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Sample records for park central brazil

  1. Central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

  2. 77 FR 60461 - United States v. Standard Parking Corporation, KSPC Holdings, Inc. and Central Parking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. Standard Parking Corporation, KSPC Holdings, Inc. and Central Parking Corporation; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact Statement Notice is hereby given pursuant to the... District of Columbia in United States of America v. Standard Parking Corporation, et al., Civil Action...

  3. Evaluation of noise pollution in urban parks of Curitiba, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Andressa M.; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Zannin, Paulo T.

    2003-10-01

    A study about the noise pollution found in six urban parks of Curitiba, Paran, Brazil. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) have been measured in points spread throughout the park, and interviews have been conducted with some park visitors. It has been found out that 17.83% out of the measurement sites have presented Leq levels over 65 dB(A), considered by the Preventive Medicine as the maximum level one can be exposed to without being exposed to health impairment risks, and 52.48% out of the meas sites do not satisfy the municipal law 10625, which states the noise emission level of 55 dB(A) as the limit value for green areas (AV). The results of the questionnaires applied to the local visitors have showed that 39% out of the interviewed people users to visit the park every 75% of them seek for the realization of a physical activity during the realization of their activities in the parks, 22% out of interviewed people point the noise pollution as the source of annoyance and 29% of them point the local security.

  4. Central portion of front (south side) from west parking area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central portion of front (south side) from west parking area - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Main Hospital Building, Charlie Kelly Boulevard, North side, at intersection of Sharon A. Lane Drive, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. 6. CENTRAL PORTION OF SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING, FROM PARKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CENTRAL PORTION OF SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING, FROM PARKING LOT NORTH OF BERTH B-1 (WESTERN END OF G STREET), LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH BUILDING 123 AT FAR RIGHT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Pier Transit Shed, South of D Street between First & Second Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. Central Park East Secondary School: Teaching and Learning through Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyner-Mullings, Alia R.

    2012-01-01

    This article connects the theoretical perspective of Paulo Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed with the teaching and learning styles of teachers and students at Central Park East Secondary School (CPESS) in East Harlem, New York. It examines some of the ways the Freireian model has worked within the public school system and considers some of the…

  7. A Central Brazil GT5 Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, L. V.; Assumpcao, M.; Caixeta, D.

    2013-05-01

    Ground-truth (GT) events, accurately located with a precision of 5 km (GT5 event) and associated travel times to regional stations are important in developing precise velocity models. The low Brazilian seismicity, with only three continental earthquakes of magnitude five in the last three decades, and the low number of seismic stations explain the difficulty to detect events at regional distances. In the world maps of GT events, Brazil appears almost empty. In Stable Continental Interiors, like Brazil, it is difficult to find an event fulfilling all the GT5 prerequisites, particularly in respect with the number of picked phases and azimuthal gaps. Recently PTS-CTBTO has organized meeting and workshops to encourage seismologists from South and Central America to cooperate with the work of identifying GT5 events in these countries, with a goal of developing a 3-dimentional velocity model for this part of the globe not covered yet like Europe and North America. As a result we studied a recent magnitude 5 event in Central Brazil detected by few regional stations. Aftershock studies with local stations, showed a fault 5 km long. Taking the mainshock epicenter as the center of fault the maximum error would be minimal, 2.5 km, assuming the events were located with zero uncertainty. The parameters depth and origin time source were precisely determined using correlations between waveforms of six events and stations corrections. The event magnitudes range from 3.5 to 5.0 (mainshock, taken as reference event) recorded by regional and local stations. Events recorded at local and regional stations were used to determine the regional station corrections. These events were located only with data from local stations, assigning to the regional stations P and S phases zero weight in order to determine residuals for each regional stations used. The stations corrections were taken as the average of the residuals at each station. Precise pickings of P and S phases for the mainshock

  8. Evaluation of the noise pollution in urban parks of Curitiba, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Andressa C.; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Paz, Elaine C.; Zannin, Paulo T.

    2001-05-01

    This work shows a study about the noise pollution found in six urban parks of Curitiba, Paran, Brazil. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) have been measured in points spread throughout the park, and interviews have been conducted with some park visitors. It has been found out that 52.48% out of the measurement sites did not satisfy the Municipal Law no. 10,625, which states the noise emission level of 55 dB(A) as the limit value for green areas. The results of the questionnaires applied to the local visitors have showed that 39% out of the interviewed people used to visit the park every day and that 75% out of them seek for the realization of a physical activity. During the realization of their activities in the parks, 22% out of the interviewed people pointed to the noise pollution as the source of annoyance and 28% out of them pointed the local security. In this sense, it has been verified that half of the analyzed parks were inserted in acoustically polluted areas, which incurs a real state depreciation in their vicinities.

  9. Central Michigan University's Glacial Park: Instruction through Landscaping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pape, Bruce; Francek, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the creation of a glacial park on a university campus. Suggests that the park is a useful instructional resource that helps students relate classroom material to outdoor phenomena by visualizing and identifying glacial landforms, recognizing their spatial relationships, and understanding how glacial features originated. Offers advice for…

  10. Population genetic structure of Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. (Iridaceae) in Itapuã State Park, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tacuatiá, Luana Olinda; Eggers, Lilian; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T

    2012-01-01

    Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. is a member of the family Iridaceae, which is distributed over the American continent. In Brazil, this species is found, not only in disturbed areas and coastal regions, but is also very common in urban centers, such as public parks, during the spring. Chromosome counts for North American specimens are 2n = 32 and 2n = 48, whereas in southern Brazil, there is a polyploidy series with three chromosome numbers, 2n = 16, 2n = 32, and 2n = 48. Population analyses using DNA molecular markers are inexistent for this species, in spite of its wide distribution and morphological variation. To study the genetic population structure of S. micranthum, five natural populations were accessed in a conservation park within the Atlantic Rain Forest Biome in southern Brazil. Here, the chromosome numbers 2n = 16 and 2n = 48 had already been described. Molecular analysis showed that the populations are highly structured with low gene flow among them. The population with 2n = 48 was genetically less variable than and distinct from the other populations. Population genetics in relation to cytogenetic data provided new insights regarding the genetic diversification and mating system of S. micranthum. PMID:22481881

  11. Ecology and acculturation among native peoples of central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gross, D R; Eiten, G; Flowers, N M; Leoi, F M; Ritter, M L; Werner, D W

    1979-11-30

    Simple exposure to Western goods may not be a sufficient explanation of why isolated village communities increase their participation in external market economies. The degree of market participation by four native villages in central Brazil is related to the difficulty of making a living from slash-and-burn subsistence agriculture as measured by the ratio of labor input to food output. PMID:17787469

  12. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ASSESSMENT IN SEDIMENT OF NATIONAL PARKS IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Azeredo, Antonio; de Souza Pereira, Márcia; Paulo, João; Torres, Machado; Malm, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment and their sources found in protected regions of southeastern Brazil. Samples of sediments were collected at four National Parks: Itatiaia National Park (PNIT), Serra da Bocaina National Park (PNSB), Serra dos Orgãos National Park (PNSO) and Jurubatiba National Park (PNJUB). The National Parks studied comprise rainforests, altitudinal fields and ‘restinga’ environments located in the Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states. The sampling was conducted between 2002 and 2004 from June to September. In general, the environmental levels of PAHs found were similar to those in other remote areas around the globe. PNIT exhibited the highest median values of total PAHs in sediment (97 ng·g−1), followed by PNJUB (89 ng·g−1), PNSO (57 ng·g−1) and PNSB (27 ng·g−1). The highest levels of total PAHs (576 and 24430 ng·g−1) could be associated to a point source contamination where are characterizated for human activities. At PNSB and PNIT the PAH profiles were richer in 2 and 3 ring compounds, whereas at PNSO and PNJUB, the profiles exhibited 3 and 4 ring compounds. The phenanthrene predominance in most samples could indicate the influence of biogenic synthesis. The samples with a petrogenic pattern found in this study might be associated with the vicinity of major urban areas, highway traffic and/or industrial activities close to PNSO and PNIT. At PNIT and PNJUB, forest fires and slash and burn agricultural practices may drive the results towards a pyrolytic pattern. PMID:18472130

  13. Central America's "Peace Parks" and Regional Conflict Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weed, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the development of transborder conservation zones, known as "peace parks," in terms of their potential importance as proving grounds for international cooperation and sustainable development, and then in their role as symbols and outright manifestations of the peace process. Includes case studies of La Amistad Biosphere Reserve, Si-a-Paz,…

  14. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Joyce Mendes; de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Sousa, Adair Vieira; de Paula, Aécio Moraes; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic distributions in CW Brazil. The Cerrado areas in the state of Goiás were found to be more suitable for the occurrence of synanthropic triatomines than the Amazon forest areas in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso. The variable that best explains the evaluated models is temperature seasonality. The results indicate that almost the entire region presents climatic conditions that are appropriate for at least one triatomine species. Therefore, it is recommended that entomological surveillance be reinforced in CW Brazil. PMID:23778666

  15. Reptiles from Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Maranhão, northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Jivanildo Pinheiro; Costa, João Carlos Lopes; Rocha, Carlos Frederico D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We are presenting a list of the reptile species from Lençóis Maranhenses National Park (LMNP), Maranhão, Brazil, obtained during 235 days of field work. The study area is located in the contact zone between three major Neotropical ecosystems: Amazonia, Caatinga, and Cerrado. The PNLM encompasses the largest dune fields in Brazil, wide shrubby areas (restingas), lakes, mangroves, and many freshwater lagoons. We have recorded 42 species of reptiles in the area: 24 snakes, 12 lizards, two worm lizards, three turtles, and one alligator. About 81 % of the recorded species occurred only in restinga areas. Our data highlights the uniqueness of the PNLM in the context of the biomes that surround it and shows the importance of efforts to improve the conservation of reptiles living in the restinga, which currently comprise only about 20 % of the total area protected by the park, but which are the mesohabitat containing most of the reptile species in the Lençóis Maranhenses complex of habitats. PMID:23275751

  16. An Analysis of Children Left Unattended in Parked Motor Vehicles in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Driely; Grundstein, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Our study investigates the incidence of children left unattended in parked motor vehicles in Brazil. These events have been widely explored in the United States but less so abroad, and never in Brazil. Over the period from 2006 to 2015, we collected data from news reports on 31 cases, including 21 fatalities. The circumstances mostly involved a caregiver, especially a parent, forgetting the child (71%), but cases also included the child being intentionally left in the vehicle (23%) or gaining access to the vehicle (3%). Children tended to be forgotten more frequently in fatal cases (86%), particularly on the way to daycare, than non-fatal incidents where circumstances were more evenly distributed between forgetting (40%) and being intentionally left behind (50%). Incidents occurred throughout the country but mostly in the southeastern region near the city of São Paulo. Additionally, the danger for children is present year-round as we observed cases in every season, albeit with a peak in the summer. This heat-related hazard is not well recognized across Brazil and we recommend increasing awareness through education. Further, given the high percentage of cases involving parents forgetting to leave their children at daycare, we recommend arrangements between daycare providers and parents to communicate when a child does not attend as expected. PMID:27399747

  17. An Analysis of Children Left Unattended in Parked Motor Vehicles in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Driely; Grundstein, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Our study investigates the incidence of children left unattended in parked motor vehicles in Brazil. These events have been widely explored in the United States but less so abroad, and never in Brazil. Over the period from 2006 to 2015, we collected data from news reports on 31 cases, including 21 fatalities. The circumstances mostly involved a caregiver, especially a parent, forgetting the child (71%), but cases also included the child being intentionally left in the vehicle (23%) or gaining access to the vehicle (3%). Children tended to be forgotten more frequently in fatal cases (86%), particularly on the way to daycare, than non-fatal incidents where circumstances were more evenly distributed between forgetting (40%) and being intentionally left behind (50%). Incidents occurred throughout the country but mostly in the southeastern region near the city of São Paulo. Additionally, the danger for children is present year-round as we observed cases in every season, albeit with a peak in the summer. This heat-related hazard is not well recognized across Brazil and we recommend increasing awareness through education. Further, given the high percentage of cases involving parents forgetting to leave their children at daycare, we recommend arrangements between daycare providers and parents to communicate when a child does not attend as expected. PMID:27399747

  18. A new genus and species of cricket from the Chapada Diamantina National Park, northeastern Brazil (Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae; Luzarinae).

    PubMed

    Dias, Pedro G B Souza; Mello, Francisco De Assis Ganeo De; Vieira, Lelisberto Baldo

    2016-01-01

    A new genus and species of Luzarinae cricket (Grylloidea, Phalangopsidae) is described from the Chapada Diamantina National Park, Bahia State, northeast Brazil. Sishiniheia diamantina, n. gen. n. sp. is described based in characters of external morphology and male genitalia and is characterized by the reduced FWs, absence of stridulatory file, thick longitudinal venation and the thin, pointed and curved pseudepiphallic arms. PMID:27395222

  19. Geodiversity, Geoturism and Geoconservation: Trails in Serra da Bocaina National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Filho, Raphael; Guerra, Antonio; Fullen, Michael; do Carmo Jorge, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The human being has always been concerned with the preservation of memory, of cultural heritage. Only now he started to protect its natural heritage and the immediate environment. It is time to learn how to protect the Earth's past and, through this protection and learn to know it. This memory comes before the human memory. It is a new asset: the geological heritage, a book written long before our appearance on the Planet (...)"(IPHAN, 2014). Since the XXth century, Brazilian geographers (GUERRA, 1980; AB'SABER, 2003 and others) dedicated to carry out research on the relationship of geographical knowledge between the environment and society. On the other hand, Brazil is a signatory of the Convention for the Protection of the World Heritage Cultural and Natural (UNESCO, 1972), where the nations recognize to keep under their responsibility the conservation, to the rest of humanity and future generations, goods of exceptional value situated within its territorial limits, considered as World Heritage. Under this perspective, it is proposed here a survey on the environmental impacts, resulting from the human activities that directly or indirectly affect the health, safety and welfare of the population; social and economic activities; the biota; the aesthetic and sanitary conditions of the environment; the quality of the environment (CONAMA Resolution 001/86) - and resulting geotourism practiced on trails - paths for pedestrians, cyclists and animals, existing in the protected area of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, in Rio de Janeiro State, such as unplanned use, erosive features, presence of litter, graffiti and burned, degraded areas on the trails indicating the need for recovery (drainage, etc.). This survey is based on research work of the environmental degradation and analysis undertaken by the Laboratory of Environmental Geomorphology and Soils Degradation (LAGESOLOS / UFRJ) in the area, in order to contribute to the geoconservation, so that the encountered

  20. Soil Communities of Central Park, New York City: A Biodiversity Melting Pot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, K. S.; Leff, J. W.; Wall, D. H.; Fierer, N.

    2013-12-01

    The majority of earth's biodiversity lives in and makes up the soil, but the majority of soil biodiversity has yet to be characterized or even quantified. This may be especially true of urban soil systems. The last decade of advances in molecular, technical and bioinformatic techniques have contributed greatly to our understanding of belowground biodiversity, from global distribution to species counts. Yet, much of this work has been done in ';natural' systems and it is not known if established patterns of distribution, especially in relation to soil factors hold up in urban soils. Urban soils are intensively managed and disturbed, often by effects unique to urban settings. It remains unclear how urban pressures influence soil biodiversity, or if there is a defined or typical ';urban soil community'. Here we describe a study to examine the total soil biodiversity - Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya- of Central Park, New York City and test for patterns of distribution and relationships to soil characteristics. We then compare the biodiversity of Central Park to 57 global soils, spanning a number of biomes from Alaska to Antarctica. In this way we can identify similarities and differences in soil communities of Central Park to soils from ';natural' systems. To generate a broad-scale survey of total soil biodiversity, 596 soil samples were collected from across Central Park (3.41 km2). Soils varied greatly in vegetation cover and soil characteristics (pH, moisture, soil C and soil N). Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology we characterized the complete soil community from 16S rRNA (Bacteria and Archaea) and 18S rRNA gene sequences (Eukarya). Samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. To compare Central Park to the 57 global soils the complete soil community of the global soils was also characterized using Illumina sequencing technology. All samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. The total measured biodiversity in Central Park was

  1. Mosquito communities in Nova Iguaçu Natural Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Correa, Fabiana F; Gleiser, Raquel M; Leite, Paulo J; Fagundes, Ezequias; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Mello, Cecilia F; Gredilha, Rodrigo; Alencar, Jeronimo

    2014-06-01

    ABSTRACT. In order to gather information on the culicid fauna of Nova Iguaçu Municipal Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, adult and immature stages were collected with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light traps, and dippers and suction tubes, respectively. In all, 828 adult and 990 immature specimens were collected belonging to 12 genera. Among the species collected were Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. fluviatilis, Ae. scapularis, Haemagogus leucocelaenus, and Psorophora ferox that are considered of potential medical importance. Culicids used a variety of larval habitats and bred under diverse ecological conditions, mostly in natural water containers formed by bamboo, bromeliad, ground depression, rock pool, stream, tree hole, and in artificial containers such as abandoned bathtub, car carcass, abandoned sink, plastic cup, waste tire, and water tank. Species richness and diversity increased from lower to higher forest cover and was highest in sites with highest diversity and high number of larval habitats. PMID:25102590

  2. Vascular plant community composition from the campos rupestres of the Itacolomi State Park, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leyh, Werner; Miazaki, Angela S.; Meira-Neto, João A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Campos rupestres are rare and endangered ecosystems that accommodate a species-rich flora with a high degree of endemism. Here, we make available a dataset from phytosociological surveys carried out in the Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. All species in a total of 30 plots of 10 x 10 m from two study sites were sampled. Their cardinality, a combination of cover and abundance, was estimated. Altogether, we registered occurrences from 161 different taxa from 114 genera and 47 families. The families with the most species were Poaceae and Asteraceae, followed by Cyperaceae. Abiotic descriptions, including soil properties such as type, acidity, nutrient or aluminum availability, cation exchange capacity, and saturation of bases, as well as the percentage of rocky outcrops and the mean inclination for each plot, are given. This dataset provides unique insights into the campo rupestre vegetation, its specific environment and the distribution of its diversity. PMID:25829858

  3. Sustaining Change: The Struggle to Maintain Identity at Central Park East Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suiter, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Central Park East Secondary School (CPESS) in East Harlem was one of the most highly acclaimed and successful schools to come out of the period of school reform in the 1980s from which the Coalition of Essential Schools emerged. Noted progressive educator Deborah Meier founded CPESS in 1985 not as a reform model, but as a continuation of the…

  4. Cultivating Urban Naturalists: Teaching Experiential, Place-Based Learning through Nature Journaling in Central Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warkentin, Traci

    2011-01-01

    Preservice educators engaged in experiential, place-based learning through a semester-long assignment in which they observed a specific place in Central Park in Manhattan, New York, and kept a nature journal. The assignment was organized around two pivotal elements: direct, sensory experience and time in place. Both elements added vital dimensions…

  5. Genetic structure of natural populations of Theobroma in the Juruena National Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, B M; Rossi, A A B; Dardengo, J F E; Silva, C R; Silva, I V; Silva, M L; Silva, C J

    2015-01-01

    Several species within the genus Theobroma have particularly high economic value, including T. cacao and T. grandiflorum. Other species in this genus, such as T. speciosum and T. subincanum, have potential value for use in the conservation of genetic diversity in breeding programs. These latter species could also be domesticated or improved to produce commercial products. Using 13 simple sequence repeat loci, the population structure and genetic diversity of T. speciosum and T. subincanum natural populations in the Juruena National Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, was studied. We sampled all individuals of each species (N = 25) present inside a designated research area established by the Program for Research on Biodiversity. The average number of alleles per locus was 5 for T. speciosum and 6.69 for T. subincanum, with average PIC values above 0.5 in both species. All evaluated individuals varied genetically. Seeds from the individuals analyzed will be useful for the development of germplasm banks and for establishment of breeding programs. PMID:26345977

  6. Recreational Diver Behavior and Contacts with Benthic Organisms in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, Vinicius J.; Luiz, Osmar J.; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    In the last two decades, coral reefs have become popular among recreational divers, especially inside marine protected areas. However, the impact caused by divers on benthic organisms may be contributing to the degradation of coral reefs. We analyzed the behavior of 142 scuba divers in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil. We tested the effect of diver profile, reef type, use of additional equipment, timing, and group size on diver behavior and their contacts with benthic organisms. Eighty-eight percent of divers contacted benthic organism at least once, with an average of eight touches and one damage per dive. No significant differences in contacts were verified among gender, group size, or experience level. Artificial reef received a higher rate of contact than pinnacle and fringe reefs. Specialist photographers and sidemount users had the highest rates, while non-users of additional equipment and mini camera users had the lowest contact rates. The majority of contacts were incidental and the highest rates occurred in the beginning of a dive. Our findings highlight the need of management actions, such as the provision of pre-dive briefing including ecological aspects of corals and beginning dives over sand bottoms or places with low coral abundance. Gathering data on diver behavior provides managers with information that can be used for tourism management.

  7. Recreational Diver Behavior and Contacts with Benthic Organisms in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Vinicius J; Luiz, Osmar J; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    In the last two decades, coral reefs have become popular among recreational divers, especially inside marine protected areas. However, the impact caused by divers on benthic organisms may be contributing to the degradation of coral reefs. We analyzed the behavior of 142 scuba divers in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil. We tested the effect of diver profile, reef type, use of additional equipment, timing, and group size on diver behavior and their contacts with benthic organisms. Eighty-eight percent of divers contacted benthic organism at least once, with an average of eight touches and one damage per dive. No significant differences in contacts were verified among gender, group size, or experience level. Artificial reef received a higher rate of contact than pinnacle and fringe reefs. Specialist photographers and sidemount users had the highest rates, while non-users of additional equipment and mini camera users had the lowest contact rates. The majority of contacts were incidental and the highest rates occurred in the beginning of a dive. Our findings highlight the need of management actions, such as the provision of pre-dive briefing including ecological aspects of corals and beginning dives over sand bottoms or places with low coral abundance. Gathering data on diver behavior provides managers with information that can be used for tourism management. PMID:26614350

  8. Fertility and pacification among the Mekranoti of Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Werner, D

    1983-06-01

    Demographic data from 3 different historical periods of the Mekranoti-Kayapo Indians of Central Brazil were used to examine various explanations for historical changes in fertility among this group. The possible effects of warfare on Mekranoti fertility were also examined since warfare has had an important role in many preindustrial societies. The Mekranoti are a group of 285 relatively unacculturated Indians living in a single village in southern Para, Brazil. As in precontact days, their economy is based on slash and burn agriculture, hunting, and fishing. To assess Mekranoti fertility, pregnancy histories collected from all women 15 years or older as of December 1976 were used. In precontact years a woman who survived to age 50 could expect to give birth 6.5 times. During the contact years this average dropped to 5.6 and in the postcontact period it soared to almost 8.5. The drop in Mekranoti fertility from precontact to contact years corresponds with an increase in mortality. The direction of these changes would support a "health" argument about fertility, but the degrees of change do not. Whereas mortality increased markedly after 1955, fertility fell only slightly. The data are not consistent with the view that changes in lactation periods are responsible for fertility changes. The number of uses of contraceptives per reproductive woman year did not not vary much in the different historical periods and certainly could not account for differences in Mekranoti fertility. The data suggest that fertility changes over Mekranoti history may be due in part to sexual abstinence resulting either from postpartum sexual taboos or, more importantly, from a lack of husbands. Sex imbalances resulting from high male mortality in warfare and subsequent disruption of marriages by disease and death left many women without spouses for long periods of time. The findings are consistent with other studies that found lower fertility associated with male absence. The Mekranoti are

  9. Nutritional status and growth of indigenous Xavante children, Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to characterize the nutritional status of Xavante Indian children less than 10 years of age in Central Brazil and to evaluate the hypothesis of an association between child nutrition and socioeconomic differentiation in this population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2006 that included all children under the age of 10 from the Xavante village Pimentel Barbosa in Mato Grosso, Brazil. The data collected included weight, height, and sociodemographic information. Sociodemographic data were used to generate two indices ("income" and "wealth") and to determine the proportion of adults in each household. Descriptive analyses were performed for weight-for-age (W/A), height-for-age (H/A), and weight-for-height (W/H) using the NCHS and the WHO growth references. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using H/A and W/A as a response variables. Results Of a total of 246 children under the age of ten residing in the village, 232 (94.3%) were evaluated. Following the NCHS reference, 5.6% of children under the age of ten presented low W/A and 14.7% presented low H/A. Among children under the age of five, deficit percentages for weight and height were 4.5% and 29.9%, respectively, following the WHO curves. Among children < 2 years of age, H/A index variability was found to be directly related to child's age and inversely related to the proportion of adults in the household. Maternal BMI was positively associated with growth for children from 2 to 4 years of age, explaining 11.5% of the z-score variability for the H/A index. For children 5 years of age and older, the wealth index and maternal height were positively associated with H/A. No significant associations were found using W/A as the dependent variable. Conclusion This study demonstrated that undernutrition, in particular linear growth deficit, is a notable health issue for Xavante children. These findings contrast with the nutritional profile observed

  10. Popowia bachmaensis (Annonaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park, Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ngoc, Nguyen Van; Tagane, Shuichiro; Binh, Hoang Thi; Toyama, Hironori; Okabe, Norikazu; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Popowia bachmaensis Ngoc, Tagane & Yahara, sp. nov. is described from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species is morphologically similar to Popowia pisocarpa (Blume) Endl. ex Walp., but can be readily distinguished from it by its lower stems, smaller leaves, shorter flowering pedicels, shorter carpels, longer sepals and inner petals. A detailed description, comprising illustrations, and supplemented with DNA barcodes of the two regions of rbcL and matK, are provided. PMID:27489493

  11. Deforestation trends of tropical dry forests in central Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bianchi, Carlos A.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical dry forests are the most threatened forest type in the world yet a paucity of research about them stymies development of appropriate conservation actions. The Paranã River Basin has the most significant dry forest formations in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil and is threatened by intense land conversion to pastures and agriculture. We examined changes in Paranã River Basin deforestation rates and fragmentation across three time intervals that covered 31 yr using Landsat imagery. Our results indicated a 66.3 percent decrease in forest extent between 1977 and 2008, with an annual rate of forest cover change of 3.5 percent. Landscape metrics further indicated severe forest loss and fragmentation, resulting in an increase in the number of fragments and reduction in patch sizes. Forest fragments in flatlands have virtually disappeared and the only significant forest remnants are mostly found over limestone outcrops in the eastern part of the basin. If current patterns persist, we project that these forests will likely disappear within 25 yr. These patterns may be reversed with creation of protected areas and involvement of local people to preserve small fragments that can be managed for restoration.

  12. Future drying of the southern Amazon and central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J.; Zeng, N.; Cook, B.

    2008-12-01

    Recent climate modeling suggests that the Amazon rainforest could exhibit considerable dieback under future climate change, a prediction that has raised considerable interest as well as controversy. To determine the likelihood and causes of such changes, we analyzed the output of 15 models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC/AR4) and a dynamic vegetation model VEGAS driven by these climate output. Our results suggest that the core of the Amazon rainforest should remain largely stable. However, the periphery, notably the southern edge, is in danger of drying out, driven by two main processes. First, a decline in precipitation of 24% in the southern Amazon lengthens the dry season and reduces soil moisture, despite of an increase in precipitation during the wet season, due to the nonlinear response in hydrology and ecosystem dynamics. Two dynamical mechanisms may explain the lower dry season precipitation: (1) a stronger north-south tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature gradient; (2) a general subtropical drying under global warming when the dry season southern Amazon is under the control of the subtropical high pressure. Secondly, evaporation will increase due to the general warming, thus also reducing soil moisture. As a consequence, the median of the models projects a reduction of vegetation by 20%, and enhanced fire carbon flux by 10-15% in the southern Amazon, central Brazil, and parts of the Andean Mountains. Because the southern Amazon is also under intense human influence, the double pressure of deforestation and climate change may subject the region to dramatic changes in the 21st century.

  13. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Andrade, Andrey José; Sciamarelli, Alan; Raizer, Josué; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida; Hermes, Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira; de Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies. PMID:26018450

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25 Section 319.56-25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America...

  15. Enterobacteriaceae in mouth and cloaca of podocnemis expansa and P. Unifilis (testudines: chelonia) populations of national park of araguaia plains, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Paula Benevides; de Souza, Denise Rodrigues; de Sousa, Francisca Maria Pinheiro; de Oliveira, Kleverson Wessel; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio

    2011-01-01

    Shigella flexnerii and Escherichia coli were the most frequent Gram-negative bacteria found in the mouth cavity and cloacae of the turtles Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis on beaches in the National Park of Araguaia, Brazil. Reptiles are known as Salmonella carriers, despite rarely isolated in these turtles. PMID:24031664

  16. Paleotectonic implications of arkose beds in Park Shale (Middle Cambrian), Bridger Range, south-central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Fryxell, J.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1983-08-01

    The Cambrian System in the Bridger Range of south-central Montana is part of a 450 to 500-m (1475 to 1640-ft) thick transgressive-regressive sequence of fine-grained clastic and carbonate rocks. In south-central Montana, the Park Shale is 50 m (165 ft) of green, micaceous shale with interbedded siltstone at the base and intercalated limestone at the top. However, in the northern Bridger Range, the lower 30 m (100 ft) is a prominent interval of interbedded arkosic sandstone and micaceous shale. These arkosic sandstone beds are localized in the northern Bridger Range and are unknown in the southern Bridgers and in Cambrian outcrops of surrounding areas. The occurrence of Park sandstone beds that contain orthoclase and plagioclase grains and pebbles of quartzofeldspathic gneiss requires 1) the presence of a localized island of Precambrian crystalline rock, an erosional remnant that must have risen at least 200 m (650 ft) above the surrounding Cambrian/Precambrian erosion surface and was exposed above the depositional interface through most of the Middle Cambrian, or 2) an island of Precambrian crystalline rock that was exposed by late Middle Cambrian reactivation of zones of Precambrian structural weakness. The most spatially and lithologically feasible tectonic feature along which late Middle Cambrian movement might have produced an island or series of islands is the Willow Creek-Jefferson Canyon fault zone, along which significant movement occurred during deposition of the LaHood Formation (Precambrian Y); the fault zone structurally divides the northern and southern parts of the Bridger Range, and later Paleozoic movement has been documented along this zone.

  17. Species convergence into life-forms in a hyperseasonal cerrado in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, I A; Batalha, M A

    2008-05-01

    Whether the functional structure of ecological communities is deterministic or historically contingent is still quite controversial. However, recent experimental tests did not find effects of species composition variation on trait convergence and therefore the environmental constraints should play the major role on community convergence into functional groups. Seasonal cerrados are characterized by a sharp seasonality, in which the water shortage defines the community functioning. Hyperseasonal cerrados experience additionally waterlogging in the rainy season. Here, we asked whether waterlogging modifies species convergences into life-forms in a hyperseasonal cerrado. We studied a hyperseasonal cerrado, comparing it with a nearby seasonal cerrado, never waterlogged, in Emas National Park, central Brazil. In each area, we sampled all vascular plants by placing 40 plots of 1 m(2) plots in four surveys. We analyzed the species convergences into life-forms in both cerrados using the Raunkiaer's life-form spectrum and the index of divergence from species to life-form diversity (IDD). The overall life-form spectra and IDDs were not different, indicating that waterlogging did not affect the composition of functional groups in the hyperseasonal cerrado. However, there was a seasonal variation in IDD values only in the hyperseasonal cerrado. As long as we did not find a seasonal variation in life-form diversity, the seasonal variation of convergence into life-forms in the hyperseasonal cerrado was a consequence of the seasonal variation of species diversity. Because of high functional redundancy of cerrado plants, waterlogging promoted a floristic replacement without major changes in functional groups. Thus, waterlogging in the hyperseasonal cerrado promoted seasonal changes in species convergence into life-forms by reducing species diversity. PMID:18660961

  18. Biogeographic patterns in below-ground diversity in New York City's Central Park are similar to those observed globally

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Kelly S.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Barberán, Albert; Bates, Scott Thomas; Betley, Jason; Crowther, Thomas W.; Kelly, Eugene F.; Oldfield, Emily E.; Shaw, E. Ashley; Steenbock, Christopher; Bradford, Mark A.; Wall, Diana H.; Fierer, Noah

    2014-01-01

    Soil biota play key roles in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, however, compared to our knowledge of above-ground plant and animal diversity, the biodiversity found in soils remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we present an assessment of soil biodiversity and biogeographic patterns across Central Park in New York City that spanned all three domains of life, demonstrating that even an urban, managed system harbours large amounts of undescribed soil biodiversity. Despite high variability across the Park, below-ground diversity patterns were predictable based on soil characteristics, with prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities exhibiting overlapping biogeographic patterns. Further, Central Park soils harboured nearly as many distinct soil microbial phylotypes and types of soil communities as we found in biomes across the globe (including arctic, tropical and desert soils). This integrated cross-domain investigation highlights that the amount and patterning of novel and uncharacterized diversity at a single urban location matches that observed across natural ecosystems spanning multiple biomes and continents. PMID:25274366

  19. Floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park, Roraima, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Suzana Maria; Barbosa, Tiago Domingos Mouzinho; Bittrich, Volker; do Amaral, Maria do Carmo Estanislau

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We provide and discuss a floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park (VNP). The VNP is located in the northern Amazon basin and displays phytophysiognomies distributed in a mosaic where these plants occur, as flooded forests, hydromorphic white-sand savannas, “buritizais” and waterbodies. After expeditions between February/2010 and January/2015 and the analysis of specimens from regional herbaria, we list 207 species of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms for the VNP, distributed in 85 genera in 37 families. We recorded six new occurrences for Brazil, two for the northern Brazilian region and 21 for Roraima state. These new occurrences, added to the other species listed here, highlight the floristic similarity between the study site and the Guiana Shield, an adjacent phytogeographical unit and geologically related to the origin of white-sand savannas. PMID:26884704

  20. Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane (Lamiaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Soejima, Akiko; Tagane, Shuichiro; Van, Ngoc Nguyen; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane, sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species has a characteristic liana habit, white corolla, and narrowly elliptic to narrowly lanceolate, entire, occasionally subequal leaves, by which it is clearly distinguished from the other previously known species of this genus. PMID:27212880

  1. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Post-Top Lighting at Central Park in New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, Michael; Goettel, Russell T.; Kinzey, Bruce R.

    2012-09-30

    A review of five post-top light-emitting diode (LED) pedestrian luminaires installed in New York City's Central Park for possible replacement to the existing metal halide post-top luminaire. This report reviews the energy savings potential and lighting delivered by the LED post-top luminaires.

  2. Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane (Lamiaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Akiko; Tagane, Shuichiro; Van, Ngoc Nguyen; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane, sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species has a characteristic liana habit, white corolla, and narrowly elliptic to narrowly lanceolate, entire, occasionally subequal leaves, by which it is clearly distinguished from the other previously known species of this genus. PMID:27212880

  3. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Central Plateau, Southeastern, and Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreli, Marcos L.; de Sousa, Ricardo L.M.; Borges, Alessandra A.; de Figueiredo, Glauciane G.; Machado, Alex M.; Bisordi, Ivani; Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa K.; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Luiz E.; de Souza, Renato P.; de Souza, Luiza T.M.; Braconi, Carla T.; Harsi, Charlotte M.; de Andrade Zanotto, Paolo M.

    2009-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an increasing health problem in Brazil because of encroachment of sprawling urban, agricultural, and cattle-raising areas into habitats of subfamily Sigmodontinae rodents, which serve as hantavirus reservoirs. From 1993 through June 2007, a total of 884 cases of HPS were reported in Brazil (case-fatality rate 39%). To better understand this emerging disease, we collected 89 human serum samples and 68 rodent lung samples containing antibodies to hantavirus from a 2,500-km-wide area in Brazil. RNA was isolated from human samples and rodent tissues and subjected to reverse transcription–PCR. Partial sequences of nucleocapsid protein and glycoprotein genes from 22 human and 16 rodent sources indicated only Araraquara virus and Juquitiba virus lineages. The case-fatality rate of HPS was higher in the area with Araraquara virus. This virus, which may be the most virulent hantavirus in Brazil, was associated with areas that have had greater anthropogenic changes. PMID:19331732

  4. Conidiobolus macrosporus (Entomophthorales), a mosquito pathogen in Central Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new fungal pathogen of Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) adults, Conidiobolus macrosporus (Ancylistaceae), was detected and isolated during a survey of mosquito pathogens close to the city of Aruanã, Goiás State of Brazil, in December 2014. The morphological characteristics of C. macrosporus are pres...

  5. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, central plateau, southeastern, and southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Luiz T M; Moreli, Marcos L; de-Sousa, Ricardo L M; Borges, Alessandra A; de-Figueiredo, Glauciane G; Machado, Alex M; Bisordi, Ivani; Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa K; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Luiz E; de-Souza, Renato P; de-Souza, Luiza T M; Braconi, Carla T; Harsi, Charlotte M; de-Andrade-Zanotto, Paolo M

    2009-04-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an increasing health problem in Brazil because of encroachment of sprawling urban, agricultural, and cattle-raising areas into habitats of subfamily Sigmodontinae rodents, which serve as hantavirus reservoirs. From 1993 through June 2007, a total of 884 cases of HPS were reported in Brazil (case-fatality rate 39%). To better understand this emerging disease, we collected 89 human serum samples and 68 rodent lung samples containing antibodies to hantavirus from a 2,500-km-wide area in Brazil. RNA was isolated from human samples and rodent tissues and subjected to reverse transcription-PCR. Partial sequences of nucleocapsid protein and glycoprotein genes from 22 human and 16 rodent sources indicated only Araraquara virus and Juquitiba virus lineages. The case-fatality rate of HPS was higher in the area with Araraquara virus. This virus, which may be the most virulent hantavirus in Brazil, was associated with areas that have had greater anthropogenic changes. PMID:19331732

  6. Checklist of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera) from Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Izabella; Carvalho, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In order to contribute to the butterflies’ biodiversity knowledge at Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, a study based on collections using Van Someren-Rydon traps and active search was performed. In this study, a total of 395 butterflies were collected, of which 327 were identified to species or morphospecies. 263 specimens were collected by the traps and 64 were collected using entomological hand-nets; 43 genera and 60 species were collected and identified. PMID:25535482

  7. Epidemiology of HIV infection in central Brazil: data from voluntary counseling and testing centers.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Sandra Maria Brunini; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Rezza, Giovanni; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Gir, Elucir

    2013-01-01

    Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is recommended to facilitate early identification of HIV infection. Data from VCT centers in Goiás and Federal District, Central Brazil, evaluated HIV prevalence and identified risk factors for HIV among individuals ages 13 years and older. Results indicated a 1.5% overall prevalence of HIV. Factors independently associated with HIV infection were: getting tested in a large city, being illiterate, having had a previous HIV test, living with an HIV-infected sexual partner, and being a noninjection illicit drug user. Being referred by friends was strongly associated with HIV infection. For men, being a health care worker, sex worker, man who has sex with men, or injection drug user were significant. In Central Brazil, HIV remains concentrated in males and subpopulations with known risk behaviors. Higher prevalence among individuals referred to VCT by friends highlights the importance of social network-based HIV prevention interventions in Brazil. PMID:23465400

  8. Twentieth century atmospheric metal fluxes into Central Park Lake, New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Chillrud, S.N.; Simpson, H.J.; Bopp, R.F.

    1999-03-01

    It is generally assumed that declining atmospheric lead concentrations in urban centers during the 1970s and 1980s were due almost entirely to the progressive introduction of unleaded gasoline. However, most environmental data are from monitoring programs that began only two to three decades ago, which limits their usefulness. Here, trace metal and radionuclide data from sediment cores in Central Park Lake provide a record of atmospheric pollutant deposition in New York City through the 20th century, which suggests that leaded gasoline combustion was not the dominant source of atmospheric lead for NYC. Lead deposition rates, normalized to known Pb-210 atmospheric influxes, were extremely high, reaching maximum values from the late 1930s to early 1960s, decades before maximum emissions from combustion of leaded gasoline. Temporal trends of lead, zinc, and tin deposition derived from the lake sediments closely resemble the history of solid waste incineration in New York City. Furthermore, widespread use of solid waste incinerators in the United States and Europe over the last century suggests that solid waste incineration may have provided the dominant source of atmospheric lead and several other metals to many urban centers.

  9. Twentieth Century Atmospheric Metal Fluxes into Central Park Lake, New York City

    PubMed Central

    CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.; BOPP, RICHARD F.; SIMPSON, H. JAMES; ROSS, JAMES M.; SHUSTER, EDWARD L.; CHAKY, DAMON A.; WALSH, DAN C.; CHOY, CRISTINE CHIN; TOLLEY, LAEL-RUTH; YARME, ALLISON

    2011-01-01

    It is generally assumed that declining atmospheric lead concentrations in urban centers during the 1970s and 1980s were due almost entirely to the progressive introduction of unleaded gasoline. However, most environmental data are from monitoring programs that began only two to three decades ago, which limits their usefulness. Here, trace metal and radionuclide data from sediment cores in Central Park Lake provide a record of atmospheric pollutant deposition in New York City through the 20th century, which suggests that leaded gasoline combustion was not the dominant source of atmospheric lead for NYC. Lead deposition rates, normalized to known Pb-210 atmospheric influxes, were extremely high, reaching maximum values (>70 μg cm−2 yr−1) from the late 1930s to early 1960s, decades before maximum emissions from combustion of leaded gasoline. Temporal trends of lead, zinc, and tin deposition derived from the lake sediments closely resemble the history of solid waste incineration in New York City. Furthermore, widespread use of solid waste incinerators in the United States and Europe over the last century suggests that solid waste incineration may have provided the dominant source of atmospheric lead and several other metals to many urban centers. PMID:21850150

  10. Molecular Tracers of Saturated and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Inputs into Central Park Lake, New York City

    PubMed Central

    YAN, BEIZHAN; ABRAJANO, TEOFILO A.; BOPP, RICHARD F.; CHAKY, DAMON A.; BENEDICT, LUCILLE A.; CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.

    2011-01-01

    Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides 210Pb and 137Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on 210Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by 137Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R [the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction] and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP [1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP], retene to retene plus chrysene [Ret/(Ret + Chy)], and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene [Fl/(Fl + Py)] provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s. PMID:16201624

  11. 3D Mapping of Glacially-Sculpted Bedrock in Central Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laderman, L.; Stark, C. P.; Creyts, T. T.

    2014-12-01

    The movement of glaciers and ice sheets through sliding over bedrock depends on the configuration of the subglacial hydrological system. Over time, the glacier erodes the bedrock, which in turn changes water drainage pathways, the overall interaction with the ice, and potentially sliding rates. Drainage can take many forms. At the largest scale, subglacial lakes tens of kilometers in length store water, but the individual pathways are often on the order of meters or smaller. Studies at such a fine scale are only possible by looking at deglaciated beds to infer water drainage. 3D mapping can resolve centimeter scale features and inform studies of the processes that created them. In this survey, Agisoft Photoscan's structure from motion algorithm is used to create a map of Umpire Rock in New York's Central Park from digital photographs. Over 3300 photographs are taken at a separation of roughly half a meter to cover the 1000 square meter survey area. The surface is imaged in separate sections and the resulting point clouds are each aligned with a central section using Photoscan's Align Chunks tool. This process allows additional areas to easily be added to the 3D map. The scale of the final model is accurate to 1mm across the survey area and 3D meshes with a surface resolution of up to 5mm can be created. The distribution of striation directions and sizes on surfaces across the outcrop gives the overall flow direction of the ice and, more locally, illustrates how ice deforms around bedrock features. In addition to striations, we identify cavities and subtle drainage features that are oblique to ice flow. This study demonstrates the relative ease of 3D mapping bedrock outcrops from digital photographs, and indicates the utility of applying this process to more recently deglaciated areas.

  12. THE LBA PROJECT: NUTRIENT CYCLES AND TRACE GAS EXCHANGE IN SAVANNAS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cerrado of central Brazil is one of the largest savannah regions on Earth. The stressors affecting ecosystems in this region, including deforestation, fire, soil degradation, unwise agricultural practices, climate change, and urbanization, are all experienced in many U. S. ec...

  13. EFFECTS OF PRESCRIBED FIRES ON NITROGEN FLUXES IN SAVANNA FORMATIONS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Savanna ecosystems are controlled by the interactions between water and nutrient availability. The savannas of Central Brazil (Cerrado) are the second most extensive plant formation in tropical South America with two million km2 of area. The Cerrado landscape contains different ...

  14. First report of Leptolegnia chapmanii (Peronosporomycetes: Saprolegniales) affecting mosquitoes in Central Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous isolates of an oomycete ‘fungus’, Leptolegnia chapmanii, are reported from Brazil for the first time. This aquatic pathogen was baited with Aedes aegypti sentinel larvae from stagnant, temporary bodies of water in selected locations under secondary tropical forests in and near the central B...

  15. Zoo theater's influence on affect and cognition: a case study from the Central Park Zoo in New York.

    PubMed

    Penn, Laura

    2009-09-01

    Zoo theater is used by zoos as a means to influence visitor feelings and knowledge gain about wildlife and environmental themes. This study examined whether and to what extent zoo theater fulfilled these aims by investigating its impact on affect and cognition. The study consisted of an in-depth case study at the Central Park Zoo in New York, a location that has one of the most diverse zoo theater programs in the United States. Using a multimethod approach the study explored many facets of the Central Park Zoo's extensive zoo theater program. These included performances at a main stage, at exhibits, and in the children's zoo. The study found that the extent of zoo theater's influence on affect and cognition is dependent on a combination of a variety of characteristics that include the length of a performance, audience participation, the level of structure of a performance, the presence of song and dance elements, and the scale of the productions. PMID:19821505

  16. Molecular tracers of saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon inputs into Central Park Lake, New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Beizhan Yan; Teofilo A. Abrajano; Richard F. Bopp; Damon A. Chaky; Lucille A. Benedict; Steven N. Chillrud

    2005-09-15

    Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on {sup 210}Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by {sup 137}Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R (the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction) and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP (1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP), retene to retene plus chrysene (Ret/(Ret + Chy)), and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene (Fl/(Fl + Py))) provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s. 33 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Pandora bullata (Entomophthoromycota: Entomophthorales) affecting calliphorid flies in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Montalva, Cristian; Collier, Karin; Luz, Christian; Humber, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Fungi are where one finds them, and if one seeks fungal pathogens affecting flies, then a garbage dump may be an ideal place to find both persistent, abundant fly populations and their fungal pathogens. An obvious fungal epizootic affecting the oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was observed over several days in mid-February 2015 at the local garbage dump adjacent to the city of Cavalcante, northern Goiás. This site harbored large populations of both C. megacephala and a Musca sp. (Diptera: Muscidae) but only the population of oriental latrine fly was affected by any fungal pathogen and presented unusually dense populations of fresh cadavers. The fungus was identifiable as Pandora bullata (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) only after a very small number of characteristically decorated resting spores were found in these flies two months later; this represents the first Brazilian (and South American) record of this species. P. bullata is known previously from a small number of North American, European and Australian collections, all of which have included relatively abundant production of resting spores. We cannot dismiss the possibility that the extremely sparse formation of resting spores at this Brazilian site may be due to abiotic factors such as latitude (13°46'40.53″S), day length, ambient temperatures, or even the precipitation patterns in this mid-tropical montaine site. Epizootic events affecting calliphorids in Brazil strengthen the interest in entomophthoran pathogens for biological control of flies. PMID:26968351

  18. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, D C; Ferreira, J D; Bueno, P A A; Iwakura, L; Bueno, R O; Campiolo, J B

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period) and April (rainy period), 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m(2) for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April), but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir.) Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb.) Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth.) had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir. PMID:26628226

  19. Changes in Determinants of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Popa Mountain Park, Central Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Htun, Naing Zaw; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yoshida, Shigejiro

    2013-02-01

    Implementing effective conservation requires an understanding of factors affecting deforestation and forest degradation. Previous studies have investigated factors affecting deforestation, while few studies have examined the determinants of both of deforestation and forest degradation for more than one period. To address this gap, this study examined factors influencing deforestation and forest degradation during 1989-2000 and 2000-2005 in the Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar. We applied multinomial logistic regression (MNL) using land cover maps derived from Landsat images as the dependent variables as well as spatial and biophysical factors as the independent variables. The MNL models revealed influences of the determinants on deforestation and forest degradation changes over time. For example, during 1989-2000, deforestation from closed forest was positively correlated to the distance from the park boundary and was negatively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope, western aspect and elevation. On the other hand, during 2000-2005, deforestation of closed forest was positively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope and western aspect, and negatively correlated with distance from the park boundary and elevation. Similar scenarios were observed for the deforestation of open forest and forest degradation of closed forest. The study also found most of the determinants influenced deforestation and forest degradation differently. The changes in determinants of deforestation and forest degradation over time might be attributable to the general decrease in resource availability and to the effect of conservation measures conducted by the park.

  20. Photogeologic mapping in central southwest Bahia, using LANDSAT-1 multispectral images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Ohara, T.

    1981-01-01

    The interpretation of LANDSAT multispectral imagery for geologic mapping of central southwest Bahia, Brazil is described. Surface features such as drainage, topography, vegetation and land use are identified. The area is composed of low grade Precambrian rocks covered by Mezozoic and Cenozoic sediments. The principal mineral prospects of economic value are fluorite and calcareous rocks. Gold, calcite, rock crystal, copper, potassium nitrate and alumina were also identified.

  1. Molluscan fauna from core 25B, Whipray Basin, central Florida Bay, Everglades National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trappe, Carleigh A.; Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Molluscan assemblages preserved in an 80-cm core from Whipray Basin in central Florida Bay, Everglades National Park, illustrate changes in the environmental conditions within the basin over the last two centuries. Salinity remained polyhaline to euhaline throughout the time of deposition (1800-1997), with alternating periods of stability and increased fluctuations. Since 1800, a Brachidontes assemblage has characterized Whipray Basin and the dominant faunal components have remained the same in terms of presence and absence of species. However, patterns of dominance and diversity within the Brachidontes assemblage have changed and these changes indicate fluctuations in the environment. The period from 1815 to 1857 was distinguished by an abundance of molluscs dwelling on seagrass and sub-aquatic vegetation. Faunal richness and abundance were high and stable, and epiphytic molluscs flourished. Polyhaline conditions existed, although periods of slightly lower salinities occurred. The period from 1862 to 1894 appears unstable based on fluctuations in molluscan faunal richness, abundance, and dominant species. The epiphytic molluscs experienced significant shifts (? >30%) associated with changes in sub-aquatic vegetation. The changes in epiphytic molluscs from 1871 to 1913 may be indicative of a seagrass die-off. The period from 1899 to 1950 was the most stable section of the core in terms of changes in the molluscan fauna. Faunal richness and abundance reached highs of 31 groups and 726 individuals per sample during this period and epiphytic molluscs were prevalent. Beginning in 1955, faunal groups experienced high amplitude fluctuations in abundance; this pattern continued through the second half of the 20th century. Fluctuating salinity, changes in vegetation, and reduced water quality (low O2, increased nutrients and/or reduced clarity) oxygen supply) have characterized the past 50 years. These changes preceded a seagrass die-off in 1987-88 and may be related to

  2. Land and Water Conservation; Hawaii Volcanoes National Park; Little Rock Central High School; and Arches National Park. Hearing on S. 1333, S. 2106, S. 2129, S. 2232, H.R. 2283 before the Subcommittee on National Parks, Historic Preservation, and Recreation of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.

    A Senate hearing considered five bills related to the national parks. Of interest to the education community is S. 2232, which would establish Little Rock Central High School National Historic Site in Arkansas as a unit of the National Park Service. In 1957 the school became a center of controversy over school desegregation when nine African…

  3. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ceretti-Junior, Walter; de Oliveira Christe, Rafael; Rizzo, Marco; Strobel, Regina Claudia; de Matos Junior, Marco Otavio; de Mello, Maria Helena Silva Homem; Fernandes, Aristides; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be retained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for immature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages) in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects. Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 municipal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically. Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected), followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens) and Cx. (Microculex) imitator (444). The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. PMID:27047978

  4. Numerical assessments of geological CO2 sequestration in the Changhua Coastal Industrial Park, Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, R.; Li, M.

    2012-12-01

    Coal-fired power plants of the Taiwan Power Company are the main sources of CO2 emission in Taiwan. Due to the importation of coal mine and the need of cooling water circulation, power plants were built on the coast. Geological CO2 sequestration has been recognized as one of solutions for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emission by injecting CO2 captured from fossil fuel power plants into deep saline geologic formations. The Changhua Coastal Industrial Park (CCIP; 120.38° E, 24.11° N) in central Taiwan has been preliminary evaluated as one of potential sites for geological CO2 sequestration. The CCIP site has a sloping, layered heterogeneity formation with stagnant groundwater flow. Layers of sandstone and shale sequentially appeared to be the major components of geological formations with seaward transgression. Thickness of sedimentary formations gradually becomes thinner from east to west. Previous investigations [Chiao et al., 2010; Yu et al, 2011] did not find significant faults around this site. The TOUGHREACT/ECO2N model was employed with external mesh generator developed in this study to proceed to comprehensive assessments for CO2 injection into deep saline aquifers (salinity of 3%, pH of 7.2) at the CCIP site. A series of numerical experiments for investigating the physical, geochemical and its interactions included the deep saline-aquifer responses, CO2 plume migration, leakage risks, hydrogeochemistry processes, reservoir capacity and trapping mechanisms (i.e. hydrodynamics, capillarity, solubility, and mineral trapping) during and post CO2 injection were assessed. A 3-D lithological model applied in this study was conceptualized with two seismic profiles (along shore and cross shore) and one geological well nearby the study area. A total of 32 vertical layers was built with different porosities and permeabilities estimated from the TCDP-A borehole log samples adjusted with effects in geopressure differences. Cross-platform open source libraries of the CGAL

  5. First report of Leptolegnia chapmanii (Peronosporomycetes: Saprolegniales) affecting mosquitoes in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Montalva, Cristian; Dos Santos, Karine; Collier, Karin; Rocha, Luiz F N; Fernandes, Éverton K K; Castrillo, Louela A; Luz, Christian; Humber, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    Numerous isolates of an oomycete 'fungus', Leptolegnia chapmanii, are reported from Brazil for the first time. This aquatic pathogen was baited with Aedes aegypti sentinel larvae from stagnant, temporary bodies of water in selected locations under secondary tropical forest in and near the central Brazilian city of Goiânia and from more distant sites in the western and northern regions of the state of Goiás. Isolates were identified based on their morphological and developmental characters, comparative sequence data for the ITS and TEF loci, as well as their rapid activity against A. aegypti larvae. Taxonomic issues affecting the application of the name L. chapmanii and its typification are rectified. This study contributes to a better understanding of the presence and distribution of this oomycete in Brazil, its sequence-based identification, and of its potential as a biological agent against mosquito vectors. PMID:27018147

  6. Homalium glandulosum (Salicaceae), a new species from Vu Quang National Park, North Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Tagane, Shuichiro; Nguyen, Viet Hung; Ngoc, Nguyen Van; Son, Hoang Thanh; Toyama, Hironori; Yang, Chen-Jui; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Homalium glandulosum Tagane & V. H. Nguyen, from Vu Quang National Park in northern Vietnam, is newly described. This species is characterized by distinct glands, often stalked, at the base of the lamina and along the margin of the stipules and bracteoles. Illustrations, DNA barcodes of the two regions of rbcL and matK, and a key to the species of Homalium in Vietnam are also provided. PMID:26884709

  7. Exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi and other tick-borne pathogens in Gettysburg National Military Park, South-Central Pennsylvania, 2009.

    PubMed

    Han, George S; Stromdahl, Ellen Y; Wong, David; Weltman, Andre C

    2014-04-01

    Since 1998, Lyme disease cases have increased in south-central Pennsylvania, which includes Gettysburg National Military Park (NMP). Limited information is available about tick populations or pathogens in this area, and no data regarding frequency of tick bites or prevention measures among Gettysburg NMP employees are available. To address these gaps, ticks were collected, classified, and replaced (to minimize disruptions to tick populations) at two sites within Gettysburg NMP during April-September, 2009, among eight nonremoval samplings. On two additional occasions during May and June, 2009, ticks were collected and removed from the two original sites plus 10 additional sites and tested for tick-borne pathogens by using PCR. A self-administered anonymous survey of Gettysburg NMP employees was conducted to determine knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding tick-borne diseases. Peak Ixodes scapularis nymph populations were observed during May-July. Of 115 I. scapularis ticks tested, 21% were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, including 18% of 74 nymphs and 27% of 41 adults; no other pathogen was identified. The entomologic risk index was calculated at 1.3 infected nymphs/hour. An adult and nymph Amblyomma americanum were also found, representing the first confirmed field collection of this tick in Pennsylvania, but no pathogens were detected. The survey revealed that most park employees believed Lyme disease was a problem at Gettysburg NMP and that they frequently found ticks on their skin and clothing. However, use of personal preventive measures was inconsistent, and 6% of respondents reported contracting Lyme disease while employed at Gettysburg NMP. These findings indicate a need to improve surveillance for tick bites among employees and enhance prevention programs for park staff and visitors. PMID:24689815

  8. Summer/winter stratification variability in the central part of the South Brazil Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Belmiro M.

    2014-10-01

    Analysis of the hydrographic data collected during seven consecutive high resolution summer/winter cruises in the central part of the South Brazil Bight off the coastal city of Ubatuba confirmed an observable summer/winter stratification variability of the shelf waters. The maximum bulk stratification occurred at mean distances of 85.6 km and 39.1 km from the coast in the austral winter and summer cruises, respectively. Estimates of the equivalent mixing power of the physical processes that increase or decrease the stratification in the inner and middle shelves showed that both shelf regions would be vertically well mixed were it not for buoyancy advection. In the inner shelf, buoyancy advection was associated with the along-shelf transport of low salinity waters originating from river runoff. In the middle shelf, buoyancy advection was due to the oceanic South Atlantic Central Water intrusions toward the coast.

  9. Uvá complex, the oldest orthogneisses of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic terrane of central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jost, Hardy; Junior, Farid Chemale; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Dussin, Ivo Antônio

    2013-11-01

    The Archean-Paleoproterozoic terrane of central Brazil is an exotic and allochthonous part of the Tocantins Province, a large Brasiliano/Pan-African orogen of the South American Platform formed during the Brasiliano orogeny. The terrane amalgamated to the province during the late stages of the orogeny as a crustal segment consisting of six Archean orthogneiss complexes and five low-grade metamorphic, in part Paleoproterozoic (Rhyacian) greenstone belts. The Uvá complex is the southernmost orthogneiss association of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic terrane of central Brazil. New U-Pb LA-ICP-MS data from zircon crystals show that the complex formed at least during two magmatic stages. The older consists of polydeformed tonalite and granodiorite batholitic and diorite stock protoliths with igneous age of 3040 Ma to 2930 Ma. The youngest comprises tonalite, monzogranite and granodiorite tabular bodies formed between 2876 and 2846 Ma. As compared to the orthogneisses of the northern portion of the terrane, both the oldest and youngest granitogenesis stages of the Uvá complex are, in average, about 150 Ma older. This suggests that the northern and southern orthogneisses formed during different times as independent crustal segments, but when and why they amalgamated is still under investigation.

  10. Causes of intraplate seismicity in central Brazil from travel time seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Marcelo Peres; Azevedo, Paulo Araújo de; Marotta, Giuliano Sant'Anna; Schimmel, Martin; Fuck, Reinhardt

    2016-06-01

    New results of travel time seismic tomography in central Brazil provide evidence that the relatively high seismicity in this region is related to the thinner lithosphere at the limit between the Amazonian and São Francisco paleocontinents. The transition between these paleocontinents is marked by low velocity anomalies, spatially well correlated with the high seismicity region, which are interpreted as related to the lithospheric thinning and consequent rise of the asthenosphere, which have increased the temperature in this region. The low-velocity anomalies suggest a weakness region, favorable to the build-up of stress. The effective elastic thickness and the strain/stress regime for the study area are in agreement with tomographic results. A high-velocity trend is observed beneath the Parnaíba Basin, where low seismicity is observed, indicating the presence of a cratonic core. Our results support the idea that the intraplate seismicity in central Brazil is related to the thin lithosphere underlying parts of the Tocantins Province between the neighboring large cratonic blocks.

  11. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) INTO CENTRAL PARK LAKE, NEW YORK CITY, OVER A CENTURY OF DEPOSITION

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Beizhan; Bopp, Richard F.; Abrajano, Teofilo A.; Chaky, Damon; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Relative contributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion sources of wood, petroleum, and coal were computed in sediments from Central Park Lake in New York City (NY, USA) by chemical mass balance based on several reliable source indicators. These indicators are the ratio of retene to the sum of retene and chrysene, the ratio of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene (DMP) to 1,7-DMP and 2,6-DMP, and the ratio of fluroanthene to fluroanthene and pyrene. The authors found that petroleum combustion–derived PAH fluxes generally followed the historical consumption data of New York State. Coal combustion-derived PAH flux peaked approximately in the late 1910s, remained at a relatively high level over the next 3 decades, then rapidly declined from the 1950s to the 1960s; according to historical New York State coal consumption data, however, there was a 2-peak trend, with peaks around the early 1920s and the mid-1940s. The 1940s peak was not observed in Central Park Lake, most likely because of the well-documented shift from coal to oil as the major residential heating fuel in New York City during the late 1930s. It was widely believed that the decreased PAH concentrations and fluxes in global sediments during the last century resulted from a major energy shift from coal to petroleum. The data, however, show that this shift occurred from 1945 through the 1960s and did not result in an obvious decline. The sharpest decrease, which occurred in the 1970s was not predominantly related to coal usage but rather was the result of multiple factors, including a decline in petroleum usage largely, the introduction of low sulfur–content fuel in New York City, and the introduction of emission-control technologies. PMID:24375577

  12. Geologic Map of the Estes Park 30' x 60' Quadrangle, North-Central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, James C.; Braddock, William A.

    2009-01-01

    The rocks and landforms of the Estes Park 30 x 60 minute quadrangle display an exceptionally complete record of geologic history in the northern Front Range of Colorado. The Proterozoic basement rocks exposed in the core of the range preserve evidence of Paleoproterozoic marine sedimentation, volcanism, and regional soft-sediment deformation, followed by regional folding and gradational metamorphism. The metasedimentary rocks of the Estes Park quadrangle are distinct within northern Colorado for preserving the complete metamorphic zonation from low-grade chlorite-muscovite phyllites, through middle greenschist-grade rocks with sequential aluminous porphyroblasts, to partially melted gneisses that contain high-grade cordierite and garnet in the non-melted residues. Regional and textural evidence shows that the widespread metamorphism was essentially concurrent with intrusion of the Boulder Creek Granodiorite and related magmas and with the peak of deformation in the partially melted high-grade rocks. The metamorphic thermal pulse arrived later following the peak of deformation in the physically higher, cooler, low-grade terrane. Mesoproterozoic time was marked by intrusion of biotite granite in the Longs Peak-St Vrain batholith, a complex, irregular body that occupies nearly half of the core of the Front Range in this quadrangle. The magma was dry and viscous as it invaded the metamorphic rocks and caused wholesale plastic folding of the wall rock structure. Steep metamorphic foliation that resulted from the Paleoproterozoic deformations was bowed upward and re-oriented into flat-lying attitudes as the crystal-rich magma rose buoyantly and spread out in the middle crust. Magma invaded the schists and gneisses along weak foliation planes and produced a characteristic sill-upon-sill intrusive fabric, particularly in the higher parts of the batholith. Broad, open arches and swales that are defined by the flow-aligned feldspar foliation of the granite, as well as by

  13. CENTRALIZED TREATMENT OF METAL FINISHING WASTES AT A CLEVELAND RESOURCE RECOVERY PARK: PART 1. DESIGN AND COSTS. PART 2. FINANCING. PART 3. SITE INVESTIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, in three parts, describes the characteristics of the Cleveland (OH) area electroplating industry and an approach and design for a centralized facility to treat cyanide and heavy metal wastes generated by this industry. The facility is termed the Resource Recovery Park...

  14. Calibration of speleothem δ18O records against hydroclimate instrumental records in Central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moquet, J. S.; Cruz, F. W.; Novello, V. F.; Stríkis, N. M.; Deininger, M.; Karmann, I.; Santos, R. Ventura; Millo, C.; Apaestegui, J.; Guyot, J.-L.; Siffedine, A.; Vuille, M.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Santini, W.

    2016-04-01

    δ18O in speleothems is a powerful proxy for reconstruction of precipitation patterns in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The aim of this study is to calibrate the δ18O record of speleothems against historical precipitation and river discharge data in central Brazil, a region directly influenced by the Southern Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), a major feature of the South American Monsoon System (SAMS). The present work is based on a sub-annual resolution speleothem record covering the last 141 years (the period between the years 1870 and 2011) from a cave in central Brazil. The comparison of this record with instrumental hydroclimate records since 1921 allows defining a strong relationship between precipitation variability and stable oxygen isotope ratios from speleothems. The results from a monitoring program of climatic parameters and isotopic composition of rainfall and cave seepage waters performed in the same cave, show that the rain δ18O variability is dominated by the amount effect in this region, while δ18O drip water remains almost constant over the monitored period (1.5 years). The δ18O of modern calcite, on the other hand, shows clear seasonal variations, with more negative values observed during the rainy season, which implies that other factors also influence the isotopic composition of carbonate. However, the relationship between δ18O of carbonate deposits and rainwater is supported by the results from the comparison between speleothem δ18O records and historical hydroclimate records. A significant correlation between speleothem δ18O and monsoon rainfall variability is observed on sub-decadal time scales, especially for the monsoon period (DJFM and NDJFM), once the rainfall record have been smoothed with a 7-9 years running mean. This study confirms that speleothem δ18O is directly associated with monsoon rainfall variability in central Brazil. The relationship between speleothem δ18O records and hydroclimatic historical records allows

  15. Genetic analysis reveals candidate species in the Scinax catharinae clade (Amphibia: Anura) from Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lídia; Solé, Mirco; Siqueira, Sérgio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Strüssmann, Christine; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Scinax (Anura: Hylidae) is a species-rich genus of amphibians (113 spp.), divided into five species groups by morphological features. Cladistic analyses however revealed only two monophyletic clades in these groups: Scinax catharinae and Scinax ruber. Most species from the S. catharinae clade are found in Atlantic rainforest, except for Scinax canastrensis,S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi,S. pombali and S. skaios. In the present work, specimens of Scinax collected in Chapada dos Guimarães, central Brazil, were morphologically compatible with species from theS. catharinae group. On the other hand, genetic analysis based on mitochondrial (16S and 12S) and nuclear (rhodopsin) sequences revealed a nucleotide divergence of 6 to 20% between Scinax sp. and other congeners from the Brazilian savannah (Cerrado). Accordingly, Bayesian inference placed Scinax sp. in the S. catharinae clade with high support values. Hence, these findings strongly indicate the presence of a new species in the S. catharinae clade from the southwestern portion of the Brazilian savannah. To be properly validated as a novel species, detailed comparative morphological and bioacustic studies with other taxa from Brazil such asS. canastrensis, S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi, S. pombali and S. skaios are required. PMID:27007898

  16. Genetic analysis reveals candidate species in the Scinax catharinae clade (Amphibia: Anura) from Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Lídia; Solé, Mirco; Siqueira, Sérgio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Strüssmann, Christine; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2016-03-01

    Scinax (Anura: Hylidae) is a species-rich genus of amphibians (113 spp.), divided into five species groups by morphological features. Cladistic analyses however revealed only two monophyletic clades in these groups: Scinax catharinae and Scinax ruber. Most species from the S. catharinae clade are found in Atlantic rainforest, except for Scinax canastrensis,S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi,S. pombali and S. skaios. In the present work, specimens of Scinax collected in Chapada dos Guimarães, central Brazil, were morphologically compatible with species from theS. catharinae group. On the other hand, genetic analysis based on mitochondrial (16S and 12S) and nuclear (rhodopsin) sequences revealed a nucleotide divergence of 6 to 20% between Scinax sp. and other congeners from the Brazilian savannah (Cerrado). Accordingly, Bayesian inference placed Scinax sp. in the S. catharinae clade with high support values. Hence, these findings strongly indicate the presence of a new species in the S. catharinae clade from the southwestern portion of the Brazilian savannah. To be properly validated as a novel species, detailed comparative morphological and bioacustic studies with other taxa from Brazil such asS. canastrensis, S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi, S. pombali and S. skaios are required. PMID:27007898

  17. Larval trematode infections in Galba truncatula (Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae) from the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France.

    PubMed

    Rondelaud, D; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

    2016-05-01

    Adult Galba truncatula ( ≥ 4 mm in shell height) were collected from 135 habitats for 3 years (2012-2014) to identify parasite species via the study of cercariae, and to determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the type of snail habitat (six types). A total of 323 infected snails and ten digenean species were noted in the bodies of 11,025 G. truncatula after their dissection. Snails with Calicophoron daubneyi and/or Fasciola hepatica were found in 20.7% and 12.5% of the habitats, respectively, and most of these infected snails were collected from rainwater-draining furrows and pools in meadows. The percentages were lower for snails with Echinostoma revolutum (9.6% of habitats) and Haplometra cylindracea (7.4%), and were less than 5% for those parasitized by any of the other five species of digenean. The highest prevalence of all digenean infections was noted in pools (9.4%), followed by furrows located in meadows (8.3%) and ponds (5.1%). The prevalence noted for each digenean infection varied with the type of habitat. In furrows located in meadows, the infection rate of C. daubneyi in snails (3.5%) was significantly higher than that of F. hepatica (2.2%). In pools, values greater than 1.5% were noted for C. daubneyi, H. cylindracea and Opistoglyphe ranae. In ponds, E. revolutum was the dominant species (prevalence, 2.5%). Parasite species richness in G. truncatula was greater in the Brenne Natural Regional Park than in the nearby region of Limousin (ten instead of eight). The distribution and prevalence of each parasite species were dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat. PMID:25804319

  18. [Keys to families and genera of gerromorpha and nepomorpha (Insecta: Heteroptera) in the central Amazonia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Domingos L V; de Melo, Alan L; Hamada, Neusa

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have been done in Brazil on aquatic and semi-aquatic Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha (Heteroptera), Minas Gerais being the state where these insects have been studied the most. The present study presents keys for identification of Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha adults, thus providing a tool for ecological studies on aquatic insects in Central Amazonia. The specimens used to elaborate the taxonomic keys were collected in Presidente Figueiredo county in streams and artificial lakes and in Manaus county in streams, white-water floodplain (várzea) lakes and Rio Negro black-water flooded forest (igapó). Specimens from the invertebrate collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA) were also examined and included in the keys. Thirty one genera from 13 families of the infra-orders mentioned. PMID:17607454

  19. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among recyclable waste collectors in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Thaís Augusto; Lopes, Carmen Luci Rodrigues; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Reis, Nádia Rúbia Silva; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; de Andrade, Andreia Alves; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a population of recyclable waste collectors (n = 431) was assessed using a cross-sectional survey in all 15 cooperatives in the city of Goiânia, Central-West Brazil. The HCV prevalence was 1.6% (95% confidence interval: 0.6-3.6) and a history of sexually transmitted infections was independently associated with this infection. HCV RNA (corresponding to genotype 1; subtypes 1a and 1b) was detected in five/seven anti-HCV-positive samples. Although the study population reported a high rate (47.3%) of sharps and needle accidents, HCV infection was not more frequent in recyclable waste collectors than in the general Brazilian population. PMID:23828009

  20. Susceptibility to diazinon in populations of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Antonio Thadeu M; Gomes, Alberto; Ismael, Ana Paula K; Koller, Wilson W

    2002-09-01

    From October 2000 to April 2001, insecticide bioassays were conducted in 18 ranches from 10 counties in the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, in Central Brazil. Horn flies from wild populations were exposed to diazinon-impregnated filter papers immediately after collection on cattle, and mortality was recorded after 2 h. A high susceptibility to diazinon was observed in all tested populations. The LC50s ranged from 0.15 to 0.64 micro g/cm2, and resistance ratios were always lower than one (ranging 0.1-0.6). Pyrethroid products, most applied by backpack sprayers, have been used since the horn fly entered the region, about 10 years ago. The high susceptibility observed to diazinon indicates that this insecticide (as probably other organophosphate insecticides) represents an useful tool for horn fly control and resistance management, particularly in pyrethroid-resistant populations. PMID:12386720

  1. Protective effect of intradermal BCG against leprosy; a case-control study in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M L; Silva, S A; Neto, J C; de Andrade, A L; Martelli, C M; Zicker, F

    1992-09-01

    A case-control study was undertaken to evaluate the protective efficacy of intradermal BCG against leprosy in a high-endemic area of leprosy in central Brazil. Sixty-two cases and 186 controls were included in the study. Cases were all newly diagnosed leprosy patients under 16 years of age attending an outpatient health service, and all of them were schoolchildren. Three controls under 16 years old, frequency matched by sex and age group, were selected from schools geographically located in the area from which the cases came. The presence of BCG was negatively associated with leprosy, indicating a 5.3 risk of leprosy for those nonvaccinated and protective efficacy of 81%. Paucibacillary patients were more likely to have a BCG scar than multibacillary patients. PMID:1474274

  2. Assessing fire emissions from tropical savanna and forests of central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggan, Philip J.; Brass, James A.; Lockwood, Robert N.

    1993-01-01

    Wildfires in tropical forest and savanna are a strong source of trace gas and particulate emissions to the atmosphere, but estimates of the continental-scale impacts are limited by large uncertainties in the rates of fire occurrence and biomass combustion. Satellite-based remote sensing offers promise for characterizing fire physical properties and impacts on the environment, but currently available sensors saturate over high-radiance targets and provide only indications of regions and times at which fires are extensive and their areal rate of growing as recorded in ash layers. Here we describe an approach combining satellite- and aircraft-based remote sensing with in situ measurements of smoke to estimate emissions from central Brazil. These estimates will improve global accounting of radiation-absorbing gases and particulates that may be contributing to climate change and will provide strategic data for fire management.

  3. Environmental Behavior of Chlorpyrifos and Endosulfan in a Tropical Soil in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dores, Eliana F G C; Spadotto, Claudio A; Weber, Oscarlina L S; Dalla Villa, Ricardo; Vecchiato, Antonio B; Pinto, Alicio A

    2016-05-25

    The environmental behavior of chlorpyrifos and endosulfan in soil was studied in the central-western region of Brazil by means of a field experiment. Sorption was evaluated in laboratory batch experiments. Chlorpyrifos and endosulfan were applied to experimental plots on uncultivated soil and the following processes were studied: leaching, runoff, and dissipation in top soil. Field dissipation of chlorpyrifos and endosulfan was more rapid than reported in temperate climates. Despite the high Koc of the studied pesticides, the two endosulfan isomers and endosulfan sulfate as well as chlorpyrifos were detected in percolated water. In runoff water and sediment, both endosulfan isomers and endosulfan sulfate were detected throughout the period of study. Observed losses of endosulfan by leaching (below a depth of 50 cm) and runoff were 0.0013 and 1.04% of the applied amount, whereas chlorpyrifos losses were 0.003 and 0.032%, respectively. Leaching of these highly adsorbed pesticides was attributed to preferential flow. PMID:26635198

  4. Granulomatous pneumonia due to Spirocerca lupi in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This case report describes the anatomic pathology findings in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central-western region of Brazil presenting granulomatous pneumonia associated with intralesional infection by Spirocerca lupi. Both wolves had multiple, white, 1-1.5 cm in diamet...

  5. REGIONAL EMISSIONS OF NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) IN AGROECOSYSTEMS IN CENTRAL WEST REGION, BRAZIL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Central West Region in Brazil has been the focus of intense agricultural expansion since the 1970s and, nowadays, a large area of native cerrado has been converted to agricultural use. The expansion was accompanied by intensive use of fertilizer, irrigation and management pra...

  6. Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil

    EPA Science Inventory

    Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...

  7. Detection of Culex flavivirus and Aedes flavivirus nucleotide sequences in mosquitoes from parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Licia Natal; de Paula, Marcia Bicudo; Araújo, Alessandra Bergamo; Gonçalves, Elisabeth Fernandes Bertoletti; Romano, Camila Malta; Natal, Delsio; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo; Levi, José Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    The dengue viruses are widespread in Brazil and are a major public health concern. Other flaviviruses also cause diseases in humans, although on a smaller scale. The city of São Paulo is in a highly urbanized area with few green spaces apart from its parks, which are used for recreation and where potential vertebrate hosts and mosquito vectors of pathogenic Flavivirus species can be found. Although this scenario can contribute to the transmission of Flavivirus to humans, little is known about the circulation of members of this genus in these areas. In light of this, the present study sought to identify Flavivirus infection in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in parks in the city of São Paulo. Seven parks in different sectors of the city were selected. Monthly mosquito collections were carried out in each park from March 2011 to February 2012 using aspiration and traps (Shannon and CD C-CO2). Nucleic acids were extracted from the mosquitoes collected and used for reverse-transcriptase and real-time polymerase chain reactions with genus-specific primers targeting a 200-nucleotide region in the Flavivirus NS5 gene. Positive samples were sequenced, and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Culex and Aedes were the most frequent genera of Culicidae collected. Culex flavivirus (CxFV)-related and Aedes flavivirus (AEFV)- related nucleotide sequences were detected in 17 pools of Culex and two pools of Aedes mosquitoes, respectively, among the 818 pools of non-engorged females analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CxFV and AEFV in the city of São Paulo and Latin America, respectively. Both viruses are insect- specific flaviviruses, a group known to replicate only in mosquito cells and induce a cytopathic effect in some situations. Hence, our data suggests that CxFV and AEFV are present in Culex and Aedes mosquitoes, respectively, in parks in the city of São Paulo. Even though Flavivirus species of medical importance were not

  8. Spider diversity (Arachnida: Araneae) in Atlantic Forest areas at Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, Abel; Baptista, Renner L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background There has never been any published work about the diversity of spiders in the city of Rio de Janeiro using analytical tools to measure diversity. The only available records for spider communities in nearby areas indicate 308 species in the National Park of Tijuca and 159 species in Marapendi Municipal Park. These numbers are based on a rapid survey and on an one-year survey respectively. New information This study provides a more thorough understanding of how the spider species are distributed at Pedra Branca State Park. We report a total of 14,626 spider specimens recorded from this park, representing 49 families and 373 species or morphospecies, including at least 73 undescribed species. Also, the distribution range of 45 species was expanded, and species accumulation curves estimate that there is a minimum of 388 (Bootstrap) and a maximum of 468 species (Jackknife2) for the sampled areas. These estimates indicates that the spider diversity may be higher than observed. PMID:26929710

  9. The Aripuana Park and the Polonoroeste Programme. IWGIA Document No. 59.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junqueira, Carmen; Mindlin, Betty

    The Polonoroeste program is a World Bank-funded colonization project in central Brazil. This document looks at the indigenous peoples of the Aripuana Park which lies in the path of the development plan. The main objective of the $1.5 billion project is to pave a highway from Cuiaba to Porto Velho. The project consists of the highway, colonization…

  10. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem. PMID:12178118

  11. Larval trematode infections in Lymnaea glabra populations living in the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France

    PubMed Central

    Rondelaud, Daniel; Vignoles, Philippe; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Lymnaea glabra is known to be a natural intermediate host of two flukes, Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica, in central France. But it can also sustain larval development of other digeneans. Adult snails were thus collected from 206 habitats in 2014 and 2015 to identify parasite species and determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the five types of snail habitats. Seven digenean species were noted in 321 infected snails (out of 17,647 L. glabra). Snails with F. hepatica or C. daubneyi were found in 14.5% and 12.6% of habitats, respectively. Percentages were lower for snails with Opisthoglyphe ranae (5.8%), Haplometra cylindracea (5.3%) and were less than 5% for those infected with Echinostoma revolutum, Notocotylus sp. or Plagiorchis sp. Prevalence noted for each parasite species varied with the type of habitat. The number of species in L. glabra was lower than that found in G. truncatula from the same region (7 instead of 10). The distribution and prevalence of each digenean species were thus dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat. PMID:26692260

  12. The utilization of orbital images as an adequate form of control of preserved areas. [Araguaia National Park, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The synoptic view and the repetitive acquisition of LANDSAT imagery provide precise information, in real-time, for monitoring preserved areas based on spectral, temporal and spatial properties. The purpose of this study was to monitor, with the use of multispectral imagery, the systematic annual burning, which causes the degradation of ecosystems in the National Park of Araguaia. LANDSAT imagery of channel 5 (0.6 a 0.7 microns) and 7 (0.8 a 1.1 microns), at the scale of 1:250.000, were used to identify and delimit vegetation units and burned area, based on photointerpretation parameter of tonality. The results show that the gallery forest can be discriminated from the seasonally flooded 'campo cerrado', and that 4,14% of the study area was burned. Conclusions point out that the LANDSAT images can be used for the implementation of environmental protection in national parks.

  13. Two new species and new records of Cerambycidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) from Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Monné, Marcela L; Monné, Miguel A; Botero, Juan P; Carelli, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The descriptions of two species of Lamiinae, Lepturges (Lepturges) batesi sp. nov. (Acanthocinini) and Onocephala chicomendes sp. nov. (Onocephalini) and an addendum of Cerambycinae and Lamiinae to the list of species of Cerambycidae in the Itatiaia National Park are presented. The data are based on fieldwork conducted over the last six years. Eighteen species of Cerambycinae and 21 of Lamiinae are recorded, with a total of 39 new distribution records. PMID:27470728

  14. Indigenous Burning as Conservation Practice: Neotropical Savanna Recovery amid Agribusiness Deforestation in Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Welch, James R.; Brondízio, Eduardo S.; Hetrick, Scott S.; Coimbra, Carlos E. A.

    2013-01-01

    International efforts to address climate change by reducing tropical deforestation increasingly rely on indigenous reserves as conservation units and indigenous peoples as strategic partners. Considered win-win situations where global conservation measures also contribute to cultural preservation, such alliances also frame indigenous peoples in diverse ecological settings with the responsibility to offset global carbon budgets through fire suppression based on the presumed positive value of non-alteration of tropical landscapes. Anthropogenic fire associated with indigenous ceremonial and collective hunting practices in the Neotropical savannas (cerrado) of Central Brazil is routinely represented in public and scientific conservation discourse as a cause of deforestation and increased CO2 emissions despite a lack of supporting evidence. We evaluate this claim for the Xavante people of Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Reserve, Brazil. Building upon 23 years of longitudinal interdisciplinary research in the area, we used multi-temporal spatial analyses to compare land cover change under indigenous and agribusiness management over the last four decades (1973–2010) and quantify the contemporary Xavante burning regime contributing to observed patterns based on a four year sample at the end of this sequence (2007–2010). The overall proportion of deforested land remained stable inside the reserve (0.6%) but increased sharply outside (1.5% to 26.0%). Vegetation recovery occurred where reserve boundary adjustments transferred lands previously deforested by agribusiness to indigenous management. Periodic traditional burning by the Xavante had a large spatial distribution but repeated burning in consecutive years was restricted. Our results suggest a need to reassess overreaching conservation narratives about the purported destructiveness of indigenous anthropogenic fire in the cerrado. The real challenge to conservation in the fire-adapted cerrado biome is the long

  15. Indigenous burning as conservation practice: neotropical savanna recovery amid agribusiness deforestation in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Welch, James R; Brondízio, Eduardo S; Hetrick, Scott S; Coimbra, Carlos E A

    2013-01-01

    International efforts to address climate change by reducing tropical deforestation increasingly rely on indigenous reserves as conservation units and indigenous peoples as strategic partners. Considered win-win situations where global conservation measures also contribute to cultural preservation, such alliances also frame indigenous peoples in diverse ecological settings with the responsibility to offset global carbon budgets through fire suppression based on the presumed positive value of non-alteration of tropical landscapes. Anthropogenic fire associated with indigenous ceremonial and collective hunting practices in the Neotropical savannas (cerrado) of Central Brazil is routinely represented in public and scientific conservation discourse as a cause of deforestation and increased CO2 emissions despite a lack of supporting evidence. We evaluate this claim for the Xavante people of Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Reserve, Brazil. Building upon 23 years of longitudinal interdisciplinary research in the area, we used multi-temporal spatial analyses to compare land cover change under indigenous and agribusiness management over the last four decades (1973-2010) and quantify the contemporary Xavante burning regime contributing to observed patterns based on a four year sample at the end of this sequence (2007-2010). The overall proportion of deforested land remained stable inside the reserve (0.6%) but increased sharply outside (1.5% to 26.0%). Vegetation recovery occurred where reserve boundary adjustments transferred lands previously deforested by agribusiness to indigenous management. Periodic traditional burning by the Xavante had a large spatial distribution but repeated burning in consecutive years was restricted. Our results suggest a need to reassess overreaching conservation narratives about the purported destructiveness of indigenous anthropogenic fire in the cerrado. The real challenge to conservation in the fire-adapted cerrado biome is the long

  16. Mobility therapy and central or peripheral catheter-related adverse events in an ICU in Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Natália Pontes; da Silva, Gregório Marques Cardim; Park, Marcelo; Pires-Neto, Ruy Camargo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether mobility therapy is associated with central or peripheral catheter-related adverse events in critically ill patients in an ICU in Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the daily medical records of patients admitted to the Clinical Emergency ICU of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas Central Institute between December of 2009 and April of 2011. In addition to the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, we collected data related to central venous catheters (CVCs), hemodialysis (HD) catheters and indwelling arterial catheters (IACs): insertion site; number of catheter days; and types of adverse events. We also characterized the mobility therapy provided. RESULTS: Among the 275 patients evaluated, CVCs were used in 49%, HD catheters were used in 26%, and IACs were used in 29%. A total of 1,268 mobility therapy sessions were provided to patients while they had a catheter in place. Catheter-related adverse events occurred in 20 patients (a total of 22 adverse events): 32%, infection; 32%, obstruction; and 32%, accidental dislodgement. We found that mobility therapy was not significantly associated with any catheter-related adverse event, regardless of the type of catheter employed: CVC-OR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.7-1.0; p = 0.14; HD catheter-OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.89-1.21; p = 0.56; or IAC-OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 0.94-3.23; p = 0.07. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients, mobility therapy is not associated with the incidence of adverse events involving CVCs, HD catheters, or IACs. PMID:26176520

  17. A new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 from northeastern Brazil with comments on the potential distribution of the genus in Central and South Americas (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae).

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Ana Caroline Oliveira; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce De Leão; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the genus Charinus Simon, 1892 is described from caves in the Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. This is the first record of the genus for the state. This paper presents a map of the Charinus species distribution in Brazil with new records and a map of potential distribution of the genus in South and Central Americas. An updated key for Charinus species from Brazil is also presented. PMID:25112766

  18. Seismic characteristics of central Brazil crust and upper mantle: A deep seismic refraction study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soares, J.E.; Berrocal, J.; Fuck, R.A.; Mooney, W.D.; Ventura, D.B.R.

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of the Brazilian central crust and upper mantle was obtained from the traveltime interpretation of deep seismic refraction data from the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, each approximately 300 km long. When the lines were deployed, they overlapped by 50 km, forming an E-W transect approximately 530 km long across the Tocantins Province and western Sa??o Francisco Craton. The Tocantins Province formed during the Neoproterozoic when the Sa??o Francisco, the Paranapanema, and the Amazon cratons collided, following the subduction of the former Goia??s ocean basin. Average crustal VP and VP/VS ratios, Moho topography, and lateral discontinuities within crustal layers suggest that the crust beneath central Brazil can be associated with major geological domains recognized at the surface. The Moho is an irregular interface, between 36 and 44 km deep, that shows evidences of first-order tectonic structures. The 8.05 and 8.23 km s-1 P wave velocities identify the upper mantle beneath the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, respectively. The observed seismic features allow for the identification of (1) the crust has largely felsic composition in the studied region, (2) the absence of the mafic-ultramafic root beneath the Goia??s magmatic arc, and (3) block tectonics in the foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the northern Brasi??lia Belt during the Neoproterozoic. Seismic data also suggested that the Bouguer gravimetric discontinuities are mainly compensated by differences in mass distribution within the lithospheric mantle. Finally, the Goia??s-Tocantins seismic belt can be interpreted as a natural seismic alignment related to the Neoproterozoic mantle domain. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. The Araguaia River as an Important Biogeographical Divide for Didelphid Marsupials in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Rita Gomes; Ferreira, Eduardo; Loss, Ana Carolina; Heller, Rasmus; Fonseca, Carlos; Costa, Leonora Pires

    2015-01-01

    The riverine barrier model suggests that rivers play a significant role in separating widespread organisms into isolated populations. In this study, we used a comparative approach to investigate the phylogeography of 6 didelphid marsupial species in central Brazil. Specifically, we evaluate the role of the mid-Araguaia River in differentiating populations and estimate divergence time among lineages to assess the timing of differentiation of these species, using mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The 6 didelphid marsupials revealed different intraspecific genetic patterns and structure. The 3 larger and more generalist species, Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis, and Philander opossum, showed connectivity across the Araguaia River. In contrast the genetic structure of the 3 smaller and specialist species, Gracilinanus agilis, Marmosa (Marmosa) murina, and Marmosa (Micoureus) demerarae was shaped by the mid-Araguaia. Moreover, the split of eastern and western bank populations of the 2 latter species is consistent with the age of Araguaia River sediments formation. We hypothesize that the role of the Araguaia as a riverine barrier is linked to the level of ecological specialization among the 6 didelphid species and differences in their ability to cross rivers or disperse through the associated habitat types. PMID:26249652

  20. Use of habitats by non-volant small mammals in Cerrado in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Filho, M; Frieiro-Costa, F; Ignácio, Á R A; Silva, M N F

    2012-11-01

    Non-volant small mammals are organisms capable of yielding precise information on richness, abundance and species composition variations related to the use of habitats. The aim of this research was to compare these variations in Cerrado sensu stricto, Palm Forest, Gallery Forest and Rocky Field. From May 1999 to February 2000, we surveyed non-volant small mammals (hence small mammals) in Serra das Araras Ecological Station. We captured 218 individuals and recaptured 62 individuals, belonging to 21 taxa, 13 rodents and eight marsupials, in a total of 13200 trap-nights. Capture success was 1.7%. We observed higher richness of small mammals in forested areas (Gallery Forest and Palm Forest) than in open areas (Rocky Field and Cerrado sensu stricto). The Palm Forest had the highest richness of marsupials, possibly due to the quality of a specific niche. The Rocky Field had the smallest richness, but with very high abundance of few species, mainly Thrichomys pachyurus and Monodelphis domestica. Forest habitats had similar species composition. The open habitats, Cerrado sensu stricto and Rocky Field, had a distinct species composition between them, and also when compared to forested areas. Different species are exclusive or showed preference for specific habitats. The protection of horizontally heterogeneous biomes, such as Cerrado, has a fundamental importance to the maintenance of the regional diversity of the small mammal community of Central Brazil. PMID:23295519

  1. Assessment of the BTEX concentrations and reactivity in a confined parking area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, Barbara Prestes; de Souza Machado, Gladson; Bauerfeldt, Glauco Favila; Nunes Fortes, Julio Domingos; Martins, Eduardo Monteiro

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the contribution of evaporative emissions from light passenger vehicles to the degradation of the air quality was investigated on the basis of the indoor quantification of the monoaromatic volatile compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes (BTEX), specifically, a confined shopping mall parking area in the northern zone of Rio de Janeiro, a site that represents the reality of the vehicular fleet of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro. In order to evaluate the concentration of the BTEX compounds, samples were collected, by an active sampling system using charcoal cartridge as adsorbent. The samples were extracted with organic solvent and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). The average results were 54.14 μg m-3 (benzene), 209.24 μg m-3 (toluene), 45.87 μg m-3 (ethylbenzene) and 118.93 μg m-3 (xylenes). These results are compared with results from the literature of vehicular emissions in confined spaces such as garages and tunnels. Possible correlations with emissions from moving vehicles, obtained from previous studies in a tunnel of large circulation and emissions obtained in other underground parkings, are also investigated. The results suggest different emission sources.

  2. Impacts of animal traffic on the Brazilian Amazon parrots (Amazona species) collection of the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Brazil, 1986-2007.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Camargo, Luis Carlos; Nunes, Adauto Luis Veloso; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Eleven species of Amazon parrots (genus Amazona) are known to occur in Brazil, and nest poaching and illegal traffic pose serious conservation threats to these species. When the illegal owners realize these animals are incompatible with their expectations and lifestyle, or when the police arrests traders and owners, these trafficked animals are often considered unfit for release and sent to local zoos and captive breeders. A retrospective survey of animal and necropsy records from 1986 to 2007 was used to evaluate the impacts of animal traffic on the population composition and mortality patterns of Amazon parrots at the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Sorocaba, Brazil. Data were obtained for 374 Amazon parrots of ten Brazilian species, and there was evidence that the studied population could be split into two major groups: a majority belonging to the Amazona aestiva species and a minority belonging to the remaining species. In comparison, the animals of the first group were more frequently admitted from traffic-related origins (98 vs. 75%), had a shorter lifespan (median 301 days vs. 848 days) and a higher mortality within the first year postadmission (54 vs. 37%), were less likely to receive expensive treatments, and were more frequently housed off-exhibit. On an average, parrots were found to have a short postadmission lifespan (median 356 days), with 92.5% of the birds dying within their first five years in captivity. The paper discusses the difficult dilemmas these incoming traffic-related animals pose to zoo management and official anti-traffic policies. PMID:20069544

  3. Focal Mechanisms for Deep Crustal Earthquakes in the Central Foothills and Near Yosemite National Park in the Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. C.; Frassetto, A.; Hurd, O.; Zandt, G.; Gilbert, H.; Owens, T.; Jones, C.

    2008-12-01

    Past studies have observed seismicity occurring to depths near 40 km beneath the central Sierra Nevada in eastern California, but the cause of this unusual activity remains largely unknown. We use seismograms from a recent deployment of the Sierra Nevada EarthScope Project (SNEP) broadband array and interspersed USArray TA stations to study this deep crustal earthquake activity. From June of 2005 to May of 2006, we recorded 126 earthquakes in the central western flank of the Sierra Nevada that relocated in the depth range from 1.0 to 47.6 km. These earthquakes have small magnitudes (M < 3), occur at a rate of ~10 per month, and occasionally display repeating waveforms. The majority of the earthquakes fall into two distinct clusters. One cluster of earthquakes form a diffuse band under the low foothills north of Fresno and have focal depths mostly between 20 and 35 km. The second cluster underlies the higher western slope of the range in a more compact north-south band extending from the southern edge of Yosemite National Park to the San Joaquin River. These events have focal depths from near surface to 30 km, and are located above occasional deep, long-period (LP) events (Pitt, et al., SRL, 2002). We use P- and S-wave polarity picks and P/SH amplitude ratios to construct focal mechanisms for 23 of the larger, well-recorded earthquakes, 14 in the Foothills Cluster and 9 in the Yosemite Cluster. The focal mechanisms show dominantly near vertical and subhorizontal nodal planes, although several events do show clear normal or reverse mechanisms. Although there is some scatter, a majority of the mechanisms from the Foothills Cluster have S-to-SW steeply dipping T-axes. The majority of earthquakes in the Yosemite Cluster have P-axes moderately dipping to the SW and T-axes moderately dipping to the NE, similar to focal mechanisms of earthquakes associated with the recent magma intrusion event under Lake Tahoe (von Seggern, et al., BSSA, 2008). We suggest that the

  4. Spatial point analysis based on dengue surveys at household level in central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira-Junior, João B; Maciel, Ivan J; Barcellos, Christovam; Souza, Wayner V; Carvalho, Marilia S; Nascimento, Nazareth E; Oliveira, Renato M; Morais-Neto, Otaliba; Martelli, Celina MT

    2008-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) affects nonimunne human populations in tropical and subtropical regions. In the Americas, dengue has drastically increased in the last two decades and Brazil is considered one of the most affected countries. The high frequency of asymptomatic infection makes difficult to estimate prevalence of infection using registered cases and to locate high risk intra-urban area at population level. The goal of this spatial point analysis was to identify potential high-risk intra-urban areas of dengue, using data collected at household level from surveys. Methods Two household surveys took place in the city of Goiania (~1.1 million population), Central Brazil in the year 2001 and 2002. First survey screened 1,586 asymptomatic individuals older than 5 years of age. Second survey 2,906 asymptomatic volunteers, same age-groups, were selected by multistage sampling (census tracts; blocks; households) using available digital maps. Sera from participants were tested by dengue virus-specific IgM/IgG by EIA. A Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was used to detect the spatial varying risk over the region. Initially without any fixed covariates, to depict the overall risk map, followed by a model including the main covariates and the year, where the resulting maps show the risk associated with living place, controlled for the individual risk factors. This method has the advantage to generate smoothed risk factors maps, adjusted by socio-demographic covariates. Results The prevalence of antibody against dengue infection was 37.3% (95%CI [35.5–39.1]) in the year 2002; 7.8% increase in one-year interval. The spatial variation in risk of dengue infection significantly changed when comparing 2001 with 2002, (ORadjusted = 1.35; p < 0.001), while controlling for potential confounders using GAM model. Also increasing age and low education levels were associated with dengue infection. Conclusion This study showed spatial heterogeneity in the risk areas of dengue

  5. Dating of fossil human teeth and shells from Toca do Enoque site at Serra das Confusões National Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Sullasi, Henry L; Asfora, Viviane K; Azevedo, Renata L; Guzzo, Pedro; Guidon, Niede; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G; Khoury, Helen; Pessis, Anne-Marie; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the dating of a fossil human tooth and shell found at the archaeological site Toca do Enoque located in Serra das Confusões National Park (Piauí, Brazil). Many prehistoric paintings have been found at this site. An archaeological excavation unearthed three sepulchers with human skeletons and some shells. Two Brazilian laboratories, in Ribeirão Preto (USP) and Recife (UFPE), independently performed Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) measurements to date the tooth and the shell and obtain the equivalent dose received by each sample. The laboratories determined similar ages for the tooth and the shell (~4.8 kyBP). The results agreed with C-14 dating of the shell and other samples (charcoal) collected in the same sepulcher. Therefore, this work provides a valid inter-comparison of results by two independent ESR-dating laboratories and between two dating methods; i.e., C-14 and ESR, showing the validity of ESR dating for this range of ages. PMID:27276381

  6. Y-STR haplotype diversity and population data for Central Brazil: implications for environmental forensics and paternity testing.

    PubMed

    Vieira, T C; Gigonzac, M A D; Silva, D M; Rodovalho, R G; Santos, G S; da Cruz, A D

    2014-01-01

    The central region of Brazil was colonized by internal migration of individuals of different origins, who contributed to the genetic diversity existing in this population. This study determined the allele frequencies and haplotype diversity of Y-STRs in Goiás State, Central Brazil, and compared the data obtained with a sample of the Brazilian population, consisting of individuals from the five geographical regions of Brazil. A total of 353 males were typed for 12 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) markers. We selected males who had no degree of relatedness, from the five mesoregions of Goiás State. DNA was extracted from blood samples followed by the amplification of the 12 Y-chromosome loci. The products were analyzed to obtain the allele profiles on an ABI3500 automated sequencer using the Gene Mapper software. Allele frequencies and haplotype diversity were estimated by direct counting, and gene diversity for each locus was computed using the Arlequin software. The results are consistent with the history of miscegenation of the population of Central Brazil, in which we observed 321 different haplotypes. The average gene diversity at the 12 loci was 0.645. DYS385b and DYS389I showed the highest (0.704) and lowest (0.520) genetic diversity values, respectively. The FST value between the Brazilian and Goiás populations was 0.00951, showing no statistical significance. The results of this study allowed the establishment of haplotypes found in the forensic samples of Goiás State serving as a reference in the elucidation of criminal cases and paternity tests, as well as population and evolutionary inferences. PMID:24841785

  7. Carbon Accumulation and Nitrogen Pool Recovery during Transitions from Savanna to Forest in Central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, A.; Hoffmann, W. A.; Franco, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    The expansion of tropical forest into savanna may potentially be a large carbon sink, but little is known about the patterns of carbon sequestration during transitional forest formation. Moreover, it is unclear how nutrient limitation, due to extended exposure to firedriven nutrient losses, may constrain carbon accumulation. Here, we sampled plots that spanned a woody biomass gradient from savanna to transitional forest in response to differential fire protection in central Brazil. These plots were used to investigate how the process of transitional forest formation affects the size and distribution of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools. This was paired with a detailed analysis of the nitrogen cycle to explore possible connections between carbon accumulation and nitrogen limitation. An analysis of carbon pools in the vegetation, upper soil, and litter shows that the transition from savanna to transitional forest can result in a fourfold increase in total carbon (from 43 to 179 Mg C/ha) with a doubling of carbon stocks in the litter and soil layers. Total nitrogen in the litter and soil layers increased with forest development in both the bulk (+68%) and plant-available (+150%) pools, with the most pronounced changes occurring in the upper layers. However, the analyses of nitrate concentrations, nitrate : ammonium ratios, plant stoichiometry of carbon and nitrogen, and soil and foliar nitrogen isotope ratios suggest that a conservative nitrogen cycle persists throughout forest development, indicating that nitrogen remains in low supply relative to demand. Furthermore, the lack of variation in underlying soil type (>20 cm depth) suggests that the biogeochemical trends across the gradient are driven by vegetation. Our results provide evidence for high carbon sequestration potential with forest encroachment on savanna, but nitrogen limitation may play a large and persistent role in governing carbon sequestration in savannas or other equally fire-disturbed tropical

  8. The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil).

    PubMed

    Strauss, André; Oliveira, Rodrigo Elias; Bernardo, Danilo V; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Talamo, Sahra; Jaouen, Klervia; Hubbe, Mark; Black, Sue; Wilkinson, Caroline; Richards, Michael Phillip; Araujo, Astolfo G M; Kipnis, Renato; Neves, Walter Alves

    2015-01-01

    We present here evidence for an early Holocene case of decapitation in the New World (Burial 26), found in the rock shelter of Lapa do Santo in 2007. Lapa do Santo is an archaeological site located in the Lagoa Santa karst in east-central Brazil with evidence of human occupation dating as far back as 11.7-12.7 cal kyBP (95.4% interval). An ultra-filtered AMS age determination on a fragment of the sphenoid provided an age range of 9.1-9.4 cal kyBP (95.4% interval) for Burial 26. The interment was composed of an articulated cranium, mandible and first six cervical vertebrae. Cut marks with a v-shaped profile were observed in the mandible and sixth cervical vertebra. The right hand was amputated and laid over the left side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the chin and the left hand was amputated and laid over the right side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the forehead. Strontium analysis comparing Burial 26's isotopic signature to other specimens from Lapa do Santo suggests this was a local member of the group. Therefore, we suggest a ritualized decapitation instead of trophy-taking, testifying for the sophistication of mortuary rituals among hunter-gatherers in the Americas during the early Archaic period. In the apparent absence of wealth goods or elaborated architecture, Lapa do Santo's inhabitants seemed to use the human body to express their cosmological principles regarding death. PMID:26397983

  9. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis; Villela, André Luis Oliveira; Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado; Wendroth, Ole

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0-30 and the 0-100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km(2) and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m(-2), respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. PMID:25918893

  10. The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, André; Oliveira, Rodrigo Elias; Bernardo, Danilo V.; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Talamo, Sahra; Jaouen, Klervia; Hubbe, Mark; Black, Sue; Wilkinson, Caroline; Richards, Michael Phillip; Araujo, Astolfo G. M.; Kipnis, Renato; Neves, Walter Alves

    2015-01-01

    We present here evidence for an early Holocene case of decapitation in the New World (Burial 26), found in the rock shelter of Lapa do Santo in 2007. Lapa do Santo is an archaeological site located in the Lagoa Santa karst in east-central Brazil with evidence of human occupation dating as far back as 11.7–12.7 cal kyBP (95.4% interval). An ultra-filtered AMS age determination on a fragment of the sphenoid provided an age range of 9.1–9.4 cal kyBP (95.4% interval) for Burial 26. The interment was composed of an articulated cranium, mandible and first six cervical vertebrae. Cut marks with a v-shaped profile were observed in the mandible and sixth cervical vertebra. The right hand was amputated and laid over the left side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the chin and the left hand was amputated and laid over the right side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the forehead. Strontium analysis comparing Burial 26’s isotopic signature to other specimens from Lapa do Santo suggests this was a local member of the group. Therefore, we suggest a ritualized decapitation instead of trophy-taking, testifying for the sophistication of mortuary rituals among hunter-gatherers in the Americas during the early Archaic period. In the apparent absence of wealth goods or elaborated architecture, Lapa do Santo’s inhabitants seemed to use the human body to express their cosmological principles regarding death. PMID:26397983

  11. Ecological distribution of stream macroalgal communities from a drainage basin in the Serra da Canastra National Park, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Necchi-Júnior, O; Branco, L H Z; Branco, C C Z

    2003-11-01

    Twelve stream segments were sampled four times in 1998-1999 (one sampling per season) in the drainage basin of the upper São Francisco River (19 masculine 45'-21 masculine 25'S, 49 masculine 05'-51 masculine 30'W), situated in Serra da Canastra National Park, at altitudes ranging from 1,175 to 1,400 m. The macroalgae survey resulted in 30 species, with a predominance of Cyanophyta (12 species = 40%) and Chlorophyta (11 species = 36.5%) and a lower proportion of Rhodophyta (seven species = 23.5%). Two species, Klebsormidium rivulare (Chlorophyta) and Kyliniella latvica (Rhodophyta), were new records for Brazil. Capsosira sp. and Stigonema sp. (Cyanophyta) and the "Chantransia" stage of Batrachospermum (Rhodophyta) were the most widespread macroalgae, occurring in six sampling sites, whereas 11 species were found at only one site. The proportion of macroalgal morphological types were as follows: mats (33%), free filaments (27%), gelatinous filaments (27%), crusts (7%), tufts (3%), and gelatinous colonies (3%). The flora revealed few species in common (4%-8%) with stream macroalgae from other Brazilian regions. The macroalgal communities proved to have species richness values close to the highest values reported in previous studies. The patterns typical for stream macroalgal communities (patchy distribution and dominance of few species) were also found in this basin. However, the stream variables most influential in macroalgal distribution in this study (rocky substratum, low pH, high COD, water color, and current velocity) were essentially the same that best describe the limnological characteristics of this lotic ecosystem. In addition, this combination of variables differed sharply from results of previous studies in other Brazilian stream ecosystems. PMID:15029374

  12. Synthesis of the Hydrogeologic Framework of the Floridan Aquifer System and Delineation of a Major Avon Park Permeable Zone in Central and Southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.; Richardson, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The carbonate Floridan aquifer system of central and southern Florida (south of a latitude of about 29 degrees north) is an invaluable resource with a complex framework that has previously been mapped and managed primarily in a subregional context according to geopolitical boundaries. As interest and use of the Floridan aquifer system in this area increase, a consistent regional hydrogeologic framework is needed for effective management across these boundaries. This study synthesizes previous studies on the Floridan aquifer system and introduces a new regional hydrogeologic conceptual framework, linking physical relations between central and southern Florida and between the west and east coastal areas. The differences in hydrogeologic nomenclature and interpretation across the study area from previous studies were identified and resolved. The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, middle confining unit, and Lower Floridan aquifer. This study introduces and delineates a new major, regional productive zone or subaquifer, referred to as the Avon Park permeable zone. This zone is contained within the middle confining unit and synthesizes an extensive zone that has been referred to differently in different parts of the study area in previous studies. The name of this zone derives from the description of this zone as the ?Avon Park highly permeable zone? in west-central Florida in a previous study. Additionally, this zone has been identified previously in southeastern Florida as the ?middle Floridan aquifer.? An approximately correlative or approximate time-stratigraphic framework was developed and was used to provide guidance in the identification and determination of aquifers, subaquifers, and confining units within the Floridan aquifer system and to determine their structural relations. Two stratigraphic marker horizons within the Floridan aquifer system and a marker unit near the top of the aquifer system were delineated or mapped. The marker

  13. Linking Community Communication to Conservation of the Maned Wolf in Central Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizerril, Marcelo Ximenes A.; Soares, Carla Cruz; Santos, Jean Pierre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the environmental education (EE) program developed in the neighboring community of Serra da Canastra National Park based on a research project focused on the maned wolf conservation. The article assesses three tools used to foster the community's participation in discussing local issues: (1) communal production of a book…

  14. Occurrence of invertebrate-pathogenic fungi in a Cerrado ecosystem in Central Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological diversity of microorganisms in natural environments is threatened worldwide by human activities. In a protected area of Cerrado, Goiás State, Brazil, naturally occurring invertebrate-pathogenic fungi were isolated from soils, slurries and water samples collected during the dry season in 2...

  15. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: multiresistant tick.

    PubMed

    Machado, Fabrício Amadori; Pivoto, Felipe Lamberti; Ferreira, Maiara Sanitá Tafner; Gregorio, Fabiano de Vargas; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; Sangioni, Luís Antônio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the acaricide resistance of tick populations in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), which has not previously been reported. Fifty-four cattle farms were visited and specimens of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were collected and subjected to the adult immersion test, using nine commercial acaricides in the amidine, pyrethroid and organophosphate groups. Climatic data, including monthly precipitation, were recorded. The results from the present study demonstrated that seven of the acaricides analyzed presented mean efficacy values of less than 95%, with large differences among the products tested. Nine of them exhibited satisfactory and unsatisfactory acaricide results on at least one farm. In conclusion, the farms located in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, exhibited populations of R. (Boophilus) microplus with variable degrees of susceptibility to different acaricides, thus suggesting that resistance to the active compounds exists. It is suggested that treatment protocols should be implemented at the beginning of winter and summer, using the acaricides that showed efficacy in the adult immersion test. PMID:25271453

  16. Factors associated with the occurrence of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in rural localities of Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Juliana Chedid Nogared; Duarte, Elisabeth C; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates the factors of artificial environments (houses and peridomestic areas) associated with Triatoma sordida occurrence. Manual searches for triatomines were performed in 136 domiciliary units (DUs) in two rural localities of Central-West Brazil. For each DU, 32 structural, 23 biotic and 28 management variables were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify statistically significant variables associated with occurrence of T. sordida in the study areas. A total of 1,057 specimens (99% in peridomiciles, mainly chicken coops) of T. sordida were collected from 63 DUs (infestation: 47%; density: ~8 specimens/DU; crowding: ~17 specimens/infested DU; colonisation: 81%). Only six (0.6%) out of 945 specimens examined were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The final adjusted logistic regression model indicated that the probability of T. sordida occurrence was higher in DU with wooden chicken coops, presence of > 30 animals in wooden corrals, presence of wood piles and presence of food storeroom. The results show the persistence of T. sordida in peridomestic habitats in rural localities of Central-West Brazil. However, the observed low intradomestic colonisation and minimal triatomine infection rates indicate that T. sordida has low potential to sustain high rates of T. cruzi transmission to residents of these localities. PMID:25946242

  17. South America Monsoon variability on millennial to multi-centennial time scale during the Holocene in central eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strikis, N. M.; Cruz, F. W.; Cheng, H.; Karmann, I.; Vuille, M.; Edwards, R.; Wang, X.; Paula, M. S.; Novello, V. F.; Auler, A.

    2011-12-01

    A paleoprecipitation reconstruction based on high resolution and well-dated speleothem oxygen isotope records shows that the monsoon precipitation over central eastern Brazil underwent to strong variations on millennial to multi-centennial time-scales during the Holocene. This new record indicates that abrupt events of increase in monsoon precipitation are correlated to Bond events 6, 5 and 4 and also with 8.2 ky event during the early and mid-Holocene, with a mean amplitude of 1.5 % (PDB). The pacing and structure of such events are general consistent with variations in solar activity suggested by atmospheric Δ14 C records. In the late-Holocene, abrupt events of increase in monsoon precipitation peaking at 3.2, 2.7 and 2.3 ky B.P. are approximately synchronous with periods of low solar minima. In this regard, the most prominent event occurred during the late Holocene occurred at ~2.7 ky B.P. In addition, these positive anomalies of the precipitation recorded in central eastern Brazil are also in good agreement with variations in Titicaca lake level. The good correspondence between the speleothem and marine records imply that the variations in the north Atlantic sea surface temperature is the main forcing for abrupt millennial to multi-centennial precipitations variation within the region under influence of South American Monsoon.

  18. [Prevalence of serologic markers of hepatitis B and D viruses in children of the Caiabi and Txucarramãe tribes from the Indian Reservation of Xingu, central Brazil].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, R A; Silva, A E; Ferraz, M L; Marcopito, L F; Baruzzi, R G

    1996-01-01

    The medical literature has shown that the inhabitants of the Amazon region are highly affected by hepatitis B and delta viruses infection, but this has never been studied in Indian children by age group. A study of the prevalence of serological markers of hepatitis B and delta viruses in Indian children aged 0 to 14 years living in the PIX was carried out. This Park is located in Central Brazil, a region which is in the transition between the savannab to the south and the Amazon jungle to the north. To determine the prevalence of HBV and HDV markers in Indian children and to characterize the route of HBV transmission in this region. Out of the 17 tribes living in the PIX, two--the Caiabi and the Txucarramãe--were chosen because both live in the North part of the Park, but have quite different ways of life. The overall prevalence of HBV serum markers was: HBsAg, 4.5%; anti-HBs, 39.6%; anti-HBc, 44.1%; any marker of HBV, 47.3%; and anti-HDV, 0.0%. However, a striking difference in the prevalence of hepatitis B markers was observed between the two tribes: younger Caiabi children were much less affected than the Txucarramãe ones. The prevalence of HBsAg in fertile women was 12%, being anti-HBe positive. Our data suggest that HBV infection is highly prevalent among Indian children living in this Indigenous Park and vertical infection is not an important route of transmission in either tribes. PMID:8966307

  19. Naturally occurring clay nanoparticles in Latosols of Brazil central region: detection and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominika Dybowska, Agnieszka; Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Piella, Jordi; Najorka, Jens; Puntes, Victor; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    Stability and reactivity of minerals change as a particle size function, which makes mineral nanoparticles (defined here as <100 nm) fundamentally distinct from the larger size materials. Naturally occurring mineral nanoparticles contribute to many biogeochemical processes, however much remains to be learnt about these materials, their size dependent behavior and environmental significance. Advances in analytical, imaging and spectroscopic techniques made it now possible to study such particles; however we still have limited knowledge of their chemical, structural and morphological identity and reactivity, in particular in soils. The aim of this research was to characterize the naturally occurring nanoparticles in three soils from Brazil central region. The samples were collected in the A horizon, treated with H2O2 to remove organic material, dispersed in ultrasonic bath and wet sieved (53 µm) to remove the sand fraction. The clay fraction was collected by siphoning the supernatant, conditioned in 1000 ml cylinder, according to the Stock's law. This fraction was further processed by re-suspension in water, sonication and repeated centrifugation, to separate the fraction smaller than 100nm. This material, called here the soil "nanofraction", was analyzed using a range of techniques: 1) nanoparticle size/morphology and crystallinity with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM operateing in scanning (HAADF-STEM) and High Resolution (HRTEM) mode), 2) size distribution in water with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and surface charge estimated from electrophoretic mobility measurements 3) crystal phase and crystallite size with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 4) Chemical composition by quantitative analysis of elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Al, Ti) and their spatial distribution with HRTEM/EDS elemental mappings. The nanofraction had an average hydrodynamic particle diameter ranging from 83 to 92nm with a low polydispersity index of 0.13-0.17 and was found highly stable in aqueous

  20. Secondary metabolites from Pinus mugo Turra subsp. mugo growing in the Majella National Park (Central Apennines, Italy).

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Serrilli, Anna Maria; Vittori, Sauro; Papa, Fabrizio; Maggi, Filippo; Di Cecco, Mirella; Ciaschetti, Gianpiero; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Bianco, Amandodoriano

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we examined the composition regarding secondary metabolites of P. mugo Turra ssp. mugo growing in the protected area of Majella National Park, which is the southernmost station of the habitat of this species. Both the nonpolar and polar fractions were considered. In particular, the essential-oil composition showed a high variety of compounds, and 109 compounds were detected, and 101 were identified, among which abietane-type compounds have a taxonomic relevance. Abietanes were also isolated from the polar fraction, together with an acylated flavonol and a remarkably high amount of shikimic acid. PMID:24243617

  1. Migration among individuals with leprosy: a population-based study in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Murto, Christine; Ariza, Liana; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Chichava, Olga André; Oliveira, Alexcian Rodrigues; Kaplan, Charles; Silva, Luciana Ferreira Marques da; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates social and clinical factors associated with migration among individuals affected by leprosy. A cross-sectional study was conducted among those newly diagnosed with leprosy (2006-2008), in 79 endemic municipalities in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (N = 1,074). In total, 76.2% were born in a municipality different from their current residence. In the five years before diagnosis 16.7% migrated, and 3.6% migrated after leprosy diagnosis. Findings reflect aspects associated with historical rural-urban population movement in Brazil. Indicators of poverty were prominent among before-diagnosis migrants but not after-diagnosis migrants. Migration after diagnosis was associated with prior migration. The association of multibacillary leprosy with migration indicates healthcare access may be an obstacle to early diagnosis among before-diagnosis migrants, which may also be related to the high mobility of this group. PMID:24714939

  2. [Cervical cancer screening among indigenous women in the Xingu Indian Reservation, central Brazil].

    PubMed

    Taborda, W C; Ferreira, S C; Rodrigues, D; Stávale, J N; Baruzzi, R G

    2000-02-01

    Although the literature presents worrisome data regarding the incidence of cervical cancer among indigenous populations, in Brazil there is very little information regarding the occurrence of this type of cancer among indigenous peoples. Therefore, the objective of the present descriptive study was to assess the prevalence of cervical cancer and of cervical and vaginal infections among 423 indigenous women living in the Xingu Indian Reservation, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. These women were or had been sexually active. Data were collected between 1989 and 1996. Clinical and gynecological examinations were carried out prior to the collection of cervical specimens and to the performance of cytologic analyses. Upon detection of abnormalities, a colposcopy and a biopsy were also performed. Our results show that 1% of the women studied presented invasive carcinoma and that 3% presented premalignant lesions. In addition, 84% presented inflammatory atypia, resulting from sexually transmitted genital infections. The present findings are in accordance with the results of other international reports regarding the high prevalence of cervical conditions among indigenous populations, and they underscore the need to extend to the indigenous peoples of Brazil programs aiming at the control of sexually transmitted diseases and at the early detection and treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:10748659

  3. Central obesity and health-related factors among middle-aged men: a comparison among native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan.

    PubMed

    Schwingel, Andiara; Nakata, Yoshio; Ito, Lucy S; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Erb, Christopher T; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli M; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Shinjo, Samuel K; Uno, Miyuki; Marie, Suely K N; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different cultural environments on the development of obesity by examining the association of central obesity, lifestyle, and selected coronary risk factors among people with identical Japanese genetic backgrounds living in Japan and Brazil. One hundred and four native Japanese and 286 Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan aged 35 years or over were studied. Obesity, metabolic risk factors for coronary disease, and history of regular sports activity, daily physical activity, and eating habits were assessed. The results showed Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil with significantly higher waist circumference values, and greater prevalence of central obesity compared to native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Japan. The risk of developing central obesity was found to be 2.8 times higher among Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil. However, this association was no longer found to be significant after adjusting for lifestyle factors in the logistic model. Additionally, waist circumference was found to be significantly associated with metabolic risk factors for coronary disease. These findings suggest substantial variation in measures of central obesity among the three groups of Japanese ancestry, and underscore the heterogeneity of risk factors among communities of Japanese ancestry living in different cultural environments. The results also suggest that immigrant men exposed to the Brazilian cultural environment are more susceptible to the development of central obesity, and it seems to be associated with various lifestyle items and metabolic risk factors for coronary disease. PMID:17641453

  4. Patterns in abundance and diversity of faecally dispersed parasites of tiger in Tadoba National Park, central India

    PubMed Central

    Marathe, Rahul R; Goel, Shantanu S; Ranade, Sachin P; Jog, Maithili M; Watve, Milind G

    2002-01-01

    Background Importance of parasites in ecological and evolutionary interactions is being increasingly recognized. However, ecological data on parasites of important host species is still scanty. We analyze the patterns seen in the faecal parasites of tigers in the Tadoba National Park, India, and speculate on the factors and processes shaping the parasite community and the possible implications for tiger ecology. Results The prevalence and intensities were high and the parasite community was dominated by indirect life cycle parasites. Across all genera of parasites variance scaled with the square of the mean and there was a significant positive correlation between prevalence and abundance. There was no significant association between different types of parasites. Conclusions The 70 samples analyzed formed 14 distinct clusters. If we assume each of the clusters to represent individual tigers that were sampled repeatedly and that resident tigers are more likely to be sampled repeatedly, the presumed transient tigers had significantly greater parasite loads than the presumed resident ones. PMID:12000685

  5. A Dynamic Analysis of Industrial Cluster Evolution based on Lotka-Volterra Model: Studies of Southern and Central Taiwan Science Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chia-Han; Shyu, Joseph Z.; Li, Yimin

    2009-08-01

    This research aims to propose a dynamic analysis for industrial cluster evolution based on the Lotka-Volterra model. Particularly, an empirical competition case between Southern and Central Taiwan Science Park (STSP and CTSP) will be adopted in this study to demonstrate the validity of the dynamic approach. The results reveal that the competitive relationship between STSP and CSTP may be a predator-prey interaction type. The existence of STSP and its investment growth will be a positive assistance for developing the latter CTSP area. Contrarily, the growth of CTSP will probably compete with the resource of STSP and inhibit the sustained growth of STSP. In addition, there do not exist an equilibrium point in the competition relationship of these two clusters recently, which the STSP and CTSP area could coexist with a sustained growth in this current short-term stage.

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, P S; Albuquerque, G R; da Silva, V M F; Martin, A R; Marvulo, M F V; Souza, S L P; Ragozo, A M A; Nascimento, C C; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Silva, J C R

    2011-12-29

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefé, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT ≥ 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 56, and 1:500 in 2. Results suggest a high level contamination of the aquatic environment of the home range of these animals. PMID:21764516

  7. Evolutionary Relationships of the Triatoma matogrossensis Subcomplex, the Endemic Triatoma in Central-Western Brazil, Based on Mitochondrial DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Gardim, Sueli; Rocha, Cláudia S.; Almeida, Carlos E.; Takiya, Daniela M.; da Silva, Marco T. A.; Ambrósio, Daniela L.; Cicarelli, Regina M. B.; da Rosa, João A.

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among species of Triatoma matogrossensis subcomplex ( T. baratai, T. guazu, T. matogrossensis, T. sordida, T. vandae, and T. williami) was addressed by using fragments of cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 16S rDNA (16S), and cytochrome b (Cytb) through Bayesian and parsimony analyses. We did not recover a monophyletic T. matogrossensis subcomplex, and their members were found clustered in three strongly supported clades, as follows: i) T. jurbergi + T. matogrossensis + T. vandae + T. garciabesi + T. sordida; ii) with T. guasayana as the sister group of clade (i); and iii) T. williami + T. guazu, however not closely related to the clade formed by the previously mentioned species. The other two endemic species from Central-Western Brazil, T. baratai and T. costalimai, were not recovered with strong clade support as related to other members of this subcomplex. Results call for a further revision in the classification of the subcomplexes within the genus Triatoma. PMID:24002487

  8. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region. PMID:27286412

  9. Geochemistry of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) sills from deep boreholes in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatlen Heimdal, Thea; Svensen, Henrik H.; Pereira, Egberto; Planke, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the most extensive Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), and is associated with the breakup of Pangea and the subsequent opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. A large part of the province, including > 1 M km2 basins containing sill intrusions, is located in Brazil but has received limited attention due to the lack of outcrops. We have studied CAMP sills from seven deep boreholes (up to 3100 m deep) in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, northern Brazil. The boreholes contain up to ~ 482 m of sills (18 % of the stratigraphy), with a maximum individual sill thickness of 140 m. The sills were partly emplaced into thick Carboniferous evaporites. The main mineral phases of the sills include plagioclase and pyroxene, with accessory apatite, biotite, ilmenite and quartz. The majority of the sills are low-Ti dolerites (TiO2 < 2 wt.%), with the exception of four samples (with 2.2 - 3.3 wt.% TiO2). The low-Ti rocks range from basalt to basaltic andesite and plot in the tholeiitic field defined within the total alkali versus silica (TAS) classification. C1 chondrite normalized Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns for both Ti-groups show increasing LREE compared to HREE (La/Lu = 2.2 - 4.1) with no major anomalies, and attest to a relatively evolved nature (La = 17-65 ppm). Primitive mantle normalized patterns for low-Ti rocks show negative anomalies for Nb, Ta, P and Ti and positive for K, whereas the high-Ti rocks show generally opposite anomalies. Late stage patches in the dolerites contain apatite, quartz and Cl-bearing biotite, suggesting the presence of halogens that may partly derive from the host sedimentary rocks.

  10. EFFECTS OF LAND USE CHANGES ON THE FUNCTIONING OF SOILS AND WATERSHEDS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL SAVANNAS: PHASE 2, IMPACTS ON NUTRIENT AND CARBON CYCLES AND TRACE GAS EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research is funded through an interagency agreement with NASA. The research in this project is contributing to assessments of the effects of land use in central Brazil on: 1) the stocks and cycling rates of carbon and nutrient cycling; 2) the function and structure of soil ...

  11. Characteristics of Mesospheric Gravity Waves Observed in the Central Region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrasse, Cristiano Max; Messias Almeida, Lazaro; Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Valentin Bageston, José; Pillat, Valdir G.; Lima, Washington L. C.

    Gravity waves observations were carried out at Palmas (10.16o S, 48.26o W) Brazil, between September 2007 and December 2008, using an all-sky airglow imager to measure the OH emis-sion. The gravity waves were divided in two groups following they morphology as band and ripples type waves. The main characteristics of the band type waves are: horizontal wavelength between 10-35 km; observed period raging from 5 to 25 minutes; observed phase speed between 5-60 m/s. Preferential propagation directions of the bands are northward and southward, show-ing a clear anisotropy. For the ripples the main wave parameters are: horizontal wavelength ranging between 5 and 15 km; observed period mainly distributed between 5 and 15 minutes and horizontal phase velocity from 5 to 30 m/s. The ripples showed the same anisotropy as in the preferential propagation direction as the band type waves. The gravity wave characteristics observed at Palmas were compared with other observations carried out in Brazil, showing simi-lar features. In order to explain the seasonal variation of the wave propagation direction, maps of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (ORL) were used to locate regions with intense deep con-vection (OLR < 220 W.m-2 ) in the lower atmosphere. During summer and autumn the wave sources regions are well correlated with deep convection areas located at west and northwest of Palmas.

  12. Use and diversity of palm (Arecaceae) resources in Central Western Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Renata Corrêa; Filgueiras, Tarciso de Sousa; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Arecaceae Schultz-Sch. (Palmae Juss.), a member of the monocotyledon group, is considered one of the oldest extant angiosperm families on Earth. This family is highly valuable because of its species diversity, its occurrence in a wide range of habitats, and its status as an integral part of the culture and the family-based economy of many traditional and nontraditional communities. The main objectives of this study were to perform an ethnobotanical study involving these palms and a "Quilombola" (Maroon) community in the municipality of Cavalcante, GO, Brazil. The variables gender, age, and formal schooling had no influence on the number of species recognized and used by the Kalungas. Ethnobotanical studies based on traditional knowledge in addition to use and management of palms are fundamental aspects for planning and appliance of public policies directed to the use of natural resources and improvement of life quality. PMID:24772040

  13. Use and Diversity of Palm (Arecaceae) Resources in Central Western Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Renata Corrêa; Filgueiras, Tarciso de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Arecaceae Schultz-Sch. (Palmae Juss.), a member of the monocotyledon group, is considered one of the oldest extant angiosperm families on Earth. This family is highly valuable because of its species diversity, its occurrence in a wide range of habitats, and its status as an integral part of the culture and the family-based economy of many traditional and nontraditional communities. The main objectives of this study were to perform an ethnobotanical study involving these palms and a “Quilombola” (Maroon) community in the municipality of Cavalcante, GO, Brazil. The variables gender, age, and formal schooling had no influence on the number of species recognized and used by the Kalungas. Ethnobotanical studies based on traditional knowledge in addition to use and management of palms are fundamental aspects for planning and appliance of public policies directed to the use of natural resources and improvement of life quality. PMID:24772040

  14. Agro-pastoral expansion and land use/land cover (LU/LC) change dynamics in Central-western Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanga-Ngoie, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Brazil, large-scale land cover changes following extensive deforestations are expected to generate big impacts onto the climate and the environment over this area, with eventually many negative feedbacks on the global scale. Mato Grosso State, located in the central western Brazil, is known to be the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate. Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in this state due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. In this study, we specifically aim at doing more detailed analysis for the causes of deforestation and savannization in this area, with special attention to agriculture and cattle ranching industry at the municipal district level in this state. Using GIS techniques and remotely-sensed NOAA/AVHRR data, we created 5-year Digital Vegetation Model Maps characterizing LU/LC features for every five years during the 1981-2001 periods using the PCA first components of the NOAA/AVHRR multi-spectral data. Our results make it clear that: (1) LU/LC changes among the phases are of the following 3 major types: degradation, recovery or transition; (2) The changes in LU/LC features are concomitant with the advance of cattle ranching and corn production activities toward the northern parts of the state, and with the expansion of soybean production in the central and western Mato Grosso; (3) Most of the agro-pastoral business are found in the southern Mato Grosso where about 46% of the state's deforestation during the 1981-2001 period occurred; (4) Rates of vegetation change are larger over non-inhabited areas (56%), especially in the north, than over the populated zones in the south (42%). Moreover, this work sheds some new light on the patterns of the changes in LU/LC features (deforestation and savannization) for each municipal district of Mato Grosso. In general, the following activities

  15. Habitat suitability mapping of Anopheles darlingi in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant reservoir, Mato Grosso, Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zeilhofer, Peter; Santos, Emerson Soares dos; Ribeiro, Ana LM; Miyazaki, Rosina D; Santos, Marina Atanaka dos

    2007-01-01

    Background Hydropower plants provide more than 78 % of Brazil's electricity generation, but the country's reservoirs are potential new habitats for main vectors of malaria. In a case study in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil, habitat suitability of Anopheles darlingi was studied. Habitat profile was characterized by collecting environmental data. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were applied to extract additional spatial layers of land use, distance maps, and relief characteristics for spatial model building. Results Logistic regression analysis and ROC curves indicate significant relationships between the environment and presence of An. darlingi. Probabilities of presence strongly vary as a function of land cover and distance from the lake shoreline. Vector presence was associated with spatial proximity to reservoir and semi-deciduous forests followed by Cerrado woodland. Vector absence was associated with open vegetation formations such as grasslands and agricultural areas. We suppose that non-significant differences of vector incidences between rainy and dry seasons are associated with the availability of anthropogenic breeding habitat of the reservoir throughout the year. Conclusion Satellite image classification and multitemporal shoreline simulations through DEM-based GIS-analyses consist in a valuable tool for spatial modeling of A. darlingi habitats in the studied hydropower reservoir area. Vector presence is significantly increased in forested areas near reservoirs in bays protected from wind and wave action. Construction of new reservoirs under the tropical, sub-humid climatic conditions should therefore be accompanied by entomologic studies to predict the risk of malaria epidemics. PMID:17343728

  16. New geological and single-zircon Pb evaporation data from the Central Guyana Domain, southeastern Roraima, Brazil: Tectonic implications for the central region of the Guyana Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Marcelo E.; Macambira, Moacir J. B.; Valente, Sérgio de C.

    2008-11-01

    Metagranitoid rocks, mylonites, leucogneisses and granulites occur in the Central Guyana Domain (CGD) near the UatumÖAnauá Domain (UAD) boundary, southeastern Roraima (Brazil). These rocks are oriented along NE-SW and E-W trends and dip to NW and N, respectively. Single-zircon Pb evaporation results yielded 1724 ± 14 Ma and 1889 ± 3 Ma for a syn-kinematic foliated hornblende-biotite monzogranite and a granodioritic mylonite, respectively. These results point to a new tectonic event (Itã Event) in the area in addition to the 1.94-1.93 Ga (late- to post-Transamazonian) and the 1.35-0.98 Ga (K'Mudku) thermal tectonic events. This new event may be related, at least locally, with the evolution of the Columbia Supercontinent. In addition, the Itã Fault System is younger than 1.89 Ga (granodioritic mylonite age), contrasting with the Barauana high-grade lineament and 1.94 Ga polydeformed rocks, pointing to the needs of a major revision of lithostratigraphic column currently proposed for the CGD as well as the CGD and UAD boundary.

  17. Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil 1. Dry season

    SciTech Connect

    Andreae, M.O.; Talbot, R.W.; Andreae, T.W.; Harriss, R.C.

    1988-02-20

    We have determined the atmospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase, in aerosols, and in rain during the dry season (July--August 1985) in the Amazonia region of Brazil. At ground level the average concentrations of gas phase formic and acetic acid were 1.6 +- 0.6 and 2.2 +- 1.0 ppb, respectively. The diurnal behavior of both acids at ground level and their vertical distribution in the forest canopy point to the existence of vegetative sources as well as to production by chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Dry deposition of the gaseous acids appears to be a major sink. The concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase were about 2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations of the corresponding species in the atmospheric aerosol. About 50--60%/sub 0/ of the aerosol (total) formate and acetate were in the size fraction below 1.0 ..mu..m diameter.

  18. Molecular phylogeny of Neotropical bioluminescent beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) in southern and central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amaral, D T; Arnoldi, F G C; Rosa, S P; Viviani, V R

    2014-08-01

    Bioluminescence in beetles is found mainly in the Elateroidea superfamily (Elateridae, Lampyridae and Phengodidae). The Neotropical region accounts for the richest diversity of bioluminescent species in the world with about 500 described species, most occurring in the Amazon, Atlantic rainforest and Cerrado (savanna) ecosystems in Brazil. The origin and evolution of bioluminescence, as well as the taxonomic status of several Neotropical taxa in these families remains unclear. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of bioluminescent Elateroidea we sequenced and analyzed sequences of mitochondrial NADH2 and the nuclear 28S genes and of the cloned luciferase sequences of Brazilian species belonging to the following genera: (Lampyridae) Macrolampis, Photuris, Amydetes, Bicellonycha, Aspisoma, Lucidota, Cratomorphus; (Elateridae) Conoderus, Pyrophorus, Hapsodrilus, Pyrearinus, Fulgeochlizus; and (Phengodidae) Pseudophengodes, Phrixothrix, Euryopa and Brasilocerus. Our study supports a closer phylogenetic relationship between Elateridae and Phengodidae as other molecular studies, in contrast with previous morphologic and molecular studies that clustered Lampyridae/Phengodidae. Molecular data also supported division of the Phengodinae subfamily into the tribes Phengodini and Mastinocerini. The position of the genus Amydetes supports the status of the Amydetinae as a subfamily. The genus Euryopa is included in the Mastinocerini tribe within the Phengodinae/Phengodidae. PMID:23868199

  19. Vulnerability to AIDS among the elderly in an urban center in central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Driemeier, Marta; Maria Oliveira de Andrade, Sônia; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Mello Miranda Paniago, Anamaria; Venâncio da Cunha, Rivaldo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As the world population ages with an improved quality of life and sexual longevity, the prevalence of AIDS is rising among the elderly. The purpose of this study was to estimate the vulnerability to AIDS among individuals attending senior community centers in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHOD: This descriptive, exploratory investigation included 329 subjects selected in a probabilistic manner. Individuals with scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination indicating cognitive impairment were excluded from the analyses. Barthel's and Lawton's functional assessment scales were applied. Interviews were conducted to evaluate the presence of cognitive and behavioral factors associated with HIV transmission. RESULTS: Most subjects were non-dependent, fell within the 60- to 69-year age bracket and were female. A majority of individuals reported having knowledge about AIDS and were aware that the elderly are vulnerable to the disease. More than a quarter (26.9%) of the sample reported previous HIV testing. No participants reported drug use, homosexual orientation, or alcohol abuse. A minority of participants reported using medication for erectile dysfunction. Casual and multiple partners accounted for 12% and 34% of reported intercourse experiences, respectively. Condom use was reported by 14% of respondents. CONCLUSION: Unprotected sex was the primary factor accounting for vulnerability to AIDS among the elderly. PMID:22249476

  20. Use of heat tolerance traits in discriminating between groups of sheep in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Marlos; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Louvandini, Helder; Landim, Aline; Fiorvanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; Dallago, Bruno Stefano; Correa, Patricia Spoto; McManus, Concepta

    2010-12-01

    The animal and its environment make up an integrated system, where each acts on the other. Tropical regions are characterized by high levels of solar radiation and environmental temperature which may adversely affect animal production. This study carries out a multivariate analysis of physical and physiological traits in sheep in the Federal District of Brazil to test the ability to separate groups of animals and determine which traits are most important in the adaptation of animal to heat stress. The variables studied included coat thickness, number and length of hairs, pigmentation of the skin and coat, number of sweat glands as well as heart and respiratory rates, rectal and skin temperatures, sweating rate, and blood parameters. Five groups of ten animals were used depending on breed (Bergamasca, crossbred, or Santa Inês) or coat color (Santa Inês--brown, white, and black). The data underwent multivariate statistical analyses including cluster, discriminate, and canonical, using Statistical Analysis System--SAS®. The tree diagram showed clear distances between groups studied and canonical analysis was able to separate individuals in groups, especially Bergamasca and white Santa Inês. The canonical correlation redundancy analysis showed that coat reflectance as well as hair length and number of hairs per unit area were the most useful in explaining changes in physiological traits. Skin and coat traits such as hair length, coat reflectance, percentage of epithelial area occupied by sweat glands, skin reflectance and thickness, as well as heart and breathing rates were the most important in separating these groups. PMID:20652407

  1. Impacts of stocking on the genetic diversity of Colossoma macropomum in central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, C A; Sousa, N R; da Silva, G F; Inoue, L A K A

    2016-01-01

    Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is the main fish species farmed on a commercial scale in northern Brazil. In view of the current scenario of Brazilian aquaculture, studies on the genetic improvement and reproductive management of captive tambaqui are crucial in identifying the genetic variability of broodstocks and devising management practices. Genetic diversity of three tambaqui broodstocks in western Amazon was evaluated using molecular markers. Fin samples were collected from 89 fish; 38 from Balbina, 30 from a hatchery in Rio Preto da Eva, and 21 from the experimental farm of the Federal University of Amazonas (UFAM). Ten primers were used for the analysis of diversity and genetic structure. Of the 152 bands produced, 146 were polymorphic. The proportion of polymorphic loci showed little variation among the three stocks. The lowest and highest rates were found in the Rio Preto da Eva (80.92%) and Balbina (85.53%) stocks, respectively. Heterozygosity (H) and Shannon (I) indices were similar among the stocks; the lowest values were found in Balbina (H = 0.279 and I = 0.419), and the highest in UFAM (H = 0.294 and I = 0.439). Following analysis of the genetic structure and relationship, the sample was divided into two groups, with the Balbina stock clearly deviating from the others. The results suggest that, to increase genetic variability, molecular information may be used instead of replacement of wild breeders. The groups characterized here can be used in genetic improvement programs with other tambaqui broodstocks from different areas of South America. PMID:27173205

  2. SAINT LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS IN MATO GROSSO, CENTRAL-WESTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEINEN, Letícia Borges da Silva; ZUCHI, Nayara; SERRA, Otacília Pereira; CARDOSO, Belgath Fernandes; GONDIM, Breno Herman Ferreira; dos SANTOS, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; SOUTO, Francisco José Dutra; de PAULA, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; DUTRA, Valéria; DEZENGRINI-SLHESSARENKO, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The dengue virus (DENV), which is frequently involved in large epidemics, and the yellow fever virus (YFV), which is responsible for sporadic sylvatic outbreaks, are considered the most important flaviviruses circulating in Brazil. Because of that, laboratorial diagnosis of acute undifferentiated febrile illness during epidemic periods is frequently directed towards these viruses, which may eventually hinder the detection of other circulating flaviviruses, including the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), which is widely dispersed across the Americas. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular investigation of 11 flaviviruses using 604 serum samples obtained from patients during a large dengue fever outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso (MT) between 2011 and 2012. Simultaneously, 3,433 female Culex spp. collected with Nasci aspirators in the city of Cuiabá, MT, in 2013, and allocated to 409 pools containing 1-10 mosquitoes, were also tested by multiplex semi-nested reverse transcription PCR for the same flaviviruses. SLEV was detected in three patients co-infected with DENV-4 from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. One of them was a triple co-infection with DENV-1. None of them mentioned recent travel or access to sylvatic/rural regions, indicating that transmission might have occurred within the metropolitan area. Regarding mosquito samples, one pool containing one Culex quinquefasciatus female was positive for SLEV, with a minimum infection rate (MIR) of 0.29 per 1000 specimens of this species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates both human and mosquito SLEV cluster, with isolates from genotype V-A obtained from animals in the Amazon region, in the state of Pará. This is the first report of SLEV molecular identification in MT. PMID:26200961

  3. 2001-2010 glacier changes in the Central Karakoram National Park: a contribution to evaluate the magnitude and rate of the "Karakoram anomaly"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minora, Umberto; Bocchiola, Daniele; D'Agata, Carlo; Maragno, Davide; Mayer, Cristoph; Lambrecht, Astrid; Mosconi, Boris; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Senese, Antonella; Compostella, Chiara; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina

    2013-04-01

    We use Landsat images to quantify recent (2001 and 2010) glacier area coverage and its change within the recently established Central Karakoram National Park, CKNP, Northern Pakistan, including Baltoro and Biafo-Ispar glaciers, at Mt. K2 toe. Trends of climate variables (1980-2009) as provided by PMD of Pakistan for low altitude stations, are investigated, to assess possible effect of climate upon glaciers within the CKNP. The work was developed in fulfillment of the SEED and PAPRIKA projects, promoted and managed by the EvK2CNR Committee, aimed to promote social development in the CKNP area, and investigate water resources in upper Indus basin. We found substantially unchanged ice cover, which is consistent with recent the literature, suggesting the presence of the so called Karakoram Anomaly. The climate data display i) a slight decrease of Summer temperatures, possibly decreasing snow and ice melt, and ii) an increase of wet days during Winter, possibly increasing the number of snowfalls, and possibly of ice shielding via snow albedo. These joint effects, together with increasing debris coverage, may have in turn contributed to unchanged glacier area, in spite of the general warming trend. Our study highlights possible underlying mechanisms of the Karakoram Anomaly, and the need for further studies of climate variables at high altitudes, including snowfall accumulation, temperature and solar radiation, to understand more accurately glacier mass budgets and evolution in this area.

  4. Fluxes of isoprene and monoterpenes emitted by Tapajos National Forest, eastern central Amazonian rainforest, Santarem-PA, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, E. G.; Batalha, S. S. A.; Park, J. H.; Seco, R.; Tota, J.; Santana, R. A. S. D.; Guenther, A. B.; Kim, S.; Smith, J. N.; Souza, R. A. F. D.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) play an important role in atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. It is known that tropical forests are the biggest source of the dominant BVOCs (i.e. isoprene and monoterpenes) emitted to the atmosphere. Nevertheless, Amazonian rainforest, the world's largest tropical rainforest, has been poorly explored for isoprene and monoterpene emissions. Recently (June and July 2014), we deployed a PTR-TOF-MS (Proton Transfer Reaction - Time of Flight - Mass Spectrometer) to quantify isoprene and monoterpene emissions using the eddy covariance flux method at the FLONA Tapajos (Floresta Nacional do Tapajos; Tapajos National Forest) in the eastern central Amazon rainforest, Santarem-PA, Brazil. The sample inlet and a 3D-sonic anemometer were located above the forest canopy (~65m), and the air was sampled through a long Teflon tube (100m) with high flow rate (40L/min) to the PTR-TOF-MS. From preliminary results for the first 3 days, concentrations and fluxes of m/z 69 (isoprene; C5H8-H+) and m/z 137 (total monoterpenes; C10H16-H+) showed a clear circadian cycle (high during daytime and low at nighttime), suggesting the emissions of these compounds are light and temperature dependent. Our study provides the first PTR-TOF-MS flux observations of isoprene and total monoterpenes at the Flona Tapajos. Moreover, since there are variations on the emissions, when comparing different environments of the huge Amazon basin, these results from eastern central Amazonia will contribute to improving regional and global BVOC emission model estimates.

  5. Paleomagnetism of the Santa Fé Group, central Brazil: Implications for the late Paleozoic apparent polar wander path for South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Daniele; Ernesto, Marcia; Rocha-Campos, Antonio Carlos; Dos Santos, Paulo Roberto

    2009-02-01

    Paleomagnetic and rockmagnetic data are reported for the Floresta Formation (Santa Fé Group) of the Sanfranciscana Basin, central Brazil. This formation represents the Permo-Carboniferous glacial record of the basin and comprises the Brocotó (diamictites and flow diamictites), Brejo do Arroz (red sandstones and shales with dropstones and invertebrate trails), and Lavado (red sandstones) members, which crop out near the cities of Santa Fé de Minas and Canabrava, Minas Gerais State. Both Brejo do Arroz and Lavado members were sampled in the vicinities of the two localities. Alternating field and thermal demagnetizations of 268 samples from 76 sites revealed reversed components of magnetization in all samples in accordance with the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron. The magnetic carriers are magnetite and hematite with both minerals exhibiting the same magnetization component, suggesting a primary origin for the remanence. We use the high-quality paleomagnetic pole for the Santa Fé Group (330.9°E 65.7°S; N = 60; α95 = 4.1°; k = 21) in a revised late Carboniferous to early Triassic apparent polar wander path for South America. On the basis of this result it is shown that an early Permian Pangea A-type fit is possible if better determined paleomagnetic poles become available.

  6. Chemical composition of the fruit mesocarp of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) populations grown in central Amazonia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yuyama, Lúcia K O; Aguiar, Jaime P L; Yuyama, Kaoru; Clement, Charles R; Macedo, Sonja H M; Fávaro, Deborah I T; Afonso, Claudia; Vasconcellos, Marina B A; Pimentel, Sabria A; Badolato, Elsa S G; Vannucchi, Helio

    2003-01-01

    The percent composition, soluble and insoluble food fibers, oil fatty acids and minerals were determined in the mesocarp of fruits of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) populations grown in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Amino acids were also determined in one of the populations. The mean protein levels ranged from 1.8 to 2.7%, lipid levels ranged from 3.5 to 11.1%, the nitrogen free fraction ranged from 24.3 to 35%, food fiber ranged from 5.2% to 8.7%, and energy ranged from 179.1 to 207.4 kcal%. All essential, as well as non-essential, amino acids were present, with tryptophan and methionine presenting the lowest mean concentrations. The mono-unsaturated oleic acid predominated in the oil, ranging from 42.8 to 60.8%, and palmitic acid was the most abundant saturated fatty acid, ranging from 24.1 to 42.3%. Among the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid was the most abundant, with a maximum of 5.4% in Pampa-8. The most important mineral elements were potassium, selenium and chromium, respectively corresponding to 12%, 9% and 9% of daily recommended allowances. Considering the nutritional potential of the fruit, we suggest its more frequent incorporation into the diet of the Amazonian population. PMID:12701237

  7. Analysis of moisture content, acidity and contamination by yeast and molds in Apis mellifera L. honey from central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ananias, Karla Rubia; de Melo, Adriane Alexandre Machado; de Moura, Celso José

    2013-01-01

    The development of mold of environmental origin in honey affects its quality and leads to its deterioration, so yeasts and molds counts have been used as an important indicator of hygiene levels during its processing, transportation and storage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of yeasts and molds contamination and their correlation with moisture and acidity levels in Apis mellifera L. honey from central Brazil. In 20% of the samples, the yeasts and molds counts exceeded the limit established by legislation for the marketing of honey in the MERCOSUR, while 42.8% and 5.7% presented above-standard acidity and moisture levels, respectively. Although samples showed yeasts and molds counts over 1.0 × 102 UFC.g−1, there was no correlation between moisture content and the number of microorganisms, since, in part of the samples with above-standard counts, the moisture level was below 20%. In some samples the acidity level was higher than that established by legislation, but only one sample presented a yeasts and molds count above the limit established by MERCOSUR, which would suggest the influence of the floral source on this parameter. In general, of the 35 samples analyzed, the quality was considered inadequate in 45.7% of cases. PMID:24516434

  8. Deposition fluxes of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) above FLONA Tapajós in central Amazon rainforest, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Alves, E. G.; Batalha, S. S. A.; Seco, R.; Tota, J.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Guenther, A. B.; Kim, S.; Smith, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding of VOC deposition is highly uncertain due to a lack of direct flux measurements, but this loss process has been inferred to dominate the removal of VOC from the atmosphere. A recent study on ecosystem scale BVOC fluxes over Amazonian rainforest showed that some oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), which are photochemically produced above the canopy, were depositing measurably into the forest. However, that study was limited to only a few compounds due to the technical difficulties. Very recently (June and July 2014), we deployed a PTR-TOF-MS (Proton Transfer Reaction - Time of Flight - Mass Spectrometer) to apply eddy covariance flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) above the FLONA Tapajós (Floresta Nacional do Tapajós) in the central Amazon rainforest in Brazil. The main goal of this study is to quantify emissions and depositions of a wide range of VOCs and their oxidation products formed above and below canopy. In this presentation, data analysis will be focused on some depositing OVOCs into the forest. From preliminary results for the first 3 days of eddy covariance flux measurement, m/z 31 (CH2OH+), m/z 45 (C2H4OH+), m/z 61 (C2H4O2H+), m/z 71 (C4H6OH+), and m/z 113 (C5H4O3H+) were observed as uniformly depositing compounds during the daytime.

  9. Chloritites of the Tocantins Group, Araguaia fold belt, central-northern Brazil: Vestiges of basaltic magmatism and metallogenetic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotschoubey, Basile; Villas, Raimundo Netuno; Aires, Benevides

    2016-08-01

    Chloritites from different localities (Arapoema, Couto Magalhães Velho, Juarina, Morro Grande, Morro do Jabuti, Morro do Pau Ferrado, Morro do Salto, Serra do Jacu, Serra do Quatipuru, Serra do Tapa, Serrinha) of the Araguaia fold belt, Tocantins geotectonic province, central-northern Brazil, have been investigated. Based on field work and petrographic, diffractometric, geochemical and mineral chemistry data, these rocks, commonly associated with metacherts and banded iron formations, have been interpreted as products of ocean-floor exhalative-hydrothermal activity on MORB basalts. Distribution patterns of rare earth elements and diagrams of relatively immobile components in the hydrothermal environment highlight not only the genetic link between the chloritites and the basaltic rocks that occur in the region (Serra do Tapa and Morro do Agostinho), but also some peculiar characteristics of the submarine environment. The rock association and anomalous contents of Cu, Zn, Ni, As, and Au are suggestive that the region was favorable to the formation of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, what makes it a potential target for mineral exploration programs.

  10. Park It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  11. Energy balance with Landsat images in irrigated central pivots with corn crop in the São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Antônio H. d. C.; Hernandez, Fernando B. T.; Andrade, Ricardo G.; Leivas, Janice F.; Bolfe, Edson L.

    2014-10-01

    The energy balance (EB) components were quantified in a commercial farm with corn crop, irrigated by central pivots, in the Northwestern side of São Paulo state, Southeast Brazil. The SAFER (Simple Algorithm For Evapotranspiration Retrieving) was applied to retrieve the latent heat flux (λE), considering six pivots, covering irrigated areas from 74 to 108 ha. With λE quantified and considering soil heat flux (G) as a fraction of net radiation (Rn), the sensible heat flux (H) was acquired as a residual in the energy balance equation. Seven Landsat satellite images, covering all corn crop stages from 23 April 2010 to 29 August 2010, allowed relating the energy balance components according to the accumulated degree-days (DDac) from the planting to harvest dates. The average Rn values ranging from 5.2 to 7.2 MJ m-2 day-1, represented 30 to 45% of global solar radiation (RG). Considering the variation of the energy balance components along the corn crop growing seasons, the average ranges for λE, H and G were respectively 0.0 to 6.4 MJ m-2 day-1, -1.5 to 6.7 MJ m-2 day-1 and 0.1 to 0.6 MJ m-2 day-1. The fraction of the available energy (Rn - G) used as λE was from 0.0 to 1.3 indicated a good irrigation management, insuring that the water deficit could not be the reason of any yield reduction. Although Rn did not reflected well the crop stages, its partition strongly depended on these stages. λE higher than Rn and the negative H/Rn, happening sometimes along the corn growing seasons, occurred after the vegetative growth and before the harvest times, indicated heat advection from the surrounding areas to the irrigation pivots, which represented an additional energy source for the evaporative process. The models applied here with only the visible and infrared bands of the Landsat sensor are very useful for the energy balance analyses, considering the size of the corn crop irrigation pivots in Southeast Brazil, when subsidizing a rational irrigation water application

  12. New approach for the strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes in grazed beef cattle during the growing phase in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heckler, R P; Borges, D G L; Vieira, M C; Conde, M H; Green, M; Amorim, M L; Echeverria, J T; Oliveira, T L; Moro, E; Van Onselen, V J; Borges, F A

    2016-05-15

    We evaluated the effect of different treatment protocols against gastrointestinal nematodes in Nelore beef cattle during the growing phase in the municipality of Terenos, MS, in central Brazil from May 2013 to April 2014 and from May 2014 to April 2015. Ninety-six Nelore calves were kept on Brachiaria brizantha grass during each trial period and were distributed into six experimental groups (replicate paddocks for each group) based on live weight and the number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG): T1 (control)-treated in May, July and September with a saline solution; T2-treated in May and November with 700μg/kg doramectin; T3-treated in May (doramectin), July (4.7mg/kg levamisole phosphate) and September (doramectin); T4-treated in May (doramectin), July (200μg/kg moxidectin) and September (doramectin); T5-treated in May (doramectin), August (levamisole phosphate) and November (doramectin) and T6-treated in May (doramectin), August (moxidectin) and November (doramectin). The calves were weighed and feces were collected (for faecal culture and EPG counts) from calves every 28days, concomitantly with the collection of forage samples. The efficacies of doramectin, moxidectin and levamisole were low, at 69.2, 65.9 and 69.4% in the first and 13.8, 92.6, and 76.5% in the second experimental periods, respectively, but only the untreated animals lost weight during the dry season. Final weight gains did not differ significantly (p>0.05) among the animals in T2 (120.8kg), T3 (131.4kg), T4 (131.2kg) and T5 (134.4kg). T6 was the only group with a significantly higher final weight gain (140.9kg) compared to the protocol with two annual dosages (T2). The weight gain was 31.9% higher in T6 than in the untreated animals (T1). None of the protocols affected the number of larvae on the pasture. Body weight was significantly and negatively (r=-0.65) correlated with EPG counts, which were significantly lower in June (T2, T3, T4 and T6), August (T3), September (T5 and T6), October (T5

  13. Distribution of throughfall and stemflow in multi-strata agroforestry, perennial monoculture, fallow and primary forest in central Amazonia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroth, Götz; Ferreira da Silva, Luciana; Wolf, Marc-Andree; Geraldes Teixeira, Wenceslau; Zech, Wolfgang

    1999-07-01

    The partitioning of rain water into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss when passing through plant canopies depends on properties of the respective plant species, such as leaf area and branch angles. In heterogeneous vegetation, such as tropical forest or polycultural systems, the presence of different plant species may consequently result in a mosaic of situations with respect to quantity and quality of water inputs into the soil. As these processes influence not only the water availability for the plants, but also water infiltration and nutrient leaching, the understanding of plant effects on the repartitioning of rain water may help in the optimization of land use systems and management practices. We measured throughfall and stemflow in a perennial polyculture (multi-strata agroforestry), monocultures of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) for fruit and for palmito, a monoculture of cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), spontaneous fallow and primary forest during one year in central Amazonia, Brazil. The effect on rain water partitioning was measured separately for four useful tree species in the polyculture and for two tree species in the primary forest. Throughfall at two stem distances, and stemflow, differed significantly between tree species, resulting in pronounced spatial patterns of water input into the soil in the polyculture system. For two tree species, peach palm for fruit (Bactris gasipaes) and Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa), the water input into the soil near the stem was significantly higher than the open-area rainfall. This could lead to increased nutrient leaching when fertilizer is applied close to the stem of these trees. In the primary forest, such spatial patterns could also be detected, with significantly higher water input near a palm (Oenocarpus bacaba) than near a dicotyledonous tree species (Eschweilera sp.). Interception losses were 6·4% in the polyculture, 13·9 and 12·3% in the peach palm monocultures for fruit and for

  14. Dissolved organic matter and terrestrial-lotic linkages in the Central Amazon Basin of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClain, Michael E.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Brandes, Jay A.; Pimentel, Tania P.

    1997-09-01

    We evaluate the hypothesis that decomposition and adsorption reactions operating in upland soils of headwater catchments control the concentration and composition of dissolved and fine particulate organic matter in rivers of the Amazon basin. In two contrasting first-order catchments characteristic of the central Amazon basin, we analyzed plant, litter, soil, groundwater, and stream water chemistry. Our results indicate that clear and persistent differences exist in the concentration and elemental composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in stream waters and groundwaters from the two catchments, due mainly to corresponding differences in soil texture and chemistry. Within the more oxide and clay rich Oxisols underlying terra firme forest, groundwater DOM concentrations were uniformly low (120 μMC) and C/N ratios averaged 10. Conversely, within the oxide and clay deficient Spodosols underlying campinarana forest, groundwater DOM concentrations were greatly elevated (3000 μMC), and C/N ratios averaged near 60. We found that, in the terra firme/Oxisol terrain, the majority of DOM contributions to the stream derived from the riparian zone, while in the campinarana/Spodosol terrain, upland groundwater contributions could account for the concentration and composition of DOM in the stream. The implications of our findings are that in the terra firme terrains which dominate the region, upland soil profiles are not the site of definitive processes which impart compositional signatures to organic matter carried by the largest rivers of the Amazon basin, as was hypothesized. Instead, we suggest that definitive reactions are focused primarily in the river corridor.

  15. Litter manipulation and associated invertebrate fauna in secondary forest, central Amazonia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Evanira M. R.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Luizão, Flávio J.

    2008-11-01

    Plant litter from selected tree species has been used for improving soil productivity in low-input systems of secondary vegetation in Central Amazon, leading to different conditions for invertebrates. Soil invertebrate assemblages were monitored to test the effects of adding litter types of contrasting nutritional quality and periods of exposure on the development of the community. We established four second growth plots with 80 subplots of 3 m 2 from which the original litter was removed and replaced in 60 subplots. Twenty subplots received Hevea brasiliensis leaves, 20 others Carapa guianensis leaves, and another 20 an equal mixture of H. brasiliensis, C. guianensis and Vismia guianensis. Twenty subplots were left with the original litter. Litter and mineral soil (5 cm deep) sub-horizons were collected after 45, 100, 160, 240 and 300 days of exposure. The invertebrates were extracted using Kempson apparatus. At the day 210, the litter was replenished to match the surrounding litter. Regression analyses showed no significant effect of litter type, but the period of exposure did affect the community in both sub-horizons. Only after the litter replenishment, the type of litter and periods of exposure affected the community in the litter sub-horizon. Because we tried to isolate the effects of litter composition from other large-scale phenomena, several factors interfered in the experiment and potential problems were identified to optimize the investigation. The sampling design must be improved by using a larger number of subsamples for each kind of litter within each plot. Coarse parameters of Order and Family were suited to detect major environmental patterns on soil invertebrates, but taxonomic resolution to species and/or morphospecies is required to detect more subtle effects. Future manipulations should also be done on a longer time scale, and the replicates need to be spread over larger areas to capture the natural variations within the ecosystems.

  16. Investigation into the Epidemiology of African Swine Fever Virus at the Wildlife - Domestic Interface of the Gorongosa National Park, Central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Quembo, C J; Jori, F; Heath, L; Pérez-Sánchez, R; Vosloo, W

    2016-08-01

    An epidemiological study of African swine fever (ASF) was conducted between March 2006 and September 2007 in a rural area adjacent to the Gorongosa National park (GNP) located in the Central Mozambique. Domestic pigs and warthogs were sampled to determine the prevalence of antibodies against ASF virus and the salivary antigens of Ornithodoros spp. ticks, while ticks collected from pig pens were tested for the presence of ASFV. In addition, 310 framers were interviewed to gain a better understanding of the pig value chain and potential practices that could impact on the spread of the virus. The sero-prevalence to ASFV was 12.6% on farms and 9.1% in pigs, while it reached 75% in warthogs. Approximately 33% of pigs and 78% of warthogs showed antibodies against salivary antigens of ticks. The differences in sero-prevalence between farms close to the GNP, where there is greater chance for the sylvatic cycle to cause outbreaks, and farms located in the rest of the district, where pig to pig transmission is more likely to occur, were marginally significant. Ornithodoros spp. ticks were found in only 2 of 20 pig pens outside the GNP, and both pens had ticks testing positive for ASFV DNA. Interviews carried out among farmers indicated that biosecurity measures were mostly absent. Herd sizes were small with pigs kept in a free-ranging husbandry system (65%). Only 1.6% of farmers slaughtered on their premises, but 51% acknowledged allowing visitors into their farms to purchase pigs. ASF outbreaks seemed to have a severe economic impact with nearly 36% of farmers ceasing pig farming for at least 1 year after a suspected ASF outbreak. This study provides the first evidence of the existence of a sylvatic cycle in Mozambique and confirms the presence of a permanent source of virus for the domestic pig value chain. PMID:25483914

  17. Relationships among vegetation, geomorphology and hydrology in the Bananal Island tropical wetlands, Araguaia River basin, Central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, C. R.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ferreira, L. G.

    2013-10-01

    The Bananal Plain spreading on the Middle Araguaia River basin in Central Brazil at the Cerrado-Amazonia ecotone is a unique system that sustains the largest seasonal wetlands of the Cerrado biome. The huge Bananal Plain is an intracratonic sedimentary basin filled with Pleistocene sediments of the Araguaia formation. Covering approximately two million hectares, the Bananal Island is a major geomorphologic feature of the Bananal plain. Fieldwork and the analysis of a temporal series of MODIS-VI and Landsat ETM images allowed us to discriminate Cerrado phyto-physiognomies on the Bananal Island. Maps of vegetation and geomorphologic units were created, and from the correlation between landforms and vegetation types we identified morpho-vegetation units. Our approach allowed us to postulate that Pleistocene landforms strongly influence, if not dominate, the distribution of vegetation units. For example, the distribution of current gallery forest is not only controlled by active floodplains, but also by alluvial belts abandoned by avulsion. Additionally, arboreal Cerrado vegetation is supported by laterite developed on the sediments of the Araguaia Formation. Some of these inactive landforms are in part modified by the present day geomorphologic processes and colonized by successional vegetation that varies from alluvial forest to Cerrado. Characterized by a very flat landscape with a hindered drainage, the muddy sediments of the Araguaia Formation and the high seasonal rainfall favor the development of regional seasonal wetlands. The Bananal plain is a key area for understanding the Quaternary climatic and biogeographic changes in tropical South America. The control exerted by relict Quaternary landforms on the current vegetation units demonstrates the strong links between geomorphologic aspects of the landscape and ecological patterns. This multidisciplinary approach provides a better understanding of the biogeographic patterns in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone, which is

  18. Upper-mantle seismic structure beneath SE and Central Brazil from P- and S-wave regional traveltime tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Marcelo Peres; Schimmel, Martin; Assumpção, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    We present models for the upper-mantle velocity structure beneath SE and Central Brazil using independent tomographic inversions of P- and S-wave relative arrival-time residuals (including core phases) from teleseismic earthquakes. The events were recorded by a total of 92 stations deployed through different projects, institutions and time periods during the years 1992-2004. Our results show correlations with the main tectonic structures and reveal new anomalies not yet observed in previous works. All interpretations are based on robust anomalies, which appear in the different inversions for P- and S-waves. The resolution is variable through our study volume and has been analyzed through different theoretical test inversions. High-velocity anomalies are observed in the western portion of the São Francisco Craton, supporting the hypothesis that this Craton was part of a major Neoproterozoic plate (San Franciscan Plate). Low-velocity anomalies beneath the Tocantins Province (mainly fold belts between the Amazon and São Francisco Cratons) are interpreted as due to lithospheric thinning, which is consistent with the good correlation between intraplate seismicity and low-velocity anomalies in this region. Our results show that the basement of the Paraná Basin is formed by several blocks, separated by suture zones, according to model of Milani & Ramos. The slab of the Nazca Plate can be observed as a high-velocity anomaly beneath the Paraná Basin, between the depths of 700 and 1200 km. Further, we confirm the low-velocity anomaly in the NE area of the Paraná Basin which has been interpreted by VanDecar et al. as a fossil conduct of the Tristan da Cunha Plume related to the Paraná flood basalt eruptions during the opening of the South Atlantic.

  19. Fission track analysis of apatites from São Francisco craton and Mesozoic alcaline-carbonatite complexes from central and southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, G.; Born, H.; Hadler, J. C. N.; Iunes, P. J.; Kawashita, K.; Machado, D. L.; Oliveira, E. P.; Paulo, S. R.; Tello, C. A. S.

    1997-07-01

    Thermal histories on seven Brazilian apatites were obtained by fission track analysis using Monte Carlo simulations. The apatites were collected from two distinct geotectonic provinces. One group, originated from São Francisco craton, represents a typical cratonic domain with Proterozoic and Eopaleozoic rocks and yielded Permo-Triassic ages (counted since the instant when temperature was low enough so that the damage produced by fission tracks in apatite started to be preserved). The common thermal history accepted by all samples of this group is a linear cooling from ~90 to ~25 °C for the last 240 Ma, in agreement with present day thermal gradient and denudation rates. The other group, from Mesozoic alkaline-carbonatite complexes, in central and southeastern Brazil, yielded Cretaceous ages, close to those of the intrusions. For the samples of central Brazil, fission track analysis suggests a slow cooling from ~95 ° to ~85 °C between 90 and 60 Ma ago, followed by a faster cooling from ~85 ° to ~27 °C for the last 60 Ma. Otherwise, two trends exist for the samples of southeastern Brazil. The primary one is an increase in temperature from ~75 ° to ~95 °C, which occurred between 140 and 60 Ma ago. In this period, there is also another trend: a cooling from ~100 ° to ~80 °C. However, both trends are followed by a common thermal history during the last 60 Ma: a cooling from approximately ~80 ° to ~25 °C.

  20. CZO perspective in Central Africa : The Lopé watershed, Lopé National Park, Ogooué River basin, Gabon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J. J.; Jeffery, K.; Koumba Pambo, A. F.; Paiz, M. C.; Richter, D., Jr.; John, P.; Jerome, G.

    2015-12-01

    Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) in equatorial regions are seldom (see e. g. http://www.czen.org/, USA and http://rnbv.ipgp.fr/, France). The equatorial zone of Central Africa is almost free of them with the exception of the CZO of the Upper Nyong river basin (organic-rich river on the lateritic plateau of South Cameroon; SO BVET, http://bvet.omp.obs-mip.fr/). On both sides of the Equator line, the Ogooué River Basin (215,000 km2) stretches on about 80% of the total area of Gabon and drains various geological and morpho-pedological contexts and feeds the sedimentation areas of the Central African passive margin (Guillochaux et al., 2014). The Upper Ogooué (up to Lambaréné) drains the stepped planation surface of the Congo craton while the Lower Ogooué drains Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary terrains. The climate is equatorial (Pmean = 2500 mm/yr; Tmean = 26 °; %humidity > 80%). Continuous hydro-climatic chronicles exist for the period 1953-1974 (managed by ORSTOM, now IRD). The runoff at Lambaréné (92% of the basin area) is very high (714 mm/yr). With a rural density of 1 inhabitant/km2, it is one of the last largely pristine tropical forested ecosystems on the Planet. In addition, the basin will be, in the coming decades, the theatre of important anthropogenic changes (dams, agriculture, mining, urbanisation, …). However, a conservation plan with an ambitious sustainable development policy is set up. This plan articulates the environmental issues related to the emergence of the country. Because of these characteristics, the basin offers ideal conditions for studying the changes in equatorial region of hydro-climate, weathering/erosion regimes and regolith production based on morpho-pedological contexts and associated physical, chemical and biological processes. It is thus germane to launch an integrated CZO initiative at both regional scale and local scale. At the regional scale, we plan to reactivate some of the hydro-climatic stations located on the

  1. Cervical cancer screening in young and elderly women of the Xingu Indigenous Park: evaluation of the recommended screening age group in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Speck, Neila Maria de Góis; Pinheiro, Juliana da Silva; Pereira, Erica Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Douglas; Focchi, Gustavo Rubino de Azevedo; Ribalta, Julisa Chamorro Lascasas

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the occurrence of atypia in the cytology/histology examinations of young women under the age of 25 years and of elderly women aged over 64 years, in the Xingu Indigenous Park and to evaluate, in a subjective manner, if the age range for screening established by the Ministry of Health and the Instituto Nacional de Câncer is appropriate for this population. Methods The Xingu/UNIFESP Project, in partnership with the Center for Gynecological Disease Prevention, develops programs to prevent cervical cancer. The exploratory, retrospective and descriptive study of cytological and histopathological examinations of young (12-24 years) and elderly (aged 64 and over) women of the Xingu Indigenous Park, between 2005 and 2011. Results There was low occurrence of cytological atypia in the elderly female population, but there were occasional high-grade lesions in the indigenous youth. Conclusion Interrupting screening at the limit age of 64 years, as established by the Ministry of Health and the Instituto Nacional de Câncer is justified. However, screening of young women should begin at an earlier age. PMID:25993069

  2. Upper mantle anisotropy in SE and Central Brazil from SKS splitting: Evidence of asthenospheric flow around a cratonic keel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpção, Marcelo; Heintz, Maggy; Vauchez, Alain; Silva, Marcos Egydio

    2006-10-01

    We present results of upper mantle anisotropy derived from measurements of core refracted shear wave splitting (mainly SKS phases) recorded at 48 stations covering the major tectonic provinces in Central and SE Brazil, such as the Tocantins Province (Paraguay-Araguaia and Brasília belts between the Amazon and São Francisco cratons), the Paraná intracratonic basin, the southern part of the São Francisco craton, and the Mantiqueira province (with the coastal Ribeira belt). Although the fast polarization directions vary across the region, consistent orientations are observed over hundreds of kilometers. The fast polarization directions tend to be close to the absolute plate motion given by the hot-spot reference model HS3-NUVEL1A. However, correlations with geological structures are also observed in the southern Brasilia belt and in the Ribeira belt, respectively located SW and S of the São Francisco craton. On the other hand, in the northern Tocantins province, the fast shear-wave direction (˜ N60°S) is oblique to the SW-NE trend of the geological units and faults, and no anisotropy contribution from lithospheric sources can be clearly identified. Overall, the fast polarization directions show a fan-shaped pattern strongly suggesting asthenosperic flow around a thick and stiff keel in the southern part of the São Francisco craton, consistent with the high-velocity anomaly revealed by recent surface-wave tomography. The observed NW-SE directions in the southern part of the Brasília belt may also be interpreted as resulting from asthenospheric flow channeled between the São Francisco craton and a cratonic block beneath the Paraná basin. The largest splitting delays observed in the southern Brasília belt and in the Ribeira belt (up to 2.4 s) suggest contributions from both lithospheric and asthenospheric sources in those two areas. Our preferred model for the anisotropy causing the observed pattern of SKS splitting consists of flow-induced deformation in the

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for Hepatitis C and HIV-1 infections among pregnant women in Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are a major burden to public health worldwide. Routine antenatal HIV-1 screening to prevent maternal-infant transmission is universally recommended. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of and potential risk factors for HCV and HIV infection among pregnant women who attended prenatal care under the coverage of public health in Central Brazil. Methods Screening and counselling for HIV and HCV infections was offered free of charge to all pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) in the public health system, in Goiania city (~1.1 million inhabitants) during 2004–2005. Initial screening was performed on a dried blood spot collected onto standard filter paper; positive or indeterminate results were confirmed by a second blood sample. HCV infection was defined as a positive or indeterminate sample (EIA test) and confirmed HCV-RNA technique. HIV infection was defined according to standard criteria. Factors associated with HIV and HCV infections were identified with logistic regression. The number needed to screen (NNS) to prevent one case of infant HIV infection was calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation method. Results A total of 28,561 pregnant women were screened for HCV and HIV-1 in ANC. Mean maternal age was 23.9 years (SD = 5.6), with 45% of the women experiencing their first pregnancy. Prevalence of HCV infection was 0.15% (95% CI 0.11%–0.20%), and the risk increased with age (p < 0.01). The prevalence of anti-HIV infection was 0.09% (95% CI 0.06%–0.14%). Black women had a 4.9-fold (95% CI 1.42–16.95) greater risk of HIV-1 infection compared to non-black women. NNS to prevent one case of infant HIV infection ranged from 4,141 to 13,928. Conclusion The prevalence of HIV and HCV infections were low among pregnant women, with high acceptability rates in the opt-in strategy in primary care. Older maternal age was a risk factor for HCV and antenatal HCV testing

  4. Airborne geophysical surveys in the north-central region of Goias (Brazil): implications for radiometric characterization of tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Suze Nei P; Hamza, Valiya M; da Silva, Joney Justo

    2013-02-01

    Progress obtained in analysis aerogammaspectrometric and aeromagnetic survey data for the north-central region of the state of Goias (Brazil) are presented. The results obtained have allowed not only determination of the abundances of naturally radioactive elements but also new insights into the processes that determine the radiometric characteristics of the main soil types. There are indications that the radioelement abundances of soils are not only related to their physical properties, but also chemical characteristics of source rocks from which they are derived. For example, oxisol soils derived from the felsic source rocks of the Mara Rosa and Green stone belts have equivalent uranium (eU) values higher than 1.7 ppm, while those derived from source rocks of the relatively more basic Uruaçu Group and sediment sequences of Proterozoic age are characterized by eU contents of less than 1 ppm. Oxisol soils of the Median massif, ultisol soils of the Paranoá, Canastra and Araxá Groups, cambisol soils of the Araí Group and plintosol soils of the Bambuí Group constitute an intermediate class with eU contents in the range of 1-1.3 ppm. Equivalent thorium abundances of soil types display similar trends, the range of variation being 4-16 ppm. Potassium abundances on the other hand are rather uniform with values in the range of 1-1.3%, the only exception being the sedimentary sequences of Proterozoic age, which has a mean value of 0.7%. These observations have been considered as indicative of characteristic features of tropical soils in the study area. In this context, we point out the possibility of using results of aerogammaspectrometry surveys as a convenient complementary tool in identifying geochemical zoning of soils in tropical environments. The ratios of eU/K are found to fall in the range of 1-1.7, which is typical of common soils. The ratios of eTh/K exhibit a relatively wide interval, with values in the range of 4-16. The ratios of eTh/eU are found to have

  5. Dating coeval mafic magmatism and ultrahigh temperature metamorphism in the Anápolis-Itauçu Complex, Central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustina, Maria Emilia Schutesky Della; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca; de Hollanda, Maria Helena Bezerra Maia

    2011-05-01

    Dating granulites has always been of great interest because they represent one of the most extreme settings of an orogen. Owing to the resilience of zircon, even in such severe environments, the link between P-T conditions and geological time is possible. However, a challenge to geochronologists is to define whether the growth of new zircon is related to pre- or post-P-T peak conditions and which processes might affect the (re)crystallization. In this context, the Anápolis-Itauçu Complex, a high-grade complex in central Brazil with ultrahigh temperature (UHT) granulites, may provide valuable information within this topic. The Anápolis-Itauçu Complex (AIC) includes ortho- and paragranulites, locally presenting UHT mineral assemblages, with igneous zircon ages varying between 760 and 650 Ma and metamorphic overgrowths dated at around 650-640 Ma. Also common in the Anápolis-Itauçu Complex are layered mafic-ultramafic complexes metamorphosed under high-grade conditions. This article presents the first geological and geochronological constraints of three of these layered complexes within the AIC, the Damolândia, Taquaral and Goianira-Trindade complexes. U-Pb (LA-MC-ICPMS, SHRIMP and ID-TIMS) zircon analyses reveal a spread of concordant ages spanning within an age interval of ~ 80 Ma with an “upper” intercept age of ~ 670 Ma. Under cathodoluminescence imaging, these crystals show partially preserved primary sector zoning, as well as internal textures typical of alteration during high-grade metamorphism, such as inward-moving boundaries. Zircon grains reveal homogeneous initial 176Hf/177Hf values in distinct crystal-scale domains in all samples. Moreover, Hf isotopic ratios show correlation neither with U-Pb ages nor with Th/U ratios, suggesting that zircon grains crystallized during a single growth event. It is suggested, therefore, that the observed spread of concordant U-Pb ages may be related to a memory effect due to coupled dissolution

  6. A Storm-by-Storm Analysis of Alpine and Regional Precipitation Dynamics at the Mount Hunter Ice Core Site, Denali National Park, Central Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, P. L.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Winski, D.

    2014-12-01

    In May-June 2013, an NSF-funded team from Dartmouth College and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire collected two 1000-year ice cores to bedrock from the summit plateau of Mount Hunter in Denali National Park, Alaska (62.940291, -151.087616, 3912 m). The snow accumulation record from these ice cores will provide key insight into late Holocene precipitation variability in central Alaska, and compliment existing precipitation paleorecords from the Mt. Logan and Eclipse ice cores in coastal SE Alaska. However, correct interpretation of the Mt. Hunter accumulation record requires an understanding of the relationships between regional meteorological events and micrometeorological conditions at the Mt. Hunter ice core collection site. Here we analyze a three-month window of snow accumulation and meteorological conditions recorded by an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) at the Mt. Hunter site during the summer of 2013. Snow accumulation events are identified in the Mt. Hunter AWS dataset, and compared on a storm-by-storm basis to AWS data collected from the adjacent Kahiltna glacier 2000 m lower in elevation, and to regional National Weather Service (NWS) station data. We also evaluate the synoptic conditions associated with each Mt. Hunter accumulation event using NWS surface maps, NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis data, and the NOAA HYSPLIT back trajectory model. We categorize each Mt. Hunter accumulation event as pure snow accumulation, drifting, or blowing snow events based on snow accumulation, wind speed and temperature data using the method of Knuth et al (2009). We analyze the frequency and duration of events within each accumulation regime, in addition to the overall contribution of each event to the snowpack. Preliminary findings indicate that a majority of Mt. Hunter accumulation events are of pure accumulation nature (55.5%) whereas drifting (28.6%) and blowing (15.4%) snow events play a secondary role. Our results will characterize the local accumulation dynamics on

  7. Kittlitz's and Marbled Murrelets in Kenai Fjords National Park, South-Central Alaska: At-Sea Distribution, Abundance, and Foraging Habitat, 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, M.L.; Piatt, J.F.; Romano, Marc D.; Madison, E.N.; Conaway, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Kittlitz's murrelets (Brachyramphus brevirostris) and marbled murrelets (B. marmoratus) are small diving seabirds and are of management concern because of population declines in coastal Alaska. In 2006-08, we conducted a study in Kenai Fjords National Park, south-central Alaska, to estimate the recent population size of Brachyramphus murrelets, to evaluate productivity based on juvenile to adult ratios during the fledgling season, and to describe and compare their use of marine habitat. We also attempted a telemetry study to examine Kittlitz's murrelet nesting habitat requirements and at-sea movements. We estimated that the Kittlitz's murrelet population was 671 ? 144 birds, and the marbled murrelet population was 5,855 ? 1,163 birds. Kittlitz's murrelets were limited to the heads of three fjords with tidewater glaciers, whereas marbled murrelets were more widely distributed. Population estimates for both species were lower in 2007 than in 2006 and 2008, possibly because of anomalous oceanographic conditions that may have delayed breeding phenology. During late season surveys, we observed few hatch-year marbled murrelets and only a single hatch-year Kittlitz's murrelet over the course of the study. Using radio telemetry, we found a likely Kittlitz's murrelet breeding site on a mountainside bordering one of the fjords. We never observed radio-tagged Kittlitz's murrelets greater than 10 kilometer from their capture sites, suggesting that their foraging range during breeding is narrow. We observed differences in oceanography between fjords, reflecting differences in sill characteristics and orientation relative to oceanic influence. Acoustic biomass, a proxy for zooplankton and small schooling fish, generally decreased with distance from glaciers in Northwestern Lagoon, but was more variable in Aialik Bay where dense forage fish schools moved into glacial areas late in the summer. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), capelin (Mallotus villosus) and Pacific sand lance

  8. Park Smart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Parking Garage Automation System (PGAS) is based on a technology developed by a NASA-sponsored project called Robot sensorSkin(TM). Merritt Systems, Inc., of Orlando, Florida, teamed up with NASA to improve robots working with critical flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The system, containing smart sensor modules and flexible printed circuit board skin, help robots to steer clear of obstacles using a proximity sensing system. Advancements in the sensor designs are being applied to various commercial applications, including the PGAS. The system includes a smartSensor(TM) network installed around and within public parking garages to autonomously guide motorists to open facilities, and once within, to free parking spaces. The sensors use non-invasive reflective-ultrasonic technology for high accuracy, high reliability, and low maintenance. The system is remotely programmable: it can be tuned to site-specific requirements, has variable range capability, and allows remote configuration, monitoring, and diagnostics. The sensors are immune to interference from metallic construction materials, such as rebar and steel beams. Inside the garage, smart routing signs mounted overhead or on poles in front of each row of parking spots guide the motorist precisely to free spaces.

  9. The influence of fire on the assemblage structure of foraging birds in grasslands of the Serra da Canastra National Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, Matheus G; Fieker, Carolline Z; Dias, Manoel M

    2016-05-13

    Grasslands are the most threatened physiognomies of the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savanna), a biodiversity hotspot with conservation as a priority. The Serra da Canastra National Park protects the most important remnants of the Cerrado's southern grasslands, which are under strong anthropogenic pressure. The present study describes the structure of bird assemblages that directly use food resources in burned areas, comparing areas affected by natural fire to the areas where controlled fires were set (a management strategy to combat arson). The tested null hypothesis was that different bird assemblages are structured in a similar manner, regardless of the post-fire period or assessed area. Between December/2012 and January/2015, 92 species were recorded foraging in the study areas. The results indicate that both types of burnings triggered profound and immediate changes in bird assemblages, increasing the number of species and individuals. Natural fires exhibited a more significant influence on the structure (diversity and dominance) than prescribed burnings. Nevertheless, all the differences were no longer noticeable after a relatively short time interval of 2-3 months after prescribed burnings and 3-4 after natural fires. The findings may help the understanding of prescribed burnings as a management strategy for bird conservation in grasslands. PMID:27192195

  10. Seasonal variation of the phytoplankton community structure in the São João River, Iguaçu National Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, J C; Bueno, N C

    2013-02-01

    The limnological characteristics and the phytoplankton community of the pelagic region of the São João River, tributary of the Iguaçu River, Iguaçu National Park were analyzed from August 2008 to July 2009. 221 taxa were identified and the Bacillariophyceae class was the most representative. Bacillariophyceae and Chrysophyceae were the dominant classes in density and Bacillariophyceae in biovolume. According to the DCA carried out for phytoplankton density and biovolume, significant differences were identified between the periods, and between the sites and study periods, respectively. The highest richness of species reached 40 taxa in September 2008 at station 1. The Shannon-Wiener diversity indexes and evenness, calculated from the density of phytoplankton, were temporally heterogeneous and spatially similar. In general, the significant temporal variations in the composition of the phytoplankton community were due to variations in limnological conditions, mainly temperature, transparency and nutrients. Spatially the structure was more similar due to the proximity among the stations. Moreover, the similarity of the distribution of communities in lotic environments were due to the unidirectional flow. PMID:23644782

  11. SOIL EMISSIONS OF CO2 AND CO IN TROPICAL SAVANNAS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL UNDER DIFFERENT FIRE REGIMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cerrado is a tropical savanna in which herbaceous vegetation (mainly C4 grasses) coexists with trees and shrubs. It covers more than two million square kilometers and accounts for 22% of the total area of Brazil. In general, cerrado soils are old, deep, well drained, well s...

  12. Trypanosoma rangeli isolates of bats from Central Brazil: genotyping and phylogenetic analysis enable description of a new lineage using spliced-leader gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Maia da Silva, F; Marcili, A; Lima, L; Cavazzana, M; Ortiz, P A; Campaner, M; Takeda, G F; Paiva, F; Nunes, V L B; Camargo, E P; Teixeira, M M G

    2009-03-01

    Trypanosoma rangeli infects several mammalian orders but has never confidently been described in Chiroptera, which are commonly parasitized by many trypanosome species. Here, we described trypanosomes from bats captured in Central Brazil identified as T. rangeli, T. dionisii, T. cruzimarinkellei and T. cruzi. Two isolates, Tra643 from Platyrrhinus lineatus and Tra1719 from Artibeus planirostris were identified as T. rangeli by morphological, biological and molecular methods, and confirmed by phylogenetic analyses. Analysis using SSU rDNA sequences clustered these bat trypanosomes together with T. rangeli from other hosts, and separated them from other trypanosomes from bats. Genotyping based on length and sequence polymorphism of PCR-amplified intergenic spliced-leader gene sequences assigned Tra1719 to the lineage A whereas Tra643 was shown to be a new genotype and was assigned to the new lineage E. To our knowledge, these two isolates are the earliest T. rangeli from bats and the first isolates from Central Brazil molecularly characterized. Rhodnius stali captured for this study was found infected by T. rangeli and T. cruzi. PMID:19063857

  13. Nd isotopes and the provenance of detrital sediments of the Neoproterozoic Brası´lia Belt, central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, M. M.; Dardenne, M. A.; Fuck, R. A.; Viana, M. G.; Junges, S. L.; Fischel, D. P.; Seer, H. J.; Dantas, E. L.

    2001-11-01

    The Neoproterozoic Brası´lia Belt, in central Brazil, includes in its eastern part a thick pile of sediments deposited and deformed along the western margin of the São Francisco-Congo Craton. Several lithostratigraphic units are identified (the Araı´, Paranoá, Serra da Mesa, Araxá, Ibiá, Vazante, Canastra and Bambuı´ groups) and have been traditionally interpreted as part of a passive margin association (<1.2 Ga), with sediments being derived from Archaean or Paleoproterozoic continental sources to the north and east. Nd isotopic signatures of fine-grained detrital sediments of the several rock units of the belt were investigated in order to assess: (i) the nature and average crustal residence ages of the source areas, and (ii) the tectonic significance of the different sedimentary units in respect to the evolution of the Brası´lia Belt. TDM model ages of the ca. 1.2-0.9 Ga old Paranoá and Canastra rhythmites, shales and phyllites vary within the interval between 1.9 and 2.3 Ga, suggesting relatively uniform Paleoproterozoic continental sources within the São Francisco continent. The sediments of the detritic/carbonatic Vazante Group also display Paleoproterozoic model ages indicating, however, a distinct shift towards slightly younger TDM values (1.7-2.1 Ga). These three sequences are interpreted as the typical representatives of the passive margin sequence, with dominance of Paleoproterozoic sources. The Ibiá and Araxá groups show a bimodal distribution of model age values, with a set of samples displaying TDM values between 1.8 and 2.1 Ga (similar to the passive margin sequence), and another set with younger model ages, between ca. 1.0 and 1.3 Ga. Younger sources such as those represented by the Neoproterozoic Goiás Magmatic Arc (0.93-0.64 Ga) in the west, are required to explain the young model ages for these sediments. Immature sediments (feldspathic micaschists) within the magmatic arc, in fact, have TDM model ages mostly between 1.0 and 1

  14. Mapping distribution and thickness of supraglacial debris in the Central Karakoram National Park: main features and implications to model glacier meltwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minora, Umberto; Mayer, Christoph; Bocchiola, Daniele; D'Agata, Carlo; Maragno, Davide; Lambrecht, Astrid; Vuillermoz, Elisa; smiraglia, claudio; diolaiuti, guglielmina

    2014-05-01

    Supraglacial debris plays a not negligible role in controlling magnitude and rates of buried ice melt (Østrem, 1959; Mattson et al., 1993). Knowledge on rock debris is essential to model ice melt (and consequently meltwater discharge) upon wide glacierized areas, as melt rates are mainly driven by debris thickness variability. This is particularly important for the Pamir-Himalaya-Karakoram area (PHK), where debris-covered glaciers are frequent (Smiraglia et al., 2007; Scherler et al., 2011) and where melt water from glaciers supports agriculture and hydropower production. By means of remote sensing techniques and field data, supraglacial debris can be detected, and then quantified in area and thickness. Supervised classifications of satellite imagery can be used to map debris on glaciers. They use different algorithms to cluster an image based on its pixel values, and Region Of Interests (ROIs) previously selected by the human operator. This can be used to obtain a supraglacial debris mask by which surface extension can be calculated. Moreover, kinetic surface temperature data derived from satellites (such as ASTER and Landsat), can be used to quantify debris thicknesses (Mihalcea et al., 2008). Ground Control Points (GCPs) are essential to validate the obtained debris thicknesses. We took the Central Karakoram National Park (CKNP) as a representative sample for PHK area. The CKNP is 12,000 km2 wide, with more than 700 glaciers, mostly debris covered (Minora et al., 2013). Among those we find some of the widest glaciers of the World (e.g: Baltoro). To improve the knowledge on these glaciers and to better model their melt and water discharge we proceeded as follows. Firstly we ran a Supervised Maximum Likelihood (SML) classification on 2001 and 2010 Landsat images to detect debris presence and distribution. Secondly we analyzed kinetic surface temperature (from Landsat) to map debris depth. This latter attempt took also advantage from field data of debris thickness

  15. Perception of local inhabitants regarding the socioeconomic impact of tourism focused on provisioning wild dolphins in Novo Airão, Central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Luiz C P S; Zappes, Camilah A; Oliveira, Rafael G; Andriolo, Artur; Azevedo, Alexandre de F

    2013-01-01

    Botos (Inia geoffrensis) are currently provisioned for use in tourist attractions in five sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the known negative effects associated with human-wild dolphin interactions, this activity has been regulated and licensed in the Anavilhanas National Park in Novo Airão, Amazonas State, Brazil. We present an updated evaluation of the perception of the local community concerning the possible socioeconomic impacts of this tourism in Novo Airão. In April 2011, 45 interviews were conducted with inhabitants. A small segment of Novo Airão perceives currently itself as being economically dependent on the botos feeding tourism. Despite that, the economic benefits of this controversial activity apparently are not shared among most inhabitants, and botos feeding tourism is perceived as generating diverse negative effects. We conclude that if the activity was banned or modified into a less impacting tourist activity, this action would probably not majorly affect the lives of the general population. PMID:24346803

  16. National Environmental Research Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

  17. Environmental and geochemical record of human-induced changes in C storage during the last millennium in a temperate wetland (Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park, central Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dominguez-Castro, F.; Santisteban, J.I.; Mediavilla, R.; Dean, W.E.; Lopez-Pamo, E.; Gil-Garcia, M. J.; Ruiz-Zapata, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park has experienced many hydrological and ecological modifications through out its history, both of natural as well as anthropogenic origin, which have affected its carbon storage capacity and carbon fluxes. The study of those variations has been carried out by the analysis of its sedimentary record (geochemistry and pollen) and historical data. The natural changes have a wider variation range than the anthropogenic ones, show repetitive patterns and the system reacts readjusting the equilibrium among its components. Anthropogenic effects depend on the direct or indirect impact on the wetlands of change and its intensity. In addition, the anthropogenic impacts have the capacity of breaking the natural balance of the ecosystem and the internal interactions. ?? 2006 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2006 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  18. Evaluation of noise pollution in urban parks.

    PubMed

    Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta; Ferreira, Andressa Maria Coelho; Szeremetta, Bani

    2006-07-01

    The present study provides an evaluation of noise pollution in six Urban Parks located in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Equivalent noise levels (L(eq)) were measured in 303 points (each point measured during 3 min) spread throughout the Parks. Measured values were confronted with local legislation (Law 10625) allowed limits, and the Parks were thus classified as "acoustically polluted or unpolluted". Measured values were also evaluated according to international legislation: Decree no. 12 of the City Council of Rome, DIN 18005 for German cities, the World Health Organization, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Urban parks in the downtown area of Curitiba, surrounded by roads of heavy traffic and in the midst of intense commercial activities, do not satisfy any of the standards used. The most noise-polluted parks in Curitiba were the Public Walk Park and the Botanical Garden Park, with measured L(eq) of 64.8 dB(A) and 67 dB(A). PMID:16897555

  19. BR-319: Brazil's Manaus-Porto Velho highway and the potential impact of linking the arc of deforestation to central amazonia.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima

    2006-11-01

    Brazil's BR-319 Highway linked Manaus, in the state of Amazonas, to Porto Velho, Rondônia, until it became impassable in 1988. Now it is proposed for reconstruction and paving, which would facilitate migration from the "Arc of Deforestation" in the southern part of the Amazon region to new frontiers farther north. The purpose of the highway, which is to facilitate transport to São Paulo of products from factories in the Manaus Free Trade Zone, would be better served by sending the containers by ship to the port of Santos. The lack of a land connection to Manaus currently represents a significant barrier to migration to central and northern Amazonia. Discourse regarding the highway systematically overestimates the highway's benefits and underestimates its impacts. A variety of changes would be needed prior to paving the highway if these potential impacts are to be attenuated. These include zoning, reserve creation, and increased governance in various forms, including deforestation licensing and control programs. More fundamental changes are also needed, especially the abandonment of the long-standing tradition in Brazil of granting squatters' rights to those who invade public land. Organizing Amazonian occupation in such a way that road construction and improvement cease to lead to explosive and uncontrolled deforestation should be a prerequisite for approval of the BR-319 and other road projects for which major impacts are expected. These projects could provide the impetus that is needed to achieve the transition away from appropriation of public land by both small squatters and by grileiros (large-scale illegal claimants). A delay in reconstructing the highway is advisable until appropriate changes can be effected. PMID:16990982

  20. Prevalence of Hypertension and Associated Factors in an Indigenous Community of Central Brazil: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Geraldo F.; Oliveira, Teresinha R. R.; Ikejiri, Adauto T.; Andraus, Mariela P.; Galvao, Tais F.; Silva, Marcus T.; Pereira, Maurício G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors among the native indigenous of Jaguapiru village in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Method A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with adult indigenous aged 18 years or more. The subjects' blood pressure was measured twice, and the mean of the two measurements was calculated. Body weight, height, capillary blood glucose and waist circumference were measured. Pregnant women, individuals using glucocorticoids, and non-indigenous villagers and their offspring were excluded. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted on the socio-demographic and clinical independent variables. Interactions between independent variables were also tested. Results We included 1,608 native indigenous eligible to the research. The prevalence of hypertension was 29.5% (95% CI: 27–31.5), with no significant difference between the genders. For both men and women, diastolic hypertension was more common than systolic hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among obese, diabetic, and older participants, as well as those who consumed alcohol, had a lower educational level, or had a family history of hypertension. There was no association between hypertension and tobacco smoking or family income. Conclusion Hypertension among the indigenous from Jaguapiru village was similar to the prevalence in the Brazilians, but may have a more negative effect in such disadvantaged population. The associated factors we found can help drawing prevention policies. PMID:24489710

  1. Descriptive ecology of bat flies (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) associated with vampire bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in the cerrado of Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Ludmilla Moura de Souza; Antonini, Yasmine

    2011-03-01

    We studied the ectoparasitic bat flies of three phyllostomid vampire bat species. Bats were collected monthly from April 2004-March 2005 in caves within the Cafuringa Environmental Protection Area in the Federal District of Brazil. A total of 1,259 specimens from six species in the Streblidae family were collected from 332 bats. High host affinity from the sampled bat fly species and high prevalence of bat flies confirms the primary fly-host associations (Strebla wiedemanni, Trichobius parasiticus and Trichobius furmani with Desmodus, Trichobius diaemi and Strebla diaemi with Diaemus and T. furmani with Diphylla). Male flies outnumbered females in several associations. Some of the observed associations (e.g., Strebla mirabilis with Desmodus and S. mirabilis, Trichobius uniformis and S. wiedemanni with Diphylla) were inconclusive and the causes of the associations were unclear. There are several explanations for these associations, including (i) accidental contamination during sampling, (ii) simultaneous capture of several host species in the same net or (iii) genuine, but rare, ecological associations. Although various species of vampire bats share roosts, have similar feeding habits and are close phylogenetic relatives, they generally do not share ectoparasitic streblid bat flies. T. diaemi and S. diaemi associations with Diaemus youngi have not been previously reported in this region. PMID:21537676

  2. Environmental implications of jatropha biofuel from a silvi-pastoral production system in central-west Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bailis, Rob; Kavlak, Goksin

    2013-07-16

    We present a life cycle assessment of synthetic paraffinic kerosene produced from Jatropha curcas. The feedstock is grown in an intercropping arrangement with pasture grasses so that Jatropha is coproduced with cattle. Additional innovations are introduced including hybrid seeds, detoxification of jatropha seedcake, and cogeneration. Two fuel pathways are examined including a newly developed catalytic decarboxylation process. Sensitivities are examined including higher planting density at the expense of cattle production as well as 50% lower yields. Intercropping with pasture and detoxifying seedcake yield coproducts that are expected to relieve pressure on Brazil's forests and indirectly reduce environmental impacts of biofuel production. Other innovations also reduce impacts. Results of the baseline assessment indicate that innovations would reduce impacts relative to the fossil fuel reference scenario in most categories including 62-75% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, 64-82% reduction in release of ozone depleting chemicals, 33-52% reduction in smog-forming pollutants, 6-25% reduction in acidification, and 60-72% reduction in use of nonrenewable energy. System expansion, which explicitly accounts for avoided deforestation, results in larger improvements. Results are robust across allocation methodologies, improve with higher planting density, and persist if yield is reduced by half. PMID:23713609

  3. Campsite impact management: A survey of National Park Service backcountry managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Stubbs, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    Though a central purpose for the creation and management of parks, visitation inevitably affects the natural resources of parks. This is particularly true at campsites, where visitation and its effects are concentrated. This paper presents partial results from a survey of National Park Service managers regarding general strategies and specific actions implemented by park managers to address campsite impact problems.

  4. A new species of frog of the genus Pristimantis from Tingo María National Park, Huánuco Department, central Peru (Anura, Craugastoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Chávez, Germán; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Craugastoridae frog encountered from 1000–1700 m in elevation in the premontane forests of the Peruvian central Andes is described. The new species is similar in appearance to many other species of Pristimantis, but is easily distinguishable from these species by having bright red coloration on the groin, posterior surface of thighs, and shanks. The new species is only known for two localities 27 km apart in the Huánuco Region. PMID:27587978

  5. A new species of frog of the genus Pristimantis from Tingo María National Park, Huánuco Department, central Peru (Anura, Craugastoridae).

    PubMed

    Chávez, Germán; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Craugastoridae frog encountered from 1000-1700 m in elevation in the premontane forests of the Peruvian central Andes is described. The new species is similar in appearance to many other species of Pristimantis, but is easily distinguishable from these species by having bright red coloration on the groin, posterior surface of thighs, and shanks. The new species is only known for two localities 27 km apart in the Huánuco Region. PMID:27587978

  6. Preliminary investigation of the central nervous system effects of 'Tira-capeta' (Removing the Devil), a cigarette used by some Quilombolas living in Pantanal Wetlands of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Eliana; Gianfratti, Bruno; Tabach, Ricardo; Negri, Giuseppina; Mendes, Fúlvio R

    2008-09-01

    During an ethnopharmacological survey carried out among some Quilombolas living in Brazil, 48 plants with possible central nervous system (CNS) action were cited. A mixture of nine plants, known as 'Tira-capeta' (Removing the Devil) cigarette, has been utilized for years as a tonic for the brain. The effects observed after consuming this cigarette are: dizziness, lightness sensation, humor changes, yawns, heavy eyes, hunger, sleep and relaxation. This study aimed to verify the effects of a hydroalcohol extract of 'Tira-capeta' cigarette (ETC), as well as to evaluate the phytochemical profile. The phytochemical screening carried out through characterization reactions, thin layer chromatography and high efficiency liquid chromatography indicated the presence of tannins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids; tannins and phenolic acids being the principal constituents. The pharmacological tests showed that ETC induced a biphasic effect, with intense initial stimulation of the CNS, followed by a general depressor state; decreased the latency for sleeping and increased the total sleeping time (50, 100 and 500 mg/kg), without causing prejudice in motor coordination (doses up to 200 mg/kg); induced catalepsy in mice, verified 10 and 50 min after drug administration (500 mg/kg). Also, no anxiolytic or anxiogenic effects were verified in rats submitted to the elevated plus-maze. PMID:18570235

  7. Curie surface of the alkaline provinces of Goiás (GAP) and Alto Paranaíba (APAP), central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes Rocha, Loiane Gomes de; Pires, Augusto César Bittencourt; Carmelo, Adriana Chatack; Oksum, Erdinc

    2015-05-01

    The study area includes the most important carbonatite and kimberlite complexes in Brazil, located in the Brazilian states of Goiás and Minas Gerais. The central portion of this area involves the Azimuth 125° lineament (Az 125°) that consists of an extensive set of faults (oriented in the NW-SE direction) that served as a conduit for magma ascent. This lineament is the main structural feature associated with these complexes. The Goiás (GAP) and Alto Paranaíba (APAP) Alkaline Provinces occur along the Az 125° and include highly economically valuable mineralizations. In this study, we aim to map the depth to the curie isotherm (or Curie Point Depths: CPD) of the study area (mainly the Gap and APAP regions) based on spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data. The CPD estimations were achieved from a spectral approach known as the centroid method, providing the relationship between the spectra of magnetic anomalies and the depths of the magnetic source of a 2-D magnetic data. The CPD estimates from approximately 500 overlapping blocks vary from 7 km to 40 km deep. The shallower depths are related to the GAP and APAP regions, and the deeper ones are related to the São Franciscana Plate. The Curie depths related to the Az 125° are between 30 km and 15.7 km deep. According to the results, the GAP and APAP intrusive bodies have shallower roots the major faults of the Az 125°.

  8. Yellowstone Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen years after devastating forest fires burned over 1.6 million acres in Yellowstone National Park, the scars are still evident. In this simulated natural color ASTER image, burned areas appear gray, in contrast to the dark green of unburned forests. The image covers an area of 60 x 63 km. This image was acquired on July 2, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the

  9. Geology, petrology and geochemistry of the "Americano do Brasil" layered intrusion, central Brazil, and its Ni-Cu sulfide deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E Silva, Jonas Mota; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca; Bühn, Bernhard; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2011-01-01

    The "Americano do Brasil" Complex (ABC) is part of a cluster of coeval synorogenic mafic-ultramafic intrusions emplaced during the Brasiliano/Pan-African Orogenic Cycle in Brazil. The medium-sized ABC consists of interlayered dunite, peridotite, websterite, and gabbronorite. High Fo values of olivine (up to Fo88) and the crystallization sequence of the ABC (Ol + Chr ≥ Ol + Opx + Chr ≥ Cpx + Opx ≥ Opx + Pl + Cpx ≥ Opx + Pl + Cpx + Ilm + Mag) suggest crystallization from tholeiitic high-MgO parental magmas. Light rare earth element (REE)-enriched mantle-normalized REE profiles and ɛNd(T) values of +2.4 for cumulate rocks from the ABC suggest a depleted mantle source for the parental magma. The ABC Ni-Cu sulfide deposit (3.1 Mt at 1.12 wt.% Ni and 1.02 wt.% Cu) consists of three distinctively different orebodies (S1, S2, and G2). The S2 orebody, an unusual occurrence of stratiform massive sulfide hosted by dunite and peridotite in the interior of a layered intrusion, results from sulfides accumulated at the transient base of the magma chamber following a new influx of parental magma. The G2 orebody has an irregular and roughly cylindrical shape, consisting mainly of net-textured sulfides. The G2 orebody is hosted by peridotite and pyroxenite and located stratigraphically below the S1 orebody. S2 and G2 orebodies are characterized by low Cu/Cu + Ni ratios (mainly below 0.4). The S1 orebody, hosted by websterite and gabbronorite in the more fractionated sequence of the ABC, is a cluster of several irregular discontinuous orebodies of Ni-Cu disseminated sulfides. The sulfides of the S1 orebody have high Cu/Cu + Ni ratios (mainly between 0.5 and 0.8) and are highly depleted in PGE. The S1 orebody is interpreted to result from a later event of sulfide segregation in the magma chamber, possibly following the event that originated the G2 orebody. The bulk of δ34S values for sulfides of the ABC orebodies and their host rocks fall in the range of 0 ± 2‰. Higher

  10. A new interpretation for the interference zone between the southern Brasília belt and the central Ribeira belt, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Peternel, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Andre; Heilbron, Mônica; Vinagre, Rodrigo; Duffles, Patrícia; Trouw, Camilo C.; Fontainha, Marcos; Kussama, Hugo H.

    2013-12-01

    In southeastern Brazil, the Neoproterozoic NNW-SSE trending southern Brasília belt is apparently truncated by the ENE-WSW central Ribeira belt. Different interpretations in the literature of the transition between these two belts motivated detailed mapping and additional age dating along the contact zone. The result is a new interpretation presented in this paper. The southern Brasília belt resulted from E-W collision between the active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent, on the western side, now forming the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, with the passive margin of the São Francisco paleocontinent on the eastern side. The collision produced an east vergent nappe stack, the Andrelândia Nappe System, along the suture. At its southern extreme the Brasília belt was thought to be cut off by a shear zone, the "Rio Jaguari mylonites", at the contact with the Embu terrane, pertaining to the Central Ribeira belt. Our detailed mapping revealed that the transition between the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe (Brasília belt) and the Embu terrane (Ribeira belt) is not a fault but rather a gradational transition that does not strictly coincide with the Rio Jaguari mylonites. A typical Cordilleran type magmatic arc batholith of the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe with an age of ca. 640 Ma intrudes biotite schists of the Embu terrane and the age of zircon grains from three samples of metasedimentary rocks, one to the south, one to the north and one along the mylonite zone, show a similar pattern of derivation from a Rhyacian source area with rims of 670-600 Ma interpreted as metamorphic overgrowth. We dated by LA-MC-ICPMS laser ablation (U-Pb) zircon grains from a calc-alkaline granite, the Serra do Quebra-Cangalha Batholith, located within the Embu terrane at a distance of about 40 km south of the contact with the Socorro Nappe, yielding an age of 680 ± 13 Ma. This age indicates that the Embu terrane was part of the upper plate (Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe) by this time. Detailed mapping

  11. Paleoproterozoic accretionary and collisional processes and the build-up of the Borborema Province (NE Brazil): Geochronological and geochemical evidence from the Central Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Sérgio P.; Lages, Geysson A.; Brasilino, Roberta G.; Miranda, Alan W. A.

    2015-03-01

    Several Brasiliano-Pan-African belts consist of large areas of reworked Paleoproterozoic rocks. Characterization of these rocks is needed to place better controls on Precambrian paleogeographic reconstructions. The Borborema Province, northeastern Brazil, occupies a central position in West Gondwana configuration, and knowledge of its geological evolution is crucial to infer relationships between Paleoproterozoic units in South America and Africa. Here, we report U-Pb ages, major- and trace-elements analyses and Sm-Nd isotopic data for orthogneisses in the eastern portion of Central Domain. The dominant basement units in the study area are banded gneisses of intermediate composition and relatively juvenile character, and migmatitic gneisses of granitic composition with Archean Nd TDM model ages. One sample of the banded gneiss yielded a weighted 207Pb/206Pb age of 2096 ± 23 Ma and an upper intercept age of 2044 ± 27 Ma, which we interpret, respectively, as ages of crystallization and metamorphism. Two large units of migmatitic gneiss in the southern and central parts of the area gave ages of, respectively, 2057 ± 20 Ma and 2055 ± 23 Ma; an orthoamphibolite associated with the latter yielded crystallization age of 2042 ± 11 Ma and metamorphic age of 1996 ± 13 Ma. All these rocks have geochemical signatures typical of subduction zone-related magmas. Combined with evidence provided by previous studies, we suggest that the evolution of the study area starts with island arc construction around 2.2 Ga, leading to an expressive volcanic arc edifice by 2.13-2.10 Ga. By 2.06 Ga, the crust had evolved enough to become intruded by magmas formed at the mantle wedge of the now largely continental magmatic arc, which continued to be intruded by mantle melts until at least 2.04 Ga. An augen gneiss in the northern part of the area, with an age of 2109 ± 15 Ma, and a migmatitic gneiss with a much older age (2183 ± 9 Ma), both of which have geochemical characteristics akin

  12. Kruger National Park

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... images of northeastern South Africa, near Kruger National Park, were acquired on September 7, 2000. The left image shows an 85-kilometer ... Sep 7, 2000 Images:  Kruger Park location:  Africa thumbnail:  ...

  13. News and Views: Perspectives for Nuclear Energy in Brazil After Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldemberg, José

    2011-09-01

    More than two decades after the Chernobyl accident, the world was experiencing a nuclear renaissance when an earthquake followed by a tsunami, both of uncommon proportions, led to major releases of radiation at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear central. Many countries are now reevaluating decisions to expand their nuclear parks, a change of course motivated by a number of considerations. Combined with the same premises, lessons learned from the history of its nuclear program compel Brazil to turn to the renewable sources of energy at its disposal.

  14. Identification of pathogens and virulence profile of Rhodococcus equi and Escherichia coli strains obtained from sand of parks

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, M.C.; Takai, S.; Leite, D.S.; Pinto, J.P.A.N.; Brandão, P.E.; Santarém, V.A.; Listoni, F.J.P.; Da Silva, A.V.; Ribeiro, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    The identification of pathogens of viral (Rotavirus, Coronavirus), parasitic (Toxocara spp.) and bacterial (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Rhodococcus equi) origin shed in feces, and the virulence profile of R. equi and E. coli isolates were investigated in 200 samples of sand obtained from 40 parks, located in central region of state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using different diagnostic methods. From 200 samples analyzed, 23 (11.5%) strains of R. equi were isolated. None of the R. equi isolates showed a virulent (vapA gene) or intermediately virulent (vapB gene) profiles. Sixty-three (31.5%) strains of E. coli were identified. The following genes encoding virulence factors were identified in E. coli: eae, bfp, saa, iucD, papGI, sfa and hly. Phylogenetic classification showed that 63 E. coli isolates belonged to groups B1 (52.4%), A (25.4%) and B2 (22.2%). No E. coli serotype O157:H7 was identified. Eggs of Toxocara sp. were found in three parks and genetic material of bovine Coronavirus was identified in one sample of one park. No Salmonella spp. and Rotavirus isolates were identified in the samples of sand. The presence of R. equi, Toxocara sp, bovine Coronavirus and virulent E. coli isolates in the environment of parks indicates that the sanitary conditions of the sand should be improved in order to reduce the risks of fecal transmission of pathogens of zoonotic potential to humans in these places. PMID:24294244

  15. NATIONAL PARK BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Park Service has produced a data base of boundaries for its National Parks. A copy of this data was downloaded from the National Parks Service ftp site by Region 10. These digital boundaries represent the best guess and data that could be collected in a short time....

  16. PARKING PROGRAMS FOR UNIVERSITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KINNE, W.S., JR.

    PARKING FACILITIES WERE SURVEYED AT 83 REPRESENTATIVE UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES, AND THE METHODS USED IN ADMINISTERING, CONTROLLING AND FINANCING WERE EVALUTED. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS WERE MADE CONCERNING (1) THE LOCATION AND DESIGN OF PARKING LOTS AND GARAGES, (2) THE PRACTICE OF CURB PARKING ON CAMPUS, AND (3) THE FINANCING OF PARKING…

  17. Parks In Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Sally-Jo

    1998-01-01

    More than 50 National Park Service (NPS) sites interpret Native cultures or early Native contact with Europeans. In about 30 of those, American Indians, Alaska Natives, or Native Hawaiians, in partnership with the NPS, present their own heritage and issues. Describes Native-run aspects of Sitka National Historical Park, Glacier National Park, and…

  18. Orienting Park Visitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormrod, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    To utilize park facilities to their fullest, visitors must be well-oriented to the park's physical layout. The results of a study undertaken at Rocky Mountain National Park indicate that information should be readily accessible and easy to use. (DF)

  19. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Paraguay Belt, central Brazil: Part I - New structural data and a new approach on the regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Luiz José Homem D'el-Rey; Walde, Detlef Hans-Gerd; Saldanha, Davi Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Together with the Araguaia and Brasília belts, the Paraguay belt forms in central Brazil, the Tocantins Province that is one of the largest orogens of western Gondwana. The Corumbá area occupies the site where the northern and southern parts of the Paraguay belt form, together with the Chiquitos-Tucavaca aulacogen (stretching E-W in the adjacent Bolivian territory) an R-R-R basin system opened-filled in the ~ 700/650-540 Ma interval within the Amazon-Rio Apa paleo-continent. The sedimentary (volcanic) rocks of the Jacadigo and Corumbá Groups found around the Corumbá city record part of the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian passive margin precursor of the Paraguay belt. Our pioneer structural analysis reveals that these rocks experienced progressive deformation (phases D1-D2-D3) and low-grade metamorphism during the Brasiliano Cycle (540-513 Ma). The crystalline basement was also involved, according to structural data and K-Ar ages in the literature. The paleo-passive margin was thickened during the D1-D2 deformation and was lately shortened (D3) in two orthogonal directions, SE-NW (D3P) and SW-NE (D3T). Developed co-axially and verging to NW, D1-D2-D3P structures record the closure of the basin precursor of the Paraguay belt, whereas D3T structures seem related to the inversion of the aulacogen. Although the tectonic transport to NW, as observed in the Corumbá area, matches the reported transport of Paraguay belt's supracrustal rocks towards the eastern margin of the Rio Apa block and Araguaia belt's rocks towards the Amazon craton, the transport direction is opposite in other parts of the Paraguay belt. Our comprehensive discussion of these facts brings to light profound regional implications.

  20. Diagenesis of Paleozoic playa-lake and ephemeral-stream deposits from the Pimenta Bueno Formation, Siluro-Devonian (?) of the Parecis Basin, central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, K.; Morad, S.; Al-Aasm, I. S.; De Ros, L. F.

    2011-07-01

    The Parecis Basin is a large intracratonic rift located in central Brazil and filled with Paleozoic carbonate, evaporite and siliciclastic sediments. The occurrence of gas seeps has recently attracted significant exploration interest by the Brazilian petroleum agency and by Petrobras. The continuously cored PB-01-RO well provided the first opportunity to study the depositional environments, diagenetic evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the largely unknown sedimentary successions of the Parecis Basin. The cored lithologies, belonging to the Siluro-Devonian (?) Pimenta Bueno Formation, are interpreted as deposited in playa-lake and ephemeral-stream environments. The deposits display a strong facies control on the diagenetic mineral assemblages and evolution. Diagenetic minerals in the ephemeral-stream deposits include eogenetic hematite and smectitic clay coats and quartz cement, and the mesogenetic process includes precipitation of sulfates (anhydrite and barite) and carbonates (calcite, dolomite and kutnahorite-ankerite-huntite), followed by partial dissolution of these carbonates and sulfates, and of feldspar grains. Telogenetic processes include the precipitation of hematite and kaolinite within secondary pores, and the replacement of anhydrite by gypsum. A second burial phase and mesodiagenesis is indicated by the precipitation of discrete K-feldspar crystals within moldic pores after dissolved feldspars, and by the illitization of etched, telogenetic kaolinite. The playa-lake deposits show early diagenetic dolomitization of lime mud, precipitation of anhydrite nodules and extensive silicification. The anhydrite nodules were replaced by gypsum and chalcedony during telodiagenesis. Potential source rocks are locally represented by organic shales. The fluvial sandstones show fair reservoir quality and limited compaction, as indicated by their intergranular volume, suggesting that the succession has undergone moderate burial. Potential seals for hydrocarbon

  1. Identity and relationships of the Arboreal Caatinga among other floristic units of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) of north-eastern and Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Rubens M; Oliveira-Filho, Ary T; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Queiroz, Luciano P; Cardoso, Domingos B O S; Rodal, Maria J N

    2012-01-01

    The tree species composition of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) in north-eastern and central Brazil is analyzed to address the following hypotheses: (1) variations in species composition are related to both environment (climate and substrate) and spatial proximity; (2) SDTF floristic units may be recognized based on peculiar composition and environment; and (3) the Arboreal Caatinga, a deciduous forest occurring along the hinterland borders of the Caatinga Domain, is one of these units and its flora is more strongly related to the caatinga vegetation than to outlying forests. The study region is framed by the Brazilian coastline, 50th meridian west and 21st parallel south, including the Caatinga Domain and extensions into the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado Domains. Multivariate and geostatistic analyses were performed on a database containing 16,226 occurrence records of 1332 tree species in 187 georeferenced SDTF areas and respective environmental variables. Tree species composition varied significantly with both environmental variables and spatial proximity. Eight SDTF floristic units were recognized in the region, including the Arboreal Caatinga. In terms of species composition, its tree flora showed a stronger link with that of the Cerrado Dry Forest Enclaves. On the other hand, in terms of species frequency across sample areas, the links were stronger with two other units: Rock Outcrops Caatinga and Agreste and Brejo Dry Forests. There is a role for niche-based control of tree species composition across the SDTFs of the region determined primarily by the availability of ground water across time and secondarily by the amount of soil mineral nutrients. Spatial proximity also contributes significantly to the floristic cohesion of SDTF units suggesting a highly dispersal-limited tree flora. These units should be given the status of eco-regions to help driving the conservation policy regarding the protection of their biodiversity. PMID:22423333

  2. Provenance of metasedimentary rocks from the Ceará Central Domain of Borborema Province, NE Brazil: implications for the significance of associated retrograded eclogites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancelmi, Matheus Fernando; Santos, Ticiano José Saraiva dos; Amaral, Wagner da Silva; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Zincone, Stefano Albino

    2015-03-01

    In the Forquilha area (NE Brazil), in NW Borborema Province, high to ultra-high pressure rocks are an important geological key to understanding West Gondwana amalgamation. U-Pb geochronological data for a retrograded eclogite sample yielded an upper intercept age of ca. 1520 Ma and a lower intercept age of ca. 620 Ma. These ages most likely represent the crystallization age of the basaltic protolith and the regional metamorphism, respectively. The retrograded eclogites are enclosed in migmatized quartz-feldspathic gneiss and sillimanite (after kyanite)-garnet-biotite gneiss. Detrital U-Pb zircon data for these paragneisses show only Paleoproterozoic zircon grains with ages clustering from ca. 1800 Ma (the maximum depositional age) to ca. 2480 Ma, and frequency peaks at 2.2-2.0 Ga. Combined with Nd isotopic data from the Forquilha paragneisses, one can assume a single Paleoproterozoic source. Basement rocks of the Ceará Central and the Rio Grande do Norte domains are the most likely candidates. The absence of Meso- and Neoproterozoic zircon grains suggest that the retrograded eclogite bodies possibly do not represent slivers of oceanic rocks captured in active margin sequences during subduction. It was identified that the high-pressure rocks of the Forquilha area are in tectonic contact with high-pressure granulite facies rocks of the Ceará Complex (Independência unit) that present detrital zircon records of an active margin setting, with ages ranging from ca. 660 Ma to 2200 Ma. Metamorphism of this sequence occurred at ca. 650 Ma. Considering previous studies, field relationships, and metamorphic paragenesis, a tectonic scenario is inferred, in which the Forquilha retrograded eclogites represent Mesoproterozoic basaltic rocks of an extensional event that were metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions during Late Neoproterozoic continental subduction/collision, and juxtaposed to an active margin sequence during the exhumation process.

  3. The tectonic evolution of the Neoproterozoic Brasília Belt, central Brazil, based on SHRIMP and LA-ICPMS U-Pb sedimentary provenance data: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Márcio M.; Rodrigues, Joseneusa B.; DellaGiustina, Maria Emilia S.; Junges, Sergio; Matteini, Massimo; Armstrong, Richard

    2011-04-01

    The Brasília Belt is a Neoproterozoic orogenic belt in central Brazil, developed between the Amazon, São Francisco-Congo and Paranapanema cratons. It consists of a thick sedimentary pile, made up of several stratigraphic units, which have been deformed and metamorphosed along the western margin of the São Francisco Craton during the Brasiliano orogenic cycle. In the western part of the belt, a large, juvenile magmatic arc is exposed (the Goiás Magmatic Arc), consisting of calc-alkaline plutonic suites as well as volcano-sedimentary sequences, ranging in age between ca. 860 and 650 Ma. Regional-scale, west-dipping thrusts and reverse faults normally mark the limits between the main stratigraphic units, and clearly indicate tectonic transport towards the east. The age of deposition and tectonic significance of the sedimentary units comprising the Brasília Belt have been a matter of continuous debate over the last three decades. In the present paper, recent provenance data based on LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages of detrital zircon grains from several of these units, are reviewed and their significance for the age of deposition of the original sediments and tectonic evolution of the Brasília Belt are discussed. The Paranoá, Canastra and the Vazante groups, in the central part of the Belt, have detrital zircon grains with ages older than ca. 900 Ma and are interpreted as representative of the passive margin sequence deposited on the western margin of the São Francisco Craton. On the other hand, samples from the Araxá and Ibiá groups have a much younger population of Neoproterozoic zircon grains, as young as 650 Ma, and have been interpreted as syn-orogenic (fore-arc?) deposits. The Bambuí Group, exposed in the easternmost part of the belt and covering large areas of the São Francisco Craton also has young zircon grains and is interpreted, at least in part, as the foreland basin of the Brasília Belt.

  4. The Brazilian Indigenous Problem and Policy: The Aripuana Park. AMAZIND/IWGIA Document No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappino, Jean

    Aripuana Park was established in 1969 to give the still isolated Surui and other Broad-Belt Indians a chance of survival at the time when Brazil was launching its "conquest of the Amazon". The Park is situated on both sides of the Upper Aripuana and extends to the Roosevelt and Juruena rivers. The Indians are located at the sources of the…

  5. 78 FR 21401 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: Central Washington University has completed an... remains should submit a written request to Central Washington University. If no additional requestors...

  6. DELINEATING KARST RECHARGE AREAS AT ONONDAGA CAVE STATE PARK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onondaga Cave State Park is located in the north central portion of the Ozarks near Leasburg, Missouri. The park is known for two extensive cave systems, Onondaga Cave and Cathedral Cave. Both of these cave systems have active streams (1-2 cfs at baseflow) which have unknown recharge areas. As a man...

  7. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of granite-gneiss complexes and implications for the evolution of the Central Brazil Archean Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, Cláudia Lima; Jost, Hardy; da Silva, Luiz Carlos; McNaughton, Neal J.

    2008-07-01

    The paper is a first attempt to unravel the Archean multi-stage metaplutonic assemblage of the Meso/Neoarchean terrane of the State of Goiás, Central Brazil, by means of the U-Pb SHRIMP zircon and Sm-Nd techniques. Two stages of granitic plutonism, spanning ca. 140 m.y., were precisely established for the accretion of the gneiss protoliths. The earliest stage embraces tonalitic to granodioritic and minor granitic orthogneisses with Nd juvenile signature, emplaced from ca. 2845 to ca. 2785 Ma, interpreted as the roots of an early arc. Inherited zircon xenocrysts and Nd isotopic data indicate that the juvenile magmas underwent contamination from a sialic crust as old as 3.3 Ga, from which there are, so far, no recognizable exposures. The second stage comprises granodioritic to granitic gneisses and lasted from ca. 2711 to 2707 Ma. Based on their Nd isotopic signatures and on inherited zircon crystals, their protoliths are interpreted as dominantly crustal-derived. The SHRIMP data from zircon crystals did not depict a Paleoproterozoic overprinting on the Archean gneisses, which is due to geological processes with prevailing temperatures below the isotopic stability of the U/Pb/Th system in the mineral. These processes comprise crustal extension and intrusion of a mafic dike swarm at ca. 2.3 Ga, followed by low grade events mostly related to shear zones between ca. 2.15 and 2.0 Ga. The study also revealed the extent of the Pan- African tectono-thermal overprinting on the Archean orthogneisses. Most of the zircon populations show morphological evidence of metamorphic peripheral recrystallization dated between ca. 750 and 550 Ma. One of the banded gneisses with a crystallization age of ca. 2700 Ma (2 σ) has a more complex zircon population including magmatic new grains, which yielded a precise 206Pb/238U crystallization age of 590 ± 10 Ma (2 σ). These new grains are interpreted to have grown in anatectic veins injected within strongly sheared gneiss.The data

  8. 36 CFR 200.1 - Central organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central organization. 200.1 Section 200.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Organization § 200.1 Central organization. (a) Central office. The national office of the Forest Service,...

  9. Parks, Recreation and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the…

  10. 3. VIEW OF PARKING APRON LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM SOUTH RUNWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF PARKING APRON LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM SOUTH RUNWAY OBSERVATION BUILDING TOWARD BUILDING 8280 (DOUBLE CANTILEVER HANGAR). - Loring Air Force Base, Airfield, Central portion of base, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  11. 5. VIEW OF NORTH PARK AVENUE TRAILHEAD PARKING AREA FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF NORTH PARK AVENUE TRAILHEAD PARKING AREA FACING SOUTHEAST. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  12. Orchard Pollination in Capitol Reef National Park, Utah, USA. Honey Bees or Native Bees?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike most National Parks in the United States, Capitol Reef National Park in central Utah includes an agricultural component. The Park surrounds 22 rosaceous fruit orchards started over a century ago by Mormon pioneers. During bloom, hives of the alien honey bee are imported to pollinate the flow...

  13. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Daniel R.; Friedman, Irving

    1985-12-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 × 10 10 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park.

  14. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

  15. Future Trends in Park Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, William O.; Murrell, Dan S.

    1986-01-01

    The roles of ranger and park police in America's parks have shifted from visitor protection and resources management to visitor management and resources protection. Eight issues facing park police are discussed. (MT)

  16. Canadian Science Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Charles H.

    1988-01-01

    Only 45 percent of Canadian research is funded and executed by the private sector. Influenced by success stories such as the U.S. Stanford Research Park, Canadians have looked at science parks as a means to diversify their economy and to increase cooperation among government, industry, and universities. (Author/MLW)

  17. Splendor In The Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    1979-01-01

    Civilization is more and more intruding on the esthetic and recreational resources of the National Park System. Increased attention must be paid to controlling noise, pollution, and even the effects of urban lighting which detract from the enjoyment of the parks. (RE)

  18. Oregon's first wind park

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The bringing on-line of the 1.25 MW wind park at Whiskey Run, Oregon, is reported. The park features twenty-five 50 KW wind turbine generators and is expected to produce about three million kilowatt-hours per year for the Pacific Power and Light system.

  19. Preserving DOE's Research Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Virginia H.; Parr, Patricia D.

    1998-01-01

    Seven sites are designated as Department of Energy (DOE) National Environmental Research Parks and serve as irreplaceable outdoor laboratories for scientific research and education. The DOE has recommended the disposal of nearly one- quarter of the research park land holdings. Offers suggestions for developing a plan for protecting the…

  20. Ichnology of deglaciation deposits from the Upper Carboniferous Rio do Sul Formation (Itararé Group, Paraná Basin) at central-east Santa Catarina State (southern Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, João Henrique Dobler; Netto, Renata Guimarães; Corrêa, Camila Graziele; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Corrêa

    2015-11-01

    Trace fossil assemblages dominated by arthropod trackways are common in sediments deposited during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age. Ichnofaunas preserved in glacially-influenced sedimentary successions were previously reported from Paraná Basin in southern Brazil. The ichnofauna of the Rio do Sul Formation preserved in the rhythmites exposed in Trombudo Central quarries (Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil) is revised in this paper. Cruziana problematica, Diplichnites gouldi, Diplopodichnus biformis, Glaciichnium liebegastensis, Gluckstadtella elongata isp. nov., Helminthoidichnites tenuis, Mermia carickensis, Protovirgularia dichotoma, Treptichnus pollardi and Umfolozia sinuosa were recorded. Two trace fossil suites were recognized. The undermat miners suite is dominated by H. tenuis, indicating the presence of surface grazers (insect larvae, isopods and amphipods). C. problematica, D. gouldi and U. sinuosa dominate the overmat grazers suite, as result of displacement of terrestrial and aquatic arthropods. The integrated sedimentological and ichnological data from Trombudo Central region suggests colonization of ephemeral, shallow water bodies filled by freshwater from glacier melting. The deposition of the rhythmites took place in a glaciolacustrine context represented by shallow ponds in marginal marine settings.

  1. Master Plans for Park Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Jerry R.

    This booklet is a general guide to park site planning. The four basic steps involved in developing a park site are a) determination of the uses of the site, b) analysis of the site potential for these uses, c) identification of the functional relationship among the uses, and d) coordination of the uses to the park sites. Uses of park sites are…

  2. High School Parking Lots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Thomas G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the reorganization of the site of Ben Davis High School in Wayne Township, Indiana as an example of improvements to school parking lot design and vehicle/pedestrian traffic flow and security. Includes design drawings. (EV)

  3. Inequities in access to health care in different health systems: a study in municipalities of central Colombia and north-eastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health system reforms are undertaken with the aim of improving equity of access to health care. Their impact is generally analyzed based on health care utilization, without distinguishing between levels of care. This study aims to analyze inequities in access to the continuum of care in municipalities of Brazil and Colombia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a survey of a multistage probability sample of people who had had at least one health problem in the prior three months (2,163 in Colombia and 2,167 in Brazil). The outcome variables were dichotomous variables on the utilization of curative and preventive services. The main independent variables were income, being the holder of a private health plan and, in Colombia, type of insurance scheme of the General System of Social Security in Health (SGSSS). For each country, the prevalence of the outcome variables was calculated overall and stratified by levels of per capita income, SGSSS insurance schemes and private health plan. Prevalence ratios were computed by means of Poisson regression models with robust variance, controlling for health care need. Results There are inequities in favor of individuals of a higher socioeconomic status: in Colombia, in the three different care levels (primary, outpatient secondary and emergency care) and preventive activities; and in Brazil, in the use of outpatient secondary care services and preventive activities, whilst lower-income individuals make greater use of the primary care services. In both countries, inequity in the use of outpatient secondary care is more pronounced than in the other care levels. Income in both countries, insurance scheme enrollment in Colombia and holding a private health plan in Brazil all contribute to the presence of inequities in utilization. Conclusions Twenty years after the introduction of reforms implemented to improve equity in access to health care, inequities, defined in terms of unequal use for equal need

  4. The Swallow Park Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Villiers, P.

    2014-02-01

    The Hermanus Astronomy Centre recently erected a pair of back-to-back sundials in Swallow Park in the centre of Hermanus as part of the upgrading of this historical public park by the Ward committee. Since these two are intended to be the first of many different design sundials to be erected in Hermanus by the HAC, the designs were purposefully chosen to be "unusual" to illustrate the point that even unfamiliar designs and orientations give the same end result....

  5. Saint Paul Energy Park: the potential for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Kron, R.; Davis, H.

    1980-03-01

    The results of ANL's study of the energy and economic aspects of using district heating in the St. Paul Energy Park are summarized. The Energy Park is a 6 million ft/sup 2/ residential, commercial office, and light industrial complex to be built in the midway area of St. Paul, Minnesota. Space heating and cooling design loads for the park were calculated assuming that the ASHRAE's 90-75 energy-conserving construction standards would be used in constructing the park's buildings. Based in part on this assumption, ANL estimated the costs and energy use characteristics of six possible energy system options for supplying Energy Park's space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water heating needs. The results indicate that in today's economy, a central heating and cooling plant with natural gas boilers and electrically driven centrifugal chillers with thermal storage has good potential for energy and economic savings and clearly merits further consideration.

  6. 32 CFR 1903.5 - Enforcement of parking regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enforcement of parking regulations. 1903.5 Section 1903.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... expense. The Central Intelligence Agency assumes no responsibility for the payment of any fees or...

  7. 32 CFR 1903.5 - Enforcement of parking regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enforcement of parking regulations. 1903.5 Section 1903.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... expense. The Central Intelligence Agency assumes no responsibility for the payment of any fees or...

  8. 32 CFR 1903.5 - Enforcement of parking regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement of parking regulations. 1903.5 Section 1903.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... expense. The Central Intelligence Agency assumes no responsibility for the payment of any fees or...

  9. 32 CFR 1903.5 - Enforcement of parking regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enforcement of parking regulations. 1903.5 Section 1903.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... expense. The Central Intelligence Agency assumes no responsibility for the payment of any fees or...

  10. 32 CFR 1903.5 - Enforcement of parking regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enforcement of parking regulations. 1903.5 Section 1903.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... expense. The Central Intelligence Agency assumes no responsibility for the payment of any fees or...

  11. [Evaluation and monitoring of primary health care in Ceará State, Brazil: exploring concepts and experiences at the central level].

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Suziana Martins de; Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães; Pontes, Ricardo José Soares

    2008-12-01

    The primary health care model implemented by the Family Health Program in Brazil still lacks systematized, validated mechanisms for its monitoring and evaluation. Based on an actual experience, the current study sought to understand experiences and explore concepts held by staff and managers in the Ceará State Health Department in Brazil, in relation to their evaluative and monitoring practices. A qualitative methodology was used, with the sample consisting of the group responsible for primary care at the State level. The focus group technique was used to obtain the empirical material. Themes that stood out in the interpretation were the nature and goals of evaluation and experiences with evaluation. Both are discussed in the current article and show that the key informants do not participate in the discussion on evaluation of health programs and services, meaning that the concept of evaluation is poorly understood and suffers attrition during the process of implementing activities. The traditional normative model predominates in the evaluative experiences, revealing a mismatch between concepts and practice in relation to proposals with a qualitative-participatory approach. PMID:19082280

  12. Anomalous delays of teleseismic P waves in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iyer, H.M.

    1975-01-01

    TELESEISMIC P waves recorded by a short-period seismic network, comprising 12 stations, in Yellowstone National Park, show anomalous delays of 1-2 s in their travel times in the central region of the park relative to the surrounding area. To explain this phenomenon, I propose that a substantial body of low velocity material is present beneath the park, with horizontal dimensions of several tens of kilometres; it may be the magma chamber associated with the volcanism of Yellowstone (ref. 1, and G. P. Eaton et al., unpublished). ?? 1975 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. Parking management tactics. Volume 3: reference guide. [Parking

    SciTech Connect

    DiRenzo, J.F.; Cima, B.; Barber, E.

    1981-06-01

    Information contained in this guide was formulated from parking management experiences of 20 cities previously investigated and documented. The guide provides information on the planning, implementation, and operation of six types of parking management tactics: on-street parking supply tactics, off-street parking supply tactics for activity centers, fringe and corridor parking facilities, pricing tactics, enforcement and adjudication tactics, and marketing tactics. The guide assesses the essential aspects of the tactics as well as presents some useful analysis procedures for evaluating parking management actions. The Reference Guide is a stand-alone document for use by transportation planners and traffic engineers. It is the third volume of a three-volume series of reports on parking management. The first volume, entitled Overview, is designed for management. The second volume, entitled Overview and Case Studies, is designed for technical staff or managers who want detailed city-by-city information on parking management tactics.

  14. FACING NORTHWEST TOWARD NORTHERN END OF PARK Candler Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTHWEST TOWARD NORTHERN END OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  15. FACING NORTHEAST OF NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF PARK Candler Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTHEAST OF NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  16. Park Z-epicanthoplasty.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung I; Park, Min S

    2007-08-01

    Numerous procedures to eliminate medial epicanthal folds have been described. Despite an abundance of available procedures, most surgeons are reluctant to perform medial epicanthoplasty for Asian eyelid cosmetic surgery because of frequent development of unsightly scars. The Park Z-epicanthoplasty differs from the previously described procedures by placement of the incision within, as opposed to adjacent to, the eyelid skin. The Park Z-epicanthoplasty is most beneficial in type III epicanthal folds and is also widely used for type II epicanthal folds. It is most useful for individuals seeking higher double folds and outer-parallel-type double eyelid folds. PMID:17658430

  17. Plant food resources exploited by Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus 1758) at an urban area in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, A A; Ragusa-Netto, J

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we described the food plants available to Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna), its feeding habits and the relationship between these parameters with feeding niche breadth. We established four transects, each one 12 km long, to sample fruiting plants and the feeding habits of this macaw (monthly 40 h, of observations), at the urban areas of Três Lagoas (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). During all studied months, macaws foraged for palm fruits, mainly Syagrus oleracea and Acrocomia aculeata fruit pulp, both available all year, as well as Caryocar brasiliense and Anacardium occidentale seeds, in the wet season. The year-round feeding activity of macaws suggests Três Lagoas city as an adequate feeding area. The permanent availability of plant food resources, potentially, resulted from the diverse fruiting patterns of exotic and, mainly, native plant species, which provided a variety of suitable fruit patches. PMID:25166327

  18. Parking in the City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šeba, P.

    2007-10-01

    We show that the spacing distribution between parked cars can be obtained as a solution of certain linear distributional fixed point equation. The results are compared with the data measured on the streets of Hradec Krälový. We also discuss a relation of these results to the random matrix theory.

  19. Parks or Prisons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Gareth

    1998-01-01

    Presents a simulation activity in which students assume the role of grizzly bears in Banff National Park. Concepts such as species diversity, fitness, natural selection, habitat loss, extinction, and population dynamics are discussed. Children learn how human activities can affect the bear's reproductive success. Lists materials, instructional…

  20. Park a La Cart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susie; Roell, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Using discovery stations offers solutions for increasing attendance at park interpretive programs. Compact, portable stations can be used in playgrounds, special events, trailheads, picnic areas, campgrounds, nursing homes, and scouts and day camps. Describes a case in which stations were used 85 times and reached 4,927 visitors between July 1996…

  1. The Clover Park Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Don

    1974-01-01

    Describes an aviation trades training program offered by the Clover Park schools in Washington which exposes students to all facets of the aviation industry from record keeping to air traffic control in addition to the specific skill of piloting the aircraft. (BR)

  2. Pinnacles National Park Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Boxer, Barbara [D-CA

    2011-01-25

    05/11/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-124. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3641, which became Public Law 112-245 on 1/10/2013. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Exploring Jurassic Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Patricia E.; Wiley, Clyde

    1993-01-01

    Describes several student-tested activities built around "Jurassic Park." The activities feature students engaged in role-playing scenarios, investigative research projects, journal writing and communications skills activities, cooperative learning groups, and learning experiences that make use of reading skills and mathematical knowledge. (PR)

  4. Kruger National Park

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... and to the right of image center is the Palabora Copper Mine, and the water body near upper right is Lake Massingir in Mozambique. ... South Africa showing Kruger Park, the Palabora Copper Mine, and Lake Massingir. project:  MISR category:  ...

  5. Scale Modelling of Nocturnal Cooling in Urban Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spronken-Smith, R. A.; Oke, T. R.

    Scale modelling is used to determine the relative contribution of heat transfer processes to the nocturnal cooling of urban parks and the characteristic temporal and spatial variation of surface temperature. Validation is achieved using a hardware model-to-numerical model-to-field observation chain of comparisons. For the calm case, modelling shows that urban-park differences of sky view factor (s) and thermal admittance () are the relevant properties governing the park cool island (PCI) effect. Reduction in sky view factor by buildings and trees decreases the drain of longwave radiation from the surface to the sky. Thus park areas near the perimeter where there may be a line of buildings or trees, or even sites within a park containing tree clumps or individual trees, generally cool less than open areas. The edge effect applies within distances of about 2.2 to 3.5 times the height of the border obstruction, i.e., to have any part of the park cooling at the maximum rate a square park must be at least twice these dimensions in width. Although the central areas of parks larger than this will experience greater cooling they will accumulate a larger volume of cold air that may make it possible for them to initiate a thermal circulation and extend the influence of the park into the surrounding city. Given real world values of s and it seems likely that radiation and conduction play almost equal roles in nocturnal PCI development. Evaporation is not a significant cooling mechanism in the nocturnal calm case but by day it is probably critical in establishing a PCI by sunset. It is likely that conditions that favour PCI by day (tree shade, soil wetness) retard PCI growth at night. The present work, which only deals with PCI growth, cannot predict which type of park will be coolest at night. Complete specification of nocturnal PCI magnitude requires knowledge of the PCI at sunset, and this depends on daytime energetics.

  6. High Species C Human Adenovirus Genome Copy Numbers in the Treated Water Supply of a Neotropical Area of the Central-West Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Hugo D; Fongaro, Gislaine; Garcíazapata, Marco T A; Melo, Arthur T O; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela P; de Faria, Karla M S; Anunciação, Carlos E

    2015-09-01

    There is little information about the presence of human adenovirus (HAdV) in drinking water in Neotropical regions. Thus, the present study sought to conduct quantification and molecular characterization of HAdVs detected in treated water samples from an area of the Cerrado ecoregion of Brazil. Between August and November 2012, samples were collected from four treated water reservoirs and their respective sites along the water distribution network of the city of Goiânia, for a total of 80 samples. All samples were concentrated and analyzed by qPCR, and selected samples were sequenced. Overall, 76.6 (10(0)-10(9) GC mL(-1)) and 37.5% (10(1)-10(8) GC mL(-1)) of samples drawn from reservoirs and their distribution sites, respectively, were positive for virus by qPCR. All samples selected for sequencing were characterized as species C human adenovirus. Such high HAdV counts have in treated water samples. This finding merits special attention, particularly from the sanitation authorities, because the high number of GC mL(-1) may be an indicative of risk to human health. PMID:25799963

  7. A Severe Accident Caused by an Ocellate River Stingray (Potamotrygon motoro) in Central Brazil: How Well Do We Really Understand Stingray Venom Chemistry, Envenomation, and Therapeutics?

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Nelson Jorge; Clementino Ferreira, Kalley Ricardo; Leite Pinto, Raimundo Nonato; Aird, Steven Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater stingrays cause many serious human injuries, but identification of the offending species is uncommon. The present case involved a large freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae), in the Araguaia River in Tocantins, Brazil. Appropriate first aid was administered within ~15 min, except that an ice pack was applied. Analgesics provided no pain relief, although hot compresses did. Ciprofloxacin therapy commenced after ~18 h and continued seven days. Then antibiotic was suspended; however, after two more days and additional tests, cephalosporin therapy was initiated, and proved successful. Pain worsened despite increasingly powerful analgesics, until debridement of the wound was performed after one month. The wound finally closed ~70 days after the accident, but the patient continued to have problems wearing shoes even eight months later. Chemistry and pharmacology of Potamotrygon venom and mucus, and clinical management of freshwater stingray envenomations are reviewed in light of the present case. Bacterial infections of stingray puncture wounds may account for more long-term morbidity than stingray venom. Simultaneous prophylactic use of multiple antibiotics is recommended for all but the most superficial stingray wounds. Distinguishing relative contributions of venom, mucus, and bacteria will require careful genomic and transcriptomic investigations of stingray tissues and contaminating bacteria. PMID:26094699

  8. Description of a new catfish genus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Tocantins River basin in central Brazil, with comments on the historical zoogeography of the new taxon.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriel S C; Roxo, Fábio F; Ochoa, Luz E; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the description of a new genus of the catfish subfamily Neoplecostominae from the Tocantins River basin. It can be distinguished from other neoplecostomine genera by the presence of (1) three hypertrophied bicuspid odontodes on the lateral portion of the body (character apparently present in mature males); (2) a large area without odontodes around the snout; (3) a post-dorsal ridge on the caudal peduncle; (4) a straight tooth series in the dentary and premaxillary rows; (5) the absence of abdominal plates; (6) a conspicuous series of enlarged papillae just posterior to the dentary teeth; and (7) caudal peduncle ellipsoid in cross section. We used maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to estimate a time-calibrated tree with the published data on 116 loricariid species using one nuclear and three mitochondrial genes, and we used parametric biogeographic analyses (DEC and DECj models) to estimate ancestral geographic ranges and to infer the colonization routes of the new genus and the other neoplecostomines in the Tocantins River and the hydrographic systems of southeastern Brazil. Our phylogenetic results indicate that the new genus and species is a sister taxon of all the other members of the Neoplecostominae, originating during the Eocene at 47.5 Mya (32.7-64.5 Mya 95% HPD). The present distribution of the new genus and other neoplecostomines may be the result of a historical connection between the drainage basins of the Paraguay and Paraná rivers and the Amazon basin, mainly through headwater captures. PMID:27408594

  9. Ecological Analysis of Parking Prices and Active Commuting in US Cities, 2009.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Wendel, Arthur M; Auchincloss, Amy H

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an ecological study to determine whether parking prices are associated with active commuting across US cities. We obtained parking prices for 107 US cities from the Drexel University Central Business District Public Parking Survey, obtained city prevalence of walking and bicycling to work from the American Community Survey, and used weighted least squares linear regression to explore associations between parking prices and active commuting. After adjusting for several covariates, walking to work was 3.1% higher for every additional dollar charged for off-street daily parking, but only among more densely populated cities, and no such association was detected for bicycling to work. These preliminary results hint at the potential for parking policies to influence commuting mode choice, a link that city planners and public health officials could consider when evaluating parking policies and active transportation behaviors. PMID:27609301

  10. Distance Education and Corporate Training in Brazil: Regulations and Interrelationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Stella C. S.; Berge, Zane L.

    2008-01-01

    Distance education in Brazil has evolved more slowly than distance education offerings in other developing countries. This is because all aspects of Brazil's publicly-funded educational system are excessively regulated, highly bureaucratic, and tightly centralized. Such highly centralized bureaucracy and strict control has resulted in tremendous…

  11. Checklist of the Cerambycidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) from central Bahia State (Brazil), with the description of two new species and new geographic records.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Francisco E De L; Botero, Juan Pablo; Bravo, Freddy

    2016-01-01

    A list of Cerambycidae species from three municipalities of central Bahia (Milagres, Maracás and Iaçu) is presented. A total of 108 species are registered, 17 of which are new geographical records for the state, are listed, including two new species of Aerenicini (Lamiinae), Suipinima flavumtuberculata sp. nov. and Aereniphaula bandana sp. nov. which are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Suipinima and taxonomic notes on Suipinima eccentrica (Galileo & Martins, 1992) are provided. PMID:27394886

  12. Permian paleogeography of west-central Pangea: Reconstruction using sabkha-type gypsum-bearing deposits of Parnaíba Basin, Northern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrantes, Francisco R.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Soares, Joelson L.

    2016-07-01

    Extreme aridity during Late Permian - Early Triassic period was the main factor for resetting the entire paleoclimate of the planet. Permian evaporite basins and lacustrine red beds were widely distributed along the supercontinent of Pangea. Sulphate deposits in Western Pangea, particularly in Northern Brazil, accumulated in an extensive playa lake system. Outcrop-based facies and stratigraphic analysis of up to 20 m thick evaporite-siliciclastic deposits reveal the predominance of laminated reddish mudstone with subordinate limestone, marl and lenses of gypsum. The succession was deposited in shallow lacustrine and inland sabkha environments associated with saline pans and mudflats. Gypsum deposits comprise six lithofacies: 1) bottom-growth gypsum, 2) nodular/micronodular gypsum, 3) mosaic gypsum, 4) fibrous/prismatic gypsum, 5) alabastrine gypsum, and 6) rosettes of gypsum. Gypsum types 1 and 2 are interpreted as primary deposition in saline pans. Bottom-growth gypsum forms grass-like crusts while nodular/micronodular gypsum indicates displacive precipitation of the crust in shallow water and the groundwater capillary zone. Types 3 and 4 are early diagenetic precipitates. Abundant inclusions of tiny lath-like anhydrite crystals suggest a primary origin of anhydrite. Alabastrine gypsum, fibrous gypsum (satinspar) and rosettes of gypsum probably derived from near-surface hydration of anhydrite. The gypsum-bearing deposits in the Parnaíba Basin contribute towards understanding paleogeographic changes in Western Pangea. A progressive uplift of East Pangea, culminated in the forced regression and retreat of epicontinental seas to the West. Restricted seas or large lakes were formed before the definitive onset of desert conditions in Pangea, leading to the development of extensive ergs.

  13. Description of a new catfish genus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Tocantins River basin in central Brazil, with comments on the historical zoogeography of the new taxon

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Ochoa, Luz E.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study presents the description of a new genus of the catfish subfamily Neoplecostominae from the Tocantins River basin. It can be distinguished from other neoplecostomine genera by the presence of (1) three hypertrophied bicuspid odontodes on the lateral portion of the body (character apparently present in mature males); (2) a large area without odontodes around the snout; (3) a post-dorsal ridge on the caudal peduncle; (4) a straight tooth series in the dentary and premaxillary rows; (5) the absence of abdominal plates; (6) a conspicuous series of enlarged papillae just posterior to the dentary teeth; and (7) caudal peduncle ellipsoid in cross section. We used maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to estimate a time-calibrated tree with the published data on 116 loricariid species using one nuclear and three mitochondrial genes, and we used parametric biogeographic analyses (DEC and DECj models) to estimate ancestral geographic ranges and to infer the colonization routes of the new genus and the other neoplecostomines in the Tocantins River and the hydrographic systems of southeastern Brazil. Our phylogenetic results indicate that the new genus and species is a sister taxon of all the other members of the Neoplecostominae, originating during the Eocene at 47.5 Mya (32.7–64.5 Mya 95% HPD). The present distribution of the new genus and other neoplecostomines may be the result of a historical connection between the drainage basins of the Paraguay and Paraná rivers and the Amazon basin, mainly through headwater captures. PMID:27408594

  14. Multidrug resistance dissemination by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli causing community-acquired urinary tract infection in the Central-Western Region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Laura Fernandes; de Oliveira Martins-Júnior, Paulo; de Melo, Ana Beatriz Fabrício; da Silva, Rafaella Christina Rocha Moreira; de Paulo Martins, Vicente; Pitondo-Silva, André; de Campos, Tatiana Amabile

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from outpatients with signs of cystitis in Hospital Universitário de Brasília (Brasília, Brazil) during the period July 2013 to April 2014. E. coli isolated from urine culture were identified and their antibiotic susceptibility profile was determined by VITEK 2. ESBL-producing strains identified were submitted to PCR for Clermont phylotyping, CTX-M group typing and virulence determinant detection, and clonal relationships were determined by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR. One strain belonging to each cluster of the dendrogram obtained by ERIC-PCR was selected for multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Among 324 uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) analysed, 23 (7.1%) were identified as producing ESBL. All ESBL-producing strains were multidrug-resistant (MDR), i.e. presented non-susceptibility to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial categories. Of the 23 ESBL-producing UPEC strains, 9 were assigned to phylogenetic group B2 and 7 each belonged to phylogenetic groups D and A. Virulence genotyping showed that aer was the most prevalent gene observed among the strains (21/23), followed by traT (18/23), pap (5/23), afa (5/23), PAI (5/23), cnf (3/23) and sfa (1/23). Analysis of the dendrogram showed that multidrug resistance and CTX-M ESBL groups were distributed among all strains, independent of clonality and phylogroup. Sequence types (STs) associated with pandemic resistance clones, such as B2-ST131 and D-ST648, were observed among the isolates. In conclusion, the results showed worrisome evidence of the potential for antibiotic multiresistant dissemination among community-acquired urinary tract infection caused by UPEC. PMID:27530830

  15. Evidence of mercury biomagnification in the food chain of the cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi (Osteichthyes: Characidae) in the Rio Negro, central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marshall, B G; Forsberg, B R; Thomé-Souza, M; Peleja, R; Moreira, M Z; Freitas, C E C

    2016-07-01

    In this study, nitrogen stable isotope (δ(15) N) and total mercury (THg) analyses were conducted on algae, submersed and emergent macrophytes, shrubs and trees, Macrobrachium sp. and Paracheirodon axelrodi collected in three streams that drain a large interfluvial region in the middle Rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil. Samples were collected during different hydrological periods over 12 months in lower stream reaches and their headwaters; the latter being characterized by shallow, open-canopy swamps. Additionally, δ(15) N values and mercury concentrations of Paracheirodon simulans and Cichla spp. from the middle Rio Negro were analysed to demonstrate THg biomagnification in the food web. The highest mercury levels of P. axelrodi were found in small individuals, which were collected principally in the low water period. The log10 THg-δ(15) N relationship of vascular plants and algae, Macrobrachium sp., Paracheirodon spp. and Cichla spp. showed significant mercury biomagnification among trophic levels, with regression slopes of 0·15 and 0·25 for the entire food web and heterotrophs-only food web, respectively. The mean ± s.d. THg concentrations for Macrobrachium sp., P. axelrodi, P. simulans and Cichla spp. were 63·6 ± 23·7, 104·5 ± 40·0, 112·3 ± 31·4 and 418·5 ± 188·1 ng g(-1) wet mass, respectively. Elevated levels of mercury found in Paracheirodon spp. and top predators such as Cichla spp. in a remote area far from anthropogenic inputs provide evidence that high mercury concentrations occur naturally in Rio Negro aquatic food webs. PMID:27028984

  16. The energy Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2005-10-01

    If world development is to continue, per capita energy use in the developing world must increase to levels in the developed world. Restrictions on how much CO2 mankind can responsibly put into the atmosphere complicate the task further. Studies show that by 2050 the world will require an additional 10-30 terawatts (TW) of carbon free power, at least as much additional, as the 10 TW generated today with fossil fuel. Neither mined uranium nor renewable energy is capable of sustained power production at this level. This paper proposes, an "energy park", a self contained unit a square mile or two in area which supplies about 7 GW of electrical power or hydrogen, emits no CO2, has little or no proliferation problem, and cleans up its own waste. Most of the energy is supplied by conventional nuclear power plants. However the nuclear fuel is bred by a fusion reactor, which is the key to the energy park. The waste cleanup is done by a combination of fission, fusion, and patience. There is neither long time storage nor long distance travel for materials with proliferation risk or long lived radio nuclides. Thus only thorium comes into the park, and only electricity and hydrogen go out.

  17. The relationship between normal and strike-slip faults in Valley of Fire State Park, Nevada, and its implications for stress rotation and partitioning of deformation in the east-central Basin and Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Atilla; de Joussineau, Ghislain

    2014-06-01

    This study expands on our earlier studies of the evolution of fracturing and faulting in the Jurassic aeolian Aztec Sandstone exposed over a large area in the Valley of Fire State Park, southeastern Nevada. Based on a nearly three-dimensional data set collected from 200-m-high cliff-face exposures with stair-case morphology composed of steep and flat parts, we find that a series of inclined, relatively low-angle normal faults and their splay fractures are precursors of the strike-slip fault network that we previously documented. We discuss the significance of this finding in terms of the tectonics of the broader area, stress rotation, partitioning of deformation, and the development of fracture clusters with compartmentalization of the structures as a function of spatial, depositional and deformational domains.

  18. First data on the age of rocks from the central part of the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge (Brazil Basin, South Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolotnev, S. G.; Bylinskaya, M. E.; Golovina, L. A.; Ipat'eva, I. S.

    2011-03-01

    Micropaleontological and isotope-geochronological investigations of calcareous sedimentary rocks and volcanites dredged out from the central portion of the submarine Vitoria-Trindade Ridge during the 24th cruise of R/V Akademik Vavilov have been conducted. It has been established based on micropaleontological analysis, which included determination of the species composition of foraminifera and nannoplankton, that the sequence of sedimentary rocks having a pelagic nature formed on the slopes of the volcanic seamounts in the central portion of the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge from the Early to Mid-Miocene to the Holocene; a good correlation between the degree of lithification of these rocks and their age is observed. It has also been established that the carbonate platforms on the abraded tops of the Davis Seamount and the Dogaressa Bank, which are located in the east-central portion of the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge, started forming in the Early Miocene (19-24 Ma). It has been determined using local U-Pb dating of zircon grains with a SHRIMP-II high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer that the volcanites forming the upper portion of the volcanic rock sequence of the Jaseur Seamount (29.8 ± 6.6 Ma) located in the west-central portion of the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge date to the Oligocene. The investigations conducted have confirmed the opinion that the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge formed in general because of the activity of the hot spot located under the volcanic Trindade and Martin Vaz Islands. However, separate extended lenticular segments of this ridge existed for a long time as single structures, within which the age of the seamounts was not linearly dependent on the distance from the location of the hot spot. Lenses of hot mantle matter that form at the sublithospheric level as a result of impulses of plume activity and move along with the lithospheric plate play a defining role in the development of individual segments forming the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge.

  19. Triatominae Survey (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in the South-Central Region of the State of Bahia, Brazil between 2008 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Vagner José; de Oliveira, Jader; Rimoldi, Aline; Filho, Júlio C. R. Ferreira; de Araújo, Renato Freitas; da Rosa, JoãoAristeu

    2015-01-01

    Triatomine surveillance in rural areas, artificial ecotypes, and natural ecotopes of the cities of Caturama, Ibipitanga, Macaúbas, and Seabra in the south-central region of the Brazilian state of Bahia was carried out between 2008 and 2013. Natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in the specimens collected to monitor vectors of Chagas disease. A total of 1,357 specimens were collected, and four species were identified: Triatoma sordida (83%), Triatoma lenti (16.4%), Triatoma pseudomaculata (0.5%), and Panstrongylus geniculatus (0.1%). Triatoma sordida was found in four cities, only 0.7% in intradomiciliary environments. Triatoma lenti was found only in Macaúbas; 8.5% were found in intradomiciliary environments, 88.3% in peridomiciliary environments, and 3.1% in sylvatic environments. Natural infection by T. cruzi was 0.5% for T. sordida and 3.1% T. lenti. All of these cases were found in peridomiciliary environments of Macaúbas. As the results show, triatomines were found in intradomiciliary environments in three cities that were surveyed in the south-central region of the state of Bahia. Thus, an epidemiologic survey should be performed to avoid the risk of transmission to the population. PMID:25802433

  20. The Santa Terezinha-Campos Verdes emerald district, central Brazil: structural and Sm-Nd data to constrain the tectonic evolution of the Neoproterozoic Brası´lia belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'el-Rey Silva, Luiz José Homem; Barros Neto, Leonel de Souza

    2002-12-01

    Structural analysis coupled with Sm-Nd isotope data and a detailed description of the geology of the Santa Terezinha-Campos Verdes emerald district (Goiás State, Central Brazil) constrain the evolution of the Neoproterozoic Brası´lia belt. The area is composed of tectonic slices of Archean-Paleoproterozoic gneiss, a Meso-Neoproterozoic metavolcanic sedimentary sequence called the Santa Terezinha sequence, and crustal-derived intrusive rocks such as mylonitic (ortho)gneiss and a syntectonic porphyry granite. It underwent a Neoproterozoic greenschist facies polyphase ductile deformation (D 1-D 3). Structures indicate an event of rotational deformation along a typical frontal ramp dipping gently to the west (i.e. an event of simple shear with top to ESE relative regional movement due to a subhorizontal WNW-ESE compression). A Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 577±77 Ma for the intrusive rocks constrains the timing of at least part of the deformation/metamorphism in the area. Primary and metamorphic planar structures (mainly D 1-D 2) strike SW-NE and dip at low to moderate angles to the NW in the northern part of the area. However, they gradually rotate to SSE in the central SE part, where the Peixe River synclinorium is developed. This synclinorium is also the nest of the D 2 sheath folds that control emerald ore shoots. The Santa Cruz dome is a basement-cored, major elliptic structure in the SW of the area. The Santa Terezinha sequence represents a back-arc basin that received input from the Neoproterozoic Goiás magmatic arc to the west and the São Francisco ancient continental margin to the east. The basal and upper sections of this sequence correlate, respectively, with other passive margin and back-arc sequences of the Brası´lia belt.

  1. Sm Nd isotope systematics and REE data for leucotroctolites and their amphibolitized equivalents of the Niquelândia Complex upper layered series, central Brazil: further constraints for the timing of magmatism and high-grade metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira Filho, C. F.; Pimentel, M. M.

    2000-12-01

    The Barro Alto, Niquelândia, and Cana Brava Complexes are major Proterozoic layered intrusions in central Brazil that were affected by high-grade metamorphism with associated ductile deformation during the Neoproterozoic (770-795 Ma). Recent studies recognized that the Niquelândia Complex comprises two petrologically distinct and tectonically juxtaposed magmatic systems: a younger Upper Layered Series to the west and an older Lower Layered Series to the east. Previous geochronological studies on Lower Series rocks suggested a Paleoproterozoic (ca 2.0 Ga) age for the Lower Series magmatic event. New trace element data matched with Sm-Nd isotope data for Upper Series samples yielded well-constrained and original geochronological information. The 1.35 Ga age of the Upper Series magmatism reported in this paper indicates a much younger age of the Upper Series compared with the Lower Series. The tectonic contact between these two distinct magmatic systems is now raised to the category of a major Paleo-Mesoproterozoic crustal discontinuity.

  2. Fungal microbiota in air-conditioning installed in both adult and neonatal intensive treatment units and their impact in two university hospitals of the central western region, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simões, Sara de Almeida Alves; Leite Júnior, Diniz Pereira; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate fungal microbiota in air-conditioning units installed in intensive care units in two university hospitals in Cuiaba city, Mato Grosso, central western region of Brazil, 525 solid environmental samples were collected, 285 from Hospital A and 240 from Hospital B. Collections were performed using sterile swabs on air-conditioning unit components: cooling coils, ventilators, and filters. Mycelial fungi identification was achieved by observation of the macroscopic and micromorphological characteristics in different culture mediums (maize meal, oatmeal and potato dextrose agars and malt extract) using the Ridell technique. Eleven genera and 27 distinct species belonging to the hyphomycetes and ascomycetes classes were isolated and identified. The most frequently detected genera in both hospitals were Aspergillus spp, Penicillium spp, and Cladosporium spp. Values for colony-forming units per gram were 64 and 75%, well above the limits recommended by Health Ministry resolution 176/00 at the locations selected for analysis in Hospitals A and B, respectively. In conclusion, evaluation of fungal microbiota in the air-conditioning units indirectly determined that the air quality was compromised in both university hospitals analyzed, which constitutes a risk factor for the acquisition of infection in the intensive care units. PMID:21424438

  3. Automated Car Park Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  4. INVESTIGATION OF SERUM MICROCYSTIN CONCENTRATIONS AMONG DIALYSIS PATIENTS, BRAZIL, 1996

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation of Serum Microcystin Concentrations Among Dialysis Patients, Brazil, 1996

    Elizabeth D. Hilborn 1, Wayne W. Carmichael 2, Sandra M.F.O. Azevedo 3
    1- USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
    2- Wright State University, Dayton, OH
    3- Federal Univers...

  5. SAN PEDRO PARKS WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santos, Elmer S.; Weisner, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    The San Pedro Parks Wilderness occupies 62. 7 sq mi of the Santa Fe National Forest in north-central New Mexico. Several copper mines, many copper prospects, and a few uranium prospects occur in sedimentary units in the vicinity of the wilderness. These units, where they extend into the wilderness, constitute only a small volume of rock and, judging from analyses of samples and from field observations, are devoid of copper and uranium concentration. Prospects on several of about 65 mining claims within the wilderness revealed concentrations of manganese or barite but only in volumes too small to be considered a demonstrated resource.

  6. An Apparatus to Simulate an Amusement Park Rotor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraiva, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The rotor is a device that can be found in many amusement parks. In the literature there are various articles about this topic. The rotor is a hollow cylindrical room, covered inside with canvas and which can be rotated about the central vertical axis. People stand upright, with their backs against the internal face of the device. When it reaches…

  7. Molecular detection of Leishmania spp. in road-killed wild mammals in the Central Western area of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Road-killed wild animals have been classified as sentinels for detecting such zoonotic pathogens as Leishmania spp., offering new opportunities for epidemiological studies of this infection. Methods This study aimed to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania chagasi DNA by PCR in tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, mesenteric lymph node and adrenal gland) from 70 road-killed wild animals. Results DNA was detected in tissues of one Cavia aperea (Brazilian guinea pig), five Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), one Dasypus septemcinctus (seven-banded armadillo), two Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), one Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris (capybara), two Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), one Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), two Sphiggurus spinosus (porcupine) and one Tamandua tetradactyla (lesser anteater) from different locations in the Central Western part of São Paulo state. The Leishmania chagasi DNA were confirmed in mesenteric lymph node of one Cerdocyon thous. Results indicated common infection in wild animals. Conclusions The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting the environmental occurrence of Leishmania spp. and L. chagasi, as well as determining natural wild reservoirs and contributing to understand the host-parasite interaction. PMID:24963288

  8. In search of traditional bio-ecological knowledge useful for fisheries co-management: the case of jaraquis Semaprochilodus spp. (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae) in Central Amazon, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp.) are the most abundant group in the fishing landing in Manaus. However, just command and control management strategies have been used by the fishery governmental agency in the region without the power to enforce centralized decisions. The fishermen and their culture represent a source of information on dynamics of the resources and aquatic environments, fundamental in making possible the co-management of the fishing resources. The present study aims to contribute to management through identification of common information available in scientific and traditional knowledge about the jaraquis' bio-ecology. There were 57 semi-structured interviews recorded with fishermen of Manaus and rural areas of Manacapuru in 2002 concerning biological and ecological aspects. Similarity was observed between scientific and traditional knowledge in the following items: size of first sexual maturation, spawning type, parental care, trophic relationships and migratory behavior, as well as in some aspects of the mortality and growth of the species. However, there was less ethnoicthyological information on fecundity and the determination of the age and growth of adult fish. Common information would be used preferably by agencies to start an effective and technical dialogue with commercial and riverine fishermen to design management plans in a decentralized strategy. PMID:20525294

  9. [Prevalence of overweight and obesity, and associated factors in adolescents, at the central west area of the state São Paulo (SP, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho; Goya, Suzana; Sant'Anna, Rute Moreira de Freitas; Silva, Henrique Mendes; Sales-Peres, André de Carvalho; Silva, Ricardo Pianta Rodrigues da; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Bastos, José Roberto de Magalhães

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the DMFT index, in 207 adolescents aged 12 years old, from 8 public and private schools of the central west area of São Paulo State. From a sample of 380 12 year-old adolescents, both genders, 207 were examined. We used the index DMFT, CBI for weight, measured of stature and applied a questionnaire about alimentary habits, characteristic anthropometrics and physical activity. Regarding body weight, 55.93% was normal, 35.59% had low weight, and 8.47% were pre-obese in private schools. In the public schools, 52.03% had normal weight, 41.22% had low weight, 4.73% were pre-obese and 2.03% were obese, without significant difference (p=0.45). The DMFT of public schools was 2.16, compared to 0.23 in private schools (p<0.05), with 39.2% of caries-free individuals in public schools and 88.1% in private schools. There was no correlation between the increase in BMI and the increase in DMFT. There was negative correlation between socioeconomic conditions and dental caries. It was concluded that, even though the pre-obese and obese groups presented a higher frequency of food ingestion, obesity was not correlated with the increase in dental caries. However, the socioeconomic conditions were determinant for this occurrence. PMID:21049158

  10. Centralized Copying Saves Time and Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Describes how Deer Park School District, Long Island, New York, is saving money while boosting efficiency by centralizing its high-volume printing and duplicating operations. The new arrangement saves space, time, and expenses. (LMI)

  11. Block 3. Central view of Block 3 observed from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 3. Central view of Block 3 observed from the west to the east. This photograph reveals the alignment of trees within the central path of the park. In addition, this photograph exposes broken bricks aligning tree beds - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  12. Initial analysis from a lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires in the central and western portion of the São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Held, Gerhard; Nakaema, Walter M.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; Bassan, Jose M.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    The central and western portion of the Sao Paulo State has large areas of sugar cane plantations, and due to the growing demand for biofuels, the production is increasing every year. During the harvest period some plantation areas are burnt a few hours before the manual cutting, causing significant quantities of biomass burning aerosol to be injected into the atmosphere. During August 2010, a field campaign has been carried out in Ourinhos, situated in the south-western region of Sao Paulo State. A 2-channel Raman Lidar system and two meteorological S-Band Doppler Radars are used to indentify and quantify the biomass burning plumes. In addiction, CALIPSO Satellite observations were used to compare the aerosol optical properties detected in that region with those retrieved by Raman Lidar system. Although the campaign yielded 30 days of measurements, this paper will be focusing only one case study, when aerosols released from nearby sugar cane fires were detected by the Lidar system during a CALIPSO overpass. The meteorological radar, installed in Bauru, approximately 110 km northeast from the experimental site, had recorded "echoes" (dense smoke comprising aerosols) from several fires occurring close to the Raman Lidar system, which also detected an intense load of aerosol in the atmosphere. HYSPLIT model forward trajectories presented a strong indication that both instruments have measured the same air masss parcels, corroborated with the Lidar Ratio values from the 532 nm elastic and 607 nm Raman N2 channel analyses and data retrieved from CALIPSO have indicated the predominance of aerosol from biomass burning sources.

  13. Three-dimensional Magnetotelluric Inversion and Model Validation with Potential Field Data and Seismics for the Central Portion of Parana Sedimentary Basin in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Terra, E. F.; Fontes, S. L.; Taveira, D. T.; Miquelutti, L. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Paraná basin, on the central-south region of the South American Plate, is one of the biggest South American intracratonic basins. It is composed by Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments, which were covered by the enormous Cretaceous flood basalts, associated with the rifting of Gondwana and the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Its depocenter region, with a maximum estimated depth of just over 7000 m, was crossed by three magnetotelluric - MT profiles proposed by the Brazilian Petroleum Agency (ANP) aimed at better characterizing its geological structure, as the seismic images are very poor. The data include about 350 MT broadband soundings spanning from 1000 Hz down to 2,000 s. The MT data were processed using robust techniques and remote reference. Static shift observed in some stations were corrected based on Transient Electromagnetic - TEM measurements at each site. These models were integrated to existent gravity, magnetic and seismic data for a more comprehensive interpretation of the region. A pilot 3D model has also been constructed on a crustal scale covering the study area using four frequencies per decade in the 3D inversion scheme proposed by Siripunvaraporn et al. (2005). The inversion scheme produced a reliable model and the observations were adequately reproduced, with observed fitting particularly better for the deeper structures related to basement compared to the 2D results. The main features in the conductivity model correspond to known geological features. These included the conductivity structures obtained for the upper crust, i.e. the sedimentary sequences, underlain by more resistive material, assumed to be basement. Local resistive features in the near-surface are associated to volcanic basalts covering the sediments. Some highly resistivity horizontal and vertical bodies were associated to volcanic intrusion like dikes and sills. We observed depressions on basement consistent with half-graben structures possibly filled with sandstones.

  14. Salute to the National Park Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Edward K.

    1976-01-01

    Current National Parks Service's design policy is summarized and the manner in which this policy produces national park transportation, planning, visitor center siting, architecture, preservation, and exhibits, is detailed. Organizations lobbying for better parks are listed. (BT)

  15. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  16. Shrimp U Pb zircon age evidence for Paleoproterozoic sedimentation and 2.05 Ga syntectonic plutonism in the Nyong Group, South-Western Cameroon: consequences for the Eburnean Transamazonian belt of NE Brazil and Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerouge, Cathérine; Cocherie, Alain; Toteu, Sadrack F.; Penaye, Joseph; Milési, Jean-Pierre; Tchameni, Robert; Nsifa, Emmanuel N.; Mark Fanning, C.; Deloule, Etienne

    2006-04-01

    The Nyong Group of the NW corner of the Congo craton is a metasedimentary and metaplutonic rock unit that underwent a high-grade tectono-metamorphic event at ˜2050 Ma associated with charnockite formation. However, the age of the sedimentation and associated plutonism was not known. In view of this, the unit was considered to be part of the Archean Congo craton reactivated during a Paleoproterozoic or a Pan-African orogeny. Such interpretation was widely supported by the persistence of Archean inheritance revealed by Nd isotope data on whole rocks and U-Pb on zircons. New SHRIMP analyses on detrital zircons from metasediments (BIF, orthopyroxene gneiss and garnet gneiss) yield Mesoarchean to Paleoproterozoic ages, with the youngest zircon at 2423 ± 4 Ma, thus giving the maximum deposition age for the Nyong Group. Data on a metagranodiorite at Bonguen and a metasyenite at Lolodorf yield emplacement ages of 2066 ± 4 Ma and 2055 ± 5 Ma respectively, with Archean inheritance (2836 ± 11 Ma) for the metasyenite. The syntectonic emplacement of these plutonic rocks is supported by the age of 2044 ± 9 Ma obtained on the Bienkop charnockite, associated with Eburnean high-grade metamorphism which continued probably up to 1985 ± 8 Ma. These new data permit correlation of the Nyong rocks with the Paleoproterozoic of NE Brazil and the discussion of the source provenance of detritus for the Nyong Group. Finally, it is proposed that the West Central African Belt (WCAB) in southern Cameroon, Gabon, Congo and Angola represents a segment of the Eburnean-Transamazonian orogeny that resulted from the convergence and collision between the São Francisco-Nigerian Shield block and a former Congo megacraton.

  17. Wheeling and Dealing in the National Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Sydney

    1973-01-01

    Motor vehicles and commercialism have generated serious problems within the national park system. A Conservation Foundation suggests new directions in management for the National Park Service. (Editors)

  18. Perception of urban park soundscape.

    PubMed

    Tse, Man Sze; Chau, Chi Kwan; Choy, Yat Sze; Tsui, Wai Keung; Chan, Chak Ngai; Tang, Shiu Keung

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have been initiated to explore how to improve the soundscape quality in urban parks. However, good soundscape quality in parks cannot be provided without a thorough understanding of the complex relationships among sound, environment, and individuals. As acoustic comfort is considered to be an important outcome of soundscape quality, this study investigates the relative impacts of the factors influencing acoustic comfort evaluation by formulating a multivariate ordered logit model. This study also explores the inter-relationships among acoustic comfort evaluation, acceptability of the environment, and preference to stay in a park using a path model. A total of 595 valid responses were obtained from interview surveys administered in four parks in Hong Kong while objective sound measurements were carried out at the survey spots concurrently. The findings unveil that acoustic comfort evaluation, besides visual comfort evaluation of landscape, also plays an important role on users' acceptability of the urban park environment. Compared with all the studied acoustic related factors, acoustic comfort evaluation serves as a better proxy for park users' preference to stay in urban parks. Hearing the breeze will significantly increase the likelihood of individuals in giving high acoustic comfort evaluation. Conversely, hearing the sounds from heavy vehicles or sounds from bikes will significantly reduce the likelihood in giving a high acoustic evaluation. PMID:22501055

  19. Aftermath of Griffith Park Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2007, wind-driven flames raced through Griffith Park in Los Angeles, forcing hasty evacuations and threatening numerous famous landmarks and tourist spots, such as the Los Angeles Zoo and the Hollywood Sign. Ultimately, no one was injured in the fire, which may have been started by a cigarette. About 800 acres burned in the urban park, which is itself a Hollywood landmark, having been the location for several movies, including Rebel Without A Cause. This image of the park was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on June 6, 2007, about a month after the fire. ASTER detects both visible and infrared wavelengths of light, and both kinds have been used to make this image. Vegetation appears in various shades of red, while the burned areas appear charcoal. Roads and dense urban areas appear purplish-gray or white. Water is dark blue. Large burned areas are evident in the northwest and southeast parts of the park, with scattered smaller patches along the southern margin. Some botanical gardens and parts of a bird sanctuary, as well as some park structures like restrooms, were destroyed. The park's unburned, natural vegetation appears brick red, while the irrigated golf courses adjacent to the park are bright red. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  20. 78 FR 14822 - Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Concessions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Concessions AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (National Park Service, NPS... Madonna L. Baucum, Information Collection Clearance Officer, National Park Service, 1201 I Street NW.,...

  1. Teacher's Guide to Independence National Historical Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Philadelphia, PA. Independence National Historical Park.

    Independence National Historical Park, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is operated by the National Park Service. The park was authorized by an Act of Congress on June 28, 1948, and formally established on July 4, 1956. The mission of Independence National Historical Park is to preserve its stories, buildings, and artifacts as a source of…

  2. Vandal-Proof Your Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattuck, J. Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Responses of 380 park maintenance and facility managers to a questionnaire provided information on how they try to prevent vandalism affecting signs, picnic and related services, and sanitary facilities. (CB)

  3. Jurassic Park: Adventure in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shams, Marcia; Boteler, Trina

    1993-01-01

    Describes using the movie "Jurassic Park" as a foundation for a middle school interdisciplinary unit involving science, math, language arts, history, and geography. Suggested books and activities are presented. (PR)

  4. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.W.; Giraud, K.M.

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  5. First report on the entomopathogenic genus Neozygites (Entomophthoromycota) and Neozygites osornensis on aphids in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Neozygites has been known in Brazil until now only on mites, and this is its first report on aphids in Brazil. Tree-dwelling aphids (Cinara sp.) on a cypress tree were regularly monitored for entomopathogenic fungi in the city of Terezópolis de Goiás in Central Brazil between July 2014 and...

  6. Development of a grazing monitoring program for Great Sand Dunes National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    National parks in the United States face the difficult task of managing natural resources within park boundaries that are influenced to a large degree by historical land uses or by forces outside of the park’s protection and mandate. Among the many challenges faced by parks is management of wildlife populations that occupy larger landscapes than individual park units but that concentrate within park lands both seasonally and opportunistically. Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve in south-central Colorado is currently developing an Ungulate Management Plan to address management of elk and bison populations within the park. Execution of the Ungulate Management Plan will require monitoring and assessment of habitat conditions in areas that appear sensitive to ungulate use or heavily used by elk and bison. Several sources of information on the various habitats within the park and their use and response to foraging elk and bison exist from recent and on-going research in Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve as well as from studies in other regions of the Intermountain West. All of this data can be used to inform the planning process. This report provides background on vegetation types that make up the primary bison and elk ranges in Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and on the potential effects of ungulate grazing and browsing in these specific vegetation communities (both locally and regionally). The report also provides a review of the elements necessary to develop a long-term monitoring program for Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve that addresses both the responses to ungulate herbivory seen in important habitats in the park and the amount and patterns of ungulate habitat use.

  7. Importance of land use update during the calibration period and simulation of water balance response to land use change in the upper Rio das Mortes Catchment (Cerrado Biome, Central-Western Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamparter, Gabriele; Kovacs, Kristof; Nobrega, Rodolfo; Gerold, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the hydrological balance and following degradation of the water ecosystem services due to large scale land use changes are reported from agricultural frontiers all over the world. Traditionally, hydrological models including vegetation and land use as a part of the hydrological cycle use a fixed distribution of land use for the calibration period. We believe that a meaningful calibration - especially when investigating the effects of land use change on hydrology - demands the inclusion of land use change during the calibration period into the calibration procedure. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model is a process-based, semi-distributed model calculating the different components of the water balance. The model bases on the definition of hydrological response units (HRUs) which are based on soil, vegetation and slope distribution. It specifically emphasises the role of land use and land management on the water balance. The Central-Western region of Brazil is one of the leading agricultural frontiers, which experienced rapid and radical deforestation and agricultural intensification in the last 40 years (from natural Cerrado savannah to cattle grazing to intensive corn and soya cropland). The land use history of the upper Rio das Mortes catchment (with 17500 km²) is reasonably well documented since the 1970th. At the same time there are almost continuous climate and runoff data available for the period between 1988 and 2011. Therefore, the work presented here shows the model calibration and validation of the SWAT model with the land use update function for three different periods (1988 to 1998, 1998 to 2007 and 2007 to 2011) in comparison with the same calibration periods using a steady state land use distribution. The use of the land use update function allows a clearer identification which changes in the discharge are due to climatic variability and which are due to changes in the vegetation cover. With land use update included into the

  8. The Neoproterozoic Ceará Group, Ceará Central domain, NE Brazil: Depositional age and provenance of detrital material. New insights from U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthaud, M. H.; Fuck, R. A.; Dantas, E. L.; Santos, T. J. S.; Caby, R.; Armstrong, R.

    2015-03-01

    From the Archean to the end of the Neoproterozoic the Borborema Province, northeast Brazil went through a complex polycyclic geologic evolution, ending, between 660 and 570 Ma, with the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogeny that led to West Gondwana amalgamation. Evolution of the metasedimentary covers of the Province, from the beginning of their deposition up to their involvement in the Brasiliano/Pan-African collision, is a key element in understanding formation of Gondwana and in attempts in pre-drift correlation between South America and West Africa. One of these covers, the Ceará Group, is exposed in the Ceará Central domain. Aiming to unravel the history of the Ceará Group, we carried out a geochronologic study of representative samples, combining Sm-Nd isotopic data, conventional U-Pb TIMS dating of zircon and U-Pb SHRIMP age determination of detrital zircon grains. Our results show that sedimentation of the Ceará Group started around 750 Ma, following rifting of the Archean/Paleoproterozoic basement, associated with bimodal volcanism. The interlayered basic volcanic rocks, re-crystallized into garnet amphibolites, show a concordant age of 749 ± 5 Ma interpreted as the age of crystallization. About 90% of calculated Sm-Nd TDM model ages of metasedimentary rocks are Paleoproterozoic and more than 50% of the analyzed samples have TDM between 1.95 and 2.4 Ma, with strongly negative ɛNd, consistent with provenance mainly from the Paleoproterozoic basement. Strong contrast between Paleoproterozoic TDM with negative ɛNd and young TDM (Mesoproterozoic) with slightly positive ɛNd is interpreted as a consequence of changes in detritus provenance induced by geomorphologic alterations resulting from tectonic activity during rifting. Ages of detrital zircon grains obtained by SHRIMP U-Pb analyses show three main groups: about 1800 Ma, 1000-1100 Ma and ca. 800 Ma which corresponds to the bimodal magmatism associated, respectively to the Orós-Jaguaribe domain, Cariris

  9. Use of Landsat and Corona data for mapping forest cover change from the mid-1960s to 2000s: Case studies from the Eastern United States and Central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dan-Xia; Huang, Chengquan; Sexton, Joseph O.; Channan, Saurabh; Feng, Min; Townshend, John R.

    2015-05-01

    Land-cover change detection using satellite remote sensing is largely confined to the era of Landsat satellites, from 1972 to present. However, the Corona, Argon, and Lanyard intelligence satellites operated by the U.S. government between 1960 and 1972 have the potential to provide an important extension of the long-term record of Earth's land surface. Recently declassified, the archive of images recorded by these satellites contains hundreds of thousands of photographs, many of which have very high ground resolution- 6-9 ft (1.8-2.7 m) even by today's standards. This paper demonstrates methods for extending the span of forest-cover change analysis from the Landsat-5 and -7 era (1984 to present) to the previous era covered by the Corona archive in two study areas: one area covered predominantly by urban and sub-urban land uses in the eastern US and another area by tropical forest in central Brazil. We describe co-registration of Corona and Landsat images, extraction of texture features from Corona images, classification of Corona and Landsat images, and post-classification change detection based on the resulting thematic dataset. Second-order polynomial transformation of Corona images yielded geometric accuracy relative to Landsat-7 of 18.24 m for the urban area and 29.35 m for the tropical forest study area, generally deemed adequate for pixel-based change detection at Landsat resolution. Classification accuracies were approximately 95% and 96% for forest/non-forest discrimination for the temperate urban and tropical forest study areas, respectively. Texture within 7 × 7- to 9 × 9-pixel (∼13.0-16.5 m) neighborhoods and within 11 × 11-pixel (∼30 m) neighborhoods were the most informative metrics for forest classification in Corona images in the temperate and tropical study areas, respectively. The trajectory of change from the 1960s to 2000s differed between the two study areas: the average annual forest loss rate in the urban area doubled from 0.68% to 1

  10. Effects of Park Improvements on Park Use and Physical Activity Policy and Programming Implications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah; Golinelli, Daniela; Williamson, Stephanie; Sehgal, Amber; Marsh, Terry; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2009-01-01

    Background Many assume that improving the quality and the perceived safety of facilities in parks and recreation centers are critical to attracting more users and increasing population physical activity. There are few studies in which these assumptions have been tested. Purpose To assess the impact of park improvements on park use and physical activity. Methods Five intervention parks and five matched comparison parks were studied by objectively measuring park use and collecting self reports of park use by residents before and after park improvements. After using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) to count park users and measure their activity levels and conducting household interviews and intercept surveys with park users, propensity score analyses were used to adjust for differences in respondents’ characteristics between pre- and post-intervention and across conditions. Results Overall park use and physical activity declined in both intervention and control parks, with 39% of the decline directly attributable to fewer scheduled organized activities. Perceptions of park safety increased more in the intervention parks than in the comparison parks. Conclusions Improvements to parks may not automatically result in increased use and physical activity, especially when programming decreases. Multiple factors contribute to park use and need to be accounted for in future community-level interventions. Improving perceptions of safety alone are unlikely to result in increased park use. PMID:19944911

  11. 54. The Curtis Music Hall (15 West Park) dates from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. The Curtis Music Hall (15 West Park) dates from 1892. This is one if the more architecturally interesting buildings remaining in Butte, with a variety of window types, a corbelled parapet extending over one bay, a central gable flanked by decorative square towers, a turret, and a richly decorated facade. The storefront has been modernized with plate glass windows and a metal canopy. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  12. Applications of solar energy in industrial parks

    SciTech Connect

    Greaver, V.W.; Farrington, R.B.; Leboeuf, C.M.

    1980-05-01

    The four phases of ongoing work at SERI that examines many unresolved questions regarding the purpose, solar applicability, economics, and energy modeling of industral parks are presented. The first phase involved site visits to approximately 300 parks in 12 major metropolitan areas of 9 states. Phase 2 entails an analysis of four parks selected from those parks surveyed. Phase 3 narrows the focus to two parks to be examined for detailed technical and engineering analysis. Phase 4 incorporates all of the work of the earlier phases with economic criteria to produce an energy allocation model describing energy delivery and consumption within the park.

  13. Jurassic PARK2: You eat your mitochondria, and you are what your mitochondria eat.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Gerald W

    2016-01-01

    Park2/Parkin is a central mediator of selective mitochondrial autophagy for mitochondrial quality control. We showed in mouse hearts that PINK1/Mfn2/Park2 mediated generalized mitophagy is essential to the normal perinatal transition from fetal mitochondria that prefer carbohydrates as metabolic substrates to adult fatty-acid metabolizing mitochondria. Our findings demonstrate how functional interactions between mitophagic mitochondrial removal and biogenic mitochondrial replacement facilitate metabolic maturation of the heart. PMID:26854000

  14. Amusement park injuries and deaths.

    PubMed

    Braksiek, Robert J; Roberts, David J

    2002-01-01

    Media coverage of amusement park injuries has increased over the past several years, raising concern that amusement rides may be dangerous. Amusement park fatalities and increases in reported injuries have prompted proposed legislation to regulate the industry. Since 1979, the medical literature has published reports of 4 subdural hematomas, 4 internal carotid artery dissections, 2 vertebral artery dissections, 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 1 intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and 1 carotid artery thrombosis with stroke, all related to roller coaster rides. In this article, we review reports of amusement park injuries in the medical literature and Consumer Product Safety Commission data on the overall risk of injury. We also discuss the physics and the physiologic effects of roller coasters that may influence the type and severity of injuries. Although the risk of injury is low, emergency physicians are advised to include participation on thrill rides as part of their history, particularly when evaluating patients presenting with neurologic symptoms. PMID:11782733

  15. Bibliography of Doctor Chul Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gochberg, Lawrence A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Park, Chul

    1995-01-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography of the published works, and a short biography, of Dr. Chul Park. The contents of this bibliography were compiled primarily from the NASA RECON data base. The RECON citations have been modified to appear in a uniform format with all other listed citations . These other citations were located by computer searches in the INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, and Chemical Abstracts data bases, as well as through the cooperation of Dr. Chul Park, and his associates in the Reacting Flow Environments Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. All citations are presented in an approximate reverse chronological order from the present date. This work was created to honor the occasion of Dr. Chul Park's retirement on December 14, 1994, after 27 years of distinguished government service at the NASA Ames Research Center.

  16. Wind power parks: 1983 survey

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, E.M.; Loperena, G.A.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to survey the status of wind parks owned by non-utility organizations which generate electricity for sale to electric utilities under the provisions of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act. Both technical (including wind turbine descriptions) and business-related information were gathered from over 100 wind park developers who were interviewed by telephone or in person. Following the survey, the wind parks were screened so that only those already on-line or with very good possibilities of coming on-line by mid-1984 were included. This screening, although subject to judgment, was based primarily on the status of several of the critical milestones necessary for project completion. This document includes descriptions of 85 wind parks established by over 60 developers. Of these, 73 are located in California. This concentration in California is the result of the confluence of tax advantages, financial, institutional, and resource factors currently most favorably found in that state. For the wind parks described in this document, installed generating capacity (based on nameplate ratings) is 87 MW as of July 1983, with plans calling for aggregate installation of some 730 MW by mid-1984. Continued expansion in wind turbine installations over the next several years will require that wind turbines demonstrate high equipment availability with acceptable operating and maintenance costs. If these can be achieved, if the cost effectiveness of the equipment improves by 20%, and if borrowing terms improve, then wind parks could remain economically viable businesses for non-utility owners even after the current tax advantages expire.

  17. Microcephaly in Infants, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2015.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    We studied the clinical characteristics for 104 infants born with microcephaly in the delivery hospitals of Pernambuco State, Brazil, during 2015. Testing is ongoing to exclude known infectious causes. However, microcephaly peaked in October and demonstrated central nervous system abnormalities with brain dysgenesis and intracranial calcifications consistent with an intrauterine infection. PMID:27071041

  18. Microcephaly in Infants, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2015

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We studied the clinical characteristics for 104 infants born with microcephaly in the delivery hospitals of Pernambuco State, Brazil, during 2015. Testing is ongoing to exclude known infectious causes. However, microcephaly peaked in October and demonstrated central nervous system abnormalities with brain dysgenesis and intracranial calcifications consistent with an intrauterine infection. PMID:27071041

  19. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  20. Lichens of the U. S. national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium. Copyright ?? 2005 by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

  1. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... by category of eligible parkers. Designation of parking spaces by name, grade, rank, or title...

  2. Injuries At Indoor Trampoline Parks Jump

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160460.html Injuries at Indoor Trampoline Parks Jump Researchers say finding shows need for safety ... News) -- A wave of injuries at indoor trampoline parks has prompted a call for design and safety ...

  3. Injuries Soar as Trampoline Parks Expand

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160184.html Injuries Soar as Trampoline Parks Expand Broken bones, fractures the most common complaints ... MONDAY, Aug. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- As trampoline parks spring up across the United States, injuries to ...

  4. Symmetry in the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…

  5. 'Shockley park' stirs racism row

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-07-01

    A local authority in Northern California has encountered unexpected resistance to its decision to name a park after the Nobel-prize-winning physicist William Shockley, with a coalition of churches and civic groups preparing to petition against the name at a meeting scheduled for 23 July.

  6. National Zoological Park Branch Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Kay A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the functions of the National Zoological Park Branch of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, which is dedicated to supporting the special information needs of the zoo. Topics covered include the library's history, collection, programs, services, future plans, and relations with other zoo libraries. (two references) (Author/CLB)

  7. UV - RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brewer 087 is located in Research Triangle Park NC, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instru...

  8. Egmont National Park, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The lush forests of Egmont National Park, on New Zealand's North Island, contrast with the pasturelands outside the circular park boundaries. The unique shape of the park results from its first protection in 1881, which specified that a forest reserve would extend in a 9.6 km radius from the summit of Mt. Taranaki (named Mt. Egmont by Captain Cook). The park covers about 33,500 hectares and Mt. Egmont stands at 2518 m. The volcano began forming 70,000 years ago, and last erupted in 1755. A series of montane habitats occur in procession up the flanks of the volcano-from rainforest, to shrubs, to alpine, and finally snow cover. Image STS110-726-6, was taken by Space Shuttle crewmembers on 9 April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  9. Coltsville National Historical Park Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lieberman, Joseph I. [ID-CT

    2011-07-12

    10/19/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-224. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Coltsville National Historical Park Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Blumenthal, Richard [D-CT

    2013-03-19

    04/23/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-27. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3979, which became Public Law 113-291 on 12/19/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  12. Solar Park Impacts on Air and Soil Microclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, A.; Ostle, N. J.; Whitaker, J.

    2015-12-01

    The drive towards low carbon energy sources and increasing energy demand has resulted in a rapid rise in solar photovoltaics across the world. A substantial proportion of photovoltaics are large-scale ground-mounted systems, solar parks, causing a notable land use change. While the impacts of photovoltaic panel production and disposal have been considered, the consequences of the operation of solar parks on the hosting landscape are poorly resolved. Here, we present data which demonstrates that a solar park sited on permanent grassland in the UK significantly impacted the air and soil microclimate. Specifically, we observed (1) cooler soil under the photovoltaic panels during the summer and between the photovoltaic panel rows during the winter; (2) dampening of the diurnal variation in air temperature and absolute humidity from the spring to the autumn; (3) lower photosynthetically active radiation and a lower direct:diffuse under the panels; and (4) reduced wind speed between the panel rows and substantially reduced wind speeds under the panels. Further, there were differences in vegetation type and productivity and greenhouse gas emissions. Given the centrality of climate on ecosystem function, quantifying the microclimatic impacts of this emerging land use change is critical. We anticipate these data will help develop understanding of effects in other climates, under different solar park designs and the implications for the function and service provision of the hosting landscape.

  13. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National...

  14. 49 CFR 397.7 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Parking. 397.7 Section 397.7 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.7 Parking. (a) A motor vehicle which contains Division 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3... traveled portion of a public street or highway; (2) On private property (including premises of fueling...

  15. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National...

  16. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National...

  17. 49 CFR 397.7 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Parking. 397.7 Section 397.7 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.7 Parking. (a) A motor vehicle which contains Division 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3... traveled portion of a public street or highway; (2) On private property (including premises of fueling...

  18. Moon Park: A research and educational facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriki, Kyoichi; Saito, Takao; Ogawa, Yukimasa

    1992-01-01

    Moon Park has been proposed as an International Space Year (ISY) event for international cooperative efforts. Moon Park will serve as a terrestrial demonstration of a prototype lunar base and provide research and educational opportunities. The kind of data that can be obtained in the Moon Park facilities is examined taking the minimum number of lunar base residents as an example.

  19. What's Ahead for our National Parks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Jean Craighead

    1972-01-01

    To insure the future of our National Parks, sweeping changes must be made. Encroaching civilization at the expense of nature has forced National Park officials to consider alternatives to future development - limiting number of visitors, facilities outside the parks and curtailing vehicular traffic. (BL)

  20. 75 FR 12254 - National Park Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... National Park Service AGENCY: National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. ACTION: National... National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, National Park Service, will meet on Thursday and... amended, (16 U.S.C. 470x-2(e)). The PTTBoard will meet at Lee H. Nelson Hall, the headquarters of...

  1. 23 CFR 1235.6 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parking. 1235.6 Section 1235.6 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR PARKING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES § 1235.6 Parking. Special license plates, removable windshield placards, or...

  2. "The Rosa Parks Story": Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onish, Liane B.

    On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, refused to give up her seat to a white man on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and she was arrested. On that day, Rosa Parks became the mother of the modern civil rights movement. This study guide may be used as a companion to "The Rosa Parks Story" video which aired on CBS television…

  3. 77 FR 24575 - National Park Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8801 of April 20, 2012 National Park Week... National Park Week, all 397 National Parks will offer free admission from April 21 through April 29,...

  4. 76 FR 22001 - National Park Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-9730 Filed 4-19-11; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8656 of April 15, 2011 National Park Week, 2011 By the President of the.... ``Healthy Parks, Healthy People,'' the focus for this year's National Park Week, highlights the role...

  5. Block 3. Northern view observed from within central portion of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 3. Northern view observed from within central portion of Block 3. Photograph exhibits a vertical structure, stair walls, berms and trees - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  6. 36 CFR 7.22 - Grand Teton National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Teton National Park. 7.22 Section 7.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.22 Grand Teton National Park. (a) Aircraft—Designated airstrip. (1) Jackson...

  7. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  8. 76 FR 72003 - Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... National Park Service Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... National Historical Park as a unit of the National Park System. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gay...: (b) PATERSON GREAT FALLS NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK.-- (1) ESTABLISHMENT.-- (A) IN GENERAL.--Subject...

  9. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Historical Park. (a) All persons shall register at park headquarters before climbing any portion of the...

  10. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Historical Park. (a) All persons shall register at park headquarters before climbing any portion of the...

  11. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Historical Park. (a) All persons shall register at park headquarters before climbing any portion of the...

  12. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Historical Park. (a) All persons shall register at park headquarters before climbing any portion of the...

  13. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Historical Park. (a) All persons shall register at park headquarters before climbing any portion of the...

  14. 36 CFR 7.27 - Dry Tortugas National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dry Tortugas National Park. 7.27 Section 7.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.27 Dry Tortugas National Park. (a) What terms do I need to know? The...

  15. 36 CFR 7.16 - Yosemite National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Yosemite National Park. 7.16 Section 7.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.16 Yosemite National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) Open season and limit of catch. The open...

  16. 36 CFR 7.3 - Glacier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glacier National Park. 7.3 Section 7.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.3 Glacier National Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Fishing regulations, based on management...

  17. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) General Provisions. All waters within...

  18. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  19. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. 7.37 Section 7.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Unless...

  20. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. 7.37 Section 7.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Unless...

  1. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Voyageurs National Park. 7.33 Section 7.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless otherwise designated, fishing in a...

  2. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park. (a) Fishing. (1) The following waters are closed...

  3. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of such permits issued, or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  4. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of such permits issued, or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  5. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a) Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles....

  6. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a) Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles....

  7. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  8. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  9. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  10. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  11. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a)...

  12. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... College Park. (a) The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park,...

  13. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  15. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  16. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  17. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  18. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  19. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  20. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  1. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  2. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  3. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  4. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  7. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Voyageurs National Park. 7.33 Section 7.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless...

  8. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  9. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  10. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  11. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  12. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  13. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  15. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  16. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  17. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  18. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  19. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  20. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  1. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  2. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  3. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  4. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  5. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  7. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) General Provisions. All waters within...

  9. Atmospheric mercury speciation in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, B.D.; Olson, M.L.; Rutter, A.P.; Frontiera, R.R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Gross, D.S.; Yuen, M.; Rudolph, T.M.; Schauer, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of elemental mercury (Hg0), reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), and particulate Hg (pHg) concentrations were measured in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), U.S.A. using high resolution, real time atmospheric mercury analyzers (Tekran 2537A, 1130, and 1135). A survey of Hg0 concentrations at various locations within YNP showed that concentrations generally reflect global background concentrations of 1.5-2.0 ng m- 3, but a few specific locations associated with concentrated geothermal activity showed distinctly elevated Hg0 concentrations (about 9.0 ng m- 3). At the site of intensive study located centrally in YNP (Canyon Village), Hg0 concentrations did not exceed 2.5 ng m- 3; concentrations of RGM were generally below detection limits of 0.88 pg m- 3 and never exceeded 5 pg m- 3. Concentrations of pHg ranged from below detection limits to close to 30 pg m-3. RGM and pHg concentrations were not correlated with any criteria gases (SO2, NOx, O3); however pHg was weakly correlated with the concentration of atmospheric particles. We investigated three likely sources of Hg at the intensive monitoring site: numerous geothermal features scattered throughout YNP, re-suspended soils, and wildfires near or in YNP. We examined relationships between the chemical properties of aerosols (as measured using real time, single particle mass spectrometry; aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer; ATOFMS) and concentrations of atmospheric pHg. Based on the presence of particles with distinct chemical signatures of the wildfires, and the absence of signatures associated with the other sources, we concluded that wildfires in the park were the main source of aerosols and associated pHg to our sampling site. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Numeracy and Literacy in a Bilingual Context: Indigenous Teachers Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Jackeline Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study developed in the context of indigenous teachers education from Xingu Indian Park, Brazil. The indigenous bilingual (or multilingual in some cases) teachers that participated in this education program were from 14 ethnic groups. The research focused on a mathematics textbook production, written in…

  11. Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation

  12. Parks as a tool for HIV management.

    PubMed

    Shacham, Enbal; Hipp, J Aaron; Scheuermann, Mary; Önen, Nur; Overton, E Turner

    2015-01-01

    Access to parks improves overall health outcomes in the general population. Given that HIV infection has become a chronic disease to manage, among populations engaged in medical care, parks may be promoted as physical activity opportunities in order to manage chronic comorbid conditions. We conducted a cross-sectional examination of the relationships between sociodemographic and biomedical characteristics to park proximity among 635 individuals receiving outpatient HIV care. The data collected included HIV-related biomarkers, depression, and diagnoses of other chronic diseases. The total acres of parks an individual is exposed within one-quarter mile from their home were assessed. The cohort included 635 individuals (67% men, 73% black, and 21% white, mean age 42 years). Unemployment was negatively associated with park availability. Park proximity was not associated with depression or HIV biomarkers. As yet, little effort has been committed to promoting park usage as a low-cost, sustainable method to addressing comorbidities among individuals with HIV. PMID:23995296

  13. The Geologic Story of Canyonlands National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lohman, Stanley William

    1974-01-01

    On September 12, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed an act of Congress establishing Canyonlands as our thirty second national park, the first addition to the park system since 1956. The birth of Canyonlands National Park was not without labor pains. In the 1930's virtually all the vast canyon country between Moab, Utah, and Grand Canyon, Ariz., was studied for a projected Escalante National Park. But Escalante failed to get off the ground, even when a second attempt was made in the 1950's. Not until another proposal had been made and legislative compromises had been worked out did the park materialize, this time under a new name - Canyonlands. Among the many dignitaries who witnessed the signature on September 12 was one of the men most responsible for the park's creation, park superintendent Bates E. Wilson, who did the pioneer spade work in the field.

  14. Putting people in the picture. Parks for life.

    PubMed

    Rowley, J

    1992-01-01

    The 4th World Congress on Parks and Protected Areas held in Caracas attracted over 1700 participants. Protected areas of all kinds, e.g., national parks, game reserves, World Heritage sites, and marine parks, are under human pressure from armies, or tourists, migrants, and developers. 5 million sq km have been added to the present total of 6.5 million sq km of protected areas since 1970 and nearly 2 million sq km since 1982. There are almost 8500 sites on the UN list covering an area larger than India. In India, however, only 21 of the 52 national parks have been formally legalized. In the Caribbean only 1/3 of the protected areas are achieving their objectives, and in Norway and New Zealand powerful forces justify the logging of the remnants of ancient forests. Another example is the 15,000 sq km Serengeti World Heritage site in Tanzania and the adjoining Ngoro Ngoro biosphere reserve. The Serengeti is an island in a sea of human settlements with agricultural encroachments, poaching, cattle rustling, and tourism. Founded just over a century ago, the 308,000 hectare Yosemite National Park in the central Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, received 820,000 tourists in 1950 and has grown to 3.5 million. The human species is exerting its influence through rapid human population growth (projected to soar from 5.3 billion in 1990 to 10-12 billion a century from now), through escalating resource demand, (especially in the wealthier countries with threatened changes in global climate and sea level), and through severe pressure of poverty in less developed countries which result in habitat transformations and losses of biological diversity. Unless the global alliance called the World Conservation Strategy was formed at the Rio summit some countries could face increased mortality as a result of environmental stress. PMID:12317707

  15. Assessing gull abundance and food availability in urban parking lots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Daniel E.; Whitney, Jillian J.; MacKenzie, Kenneth G.; Koenen, Kiana K. G.; DeStefano, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Feeding birds is a common activity throughout the world; yet, little is known about the extent of feeding gulls in urban areas. We monitored 8 parking lots in central Massachusetts, USA, during the fall and winter of 2011 to 2013 in 4 monitoring sessions to document the number of gulls present, the frequency of human–gull feeding interactions, and the effectiveness of signage and direct interaction in reducing human-provisioned food. Parking lots were divided between “education” and “no-education” lots. In education lots, we erected signs about problems caused when people feed birds and also asked people to stop feeding birds. We did not erect signs or ask people to stop feeding birds at no-education lots. We spent >1,200 hours in parking lots (range = 136 to 200 hours per parking lot), and gulls were counted every 20 minutes. We conducted >4,000 counts, and ring-billed gulls (Lorus delawarensis) accounted for 98% of all gulls. Our educational efforts were minimally effective. There were fewer feedings (P = 0.01) in education lots during one of the monitoring sessions but significantly more gulls (P = 0.008) in education lots during 2 monitoring sessions. While there was a marginal decrease (P = 0.055) in the number of feedings after no-education lots were transformed into education lots, there was no difference in gull numbers in these lots (P = 0.16). Education appears to have some influence in reducing the number of people feeding gulls, but our efforts were not able to reduce the number of human feeders or the amount of food enough to influence the number of gulls using parking lots.

  16. Buddingtonite in Menlo Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pampeyan, Earl H.

    2010-01-01

    The mineral buddingtonite, named after A.F. Buddington, long-time professor of petrology at Princeton University, was first identified at the Sulfur Bank mine in Lake County, California (Erd and others, 1964). The ammonium feldspar was recognized in Menlo Park, California, in 1964 by the author, with Erd's help, shortly before publication of the original description of the new mineral. Subsequently, buddingtonite has been widely recognized in hydrothermal mineral deposits and has been used in remote-sensing applications by the mineral industry. Buddingtonite also has been identified in the Phosphoria Formation and in oil shales of the Green River Formation. This paper briefly describes the geologic setting and mineralogy of the occurrences of buddingtonite and other ammonium-bearing minerals in the vicinity of Menlo Park.

  17. HUSTON PARK ROADLESS AREA, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Robert S.; Lane, Michael

    1984-01-01

    A probable resource potential for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources in stratiform sulfide deposits is assigned to areas in the northern and southeastern parts of the Huston Park Roadless Area, Wyoming. These areas are underlain by volcanic rock successions favorable for stratiform sulfide deposits. However, no indication of mineralized rock was identified during a mineral survey. Study of granites of the southern Sierra Madre are needed to determine whether or not they have promise as a source of tin and tungsten.

  18. Heritage Park Facilities PV Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hobaica, Mark

    2013-09-26

    Project Objective: To procure a photovoltaic array (PV) system which will generate approximately 256kW of power to be used for the operations of the Aquatic Complex and the adjacent Senior Facility at the Heritage Park. This project complies with the EERE’s work and objectives by promoting the development and deployment of an energy system that will provide current and future generations with clean, efficient, affordable, and reliable energy.

  19. The vascular plant flora of Hopewell Culture National Historical Park. Ross County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Course, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    HopewellCulture National Historical Park, a unit of the United States National Park Service located in Ross County in south central Ohio, was created to restore, protect, and interpret the legacy of the mound building Hopewell prehistoric peoples. The vascular flora of the park had been estimated to be only 20% known prior to the undertaking of this project. During the spring, summer, and fall of 1995, almost 700 plant specimens were collected by three investigators from five units of the park. Totals of 438 species, 281 genera, and 93 families of vascular plants were discovered, representing 40% of the flora of Ross County, and 17% of the flora of Ohio. Introduced species constituted 32% of the flora. Sixty-five species are new records for Ross County. Two species of special concern, Spiranthes ovalis and Eleocharis ovata, are on the state's threatened and endangered species list. The Hopewell unit had the highest plant diversity of the five units.

  20. The Associations Between Park Environments and Park Use in Southern US Communities

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Jorge A.; Wilcox, Sara; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hooker, Steven P.; Kaczynski, Andrew T.; Hussey, James

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To document park use and park and neighborhood environment characteristics in rural communities, and to examine the relationship between park characteristics and park use. Methods The System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities measured use in 42 target areas across 6 community parks in May 2010 and October 2010. Direct observation instruments were used to assess park and neighborhood environment characteristics. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between the condition, number of amenities, and number of incivilities in a target area with target area use. Findings Ninety-seven people were observed across all parks during May 2010 data collection and 116 people during October 2010 data collection. Low park quality index scores and unfavorable neighborhood environment characteristics were observed. There was a significant positive association between number of incivilities in a target area and target area use (OR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.09–3.38; P = .03). Conclusions The number of people observed using the parks in this study was low, and it was considerably less than the number observed in other studies. The objective park and neighborhood environment characteristics documented in this study provide a more comprehensive understanding of parks than other studies. Further examining the complex relationship between park and neighborhood environment characteristics and park use is important, as it can inform park administrators and city planners of characteristics that are best able to attract visitors. PMID:24717017

  1. Parking, energy consumption and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Höglund, Paul G

    2004-12-01

    This paper examines the impacts of different ways of parking on environmental effects, mainly vehicle emissions and air pollution. Vehicle energy consumption and the urban air quality at street level, related to location and design of parking establishments, need to be assessed and quantified. In addition, the indoor parking environment needs attention. This paper gives a description of a methodological approach when comparing different parking establishments. The paper also briefly describes a Swedish attempt to create methods and models for assessing and quantifying such problem. The models are the macrolevel model BRAHE, for regional traffic exhaust emission, and the micromodel SimPark, a parking search model attempt combined with emission models. Until now, very limited knowledge exists regarding the various aspects of vehicle parking and environmental effects in the technical field as well as in the social and human behaviour aspects. This requires an interdisciplinary approach to this challenging area for research, development and more directly practically implemented surveys and field studies. In order to illustrate the new evaluation methodology, the paper also contains some results from a pilot study in Stockholm. Given certain assumptions, a study of vehicle emissions from parking in an underground garage compared with kerbside parking has given an emission reduction of about 40% in favour of the parking garage. This study has been done using the models mentioned above. PMID:15504491

  2. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  3. 77 FR 60050 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Hope Camp Trail as a bicycle route within Saguaro National Park (77 FR 12761). The proposed rule was... Robert Love, Chief Ranger, Saguaro National Park, Darla Sidles, Superintendent, Saguaro National...

  4. 2. SOUTH SIDE, FROM PARK ACROSS PARKING LOT/F STREET, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH SIDE, FROM PARK ACROSS PARKING LOT/F STREET, LOOKING NORTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. Amphibians of Olympic National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    Amphibians evolved from fishes about 360 million years ago and were the first vertebrates adapted to life on land. The word amphibian means "double life." It refers to the life history of many amphibians, which spend part of their life in water and part on land. There are three major groups of amphibians: salamanders, frogs, and toads, and caecilians. Salamanders, frogs, and toads can be found in Olympic National Park (ONP), but caecilians live only in tropical regions. Many amphibians are generalist predators, eating almost any prey they can fit into their mouths.

  6. Neighborhood Poverty, Park Use, and Park-Based Physical Activity in a Southern California City

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah; Han, Bing; Derose, Kathryn; Williamson, Stephanie; Marsh, Terry; Rudick, Jodi; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    A rich literature indicates that individuals of lower socio-economic status engage in less leisure time physical activity than individuals of higher socio-economic status. However, the source of the difference is believed to be, in part, due to differential access to resources that support physical activity. However, it has not been shown as to whether equal access to parks can mitigate differences in leisure time physical activity. Using systematic direct observation, we quantified physical activity in neighborhood parks in a large Southern California city located in areas with high, medium, and a low percentage of households in poverty. We documented how neighborhood parks are managed and programmed and also interviewed both a sample of park users and a random sample of households within a mile radius of the parks. We found that parks are used less in high-poverty areas compared to medium- and low-poverty area parks, even after accounting for differences in size, staffing, and programming. The strongest correlates of park use were the number of part time staff, the number of supervised and organized programs, and knowing the park staff. Perceptions of safety were not relevant to park use among those interviewed in the park, however it had a small relationship with reported frequency of park use among local residents. Among park users, time spent watching electronic media was negatively correlated with the frequency of visiting the park. Future research should test whether increasing park staffing and programming will lead to increased park use in high-poverty neighborhoods. PMID:23010338

  7. 76 FR 9360 - Kalaupapa National Historical Park Advisory Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... National Park Service Kalaupapa National Historical Park Advisory Commission Meeting AGENCY: National Park..., 2011, Meeting of the Kalaupapa National Historical Park Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meeting...). ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at McVeigh Social Hall, Kalaupapa National Historical Park,...

  8. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a) Fishing. Fishing in Crater Lake and park streams is permitted from May 20 through October 31. (b) Boating....

  9. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a) Fishing. Fishing in Crater Lake and park streams is permitted from May 20 through October 31. (b) Boating....

  10. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a) Fishing. Fishing in Crater Lake and park streams is permitted from May 20 through October 31. (b) Boating....

  11. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a) Fishing. Fishing in Crater Lake and park streams is permitted from May 20 through October 31. (b) Boating....

  12. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a) Fishing. Fishing in Crater Lake and park streams is permitted from May 20 through October 31. (b) Boating....

  13. 76 FR 70483 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... National Park Service Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... September 6, 2012 of the Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meetings... be held at the Ford Education Center in the Gettysburg National Military Park Museum and...

  14. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  15. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  16. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  17. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  18. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  19. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  20. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  1. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  2. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  3. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  4. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  5. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  6. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  7. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  8. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  9. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  10. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  11. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  12. 75 FR 52969 - National Park System Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... National Park Service National Park System Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the National Park System Advisory Board will meet September 15-16... in the afternoon will tour park sites in the National Capital Region. On September 16, the Board...

  13. 78 FR 44596 - Minor Boundary Revision at Yosemite National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... National Park Service Minor Boundary Revision at Yosemite National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notification of Boundary Revision. SUMMARY: The boundary of Yosemite National Park is... boundary of Yosemite National Park. DATES: The effective date of this boundary revision is July 24,...

  14. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  15. [Evaluation of noise pollution in the Botanical Garden in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta; Szeremetta, Bani

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on noise pollution in the Botanical Garden in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Equivalent noise levels (Leq) were measured at 21 points throughout the park, and interviews were conducted with park visitors. Some 47.6% of the measurement sites presented Leq levels over 65dB(A), considered by preventive medicine as the maximum tolerable exposure level without risk of health impairment, and 90.5% of the sites failed to comply with Municipal Ordinance 8,583, setting 55dB(A) as the maximum noise emission level for green areas. The results of interviews with visitors showed that 78% visit the park at least twice a week and that 96% come for physical activity. During their activities in the Botanical Garden, 24% of interviewees identified noise pollution as a source of annoyance, as compared to 22% who complained of insufficient park security. PMID:12764486

  16. [Annotated list of the plants of the Tortuguero National Park].

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Hernández, Priscilla M; González-Ramírez, José A

    2013-09-01

    The floodplains of Tortuguero, in northeastern Costa Rica, stand as one of the richest plant-species regions in Central America. In this paper, we present the annotated check-list of vascular plants that are present within the rainforest of Tortuguero National Park (TNP), a 26 604h land that protects most of the biological diversity of these plains. Our list resulted from collections made in 2012, as well as the examination of material mantained at the Herbarium of the National Biodiversity Institute of Costa Rica, INBio (ATTA Database) and in the TROPICOS database. A total of 732 vascular plant species included in 413 genera are known to the Park. Two of these species have limited distributions and are endemic to Costa Rica: Pseuderanthemum pittieri (Acanthaceae) and Paullinia austin-smithii (Sapindaceae). Ninety species have known ethnobotanical uses. The high diversity in plant species reported here for the forest environments of Tortuguero contrasts with the low species diversity previously reported in the palm-swamps that characterize the riverine habitats within the Park. PMID:24459756

  17. Park Planning Handbook. Fundamentals of Physical Planning for Parks and Recreation Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Monty L.

    This book is written primarily as a textbook for students of recreation and park administration. It is organized in two parts. Part one gives a detailed description of the process of park planning, phase by phase, explaining the functions, roles, contributions, and responsibilities of the members of the park planning team, from predesign…

  18. Parks as Resources for Knowledge in Science (PARKS) National Program Evaluation Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltz, L. Kate

    This document evaluates the Parks as Resources for Knowledge in Science (PARKS) project which supports environmental education in 36 National Parks across the United States and provides curriculum-based learning opportunities that integrate National Science Education Standards for teachers and students. Contents include: (1) "Executive…

  19. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, Richard N.

    2015-08-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project uses the Parkes 64-m radio telescope to observe 22 millisecond pulsars in three bands: 40cm (band centre 732 MHz), 20cm (1369 MHz) and 10cm (3100 MHz). Coherent de-dispersion systems are used for the 40cm and 20cm bands and digital polyphase filterbanks are used for the 20cm and 10cm bands. Observations are made at intervals of two to three weeks and observations times for each pulsar in each band are typically one hour. Regular PPTA observations commenced in early 2005 but earlier timing data, primarily in the 20cm band, exist for many of the pulsars back to 1994. Pipeline processing scripts are based on PSRCHIVE routines and take into account instrumental offsets. Timing analyses include modelling of dispersion variations and red and white noise in the data. The primary scientific goal of the PPTA project is the detection of gravitational waves, either a stochastic background from supermassive black-hole binary systems in distant galaxies or from individual binary systems. The PPTA data sets have many other applications including establishment of a pulsar-based timescale, improvement of solar-system ephemerides and studies of the individual pulsars. PPTA data sets have been made available to the International Pulsar Timing Array consortium and analysis of the combined data sets is progressing. Recent developments, both instrumental and science-related, will be described.

  20. Geologic Map of the Shenandoah National Park Region, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Aleinikoff, John N.; Bailey, Christopher M.; Burton, William C.; Crider, E.A.; Hackley, Paul C.; Smoot, Joseph P.; Tollo, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    The geology of the Shenandoah National Park region of Virginia was studied from 1995 to 2008. The focus of the study was the park and surrounding areas to provide the National Park Service with modern geologic data for resource management. Additional geologic data of the adjacent areas are included to provide regional context. The geologic map can be used to support activities such as ecosystem delineation, land-use planning, soil mapping, groundwater availability and quality studies, aggregate resources assessment, and engineering and environmental studies. The study area is centered on the Shenandoah National Park, which is mostly situated in the western part of the Blue Ridge province. The map covers the central section and western limb of the Blue Ridge-South Mountain anticlinorium. The Skyline Drive and Appalachian National Scenic Trail straddle the drainage divide of the Blue Ridge highlands. Water drains northwestward to the South Fork of the Shenandoah River and southeastward to the James and Rappahannock Rivers. East of the park, the Blue Ridge is an area of low relief similar to the physiography of the Piedmont province. The Great Valley section of the Valley and Ridge province is west of Blue Ridge and consists of Page Valley and Massanutten Mountain. The distribution and types of surficial deposits and landforms closely correspond to the different physiographic provinces and their respective bedrock. The Shenandoah National Park is underlain by three general groups of rock units: (1) Mesoproterozoic granitic gneisses and granitoids, (2) Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Swift Run Formation and metabasalt of the Catoctin Formation, and (3) siliciclastic rocks of the Lower Cambrian Chilhowee Group. The gneisses and granitoids mostly underlie the lowlands east of Blue Ridge but also rugged peaks like Old Rag Mountain (996 meter). Metabasalt underlies much of the highlands, like Stony Man (1,200 meters). The siliciclastic rocks underlie linear

  1. 78 FR 51207 - Kobuk Valley National Park Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) and the Denali National Park SRC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... National Park Service Kobuk Valley National Park Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) and the Denali National Park SRC; Meetings AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: As required by the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Public Law 92-463, 86 Stat. 770), the National Park...

  2. 75 FR 3488 - Acadia National Park; Bar Harbor, ME; Acadia National Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... National Park Service Acadia National Park; Bar Harbor, ME; Acadia National Park Advisory Commission.... 92-463, 86 Stat. 770, 5 U.S.C. App. 1, Sec. 10), that the Acadia National Park Advisory Commission... his designee, on matters relating to the management and development of the park, including but...

  3. Tourism climatology for camping: a case study of two Ontario parks (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel; Gough, William A.

    2015-08-01

    Climate and weather act as central motivators for the travel decisions of tourists. Due to their seasonality, these factors determine the availability and quality of certain outdoor recreational activities. Park visitation in Ontario, Canada, has been identified as a weather sensitive tourism and recreation activity. This study used a survey-based approach to identify and compare stated weather preferences and thresholds, as well as weather-related decision-making for campers at two provincial parks in Ontario, Canada. The two parks were selected for differing physical and environmental characteristics (forested lake versus coastal beach). Statistically significant differences were detected between the two parks in relation to the importance of weather and weather-based decision-making. Specific temperatures that were considered ideal and thresholds that were too cool and too warm were identified for both parks, both during the day and the night. Heavy rain and strong winds were the most influential factors in weather-related decision-making and on-site behavioural adaptations. Beach campers placed greater importance on the absence of rain and the presence of comfortable temperatures compared to forest campers. In addition, beach campers were more likely to leave the park early due to incremental weather changes. The results of this study suggest that beach campers are more sensitive to weather than forest campers.

  4. Rural Latino Youth Park Use: Characteristics, Park Amenities, and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Saelens, Brain E.; Thompson, Beti

    2010-01-01

    Less than half of youth engage in sufficient physical activity to achieve health benefits. Key environmental factors of park and recreation spaces may influence youth physical activity. We sought to ascertain youth characteristics and behaviors that attract youth to parks with specific amenities and encourage physical activity while at the parks in a rural, predominantly Latino community. We examined the quality of amenities in the 13 parks and recreation spaces that middle school aged youth have access to in their community using the Environmental Assessment of Parks and Recreation Spaces (EAPRS) tool. Middle school students completed surveys in the school classroom (n = 1,102) regarding park use, physical activity, and intrapersonal characteristics (e.g., motivators). We used logistic regression to identify correlates of any park use, use of higher quality field and court parks, and active and sedentary park use. Younger age, participation in an after school activity, and identification of a team as a motivator were positively associated with any park use. Use of higher quality court and field parks was associated with participation in an after school activity and being Latino. The odds of being active in the parks were greater for boys and Latinos. Older age and alcohol use are correlated with being sedentary at the park, while odds of being sedentary at the park were lower for boys and youth who met physical activity guidelines. Organized team activities may encourage active use of higher quality fields and courts parks by Latino youth; thereby, increasing their level of physical activity. PMID:20924779

  5. 115. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of roadway alignment around ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of roadway alignment around alligator back and parking overlook in foreground. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  6. FACING NORTH ALONG CANDLER PARK DRIVE TOWARD NORTHWEST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTH ALONG CANDLER PARK DRIVE TOWARD NORTHWEST CORNER OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  7. FACING NORTH ALONG CANDLER PARK DRIVE (WESTERN BOUNDARY OF CANDLER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTH ALONG CANDLER PARK DRIVE (WESTERN BOUNDARY OF CANDLER PARK IS RIGHT SIDE OF ROAD IN PHOTOGRAPH) - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  8. Too Few Americans Take Advantage of Local Parks

    MedlinePlus

    ... many people use their services, but parks and recreation departments have not had any metrics to adequately ... managed by more than 9,000 park and recreation departments. Local parks range in size from 2 ...

  9. 32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Parking. 263.10 Section 263.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.10 Parking. (a) No person, unless otherwise authorized by a posted traffic...

  10. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be avoided. (c) Illegal parking contributes to congestion and slows traffic flow on an installation... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use... eliminates conditions causing traffic accidents. (d) The “Denver boot” device is authorized for use as...

  11. 32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Parking. 263.10 Section 263.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.10 Parking. (a) No person, unless...

  12. 32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Parking. 263.10 Section 263.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.10 Parking. (a) No person, unless...

  13. 32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parking. 263.10 Section 263.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.10 Parking. (a) No person, unless...

  14. Instruction and Delight: Theme Parks and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Margaret J.

    Education continues to operate as an enclave of elite culture and is battling for interest and respect with the mass media, technology, and the popular arts. These cultures must be brought together. Using the creative ideas generated by theme parks is an effective method of importing popular culture into the schools. Theme parks provide a total…

  15. Disability Awareness Training Manual for Park Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Laurie C.

    Designed to increase the awareness and understanding of disabilities by Virginia park personnel, this guide provides information about the characteristics and needs of park visitors who have disabilities. Four different categories of disabilities are addressed: (1) mobility impairments; (2) visual impairments; (3) hearing impairments; and (4)…

  16. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... sign, crosswalk, or traffic control signal; (5) In a double-parked position; (6) At a curb...

  17. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor...

  18. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor...

  19. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... sign, crosswalk, or traffic control signal; (5) In a double-parked position; (6) At a curb...

  20. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor...

  1. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... sign, crosswalk, or traffic control signal; (5) In a double-parked position; (6) At a curb...

  2. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor...

  3. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... sign, crosswalk, or traffic control signal; (5) In a double-parked position; (6) At a curb...

  4. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor...

  5. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... sign, crosswalk, or traffic control signal; (5) In a double-parked position; (6) At a curb...

  6. Design of Parking Lots and Garages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConochie, William R.

    Layout, control, and sign posting in the design of parking facilities is discussed emphasizing self parking and automated control. Considerations such as site, traffic, function of the facility, city codes, and sizes are related to design considerations. Traffic control factors are related to the direction and placement of cars and the collection…

  7. Private Sector Thinking Saves Park U.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breckon, Donald; Gibb, John

    2000-01-01

    Recounts the restructuring and resulting survival of Park University (Missouri) over the last decade. A process of evaluating the university's competitive strategy resulted in changes in tuition pricing; development of the Park School of Distance Learning, which serves primarily military installations; minority student marketing; and development…

  8. Measurement Properties of a Park Use Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Wen, Fang; Golinelli, Daniela; Rodríguez, Daniel A.; Cohen, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    We determined the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of a brief park use questionnaire. From five US locations, 232 adults completed a brief survey four times and wore a global positioning system (GPS) monitor for three weeks. We assessed validity for park visits during the past week and during a usual week by examining agreement between frequency and duration of park visits reported in the questionnaire to the GPS monitor results. Spearman correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to measure agreement. For past week park visit frequency and duration, the SCC were 0.62–0.65 and 0.62–0.67, respectively. For usual week park visit frequency and duration, the SCC were 0.40–0.50 and 0.50–0.53, respectively. Usual park visit frequency reliability was 0.78–0.88 (percent agreement 69%–82%) and usual park visit duration was 0.75–0.84 (percent agreement 64%–73%). These results suggest that the questionnaire to assess usual and past week park use had acceptable validity and reliability. PMID:23853386

  9. Method Boundness among Zoo and Park Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Meyers, Ronald B.

    1998-01-01

    A national survey of 131 park and zoo educators' teaching beliefs was conducted in 14 parks and zoos in the United States in 1996. The Van Tilburg/Heimlich Teaching Beliefs Scale and a self-report time on task and importance of task were used. Outcomes showed that a preponderance of respondents would self-identify their beliefs to be…

  10. Science Parks from a University Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Malcolm

    2001-01-01

    Assesses the establishment and development of science parks in the United Kingdom from the universities' perspective. Discusses their impact on the processes of invention, innovation, technology transfer, commercialization, and enterprise and outlines strategies available to universities for involvement in science park development. (Contains 22…

  11. 78 FR 24323 - National Park Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8961 of April 19, 2013 National Park Week, 2013 By the President of the... be passed on. During National Park Week, we celebrate the wonders entrusted to us by our...

  12. Communication and Recycling in Park Campgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Sam H.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the Canby Washington State Park campground recycling program by determining whether campers (N=147) read and followed the provided instructions when disposing of garbage, understood the sorting and disposal instructions, and arrived at the park equipped with receptacles for recyclables and non-recyclables.…

  13. The Arrest Records of Rosa Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredhoff, Stacey; Schamel, Wynell; Potter, Lee Ann

    1999-01-01

    Provides background information on the arrest of Rosa Parks and the effects this event had on the Civil Rights Movement. Offers a collection of teaching activities in which the students examine the arrest records of Rosa Parks and explains that these activities are designed to accompany a unit on racial segregation. (CMK)

  14. The influence of park size and form on micro climate and thermal comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, Sahar; Chi, Xiaoli; Müller, Felix; Zhang, Huiwen

    2016-04-01

    The population of urban areas will increase in the next decades and it leads to higher fraction of sealed areas, which will increase the urban heat island intensity. In addition, climate model projections also show that the frequency and the intensity of heat waves and the related heat stress will be higher in the future. Urban Parks are the best key to mitigate the urban heat island and to minimize the local climate change. Due to the lack of free spaces which can be converted to green spaces, this study investigates the influence of urban park forms on the micro climate and thermal comfort. In this study, a central big park has been compared to different numbers of small parks in terms of the cooling effect and thermal comfort. Five different park forms with the same total size have been considered. The results show that the park cooling effect depends not only on the park form, but also on the arrangement of the vegetation inside the park and wind speed and direction. Grassy areas (with 10 and 50 Cm grass), shrubs and hedges as well as trees with small and big canopies have been considered for the simulation. ENVI-MET and Rayman models have been used to simulate the cooling effect, cooled area size, PET and UTCI, respectively. The results for a hot day in Berlin on three different times during day and night will be shown and compared to each other. The effects of Sky view factor and soil humidity (irrigation) have also been discussed.

  15. iParking: an intelligent indoor location-based smartphone parking service.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution. PMID:23202179

  16. iParking: An Intelligent Indoor Location-Based Smartphone Parking Service

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution. PMID:23202179

  17. Geology of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fiske, Richard S.; Hopson, Clifford Andrae; Waters, Aaron Clement

    1963-01-01

    Mount Rainier National Park includes 378 square miles of rugged terrain on the west slope of the Cascade Mountains in central Washington. Its mast imposing topographic and geologic feature is glacier-clad Mount Rainier. This volcano, composed chiefly of flows of pyroxene andesite, was built upon alt earlier mountainous surface, carved from altered volcanic and sedimentary rocks invaded by plutonic and hypabyssal igneous rocks of great complexity. The oldest rocks in the park area are those that make up the Olmnapecosh Formation of late Eocene age. This formation is more than 10,000 feet thick, and consists almost entirely of volcanic debris. It includes some lensoid accumulations of lava and coarse mudflows, heaped around volcanic centers., but these are surrounded by vastly greater volumes of volcanic clastic rocks, in which beds of unstratified coarse tuff-breccia, about 30 feet in average thickness, alternate with thin-bedded breccias, sandstones, and siltstones composed entirely of volcanic debris. The coarser tuff-breccias were probably deposited from subaqueous volcanic mudflows generated when eruption clouds were discharged directly into water, or when subaerial ash flows and mudflows entered bodies of water. The less mobile mudflows and viscous lavas built islands surrounded by this sea of thinner bedded water-laid clastics. In compostion the lava flows and coarse lava fragments of the Ohanapecosh Formation are mostly andesite, but they include less abundant dacite, basalt, and rhyolite. The Ohanapecosh Formation was folded, regionally altered to minerals characteristic of the zeolite facies of metamorphism, uplifted, and deeply eroded before the overlying Stevens Ridge Formation of Oligocene or early Miocene age was deposited upon it. The Stevens Ridge rocks, which are about 3,000 feet in maximum total thickness, consist mainly of massive ash flows. These are now devitrified and altered, but they originally consisted of rhyodacite pumice lapilli and glass

  18. 77 FR 75254 - List of Units of the National Park System Exempt From the Provisions of the National Parks Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 amended various provisions of NPATMA. One provision exempted national park... is 50 operations or less annually. Exempt parks are as follows: Big Bend National Park, TX...

  19. Block 3. Southeastern view observed from within central portion of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 3. Southeastern view observed from within central portion of Block 3. Photograph reveals the change in grade along the central path, light fixtures built within the vertical walls at ground level along ramps and entrances - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  20. Genetically diverse coronaviruses in captive bird populations in a Brazilian zoological park.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Tereza C; Teixeira, Maria Cecília B; Gomes, Deriane E; Jerez, Antônio José

    2011-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of coronaviruses (CoVs) in captive birds placed inside a zoological park in Brazil. The role of captive birds in the epidemiology of CoVs in the tropics is poorly understood. A total of 25 (n=25) different species were tested for viral RNA using individual fecal samples collected from healthy birds. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction targeting the 3' untranslated region was used to detect CoV RNA, and positive samples were submitted for sequence analysis. The phylogenetic search revealed nine mutations in the black shouldered peafowl (Pavus cristatus) CoV sequence, which clustered separately from samples previously described in England. This is the first report on the detection of the CoV genome in captive birds in Brazil. PMID:21142971

  1. Alternatives in Vocational Education Finance: An Example of Participation by Employers in Brazil. Training Discussion Paper No. 69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Candido A.

    At the end of the 1960s, the industrial park of Montes Claros, Brazil, was established. Until then the economy of the municipality had been based on cotton, beef cattle, and subsistence farming. The main obstacle to industrialization was the lack of a qualified local labor force. Trapped between the costs associated with workers recruited…

  2. Saltfjellet-Svartisen Park, Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Arctic Circle cuts through the western coast of Norway and the Saltfjellet-Svartisen National Park. This area features many glacial fjords, alpine mountain formations with glacier tongues, as well as gently sloping mountain plateaus and forested lowland valleys. The largest city here is Mo I Rana, (just off the image to the east) with a population of 25,000 (26th most populous city in Norway). Once supported entirely by the town's steel mill, the area has developed into a tourist center.

    The image covers an area of 51 x 57 km, was acquired on August 23, 2006, and is located near 66.6 degrees north latitude, 13 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. 32 CFR 234.18 - Enforcement of parking regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.18 Enforcement of parking regulations. Parking regulations for the Pentagon Reservation shall be enforced in accordance with the...

  4. 32 CFR 234.18 - Enforcement of parking regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.18 Enforcement of parking regulations. Parking regulations for the Pentagon Reservation shall be enforced in accordance with the...

  5. 32 CFR 234.18 - Enforcement of parking regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.18 Enforcement of parking regulations. Parking regulations for the Pentagon Reservation shall be enforced in accordance with the...

  6. 32 CFR 234.18 - Enforcement of parking regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.18 Enforcement of parking regulations. Parking regulations for the Pentagon Reservation shall be enforced in accordance with the...

  7. 32 CFR 234.18 - Enforcement of parking regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.18 Enforcement of parking regulations. Parking regulations for the Pentagon Reservation shall be enforced in accordance with the...

  8. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  9. New Literacies in Schome Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Julia

    In this chapter I deploy a synthesis of methods I term virtual literacy ethnography to investigate the diverse literacy practices of the Schome Park project (SPP). This project worked with teenagers on the first European "closed" (i.e. protected) island in the 3D virtual world Teen Second LifeTM (TSL) as described in the previous chapter. Firstly I introduce an ethnographic perspective on this lengthy, rich project and reflect on my own interpretive approach. Introducing my own focus of interest, the new literacy practices fostered by the environment and in particular activities I judge to be especially creative, I begin to develop the methodology of a "virtual literacy ethnography". I show how the diverse multimodal affordances of the communicative domains are imaginatively exploited by the students, supported by peers and staff in an environment characterised by "fluid leadership". I include some analysis of literacy work around a genre traditionally valued by educators, a dictionary, which I was not involved in at the time. I suggest this is an exemplar literacy practice, creative in itself and illustrative of the methodological possibilities and of course limitations linked with the technologies utilised. Traditional distinctions between "reading" and "writing" become permeable in interesting ways as new creative practices, fostered by the environment of the Schome Park programme, emerged. I offer support for Kress's (2005) claim that changes in writing and reading practices amount to a "revolution in the world of communication." In conclusion, I claim that virtual literacy ethnography, as I have proposed it here, can be fruitful in exploring the complexity and creativity of the students' literacy practices, although more developmental work is needed.

  10. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not. PMID:11765396

  11. First fatal case of CNS infection caused by Enterovirus A in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, D.B.; Machado, G.; Almeida, G.M.F.; Ferreira, P.C.P.; Bonjardim, C.A.; de Souza Trindade, G.; Abrahão, J.S.; Kroon, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    We describe what is to our knowledge the first fatal case of central nervous system Enterovirus infection in Brazil. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization revealed that Enterovirus A was the aetiologic agent of this case. PMID:26442151

  12. Soil properties in urban parks and city population in Tel Aviv-Jaffa: Mutual effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oz, A.; Sarah, P.; Zhevelev, H.

    2012-04-01

    Urban parks are man-made open spaces, located in the city area and having two major functions: conservation of natural resources and optimization of the physical and social environment. This study aimed to investigate the relations between the soil properties and the socioeconomic profile of the populations in the parks in Tel Aviv. The city of Tel Aviv was divided into three geographical regions: South, Central and North. This division reflects the course of development of the city from south to north, and encompasses differing socio-economic levels of residents. In each geographical region 15 parks were randomly chosen, and were divided into three groups by size (2-10, 10-20 and 20-50 acres). In each park soil was sampled in two microenvironments (lawn and path), from three points and from three depth layers (0-2, 5-10 and 10-20 cm) in July-August 2011. Before the sampling, penetration depth was determined at all the points. Each of the soil samples was analyzed for organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity, and sodium and chlorine contents. For each type of microenvironment, the results were analyzed with respect to three factors: size of park, region of city, and soil depth. It was found that the urban park soil properties varied widely: sodium and chlorine contents from 1.8 to 12 and from 1.9 to 7.8 meq/kg, respectively; and electrical conductivity from 0.40 to 1.47 dS/m. In the lawn microenvironment, electrical conductivity, chlorine and sodium increased in all depths with park size. This trend was significant only in the upper layer. In the path microenvironment no such trend was seen. In the center of the city lower values of soil properties than in the other regions were found at all depths. Soil properties decreased with depth in all three geographical regions, in all three sizes of park, and in both microenvironments. For all sizes of park, in all geographical regions, and in both microenvironments, penetration depths were found be similar. We

  13. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite: isotopic and chemical evidence of arc-related magmatism in the central part of the Paleoproterozoic Mineiro belt, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Avila, Ciro A; Teixeira, Wilson; Cordani, Umberto G; Barrueto, Héctor R; Pereira, Ronaldo M; Martins, Veridiana T S; Dunyi, Liu

    2006-09-01

    The Glória quartz-monzodiorite, one of the mafic plutons of the Paleoproterozoic Mineiro belt, is intrusive into banded gneisses, amphibolites, schists and phyllites of the Rio das Mortes greenstone belt, in the southern portion of the São Francisco Craton, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite yields a SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 2188 +/- 29 Ma, suggesting a tectonic relationship with the pre-collisional phase of the Mineiro belt. According to the Nd isotopic evidence (epsilonNd(T) = -3.4; T DM = 2.68 Ga) the original magmas was formed by a mixture among Archean crustal material and Paleoproterozoic juvenile magma. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite shows metaluminous and calc-alkaline tendency with intermediate K content, comparable to that of volcanic-arc rocks. The primary mineralogical assemblage was partly modified by metamorphism, dated between 2131-2121 Ma in nearby coeval plutons. Such metamorphism is significantly older than the reported metamorphic episodes of the Mineiro belt in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region (2059-2041 Ma) in the eastern portion of the study area. This evidence, together with chemical and isotopic data from other mafic and felsic plutons coeval with the Glória quartz-monzodiorite, indicate a tectonic and magmatic migration within the Mineiro belt from west to east. PMID:16936942

  14. Effective gamma-ray doses due to natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, M. A. G.; Medina, N. H.; Moreira, R. H.; Bellini, B. S.; Aguiar, V. A. P.

    2010-08-01

    We have used gamma-ray spectrometry to study the distribution of natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil: Billings reservoir, Sa~o Bernardo do Campo Parks, Diadema Parks, Interlagos region, Sa~o Paulo, and soil from Sa~o Paulo and Rio de Janeiro beaches. In most of the regions studied we have found that the dose due the external exposure to gamma-rays, proceeding from natural terrestrial elements, are between the values 0.3 and 0.6 mSv/year, established by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.

  15. Effective gamma-ray doses due to natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Silveira, M. A. G.; Moreira, R. H.; Bellini, B. S.; Medina, N. H.; Aguiar, V. A. P.

    2010-08-04

    We have used gamma-ray spectrometry to study the distribution of natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil: Billings reservoir, Sao Bernardo do Campo Parks, Diadema Parks, Interlagos region, Sao Paulo, and soil from Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro beaches. In most of the regions studied we have found that the dose due the external exposure to gamma-rays, proceeding from natural terrestrial elements, are between the values 0.3 and 0.6 mSv/year, established by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.

  16. Burning Cars in a Parking Lot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoin, Jean

    2011-08-01

    Knuth's parking scheme is a model in computer science for hashing with linear probing. One may imagine a circular parking lot with n sites; cars arrive at each site with unit rate. When a car arrives at a vacant site, it parks there; otherwise it turns clockwise and parks at the first vacant site which is found. We incorporate fires into this model by throwing Molotov cocktails on each site at a smaller rate n - α , where 0 < α < 1 is a fixed parameter. When a car is hit by a Molotov cocktail, it burns and the fire propagates to the entire occupied interval which turns vacant. We show that with high probability when n → ∞, the parking lot becomes saturated at a time close to 1 (i.e. as in the absence of fire) for α > 2/3, whereas for α < 2/3, the average occupation approaches 1 at time 1 but then quickly drops to 0 before the parking lot is ever saturated. Our study relies on asymptotics for the occupation of the parking lot without fires in certain regimes which may be of independent interest.

  17. Brazil: Xingu River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... title:  Fire and Deforestation near the Xingu River     View Larger Image Numerous fires occurred near the headwaters of the Xingu River and the Xingu Indigenous Peoples' Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, during ...

  18. Terrain classification maps of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.; Roller, N. E. G.

    1973-01-01

    A cooperative ERTS-1 investigation involving U. S. Geological Survey, National Park Service, and Environmental Research Institure of Michigan (ERIM) personnel has as its goal the preparation of terrain classification maps for the entire Yellowstone National Park. Excellent coverage of the park was obtained on 6 August 1972 (frame 1015-17404). Preliminary terrain classification maps have been prepared at ERIM by applying multispectral pattern recognition techniques to ERTS-MSS digital taped data. The color coded terrain maps are presented and discussed. The discussion includes qualitative and quantitative accuracy estimates and discussion of processing techniques.

  19. Livermore Big Trees Park: 1998 Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Queen, D; Gallegos, G; Surano, K

    2002-04-18

    This report is an in-depth study of results from environmental sampling conducted in 1998 by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Big Trees Park in the city of Livermore. The purpose of the sampling was to determine the extent and origin of plutonium found in soil at concentrations above fallout-background levels in the park. This report describes the sampling that was conducted, the chemical and radio-chemical analyses of the samples, the quality control assessments and statistical analyses of the analytical results, and LLNL's interpretations of the results. It includes a number of data analyses not presented in LLNL's previous reports on Big Trees Park.

  20. 77 FR 23496 - Boundary Revision of Valley Forge National Historical Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Boundary Revision of Valley Forge National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park... to the boundary of Valley Forge National Historical Park, pursuant to the authority specified below... ``Valley Forge National Historical Park Proposed Boundary Expansion, Montgomery County,...