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  1. [Ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Rong, Liang

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated estimation on the ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China was made from the aspects of ecological carrying capacity, spatial carrying capacity, facility carrying capacity, management carrying capacity, and psychological carrying capacity. The results indicated that the tourism carrying capacity of the Park was 4 145 - 6 450 persons per day. The rational distance between man and bird was first adopted to determine the ecotourism carrying capacity of wetland, which provided an effective solution both to fully ensure bird safety and to appropriately develop wetland tourism. The estimation of psychological carrying capacity based on tourist satisfaction degree reflected more objectively the extent the tourist demands satisfied at the planning, construction and management of tour places. Such an integrated estimation method based on the distance between man and bird and the tourist satisfaction degree could be of practical and instructive significances in the planning and management of wetland parks. PMID:18163314

  2. Infants' first feeds in Hangzhou, PR China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Liqian; Xie, Xing; Lee, Andy; Binns, Colin W

    2007-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the foundation of good nutrition and provides the basis for health throughout the life span. The WHO and the Chinese Ministry of Public Health recommend exclusive breastfeeding to six months of age. The practice of giving prelacteal feeds may interfere with the establishment of good breastfeeding practices and is contrary to the principles of Baby Friendly Hospital accreditation. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of prelacteal feeds in a hospital in Hangzhou and the influence of this practice on breastfeeding at discharge. A longitudinal study of infant feeding was conducted in Hangzhou, China and a total of 638 mothers were recruited and interviewed while in hospital. The questionnaire included full details of infant feeding methods and factors likely to influence the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse factors influencing breastfeeding on discharge. In Hangzhou almost all babies are born in hospital, the median length of stay was 5.6 days and 77% of births were by caesarian section. In 26% of births the infants were given formula, water or milk as their first feed. At the time of discharge from hospital 91% of infants were receiving some breastmilk, but only 36% of mothers were exclusively breastfeeding. Breastfeeding on discharge from hospital was inversely related to giving prelacteal feeds (OR 0.115, 95% CI 0.055-0.238). While in hospital just over one quarter of infants received prelacteal feeds and these infants had a lower rate of breastfeeding on discharge. PMID:17392150

  3. 24 year outcomes of hepatitis B vaccination in Hangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jian; Xu, Yuyang; Wang, Jun; Liu, Shijun; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Xu, Erping

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the universal infant HepB vaccination program on hepatitis B virus infection in Hangzhou, China. Hepatitis B incidences and HepB vaccination rates of Hangzhou from 1990 to 2003 were acquired from the historical paper-documents, while which were derived from China Information System for Diseases Control and Prevention and Zhejiang Information System for Immunization Program respectively from 2004 to 2013. A serology survey among person aged 0–59 y was conducted in Hangzhou in 2006. Participants were selected by stratified, multi-stage random sampling. Serum specimens were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBs , anti-HBc , HBeAg and anti-HBe by ELISA. For the past 24 years, hepatitis B incidence and mortality of Hangzhou declined dramatically (χ2 = 3.2 × 104; χ2 = 172.443; both P for trend < 0.001). Both urban and rural incidence descended (χ2urban = 1.904 × 104; χ2rural = 1.633 × 104 ; both P for trend < 0.001).Hepatitis B patients mainly concentrated in 20–40 y old; workers and farmers were the main infection occupations, which was varies in different years (χ2 = 1.619 × 103, P < 0.001). Significant association was found between incidence of hepatitis B and HepB vaccination rate (r = 0 .946, χ2 = 11.813, Pfor trend = 0.001). A total of 5605 participants aged 0–59 y included in this serological survey. The prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, HBeAg and anti-HBe were 6.19%, 45.83%, 57.25%, 0.62%, and 4.37%, respectively. Hangzhou has successfully integrated the HepB into routine immunization programs and this has had a significant impact on decreasing the incidence of hepatitis B infection. PMID:25714188

  4. RECENT TRENDS IN GENDER RATIO AT BIRTH IN HANGZHOU, CHINA

    PubMed Central

    Tang, L; Qiu, LQ; Yau, KKW; Hui, YV; Binns, CW; Lee, AH

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Higher than normal sex ratios at birth in China have been reported since the early 1980’s. This study aimed to investigate recent trends in sex ratio at birth in Hangzhou, capital of Zhejiang Province in southeast China. Methods Information on selected maternal and birth-related characteristics was extracted from the Hangzhou Birth Information Database for all pregnant women who delivered live births during 2005–2014. The sex ratios at birth were calculated after excluding infants with missing data on gender and those born with ambiguous genitalia. Results A total of 478,192 male births and 430,852 female births were recorded giving an overall ratio of 111.0. The sex ratio at birth was almost constant at around 110.7 during the period 2005–2008, followed by an increase to the peak at 113.1 in 2010 and then declined back to 109.6 in 2014. Conclusion The gender ratio at birth in Hangzhou remained unbalanced for the past decade. PMID:27547264

  5. Long-term morphologic evolution of the Hangzhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, W.; Zhijun, D.; Hualiang, X.

    2013-12-01

    Estuaries are the most productive ecosystems of coastal zones in the world, which are significant to mankind as places of navigation, recreation and commerce as well as extensive and diverse habitats for wildlife. However, most estuary environments in the world had occurred greatly changes in recent decades. These estuaries have suffered from impacts of forcing factors including wave climate, mean sea level change and storm surge, especial to the intensive human activities such as training wall construction, channel dredging, sand mining and dam constructions. Thus, there have been increasing concerns about estuary environment changes under effects of different factors. Riverine loads into the Changjiang Estuary have declined dramatically with the construction of Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003. The morphological evolution of the Hangzhou bay that located the southern proximity of the Yangtze estuary starts to attract increasing attentions due to most material of the Hangzhou bay received from Yangtze estuary. In this paper, historical bathymetric charts were digitized and analyzed within a GIS to provide quantitative estimate of changes in volumes in different regions below 0 m elevation. The results show that Hangzhou bay has experienced a major loss in estuarine volume of about 15% with annual mean sediment deposition rate of 80 million m3/a during the last 75 years. However, there is a large-scale spatial adjustment in Hangzhou bay: Bathymetric changes of the Hangzhou bay can be rapidly shifted within the range of 8-10 classes. Volume of the Jinshanzui upstream of the Hangzhou bay has obviously decreased in the last 75 years, especially during 2003-2008. However, Volume of the southern Hangzhou bay has experienced slowly decrease with minor deposition. The northern Hangzhou bay had largely volume changes with rapidly decrease during 1931-1981, and drastically increase since 2003. Further analysis of the bathymetric data relating to possible factors indicates

  6. Spatiotemporal Co-existence of Female Thyroid and Breast Cancers in Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Fei, Xufeng; Christakos, George; Lou, Zhaohan; Ren, Yanjun; Liu, Qingmin; Wu, Jiaping

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid and breast cancers (TC, BC) are common female malignant tumors worldwide. Studies suggest that TC patients have a higher BC risk, and vice versa. However, it has not been investigated quantitatively if there is an association between the space-time TC and BC incidence distributions at the population level. This work aims to answer this question. 5358 TC and 8784 BC (female) cases were diagnosed in Hangzhou (China, 2008-2012). Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients of the TC and BC incidences were high, and their patterns were geographically similar. The spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions was investigated using the integrative disease predictability (IDP) criterion: if TC-BC association is part of the disease mapping knowledge bases, it should yield improved space-time incidence predictions. Improved TC (BC) incidence predictions were generated when integrating both TC and BC data than when using only TC (BC) data. IDP consistently demonstrated the spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions throughout Hangzhou (2008-2012), which means that when the population experiences high incidences of one kind of cancer attention should be paid to the other kind of cancer too. The strength of TC-BC association was measured by the IDP coefficients and incidence prediction accuracy. PMID:27341638

  7. Spatiotemporal Co-existence of Female Thyroid and Breast Cancers in Hangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xufeng; Christakos, George; Lou, Zhaohan; Ren, Yanjun; Liu, Qingmin; Wu, Jiaping

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid and breast cancers (TC, BC) are common female malignant tumors worldwide. Studies suggest that TC patients have a higher BC risk, and vice versa. However, it has not been investigated quantitatively if there is an association between the space-time TC and BC incidence distributions at the population level. This work aims to answer this question. 5358 TC and 8784 BC (female) cases were diagnosed in Hangzhou (China, 2008–2012). Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients of the TC and BC incidences were high, and their patterns were geographically similar. The spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions was investigated using the integrative disease predictability (IDP) criterion: if TC-BC association is part of the disease mapping knowledge bases, it should yield improved space-time incidence predictions. Improved TC (BC) incidence predictions were generated when integrating both TC and BC data than when using only TC (BC) data. IDP consistently demonstrated the spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions throughout Hangzhou (2008–2012), which means that when the population experiences high incidences of one kind of cancer attention should be paid to the other kind of cancer too. The strength of TC-BC association was measured by the IDP coefficients and incidence prediction accuracy.

  8. Spatiotemporal Co-existence of Female Thyroid and Breast Cancers in Hangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Xufeng; Christakos, George; Lou, Zhaohan; Ren, Yanjun; Liu, Qingmin; Wu, Jiaping

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid and breast cancers (TC, BC) are common female malignant tumors worldwide. Studies suggest that TC patients have a higher BC risk, and vice versa. However, it has not been investigated quantitatively if there is an association between the space-time TC and BC incidence distributions at the population level. This work aims to answer this question. 5358 TC and 8784 BC (female) cases were diagnosed in Hangzhou (China, 2008–2012). Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients of the TC and BC incidences were high, and their patterns were geographically similar. The spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions was investigated using the integrative disease predictability (IDP) criterion: if TC-BC association is part of the disease mapping knowledge bases, it should yield improved space-time incidence predictions. Improved TC (BC) incidence predictions were generated when integrating both TC and BC data than when using only TC (BC) data. IDP consistently demonstrated the spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions throughout Hangzhou (2008–2012), which means that when the population experiences high incidences of one kind of cancer attention should be paid to the other kind of cancer too. The strength of TC-BC association was measured by the IDP coefficients and incidence prediction accuracy. PMID:27341638

  9. GIS-based emission inventories of urban scale: A case study of Hangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Wei, Yumei; Tian, Weili; Yang, Kemin

    This research established GIS-based urban-scale emission inventories of SO 2, NO X, and PM 10 from both fossil energy consumption and industrial production process. Hangzhou, a typical Yangtse Delta city in south China, was selected to be the case study city. It is found that PM 10 emission from industrial production process is the third highest, about 17.1% of total PM 10 emission. The total emissions of SO 2, NO X, and PM 10 were 41385.9, 54780.4, and 24239.2 t a -1 in 2004. AERMOD model was used to simulate pollutants concentration in the urban area of Hangzhou. The simulated concentrations were compared with the observed data collected at seven air quality-monitoring stations. The results show that simulated data of SO 2 and NO X annual average concentrations agreed reasonably with observation data in five monitoring stations, but had obvious differences with observation data in the other two monitoring stations because of boundary and geographical data limitation in the simulation. The simulated data of PM 10 annual average concentrations were much lower than observation data of all monitoring stations because secondary PM 10 data were not included in the simulation.

  10. Investigation of the clinical features in filamentary keratitis in Hangzhou, east of China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Siming; Ruan, Yimeng; Jin, Xiuming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Filamentary keratitis (FK) is a chronic and recurrent disorder of the cornea. FK is reportedly associated with various kinds of ocular surface diseases or conditions. Until now, there have been lacks of studies based on quantitative sample analysis concerning FK incidence regularity and inducement characteristics at different ages. This was a retrospective study of 147 patients (162 eyes) with FK who had been continuously and completely recorded from August 2012 to August 2015 at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, east of China. Our results suggest that the causative factors of FK varied at different ages and the distribution of filaments on the corneal surface was also diverse with different inducements. By exploring the frequency and clinical features of FK, we believe that the findings from our research will be clinically significant and aid in the early prevention and treatment guidance of the disease. PMID:27583881

  11. Investigation of the clinical features in filamentary keratitis in Hangzhou, east of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siming; Ruan, Yimeng; Jin, Xiuming

    2016-08-01

    Filamentary keratitis (FK) is a chronic and recurrent disorder of the cornea. FK is reportedly associated with various kinds of ocular surface diseases or conditions. Until now, there have been lacks of studies based on quantitative sample analysis concerning FK incidence regularity and inducement characteristics at different ages. This was a retrospective study of 147 patients (162 eyes) with FK who had been continuously and completely recorded from August 2012 to August 2015 at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, east of China. Our results suggest that the causative factors of FK varied at different ages and the distribution of filaments on the corneal surface was also diverse with different inducements.By exploring the frequency and clinical features of FK, we believe that the findings from our research will be clinically significant and aid in the early prevention and treatment guidance of the disease. PMID:27583881

  12. Characterization and energy potential of food waste from catering service in Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Hui; Sun, Fa-Qian; Sun, Ying-Jun; Lu, Hao-Hao; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2014-08-01

    Safe disposal of food waste is becoming an impending issue in China with the rapid increase of its production and the promotion of environmental awareness. Food waste from catering services in Hangzhou, China, was surveyed and characterized in this study. A questionnaire survey involving 632 units across the urban districts showed that 83.5% of the food waste was not properly treated. Daily food waste production from catering units was estimated to be 1184.5 tonnes. The ratio of volatile solid to total solid, easily biodegradable matter (including crude fat, crude protein and total starch) content in total solid and the ratio of total organic carbon to nitrogen varied in ranges of 90.1%-93.9%, 60.9%-72.1%, and 11.9-19.9, respectively. Based on the methane yield of 350 mL g VS(-1) in anaerobic batch tests, annual biogas energy of 1.0 × 10(9) MJ was estimated to be recovered from the food waste. Food waste from catering services was suggested to be an attractive clean energy source by anaerobic digestion. PMID:24980033

  13. Life-cycle assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Hangzhou, China (EASEWASTE).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hong-Tao; Lu, Wen-Jing; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-06-01

    With the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts and benefits of the current municipal solid waste management system and two modified systems, EASEWASTE, a life-cycle-based model, was used to evaluate the waste system of Hangzhou city in China. An integrated model was established, including waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment, disposal and accompanying external processes. The results showed that CH(4) released from landfilling was the primary pollutant contributing to global warming, and HCl and NH(3) from incineration contributed most to acidification. Material recycling and incineration with energy recovery were important because of the induced savings in material production based on virgin materials and in energy production based on coal combustion. A modified system in which waste is transported to the nearest incinerators would be relatively better than the current system, mainly due to the decrease of pollution from landfilled waste and the increase in energy production from waste avoiding energy production by traditional power plants. A ban on free plastic bags for shopping was shown to reduce most environmental impacts due to saved oil resources and other materials used in producing the plastic bags. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. LCA methodology and a model like EASEWASTE are very suitable for evaluating the overall environmental consequences, and can be used for decision support and strategic planning in developing countries such as China where pollution control has become increasingly important with the rapid increase of waste generation as well as the increasing public awareness of environmental protection. PMID:19470539

  14. Contamination, distribution, and sources of heavy metals in the sediments of Andong tidal flat, Hangzhou bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Hong-Jiao; Lou, Zhang-Hua; Jin, Ai-Min; Yan, Kang-Kang; Jiang, Yan; Yang, Xian-Hui; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung; Chen, Xue-Gang

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we collected sediment samples from three transects along Andong tidal flat, Hangzhou Bay, and studied the concentrations and sources of heavy metals. Enrichment factors (EF), contamination factors (CF), and geoaccumulation indexes (Igeo) showed that transect A was a polluted area while transect B and C were relatively unpolluted. The elevated heavy metal concentrations along transect A may be attributed to the human pollutions along the tidal creeks and passageway. Principal component analyses indicated that Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cu were originated from the same sources, and most of the heavy metals presented elevated concentrations near shore, suggesting the near shore pollution by anthropogenic activities. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of sediment samples were similar to that of Upper Continental Crust, Yangtze River, and East China Sea with enrichment of LREEs, fairly flat patterns of HREEs, and significantly negative Eu anomaly and positive Ce anomaly. It is suggested that the main sources of sediments were terrigenous materials but also influenced by the sediments from East China Sea. This work provided essential information on the pollution status of sediments in the Hangzhou Bay and assessed the possible sources of heavy metals, which will be useful for the environmental protection of Hangzhou Bay.

  15. [Bad tourist behaviors and their environmental impacts on Xixi National Wetland Park in Hangzhou].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Xin; Wang, Ru-Song; Mao, Chun-Hong

    2009-06-01

    By the methods of site investigation, data collection and correlation analysis, the bad tourist behaviors and their environmental impacts on Xixi National Wetland Park in 2006 were studied. The occurrence probabilities of three bad tourist behaviors, i.e., picking, trampling, and littering were 6.5%, 10.3% and 12.6%, respectively. Picking probability was primarily related to the vegetation types along walkways, while the scale of heavy trampling was negatively correlated with tour distance from the entrance. Waste production by each tourist was 782 g x d(-1) on average. The waste from littering amounted for 13.6% of the total. Tourist flow fluctuations of daily, weekly, and monthly perspectives for the study area showed high seasonality and successive days of overloaded tourist flows during peak seasons, which caused an increase of bad tourist behaviors. However, the water quality in the Park was not affected because of the improvement of dredging facilities. PMID:19795654

  16. Phosphorus sorption and buffering mechanisms in suspended sediments from the Yangtze Estuary and Hangzhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Whelan, M. J.; Wang, G. Q.; White, S. M.

    2013-05-01

    The adsorption isotherm and the mechanism of the buffering effect are important controls on phosphorus (P) behaviors in estuaries and are important for estimating phosphate concentrations in aquatic environments. In this paper, we derive phosphate adsorption isotherms in order to investigate sediment adsorption and buffering capacity for phosphorus discharged from sewage outfalls in the Yangtze Estuary and Hangzhou Bay near Shanghai, China. Experiments were also carried out at different temperatures in order to explore the buffering effects for phosphate. The results show that P sorption in sediments with low fine particle fractions was best described using exponential equations. Some P interactions between water and sediment may be caused by the precipitation of CaHPO4 from Ca2+ and HPO42- when the phosphate concentration in the liquid phase is high. Results from the buffering experiments suggest that the Zero Equilibrium Phosphate Concentrations (EPC0) vary from 0.014 mg L-1 to 0.061 mg L-1, which are consistent with measured phosphate concentrations in water samples collected at the same time as sediment sampling. Values of EPC0 and linear sorption coefficients (K) in sediments with high fine particle and organic matter contents are relatively high, which implies that they have high buffering capacity. Both EPC0 and K increase with increasing temperature, indicating a higher P buffering capacity at high temperatures.

  17. Phosphorus sorption and buffering mechanisms in suspended sediments from the Yangtze Estuary and Hangzhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Whelan, M. J.; Wang, G.; White, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    The adsorption isotherm and the mechanism of the buffering effect are important controls on phosphorus behaviors in estuaries and are important for estimating phosphate concentrations in aquatic environments. In this paper, we derive phosphate adsorption isotherms in order to investigate sediment adsorption and buffering capacity for phosphorus discharged from sewage outfalls in the Yangtze Estuary and Hangzhou Bay near Shanghai, China. Experiments were also carried out at different temperatures in order to explore the buffering effects for phosphate. The results show that P sorption in sediments with low fine particle fractions was best described using exponential equations. Some P interactions between water and sediment may be caused by the precipitation of CaHPO4 from Ca2+ and HPO42- when the phosphate concentration in the liquid phase is high. Results from the buffering experiments suggest that the Zero Equilibrium Phosphate Concentrations (EPC0) vary from 0.014 mg l-1 to 0.061 mg l-1, which are consistent with measured phosphate concentrations in water samples collected at the same time as sediment sampling. Values of EPC0 and linear sorption coefficients (K) in sediments with high fine particle and organic matter contents are relatively high, which implies that they have high buffering capacity. Both EPC0 and K increase with increasing temperature, indicating a higher P buffering capacity at high temperatures.

  18. The Use of Mobile Phone and Medical Apps among General Practitioners in Hangzhou City, Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Ren, Wen; Qiu, Yan; Liu, Juanjuan; Yin, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile phones and mobile phone apps have expanded new forms of health professionals’ work. There are many studies on the use of mobile phone apps for different specialists. However, there are no studies on the current use of mobile phone apps among general practitioners (GPs). Objective The objective of the study was to investigate the extent to which GPs own smartphones with apps and use them to aid their clinical activities. Methods A questionnaire survey of GPs was undertaken in Hangzhou, Eastern China. Data probing GPs’ current use of medical apps in their clinical activities and factors influencing app use were collected and analyzed Results 125 GPs participated in the survey. 90.4% of GPs owned a mobile phone, with 48.7% owning an iPhone and 47.8% owning an Android phone. Most mobile phone owners had 1-3 medical-related apps, with very few owning more than 4. There was no difference in number of apps between iPhone and Android owners (χ2=1.388, P=0.846). 36% of GPs reported using medical-related apps on a daily basis. The majority of doctors reported using apps to aid clinical activities less than 30 minutes per day. Conclusions A high level of mobile phone ownership and usage among GPs was found in this study, but few people chose medical-related apps to support their clinical practice. PMID:27220417

  19. Environmental assessment of heavy metal transport and transformation in the Hangzhou Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hongwei; Huang, Lei; Wang, Jingyu; He, Guojian; Reible, Danny

    2016-01-25

    The environmental impact of heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, (90)Sr and (137)Cs) transport and transformation in the Hangzhou Bay (China) was assessed through a comprehensive model that integrates hydrodynamics, sediment and heavy metal transport. A mechanistic surface complexation model was used to estimate the adsorption and desorption of heavy metal by suspended sediment under different aqueous chemistry conditions. The dynamics of metal exchange to and from the seabed was also assessed. The primary processes regulating heavy metal distribution, i.e., convection-diffusion, adsorption-desorption, sedimentation-resuspension, as well as other physical and chemical processes related to mass exchange between adjacent sediment layers, were considered in detail. The accidental discharge of (137)Cs was simulated as an example and results showed that (137)Cs transported along the coast driven by tidal flow. Most (137)Cs distributed near the outfall and accumulated in the seabed sediment. The proposed model can be a useful tool for predicting heavy metal transport and fate and provide a theoretical basis to guide field sampling, assessment of risks and the design of remediation strategies. PMID:26521090

  20. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Obese Students in Hangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Ping; Wang, Hong-Mei; Edwards, Todd C.; Wang, Ting; Jiang, Xiao-Ying; Lv, Yi-Ran; Patrick, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of overweight and obese middle or high school students and identify relevant factors influencing their QOL scores. Methods 716 students were recruited from 6 middle or high schools in Hangzhou, China. The Chinese version of the Youth Quality of Life Instrument–Weight Module (YQOL-W) was self administered. The YQOL-W scores were compared among different BMI groups, gender, educational status, annual household income, parental education and recruitment community using t test or one-way analysis of variance. The independent association of these variables with QOL among overweight and obese students was examined using multivariable linear regression modeling. Results Overweight and obese students reported lower total scores, self, social and environment scores than their normal weight peers (all P<0.001). The QOL of overweight and obese middle and high school students was associated with BMI value, gender, educational status, parental education, and recruitment community. Girls had lower total scores, self, social and environment domain scores than boys (all P<0.001); high school students had lower total and three domain scores than middle school students (all P<0.05). Students whose fathers had higher education reported higher total scores, self and social scores than students with less educated fathers (all P<0.05). Students whose mothers had higher education reported higher environment scores than students with less educated mothers (P = 0.01). Students from migrant communities reported significantly lower total scores, self and social scores than those from rural communities (all P<0.05), but comparable scores with those from urban communities (P>0.05). Students from migrant communities reported comparable environment scores with those from rural and urban communities (P>0.05). Conclusions Overweight and obesity have negative effects on students’ quality of life. Therefore weight specific QOL could be included in

  1. Genetic diversity of HIV-1 and transmitted drug resistance among newly diagnosed individuals with HIV infection in Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiafeng; Guo, Zhihong; Yang, Jiezhe; Pan, Xiaohong; Jiang, Jun; Ding, Xiaobei; Zhang, Wenjun; Xia, Yan; Xu, Yun; Huang, Jingjing

    2015-10-01

    HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR) can compromise antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited countries like China where ART has been scaled up and thus leads to an important public health concern. The aim of the study was to elucidate the HIV-1 genetic characteristics and TDR in Hangzhou, China. Two-hundred eleven ART-naive, newly diagnosed individuals were enrolled during January and August 2013. Specimens were classified as recent or chronic infections using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA). The pol fragment covering the entire protease and the first 300 codons of the reverse transcriptase gene was amplified by RT-PCR and nested PCR. Genotypic drug resistance (DR) and phylogenetic analysis were performed on the 200 obtained sequences. Multiple genotypes were identified, including CRF01_AE (62.0%), CRF07_BC (31.0%), subtype B (2.0%), CRF08_BC (1.5%), CRF55_01B (1.0%), CRF18_cpx (0.5%), and unique recombinant forms (URFs, 2.0%). All the four URFs were found in men who have sex with men, consisting of a recombination of CRF01_AE with subtype B or CRF07_BC. The prevalence of primary DR in newly diagnosed individuals in Hangzhou was low (4.0%). The proportion of DR mutation to protease inhibitors (PIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was 1.5%, 1.5%, and 1.0%, respectively. BED-CEIA revealed that 21.8% (45/211) of the specimens were associated with recent infections. The prevalence of TDR in recent infections was moderate (6.5%). High HIV diversity and relatively high prevalence of TDR in new infections has been found in Hangzhou, indicating an increasing challenge for future HIV prevention and treatment. PMID:25899877

  2. Magmatism and polymetallic mineralization in southwestern Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xudong; Lu, Jianjun; Wang, Rucheng; Ma, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    As Neoproterozoic suture zone between the Yangtze Block and Cathaysia Block, Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt is one of the 21 key metallogenic belts in China. Intensive multiple-aged felsic magmatism and related polymetallic mineralization take place in this belt. Although Neoproterozoic, Paleozoic, Triassic granites and associated deposits have been found in southwestern Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt, Middle-Late Jurassic (150-165 Ma) magmatism and related mineralization is of the most importance. Three major kinds of Middle-Late Jurassic granitoids have been distinguished. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids are slightly differentiated, calc-alkaline and metaluminous dioritic to granodioritic rocks. Sn-(W)-bearing granites contain dark microgranular enclaves and have high contents of REE and HFSE, suggesting affinities of aluminous A-type (A2) granites. W-bearing granites are highly differentiated and peraluminous rocks. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids have ɛNd(t) values of -11 ˜ -4 and ɛHf(t) values of -12 ˜ -7, corresponding to TDMC(Nd) from 1.4 to 1.8 Ga and TDMC(Hf) from 1.6 to 2.0 Ga, respectively. The ɛNd(t) values of W-bearing granites vary from -11 to -8 with TDMC(Nd) of 1.6 ˜ 1.9 Ga and ɛHf(t) values change from -16 to -7 with TDMC(Hf) of 1.5 ˜ 2.0 Ga. Compared with (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids and W-bearing granites, the Sn-(W)-bearing granites have higher ɛNd(t) (-8 ˜ -2) and ɛHf(t) (-8 ˜ -2) values and younger TDMC(Nd) (1.1 ˜ 1.6 Ga) and TDMC(Hf) (1.2 ˜ 1.8 Ga) values, showing a more juvenile isotopic character. Sn-(W)-bearing granites originate from partial melting of granulitized lower crust involved with some mantle-derived materials. W-bearing granites are derived from partial melting of crust. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids are also derived from crust but may be influenced by more mantle-derived materials. For (Cu)-Pb-Zn deposits, skarn and carbonate replacement are the most important mineralization types. Cu ore bodies mainly

  3. Assessing the willingness of the public to pay to conserve urban green space: the Hangzhou City, China, case.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Bao, Zhiyi; Zhu, Zhujun

    2006-12-01

    The authors assessed the willingness of residents to pay for urban green-space conservation in Hangzhou, China, using the contingent-valuation method. The aim of the study was to provide policy makers with information that would be useful for making informed decisions in urban-development planning. The findings of the study are as follows: 1) The willingness of residents to pay for urban green-space conservation was positively correlated with their perceptions of the benefits of green spaces and negatively correlated with perceptions of the annoyances. 2) The willingness to pay a higher premium for green-space conservation is directly related to gender, income level, and residential-ownership status. Age and education level are not significantly correlated with willingness to pay. 3) A majority of respondents view the conservation of urban green spaces as a very important function of the city, and most of them are willing to pay additional taxes for this conservation. 4) The total value per year to the public of the conservation program in Hangzhou is about $15.4 million. These qualitative and quantitative findings can be used in the policy-making process for urban-development plans. PMID:17190339

  4. Role of a meso-γ vortex in Meiyu torrential rainfall over the Hangzhou Bay, China: An observational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Guoqing; Zhang, Honglei; Shen, Hangfeng; Zhu, Peijun; Su, Tao; Li, Xiaofan

    2015-12-01

    A mesoscale torrential rainfall event that occurred over eastern China in June 2013 is analyzed by using observational data. The results show that a mesoscale convergence line and a weak convective cloud line formed over the northern part of the Hangzhou Bay during the onset of the torrential rainfall event. A meso-vortex appeared over the confluence point of northeasterly flow associated with the Yellow-Sea high, easterly flow from rainfall area, and southeasterly flow from the Hangzhou Bay. The meso-vortex with a horizontal scale of 10-20 km lasted for about 1 h for stable surface circulations. The analysis of radar retrieval reveals that the meso-vortex in the boundary layer occurred at the south of strong radar echo. The formation of the meso-vortex turned to enhance convergence and cyclonic vorticity in the lower troposphere, which strengthened updrafts that are tilted into convective clouds and caused torrential rainfall. Thus, the occurrence of the meso-vortex in boundary layer is one of the mechanisms that are responsible for the enhancement of convective development.

  5. Wetland ecosystem health assessment through integrating remote sensing and inventory data with an assessment model for the Hangzhou Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tengteng; Lin, Wenpeng; Chen, Guangsheng; Guo, Pupu; Zeng, Ying

    2016-10-01

    Due to rapid urbanization, industrialization and population growth, wetland area in China has shrunk rapidly and many wetland ecosystems have been reported to degrade during recent decades. Wetland health assessment could raise the public awareness of the wetland condition and guide policy makers to make reasonable and sustainable policies or strategies to protect and restore wetland ecosystems. This study assessed the health levels of wetland ecosystem at the Hangzhou Bay, China using the pressure-state-response (PSR) model through synthesizing remote sensing and statistical data. Ten ecological and social-economic indicators were selected to build the wetland health assessment system. Weights of these indicators and PSR model components as well as the normalized wetland health score were assigned and calculated based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. We analyzed the spatio-temporal changes in wetland ecosystem health status during the past 20years (1990-2010) from the perspectives of ecosystem pressure, state and response. The results showed that the overall wetland health score was in a fair health level, but displayed large spatial variability in 2010. The wetland health score declined from good health level to fair health level from 1990 to 2000, then restored slightly from 2000 to 2010. Overall, wetland health levels showed a decline from 1990 to 2010 for most administrative units. The temporal change patterns in wetland ecosystem health varied significantly among administrative units. Our results could help to clarify the administrative responsibilities and obligations and provide scientific guides not only for wetland protection but also for restoration and city development planning at the Hangzhou Bay area. PMID:27236628

  6. Stable isotopes in aquatic food web of an artificial lagoon in the Hangzhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Weimin; Shi, Liyan; Chen, Yaqu

    2010-05-01

    Stable isotope values, δ13C and δ15N, were determined for four primary producers and 19 dominant consumers in a small artificial lagoon located in Hangzhou Bay. Based on these results the major pathways for energy flow and trophic structure of the artificial lagoon ecosystem were characterized. The mean δ13C values for the 19 consumers ranged from -22.99‰ to -14.24‰. Apart from so-iny mullet Liza haematocheila, the other 18 consumers had intermediate δ13C values between those of epibenthic microalgae and particulate organic matter (POM). The results of a multiple source linear mixing model (IsoSource model) indicated that 50% or more of the organic carbon in the tissues of most consumers was derived from epibenthic microalgae. This indicated that these primary producers were the main food source fueling the lagoon food web. The mean δ15N values for the 19 consumers varied between 4.93‰ and 12.97‰ and indicated four trophic levels in the lagoon. Four macroinvertebrates and zooplankton represented the primary consumers, whilst the other 14 consumers occupied the secondary and tertiary consumer levels. The 19 consumers were divided into three trophic guilds (detritivores/suspension feeders, omnivores and carnivores).

  7. Groundwater exploitation management under land subsidence constraint: empirical evidence from the Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou Plain, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guoliang; Han, Dongmei; Moser, Jessa

    2013-06-01

    Land subsidence caused by extensive groundwater pumping has become a factor which cannot be ignored in the sustainable exploitation of groundwater resources. The Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou Plain is one of the locations with China's most severe land subsidence problems; the region has experienced dramatic land subsidence since the 1960s. Historical records of groundwater extraction, hydraulic head, and land subsidence show the latter to be the result of continual and excessive extraction of groundwater from deep confined aquifers. This study reconstructs land subsidence using an integrated regional groundwater flow and land subsidence model. The model is calibrated using land subsidence and groundwater level measurements from 1996 to 2007. Simulation results reproduce the cones of depression for groundwater heads and nadirs of land subsidence reasonably well. The calibrated model is used to evaluate the efficacy of land subsidence prevention plans from 2008 to 2010, and to predict future land subsidence over the next decade considering several groundwater exploitation scenarios. The results show the main cause of land subsidence to be inelastic compaction of the aquifer system resulting from continuously declining water levels. The model reveals that while the area of land subsidence will continue to extend, the rate of this extension may be significantly decreased by reduction of groundwater extraction. If the current land subsidence prevention and reclamation plans are continued and surface water diversion projects implemented, though land subsidence cannot be halted, the rate at which it is occurring can be effectively reduced. PMID:23604266

  8. Residues and Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides in Water and Suspended Particulate Matter from Hangzhou Bay, East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidong; Yang, Huayun; Jiang, Xia; Liu, Qi; Sun, Yan; Zhou, Jiazhong

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations, distribution, and possible sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Hangzhou Bay, East China Sea, were studied by analyzing water column and suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples from 13 sites. The results showed that OCP contamination remains widespread in the area. The OCP concentrations were 2.52-27.99 ng/L in the SPM samples and 1.35-26.36 ng/L in the water column samples. Pattern analysis suggested that both fresh and weathered hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were present. Low α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios and high β-HCH and γ-HCH levels contributed to the total HCH concentrations in both the water column and SPM samples. High p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)/o,p'-DDT ratios and low (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene + dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane)/DDT ratios were found, reflecting a "dicofol-type" DDT input pattern, This suggested that new DDT inputs are occurring because of dicofol still being used in the area. PMID:26825782

  9. An ecological model of the artificial ecosystem (northern Hangzhou Bay, China): analysis of ecosystem structure and fishing impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zuozhi; Xu, Shannan; He, Peimin

    2011-06-01

    The artificial ecosystem is a large-scale enclosure in northern Hangzhou Bay, China. Using the Ecopath with Ecosim software, a trophic structure model is constructed for 2006-2007 to characterize the food web structure, functioning, and describing the ecosystem impacts of fishing. Input information for the model were gathered from published and unpublished reports and from our own estimates during the period 2006-2007. Pedigree work and simple sensitivity analysis were carried out to evaluate the quality and the uncertainty of the model. Results show that the food web in the enclosed sea area was dominated by a detritus pathway. The trophic levels of the groups varied from 1.00 for primary producers and detritus to 3.90 for piscivorous fish in the artificial system. Using network analysis, the system network was mapped into a linear food chain, and five discrete trophic levels were found with a mean transfer efficiency of 9.8% from detritus, 9.4% from primary producer within the ecosystem. The geometric mean of the trophic transfer efficiencies was 9.5%. Detritus contributed 57% of the total energy flux, and the other 43% came from primary producers. The ecosystem maturity indices-TPP/TR (total primary production/total respiration), FCI (Finn cycling index), A (ascendancy) and TB/TDET were 2.672, 25%, 31.5%, and 0.013, respectively, showing that the artificial system is at developmental stage according to Odum's theory of ecosystem development. The `Keystoneness' result indicates that herbivorous zooplankton was identified as keystone species in this system. Furthermore, a simple dynamical simulation was preformed for varying fishing mortality over 10 years. The biomass of most fish groups has a small increase when the fishing mortality at current level. Increasing fishing mortality by twofold resulted in a marked decrease in biomass of piscivorous fish accompanied by an increase in that of other fish groups, notable zooplanktivorous fish. Generally, this study

  10. [Composition and Environmental Effects of LFOM and HFOM in "Incense-Ash" Sediments of West Lake, Hangzhou, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Guang-wei; Zhu, Meng-yuan; Gong, Zhi-jun; Xu, Hai; Yang, Gui-jun

    2015-06-01

    To understand the organic matter pollution characteristic and its relationship with nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients in sediments of high organic matter type of urban shallow lakes, the organic matter content, light fraction organic matter (LFOM), heavy fraction organic matter (HFOM), and nitrogen and phosphorus contents were investigated in eight different regions of West Lake, Hangzhou. The results showed that, the organic matter content of the west lake sediment was 28-251 g x kg(-1), belonging to typical high organic matter sediment. The difference of organic matter content in different lake sediments was very big. The sediments located at the input site of water diversion engineering had significantly lower organic content than the rest regions. The LFOM content of West Lake sediment ranged 0.57-9.17 g x kg(-1), which averagely occupied 2.83% of the total organic matter, and the HFOM content ranged 5.35-347.41 g x kg(-1), which occupied more than 90% of the total organic matter. Compared to other shallow lakes located in China, sediments of West Lake had significantly high percentage of HFOM/LFOM ratio. But the HFOM content was obviously on the high side, reflecting the west lake as an urban lake with a long history, as well as high organic matter pollution load and sediment humification degree. Both the content and the ratio of LFOM/HFOM in sediment were related to nitrogen and phosphorus contents in sediment. This suggested that the composition of organic matter in West Lake sediments had potential control ability for the internal loading of N and P of the lake. PMID:26387305

  11. [Genetic Diversity and Evolution of the M Gene of Human Influenza A Viruses from 2009 to 2013 in Hangzhou, China].

    PubMed

    Shao, Tiejuan; Li, Jun; Pu, Xiaoying; Yu, Xinfen; Kou, Yu; Zhou, Yinyan; Qian, Xin

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the genetic diversity and evolution of the M gene of human influenza A viruses in Hangzhou (Zhejiang province, China) from 2009 to 2013, including subtypes of A(H1N1) pdm09 strains and seasonal A(H3N2) strains. Subtypes of analyzed viruses were identified by cell culture and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, followed by cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the M gene. Assessment of 5675 throat swabs revealed a positive rate for the influenza virus of 20.46%, and 827 cases were diagnosed as. infections due to influenza A viruses. Seventy-six influenza-A strains were selected randomly from nine stages during six phases of a virus epidemic. Sequences of the M gene showed high homology among six epidemics with identities of amino-acid sequences of 98.98-100%. All strains contained the adamantine-resistant mutation S31N in its M2 protein. Two of the A(H1N1)pdm09 strains had double mutants of V27A/S31N or V271/S31N. One of the seasonal A(H3N2) viruses had another form of double-mutant R45H/S31N. Evolutionary rate of the M gene was much lower than that of the HA gene and NA gene. Compared with A(H3N2) strains, higher positive pressure on the M1 and M2 proteins of A(H1N1) pdm09 viruses was observed. Separate analyses of M1 and M2 proteins revealed very different selection pressures. Knowledge of the genetic diversity and evolution of the M gene of human influenza-A viruses will be valuable for the control and prevention of diseases. PMID:26164939

  12. National park development in China: conservation or commercialization?

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangyu; Innes, John L; Wu, Sara W; Krzyzanowski, Judi; Yin, Yongyuan; Dai, Shuanyou; Zhang, Xiaoping; Liu, Sihui

    2012-05-01

    The rapid development of parks and ecotourism in China has attracted worldwide attention, not only for the beauty of the landscape that the parks are protecting but also for their abundant and often unique biodiversity. However, in some areas, the development of ecotourism has actually led to the degradation of local ecological, economic, and social systems. Using National Forest Parks for demonstration, this article analyzes the current political, institutional, legal, environmental, and economic issues concerning National Parks in China, and examines their potential future development. Although the intention of National Park systems in China is to raise environmental quality, and to protect biodiversity and social livelihoods, their success has varied. Future success will be measured by their capacity to reduce poverty, to promote long-term rehabilitation of wildlife habitats, and to simultaneously protect Chinese culture and biodiversity. PMID:22038320

  13. Characterization and source apportionment of aerosol light extinction with a coupled model of CMB-IMPROVE in Hangzhou, Yangtze River Delta of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiao; Zhang, Yu-fen; Feng, Yin-chang; Zheng, Xian-jue; Jiao, Li; Hong, Sheng-mao; Shen, Jian-dong; Zhu, Tan; Ding, Jing; Zhang, Qi

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics and sources of aerosol light extinction in the Yangtze River Delta of China, a campaign was carried out in Hangzhou from December 2013 to November 2014. Hourly data for air pollutants including PM2.5, SO2, NO2, O3 and CO, and aerosol optical properties including aerosol scattering coefficient and aerosol absorbing coefficient was obtained in the environmental air quality automatic monitoring station. Meteorological parameters were measured synchronously in the automated meteorology monitoring station. Additionally, around seven sets of ambient PM2.5 samples per month were collected and analyzed during the campaign. The annual mean aerosol scattering coefficient, aerosol absorbing coefficient and aerosol single scattering albedo measured in this study was 514 ± 284 Mm- 1, 35 ± 20 Mm- 1 and 94% respectively. The aerosol extinction coefficient reconstructed using the modified IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environment) formula was compared to the measured extinction coefficient. Better correlations could be found between the measured and reconstructed extinction coefficient when RH was under 90%. A coupled model of CMB (chemical mass balance) and modified IMPROVE was used to apportion the sources of aerosol light extinction in Hangzhou. Vehicle exhaust, secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate were identified as the most significant sources for aerosol light extinction, accounted for 30.2%, 24.1% and 15.8% respectively.

  14. Adaptability of ESR dating of fault gouge in aseismic region: A case study on Hangzhou region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Qi; Chen, Han-Lin; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Jian-Qing; Liu, Jing-Wei; Zhao, Dong; Niu, Jia-Wen; Liao, Lin

    2008-05-01

    ESR dating has been widely used in seismic assessment. In this paper, we collected fault gouge samples system-atically for ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) dating, and sediment samples of overlying strata, and offset strata for OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) dating along Xiaoshan-Qiuchuan fault (XQF) trending NE-SW, Xiaofeng-Sanmen fault (XSF) trending NW-SE, and Changhua-Putuo fault (CPF) trending E-W. In the same fault outcrop, the ESR data of fault gouge is greater than the OSL data of the strata offset by fault. Therefore, the ESR data of fault gouge colleted in Hangzhou region do not represent the time of weak fault movement in Late Quaternary region, but represent the strong fault movements in Late Cenozoic. The episode of fault movement in Late Cenozoic could be speculated according to the ESR data: 1.00 0.58 Ma, there were strong fault movements along the XSF, XQF and CPF in Hangzhou region; 0.58 0.45 Ma, the fault movements of all faults became weaker and did not zero ESR signals significantly for ESR dating of fault movements; 0.45 0.20 Ma, there were strong fault movements along part of XQF; 0.1 0.01 Ma, there were fault movements along the XSF only, but the fault movements were not strong enough to reset the ESR signal; Since 0.01 Ma, the Hangzhou region tends to be stable. In addition, the XSF might be the division line of fault segmentation of XQF; there were strong fault movements along the southwest segment of XQF during 0.45 Ma to 0.20 Ma; while the fault movements along the northeast segment of XQF mainly occurred during 1.00 0.58 Ma.

  15. Variations of summer phytoplankton community related to environmental factors in a macro-tidal estuarine embayment, Hangzhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuexia; Yu, Jun; Jiang, Zhibing; Wang, Qin; Wang, Hui

    2015-12-01

    To explore the distribution and composition of phytoplankton community and their responses to environmental changes, summer net-collected phytoplankton and physicochemical parameters in the Hangzhou Bay during 2004-2010 were investigated. A total of four phyla and 84 species were identified, including 67 diatom and 12 dinoflagellate species. The dominant species constantly consisted of the diatoms, although the dominance of dinoflagellate and cyanobacteria increased recently. Due to great spatio-temporal variations in environmental factors (salinity, suspended solids, and nutrient concentration), significant heterogeneities in community compositions among different years and subregions (inner and middle sections, and bay mouth) were found based on the analyses of multidimensional scaling and similarity. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that salinity and Si/N were the main variables associated with algal assemblage. Compared with the historical data since the 1980s, eutrophication (N, P, and N/P increased with decreasing Si/N) was exacerbated drastically. Moreover, climatic forcing and human activities resulted in a series of physical alterations, including sediment retention, temperature increase, and salinity decrease as well as reduction in water exchanges. All these changes induced obvious increases in cell density and Chl- a while decreases in species diversity and diatom-dinoflagellate ratio as well as the shifting of dominant species. Therefore, the long-term phytoplankton variations were closely related to anthropogenic and climatic perturbations in the Hangzhou Bay.

  16. The Distribution and Composition Characteristics of Siliceous Rocks from Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay Joint Belt, South China: Constraint on the Tectonic Evolution of Plates in South China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongzhong; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhang, Lianchang; Zhou, Yongzhang; Yang, Zhijun; He, Junguo; Liang, Jin; Zhou, Liuyu

    2013-01-01

    The Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt is a significant tectonic zone between the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates, where plentiful hydrothermal siliceous rocks are generated. Here, the authors studied the distribution of the siliceous rocks in the whole tectonic zone, which indicated that the tensional setting was facilitating the development of siliceous rocks of hydrothermal genesis. According to the geochemical characteristics, the Neopalaeozoic siliceous rocks in the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt denoted its limited width. In comparison, the Neopalaeozoic Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt was diverse for its ocean basin in the different segments and possibly had subduction only in the south segment. The ocean basin of the north and middle segments was limited in its width without subduction and possibly existed as a rift trough that was unable to resist the terrigenous input. In the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, the strata of hydrothermal siliceous rocks in Dongxiang copper-polymetallic ore deposit exhibited alternative cycles with the marine volcanic rocks, volcanic tuff, and metal sulphide. These sedimentary systems were formed in different circumstances, whose alternative cycles indicated the release of internal energy in several cycles gradually from strong to weak. PMID:24302882

  17. The distribution and composition characteristics of siliceous rocks from Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, South China: constraint on the tectonic evolution of plates in South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongzhong; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhang, Lianchang; Zhou, Yongzhang; Yang, Zhijun; He, Junguo; Liang, Jin; Zhou, Liuyu

    2013-01-01

    The Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt is a significant tectonic zone between the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates, where plentiful hydrothermal siliceous rocks are generated. Here, the authors studied the distribution of the siliceous rocks in the whole tectonic zone, which indicated that the tensional setting was facilitating the development of siliceous rocks of hydrothermal genesis. According to the geochemical characteristics, the Neopalaeozoic siliceous rocks in the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt denoted its limited width. In comparison, the Neopalaeozoic Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt was diverse for its ocean basin in the different segments and possibly had subduction only in the south segment. The ocean basin of the north and middle segments was limited in its width without subduction and possibly existed as a rift trough that was unable to resist the terrigenous input. In the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, the strata of hydrothermal siliceous rocks in Dongxiang copper-polymetallic ore deposit exhibited alternative cycles with the marine volcanic rocks, volcanic tuff, and metal sulphide. These sedimentary systems were formed in different circumstances, whose alternative cycles indicated the release of internal energy in several cycles gradually from strong to weak. PMID:24302882

  18. A Survey of 42 Semi-Volatile Organic Contaminants in Groundwater along the Grand Canal from Hangzhou to Beijing, East China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojie; Rao, Zhu; Yang, Zhipeng; Guo, Xiaochen; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Guo, Feng; Liu, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The status of organic pollution in groundwater in eastern China along the Grand Canal from Hangzhou to Beijing was evaluated. Forty-two semi-volatile organic contaminants were analyzed, including 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and seven organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs). Among the detected contaminants, PAHs were the most widespread compounds. One PCB and six OCPs were detected in the groundwater samples, but none of the target OPPs was detected. The total concentration of the 16 PAHs ranged from 0.21 to 1006 ng/L, among which phenanthrene (271 ng/L) and fluoranthene (233 ng/L) were present at very high concentrations and naphthalene (32 positive detections in 50 samples) and fluorene (28 detections in 50 samples) were the most frequently detected. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalents indicated a high environmental risk related to PAHs in a few groundwater samples. To identify the possible sources of PAHs, three concentration ratios, low molecular weight PAHs/high molecular weight PAHs, anthracene/(anthracene + phenanthrene) and fluoranthene/(fluoranthene + pyrene), were determined, that indicated that the PAHs mainly originated from mixed sources: pyrolytic and petrogenic sources with different ratios at different sites. PMID:26694442

  19. Distribution and ecological risk of organic pollutants in the sediments and seafood of Yangtze Estuary and Hangzhou Bay, East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Adeleye, Adedayo O; Jin, Haiyan; Di, Yanan; Li, Donghao; Chen, Jianfang; Ye, Ying

    2016-01-15

    A wide variety of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the surface marine sediments and seafood from four geographic areas of the East China Sea were investigated. The POP concentrations were analyzed and their possible ecotoxicological risks assessed. The total concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sediments were found to be ND-22.40, ND-5.10, 32.10-171.70, and 0.60-63.00 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. Low-chlorinated biphenyl congeners and HCHs were predominantly found at the Hangzhou Bay and Yangtze River areas. The sediment ecotoxicological risk was assessed, indicating the toxic effect of PCBs and DDTs on benthic organisms. In marine organisms of economic importance, the concentration of total PAHs, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) ranged from 43.20 to 291.20, 2.60 to 96.20, and 12.70 to 235.20 μg/kg dw, respectively. The bioaccumulation in marine organisms did not pose a significant health risk to consumers. As indicated by the POP residues in both marine sediments and organisms, POPs were persistent over time, posing a long-term risk to the local ecosystem and human health via the food chain. PMID:26479920

  20. Risk factors for HIV and syphilis infection among male sex workers who have sex with men: a cross-sectional study in Hangzhou, China, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yan; Zhu, Chunyan; Chen, Shuchang; Geng, Qingshan; Fu, Rong; Li, Xiting; Xu, Ke; Cheng, Jie; Ding, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of HIV and syphilis infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in male sex workers (MSW). Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Hangzhou, China. Participants 259 MSW in MSM were recruited by respondent-driven sampling from May 2011 to December 2011.The inclusion criteria were: (1) age ≥18 years; (2) engaging in sex with men in the previous year and (3) willing to cooperate in the implementation of the study. Outcome measures HIV-related knowledge, high-risk behaviour and condom use. Results Among these MSW in MSM, 23.2% were infected with HIV and/or syphilis, 8.9% were infected only with HIV, 12.7% only with syphilis and 1.5% with HIV/syphilis co-infection; 96.6% sold sex to males, 8.9% bought sex from males and 15.4% sold sex to females; 49.0% had non-commercial sex behaviours with males and 24.3% with females. The rate of condom use while having commercial sex with clients was 86.9% and 53.3% (selling anal and oral sex to males, respectively), 95.5% (buying sex from males) and 77.5% (selling sex to females), respectively. Regarding their non-commercial sex behaviour, the rate of condom use was 77.2% (with males) and 49.2% (with females), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that age >30 years (OR 1.055; 95% CIs 1.015 to 1.095) and having ≥10 non-commercial male sex partners (OR, 1.573; 95% CI 1.018 to 2.452) were significantly associated with HIV/syphilis infection, while heterosexuality (OR, 0.238; 95% CI 0.066 to 0.855) was significantly associated with a low HIV/syphilis infection rate. Conclusions The MSW in MSM population in Hangzhou has a high prevalence of HIV/syphilis infection, poor perceived risks of HIV and more engagement in unsafe sex with its clients and partners, in addition to a low rate of condom use. These risk factors may account for their relatively high infection rate of HIV/syphilis. PMID:25922096

  1. Characterization of surface sediments from the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Zaozhuang section), China: assessment of beryllium enrichment, biological effect, and mobility.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wen; Chen, Qing; Gao, Xuelu; Zhou, Fengxia; Wang, Mantang; Liu, Yongxia

    2016-07-01

    The South-to-North Water Diversion Project is one of the world's largest water diversion projects, benefiting seven million people in China. The Zaozhuang section of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal is an important part of this project. This paper investigated the enrichment, biological effect, and mobility of beryllium (Be) in surface sediments of the Zaozhuang section. Results showed that high values were found in Tai'erzhuang District, Zaozhuang city, and the areas near the inlet of the Nansihu Lake, which might have been influenced by local human activities including metallurgy, burning of fossil fuels, and transportation. Four geochemical fractions of Be were obtained: acid-soluble fraction, reducible fraction, oxidizable fraction, and residual fraction. The non-residual fractions (the sum of the first three) accounted for 72.5 ∼ 96.1 % of the total amount of Be. Acid-soluble fraction might be mainly influenced by human activities, with the strongest mobility and bio-availability, accounting for 4.1 ∼ 44.7 % of the total amount, with an average of 20.2 %. Enrichment factor (EF) showed minor to moderate enrichment in some regions; adverse effect index (AEI) also showed that there were high levels of Be in some regions, which might have negative impacts on organisms. Generally, mobility, EF, and AEI of elements are carried out separately. But the results of this study indicated that a comprehensive assessment on the enrichment, mobility, and biological effects of Be caused by human activities is necessary in understanding the environmental risks of Be. PMID:27167375

  2. Morphology and Phylogeny of Three Pleuronema Species (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia) from Hangzhou Bay, China, with Description of Two New Species, P. binucleatum n. sp. and P. parawiackowskii n. sp.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongbo; Hu, Juxiang; Jiang, Jiamei; Wang, Liqing; Hu, Xiaozhong

    2016-05-01

    The morphology and phylogeny of Pleuronema binucleatum n. sp., P. parawiackowskii n. sp., and P. marinum Dujardin 1841, collected from Hangzhou Bay estuary, China, were investigated using standard methods. Pleuronema binucleatum n. sp. can be identified by possessing about 90-120 × 35-50 μm cell size in vivo, reniform body outline, two macronuclei, six to eight preoral kineties, 32-41 somatic kineties, and posterior end of the anterior fragment of membranelle 2 (M2a) hook-like. Pleuronema parawiackowskii n. sp. is characterized by the combination of the following characters: body size about 60-90 × 20-40 μm in vivo, elliptical in outline, four to eight preoral kineties, 20-29 somatic kineties, posterior portion of the M2a slightly curved but nonhooked, and single macronucleus sausage-like. After comparison with other populations of P. marinum, it is suggested that many misidentifications exist in previous studies. And an improved diagnosis of P. marinum was supplied: cell about 95-180 μm long, elliptical in outline; 2-4 preoral kineties and 53-70 somatic kineties; both membranelle 1 and membranelle 3 three-rowed; posterior end of the M2a straight; single contractile vacuole characteristically positioned near mid-body. The small subunit rRNA genes of three forms were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the monophyly of the genus Pleuronema is still not supported. PMID:26452585

  3. A study of vertical distribution patterns of PM2.5 concentrations based on ambient monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles: A case in Hangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhong-Ren; Wang, Dongsheng; Wang, Zhanyong; Gao, Ya; Lu, Sijia

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of the vertical distribution of air pollutant concentrations can provide essential information for accurate estimates of the dispersion mechanism of local pollutants between boundary layer and troposphere. This paper reports unique measurements using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with mobile sensors to collect three-dimensional fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass concentration data on sixteen flights within 1000 m altitude from August, 2014 to December, 2014 in Hangzhou, China. The study demonstrates the feasibility of UAV with mobile monitoring devices as an effective and flexible means to collect three-dimensional air pollutant concentration data, particularly for monitoring the vertical profile of air pollutants. The experimental results show that in general, the PM2.5 concentrations decrease as height increases, with an exception when the air temperature inversion layer appears, and the decrease rate of PM2.5 concentrations is larger in the morning than in the afternoon flights. This is a result of the accumulated pollutant emission of human activities during the day and the varied meteorological conditions. At the same horizontal layer, there are fluctuations in PM2.5 concentrations during different time periods of the day. The vertical fluctuations of PM2.5 concentrations become nearly uniform in two afternoon flights, which is directly related with the extent of atmospheric mixture. Seen from the multiple regression models, the distribution of relative PM2.5 concentrations between vertical and ground observations is well characterized and the regression coefficients of four measured factors (i.e., air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure and height) effectively explain their impacts on the vertical distribution patterns. Air temperature and relative humidity are the most influential factors that affect the vertical distribution of PM2.5 concentrations.

  4. Rapid HIV antibody testing among men who have sex with men who visited a gay bathhouse in Hangzhou, China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiaoqin; Xia, Shichang; Pan, Xiaohong; Cai, Gaofeng; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Hui; Peng, Zhihang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence and correlates of rapid HIV antibody testing (RHT) among men who have sex with men (MSM) clients of gay bathhouses. Design Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Setting This study was conducted in a gay bathhouse in Hangzhou, China. Participants 354 MSM were validly recruited from October to December 2012. Inclusion criteria were (1) men who visited the gay bathhouse, (2) men who had engaged in sex with men during the previous 6 months, (3) first-time participants in this survey and (4) men who were HIV-negative if already tested. Measures Sociodemographic measures included factors related to sexual behaviour and HIV risk perception, and the scales of HIV-related knowledge and behavioural intervention that each participant received. Results Of the 354 participants, 222 (62.7%) were rapid tested during the previous 6 months; of them, 66.2% were tested at the Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC), and 46.8% at gay venues. The following factors were independently associated with rapid testing within the previous 6 months: sexual initiation at 20–29 years of age, ever having undergone standard testing, ever having seen a sexually transmitted disease doctor, consistent use of condom during the past 6 months, familiarity with RHT and perception of possible HIV infection. Conclusions Publicity of RHT and risk education for HIV infection are necessary to promote RHT among MSM who visit gay bathhouses. The characteristics of sexual behaviours among those who do and do not undergo RHT should be taken into consideration while promoting the service in this group. PMID:26346876

  5. Environmental management systems at the industrial park level in China.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yong; Côté, Raymond

    2003-06-01

    Environmental management systems (EMSs), such as International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001, can be used as a tool in China by industrial park managers to improve their environmental performance. This article uses the case of the Dalian Economic and Technological Development Zone (DETDZ) to show how to establish a comprehensive environmental management system (CEMS) according to the ISO 14001 standard at the industrial park level by considering local realities. The particularly interesting feature of this case study is the use of a CEMS (in this case, ISO 14001) by the administrative group of the DETDZ to develop a more comprehensive approach to the wide range of environmental issues that they face in running the zone. In essence the goal is to address many of the issues at the level of the zone. The incentives, benefits, and barriers associated with implementing ISO 14001 are described. However, implementation of an EMS should not be thought of as the ultimate objective for an industrial park's environmental management. The next steps include encouraging further public participation and taking an integrated approach leading to an industrial ecosystem, which can realize better environmental performance at the industrial park level. PMID:14565698

  6. A community-based multilevel intervention for smoking, physical activity and diet: short-term findings from the Community Interventions for Health programme in Hangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Liu, Qing-Min; Ren, Yan-Jun; He, Ping-Ping; Wang, Sheng-Feng; Gao, Fang; Li, Li-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the short-term impact of a comprehensive, community-based multilevel intervention on knowledge, beliefs and practices with respect to smoking, physical activity and diet in Hangzhou, China. Methods A non-randomised, controlled, before-after quasi-experimental trial was conducted in two intervention areas and one comparison area. The intervention built on a socioecological framework and took place across four settings: neighbourhoods, schools, workplaces and community health centres. Two independent cross-sectional surveys of adults aged 18–64 years at baseline and a subsequent follow-up were conducted in 2008/2009 and 2011 in the intervention and comparison areas. A 2-year intervention programme was begun in mid-2009 and continued until mid-2011. Results A total of 2016 adults at baseline and 2016 adults at follow-up completed the survey. Over the 2-year intervention period, the intervention areas showed a statistically significant decline (25.2% vs 18.7%, p<0.001) in the prevalence of smoking compared with the comparison area (18.0% vs 16.4%, p=0.343). The proportion of individuals who had noticed anyone smoking in any of nine locations in the previous 30 days demonstrated a statistically significant decline in the intervention (78.9% vs 66.5%, p<0.001) and comparison (76.3% vs 66.5%, p<0.001) areas. The fruit and vegetable consumption score increased in a statistically significant manner in the intervention (24.84 vs 25.97, p=0.036) and comparison (24.25 vs 26.67, p<0.001) areas. The metabolic equivalent of physical activity increased from 1204 to 1386 (p=0.023) in the intervention areas compared with 918 to 924 in the comparison area (p=0.201). Conclusions After a 2-year intervention, beneficial changes were noted in the intervention areas with respect to smoking and physical activity but not diet. A community-based multilevel intervention programme is feasible in urban China. PMID:24297972

  7. Life-cycle-based multicriteria sustainability evaluation of industrial parks: a case study in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin; Qi, Jing; Zhou, Shiyi; Jiang, Meiming

    2012-01-01

    Along with increasing concerns on environmental protection and global warming mitigation, new industrial organization modes such as "Ecoindustrial Park" and "Low Carbon Industrial Park" are emerging. Since ecoindustrial parks and low carbon industrial parks may offer multifaceted benefits to the users, it naturally follows that the sustainability assessment of the industrial parks ought to adopt a multicriteria methodology. In this paper, a multicriteria sustainable evaluation framework is proposed in combination with the life cycle analysis and applied to a low carbon and high end industrial park (LCHE) in Beijing, China. Results show that the LCHE industrial park can contribute to both energy-saving and greenhouse gas emission mitigations compared with other industrial parks. In terms of economic performance, although the economic profits are considerable, the investment per constructed area is relatively high. The results of sustainable analysis of the LCHE industrial park can thus shed light on future upgrading of industrial parks. PMID:23304091

  8. Insights from an observational assessment of park-based physical activity in Nanchang, China

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Hong; Liao, Xiong; Schuller, Kristyn; Cook, Angelie; Fan, Si; Lan, Guilian; Lu, Yuanan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Moore, Justin B.; Maddock, Jay E.

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, parks have been shown to be an important community asset for physical activity (PA), but little is known about the relationship between park usage and physical activity in China. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between park user characteristics and PA in Nanchang, China. In June 2014, 75,678 people were observed in eight parks over 12 days using SOPARC, a validated systematic observation tool. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between PA and park user characteristics. Most park users were older adults (53.5%) or adults (34.6%). Overall, 55% of park users engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Fewer women were observed in parks than men, but were 66% more likely to be engaged in MVPA than men. Park users were more likely to be observed in MVPA between 6–9 am and when the temperature was below 30 °C. Chinese park users were more active (55%) than US studies in Tampa (30%), Chicago (49%), and Los Angeles (34%). More research is necessary to identify features of parks that are associated with greater PA so that effective interventions can be developed to promote active park use in Chinese citizens. PMID:26844171

  9. Life-Cycle-Based Multicriteria Sustainability Evaluation of Industrial Parks: A Case Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin; Qi, Jing; Zhou, Shiyi; Jiang, Meiming

    2012-01-01

    Along with increasing concerns on environmental protection and global warming mitigation, new industrial organization modes such as “Ecoindustrial Park” and “Low Carbon Industrial Park” are emerging. Since ecoindustrial parks and low carbon industrial parks may offer multifaceted benefits to the users, it naturally follows that the sustainability assessment of the industrial parks ought to adopt a multicriteria methodology. In this paper, a multicriteria sustainable evaluation framework is proposed in combination with the life cycle analysis and applied to a low carbon and high end industrial park (LCHE) in Beijing, China. Results show that the LCHE industrial park can contribute to both energy-saving and greenhouse gas emission mitigations compared with other industrial parks. In terms of economic performance, although the economic profits are considerable, the investment per constructed area is relatively high. The results of sustainable analysis of the LCHE industrial park can thus shed light on future upgrading of industrial parks. PMID:23304091

  10. Design and Role of University-Based Science and Technology Parks in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, C.; Lingyan, D.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to the development of the university-based science and technology park (USTP) in China since science and technology research has become a key factor in international competitiveness. In China, the essential role for the USTP is as a special kind of high-technology industry incubator, attached to a research…

  11. [Diversity and faunal analysis of crustaceans in Potatso National Park, Shangri-La, China].

    PubMed

    Shu, Shu-Sen; Chen, Fei-Zhou; Yang, Jun-Xing; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2013-06-01

    Potatso National Park was the first national park in mainland China, preceded by the earlier Bitahai Nature Reserve. Located in the northwest of Yunnan and on the southeast of Qinghai-Tibet plateau, Potatso is a typical low latitude and high elevation wetland nature reserve, with large areas of coniferous forest around alpine lakes and both wetland and water area ecosystems. In August, 2011, we undertook a survey of crustaceans in the park, sampling lakes, ponds, streams, and rivers throughout Potatso. We found a total of 29 species (including varieties) belonging to 24 genera and 11 families. Notable discoveries include Parartemiopsis sp, Arctodiaptomus parvispinus and Simocephalus congener, which are the first examples of these species to be recorded in China. Likewise, Gammarus bitaensis is a unique crustacean found only in Potatso National Park and Thermocyclops dumonti and Gammarus paucispinus are both endemic species to northwestern Yunnan. The overall faunal characteristics of crustaceans in the park also revealed several things about Potatso: (1) Cosmopolitan and Palaearctic elements reach 48.27% and 37.93%, clearly showing the Palaearctic element as the dominant fauna; (2) most of the crustacean, such as Arctodiaptomus parvispinus and Gammarus, are typical alpine types, confirming that Potatso has feature typical of alpine and plateau fauna; and (3) the proportion of endemic and rare crustacean species in Potatso National Park is approximately 10%, suggesting that the Potatso National Park in particular and the northwest of Yunnan in general have a unique geological and evolutionary history. PMID:23775996

  12. The Multiplier Effect of the Development of Forest Park Tourism on Employment Creation in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuifa, Ke; Chenguang, Pan; Jiahua, Pan; Yan, Zheng; Ying, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this article was employment creation by developing forest park tourism industries in China. Analysis of the statistical data and an input-output approach showed that 1 direct job opportunity in tourism industries created 1.15 other job opportunities. In the high, middle, and low scenarios, the total predicted employment in forest park…

  13. Planning for integrated solid waste management at the industrial park level: a case of Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yong; Zhu, Qinghua; Haight, Murray

    2007-01-01

    Industrial parks play a significant role in the production and use of goods and services. The proper management of solid waste is a major challenge for industrial parks due to the large quantity of wastes and the variability of waste characteristics from these types of developments. Therefore, integrated solid waste management has become very crucial to the industrial park managers. Such an approach requires industrial park managers to assess the overall use of resources, and to seek waste reduction, reuse and recycling opportunities both at the individual company level and among different tenant companies. The adoption of this method can bring both economic and environmental benefits. This paper introduces the planning efforts of a real case in China. It first presents the basic information on Tianjin Economic Development Area (TEDA), and then introduces its current practices on solid waste management. The main focus of this paper is to describe how to plan an integrated solid waste management system at TEDA. Benefits and challenges are all identified and analyzed. The experiences and methods from this case study should be applied in other industrial parks so as to improve the overall eco-efficiency of the whole industrial park. PMID:17055715

  14. Emergy analysis of an industrial park: the case of Dalian, China.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yong; Zhang, Pan; Ulgiati, Sergio; Sarkis, Joseph

    2010-10-15

    With the rapid development of eco-industrial park projects in China, evaluating their overall eco-efficiency is becoming an important need and a big challenge academically. Developing ecologically conscious industrial park management requires analysis of both industrial and ecological systems. Traditional evaluation methods based on neoclassical economics and embodied energy and exergy analyses have certain limitations due to their focus with environmental issues considered secondary to the maximization of economic and technical objectives. Such methods focus primarily on the environmental impact of emissions and their economic consequences. These approaches ignore the contribution of ecological products and services as well as the load placed on environmental systems and related problems of carrying capacity of economic and industrial development. This paper presents a new method, based upon emergy analysis and synthesis. Such a method links economic and ecological systems together, highlighting the internal relations among the different subsystems and components. The emergy-based method provides insight into the environmental performance and sustainability of an industrial park. This paper depicts the methodology of emergy analysis at the industrial park level and provides a series of emergy-based indices. A case study is investigated and discussed in order to show the emergy method's practical potential. Results from DEDZ (Dalian Economic Development Zone) case show us the potential of emergy synthesis method at the industrial park level for environmental policy making. Its advantages and limitations are also discussed with avenues for future research identified. PMID:20805000

  15. Humor styles and loneliness: a study among Hong Kong and Hangzhou undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Wong, Ashley Yuen Man; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between humor styles and loneliness among a sample of Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese. A total of 159 Hong Kong undergraduates and 178 Hangzhou undergraduates were recruited to complete a survey composed of the Humor Styles Questionnaire and the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scales. Multiple regression analyses showed that self-defeating humor explained significant variance in both social and emotional loneliness for Hong Kong students, but only in social loneliness for Hangzhou students. Hong Kong students scored significantly higher on aggressive humor and self-defeating humor, and scored significantly lower on affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor than did their counterparts in Hangzhou. This could be attributed to the greater influence of Confucianism in Mainland China than in Hong Kong. PMID:25153950

  16. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-07-01

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency. PMID:26184260

  17. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-01-01

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency. PMID:26184260

  18. Park Rangers’ Behaviors and Their Effects on Tourists and Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Rie; Sheeran, Lori K.; Li, Jin-hua; Sun, Lixing; Wang, Xi; Pritchard, Alexander J.; DuVall-Lash, Alexander S.; Wagner, R. Steve

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Conflict between macaques and humans is a commonly reported problem in Asian tourism. However, without understanding how macaques are managed, the establishment of an effective management design is impracticable. This study explored how monkeys were managed and tourists were regulated at the Valley of the Wild Monkeys in Mt. Huangshan, Anhui Province, China, through a field observation. Two teams of park rangers alternated monthly and managed a group of macaques. The results suggested that undesired tourists’ interactions with monkeys were not regularly intervened by park rangers, and park rangers established dominance over the monkeys by using physical threats to manage them. Abstract Previous studies have reported the negative impacts of tourism on nonhuman primates (NHPs) and tourists and advocated the improvement of tourism management, yet what constitutes good quality management remains unclear. We explored whether rates of macaque aggression and self-directed behaviors (SDBs) differed under the supervision of two park ranger teams at the Valley of the Wild Monkeys (VWM) in Mt. Huangshan, Anhui Province, China. The two ranger teams provisioned and managed a group of macaques on an alternating monthly basis. Monkey, tourist and ranger behaviors were collected from August 16–September 30, 2012. Macaque aggression and SDB rates did not differ significantly under the management of the two teams. Overall, there was little intervention in tourist-macaque interactions by park rangers, and even when rangers discouraged tourists’ undesirable behaviors, tourist interactions with monkeys persisted. Furthermore, only one or sometimes two park rangers managed monkeys and tourists, and rangers established dominance over the monkeys to control them. In order to effectively manage tourists and monkeys by a single park ranger, we recommend that rangers: (1) prohibit tourists from feeding; (2) move around the viewing platform more frequently; and (3) limit

  19. Evaluation criteria for implementation of a sustainable sanitation and wastewater treatment system at Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gaulke, Linda S; Weiyang, Xiao; Scanlon, Andrew; Henck, Amanda; Hinckley, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The administration of Jiuzhaigou National Park in Sichuan Province, China, is in the process of considering a range of upgrades to their sanitation and wastewater treatment systems. Their case history involves an ongoing series of engineering design flaws and management failures. The administration of the Park identified sustainability, environmental protection, and education goals for their sanitation and wastewater treatment system. To meet the goal of sustainability, environmental and economic concerns of the Park's administration had to be balanced with socio-cultural needs. An advanced reconnaissance method was developed that identified reasons for previous failures, conducted stakeholder analysis and interviews, determined evaluation criteria, and introduced innovative alternatives with records of successful global implementations. This evaluation also helped the Park to better define their goals. To prevent future failures, the administration of the Park must commit to a balanced and thorough evaluation process for selection of a final alternative and institute effective long-term management and monitoring of systems. In addition, to meet goals and achieve energy efficient, cost-effective use of resources, the Park must shift their thinking from one of waste disposal to resource recovery. The method and criteria developed for this case study provides a framework to aid in the successful implementation of sanitation projects in both underdeveloped and developed areas of the world, incorporating socio-cultural values and resource recovery for a complex group of stakeholders. PMID:19924471

  20. Evaluation Criteria for Implementation of a Sustainable Sanitation and Wastewater Treatment System at Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulke, Linda S.; Weiyang, Xiao; Scanlon, Andrew; Henck, Amanda; Hinckley, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The administration of Jiuzhaigou National Park in Sichuan Province, China, is in the process of considering a range of upgrades to their sanitation and wastewater treatment systems. Their case history involves an ongoing series of engineering design flaws and management failures. The administration of the Park identified sustainability, environmental protection, and education goals for their sanitation and wastewater treatment system. To meet the goal of sustainability, environmental and economic concerns of the Park’s administration had to be balanced with socio-cultural needs. An advanced reconnaissance method was developed that identified reasons for previous failures, conducted stakeholder analysis and interviews, determined evaluation criteria, and introduced innovative alternatives with records of successful global implementations. This evaluation also helped the Park to better define their goals . To prevent future failures, the administration of the Park must commit to a balanced and thorough evaluation process for selection of a final alternative and institute effective long-term management and monitoring of systems. In addition, to meet goals and achieve energy efficient, cost-effective use of resources, the Park must shift their thinking from one of waste disposal to resource recovery. The method and criteria developed for this case study provides a framework to aid in the successful implementation of sanitation projects in both underdeveloped and developed areas of the world, incorporating socio-cultural values and resource recovery for a complex group of stakeholders.

  1. Natural radioactivity in reservoir sediment near an industrial park of northwest China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinwei; Pan, Huiyun; Ren, Chunhui; Yang, Linna

    2016-06-01

    The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in the sediment of a reservoir near an industrial park of northwest China was determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the investigated samples range from 30.2 to 37.5, 56.5 to 79.8 and 785.6 to 940.3 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 33.2, 71.8 and 866.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively, which are higher than the corresponding activity concentrations in the control sample. Radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, internal hazard index, indoor air absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate were calculated to assess the radiation hazards associated with the use of this sediment in the construction of dwellings. It was concluded that the radiation levels in the reservoir sediment do not give rise to radiological health concerns and the sediment can be safely used in the construction of buildings. PMID:27122204

  2. A weekly heavy haze episode in Hangzhou city in December of 2013: Characteristics, origins and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaocai; Zhang, Qingyu; Yan, Renchang; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Si; Liu, Weiping

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution and heavy haze have recently become China's biggest environmental problem due to the rapid economic and industrial developments and urbanization. However, the sources for the formation of the heavy haze for many cities remain unknown. Here, we analyzed the characteristics of air pollution in metropolitan Hangzhou city (China) from November 25 to December 11, 2013, on the basis of surface observations at 8 urban monitoring stations for PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, CO and SO2 and satellite observations for aerosol optical thickness. The sources for the formation of heavy haze were identified by the analysis of trajectory clustering, the receptor models such as potential source contribution function and concentration weighted trajectory. The results show that for the weekly heavy haze episode (December 3 to 9), the mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO are 293.4±103.2, 376.8±119.4, 58.0±37.2, 118.5±39.3 and 2429±740 μg m-3, respectively. The back trajectory cluster analysis indicates that the predominant clusters are south (37.1%) and southeast (28.6%) during the weekly heavy haze episode at Hangzhou. The results of the receptor models show that the sources affecting formation of the extremely high PM2.5 in Hangzhou are mainly located in the southeastern coast of Zhejiang and Fujian provinces, north part of Jiangxi and central part of Jiangsu province. Rather than local emissions, it is also found that air mass pathways and cross-border transports are crucial factors for determining high PM2.5 concentrations and formation in Hangzhou. The two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ model was also used to study the formation of haze in Hangzhou. It is necessary to implement the air pollution control measures for all industrial areas on local, regional, and even national scales in China.

  3. Pollution of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in tidal flat of Hangzhou Bay 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Gong, Wenjie; Mao, Guohua; Li, Jige; Xu, Fenfen; Shi, Jiawei

    2016-05-01

    The concentration and distribution of three persistent organic pollutants (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) was assessed in tidal flat sediments collected from the south bank of Hangzhou Bay, China from 2009 to 2013. Gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used for analysis, based on United States Environmental Protection Agency methods EPA8080A, EPA8081B, and EPA3550B. The results showed that the levels of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs decreased in the order of DDTs < HCHs < PCBs, and their mass fractions ranged from 0.29-32.91, 0.09-13.19 and 0.16-4.10 μg/kg (dry mass), respectively. The levels of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs decreased slowly from 2009 to 2013, with considerably greater concentrations in winter than in spring and summer. In this study area, the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs decreased gradually towards the mouth of Hangzhou Bay, while the concentrations of PCBs were related to changes in the local economy. In addition, the sources of HCHs and DDTs were identified as atmospheric precipitation and historical residues. Finally, we predicted that PCBs pollution primarily originated from Aroclor 1254(Lot A4), which might root in the illegal demolition and stacking of abandoned paint, transformer or electronic equipment in the south bank of Hangzhou Bay.

  4. Park Rangers' Behaviors and Their Effects on Tourists and Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China.

    PubMed

    Usui, Rie; Sheeran, Lori K; Li, Jin-Hua; Sun, Lixing; Wang, Xi; Pritchard, Alexander J; DuVall-Lash, Alexander S; Wagner, R Steve

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the negative impacts of tourism on nonhuman primates (NHPs) and tourists and advocated the improvement of tourism management, yet what constitutes good quality management remains unclear. We explored whether rates of macaque aggression and self-directed behaviors (SDBs) differed under the supervision of two park ranger teams at the Valley of the Wild Monkeys (VWM) in Mt. Huangshan, Anhui Province, China. The two ranger teams provisioned and managed a group of macaques on an alternating monthly basis. Monkey, tourist and ranger behaviors were collected from August 16-September 30, 2012. Macaque aggression and SDB rates did not differ significantly under the management of the two teams. Overall, there was little intervention in tourist-macaque interactions by park rangers, and even when rangers discouraged tourists' undesirable behaviors, tourist interactions with monkeys persisted. Furthermore, only one or sometimes two park rangers managed monkeys and tourists, and rangers established dominance over the monkeys to control them. In order to effectively manage tourists and monkeys by a single park ranger, we recommend that rangers: (1) prohibit tourists from feeding; (2) move around the viewing platform more frequently; and (3) limit the number of tourists each visiting session. PMID:26480324

  5. A Geographic Analysis about the Spatiotemporal Pattern of Breast Cancer in Hangzhou from 2008 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Xufeng; Lou, Zhaohan; Christakos, George; Liu, Qingmin; Ren, Yanjun; Wu, Jiaping

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) is the most common female malignant tumor. Previous studies have suggested a big incidence disparity among different cities in China. The present work selected a typical city, Hangzhou, to study BC incidence disparity within the city. Methods Totally, 8784 female breast cancer cases were obtained from the Hangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention during the period 2008–2012. Analysis of Variance and Poisson Regression were the statistical tools implemented to compare incidence disparity in the space-time domain (reference group: township residents during 2008, area: subdistrict, town, and township, time frame: 2008–2012), space-time scan statistics was employed to detect significant spatiotemporal clusters of BC compared to the null hypothesis that the probability of cases diagnosed at a particular location was equal to the probability of cases diagnosed in the whole study area. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to generate BC spatial distribution and cluster maps at the township level. Results The subdistrict populations were found to have the highest and most stable BC incidence. Although town and township populations had a relatively low incidence, it displayed a significant increasing trend from 2008 to 2012. The BC incidence distribution was spatially heterogeneous and clustered with a trend-surface from the southwest low area to the northeast high area. High clusters were located in the northeastern Hangzhou area, whereas low clusters were observed in the southwestern area during the time considered. Conclusions Better healthcare service and lifestyle changes may be responsible for the increasing BC incidence observed in towns and townships. One high incidence cluster (Linping subdistrict) and two low incidence clusters (middle Hangzhou) were detected. The low clusters may be attributable mainly to developmental level disparity, whereas the high cluster could be associated with other risk factors, such

  6. Detection of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in surface water, soil, and groundwater in a chemical industrial park in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Benhua; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Jianfeng; Huang, Linxian; Chen, Liang

    2016-01-01

    China is suffering from serious water and soil pollution, especially in the North China Plain. This work investigated semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in surface water, groundwater and soil within a chemical industrial park in Eastern China, for which the volatile organic compound (VOC) results have been previously reported. A total of 20 samples were collected from the field, and analyzed in the laboratory. A 100% detection frequency of SVOCs in samples from this chemical industrial park was observed (same as VOCs). Moreover, the detection frequency of 113 SVOCs in each sample reached 15.93, 12.39 and 20.35% for surface water, groundwater and soil, respectively. The most detected SVOCs in the park included N-containing SVOCs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, organic pesticides and polychlorodiphenyls. The elevated detecting frequencies and concentration levels of SVOCs identified in the groundwater were attributed to the intensive chemical production activities in the park. In addition, the agricultural activities in the area might also have contributed to the SVOCs to the groundwater. The results of VOCs and SVOCs from this and previous studies suggest that the groundwater in this industrial park has been severely contaminated, and the contamination likely spreads beyond the park. Imminent hydrogeological assessments and remedial actions are warranted to eliminate the source and mitigate the potential plume expansion beyond the park boundary. PMID:26942541

  7. [Zooplankton community structure in relation to influencing factors in different parts of Hangzhou Bay in autumn].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-rong; Xu, Zhao-li; Xu, Jia-yi; Chen, Jia-jie

    2015-09-01

    Based on the data collected from three oceanographic surveys in the east area of north (30.68°-30.83° N,121.67°-121.87° E), the east area of south (29.95°-30.24° N,121.60°- 121.85° E), and the west area of north (30.58°--30.77° N,121.31°--121.56° E) Hangzhou Bay during the autumn of 2009, 2011 and 2012, we analyzed the species composition, ecological groups and the similarity of zooplankton community, as well as influencing factors. The results indicated that a total of 14 species belonging to 6 groups were identified in the west area of north Hangzhou Bay. Tortanus vermiculus was the predominant species. The zooplankton assembles were mainly influenced by the runoff strength of the Qiantang River. The zooplankton fauna was mainly composed of the subtropical estuarine brackish-water species, accounting for 79.8% in the total abundance. A total of 19 species belonging to 6 groups were identified in the east area of north Hangzhou Bay. The composition of zooplankton community was mainly influenced by the Changjiang diluted water and offshore water of the East China Sea. It was mainly composed of warm-temperature and subtropical nearshore low-salinity species, accounting for 43.5% and 31.1% in the total abundance, respectively. In the east area of south Hangzhou Bay, a total of 25 species belonging to 7 groups were identified. The composition of zooplankton community was mainly influenced by the offshore water of the East China Sea. The dominate eco-group types were subtropical nearshore low-salinity and subtropical nearshore species, accounting for 72.3% and 18.3% in the total abundance, respectively. And the ecological groups of species with the highest abundance was Labidocera sinilobata, accounting for 65.3% in the total abundance. By hierarchical cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) method, it was found that the zooplankton communities in the three parts of Hangzhou Bay were significantly different, which were closely

  8. Particle size distribution and perchlorate levels in settled dust from urban roads, parks, and roofs in Chengdu, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiwen; Shen, Yang; Pi, Lu; Hu, Wenli; Chen, Mengqin; Luo, Yan; Li, Zhi; Su, Shijun; Ding, Sanglan; Gan, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    A total of 27 settled dust samples were collected from urban roads, parks, and roofs in Chengdu, China to investigate particle size distribution and perchlorate levels in different size fractions. Briefly, fine particle size fractions (<250 μm) were the dominant composition in the settled dust samples, with mean percentages of 80.2%, 69.5%, and 77.2% for the urban roads, roofs, and the parks, respectively. Perchlorate was detected in all of the size-fractionated dust samples, with concentrations ranging from 73.0 to 6160 ng g(-1), and the median perchlorate levels increased with decreasing particle size. The perchlorate level in the finest fraction (<63 μm) was significantly higher than those in the coarser fractions. To our knowledge, this is the first report on perchlorate concentrations in different particle size fractions. The calculated perchlorate loadings revealed that perchlorate was mainly associated with finer particles (<125 μm). An exposure assessment indicated that exposure to perchlorate via settled road dust intake is safe to both children and adults in Chengdu, China. However, due to perchlorate mainly existing in fine particles, there is a potential for perchlorate to transfer into surface water and the atmosphere by runoff and wind erosion or traffic emission, and this could act as an important perchlorate pollution source for the indoor environment, and merits further study. PMID:26608047

  9. Monitoring coastal land reclamation and land use change around Hangzhou Bay using Landsat dataset (1970s-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Muye; Huang, Lingyan; You, Shucheng; Hua, Yiming; Pan, Yi; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke

    2014-12-01

    The coastal region is an important potential land resource, and reclamation is a valid means to utilize land and expand human living space. Since the 1970s, large-scale reclamation projects have taken place in eastern coastal regions, China. To examine the reclamation program around the Hangzhou Bay in Zhejiang Province, China-using a time-series Landsat dataset in 1976, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014, a visual interpretation is applied to extract artificial coastline and reclamation land-use information. The result showed that during the year 1976 to 2014 period, the total reclamation area around Hangzhou Bay is 1039.84 km2, and the project was mainly occurred in south of Hangzhou Bay, particularly in Ningbo and Shaoxing county. In addition, between 1976 and 1980, the speed of reclamation was higher than any other period, followed by period from 2006 to 2009. Moreover, the early reclamation lands were mainly used for cropland and aqua-farm ponds. After the year 1990, industrial warehouse space and land for harbor and wharf first appeared, and both of them have increased markedly. The land use types tend to be of diversity overall since 21st century.

  10. [Natural succession of vegetation in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province of East China: a simulation study].

    PubMed

    Lü, Na; Ni, Jian

    2013-01-01

    By using spatially explicit landscape model (LANDIS 6.0 PRO), and parameterized this model with the long-term research and observation data of Tiantong National Station of Forest Eco-system Observation and Research, this paper simulated the natural succession of evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong National Forest park, Zhejiang Province in the future 500 years, analyzed the spatial distribution and age structure of dominant species and major landscapes, and explored the succession pattern of the evergreen broad-leaved forest. In the park, the species alternation mostly occurred before the stage of evergreen broad-leaved forest. Pinus massoniana, Quercus fabric, and Liquidambar formosana occupied a large proportion during the early succession, but gradually disappeared with the succession process. Schima superba and Castanopsis fargesii took the main advantage in late succession, and developed to the climax community. Under the conditions without disturbances, the community was mainly composed of young forests in the early succession, and of mature or over-mature forests in the late succession, implying the insufficient regeneration ability of the community. LANDIS model could be used for simulating the landscape dynamics of evergreen broad-leaved forest in eastern China. In the future research, both the model structure and the model parameters should be improved, according to the complexity and diversity of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest. PMID:23718005

  11. Distribution, input pathway and soil-air exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Banshan Industry Park, China.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuchi; Zhu, Lizhong

    2013-02-01

    Given the steel industry park-city paired structure commonly found across China and it associated environmental pollution, the objective of this study was to examine the spatial-temporal distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as the relative contributions of the main influx pathways in Banshan steel industry park, China. We analyzed the concentrations of 16 PAHs in soil, air, water and dry/wet deposition samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of ∑(16)-PAHs ranged from 572 to 4,654 μg/kg in April 2010; and the average concentration is 12.7% and 26.1% higher than that of April 2009 and April 2008, respectively, mainly due to the rapid increase of highly toxic high molecular weight (MW) PAHs. The principal input pathway for high and low MW PAHs was determined to be dry deposition (e.g., 69.73% for Benzo[a]pyrene) and wet deposition (e.g., 78.87% for Naphthalene), respectively. Together, 54.79% of total PAHs found in this region are via dry deposition, whereas wet deposition and river water irrigation contribute to 25.46% and 19.76% (corrected with toxic equivalency factors). The approach to the soil-air equilibrium was assessed by calculating fugacity quotients between soil and air samples, and the results indicate that the soil acted as a secondary source for light MW atmospheric PAHs and a sink for higher MW PAHs. It was also determined that the soil acted as a source for median MW PAHs, particularly PY. PMID:23268144

  12. Grain-size distribution and heavy metal contamination of road dusts in urban parks and squares in Changchun, China.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Liu; Yang, Wang; Jingshuang, Liu; Quanying, Wang; Mingying, Zou

    2015-02-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and the scarcity of land, most of the urban parks and squares in cities are built close to major roads or industrial areas, where they are subject to many potential pollution sources, including vehicle exhaust and industrial emissions. The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of selected metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Cd) in road dusts collected in urban parks and squares in Changchun, China, on June 1, 2013 (International Children's Day) and to estimate the pollution sources. The mean Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Cd contents (70.89, 60.30, 43.56, 23.16, 170.80, and 0.3111 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively) in urban dusts were higher than their corresponding natural background values, particularly Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd, which had about 2.5, 1.4, 1.9, and 2.6-fold higher levels, respectively. The results of principal component analysis indicated that Cr and Ni concentrations were mainly of natural origin, while Pb, Cu and Zn were derived from anthropogenic activities, and Cd tended to be from both sources. The geoaccumulation index (I geo) of these metals in the urban dusts under study indicates that they are uncontaminated with Cr and Ni; uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with Cu and Zn; and moderately contaminated with Pb and Cd. In addition, five particle sizes were analyzed separately for heavy metal concentrations. In all studied areas, there are large differences in the metal-loading percentage of different particle-size fractions among the samples, and the particles in 250-2,000-μm fraction are dominant in the total metal loading. PMID:25049053

  13. Traditional Livelihoods, Conservation and Meadow Ecology in Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Urgenson, Lauren; Schmidt, Amanda H.; Combs, Julie; Harrell, Stevan; Hinckley, Thomas; Yang, Qingxia; Ma, Ziyu; Yongxian, Li; Hongliang, Lü; MacIver, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Jiuzhaigou National Park (JNP) is a site of global conservation significance. Conservation policies in JNP include the implementation of two national reforestation programs to increase forest cover and the exclusion of local land-use. We use archaeological excavation, ethnographic interviews, remote sensing and vegetation surveys to examine the implications of these policies for non-forest, montane meadows. We find that Amdo Tibetan people cultivated the valley for >2,000 years, creating and maintaining meadows through land clearing, burning and grazing. Meadows served as sites for gathering plants and mushrooms and over 40 % of contemporary species are ethnobotanically useful. Remote sensing analyses indicate a substantial (69.6 %) decline in meadow area between 1974 and 2004. Respondents report a loss of their “true history” and connections to the past associated with loss of meadows. Conservation policies intended to preserve biodiversity are unintentionally contributing to the loss of these ecologically and culturally significant meadow habitats. PMID:26097267

  14. Accumulation and source of heavy metals in sediment of a reservoir near an industrial park of northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuanjie; Lu, Xinwei; Yang, Linna; Wang, Lijun

    2016-02-01

    The accumulation and source of heavy metals As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the surface sediment of a reservoir near an industrial park of northwest China were determined by enrichment factor and multi-variate statistical analysis. Multivariate statistical analyses, i.e., factor analysis, cluster analysis, and correlation coefficient analysis, were used to identify the possible sources of the heavy metals. The results show that the mean concentrations of As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the reservoir sediment are higher than their corresponding concentrations in the control sample, indicating all analyzed heavy metals accumulated in the surface sediments. The values of the mean concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediment divided by their corresponding concentrations in the control sample increase in the order of Ba = Cr

  15. An inexact multi-objective programming model for water resources management in industrial parks of Binhai New Area, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Li, W; Wang, B; Liu, X W; Xie, Y L; Liu, L

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Binhai New Area of Tianjin has been suffering severe water shortage due to climate change and industrial activities. Integrated and effective water resources management approaches are urgent for the sustainable development of industrial parks in Binhai New Area. However, uncertainties exist in many aspects of the water resources system and are inevitably problematic for water resources planning and policy-making. To address these uncertainties, an interval multiple-objective programming model was developed here to support the long-term planning of industrial water resources management in Binhai New Area, Tianjin, China. The model incorporated both multiple-objective programming and interval linear programming into a general programming framework. The developed model could handle the uncertainties and complexities of the water management system, and also allowed decision makers to adjust fuzzy objective control decision variables to satisfy multiple holistic and interactive objectives. The solutions are useful for planning adjustments of the existing water allocation patterns in Binhai New Area. PMID:26540551

  16. Factors associated with infantile eczema in Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Ling; Zheng, Lei; Jin, Hai-Yan; Xu, Xia; Song, Li-Li

    2013-01-01

    The removal of aggravating factors is important to reduce the severity of infantile eczema, but there are few studies on the assessment and identification of the aggravating factors in infantile eczema. Parents of children with infantile eczema ages 1 to 10 months (N = 250) were recruited. Parents were required to complete a questionnaire. Two hundred forty-two (96.8%) children had skin dryness, 80% bathed with soap or shower gel, 82% often perspired, 84.8% wore tight-fitting clothes, 80.8% dressed in five layers of thick clothing, 85.6% were in contact with wool or feathers, and 59.2% were exposed to sunlight (>20 minutes/day). Eczema severity was greater after vaccination in 20%. Two hundred thirty-five mothers avoided eating potential food allergens (e.g., milk, egg whites, and fish), but this failed to improve the severity of symptoms in 93.6% of the children. Thirty patients had Neocate as a substitute for cow's milk, which resulted in symptom severity improvement in 10%. Thirty children were given food allergens, which exacerbated symptoms in 13.3%. One hundred twenty-eight (51.2%) of the children were treated with corticosteroid ointment; 62.5% had the ointment applied for only 2 to 3 days, and 6.2% had the corticosteroid ointment applied to weeping lesions. The vast majority of parents did not know about the aggravating factors for infantile eczema. The results demonstrated a strong need for educational programs to help parents understand and control infantile eczema. PMID:23106156

  17. News & Information President Chen Yiyu Meets with Omi Professor Wang Jie Meets with NSF Assistant Director Vice President Sun Jiaguang Visited Japan and Germany on International Evaluation Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets JST Delegation Vice President Wang Jie Meets with Vice President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 12th Meeting of China-Korea Joint Committee for Basic Scientific Research Held Further Implement the Scientific Outlook for Development and Open up a New Prospect for Science Funding Panel Meeting for A3 Foresight Program 2008 held in Hangzhou Department Director's Fund for Earthquake Relief Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets IRRI Officials President Chen Yiyu Visits Taiwan Province NSFC VIP Attends the NSFC-JST Workshop 1st NSFC-JST Joint Evaluation for Funded Projects Ends Successfully NSFC Delegation Visits the U.S. Top Heads Meet at China-US Computer Science Leadership Summit President Chen Yiyu Met with Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chari Sirindhorn of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    President Chen Yiyu Meets with Omi Professor Wang Jie Meets with NSF Assistant Director Vice President Sun Jiaguang Visited Japan and Germany on International Evaluation Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets JST Delegation Vice President Wang Jie Meets with Vice President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 12th Meeting of China-Korea Joint Committee for Basic Scientific Research Held Further Implement the Scientific Outlook for Development and Open up a New Prospect for Science Funding Panel Meeting for A3 Foresight Program 2008 held in Hangzhou Department Director's Fund for Earthquake Relief Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets IRRI Officials President Chen Yiyu Visits Taiwan Province NSFC VIP Attends the NSFC-JST Workshop 1st NSFC-JST Joint Evaluation for Funded Projects Ends Successfully NSFC Delegation Visits the U.S. Top Heads Meet at China-US Computer Science Leadership Summit President Chen Yiyu Met with Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chari Sirindhorn of Thailand

  18. [Remote sensing inversion mode of suspended particles concentration in Hangzhou Bay based on in situ measurement spectrum].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Jian-Ming; Ling, Zai-Ying

    2008-11-01

    Suspended particles are one of major parameters of coastal water color remote sensing in China. The reflectances spectral of water were measured using an ASD field spectroscope, synchronously the suspended particles concentrations of surface water were acquired in Hangzhou Bay. Two remote sensing inversion models for suspended particles concentrations (SPC) were developed based on t hesimulated reflectance of MODIS & MERIS channels using artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm. Measurement results show that the total SPC of Hangzhou bay is comparatively high where the suspended sediments concentrations (SSC) are far more than chlorophyll concentrations, averagely 705 mg/L and 1.164 mg/m3, reseparately. The SPC in two measurement stations appears spatio-temporal variation, especially the short period change due to tidal cycle. There are two reflectance peaks in the measured spectral curves, one is between 650 nm to 750 nm, and the other is near 800 nm. The first order derivative curves of reflectance spectral indicate that the first reflectance peaks shift to long wavelength according to the increased SSC. The ANN models make full use of the spectral information in different channels which can simulate the pigment and non-pigment particles concentrations at same time. The fitting effects are preferable with R2 more than 0.95 for each model. The ANN mode can be used for satellite remote sensing inversion, especially MERIS data, because of its comparatively high spatial resolution. PMID:19186796

  19. Monitoring Ground Subsidence in Areas Covered by Dense Vegetation Using Terrasar-X Images: a Case Study of Hangzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H. A.; Zhang, Y. H.; Luo, G. F.; Kang, Y. K.; Zhu, Y. M.

    2016-06-01

    Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang province has suffered serious ground subsidence during the past several decades, due to long term over-exploration of groundwater. In this paper, the time series InSAR technique using high resolution SAR images is investigated for the generation of subsidence maps over Hangzhou region. 29 TerraSAR-X images acquired from May 2012 to Sep 2015 are used. The results show that serious subsidence has mainly taken place in suburban area, including Yuhang district, Xiaoshan district and Binjiang district. 4 subsidence centers are discovered, namely Tangqi town in Yuhang with an average subsiding velocity of -29.6 mm/year, Xintang (-30.7 mm/year) in Xiaoshan, Zhujiaqiao town (-25.6mm/year) in Xiaoshan, and Miaohouwang town (-30.1mm/year) in Binjiang. The urban area is stable and ground rebound even take place in some places. The results are compared with 19 levelling measurements. The RMS error between them is 2.9 mm/year, which demonstrates that the high resolution TerraSAR-X images has good accuracy for subsidence monitoring in the southeast of China, covered by dense vegetation.

  20. [Bird species diversity and related protection measures in urban park green spaces of Loudi City, Hunan Province of China].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-de; Liu, Ping-yuan; Gong, Xun-sheng; Xiao, Xiao-jun

    2013-08-01

    Urban park green space is an important physical part of urban ecosystem, and also, the important habitat and carrier for birds and other animals. Rapid urbanization induces the great change in the spatial pattern of urban park green space, while the patched distribution of urban park green space has the habitat features similar to 'habitat islands', giving obvious effects on urban avian communities. In order to understand the bird species distribution and species diversity in Loudi City and to provide the basic information for the bird conservation, a line transect method and a quadrat sampling method were adopted to investigate the distribution pattern and species richness of the birds across seven urban parks in the Loudi City from November, 2010 to January, 2012. A total of 56 birds species belonging to 11 orders and 27 families were recorded, among which, there were 32, 12 and 12 species belonging to resident birds, summer migrant birds and winter migrant birds, accounting for 57.2%, 21.4% and 21.4%, respectively. As for the fauna, there were 27, 14, and 15 bird species belonging to oriental species, palaearctic species and widely distributed species, accounting for 48.2%, 25.0% and 26.8%, respectively. A total of 7 species belonging to the second class of the national key protected species were recorded, accounting for 12.5% of the total. The Shannon, Pielou and G-F indices of the bird communities in the urban parks in Loudi City were 1.49, 0.85 and 0.62, respectively. Zhushan Park had the highest species number (42), Shannon index (1.41), G index (3.46), F index (6.12) and G-F index (0.43), and Yueqin Hill Park had the highest Pielou index (0.92). The reasons of the poor bird species in Loudi City were analyzed, and some suggestions for preventing the birds were put forward. PMID:24380356

  1. Tracking changes of forest carbon density following mega-fires: comparison studies in the Yellowstone National Park and Boreal Forests of Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Huang, Chengquan; Huang, Chao; He, Hong; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires and post-fire management directly change C stored in biomass and soil pools, and can have indirect impacts on long-term C balance. Two mega fires occurred in the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and the boreal forests of Northeast China in 1988 and 1987, respectively, making them ideal sites to examine and compare the effects of management and disturbances on regional carbon dynamics. In this study, we quantified effects of the 1988 Yellowstone fires on YNP carbon storages and fluxes. And then we tracked and modeled post-1988 forest carbon stocks change in YNP, and compared with simulation results of carbon stock changes in post-1987 fire boreal forests of Northeast China. Preliminary results show that in YNP, the mega fires in 1988 were responsible for an immediate loss of 900 g/m2 ecosystem average C density and it would take about a decade before the YNP ecosystem recover to the pre-fire average C condition. In boreal forests of Northeast China, fire reduced aboveground and belowground carbon by 230±60 g/m2 and 460±340 g/m2, respectively.

  2. [Surface spectral measurement and characteristics analysis of turbid water in Hangzhou Bay].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Jian-Ming; Ling, Zai-Ying; Zhuo, Gen-Di

    2009-03-01

    Suspended sediment is one of the major optically active substances in coastal waters. The knowledge of its spectral characteristics is the basis for developing precise remote sensing inversion algorithms. Two separate continuous monitoring stations were set near the northern and southern coast of Hangzhou Bay separately, which is typically turbid area in China coastal waters. The above-water measurement method and the American ASD portable spectroscope were adopted to measure the water surface reflectance spectrum. The sediment concentrations of surface water were synchronously acquired when measuring water-leaving radiance. Results show that the sediments concentration is comparatively high and changes dramatically according to tide cycle. The reflectance spectrum at different wavelengths rises corresponding to the increase in sediments concentrations with different extent. When using first derivative method to analysis the spectral characteristic, it can be found that the first reflectance peaks of reflectance spectra appear to shift to long wavelength. There are different correlations between sediment concentrations and each MODIS channel reflectance, which are above 0.5 in 650 nm or longer wavelengths channels and below 0.5 in 400-550 nm channels. The fitting result of regression analysis is preferable with MODIS channel 2 (841-876 nm) and in situ sediment concentrations using least square method, with R2 of exponential above 0.8, which indicated that the MODIS channel 2 can be used for surface water suspended sediments remote sensing inversion, particularly in turbid waters such as bays and estuaries. PMID:19455810

  3. Irradiation preservation of Hangzhou White Chrysanthemum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu-gen, Huang; Rong-min, Huang

    1993-07-01

    A study on the irradiation preservation of Hangzhou White Chrysanthemum (HWC for short) was carried out to keep the quality of HWC and prolong its shelf life. The results showed that: 1). γ-irradiation with proper dosage was one of the key steps to prolong the shelf-life of HWC. After γ - treatment at the dose level of 3-5kGy, the laminated plastic film packed HWC could be stored in ambient temperature for over 300 days, remaining its original colour, aroma and taste. 2). Different dose rate had no effect on the treatment results. 3). The main quality indexes of HWC treated with 10.0 kGy γ - rays were not changed, moreover, it had the higher hygienic qualities.

  4. The Sexuality Education and Attitudes of College Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the type and quality of sexuality education received by college students in Hangzhou, China. Their attitudes towards sex and sexuality were also explored. To set the broader context the regulations and laws governing the provision of sexuality education in China have also been examined.…

  5. Bioaccessibility, sources and health risk assessment of trace metals in urban park dust in Nanjing, Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhua; Li, Shiwei; Cui, Xinyi; Li, Huiming; Qian, Xin; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Yixuan

    2016-06-01

    Arsenic, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn total concentrations and bioaccessibilities in 15 urban park dust samples were determined. The oral bioaccessibility measured by the Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test (SBET) decreased in the order of Pb>Cd>Zn>Mn>Cu>Co>V>Ni>As>Cr. The Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) and geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) were calculated to evaluate the pollution extent to which the samples were contaminated. Sources were identified using principal component analysis and Pb isotope compositions. Most elements except Co and V were considered to mainly originate from anthropogenic sources. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to humans through urban park dust exposure were assessed using the oral bioaccessibilities of the elements. Ingestion was the main pathway for non-carcinogenic risk. The hazard quotients were below the safe level (=1) for all elements, however, Pb (0.154) and As (0.184) posed potential higher risks to children than adults. The carcinogenic effects occurring were below the acceptable level (10(-4)) for As and <10(-6) for Cd, Co, Cr, and Ni. PMID:26938154

  6. Early Childhood in the New China: Suzhou

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Suzhou is one hour to the West of Shanghai, and one of China's most interesting cities, famous for its silks, canals, and scholar gardens. According to a popular legend, Marco Polo is reputed to have said, "In heaven there is paradise, and on earth, Hangzhou and Suzhou." As the city rapidly expands, the issue of early childhood education is a…

  7. [Community characteristics of crustacean zooplankton and its relationship with environmental factors in Suzhou Industrial Park, Jiangsu Province, China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ting-ting; Zhu, Ya; Xu, Long; Zhao, Lei; Qian, Wen-jie; Chang, Qing; Wang, Guo-xiang; Chen, Jian-qin

    2015-08-01

    The monthly sampling data from June 2012 to May 2013 were used to study the composition and structure of the crustacean zooplankton community in the lakes and rivers of Suzhou Industrial Park. The variations in density and biomass of the crustacean zooplankton and their relationship with the environment factors were investigated. The results showed that a total of 42 species of crustacean zooplankton were found, including 24 species of cladocerans which belonged to 6 families and 12 genera, and 18 copepods which belonged to 7 families and 13 genera. The dominant species were Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Bosmina longirostris, Sinocalanus dorrii and Cyclops vicinus in all seasons of the year both in the rivers and the lakes. The density and biomass of the crustacean zooplankton in summer and autumn were higher than that in winter and spring, and there were two peaks in summer and autumn respectively both in the lakes and the rivers. The average density and biomass of cladocerans in the rivers were significantly higher than that in the lakes. There was no significant difference in the average density of Copepods between the rivers and the lakes, but the biomass in the rivers was higher than that in the lakes significantly. There were significant differences in dissolved oxygen, pH, Secchi depth, total dissolved solids, salinity, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen between the lakes and the rivers. Redundancy analysis showed that the distribution of most of crustacean zooplankton was positively correlated with water temperature, the salinity, COD(Mn) and total phosphorus concentrations and only the distribution of the species belonging to genus Daphnia and Scapholeberis was positively correlated with O2 concentration, pH, and Secchi depth in both the rivers and the lakes in Suzhou Industrial Park. PMID:26685619

  8. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in indoor and outdoor dusts around a mega fluorochemical industrial park in China: Implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Su, Hongqiao; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Pei; Shi, Yajuan; Li, Qifeng; Zhou, Yunqiao; Johnson, Andrew C

    2016-09-01

    The manufacture of fluorochemicals can lead to high levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) contaminating the surrounding environment and consequently elevated exposure to the local residents. In this study, measurements of PFAAs associated with indoor and outdoor dusts around a mega fluorochemical industrial park (FIP) were made. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (C4-C7 PFCAs) were the predominant forms in all samples. The signature of the PFAAs in dusts in the local area matched that found within the FIP complex. The contamination plume in the local area could be linked to the prevailing wind direction starting from the FIP. The dust concentrations decreased exponentially with distance from the FIP (noticeably in the first 5km). PFAAs contamination could be detected at the furthest location, 20km away from the FIP. The concentrations of PFAAs were higher in indoor dust (73-13,500ng/g, median: 979ng/g) than those in outdoor dust (5-9495ng/g, median: 62ng/g) at every location. The highest estimated daily intake of PFOA via dust ingestion (26.0ng/kg·bw/day) was for toddlers (2-5years) living 2km away from the FIP, which is posing human health risk, though exposure remains within the provisional tolerable daily intake values. PMID:27393120

  9. Park It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  10. [Distribution of atmospheric ultrafine particles during haze weather in Hangzhou].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiu-Fang; Sun, Zai; Xie, Xiao-Fang

    2014-08-01

    Atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFPs) were monitored with fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS) in continuous haze weather and the haze fading process during December 6 to 11, 2013 in Hangzhou. Particle concentration and size distribution were studied associated with meteorological factors. The results showed that number concentrations were the highest at night and began to reduce in the morning. There was a small peak at 8 o'clock in the morning and 18 o'clock in the afternoon. It showed an obvious peak traffic source, which indicated that traffic emissions played a great role in the atmospheric pollution. During haze weather, the highest number concentration of UFPs reached 8 x 10(4) cm(-3). Particle size spectrum distribution was bimodal, the peak particle sizes were 15 nm and 100 nm respectively. Majority of UFPs were Aitken mode and Accumulation mode and the size of most particles concentrated near 100 nm. Average CMD(count medium diameter) was 85.89 nm. During haze fading process, number concentration and particles with size around 100 nm began to reduce and peak size shifted to small size. Nuclear modal particles increased and were more than accumulation mode. Average CMD was 58.64 nm. Meteorological factors such as the visibility and wind were negatively correlated with the particle number concentration. Correlation coefficient R were -0.225 and - 0.229. The humidity was correlated with number concentration. Correlation coefficient R was 0.271. The atmosphere was stable in winter and the level temperature had small correlation with number concentration. Therefore, study on distribution of atmospheric ultrafine particles during haze weather had the significance on the formation mechanism and control of haze weather. PMID:25338351

  11. Characterization of the chemical composition of white chrysanthemum flowers of Hangzhou by using high-performance ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiahui; Chen, Xiaocheng; Wu, Xin; Cao, Gang; Zhang, Junjie

    2016-04-01

    In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with amaZon SL high-performance ion trap mass spectrometry was used to analyze the target components in white chrysanthemum flowers of Hangzhou. Twenty-one components were detected and identified in both white chrysanthemum flowers of Hangzhou samples by using target compound analysis. Furthermore, seven new compounds in white chrysanthemum flowers of Hangzhou were found and identified by analyzing the fragment ion behavior in the mass spectra. The established method can be expedient for the global quality investigation of complex components in herbal medicines and food. PMID:26843262

  12. Development of the science of mass casualty incident management: reflection on the medical response to the Wenchuan earthquake and Hangzhou bus fire*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei-feng; Jiang, Li-bing; Jiang, Guan-yu; Zhang, Mao; Ma, Yue-feng; He, Xiao-jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this paper, we review the previous classic research paradigms of a mass casualty incident (MCI) systematically and reflect the medical response to the Wenchuan earthquake and Hangzhou bus fire, in order to outline and develop an improved research paradigm for MCI management. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, China Wanfang, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases for relevant studies. The following key words and medical subject headings were used: ‘mass casualty incident’, ‘MCI’, ‘research method’, ‘Wenchuan’, ‘earthquake’, ‘research paradigm’, ‘science of surge’, ‘surge’, ‘surge capacity’, and ‘vulnerability’. Searches were performed without year or language restriction. After searching the four literature databases using the above listed key words and medical subject headings, related articles containing research paradigms of MCI, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, July 5 bus fire, and science of surge and vulnerability were independently included by two authors. Results: The current progresses on MCI management include new golden hour, damage control philosophy, chain of survival, and three links theory. In addition, there are three evaluation methods (medical severity index (MSI), potential injury creating event (PICE) classification, and disaster severity scale (DSS)), which can dynamically assess the MCI situations and decisions for MCI responses and can be made based on the results of such evaluations. However, the three methods only offer a retrospective evaluation of MCI and thus fail to develop a real-time assessment of MCI responses. Therefore, they cannot be used as practical guidance for decision-making during MCI. Although the theory of surge science has made great improvements, we found that a very important factor has been ignored—vulnerability, based on reflecting on the MCI response to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and July 5 bus fire in Hangzhou. Conclusions: This new paradigm breaks through the

  13. Park Smart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Parking Garage Automation System (PGAS) is based on a technology developed by a NASA-sponsored project called Robot sensorSkin(TM). Merritt Systems, Inc., of Orlando, Florida, teamed up with NASA to improve robots working with critical flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The system, containing smart sensor modules and flexible printed circuit board skin, help robots to steer clear of obstacles using a proximity sensing system. Advancements in the sensor designs are being applied to various commercial applications, including the PGAS. The system includes a smartSensor(TM) network installed around and within public parking garages to autonomously guide motorists to open facilities, and once within, to free parking spaces. The sensors use non-invasive reflective-ultrasonic technology for high accuracy, high reliability, and low maintenance. The system is remotely programmable: it can be tuned to site-specific requirements, has variable range capability, and allows remote configuration, monitoring, and diagnostics. The sensors are immune to interference from metallic construction materials, such as rebar and steel beams. Inside the garage, smart routing signs mounted overhead or on poles in front of each row of parking spots guide the motorist precisely to free spaces.

  14. [Ecological environmental quality assessment of Hangzhou urban area based on RS and GIS].

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengwei; Zhao, Duo

    2006-06-01

    In allusion to the shortage of traditional ecological environmental quality assessment, this paper studied the spatial distribution of assessing factors at a mid-small scale, and the conversion of integer character to girding assessing cells. The main assessing factors including natural environmental condition, environmental quality, natural landscape and urbanization pressure, which were classified into four types with about eleven assessing factors, were selected from RS images and GIS-spatial analyzing environmental quality vector graph. Based on GIS, a comprehensive assessment model for the ecological environmental quality in Hangzhou urban area was established. In comparison with observed urban heat island effects, the assessment results were in good agreement with the ecological environmental quality in the urban area of Hangzhou. PMID:16964936

  15. [A tentative discussion on population control in Hangzhou and direction of its development].

    PubMed

    Gu, Y

    1982-07-29

    Hangzhou is a city noted for its scenic beauty. In recent years, developments in industrial and agricultural production, cultural and educational improvements, and various constructions have made Hangzhou a more modernized city, and its population growth has become more rapid. According to one estimate, the number of childbearing women in 1987 will increase by 61% over the 1978 figure. With the mechanic (mobility) growth rate being higher than the natural growth rate, a large population is moving into Hangzhou each year, and the problem of overpopulation is becoming increasingly serious. The supply of newly built residences cannot match the demand, and the living standard is declining. Cultural and educational establishments, health care, and public facilities are unable to catch up with the speed of the population growth. Problems such as unemployment, traffic congestion, and environmental pollution are becoming more serious. In order to cope with the overall situation, the natural growth rate of the urban population should be controlled, and every married couple should be urged to have only 1 child. Satellite cities should be established and developed to match the city's economic development. Another necessary step is the redistribution of existing factories and industries inside the city and of the city's population so as to reduce pollution and noise. The increased labor population should receive better care in order to increase their productivity. Work in gardening and services should be encouraged in order to ease the pressure of unemployment and increase the tourist income. PMID:12265441

  16. Levels, profiles and gas-particle distribution of atmospheric PCDD/Fs in vehicle parking lots of a South China metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiru; Zhou, Lin; Ren, Man; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Peng, Ping'an

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust is one important PCDD/F source in urban areas. In this study, occurrence and inhalation of atmospheric PCDD/Fs in three enclosed/semi-enclosed large-scale vehicle parks were investigated. The park for heavy-duty diesel-trucks exhibited the highest atmospheric 2,3,7,8-PCDD/F concentrations (17.7 ± 4.3 pg m(-3), 0.818 ± 0.264 pg I-TEQm(-3)), followed sequentially by those for liquefied petroleum gas-buses and for unleaded gasoline-cars. High-chlorinated congeners/homologues dominated 2,3,7,8-PCDD/F profiles. Principal component analysis indicated their similarities with tailpipe studies. More than 70% of PCDD/Fs were particle-bound and their congener/homologue patterns differed from those of gaseous PCDD/Fs. In all studied parks logarithms of the gas/particle partitioning coefficients (Kps) of PCDD/F homologues were linearly correlated with those of their sub-cooled vapor pressures (pLs). Daily PCDD/F doses inhaled by park-workers were estimated to be between 0.099-0.227 pg I-TEQ kg(-1)d(-1). Their probabilistic incremental lifetime cancer risks were 1.08 × 10(-5)-2.07 × 10(-5), which were in the acceptable range (1.0 × 10(-4)-1.0 × 10(-6)). However, all data from the diesel-truck park significantly exceeded the upper limit for PCDD/Fs in ambient air of Japan (0.6 pg TEQm(-3)). Hence, air pollution and adequate ventilation should be considered during the design and construction of such enclosed/semi-enclosed parks. PMID:24176655

  17. The use of a brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay to assess the water quality in Hangzhou section of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yin; Xu, Xiaolu; Li, Tian; Xu, Yifei; Wu, Xu

    2012-03-01

    As physical and chemical tests alone are not sufficient enough for the assessment of potential effects on aquatic organisms, bioassays are required for the integrated evaluation of water pollution. In this study, invertebrate crustacean Artemia salina (brine shrimp) was applied as an indicator to assess the water quality of Hangzhou Section of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. The percentage mortality of brine shrimp was recorded after 24-h exposure to the Canal water. The water samples were collected from five typical sites during October 2008 and April 2009. It exhibited 11% ± 8.3%, 26.7% ± 17%, 31.7% ± 8.5%, 28.0% ± 11.7%, and 4% ± 4.3% percentage mortality for the sample from Tangxi Bridge, Yi Bridge, Gongchen Bridge, Maiyu Bridge, and Gujia Bridge in 2008, respectively. And it exhibited 5.7% ± 4.2%, 10.3% ± 8.2%, 24.3% ± 12.3%, 16.0% ± 12.3%, and 0%, percentage mortality in 2009, respectively. According to the results, a relative improvement in water quality was observed, although the results were not significantly different at the p < 0.05 level. It suggested that 24-h A. salina exposure trials represent an acceptable bioassay for water toxicity when alternative bioassays were unavailable. PMID:22187021

  18. China.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  19. National Environmental Research Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

  20. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

    2014-03-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000

  1. Identification and Chacterization of new strains of Enterobacter spp. causing Mulberry (Morus alba) wilt disease in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new mulberry wilt disease (MWD) was recently identified in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Typical symptoms of the disease are dark brown discolorations in vascular tissues, leaf wilt, defoliation, and tree decline. Unlike the bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, the leaf w...

  2. Detection of water quality parameters in Hangzhou Bay using a portable laser fluorometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Pan, Delu; Mao, Zhihua; Tao, Bangyi

    2015-04-15

    A field, light-weight laser fluorometer based on the method of laser induced fluorescence was developed for water quality monitoring. The basic instrument configuration uses a high pulse repetition frequency microchip laser, a confocal reflective fluorescent probe and a broadband hyperspectral micro spectrometer; it weights only about 1.7 kg. Simultaneous estimates of three important water quality parameters, namely, chlorophyll a (chl-a), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and total suspended matter (TSM) measured by the laser fluorometer were observed to agree well with those measured by traditional methods (0.27-0.84 μg L(-3) chl-a, R(2)=0.88; 0.104-0.295 m(-)(1) CDOM absorption, R(2)=0.90; and 59.8-994.9 mg L(-)(3) TSM, R(2)=0.86) in Hangzhou Bay water. Subsequently, distribution and characteristics of CDOM and chl-a laser fluorescence in Hangzhou Bay were analyzed, which will enhance our understanding of biogeochemical processes in this complex estuarine system at high-resolution, high-frequency and long-term scale. PMID:25697817

  3. [Light scattering extinction properties of atmospheric particle and pollution characteristics in hazy weather in Hangzhou].

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang; Ye, Hui; Shen, Jian-Dong; Sun, Hong-Liang; Hong, Sheng-Mao; Jiao, Li; Huang, Kan

    2014-12-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle scattering on visibility, light scattering coefficient, particle concentrations and meteorological factor were simultaneously monitored from July 2011 to June 2012 in Hangzhou. Daily scattering coefficients ranged from 108.4 to 1 098.1 Mm(-1), with an annual average concentration of 428.6 Mm(-1) ± 200.2 Mm(-1). Seasonal variation of scattering coefficients was significant, with the highest concentrations observed in autumn and winter and the lowest in summer. It was found there were two peaks for the average diurnal variations of the scattering coefficient, which could be observed at 08:00 and 21:00. The scattering efficiencies of PM2.5 and PM10 were 7.6 m2 x g(-1) and 4.4 m2 x g(-1), respectively. The particle scattering was about 90.2 percent of the total light extinction. The scattering coefficients were 684.4 Mm(-1) ± 218.1 Mm(-1) and 1 095.4 Mm(-1) ± 397.7 Mm(-1) in hazy and heavy hazy days, respectively, which were 2.6 and 4.2 times as high as in non-hazy weather, indicating that particle scattering is the main factor for visibility degradation and the occurrence of hazy weather in Hangzhou. PMID:25826909

  4. Yellowstone Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen years after devastating forest fires burned over 1.6 million acres in Yellowstone National Park, the scars are still evident. In this simulated natural color ASTER image, burned areas appear gray, in contrast to the dark green of unburned forests. The image covers an area of 60 x 63 km. This image was acquired on July 2, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the

  5. Effect of wastewater disposal on the bacterial and archaeal community of sea sediment in an industrial area in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Renhua; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Liu, Rui; Wen, Donghui

    2014-05-01

    Human activities usually leave footprints in the environment. By using 454 pyrosequencing, the impact of effluent from an industrial park on the coastal microecology in Hangzhou Bay, China, was interpreted by analysing the microbial communities of the activated sludge from three wastewater treatment plants and the sediment from the effluent receiving area. Based on richness and biodiversity, the sediments were more diversified than the activated sludge, although the seawater environment was highly contaminated. Both bacterial and archaeal communities were niche-determined. The bacterial phylum Proteobacteria dominated in all samples; and certain pollutant-resistant genera, such as Thauera and Truepera, were found in all samples. Archaeal phyla Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota dominated the activated sludge and sediment samples, respectively. According to the analysis of shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and reads among different samples, more bacterial OTUs and reads were shared between two samples from sites with a direct effluent connection, showing a clear correlation between the wastewater treatment plants and the effluent receiving bay area. The impact of second-hand pollution can be evaluated by comparing the bacterial community in different eco-environments with a direct effluent connection, especially when pristine samples are not available. PMID:24697989

  6. Identifying the key taxonomic categories that characterize microbial community diversity using full-scale classification: a case study of microbial communities in the sediments of Hangzhou Bay.

    PubMed

    Dai, Tianjiao; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Yushi; Bai, Yaohui; Tao, Yile; Huang, Bei; Wen, Donghui

    2016-10-01

    Coastal areas are land-sea transitional zones with complex natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Microorganisms in coastal sediments adapt to such disturbances both individually and as a community. The microbial community structure changes spatially and temporally under environmental stress. In this study, we investigated the microbial community structure in the sediments of Hangzhou Bay, a seriously polluted bay in China. In order to identify the roles and contribution of all microbial taxa, we set thresholds as 0.1% for rare taxa and 1% for abundant taxa, and classified all operational taxonomic units into six exclusive categories based on their abundance. The results showed that the key taxa in differentiating the communities are abundant taxa (AT), conditionally abundant taxa (CAT), and conditionally rare or abundant taxa (CRAT). A large population in conditionally rare taxa (CRT) made this category collectively significant in differentiating the communities. Both bacteria and archaea demonstrated a distance decay pattern of community similarity in the bay, and this pattern was strengthened by rare taxa, CRT and CRAT, but weakened by AT and CAT. This implied that the low abundance taxa were more deterministically distributed, while the high abundance taxa were more ubiquitously distributed. PMID:27402713

  7. Prognosis Evaluation in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Hepatectomy: Comparison of BCLC, TNM and Hangzhou Criteria Staging Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wu-sheng; Yan, Lu-nan; Xiao, Guang-qin; Jiang, Li; Yang, Jian; Yang, Jia-yin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study is to evaluate the Hangzhou criteria (HC) for patients with HCC undergoing surgical resection and to identify whether this staging system is superior to other staging systems in predicting the survival of resectable HCC. Method 774 HCC patients underwent surgical resection between 2007 and 2009 in West China Hospital were enrolled retrospectively. Predictors of survival were identified using the Kaplan–Meier method and the Cox model. The disease state was staged by the HC, as well as by the TNM and BCLC staging systems. Prognostic powers were quantified using a linear trend χ2 test, c-index, and the likelihood ratio (LHR) χ2 test and correlated using Cox's regression model adjusted using the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Results Serum AFP level (P = 0.02), tumor size (P<0.001), tumor number (P<0.001), portal vein invasion (P<0.001), hepatic vein invasion (P<0.001), tumor differentiation (P<0.001), and distant organ (P = 0.016) and lymph node metastasis (P<0.001) were identified as independent risk factors of survival after resection by multivariate analysis. The comparison of the different staging system results showed that BCLC had the best homogeneity (likelihood ratio χ2 test 151.119, P<0.001), the TNM system had the best monotonicity of gradients (linear trend χ2 test 137.523, P<0.001), and discriminatory ability was the highest for the BCLC (the AUCs for 1-year mortality were 0.759) and TNM staging systems (the AUCs for 3-, and 5-year mortality were 0.738 and 0.731, respectively). However, based on the c-index and AIC, the HC was the most informative staging system in predicting survival (c-index 0.6866, AIC 5924.4729). Conclusions The HC can provide important prognostic information after surgery. The HC were shown to be a promising survival predictor in a Chinese cohort of patients with resectable HCC. PMID:25133493

  8. Kruger National Park

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... images of northeastern South Africa, near Kruger National Park, were acquired on September 7, 2000. The left image shows an 85-kilometer ... Sep 7, 2000 Images:  Kruger Park location:  Africa thumbnail:  ...

  9. NATIONAL PARK BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Park Service has produced a data base of boundaries for its National Parks. A copy of this data was downloaded from the National Parks Service ftp site by Region 10. These digital boundaries represent the best guess and data that could be collected in a short time....

  10. PARKING PROGRAMS FOR UNIVERSITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KINNE, W.S., JR.

    PARKING FACILITIES WERE SURVEYED AT 83 REPRESENTATIVE UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES, AND THE METHODS USED IN ADMINISTERING, CONTROLLING AND FINANCING WERE EVALUTED. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS WERE MADE CONCERNING (1) THE LOCATION AND DESIGN OF PARKING LOTS AND GARAGES, (2) THE PRACTICE OF CURB PARKING ON CAMPUS, AND (3) THE FINANCING OF PARKING…

  11. Parks In Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Sally-Jo

    1998-01-01

    More than 50 National Park Service (NPS) sites interpret Native cultures or early Native contact with Europeans. In about 30 of those, American Indians, Alaska Natives, or Native Hawaiians, in partnership with the NPS, present their own heritage and issues. Describes Native-run aspects of Sitka National Historical Park, Glacier National Park, and…

  12. Orienting Park Visitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormrod, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    To utilize park facilities to their fullest, visitors must be well-oriented to the park's physical layout. The results of a study undertaken at Rocky Mountain National Park indicate that information should be readily accessible and easy to use. (DF)

  13. Multivariate statistical analysis of temporal-spatial variations in water quality of a constructed wetland purification system in a typical park in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongqing; Huang, Di; Guo, Chaofan; Guo, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    Using discriminant analysis (DA) and principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA), we described the variations in the water quality of a constructed wetland (CW) purification system in Olympic Park supplied with reclaimed water (RW). The analyses were conducted across three seasons (spring, summer, and autumn) and four functional zones (composite vertical flow constructed wetland [CVW], plant oxidation pond [POP], mixed oxidation pond [MOP], and main lake [ML]). The results demonstrated the relatively high water quality of the CW, which was suitable for landscape reuse. The most severe contamination occurred in autumn and in the ML/MOP. Chemical oxygen demand (CODMn), NO₃(-)-N, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and total nitrogen (TN) caused 91.8% of the temporal variations while DO, cyanobacteria (PCY), and pH caused 70.8% of the spatial variations. The low accuracy of the DA indicated that the four functional areas exhibited similar pollution characteristics. Internal pollution was the major pollutant source in all selected seasons/functional zones. In spring, the CW was largely affected by organic matters. In summer, the CW was contaminated chiefly by nutrient pollutants (N and P), particularly in the CVW and POP. In autumn, the major threat became eutrophication. Enhancing water circulation and shortening hydraulic retention time can effectively weaken the effect of nutrient salts and organic pollutants. PMID:25514857

  14. Serological evidence of H7, H5 and H9 avian influenza virus co-infection among herons in a city park in Jiangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guirong; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaowen; Jiang, Zhiben; Jiang, Qian; Chen, Quanjiao; Tu, Xiaobin; Chen, Ze; Chang, Jianyu; Li, Laixing; Xu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Extensive surveillance of influenza A viruses in different avian species is critical for understanding its transmission. Here, a breeding colony of Little Egrets and Black-crowned Night Herons was monitored both serologically and virologically in a city park of Jiangxi in 2009. A portion of herons had antibodies against H7 (52%), H5 (55%) and H9 (6%) subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) in egg yolk samples, and 45% had antibodies against different AIV serotypes (H5, H7 or H9) simultaneously. Greater numbers of samples with anti-AIV H5N1 recombination-4 (Re-4, clade 7) antibodies were measured compared with those containing anti-H5N1 Re-1 (clade 0) and Re-5 (clade 2.3.4) antibodies. Eight strains of H5 and 9 strains of H9 were isolated from poultry of nearby markets. These results indicate wild birds are at risk from infection and co-infection with H7, H5, and H9 subtypes. Investigation of wild bird infection might provide an early warning sign of potential novel AIVs circulating in the nearby poultry industry and even in human society. PMID:25242001

  15. Serological evidence of H7, H5 and H9 avian influenza virus co-infection among herons in a city park in Jiangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guirong; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaowen; Jiang, Zhiben; Jiang, Qian; Chen, Quanjiao; Tu, Xiaobin; Chen, Ze; Chang, Jianyu; Li, Laixing; Xu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Extensive surveillance of influenza A viruses in different avian species is critical for understanding its transmission. Here, a breeding colony of Little Egrets and Black-crowned Night Herons was monitored both serologically and virologically in a city park of Jiangxi in 2009. A portion of herons had antibodies against H7 (52%), H5 (55%) and H9 (6%) subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) in egg yolk samples, and 45% had antibodies against different AIV serotypes (H5, H7 or H9) simultaneously. Greater numbers of samples with anti-AIV H5N1 recombination-4 (Re-4, clade 7) antibodies were measured compared with those containing anti-H5N1 Re-1 (clade 0) and Re-5 (clade 2.3.4) antibodies. Eight strains of H5 and 9 strains of H9 were isolated from poultry of nearby markets. These results indicate wild birds are at risk from infection and co-infection with H7, H5, and H9 subtypes. Investigation of wild bird infection might provide an early warning sign of potential novel AIVs circulating in the nearby poultry industry and even in human society. PMID:25242001

  16. [Study on number concentration distribution of atmospheric ultrafine particles in Hangzhou].

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-Fang; Sun, Zai; Fu, Zhi-Min; Yang, Wen-Jun; Lin, Jian-Zhong

    2013-02-01

    Atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFPs) were measured with fast mobility particle sizer(FMPS) in Hangzhou, during March 2011 to February 2012. The number concentration and size distribution of UFPs associated with meteorology were studied. The results showed that the number concentration of UFPs was logarithmic bi-modal distribution, and the seasonal levels presented winter > summer > spring> autumn. The highest monthly average concentration was 3.56 x 10(4) cm-3 in December and the lowest was 2.51 x 10(4) cm-3 in October. The seasonal values of count medium diameter(CMD) were spring > winter > autumn > summer. The highest monthly average CMD was 53. 51 nm in April and the lowest was 16.68 nm in June. Meteorological factors had effects on concentration of UFPs. PMID:23668106

  17. Effect of urbanization on the urban meteorology and air pollution in Hangzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongnian; Ma, Wanli; Qian, Junlong; Cai, Juzhen; Ye, Xianman; Li, Jiahui; Wang, Xueyuan

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization has a substantial effect on urban meteorology. It can alter the atmospheric diffusion capability in urban areas and therefore affect pollutant concentrations. To study the effects of Hangzhou's urban development in most recent decade on its urban meteorological characteristics and pollutant diffusion, 90 weather cases were simulated, covering 9 weather types, with the Nanjing University City Air Quality Prediction System and high-resolution surface-type data and urban construction data for 2000 and 2010. The results show that the most recent decade of urban development in Hangzhou substantially affected its urban meteorology. Specifically, the average urban wind speed decreased by 1.1 m s -1; the average intensity of the heat island increased by 0.5°C; and the average urban relative humidity decreased by 9.7%. Based on one case for each of the nine weather types, the impact of urbanization on air pollution diffusion was investigated, revealing that the changes in the meteorological environment decreased the urban atmosphere's diffusion capability, and therefore increased urban pollutant concentrations. For instance, the urban nitrogen oxides concentration increased by 2.1 μg m -3 on average; the fine particulate matter (diameter of 2.5 μm or less; PM2.5) pollution concentration increased by 2.3 μg m -3 on average; in highly urbanized areas, the PM2.5 concentration increased by 30 μg m -3 and average visibility decreased by 0.2 km, with a maximum decrease of 1 km; the average number of daily hours of haze increased by 0.46 h; and the haze height lifted by 100-300 m. The "self-cleaning time" of pollutants increased by an average of 1.5 h.

  18. Risk assessment and source identification of perfluoroalkyl acids in surface and ground water: Spatial distribution around a mega-fluorochemical industrial park, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Pei; Li, Qifeng; Johnson, Andrew C; Sarvajayakesavalu, Suriyanarayanan; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) can be released to water bodies during manufacturing and application of PFAA-containing products. In this study, the contamination pattern, attenuation dynamics, sources, pathways, and risk zoning of PFAAs in surface and ground water was examined within a 10km radius from a mega-fluorochemical industrial park (FIP). Among 12 detected PFAAs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dominated, followed by shorter-chained perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFAA-containing waste was discharged from the FIP, with levels reaching 1.86mg/L in the nearby rivers flowing to the Bohai sea together with up to 273μg/L in the local groundwater in the catchment. These levels constitute a human health risks for PFOA and other shorter-chained PFCAs within this location. The concentrations of ∑PFAAs in surface water strongly correlated with the local groundwater. The dominant pollution pathways of PFAAs included (i) discharge into surface water then to groundwater through seepage, and (ii) atmospheric deposition from the FIP, followed by infiltration to groundwater. As the distance increased from the source, PFAAs levels in groundwater showed a sharp initial decrease followed by a gentle decline. The contamination signal from the FIP site on PFAAs in groundwater existed within a radius of 4km, and at least 3km from the polluted Dongzhulong River. The major controlling factor in PFAA attenuation processes was likely to be dilution together with dispersion and adsorption to aquifer solids. The relative abundance of PFOA (C8) declined while those of shorter-chained PFCAs (C4-C6) increased during surface water seepage and further dispersion in groundwater. PMID:26909815

  19. Parks, Recreation and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the…

  20. 5. VIEW OF NORTH PARK AVENUE TRAILHEAD PARKING AREA FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF NORTH PARK AVENUE TRAILHEAD PARKING AREA FACING SOUTHEAST. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  1. Splendor In The Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    1979-01-01

    Civilization is more and more intruding on the esthetic and recreational resources of the National Park System. Increased attention must be paid to controlling noise, pollution, and even the effects of urban lighting which detract from the enjoyment of the parks. (RE)

  2. Oregon's first wind park

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The bringing on-line of the 1.25 MW wind park at Whiskey Run, Oregon, is reported. The park features twenty-five 50 KW wind turbine generators and is expected to produce about three million kilowatt-hours per year for the Pacific Power and Light system.

  3. Canadian Science Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Charles H.

    1988-01-01

    Only 45 percent of Canadian research is funded and executed by the private sector. Influenced by success stories such as the U.S. Stanford Research Park, Canadians have looked at science parks as a means to diversify their economy and to increase cooperation among government, industry, and universities. (Author/MLW)

  4. Preserving DOE's Research Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Virginia H.; Parr, Patricia D.

    1998-01-01

    Seven sites are designated as Department of Energy (DOE) National Environmental Research Parks and serve as irreplaceable outdoor laboratories for scientific research and education. The DOE has recommended the disposal of nearly one- quarter of the research park land holdings. Offers suggestions for developing a plan for protecting the…

  5. Future Trends in Park Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, William O.; Murrell, Dan S.

    1986-01-01

    The roles of ranger and park police in America's parks have shifted from visitor protection and resources management to visitor management and resources protection. Eight issues facing park police are discussed. (MT)

  6. Temporal and spatial changes of microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Renhua; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Zheng, Wei; Wen, Donghui

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic activities usually contaminate water environments, and have led to the eutrophication of many estuaries and shifts in microbial communities. In this study, the temporal and spatial changes of the microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial community showed higher richness and biodiversity than the archaeal community in all sediments. Proteobacteria dominated in the bacterial communities of all the samples; Marine_Group_I and Methanomicrobia were the two dominant archaeal classes in the effluent receiving area. PCoA and AMOVA revealed strong seasonal but minor spatial changes in both bacterial and archaeal communities in the sediments. The seasonal changes of the bacterial community were less significant than those of the archaeal community, which mainly consisted of fluctuations in abundance of a large proportion of longstanding species rather than the appearance and disappearance of major archaeal species. Temperature was found to positively correlate with the dominant bacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and negatively correlate with the dominant archaea, Marine_Group_I; and might be the primary driving force for the seasonal variation of the microbial community. PMID:27266302

  7. [Characterization of ultrafine particle size distribution in the urban atmosphere of Hangzhou in spring].

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-Fang; Sun, Zai; Yang, Wen-Jun

    2014-02-01

    Continuous measurement and analysis of the atmospheric ultrafine particle number concentration were performed in Hangzhou from March to May, 2012 by using the fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). The result showed that daily number concentration of nucleation mode (5.6-20 nm), Aitken mode (20-100 nm), and accumulation mode (100-560 nm) particles, and total particles were 0.84 x 10(4), 1.08 x 10(4), 0.47 x 10(4) and 2.38 x 10(4) cm(-3) respectively. The concentration of Aitken mode particles was higher than that of other mode particles in sunny day. The nucleation mode and Aitken mode particles usually started to increase around 10:00-11:00 and ended up after 3-4 h. This indicated the solar radiation promoted the formation of new particles. Human activities caused the concentration distribution of each mode particles having an obvious difference between workdays and weekends. Combined with the meteorological factors, analysis showed that the wind speed and wind direction also directly influenced particulate concentration. The analysis of particulate concentration and visibility showed that the concentration of accumulation mode particles had a negative relationship with the atmospheric visibility, while those of nucleation mode and Aitken mode particles had a slight influence on it. PMID:24812930

  8. [Research of the Stormwater Runoff and Pollution Characteristics in Rural Area of Yuhang District, Hangzhou].

    PubMed

    Duan, Sheng-hui; Zhao, Yu; Shan, Bao-qing; Tang, Wen-zhong; Zhang, Wen-qiang; Zhang, Shu-zhen; Lang, Chao

    2015-10-01

    In order to investigate the pollution characteristics of stormwater runoff in the southern developed rural region, the runoff samples were collected from four different underlying surfaces during three storm events in Caoqiao and Pujia Tou, which are two typical villages and are located in Yuhang District of Hangzhou. The content of nutrition (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, As, Pb) in the simples were analyzed, and the difference of EMC ( event mean concentration) and pollution load of the contaminants in the runoff on different underlying surfaces were compared. The results showed that the EMC of TSS, COD, NH4(+)-N, TP and TN were 16.19, 21.01, 0.74, 1.39 and 2.39 mg x L(-1) in the Caoqiao, respectively; as to Pujia Tou, they were 3.10, 15.69, 0.90, 0.78 and 3.58 mg x L(-1), respectively. The content of heavy metals was all lower than the national surface water quality of two type water in the runoff. Compared with the quality standards for surface water, the EMC of TP was 9 times and 3. 5 times higher and TN was 1. 8 times and 1. 2 times higher in two areas. Besides, the pollution loads of TSS and COD were the highest in farmland. PMID:26841601

  9. Self-evaluation System for Low carbon Industrial Park--A Case Study of TEDA Industrial Park in Tianjin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenyan, W.; Fanghua, H.; Ying, C.; Ouyang, W.; Yuan, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Massive fossil fuel burning caused by industrialization development is one major reason of global climate change. After Copenhagen climate summit, the studies of low-carbon city gain attentions from many countries. On 25th Nov. 2009, the State Council executive meeting announced that by 2020 China will reduce the carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40% to 45% compared with the level of 2005. Industrial Park as an important part of city, has developed rapidly in recent years, and turns into a key element and an alternative mechanism to achieve emission reduction target. Thus, establishing a low carbon development model for industrial park is one of the most effective ways to build sustainable low carbon cities. By adopting the self-evaluation system of low carbon industrial park, this research aims to summarize the low carbon concept in industrial park practice. According to The Guide for Low Carbon Industrial Development Zones, the quantitative evaluation system is divided into 4 separate categories with 23 different quantitative indicators. The 4 categories include: 1) energy and GHG management (weigh 60%), 2) circular economy and environmental protection (weigh 15%), 3) administration and incentive mechanisms of industrial parks (weigh 15%), and 4) planning and urban forms (weigh 10%). By going through the necessary stages and by leading continuous improvements low carbon development goals can be achieved. Tianjin TEDA industrial park is selected as one case study to conduct an assessment on TEDA low-carbon development condition. Tianjin TEDA Industrial Park is already an ecological demonstration industrial park in China, with good foundations on environmental protection, resource recycling, etc. Based on the self-evaluation system, the indicators, such as the energy using efficiency and the degree of land intensive utilization, are also analyzed and assessed. Through field survey and data collection, in accordance with the quantitative self

  10. High School Parking Lots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Thomas G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the reorganization of the site of Ben Davis High School in Wayne Township, Indiana as an example of improvements to school parking lot design and vehicle/pedestrian traffic flow and security. Includes design drawings. (EV)

  11. Master Plans for Park Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Jerry R.

    This booklet is a general guide to park site planning. The four basic steps involved in developing a park site are a) determination of the uses of the site, b) analysis of the site potential for these uses, c) identification of the functional relationship among the uses, and d) coordination of the uses to the park sites. Uses of park sites are…

  12. Alpha-linolenic acid content of commonly available nuts in Hangzhou.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Yao, Ting; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2006-01-01

    The total lipid content of eight species of nuts available in Hangzhou ranged from 49.5 g/100 g weight in Cannabis sativa to 75.4 g/100 g in walnut. The predominant content of lipid is triacylglycerol, ranging from 91.1% in Cannabis sativa to 98.4% in macadamia. There were two polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in all nuts analyzed; 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. The content of 18:3n-3 ranging from 0.2% in almond to 15.2% in Cannabis sativa, 18:2n-6 ranged from 2.5% in macadamia to 61.6% in pine nut. The proportion of total PUFA in analyzed eight nut species ranging from 2.8% in macadamia to 71.7% in walnut (p < 0.001). Monounsaturated fatty acid composition ranged from 18.0% in Cannabis sativa to 82.6% in macadamia (p < 0.001). The proportion of saturated fatty acid ranged from 7.4% in filbert to 14.7% of total fatty acids in macadamia (p < 0.001). No C20 fatty acids were detected in any of the samples in the present study. The lipids content and fatty acid compositions in analyzed samples were varied between nut species. Cannabis sativa and walnut contained relatively high 18:3n-3, consumption of several these nuts each day can contribute to n-3 PUFA intake, especially for the vegetarian population. PMID:16711652

  13. The Swallow Park Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Villiers, P.

    2014-02-01

    The Hermanus Astronomy Centre recently erected a pair of back-to-back sundials in Swallow Park in the centre of Hermanus as part of the upgrading of this historical public park by the Ward committee. Since these two are intended to be the first of many different design sundials to be erected in Hermanus by the HAC, the designs were purposefully chosen to be "unusual" to illustrate the point that even unfamiliar designs and orientations give the same end result....

  14. Marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms in China.

    PubMed

    Miller, Richard B; Mason, Tiffany M; Canlas, Jerevie M; Wang, Dahua; Nelson, David A; Hart, Craig H

    2013-08-01

    Although there is substantial evidence that low marital satisfaction is a significant risk factor for depression, little research has examined this relationship in cultures outside of the U.S. and Europe. The validity of the marital discord model of depression in Chinese culture was tested by studying 391 couples living in Beijing and Hangzhou, China. Results of structural equation modeling using an actor-partner interdependence model strategy indicated that husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction was significantly predictive of their own depressive symptoms. In addition, wives' marital satisfaction significantly predicted husbands' depressive symptoms. These results provide evidence that the marital discord model of depression is useful in understanding the role of marital dissatisfaction as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in collectivistic societies, such as China. PMID:23834363

  15. Parking management tactics. Volume 3: reference guide. [Parking

    SciTech Connect

    DiRenzo, J.F.; Cima, B.; Barber, E.

    1981-06-01

    Information contained in this guide was formulated from parking management experiences of 20 cities previously investigated and documented. The guide provides information on the planning, implementation, and operation of six types of parking management tactics: on-street parking supply tactics, off-street parking supply tactics for activity centers, fringe and corridor parking facilities, pricing tactics, enforcement and adjudication tactics, and marketing tactics. The guide assesses the essential aspects of the tactics as well as presents some useful analysis procedures for evaluating parking management actions. The Reference Guide is a stand-alone document for use by transportation planners and traffic engineers. It is the third volume of a three-volume series of reports on parking management. The first volume, entitled Overview, is designed for management. The second volume, entitled Overview and Case Studies, is designed for technical staff or managers who want detailed city-by-city information on parking management tactics.

  16. FACING NORTHWEST TOWARD NORTHERN END OF PARK Candler Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTHWEST TOWARD NORTHERN END OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  17. FACING NORTHEAST OF NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF PARK Candler Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTHEAST OF NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  18. Park Z-epicanthoplasty.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung I; Park, Min S

    2007-08-01

    Numerous procedures to eliminate medial epicanthal folds have been described. Despite an abundance of available procedures, most surgeons are reluctant to perform medial epicanthoplasty for Asian eyelid cosmetic surgery because of frequent development of unsightly scars. The Park Z-epicanthoplasty differs from the previously described procedures by placement of the incision within, as opposed to adjacent to, the eyelid skin. The Park Z-epicanthoplasty is most beneficial in type III epicanthal folds and is also widely used for type II epicanthal folds. It is most useful for individuals seeking higher double folds and outer-parallel-type double eyelid folds. PMID:17658430

  19. Seasonal Dynamics of Soil Labile Organic Carbon and Enzyme Activities in Relation to Vegetation Types in Hangzhou Bay Tidal Flat Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xuexin; Yang, Wenying; Wu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Soil labile organic carbon and soil enzymes play important roles in the carbon cycle of coastal wetlands that have high organic carbon accumulation rates. Soils under three vegetations (Phragmites australis, Spartina alterniflora, and Scirpusm mariqueter) as well as bare mudflat in Hangzhou Bay wetland of China were collected seasonally. Seasonal dynamics and correlations of soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that there were significant differences among vegetation types in the contents of soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), excepting for that of microbial biomass carbon (MBC). The P. australis soil was with the highest content of both SOC (7.86 g kg-1) and DOC (306 mg kg-1), while the S. mariqueter soil was with the lowest content of SOC (6.83 g kg-1), and the bare mudflat was with the lowest content of DOC (270 mg kg-1). Soil enzyme activities were significantly different among vegetation types except for urease. The P. australis had the highest annual average activity of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (21.4 mg kg-1 h-1), and the S. alterniflora had the highest annual average activities of β-glycosidase (4.10 mg kg-1 h-1) and invertase (9.81mg g-1 24h-1); however, the bare mudflat had the lowest activities of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (16.2 mg kg-1 h-1), β-glycosidase (2.87 mg kg-1 h-1), and invertase (8.02 mg g-1 24h-1). Analysis also showed that the soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities had distinct seasonal dynamics. In addition, the soil MBC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease and β-glucosidase. The DOC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, and invertase. The results indicated that vegetation type is an important factor influencing the spatial-temporal variation of soil enzyme activities and labile organic carbon in coastal wetlands. PMID:26560310

  20. Parking in the City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šeba, P.

    2007-10-01

    We show that the spacing distribution between parked cars can be obtained as a solution of certain linear distributional fixed point equation. The results are compared with the data measured on the streets of Hradec Krälový. We also discuss a relation of these results to the random matrix theory.

  1. Parks or Prisons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Gareth

    1998-01-01

    Presents a simulation activity in which students assume the role of grizzly bears in Banff National Park. Concepts such as species diversity, fitness, natural selection, habitat loss, extinction, and population dynamics are discussed. Children learn how human activities can affect the bear's reproductive success. Lists materials, instructional…

  2. Park a La Cart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susie; Roell, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Using discovery stations offers solutions for increasing attendance at park interpretive programs. Compact, portable stations can be used in playgrounds, special events, trailheads, picnic areas, campgrounds, nursing homes, and scouts and day camps. Describes a case in which stations were used 85 times and reached 4,927 visitors between July 1996…

  3. The Clover Park Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Don

    1974-01-01

    Describes an aviation trades training program offered by the Clover Park schools in Washington which exposes students to all facets of the aviation industry from record keeping to air traffic control in addition to the specific skill of piloting the aircraft. (BR)

  4. Pinnacles National Park Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Boxer, Barbara [D-CA

    2011-01-25

    05/11/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-124. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3641, which became Public Law 112-245 on 1/10/2013. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Exploring Jurassic Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Patricia E.; Wiley, Clyde

    1993-01-01

    Describes several student-tested activities built around "Jurassic Park." The activities feature students engaged in role-playing scenarios, investigative research projects, journal writing and communications skills activities, cooperative learning groups, and learning experiences that make use of reading skills and mathematical knowledge. (PR)

  6. Kruger National Park

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... and to the right of image center is the Palabora Copper Mine, and the water body near upper right is Lake Massingir in Mozambique. ... South Africa showing Kruger Park, the Palabora Copper Mine, and Lake Massingir. project:  MISR category:  ...

  7. Epidemic and virulence characteristic of Shigella spp. with extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Shigellae have become increasingly resistant to the extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) worldwide and pose a great challenge to anti-infection treatment options. The purpose of this study was to determine the resistance, cephalosporin resistance mechanisms, virulence characteristic and genotype of ESC-resistant Shigella. Methods From 2008 to 2012, Shigella isolates collected from diarrhea patients were detected for antibiotics sensitivity by disk diffusion, cephalosporin resistance determinants and virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping through enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR). Results A total of 356 Shigella isolates were gathered, and 198 (55.6%, 58 S. flexneri and 140 S. sonnei) were resistant to ESC. All ESC-resistant isolates were susceptible to imipenem, and only 0.5% isolate was resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam. ESC-resistant S. flexneri showed high degrees of resistance to ampicillin (100%), ampicillin/sulbactam (96.6%), piperacillin (100%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (74.1%), ciprofloxacin (74.1%), levofloxacin (53.4%), ceftazidime (58.6%) and cefepime (58.6%). ESC-resistant S. sonnei exhibited high resistance rates to ampicillin (100%), piperacillin (100%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (96.4%). Cephalosporin resistance genes were confirmed in 184 ESC-resistant isolates. blaCTX-M types (91.8%, mainly blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-57) were most prevalent, followed by blaOXA-30 (26.3%). Over 99.0% ESC-resistant isolates harbored virulence genes ial, ipaH, virA and sen. However, set1 were more prevalent in ESC-resistant S. flexneri isolates than in S. sonnei isolates. ERIC-PCR results showed that 2 and 3 main genotypes were detected in ESC-resistant S. flexneri and S. sonnei, respectively. Conclusion Our findings indicated that a high prevalence of ESC-resistant Shigella mediated mainly by blaCTX-M with stronger resistance and virulence, and the existence of specific clones responsible for these Shigella infection in the region studied. PMID:24886028

  8. Monitoring the dynamic of suspended sediment using tower-based water spectrum observing system in the Hangzhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qian; Gong, Fang; Huang, Haiqing; He, Xianqiang; Chen, Jianyu; Zhu, Qiankun

    2014-10-01

    Dynamic variations of suspended sediment (TSM) in extremely turbid waters of Hangzhou Bay (HZB) have been studied using a tower-based high-frequency water-spectrum observing system. We developed a practical data processing method for the high-frequency water-spectrum observation. In addition, the method was validated by the ASD measurement, and the results showed that the tower-measured normalized water-leaving radiance was consistent with it measured by ASD, with the correlation coefficient greater than 0.90 and the mean relative error of 6.48%. Based on the tower-measured water spectrum, the TSM was retrieved further with high frequency, and the results showed that the TSM in the HZB had significant diurnal and seasonal variations. The diurnal dynamics might mainly be caused by tidal induced resuspension, yet the seasonal variations might be derived by winds largely.

  9. The energy Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2005-10-01

    If world development is to continue, per capita energy use in the developing world must increase to levels in the developed world. Restrictions on how much CO2 mankind can responsibly put into the atmosphere complicate the task further. Studies show that by 2050 the world will require an additional 10-30 terawatts (TW) of carbon free power, at least as much additional, as the 10 TW generated today with fossil fuel. Neither mined uranium nor renewable energy is capable of sustained power production at this level. This paper proposes, an "energy park", a self contained unit a square mile or two in area which supplies about 7 GW of electrical power or hydrogen, emits no CO2, has little or no proliferation problem, and cleans up its own waste. Most of the energy is supplied by conventional nuclear power plants. However the nuclear fuel is bred by a fusion reactor, which is the key to the energy park. The waste cleanup is done by a combination of fission, fusion, and patience. There is neither long time storage nor long distance travel for materials with proliferation risk or long lived radio nuclides. Thus only thorium comes into the park, and only electricity and hydrogen go out.

  10. Automated Car Park Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  11. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  12. Salute to the National Park Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Edward K.

    1976-01-01

    Current National Parks Service's design policy is summarized and the manner in which this policy produces national park transportation, planning, visitor center siting, architecture, preservation, and exhibits, is detailed. Organizations lobbying for better parks are listed. (BT)

  13. [Decomposition and phosphorus dynamics of the litters in standing and litterbag of the Hangzhou Bay coastal wetland ].

    PubMed

    Shao, Xue-xin; Liang, Xin-qiang; Wu, Ming; Ye, Xiao-qi; Jiang, Ke-yi

    2014-09-01

    Wetlands litter decomposition affects wetlands nutrient cycling. The decomposition progress of standing litter was monitored and the litterbag simulation experiment was carried out in order to analyze dynamics of litter decomposition and phosphorus release in Phragmites australis (PA), Spartina alterniflora (SA) and Scirpus mariqueter (SM) marshes of Hangzhou Bay coastal wetland. Results show that the dry mass of standing litter and P concentration decrease gradually and the litter drops to the sediment surface after 180 d. There are distinctive stages of the plant litter decomposition in litterbag simulation experiments. The loss rate is faster during 0- 15 d than that of later days. The loss rate in root decomposition of three plants are SM > PA > SA, while the trend is opposite for that of aboveground tissues. The time needed for 95% of dry mass decomposition in the plant tissues is between 1. 2- 8. 3 a. The P concentration in litters decreases rapidly in the initial stage and then increases slowly while the net P pools decreases all the time. Pearson's correlation coefficient shows that there is no significant correlation between the litter decomposition rate and C/N ratio. However, the litter C/P ratio affects greatly on plant decomposition rate. Environmental factors in the atmospheric temperature also have an impact on the decomposition rate of leaves. The different decomposition progresses between standing litter and litterbag are caused by environmental factors. PMID:25518655

  14. [Ecological benefits of greening and related controlling factors in urban residential areas of Hangzhou: a quantitative analysis].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong-guang; Li, Xiu-zhen; Guo, Wen-yong; He, Yan-long; Jia, Yue

    2011-09-01

    Based on the 1 m x 1 m high resolution aerial images in 2007 and the 30 m x 30 m Landsat 5 TM images in summer 2007, and with the help of GIS and remote sensing image interpretation, this paper calculated the normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI) representing the overall ecological benefits of greening as well as the six controlling factors, i.e., multilayer structure height, area ratio of softness to hardness, greening rate, floor area ratio, greening area, and building density, in 30 typical urban residential quarters of west Hangzhou. The contributions of the controlling factors to the ecological benefits of greening as well as the quantitative relationships between the overall ecological benefits and the six controlling factors were analyzed by multiple linear regression and correspondence analysis, and some advises were given for the improvement of the ecological benefits. The contribution rate of the six factors was in the order of multilayer structure height > area ratio of softness to hardness > greening rate > floor area ratio > greening area > building density, and the contribution of multilayer structure height was far greater than that of the others whereas building density had the weakest effect on the ecological benefits. Correspondence analysis was effective in simplifying a complex data table into an intuitive two-dimensional chart, and thus, a potential powerful tool in decision-making for the improvement of ecological benefits of greening in urban residential quarters. PMID:22126052

  15. Population and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in a pollutants' receiving area in Hangzhou Bay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Renhua; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Zheng, Wei; Wen, Donghui

    2016-07-01

    The community structure of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms is sensitive to various environmental factors, including pollutions. In this study, real-time PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were adopted to investigate the population and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) temporally and spatially in the sediments of an industrial effluent receiving area in the Qiantang River's estuary, Hangzhou Bay. The abundances of AOA and AOB amoA genes fluctuated in 10(5)-10(7) gene copies per gram of sediment; the ratio of AOA amoA/AOB amoA ranged in 0.39-5.52. The AOA amoA/archaeal 16S rRNA, AOB amoA/bacterial 16S rRNA, and AOA amoA/AOB amoA were found to positively correlate with NH4 (+)-N concentration of the seawater. Nitrosopumilus cluster and Nitrosomonas-like cluster were the dominant AOA and AOB, respectively. The community structures of both AOA and AOB in the sediments exhibited significant seasonal differences rather than spatial changes in the effluent receiving area. The phylogenetic distribution of AOB in this area was consistent with the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) discharging the effluent but differed from the Qiantang River and other estuaries, which might be an outcome of long-term effluent discharge. PMID:26960319

  16. Wheeling and Dealing in the National Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Sydney

    1973-01-01

    Motor vehicles and commercialism have generated serious problems within the national park system. A Conservation Foundation suggests new directions in management for the National Park Service. (Editors)

  17. Perception of urban park soundscape.

    PubMed

    Tse, Man Sze; Chau, Chi Kwan; Choy, Yat Sze; Tsui, Wai Keung; Chan, Chak Ngai; Tang, Shiu Keung

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have been initiated to explore how to improve the soundscape quality in urban parks. However, good soundscape quality in parks cannot be provided without a thorough understanding of the complex relationships among sound, environment, and individuals. As acoustic comfort is considered to be an important outcome of soundscape quality, this study investigates the relative impacts of the factors influencing acoustic comfort evaluation by formulating a multivariate ordered logit model. This study also explores the inter-relationships among acoustic comfort evaluation, acceptability of the environment, and preference to stay in a park using a path model. A total of 595 valid responses were obtained from interview surveys administered in four parks in Hong Kong while objective sound measurements were carried out at the survey spots concurrently. The findings unveil that acoustic comfort evaluation, besides visual comfort evaluation of landscape, also plays an important role on users' acceptability of the urban park environment. Compared with all the studied acoustic related factors, acoustic comfort evaluation serves as a better proxy for park users' preference to stay in urban parks. Hearing the breeze will significantly increase the likelihood of individuals in giving high acoustic comfort evaluation. Conversely, hearing the sounds from heavy vehicles or sounds from bikes will significantly reduce the likelihood in giving a high acoustic evaluation. PMID:22501055

  18. Aftermath of Griffith Park Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2007, wind-driven flames raced through Griffith Park in Los Angeles, forcing hasty evacuations and threatening numerous famous landmarks and tourist spots, such as the Los Angeles Zoo and the Hollywood Sign. Ultimately, no one was injured in the fire, which may have been started by a cigarette. About 800 acres burned in the urban park, which is itself a Hollywood landmark, having been the location for several movies, including Rebel Without A Cause. This image of the park was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on June 6, 2007, about a month after the fire. ASTER detects both visible and infrared wavelengths of light, and both kinds have been used to make this image. Vegetation appears in various shades of red, while the burned areas appear charcoal. Roads and dense urban areas appear purplish-gray or white. Water is dark blue. Large burned areas are evident in the northwest and southeast parts of the park, with scattered smaller patches along the southern margin. Some botanical gardens and parts of a bird sanctuary, as well as some park structures like restrooms, were destroyed. The park's unburned, natural vegetation appears brick red, while the irrigated golf courses adjacent to the park are bright red. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  19. 78 FR 14822 - Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Concessions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Concessions AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (National Park Service, NPS... Madonna L. Baucum, Information Collection Clearance Officer, National Park Service, 1201 I Street NW.,...

  20. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.W.; Giraud, K.M.

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  1. Vandal-Proof Your Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattuck, J. Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Responses of 380 park maintenance and facility managers to a questionnaire provided information on how they try to prevent vandalism affecting signs, picnic and related services, and sanitary facilities. (CB)

  2. Jurassic Park: Adventure in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shams, Marcia; Boteler, Trina

    1993-01-01

    Describes using the movie "Jurassic Park" as a foundation for a middle school interdisciplinary unit involving science, math, language arts, history, and geography. Suggested books and activities are presented. (PR)

  3. Teacher's Guide to Independence National Historical Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Philadelphia, PA. Independence National Historical Park.

    Independence National Historical Park, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is operated by the National Park Service. The park was authorized by an Act of Congress on June 28, 1948, and formally established on July 4, 1956. The mission of Independence National Historical Park is to preserve its stories, buildings, and artifacts as a source of…

  4. [Residue Concentration and Distribution Characteristics of Perfluorinated Compounds in Surface Water from Qiantang River in Hangzhou Section].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Tang, Fang-liang; Yu, Ya-yun; Xu, Jian-fen; Li, Hua; Wu, Min-hua; Zhang, Wei; Pan, Jian-yang

    2015-12-01

    This study studied the pollution characteristics of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Qiantang River in Hangzhou section (QR). Surface water samples, collected in July 2014 and January 2015 from 14 sites in QR were analyzed for 16 PFCs. All samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction with Oasis WAX cartridges and analyzed using the ultra performance liquid chromatography interfaced to tandem mass spectrometry ( UPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that 8 medium-and short-chain PFCs including C₄ and C₈ perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) and C₄-C₉ perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were detected in the surface waters. The total concentrations of PFCs ranged from 0.98 to 609 ng · L⁻¹, while perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dominated, with range of 0.59-538 ng L⁻¹, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected at lower levels, ranging from 0 to 2.48 ng · L⁻¹. The spatial distribution of PFCs varied, and the pollutant concentrations at the sampling sites located in upstream of the river such as Lanjiangkou and Jiangjunyan were relatively high, PFCs concentration showed a decreasing trend from the upstream to the downstream. According to the ratio of feature components, PFCs in surface water of QR originated largely from the input of direct sewage emissions. Taken together, the PFCs pollution was highly correlated with the upstream of Qiantang River valley's industry distribution, and most of the mass load in the investigated river was attributed to upstream running water with a minor influence from the wastewater discharges along the river basin. Overall, the results presented here indicated that greater attention should be given to the contamination of PFCs, especially for PFOA in water body of QR. PMID:27011982

  5. Effects of Park Improvements on Park Use and Physical Activity Policy and Programming Implications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah; Golinelli, Daniela; Williamson, Stephanie; Sehgal, Amber; Marsh, Terry; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2009-01-01

    Background Many assume that improving the quality and the perceived safety of facilities in parks and recreation centers are critical to attracting more users and increasing population physical activity. There are few studies in which these assumptions have been tested. Purpose To assess the impact of park improvements on park use and physical activity. Methods Five intervention parks and five matched comparison parks were studied by objectively measuring park use and collecting self reports of park use by residents before and after park improvements. After using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) to count park users and measure their activity levels and conducting household interviews and intercept surveys with park users, propensity score analyses were used to adjust for differences in respondents’ characteristics between pre- and post-intervention and across conditions. Results Overall park use and physical activity declined in both intervention and control parks, with 39% of the decline directly attributable to fewer scheduled organized activities. Perceptions of park safety increased more in the intervention parks than in the comparison parks. Conclusions Improvements to parks may not automatically result in increased use and physical activity, especially when programming decreases. Multiple factors contribute to park use and need to be accounted for in future community-level interventions. Improving perceptions of safety alone are unlikely to result in increased park use. PMID:19944911

  6. Applications of solar energy in industrial parks

    SciTech Connect

    Greaver, V.W.; Farrington, R.B.; Leboeuf, C.M.

    1980-05-01

    The four phases of ongoing work at SERI that examines many unresolved questions regarding the purpose, solar applicability, economics, and energy modeling of industral parks are presented. The first phase involved site visits to approximately 300 parks in 12 major metropolitan areas of 9 states. Phase 2 entails an analysis of four parks selected from those parks surveyed. Phase 3 narrows the focus to two parks to be examined for detailed technical and engineering analysis. Phase 4 incorporates all of the work of the earlier phases with economic criteria to produce an energy allocation model describing energy delivery and consumption within the park.

  7. Amusement park injuries and deaths.

    PubMed

    Braksiek, Robert J; Roberts, David J

    2002-01-01

    Media coverage of amusement park injuries has increased over the past several years, raising concern that amusement rides may be dangerous. Amusement park fatalities and increases in reported injuries have prompted proposed legislation to regulate the industry. Since 1979, the medical literature has published reports of 4 subdural hematomas, 4 internal carotid artery dissections, 2 vertebral artery dissections, 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 1 intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and 1 carotid artery thrombosis with stroke, all related to roller coaster rides. In this article, we review reports of amusement park injuries in the medical literature and Consumer Product Safety Commission data on the overall risk of injury. We also discuss the physics and the physiologic effects of roller coasters that may influence the type and severity of injuries. Although the risk of injury is low, emergency physicians are advised to include participation on thrill rides as part of their history, particularly when evaluating patients presenting with neurologic symptoms. PMID:11782733

  8. Bibliography of Doctor Chul Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gochberg, Lawrence A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Park, Chul

    1995-01-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography of the published works, and a short biography, of Dr. Chul Park. The contents of this bibliography were compiled primarily from the NASA RECON data base. The RECON citations have been modified to appear in a uniform format with all other listed citations . These other citations were located by computer searches in the INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, and Chemical Abstracts data bases, as well as through the cooperation of Dr. Chul Park, and his associates in the Reacting Flow Environments Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. All citations are presented in an approximate reverse chronological order from the present date. This work was created to honor the occasion of Dr. Chul Park's retirement on December 14, 1994, after 27 years of distinguished government service at the NASA Ames Research Center.

  9. Wind power parks: 1983 survey

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, E.M.; Loperena, G.A.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to survey the status of wind parks owned by non-utility organizations which generate electricity for sale to electric utilities under the provisions of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act. Both technical (including wind turbine descriptions) and business-related information were gathered from over 100 wind park developers who were interviewed by telephone or in person. Following the survey, the wind parks were screened so that only those already on-line or with very good possibilities of coming on-line by mid-1984 were included. This screening, although subject to judgment, was based primarily on the status of several of the critical milestones necessary for project completion. This document includes descriptions of 85 wind parks established by over 60 developers. Of these, 73 are located in California. This concentration in California is the result of the confluence of tax advantages, financial, institutional, and resource factors currently most favorably found in that state. For the wind parks described in this document, installed generating capacity (based on nameplate ratings) is 87 MW as of July 1983, with plans calling for aggregate installation of some 730 MW by mid-1984. Continued expansion in wind turbine installations over the next several years will require that wind turbines demonstrate high equipment availability with acceptable operating and maintenance costs. If these can be achieved, if the cost effectiveness of the equipment improves by 20%, and if borrowing terms improve, then wind parks could remain economically viable businesses for non-utility owners even after the current tax advantages expire.

  10. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  11. Lichens of the U. S. national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium. Copyright ?? 2005 by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

  12. Organic Chemicals from Bioprocesses in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin; Huang, Lei; Lin, Jianping; Xu, Zhinan; Cen, Peilin

    Over the last 20 years, China has successfully established a modern biotechnology industry from almost nothing. Presently, China is a major producer of a vast array of products involving bioprocesses, for some China is even the world's top producer. The ever-increasing list of products includes organic acids, amino acids, antibiotics, solvents, chiral chemicals, biopesticides, and biopolymers. Herein, the research and development of bioprocesses in China will be reviewed briefly. We will concentrate on three categories of products: small molecules produced via fermentation, biopolymers produced via fermentation and small chemicals produced by enzyme-catalyzed reactions. In comparison with the traditional chemical process, in which, nonrenewable mineral resources are generally used, products in the first and second categories noted above can use renewable bioresources as raw materials. The bioprocesses are generally energy saving and environmentally benign. For products developed via the third category, although the raw materials still need to be obtained from mineral resources, the biocatalysts are more effective with higher selectivity and productivity, and the bioprocesses occur under ambient temperature and pressure, therefore, these are "green processes." Most of the products such as citric acid, xanthan and acrylamide etc., discussed in this paper have been in large-scale commercial production in China. Also introduced herein are three scientists, Prof. Shen Yinchu, Prof. Ouyang Pingkai and Prof. Chen Guoqiang, and six enterprises, Anhui Fengyuan Biochemical Co. Ltd., Shandong Hiland Biotechnology Co. Ltd., Shandong Fufeng Fermentation Co. Ltd., Shandong Bausch & Lomb-Freda Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., and Changzhou Changmao Biochemical Engineering Co. Ltd.; they have all contributed a great deal to research and development in the commercialization of bioprocesses.

  13. Injuries At Indoor Trampoline Parks Jump

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160460.html Injuries at Indoor Trampoline Parks Jump Researchers say finding shows need for safety ... News) -- A wave of injuries at indoor trampoline parks has prompted a call for design and safety ...

  14. Injuries Soar as Trampoline Parks Expand

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160184.html Injuries Soar as Trampoline Parks Expand Broken bones, fractures the most common complaints ... MONDAY, Aug. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- As trampoline parks spring up across the United States, injuries to ...

  15. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... by category of eligible parkers. Designation of parking spaces by name, grade, rank, or title...

  16. Coltsville National Historical Park Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lieberman, Joseph I. [ID-CT

    2011-07-12

    10/19/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-224. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Coltsville National Historical Park Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Blumenthal, Richard [D-CT

    2013-03-19

    04/23/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-27. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3979, which became Public Law 113-291 on 12/19/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. National Zoological Park Branch Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Kay A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the functions of the National Zoological Park Branch of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, which is dedicated to supporting the special information needs of the zoo. Topics covered include the library's history, collection, programs, services, future plans, and relations with other zoo libraries. (two references) (Author/CLB)

  19. UV - RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brewer 087 is located in Research Triangle Park NC, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instru...

  20. Symmetry in the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…

  1. 'Shockley park' stirs racism row

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-07-01

    A local authority in Northern California has encountered unexpected resistance to its decision to name a park after the Nobel-prize-winning physicist William Shockley, with a coalition of churches and civic groups preparing to petition against the name at a meeting scheduled for 23 July.

  2. Egmont National Park, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The lush forests of Egmont National Park, on New Zealand's North Island, contrast with the pasturelands outside the circular park boundaries. The unique shape of the park results from its first protection in 1881, which specified that a forest reserve would extend in a 9.6 km radius from the summit of Mt. Taranaki (named Mt. Egmont by Captain Cook). The park covers about 33,500 hectares and Mt. Egmont stands at 2518 m. The volcano began forming 70,000 years ago, and last erupted in 1755. A series of montane habitats occur in procession up the flanks of the volcano-from rainforest, to shrubs, to alpine, and finally snow cover. Image STS110-726-6, was taken by Space Shuttle crewmembers on 9 April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  3. 23 CFR 1235.6 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parking. 1235.6 Section 1235.6 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR PARKING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES § 1235.6 Parking. Special license plates, removable windshield placards, or...

  4. "The Rosa Parks Story": Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onish, Liane B.

    On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, refused to give up her seat to a white man on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and she was arrested. On that day, Rosa Parks became the mother of the modern civil rights movement. This study guide may be used as a companion to "The Rosa Parks Story" video which aired on CBS television…

  5. 75 FR 12254 - National Park Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... National Park Service AGENCY: National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. ACTION: National... National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, National Park Service, will meet on Thursday and... amended, (16 U.S.C. 470x-2(e)). The PTTBoard will meet at Lee H. Nelson Hall, the headquarters of...

  6. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National...

  7. 49 CFR 397.7 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Parking. 397.7 Section 397.7 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.7 Parking. (a) A motor vehicle which contains Division 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3... traveled portion of a public street or highway; (2) On private property (including premises of fueling...

  8. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National...

  9. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National...

  10. 49 CFR 397.7 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Parking. 397.7 Section 397.7 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.7 Parking. (a) A motor vehicle which contains Division 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3... traveled portion of a public street or highway; (2) On private property (including premises of fueling...

  11. Moon Park: A research and educational facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriki, Kyoichi; Saito, Takao; Ogawa, Yukimasa

    1992-01-01

    Moon Park has been proposed as an International Space Year (ISY) event for international cooperative efforts. Moon Park will serve as a terrestrial demonstration of a prototype lunar base and provide research and educational opportunities. The kind of data that can be obtained in the Moon Park facilities is examined taking the minimum number of lunar base residents as an example.

  12. What's Ahead for our National Parks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Jean Craighead

    1972-01-01

    To insure the future of our National Parks, sweeping changes must be made. Encroaching civilization at the expense of nature has forced National Park officials to consider alternatives to future development - limiting number of visitors, facilities outside the parks and curtailing vehicular traffic. (BL)

  13. 77 FR 24575 - National Park Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8801 of April 20, 2012 National Park Week... National Park Week, all 397 National Parks will offer free admission from April 21 through April 29,...

  14. 76 FR 22001 - National Park Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-9730 Filed 4-19-11; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8656 of April 15, 2011 National Park Week, 2011 By the President of the.... ``Healthy Parks, Healthy People,'' the focus for this year's National Park Week, highlights the role...

  15. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  16. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  17. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  18. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  19. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a)...

  20. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... College Park. (a) The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park,...

  1. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  2. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  3. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  4. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  7. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  8. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  9. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  10. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  11. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  12. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  13. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  15. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Voyageurs National Park. 7.33 Section 7.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless...

  16. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  17. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  18. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  19. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  20. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  1. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  2. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  3. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  4. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  5. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  7. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  8. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  9. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  10. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  11. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  12. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  13. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  15. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  16. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) General Provisions. All waters within...

  17. 36 CFR 7.16 - Yosemite National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Yosemite National Park. 7.16 Section 7.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.16 Yosemite National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) Open season and limit of catch. The open...

  18. 36 CFR 7.3 - Glacier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glacier National Park. 7.3 Section 7.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.3 Glacier National Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Fishing regulations, based on management...

  19. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) General Provisions. All waters within...

  20. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  1. 36 CFR 7.22 - Grand Teton National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Teton National Park. 7.22 Section 7.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.22 Grand Teton National Park. (a) Aircraft—Designated airstrip. (1) Jackson...

  2. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  3. 76 FR 72003 - Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... National Park Service Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... National Historical Park as a unit of the National Park System. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gay...: (b) PATERSON GREAT FALLS NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK.-- (1) ESTABLISHMENT.-- (A) IN GENERAL.--Subject...

  4. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Historical Park. (a) All persons shall register at park headquarters before climbing any portion of the...

  5. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Historical Park. (a) All persons shall register at park headquarters before climbing any portion of the...

  6. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Historical Park. (a) All persons shall register at park headquarters before climbing any portion of the...

  7. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Historical Park. (a) All persons shall register at park headquarters before climbing any portion of the...

  8. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Historical Park. (a) All persons shall register at park headquarters before climbing any portion of the...

  9. 36 CFR 7.27 - Dry Tortugas National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dry Tortugas National Park. 7.27 Section 7.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.27 Dry Tortugas National Park. (a) What terms do I need to know? The...

  10. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a) Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles....