimasa



Performance Modeling of Intelligent Car Parking Systems  

E-print Network

Performance Modeling of Intelligent Car Parking Systems K´aroly Farkas1,3 , G´abor Horv´ath1 Abstract. The performance analysis of the car parking process in a parking lot with various levels the average time necessary for the user to reach the desired destination, the amount of cars moving

Telek, Miklós


The vascular plant flora of Hopewell Culture National Historical Park. Ross County, Ohio  

USGS Publications Warehouse

HopewellCulture National Historical Park, a unit of the United States National Park Service located in Ross County in south central Ohio, was created to restore, protect, and interpret the legacy of the mound building Hopewell prehistoric peoples. The vascular flora of the park had been estimated to be only 20% known prior to the undertaking of this project. During the spring, summer, and fall of 1995, almost 700 plant specimens were collected by three investigators from five units of the park. Totals of 438 species, 281 genera, and 93 families of vascular plants were discovered, representing 40% of the flora of Ross County, and 17% of the flora of Ohio. Introduced species constituted 32% of the flora. Sixty-five species are new records for Ross County. Two species of special concern, Spiranthes ovalis and Eleocharis ovata, are on the state's threatened and endangered species list. The Hopewell unit had the highest plant diversity of the five units.

Bennett, J.P.; Course, J.E.



Brazil & the Latin American Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News follows repercussions of world financial crises in the key Latin American economy of Brazil. The nine resources discussed provide background information, press coverage, and economic data on Brazil and related economies. With a population of 164 million and GDP of $480 billion, Brazil represents Latin America's largest economic force. Heavy US financial investments, however, tie Brazil directly to Dow Jones Industrial Average falls (reviewed in the September 10, 1998 Scout for Business & Economics) and their Asian and Russian causes (reviewed in the July 16, 1998 _Scout Report for Business & Economics_-- International concern for Latin America grew when Brazil lost $1.8 billion in foreign capital following drops in the Dow, September 10, 1998--a decisive factor in stock tumbles in Mexico and Venezuela as well. Such damaging results led to a bold rise in interest rates from the Banco Central do Brasil and negotiations with the IMF. A US and Brazilian market rally since September 11, however, leaves many officials hopeful for a stable Latin American future.

Waters, Megan.




Microsoft Academic Search

The life cycle of Diplostoinuni spathaceuni (Rudobfi 1819), as it exists in North Park, Colorado, is elucidated. California gulls (Larus californicus), common mergansers (Mergus merganser) and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) act as definitive hosts. Two species of water snails, Phvsa gvrina and Lvnzneae elodes, act as first intermediate hosts with seven species of fish as second intermediate hosts: brassy minnows




University Park Campus EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

assistance to those with special needs. If a building or area evacuation is ordered by the emergency and inform others to do the same (follow Emergency Evacuation Plan Procedures). ·Call 9-1-1 from a safeWelcome To University Park Campus EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT Emergency

Yener, Aylin


Egmont National Park, New Zealand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lush forests of Egmont National Park, on New Zealand's North Island, contrast with the pasturelands outside the circular park boundaries. The unique shape of the park results from its first protection in 1881, which specified that a forest reserve would extend in a 9.6 km radius from the summit of Mt. Taranaki (named Mt. Egmont by Captain Cook). The park covers about 33,500 hectares and Mt. Egmont stands at 2518 m. The volcano began forming 70,000 years ago, and last erupted in 1755. A series of montane habitats occur in procession up the flanks of the volcano-from rainforest, to shrubs, to alpine, and finally snow cover. Image STS110-726-6, was taken by Space Shuttle crewmembers on 9 April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.



Digital Rights Management Jaehong Park  

E-print Network

song to Bob for review § Alice doesn't want Chris to listen the song Chris Undesirable distribution leakage (e.x. intelligence community, health care) © Jaehong Park 2001 6 The DRM Origin n item à 106 to 108 recipients n Some leakage is acceptable or even desirable n Music, popular books

Sandhu, Ravi


Parking garage threats and countermeasures.  


Preventing and dealing with crime in hospital parking facilities poses a serious challenge to administration and security. Multiple methods to effectively combat the threats are described by the author, but their implementation depends on how seriously a healthcare organization views its responsibility to provide a safe and secure environment for its staff, patients and visitors. PMID:15457923

Clark, Sam




E-print Network

JOHNSON PARK RUTGERS GOLF COURSE MITCHELL AVE TOOLANST HOES LN MARIONCT HOES LN W GATES AVE RIVER Lab Allen Hall Crosby Hall Judson HallMorrow Hall Buell Apartments Winkler HallThomas Hall Mattia Hall McCormick Hall Richardson Apartments Russell Apartments Johnson Apartments Waksman Greenhouse Civil

Hanson, Stephen José


National Park Glaciers Knowledge Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resource explains what glaciers are, where they are found, how they form, and how they move. The types and parts of glaciers are discussed, as well as ice ages, the different types of landforms that may result from glaciation, and how scientists monitor glaciers. Examples from our national parks are also highlighted as case studies to illustrate how glaciers have created landscapes.



Romanticism and American National Parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The national park idea was conceived at a time when nature romanticism dominated Americans' sense of landscape aesthetics. Among the basic tenets of romantic philosophy discussed are the specific definitions of the picturesque and the sublime, importance of historical and romantic associations, role of emotional response to natural scenery, perception of God in nature, restorative powers of nature, and perceptions

Stanford E. Demars




EPA Science Inventory

Brewer 087 is located in Research Triangle Park NC, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instru...


Lake Manyara Park / Ngorongoro Highlands  

E-print Network

Olduvai Gorge Grumeti Game Reserve Lake Victoria Optional Extension: Rwanda Mountain Gorilla Trek h Safari­10: Serengeti National Park (Western Corridor ­ Grumeti) / Lake Victoria (B,L,D) Acacia woodland, fishing. Discoverlocalpeopleandcultureswith unique village and schoolvisitstoMto Wa Mbu andafishing villageonthe shoreofLakeVictoria. Activity

Shapiro, Benjamin


SmartParking: A Secure and Intelligent Parking System Using NOTICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parking is costly and limited in almost every major city in the world. Innovative parking systems for meeting near-term parking demand are needed. In this paper, we propose a novel, secure and intelligent parking system based on the concept and framework of NOTICE [WO07], a secure and privacy-aware architecture for the notification of traffic incidents. The proposed system, called SmartParking,

Gongjun Yan; Stephan Olariu; Michele C. Weigle; Mahmoud Abuelela



Putting people in the picture. Parks for life.  


The 4th World Congress on Parks and Protected Areas held in Caracas attracted over 1700 participants. Protected areas of all kinds, e.g., national parks, game reserves, World Heritage sites, and marine parks, are under human pressure from armies, or tourists, migrants, and developers. 5 million sq km have been added to the present total of 6.5 million sq km of protected areas since 1970 and nearly 2 million sq km since 1982. There are almost 8500 sites on the UN list covering an area larger than India. In India, however, only 21 of the 52 national parks have been formally legalized. In the Caribbean only 1/3 of the protected areas are achieving their objectives, and in Norway and New Zealand powerful forces justify the logging of the remnants of ancient forests. Another example is the 15,000 sq km Serengeti World Heritage site in Tanzania and the adjoining Ngoro Ngoro biosphere reserve. The Serengeti is an island in a sea of human settlements with agricultural encroachments, poaching, cattle rustling, and tourism. Founded just over a century ago, the 308,000 hectare Yosemite National Park in the central Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, received 820,000 tourists in 1950 and has grown to 3.5 million. The human species is exerting its influence through rapid human population growth (projected to soar from 5.3 billion in 1990 to 10-12 billion a century from now), through escalating resource demand, (especially in the wealthier countries with threatened changes in global climate and sea level), and through severe pressure of poverty in less developed countries which result in habitat transformations and losses of biological diversity. Unless the global alliance called the World Conservation Strategy was formed at the Rio summit some countries could face increased mortality as a result of environmental stress. PMID:12317707

Rowley, J



Alternative Transportation and Travel Information Technologies: Monitoring Parking Lot Conditions Over Three Summer Seasons at Acadia National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive Summary: Parking lots are an important transportation re- source of Acadia National Park, as they provide visitors convenient access to some of the most desirable destinations within the park. However, during the summer, parking at some of the most popular destinations is in short supply. Drivers often park vehicles outside designated parking spaces within the lots and along the

John J. Daigle; Carol A. Zimmerman


Atmospheric mercury speciation in Yellowstone National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atmospheric concentrations of elemental mercury (Hg0), reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), and particulate Hg (pHg) concentrations were measured in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), U.S.A. using high resolution, real time atmospheric mercury analyzers (Tekran 2537A, 1130, and 1135). A survey of Hg0 concentrations at various locations within YNP showed that concentrations generally reflect global background concentrations of 1.5-2.0 ng m- 3, but a few specific locations associated with concentrated geothermal activity showed distinctly elevated Hg0 concentrations (about 9.0 ng m- 3). At the site of intensive study located centrally in YNP (Canyon Village), Hg0 concentrations did not exceed 2.5 ng m- 3; concentrations of RGM were generally below detection limits of 0.88 pg m- 3 and never exceeded 5 pg m- 3. Concentrations of pHg ranged from below detection limits to close to 30 pg m-3. RGM and pHg concentrations were not correlated with any criteria gases (SO2, NOx, O3); however pHg was weakly correlated with the concentration of atmospheric particles. We investigated three likely sources of Hg at the intensive monitoring site: numerous geothermal features scattered throughout YNP, re-suspended soils, and wildfires near or in YNP. We examined relationships between the chemical properties of aerosols (as measured using real time, single particle mass spectrometry; aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer; ATOFMS) and concentrations of atmospheric pHg. Based on the presence of particles with distinct chemical signatures of the wildfires, and the absence of signatures associated with the other sources, we concluded that wildfires in the park were the main source of aerosols and associated pHg to our sampling site. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hall, B.D.; Olson, M.L.; Rutter, A.P.; Frontiera, R.R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Gross, D.S.; Yuen, M.; Rudolph, T.M.; Schauer, J.J.



Urban Parks: Volunteers and Civic Engagement  

E-print Network

&M University System. New Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences ? Adopt-A-Park ? Austin, Texas Through this program, citizen volunteers are involved in cleaning up parks and in other activities (http://www. ci.austin.tx... engagement is beneficial not only for citi- zens and park and recreation agencies, but for schools and businesses as well, and it can lead * Associate Professor and Extension Specialist in Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, The Texas A&M University...

Schuett, Michael A.



Species in Parks: Flora and Fauna Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Information Center of the Environment and the US National Park Service (NPS) have developed a "preliminary" data base of vascular plants and vertebrates located on National Park Service Lands. Although the database is not a complete list of species residing on NPS lands, it contains relatively complete lists for both small and large parks. Users can search for plants and animals by species or park name. Within each park, one can search a list of species by taxa (e.g., birds, mammals, fish, etc.) and then learn in what other parks that species is found. Links to the home pages for all NPS property (from American Samoa to Zion National Park) are featured. Both plant and animal databases are available for downloading for Windows or DOS users (.exe).



Mapping success in protecting forests For Costa Rica's parks and reserves, a threatened location is  

E-print Network

Mapping success in protecting forests For Costa Rica's parks and reserves, a threatened location scarce conservation resources. Now, findings from Costa Rica suggest key criteria. In this Central's impact on deforestation varies with observable characteristics In Costa Rica, for instance, most

Pfaff, Alex


Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Vicinity of an Optoelectronics Industrial Park in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and investigate the impacts of traffic and industrial activities on the concentration of VOCs near the Central Taiwan Science Park (CTSP) in Taiwan during 2005. Twelve-hour canister sampling was performed at 10 sites near CTSP every season. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with a mass-selective detector. The

Ta-Yuan Chang; Shen-Ju Lin; Ruei-Hao Shie; Shih-Wei Tsai; Hui-Tsung Hsu; Ching-Tsan Tsai; Hsien-Wen Kuo; Chow-Feng Chiang; Jim-Shoung Lai; David Dubois; Ramesh Vellore; John Watson; Darko Koracin; L.-W. Chen; Naresh Kumar; Eladio Knipping; Neil Wheeler; Kenneth Craig; Stephen Reid; Douglas Lowenthal; Xiaosheng Qin; Guohe Huang; Lei Liu; Xiaohan Chen; Natalia Schmid; Lijuan Wang; Nigel Clark; Thabet Tolaymat; Roger Green; Gary Hater; Morton Barlaz; Paul Black; Doug Bronson; Jon Powell; Pablo Ruiz; Claudia Toro; Jorge Caceres; Gianni pez; Pedro Oyola; Petros Koutrakis



Understanding coupled climatic and ecosystem responses to global climate change in the Central Grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term National Park Service research program to assess the potential effect of global climate change on the Central Grasslands Biogeographic Area is underway. The program consists of two integrated projects: Projecting climate and vegetation change at regional to landscape scales; and Predicting the effect of global change on vegetation in park landscapes at the plot to landscape scales. Together,

M. B. Falkner; J. Detling; D. Ojima; R. A. Pielke; T. J. Stohlgren; T. G. F. Kittel; J. Lenihan; R. Neilson; W. Reiners



Oregon State Parks and Recreation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What can you do in the great Oregon outdoors? From the world of Cannon Beach to the wild and rugged Snake River, the experiences are diverse, to say the least. The homepage features dramatic vistas, isolated lighthouses, and a whole range of wonderful images to entice visitors. In the Visit area, there is an interactive map of the state that will help plan any trip. Here visitors can select Activities and Facilities to look for specific amenities. Moving along, the Event Calendar area allows visitors to look for upcoming events at a specific park or by category. Policy folks will appreciate the About Us area, as it includes detailed information on the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department's budget, their annual report, information about upcoming initiatives, and construction projects.


Buddingtonite in Menlo Park, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mineral buddingtonite, named after A.F. Buddington, long-time professor of petrology at Princeton University, was first identified at the Sulfur Bank mine in Lake County, California (Erd and others, 1964). The ammonium feldspar was recognized in Menlo Park, California, in 1964 by the author, with Erd's help, shortly before publication of the original description of the new mineral. Subsequently, buddingtonite has been widely recognized in hydrothermal mineral deposits and has been used in remote-sensing applications by the mineral industry. Buddingtonite also has been identified in the Phosphoria Formation and in oil shales of the Green River Formation. This paper briefly describes the geologic setting and mineralogy of the occurrences of buddingtonite and other ammonium-bearing minerals in the vicinity of Menlo Park.

Pampeyan, Earl H.



The Bronx Park Postcard Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the years since its origins in the late 1880s, the Bronx Park has been expanded several times. In 1891, the city of New York allotted 250 acres of the park to the New York Botanical Garden, and in 1897 assigned 250 more to the Bronx Zoo. This particular digital collection brings together postcards of the grounds held by the Wildlife Conservation Society Library and the Garden's LuEsther T. Mertz Library. The collection here includes over 450 postcards, which visitors can browse by subject headings, including Zoo animals, Paths and walkways, and Bronx River. The Zoo animals area is well worth a look, as it features a range of animals, including a Noah's Ark exhibit, camels, and Indian elephants. It's an amazing archive of documents related to one of the most famous zoos in the United States, and historians and others will find it quite marvelous.


National Park Service Web Cameras  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Park Service (NPS) operates digital cameras at many parks in the lower 48 states, Alaska, and Hawaii to help educate the public on air quality issues. These cameras often show the effects of air pollution, especially visibility impairment. Because the cameras are typically located near air quality monitoring sites, their web pages display other information along with the photo, such as current levels of ozone, particulate matter, or sulfur dioxide, visual range, and weather conditions. The digital photos are usually updated every 15 minutes, while air quality data values are revised hourly. Charts of the last ten days of hourly weather, ozone, particulate matter, or sulfur dioxide data are also available. The cameras are accessible by clicking on an interactive map.


Hyde Park Herald Digital Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hyde Park is a well-known urban neighborhood eight miles south of Chicago's Loop, and residents in and around the neighborhood have a long tradition of independent journalism. The Hyde Park Herald was started in 1882, and it documented the community's earliest history, including the years before the neighborhood was annexed to Chicago. Recently, a group of concerned citizens donated money to digitize the newspaper's back issues, and it was done to celebrate the leadership of Bruce Sagan, who has published the newspaper since 1953. Visitors can view the newspaper from 1882 to the present day, and despite a gap between the years 1889 and 1918, the coverage is quite good. Some good starting points include the WWII years and the late 1950s, which was when the first urban renewal project started in the neighborhood. Also, visitors may wish to perform a detailed search across the entire collection and then can also learn a bit more about the paper's history here.


Alan Turing and Bletchley Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

This month marks the 100th anniversary of Alan Turing's birth. His ground-breaking work in the 1940s continues to have an impact on computer science as we know it. The first featured Web extra at http:\\/\\/\\/5nK_ft0Lf1s is a video interview with Paul Kellar, Kevin Murrell, and Joel Greenberg of the National Museum of Computing at Bletchley Park celebrating the 100th anniversary

Charles Severance



Bridgeview Park facility solar retrofit  

SciTech Connect

The weatherization and insulation of a presently unheated frame park building and the installation of a Trombe wall on the south side of the structure for passive solar heating are planned. The major objectives of the project are to increase the exposure of local residents and visitors to passive solar technology and to demonstrate the applicability of passive solar technology to residential, commercial and recreational buildings. Some changes in the original plans are discussed. Five blueprints illustrate the planned improvements. (LEW)

Not Available



Yellowstone National Park Online Tours  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website provides an array of online tours, videos, and other information. Nature and history tours are among those featured on the site. The nature tours cover the Old Faithful area, the Norris Geyser Basin, the Fountain Paint Pots, the Mammoth Hot Springs, and the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone. Each of these tours highlights prominent natural features with photos and descriptions.

Yellowstone National Park


Coordinating OBS Parks in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within Europe there are more than 380 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) distributed across 10 instrument parks in 6 countries. At least 120 of these OBS are wideband or broadband, over 260 can be deployed for at least 6 months at a time and 140 for at least one year. New parks are planned in two other European countries, which should add over 70 OBSs to this "fleet". However, these parks are under the control of individual countries or universities and hence to date this has made it difficult to organize large-scale experiments, especially for seismologists without marine experience. There has recently been an initiative to coordinate the use of these distributed instruments and their data products, to encourage large-scale experiments, possibly with onshore and offshore components, by seismologists who have not necessarily used OBSs before. The ongoing or planned developments include: Helping scientists with marine-specific formalities such as ship requests; clearer explanations of the noise floors of OBS instrumentation; improved clarity of instrument pricing and availability; standardized data output formats and data validation; and archiving in established seismological data centers. These efforts should allow improved experiment design in scientifically interesting regions with an offshore component and an easier, clearer way to organize large-scale, multi-country experiments. We will present details of this initiative to help organize large-scale experiments, the particularities of OBS sensors and marine deployments, the available instrumentation and new developments.

Crawford, W.; Brisbourne, A.; D'Anna, G.; Flüh, E. R.; Galve, A.; Graindorge, D.; Harmon, N.; Henstock, T.; Klingelhöfer, F.; Mangano, G.; Matias, L.; Peirce, C.; Sallares, V.; Schmidt-Aursch, M.; Tilmann, F.; Voss, P.



Mycorrhizae from Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roots of 40 taxa of higher plants (Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta) from two alpine study sites in Denali National Park and Preserve\\u000a in central Alaska were examined for their mycorrhizal colonization. We observed ectomycorrhizae on six species: Betula\\u000a nana, Salix\\u000a reticulata, Salix\\u000a polaris, Salix\\u000a arctica, Polygonum\\u000a viviparum, and Dryas\\u000a octopetala. Seven taxa, Cassiope\\u000a tetragona, Empetrum\\u000a nigrum, Ledum\\u000a palustre subsp. decumbens, Ledum\\u000a palustre

R. Treu; G. A. Laursen; S. L. Stephenson; J. C. Landolt; R. Densmore



Manaus, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

Size: 60 x 45 km (37 x 27 miles) Location: 3.1 deg. South lat., 60.0 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: July 16, 2000



Geology Fieldnotes: Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Theodore Roosevelt National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history and the region's role in shaping Theodore Roosevelt's conservation efforts while he was President. The section also contains a link to information on the geology of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. The park maps section contains an area map as well as two maps detailing the North and South Units of the Park.


National Park Service, Nature & Science: Teacher Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Park Service has developed this exemplary set of educational resources which draws on their greatest assets, namely national parks from Maine to Utah. The materials are specifically designed for teaching geology, but it's easy to see how these items could be incorporated into general science classes. The main area on their homepage features over a dozen teacher guides and park programs that feature detailed geology lessons that draw on the landscapes of Yosemite National Park and the dynamic volcanoes of Hawaii. On the right side of the page, visitors can scan through the "Highlights" area to learn more about online park images, park maps, and even peruse a calendar of upcoming educator workshops. The site is rounded out by the "Geology Books and Media" area, which features information about technical reports, textbooks, and geology-themed children's books.


The use of molecular tools in Parks Canada Agency  

E-print Network

restoration Protected areas management #12;Parks Canada and conservation · Parks Canada is a world leader Parks Canada is the world's first national park service. #12;Outline · Taxonomic identification Taxonomic Identification #12;Taxonomic Identification Nahanni National Park Reserve Issues: #12;Taxonomic

Blouin-Demers, Gabriel


Yosemite National Park: the continuous evolution of humanblack bear conflict  

E-print Network

Yosemite National Park: the continuous evolution of human­black bear conflict management Joseph s, particularly in Yosemite National Park. Yosemite National Park encompasses >3,077 km2 and attracts nearly 3 as Yosemite Valley, and approximately 77% of the park's human­bear conflicts occur in this area (National Park


"Humanities in the Parks" Internships University of Colorado  

E-print Network

of parks to people. National parks and cities are no longer seen as distant and disconnected from one opportunity for the National Park Service. People have always visited the national parks as a break from) in National Park System areas to serve as interns to help interpret the natural and cultural resources

Colorado at Boulder, University of


Geology Fieldnotes: Death Valley National Park, California/Nevada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Death Valley National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology using National Park examples). The Park Geology section contains an exaggerated cross-section showing the vertical rise within Death Valley. A link is provided to Death Valley's expanded geology page.


Smart parking reservation system using short message services (SMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a smart parking system to solve the problem of unnecessary time consumption in finding parking spot in commercial car park areas. A parking reservation system is developed in such a way that users book their parking spots through short message services (SMS). The SMS sent will be processed by a wireless communication instrumentation device called micro-RTU (Remote

N. H. H. M. Hanif; M. H. Badiozaman; H. Daud



Wireless Mobile-Based Shopping Mall Car Parking System (WMCPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing car parking system in Malaysia usually required the car drivers to search an empty parking space in the car park without providing detail direction toward the available parking space. As the result, drivers may waste a lot of time and unnecessary energy while they turn around in the car park without direction and may cause car traffic congestion

Soh Chun Khang; Teoh Jie Hong; Tan Saw Chin; Shengqiong Wang



Real time car parking system using image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Car parking lots are an important object class in many traffic and civilian applications. With the problems of increasing urban traffic congestion and the ever increasing shortage of space, these car parking lots are needed to be well equipped with automatic parking Information and Guidance systems. Goals of intelligent parking lot management include counting the number of parked cars, and

Sayanti Banerjee; Pallavi Choudekar; M. K. Muju



Water resources management plan: Great Basin National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enabling legislation creating Great Basin National Park calls for the National Park Service (NPS) to protect, manage, and administer the park in such manner as to conserve and protect the scenery as well as the natural, geologic, historic, and archaeological resources of the park. NPS policies require that each unit of the National Park System develop and implement a

R. W. Jacobs; M. Flora



Status of biotic inventories in US national parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the policy and obligation of the National Park Service to conduct baseline inventories of natural resources preserved in its 32 million hectare National Park System. We evaluated the status of natural resources information in 252 national parks and monuments: those park units that contain significant natural resources. Results show that few parks contain relatively complete systematic inventories for

Gary S. Waggoner




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. SOUTH SIDE, FROM PARK ACROSS PARKING LOT/F STREET, LOOKING NORTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA


Geologic Map of the Shenandoah National Park Region, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geology of the Shenandoah National Park region of Virginia was studied from 1995 to 2008. The focus of the study was the park and surrounding areas to provide the National Park Service with modern geologic data for resource management. Additional geologic data of the adjacent areas are included to provide regional context. The geologic map can be used to support activities such as ecosystem delineation, land-use planning, soil mapping, groundwater availability and quality studies, aggregate resources assessment, and engineering and environmental studies. The study area is centered on the Shenandoah National Park, which is mostly situated in the western part of the Blue Ridge province. The map covers the central section and western limb of the Blue Ridge-South Mountain anticlinorium. The Skyline Drive and Appalachian National Scenic Trail straddle the drainage divide of the Blue Ridge highlands. Water drains northwestward to the South Fork of the Shenandoah River and southeastward to the James and Rappahannock Rivers. East of the park, the Blue Ridge is an area of low relief similar to the physiography of the Piedmont province. The Great Valley section of the Valley and Ridge province is west of Blue Ridge and consists of Page Valley and Massanutten Mountain. The distribution and types of surficial deposits and landforms closely correspond to the different physiographic provinces and their respective bedrock. The Shenandoah National Park is underlain by three general groups of rock units: (1) Mesoproterozoic granitic gneisses and granitoids, (2) Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Swift Run Formation and metabasalt of the Catoctin Formation, and (3) siliciclastic rocks of the Lower Cambrian Chilhowee Group. The gneisses and granitoids mostly underlie the lowlands east of Blue Ridge but also rugged peaks like Old Rag Mountain (996 meter). Metabasalt underlies much of the highlands, like Stony Man (1,200 meters). The siliciclastic rocks underlie linear ridges from 800 to 400 meters in altitude. The Page Valley is underlain by Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks. Siliciclastic rocks are mostly west of the South Fork of the Shenandoah River and underlie Massanutten Mountain. Surficial deposits in the highlands include colluvium and debris fans. The lowlands have broad alluvial fans, alluvial plains, and fluvial terraces. Ridges underlain by siliciclastic rocks have abundant boulder fields. Numerous sinkholes and caves are due to the dissolution of the carbonate bedrock.

Southworth, Scott; Aleinikoff, John N.; Bailey, Christopher M.; Burton, William C.; Crider, E.A.; Hackley, Paul C.; Smoot, Joseph P.; Tollo, Richard P.



Geology Fieldnotes: Arches National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This park is located on the Colorado Plateau near Moab, Utah, and contains many arches and sculpted sedimentary rocks. The visible rock formations in the park are the Entrada and Navajo sandstones. Covered topics include the formation of arches in stages, different types of arches, as well as sizes and names (Delicate Arch being the most famous). The site also provides visitor information, photos, maps, additional links, and a teacher feature (tools for teaching geology with National Park examples).

Annabelle Foos


Geology Fieldnotes: Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides information about Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado, including geology, visitor information, illustrations, and additional links for more details. This park was home to the Anasazi people who were cliff dwellers in this area. Today you can see artifacts, native dwellings made of sandstone bricks, and learn about the Anasazi way of life, dating back to around 550 AD.


Off?Street Parking Policy without Parking Requirements: A Need for Market Fostering and Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses and extends upon the recent upsurge of interest in market?oriented reform of parking policy, which has been reinvigorated by the work of Donald Shoup. His market?oriented approach to parking policy is shown to be the more ambitious of two distinct challenges to the conventional supply?focused approach. The other is ‘parking management’. However, off?street parking markets and their

Paul A. Barter



Neighborhood Poverty, Park Use, and Park-Based Physical Activity in a Southern California City  

PubMed Central

A rich literature indicates that individuals of lower socio-economic status engage in less leisure time physical activity than individuals of higher socio-economic status. However, the source of the difference is believed to be, in part, due to differential access to resources that support physical activity. However, it has not been shown as to whether equal access to parks can mitigate differences in leisure time physical activity. Using systematic direct observation, we quantified physical activity in neighborhood parks in a large Southern California city located in areas with high, medium, and a low percentage of households in poverty. We documented how neighborhood parks are managed and programmed and also interviewed both a sample of park users and a random sample of households within a mile radius of the parks. We found that parks are used less in high-poverty areas compared to medium- and low-poverty area parks, even after accounting for differences in size, staffing, and programming. The strongest correlates of park use were the number of part time staff, the number of supervised and organized programs, and knowing the park staff. Perceptions of safety were not relevant to park use among those interviewed in the park, however it had a small relationship with reported frequency of park use among local residents. Among park users, time spent watching electronic media was negatively correlated with the frequency of visiting the park. Future research should test whether increasing park staffing and programming will lead to increased park use in high-poverty neighborhoods. PMID:23010338

Cohen, Deborah; Han, Bing; Derose, Kathryn; Williamson, Stephanie; Marsh, Terry; Rudick, Jodi; McKenzie, Thomas L.



Eco-industrial parks: stimulating sustainable development in mixed industrial parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several industrialised countries, there have occurred initiatives to establish eco-industrial parks. Originally, these were mainly based upon the exchange of resources between heavy industries in industrial complexes. These initiatives are generally referred to with the concepts of industrial symbiosis and eco-industrial parks. Since then, the concept of eco-industrial parks has been extended to another relevant type of industrial park,

A. J. D Lambert; F. A Boons



WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Parking Lot  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Parking Lot May 1, 2003 ­ July 15, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 7 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 7 Wind Speed Distributions

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of


Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity.  


We assessed the impacts of anthropogenic threats on 93 protected areas in 22 tropical countries to test the hypothesis that parks are an effective means to protect tropical biodiversity. We found that the majority of parks are successful at stopping land clearing, and to a lesser degree effective at mitigating logging, hunting, fire, and grazing. Park effectiveness correlates with basic management activities such as enforcement, boundary demarcation, and direct compensation to local communities, suggesting that even modest increases in funding would directly increase the ability of parks to protect tropical biodiversity. PMID:11141563

Bruner, A G; Gullison, R E; Rice, R E; da Fonseca, G A



75 FR 20885 - National Park Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8498--National Park Week, 2010 Proclamation 8499--National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010 Proclamation 8500--National Volunteer Week, 2010 Proclamation 8501--National Day of Service and...



Tour of Park Geology: Sand Dunes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Park Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with sand dunes. Where appropriate for each park, links are provided to maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as Death Valley and Mojave National Preserve, along with less well-known areas such as the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore in Michigan and the Wright Brothers National Memorial in North Carolina.


Parking Functions And Generalized Catalan Numbers  

E-print Network

, and showed that this generalized the relationship between parking functions and non-crossing partitions given earlier by Stanley[2]. Loehr, Haglund, and Haiman have explored the connections between parking functions and q,t-Catalan structures, as well as a.... (N.A. Loehr[19]) Corollary B.5. LT n+1 ? = LD n Proof. This is a combination of B.4 and B.2. Let IP n be the set of non-decreasing parking functions, i.e.,those parking func- tions (a 1 a 2 ...a n )wherea i ? a i+1 for all 1 ? i ? n ? 1. Let D n...

Schumacher, Paul R.



NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PARKS A National Environmental Research Park is an outdoor laboratory where research may be  

E-print Network

CHARTER NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PARKS A National Environmental Research Park is an outdoor for a quality environment into environmental goals, and the National Environmental Research Parks network DIRECTIVES FOR THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PARKS PROGRAM The network of research parks was formally

Georgia, University of


76 FR 39048 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...its use in the park would be prohibited...emissions of HC and CO greater than the proposed...allowed to enter the park. It would be...operated on the Cave Falls road, which extends...Emission Limit no greater than 120 g/kW-hr...operated in the park for a period not...operated on the Cave Falls Road in...



78 FR 63069 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System; Yellowstone National Park; Winter Use  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...its use in the park will be prohibited...of HC and CO to greater than the emission...not enter the park. It is the responsibility...operating on the Cave Falls Road, which extends...apply to the Cave Falls Road and use by...affiliated with the park, the final rule...1051 to a FEL no greater than a total...



78 FR 22470 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System; Yellowstone National Park; Winter Use  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...its use in the park would be prohibited...of HC and CO to greater than the proposed...allowed to enter the park. It would be...operating on the Cave Falls Road, which extends...apply to the Cave Falls Road, the proposed...operated in the park. Sec. 7.13...1051 to a FEL no greater than a total...



Parks as Resources for Knowledge in Science (PARKS) National Program Evaluation Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document evaluates the Parks as Resources for Knowledge in Science (PARKS) project which supports environmental education in 36 National Parks across the United States and provides curriculum-based learning opportunities that integrate National Science Education Standards for teachers and students. Contents include: (1) "Executive…

Wiltz, L. Kate


Water Resources Management Plan: Arches National Park & Canyonlands National Park, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Park Service recognizes the importance of preserving, conserving, and protecting water resources within its boundaries. Water resources, whether as large as the Colorado River or as small as a seep in Ernie's Country of Canyonlands National Park, play a distinctive role in linking ecosystems and , in general, provide habitat for a number of organisms. To protect park

Lynn Cudlip; Kevin Berghoff; David Vana-Miller



Threats to beach resources and park boundaries caused by shoreline migration in an urban estuarine park  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of coastal processes, shoreline erosion, and shore management options for Conference House Park, New York, USA, reveals the problems associated with lack of congruence between jurisdictional boundaries and boundaries required for maintenance of beaches and shorefront park land. Rates of shoreline change are high despite low wave energies because bay beaches contain small amounts of sand. The park

Karl F. Nordstrom; Nancy L. Jackson; John P. Tiefenbacher



Yosemite National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior  

E-print Network

What are lichens? Yosemite National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior and distribution of lichens tell us a great deal about air quality and the level of certain types of pollution in the park. Lichens are intimately connected to their environment. They lack roots and rely upon

LeTourneau, Peter M.


Employer-Paid parking: A Nationwide Survey of Employers' Parking Subsidy Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-five percent of automobile commuters in the United States park free at work. To deal with the traffic congestion and air pollution caused by parking subsidies, California law now requires many employers to offer employees the option to cash out their parking subsidies. Similar Federal legislation has been proposed. This nationwide survey found that employers in the United States off

Donald C. Shoup; Mary Jane Breinholt



Park Profiler/Jump Analyzer Practical method for determining terrain park jump performance  

E-print Network

: identified start from full stop .... b. approach: ... maximum design speed, v0, less than 80% terminal ... c" ­ software to analyze jump performance V. Example #12;Winter Terrain Park Jumps Satisfies human dream of flying ... but, as Icarus leaned the hard way, there are risks. #12;Terrain Park Jump Safety Terrain park


Public Parking is available at an hourly rate at the University Square car park.  

E-print Network

in embedded systems, mobile computing, e-commerce, intelligent internet, and the Web. During the last fewPublic Parking is available at an hourly rate at the University Square car park. Enter via Bouverie Street. Local street parking is also available. Monday January 29, 2007 REGISTRATION IS ESSENTIAL

Heiser, Gernot


The parks PDA: a handheld device for theme park guests in squeak  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Parks PDA is a lightweight, handheld device for theme park guests that functions as a combination guidebook, map, and digital camera. Together with a small team of artists and designers, we created a prototype Parks PDA and content for a three hour guest experience, including a camera interface, a hyper-linked guide book, three games, an animal spotters guide, a

Yoshiki Ohshima; John Maloney; Andy Ogden



Some Aspects of Park Chang No Kyo--A Korean Revitalization Movement  

E-print Network

. The sometimes stormy movement of the "Olive Tree" as Park Chang no kyo is also at times referred to, has built a boom town ("Christian Town") for more than 20,000 of its followers, and has established a heavy industrial complex some ten miles from Seoul... former Minister of Commerce and Industry and President of Cen