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Sample records for park therapy dependency

  1. The Northwick Park Therapy Dependency Assessment scale: a psychometric analysis from a large multicentre neurorehabilitation dataset

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrescu, Roxana; Siegert, Richard J.; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To assess the internal reliability, construct and concurrent validity and responsiveness of the Northwick Park Therapy Dependency Assessment (NPTDA) scale. Method: A cohort of 2505 neurorehabilitation patients submitted to the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative database. Cronbach’s coefficient-α was used to assess internal reliability and factor analysis (FA) to assess construct validity. We compared NPTDA scores at admission and discharge to determine responsiveness. Results: Coefficient-α for the whole scale was 0.74. The exploratory FA resulted in a four-factor model (Physical, Psychosocial, Discharge planning and Activities) that accounted for 43% of variance. This model was further supported by the confirmatory FA. The final model had a good fit: root-mean-square error of approximation of 0.069, comparative fit index/Tucker–Lewis index of 0.739/0.701 and the goodness of fit index of 0.909. The NPTDA scores at admission and discharge were significantly different for each of the factors. Expected correlations were seen between the admission scores for the NPTDA, the Rehabilitation Complexity Scale (r = 0.30, p < 0.01) and the Functional Independence Measure (r = −0.25, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The scale demonstrated acceptable internal reliability and good construct and concurrent validity. NPTDA may be used to describe and quantify changes in therapy inputs in the course of a rehabilitation programme.Implications for RehabilitationThe Northwick Park Therapy Dependency Assessment (NPTDA) is designed as a measure therapy intervention, which reflects both quantitative and qualitative aspects of the inputs provided (including staff time and the different types of intervention) during inpatient rehabilitation.The scale demonstrated acceptable internal reliability and good construct and concurrent validity.NPTDA is responsive to change in the therapy inputs provided during neurorehabilitation between admission and

  2. Development and initial validation of the Northwick Park Therapy Dependency Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Shaw, Asa; Law, Janet; Rose, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the development and initial validation of the Northwick Park Therapy Dependency Assessment (NPTDA) as a measure of therapy interventions in neurorehabilitation. Design: An iterative development process, followed by comparison with systemic prospective activity analysis, and parallel application of prospective and retrospective scores Setting: A tertiary specialist inpatient neurorehabilitation service Participants: A total of 37 patients (M:F 21:16, mean age 41.8 (SD 14.7) years) with complex neurological disability in two consecutive cross-sectional cohorts. Methods: The NPTDA was developed and refined over 18 months, together with an algorithm that converts ordinal scores to estimated therapy hours/week. NPTDA-estimated hours were compared with ‘actual' therapy hours/week, identified from activity analysis. In a subsequent cohort analysis, prospectively rated NPTDA scores (reflecting intended levels of intervention) were compared with retrospective NPTDA scores (actual interventions). Results: NPTDA-estimated therapy hours/week were strongly correlated with those identified from activity analysis, for total scores (Spearman rho 0.77, P < 0.0001), and also for all five subdomains for direct (hands-on) intervention (rho 0.70–0.93, P < 0.0001). The initial test algorithm overestimated therapy hours (Wilcoxon z = ⊟3.9, P < 0.001). After adjustment, reanalysis using a revised algorithm showed this bias to be removed (Wilcoxon z = ⊟1.4 P = 0.15). Prospective and retrospectively applied total NPTDA scores were strongly correlated (rho 0.61, P < 0.0001). Although intended levels of intervention were higher than those actually delivered (Wilcoxon z = ⊟3.30, P < 0.001), the differences corresponded to real deviations from intended practice. Conclusion: In this initial evaluation, after revision of the algorithm, the NPTDA provided acceptable estimate of therapy interventions. Further evaluation is now

  3. Activity Therapy Services and Chemical Dependency Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Mark R.; Townsley, Robin K.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how music, occupational, and recreation therapies can contribute to comprehensive treatment programs for chemical dependency. Sees prime contribution of activity therapy as lying in nature of experiential education, applying insight gained in counseling sessions and discussion groups to practical real-life situations. (Author/NB)

  4. Photochemotherapy: Light Dependent Therapies in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zovinka, Edward P.; Sunseri, Danielle R.

    2002-11-01

    Light-dependent therapies, such as photodynamic therapy and extracorporeal photopheresis, are not new, but have remained of interest to chemists and health care professionals since the middle of the twentieth century. While most people link light-dependent therapies only to the treatment of cancer, these therapies may be of use for a diverse set of medical conditions, from acne to AIDS. The techniques arise directly from the application of chemical concepts, such as spectroscopy, MO theory, and organic chemical reactions. Because of its application to health care, the field of photochemistry provides a tool to demonstrate the significance of chemistry to a socially important issue.

    See Featured Molecules.

  5. Impairment of PARK14-dependent Ca2+ signalling is a novel determinant of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qingde; Yen, Allen; Rymarczyk, Grzegorz; Asai, Hirohide; Trengrove, Chelsea; Aziz, Nadine; Kirber, Michael T.; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Wolozin, Benjamin; Bolotina, Victoria M.

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (idPD) remains enigmatic despite recent successes in identification of genes (PARKs) that underlie familial PD. To find new keys to this incurable neurodegenerative disorder we focused on the poorly understood PARK14 disease locus (Pla2g6 gene) and the store-operated Ca2+ signalling pathway. Analysis of the cells from idPD patients reveals a significant deficiency in store-operated PLA2g6-dependent Ca2+ signalling, which we can mimic in a novel B6.Cg-Pla2g6ΔEx2-VB (PLA2g6 ex2KO) mouse model. Here we demonstrate that genetic or molecular impairment of PLA2g6-dependent Ca2+ signalling is a trigger for autophagic dysfunction, progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta and age-dependent L-DOPA-sensitive motor dysfunction. Discovery of this previously unknown sequence of pathological events, its association with idPD and our ability to mimic this pathology in a novel genetic mouse model opens new opportunities for finding a cure for this devastating neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26755131

  6. Can psychedelic compounds play a part in drug dependence therapy?

    PubMed

    Sessa, Ben; Johnson, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    After a 40-year hiatus there is now a revisiting of psychedelic drug therapy throughout psychiatry, with studies examining the drugs psilocybin, ketamine, ibogaine and ayahuasca in the treatment of drug dependence. Limitations to these therapies are both clinical and legal, but the possibility of improving outcomes for patients with substance dependency imposes an obligation to research this area. PMID:25561484

  7. Vulnerability assessment of skiing-dependent businesses to the effects of climate change in Banff and Jasper National Parks, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, David Michael

    This qualitative study examines the potential positive and negative socio-economic impacts that may emerge from the long-term effects of climate change on skiing-dependent businesses in Banff and Jasper National Parks, Canada. My goal was to determine whether or not skiing-related tourism in the parks in the 2020s and 2050s is more or less socio-economically vulnerable to the effects of climate change on snow cover, temperatures and ski season length at ski resorts in the parks. My study explored the level of awareness and personal perceptions of 60 skiing-dependent business managers about how the impact of climate change on ski resorts may influence future socio-economics of ski tourism businesses. I employed a vulnerability assessment approach and adopted some elements of grounded theory. My primary data sources are interviews with managers and the outcome of the geographical factors index (GFI). Supporting methods include: an analysis and interpretation of climate model data and an interpretation of the economic analysis of skiing in the parks. The interview data were sorted and coded to establish concepts and findings by interview questions, while the GFI model rated and ranked 24 regional ski resorts in the Canadian Cordillera. The findings answered the research questions and helped me conclude what the future socio-economic vulnerability may be of skiing-dependent businesses in the parks. The interviews revealed that managers are not informed about climate change and they have not seen any urgency to consider the effects on business. The GFI revealed that the ski resorts in the parks ranked in the top ten of 24 ski resorts in the Cordillera based on 14 common geographical factors. The economic reports suggest skiing is the foundation of the winter economy in the parks and any impact on skiing would directly impact other skiing-dependent businesses. Research indicates that the effects of climate change may have less economic impact on skiing-dependent

  8. The phenology of space: Spatial aspects of bison density dependence in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taper, M.L.; Meagher, M.; Jerde, C.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Yellowstone bison represent the only bison population in the United States that survived in the wild the near-extermination of the late 1800's. This paper capitalizes on a unique opportunity provided by the record of the bison population of Yellowstone National Park (YNP). This population has been intensely monitored for almost four decades. The analysis of long-term spatio-temporal data from 1970-1997 supports the following conclusions. 1) Even though the Yellowstone bison herd exhibits an extended period of what appears to be linear growth, this pattern can be explained with classical density dependent dynamics if one realizes that perhaps the primary response of the herd to increased density is range expansion. 2) Several spatial aspects of social behavior in the YNP bison may be behavioral adaptations by the bison to environmental changes. These behavioral strategies may buffer, temporarily at least, bison population dynamics from the immediate repercussions of possible environmental stress and habitat deterioration. 3) Bison ecological carrying capacity for YNP is on the order of 2800 to 3200 animals. 4) There do appear to be indications of changes in the bison dynamics that are associated with increasing use of sections of the interior road system in winter. 5) The possibility of habitat degradation is indicated.

  9. Rifaximin for maintenance therapy in antibiotic-dependent pouchitis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bo; Remzi, Feza H; Lopez, A Rocio; Queener, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Background Pouchitis is the most common long-term complication of in patients with restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Patients often develop antibiotic-dependent form of pouchitis requiring long-term antibiotic therapy for remission maintenance. Rifaximin, an oral, non-systemic, broad-spectrum antibiotic with a favorable safety profile, may be a promising candidate agent for maintenance therapy. This historical cohort open-label study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of rifaximin in maintaining symptomatic and endoscopic remission in patients with antibiotic-dependent pouchitis. Methods Adult patients with antibiotic-dependent pouchitis received a 2-week course of various antibiotics for induction of remission. Patients in remission then began maintenance therapy with rifaximin 200 mg/day (to 1800 mg/day) for up to 24 months. Pouchitis Disease Activity Index symptom scores were assessed every 1–3 months to evaluate efficacy. Results Fifty-one patients began maintenance therapy with rifaximin (median dose 200 mg/day); 33 (65%) maintained remission through 3 months (primary endpoint). Of these 33 patients, 26 (79%) successfully continued maintenance for 6 months after beginning maintenance, 19 (58%) successfully continued for 12 months, and two (6%) successfully continued for 24 months. Only one patient reported an adverse event (transient facial rash). Conclusion Patients' response to rifaximin as a maintenance therapy appears to be favorable in this open-labeled trial of antibiotic-dependent pouchitis. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials with a longer follow-up are warranted. PMID:18573211

  10. P450-dependent enzymes as targets for prostate cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    De Coster, R; Wouters, W; Bruynseels, J

    1996-01-01

    Metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men. First line treatment is primarily aimed at blocking the synthesis and action of androgens. As primary endocrine treatment, androgen deprivation is usually achieved by orchidectomy or LHRH analogues, frequently combined with androgen receptor antagonists in order to block the residual adrenal androgens. However, nearly all the patients will eventually relapse. Available or potential second line therapies include, among others, alternative endocrine manipulations and chemotherapy. Cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes are involved in the synthesis and/or degradation of many endogenous compounds, such as steroids and retinoic acid. Some of these enzymes represent suitable targets for the treatment of prostate cancer. In first line therapy, inhibitors of the P450-dependent 17,20-lyase may achieve a maximal androgen ablation with a single drug treatment. Ketoconazole at high dose blocks both testicular and adrenal androgen biosynthesis but its side-effects, mainly gastric discomfort, limit its widespread use. A series of newly synthesized, more selective, steroidal 17,20-lyase inhibitors related to 17-(3-pyridyl)androsta-5,16-dien-3beta-ol, may open new perspectives in this field. In prostate cancer patients who relapse after surgical or medical castration, therapies aiming at suppressing the remaining adrenal androgen biosynthesis (ketoconazole) or producing a medical adrenalectomy (aminoglutethimide+hydrocortisone) have been used, but are becoming obsolete with the generalization of maximal androgen blockade in first line treatment. The role of inhibition of aromatase in prostate cancer therapy, which was postulated for aminoglutethimide, could not be confirmed by the use of more selective aromatase inhibitors, such as formestane. An alternative approach is represented by liarozole fumarate (LIA), a compound that blocks the P450-dependent catabolism of retinoic acid (RA). In vitro

  11. [Treatment outcome in tobacco dependence after nicotine replacement therapy and group therapy].

    PubMed

    Górecka, D; Borak, J; Goljan, A; Gorzelak, K; Mańkowski, M; Zgierska, A

    1999-01-01

    The deletorious health effects of smoking are generally known. In spite of that, great numbers of people still smoke tobacco in the whole world. It is primarily due to the addictive properties of nicotine. Cigarette smoking is also dependent on various social and psychologic factors making quitting very difficult. Among various treatment modalities for tobacco dependence we aimed to assess the efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) vs group therapy. 325 subjects smoking at least 15 cigarettes/day for more than 3 years were studied. They were allocated to group therapy (neurolinguistic programming) or NRT (gum or patch) at their will. Non-smoking was validated at each of follow-up visits, at 1 and 2 weeks 1, 3, 6, 12 months by measuring CO in expired air. All groups were matched in age, smoking history and nicotine dependence. The best quit rate was observed as a result of group therapy (41% at 1 year, p. < 0.001) as compared to nicotine patch (2%) and nicotine gum (9%). PMID:10497441

  12. Porphyrin-based Nanostructure-Dependent Photodynamic and Photothermal Therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Cheng S.

    This thesis presents the investigation of nanostructure-dependent phototherapy. We reviewed the liposomal structures for delivery of photosensitizers, and introduced a novel class of phototransducing liposomes called "porphysomes". Porphysomes are self-assembled from high packing density of pyropheophorbide alpha-conjugated phospholipids, resulting in extreme self-quenching of porphyrin fluorescence and comparable optical absorption to gold nanoparticles for high photothermal efficiency. We demonstrated this self-assembly of porphyrin-lipid conjugates converts a singlet oxygen generating mechanism (photodynamic therapy PDT activity) of porphyrin to photothermal mechanism (photothermal therapy PTT activity). The efficacy of porphysome-enhanced PTT was then evaluated on two pre-clinical animal models. We validated porphysome-enabled focal PTT to treat orthotopic prostate cancer using MRI-guided focal laser placement to closely mimic the current clinic procedure. Furthermore, porphysome-enabled fluorescence-guided transbronchial PTT of lung cancer was demonstrated in rabbit orthotopic lung cancer models, which led to the development of an ultra-minimally invasive therapy for early-stage peripheral lung cancer. On the other hand, the nanostructure-mediated conversion of PDT to PTT can be switched back by nanoparticle dissociation. By incorporating folate-conjugated phospholipids into the formulation, porphysomes were internalized into cells rapidly via folate receptor-mediated endocytosis and resulted in efficient disruption of nanostructures, which turned back on the photodynamic activity of densely packed porphyrins, making a closed loop of conversion between PDT and PTT. The multimodal imaging and therapeutic features of porphysome make it ideal for future personalized cancer treatments.

  13. Intramembrane protease PARL defines a negative regulator of PINK1- and PARK2/Parkin-dependent mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Cathrin; Lorenz, Holger; Hehn, Beate; Lemberg, Marius K

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in PINK1 and PARK2/Parkin are a main risk factor for familial Parkinson disease. While the physiological mechanism of their activation is unclear, these proteins have been shown in tissue culture cells to serve as a key trigger for autophagy of depolarized mitochondria. Here we show that ablation of the mitochondrial rhomboid protease PARL leads to retrograde translocation of an intermembrane space-bridging PINK1 import intermediate. Subsequently, it is rerouted to the outer membrane in order to recruit PARK2, which phenocopies mitophagy induction by uncoupling agents. Consistent with a role of this retrograde translocation mechanism in neurodegenerative disease, we show that pathogenic PINK1 mutants which are not cleaved by PARL affect PINK1 kinase activity and the ability to induce PARK2-mediated mitophagy. Altogether we suggest that PARL is an important intrinsic player in mitochondrial quality control, a system substantially impaired in Parkinson disease as indicated by reduced removal of damaged mitochondria in affected patients. PMID:26101826

  14. [Diet therapy in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)].

    PubMed

    Cavallo-Perin, P; Bodoni, P; Marena, S

    1997-12-01

    The main approach in NIDDM therapy is diet. Most patients present insulin resistance characterized by overweight, VLDL increase, minimal increase of LDL, decrease of HDL cholesterol, and hypertension. The overall goals of nutrition therapy are the maintenance of near normal glucose levels, and the achievement of optimal serum lipid levels with adequate calories for maintaining or attaining a reasonable body weight. In presence of obesity and hypertension even a slightly weight loss could achieve an improvement in metabolic control and in hypertension with a better life expectance. General-ly carbohydrate intake would represent the 50-60% of total caloric amount (with preference to those with low glycemic index), and lipids no more than 35% (less than 10% of these 10-15% from monounsaturated fats with less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol). If elevated very low density lipoproteins level is the primary problem, a beneficial approach is 10% of total caloric intake from saturated fats, 10% from polyunsaturated, and 15-20% from monounsaturated fats with less than 200 mg/day of cholesterol and 40% of carbohydrates. A large amount of fructose (20% of calories) may increase LDL levels but sweeteners as saccarine or aspartame are approved and determine a better diet compliance. Daily consumpion of 20-35 g of dietary fibres from food sources is recommended for metabolic control. Protein intake would be of about 10% of total caloric amount especially in presence of diabetic nepropathy. Alcohol would not exceed 30 g/day for men and 20 g/day for women keeping in mild that alcohol may worsen metabolic control, diet compliance, and may be dangerous itself. For people with hypertension a decrease of dietary sodium intake is recommended. Nutritional recommendations are developed to meet treatment goals and desired outcomes. Monitoring metabolic parameters, blood pressure, and body weight is very important to ensure successful outcomes. PMID:16501444

  15. Park It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  16. [Case report of pentazocine dependence from a standpoint of the cognitive therapy].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akira; Tsuchida, Hideto; Kitabayashi, Yurinosuke; Tani, Naosuke; Yamashita, Tatsuhisa; Fukui, Kenji

    2004-10-01

    Drug dependence is a social problem of over the world and resistant to medical intervention by psychiatrist as well as general clinicians. In Japan, methamphetamine dependence is one of the most critical social problems, but opioid dependence is relatively rare. Pentazocine was called the non-addictive opioid at the time of development and release and there are few reports of its dependence. We experienced a medical worker with pentazocine dependence. He started to use pentazocine to reduce serious migraine and felled into dependence by changing the purpose to relaxation of stammering fear and strain towards other people. He was successfully treated by cognitive therapy. PMID:15573677

  17. Immunosurveillance and therapy of multiple myeloma are CD226 dependent.

    PubMed

    Guillerey, Camille; Ferrari de Andrade, Lucas; Vuckovic, Slavica; Miles, Kim; Ngiow, Shin Foong; Yong, Michelle C R; Teng, Michele W L; Colonna, Marco; Ritchie, David S; Chesi, Marta; Chesi, Martha; Bergsagel, P Leif; Hill, Geoffrey R; Smyth, Mark J; Martinet, Ludovic

    2015-05-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an age-dependent hematological malignancy. Evaluation of immune interactions that drive MM relies on in vitro experiments that do not reflect the complex cellular stroma involved in MM pathogenesis. Here we used Vk*MYC transgenic mice, which spontaneously develop MM, and demonstrated that the immune system plays a critical role in the control of MM progression and the response to treatment. We monitored Vk*MYC mice that had been crossed with Cd226 mutant mice over a period of 3 years and found that CD226 limits spontaneous MM development. The CD226-dependent anti-myeloma immune response against transplanted Vk*MYC MM cells was mediated both by NK and CD8+ T cells through perforin and IFN-γ pathways. Moreover, CD226 expression was required for optimal antimyeloma efficacy of cyclophosphamide (CTX) and bortezomib (Btz), which are both standardly used to manage MM in patients. Activation of costimulatory receptor CD137 with mAb (4-1BB) exerted strong antimyeloma activity, while inhibition of coinhibitory receptors PD-1 and CTLA-4 had no effect. Taken together, the results of this study provide in vivo evidence that CD226 is important for MM immunosurveillance and indicate that specific immune components should be targeted for optimal MM treatment efficacy. As progressive immunosuppression associates with MM development, strategies aimed to increase immune functions may have important therapeutic implications in MM. PMID:25893601

  18. A systematic review comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management for cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Farronato, Nadine S; Dürsteler-Macfarland, Kenneth M; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Petitjean, Sylvie A

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management for cocaine dependence. Contingency management alone reliably reduced cocaine use during active treatment in all cited trials, whereas the positive effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy emerged after treatment in 3 of 5 trials. Synergistic effects of the combination of contingency management plus cognitive-behavioral therapy are shown in 2 trials, but another 3 trials found no additive effects. Positive, rapid, and enduring effects on cocaine use are reliably seen with contingency management interventions, whereas measurable effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy emerge after treatment and are not as reliable as effects with contingency management. PMID:24074193

  19. Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budney, Alan J.; Moore, Brent A.; Rocha, Heath L.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2006-01-01

    Ninety cannabis-dependent adults seeking treatment were randomly assigned to receive cognitive-behavioral therapy, abstinence-based voucher incentives, or their combination. Treatment duration was 14 weeks, and outcomes were assessed for 12 months post treatment. Findings suggest that (a) abstinence-based vouchers were effective for engendering…

  20. The Role of Homework in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cocaine Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Vivian M.; Schmitz, Joy M.; DeLaune, Katherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effect of homework compliance on treatment outcome in 123 participants receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for cocaine dependence. Regression analyses revealed a significant relationship between homework compliance and cocaine use that was moderated by readiness to change. Homework compliance predicted less cocaine…

  1. Prize Reinforcement Contingency Management for Cocaine Dependence: Integration with Group Therapy in a Methadone Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Martin, Bonnie; Simcic, Francis

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated a low-cost contingency management (CM) procedure for reducing cocaine use and enhancing group therapy attendance in 77 cocaine-dependent methadone patients. Patients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of standard treatment or standard treatment with CM, in which patients earned the opportunity to win prizes…

  2. How Does Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Work with Opioid-Dependent Clients? Results of the UKCBTMM Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimtsidis, Christos; Reynolds, Martina; Coulton, Simon; Drummond, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Process research in psychotherapy is important to understand how treatment works. The National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines suggest that in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid dependence, drug key-working should be based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) principles. This article reports the findings…

  3. A Survey of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes—Part I: Therapies and Devices

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Xiao, Yang; Hu, Fei; Lewis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys diabetes therapies from telemedicine viewpoint. In type 1 diabetes therapies, the exogenous insulin replacement is generally considered as a primary treatment. However, the complete replacement of exogenous insulin is still a challenging issue because of its complexity of modeling the dynamics, which is typically modeled nonlinearly. On the other hand, thanks to the progress of medical devices, currently the diabetes therapies are being automated. These medical devices include automated insulin pumps and blood glucose sensors. Insulin pumps are designed to create artificial insulin perfusion while they largely rely on the blood glucose profile measurements and these measurements are achieved by one or more blood glucose sensors. The blood glucose measurements are also important for the insulin-dependent diabetes therapies. An insulin pump along with sensors establishes a good feedback system providing the appropriate amount of the exogenous insulin on demand. Controlling the amount of exogenous insulin to suppress the blood glucose levels requires complicated computations. This paper mostly explains both type 1 and 2 diabetes and their mechanisms accompanied by descriptions of diabetes therapy and medical devices currently utilized in the therapy. PMID:18437199

  4. Park Smart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Parking Garage Automation System (PGAS) is based on a technology developed by a NASA-sponsored project called Robot sensorSkin(TM). Merritt Systems, Inc., of Orlando, Florida, teamed up with NASA to improve robots working with critical flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The system, containing smart sensor modules and flexible printed circuit board skin, help robots to steer clear of obstacles using a proximity sensing system. Advancements in the sensor designs are being applied to various commercial applications, including the PGAS. The system includes a smartSensor(TM) network installed around and within public parking garages to autonomously guide motorists to open facilities, and once within, to free parking spaces. The sensors use non-invasive reflective-ultrasonic technology for high accuracy, high reliability, and low maintenance. The system is remotely programmable: it can be tuned to site-specific requirements, has variable range capability, and allows remote configuration, monitoring, and diagnostics. The sensors are immune to interference from metallic construction materials, such as rebar and steel beams. Inside the garage, smart routing signs mounted overhead or on poles in front of each row of parking spots guide the motorist precisely to free spaces.

  5. Hyperalgesia in Heroin Dependent Patients and the Effects of Opioid Substitution Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Peggy; Canamar, Catherine P.; Hillhouse, Maureen; Ling, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that patients on opiate maintenance therapy for the treatment of addiction present with opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). This study compared the experimental (cold-pressor, electrical stimulation) pain responses of 82 treatment-seeking heroin-dependent adults randomized to methadone (METH, n = 11) or buprenorphine (BUP, n = 64) therapy, with matched drug free controls (n = 21). Heroin-dependent participants were evaluated at baseline (treatment entry), medication (METH or BUP) stabilization (4-8 weeks), and chronic administration (12-18 weeks), at trough (just prior to dosing) and peak (3 hours after dosing) plasma levels. Collection of the control group’s pain responses occurred twice during a single session, three hours apart. Baseline comparisons indicate that heroin-dependent individuals demonstrate significantly shorter latencies to threshold and tolerance for cold-pressor pain than the control group. Across pain stimuli and time points, little change in pain responses were found over time, the exception being cold pressor pain tolerance, for which hyperalgesia significantly increased at trough METH/BUP levels in both groups as they stabilized in treatment. We conclude that heroin-dependent individuals are hyperalgesic, and that once stabilized in treatment, are not different in pain responses regardless of treatment agent. The effects of non-pharmacologic therapy and previous heroin use may explain increased hyperalgesia found with treatment. Perspective To better understand the clinical phenomenon of OIH, this article describes experimental pain responses of heroin-dependent participants both prior to and over the course of maintenance therapy with methadone or buprenorphine. Hyperalgesia is present with illicit and treatment opioid use, and does not appear to appreciably improve over the course of treatment. PMID:22424799

  6. Iron chelation therapy in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients: current strategies and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Antoine N; Harb, Afif R; Taher, Ali T

    2015-01-01

    Transfusional iron overload is a major target in the care of patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) and other refractory anemias. Iron accumulates in the liver, heart, and endocrine organs leading to a wide array of complications. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the approved iron chelators, deferoxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox, and the evidence behind the use of each, as monotherapy or as part of combination therapy. We also review the different guidelines on iron chelation in TDT. This review also discusses future prospects and directions in the treatment of transfusional iron overload in TDT whether through innovation in chelation or other therapies, such as novel agents that improve transfusion dependence. PMID:26124688

  7. EGFR signaling and autophagy dependence for growth, survival, and therapy resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jutten, Barry; Rouschop, Kasper MA

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is amplified or mutated in various human epithelial tumors. Its expression and activation leads to cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Consistently, EGFR amplification or expression of EGFR variant 3 (EGFRvIII) is associated with resistance to conventional cancer therapy through activation of pro-survival signaling and DNA-repair mechanisms. EGFR targeting has successfully been exploited as strategy to increase treatment efficacy. Nevertheless, these targeting strategies have only been proven effective in a limited percentage of human tumors.   Recent knowledge indicates that EGFR deregulated tumors display differences in autophagy and dependence on autophagy for growth and survival and the use of autophagy to increase resistance to EGFR-targeting drugs. In this review the dependency on autophagy and its role in mediating resistance to EGFR-targeting agents will be discussed. Considering the current knowledge, autophagy inhibition could provide a novel strategy to enhance therapy efficacy in treatment of EGFR deregulated tumors. PMID:24335351

  8. Traditional therapies and the treatment of drug dependence in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Spencer, C P; Heggenhougen, H K; Navaratnam, V

    1980-01-01

    Many countries in Southeast Asia have the experience of traditional treatments of drug dependence, or have healers who are extending traditional methods to meet contemporary needs. Some treatments, for example those used in some Buddhist monasteries in Thailand and clinics in Japan, rely upon the philosophical and religious traditions of the country; others come closer to faith healing and magic in their practices; and many use herbal preparations during detoxification and afterwards, as well as offering spiritual or secular therapy. This paper argues that careful evaluation be made of the methods and outcome of these traditional treatments of drug dependence and summarizes some of the evidence so far published. PMID:7211743

  9. Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors for liver-directed gene therapy of primary hyperoxaluria type 1.

    PubMed

    Castello, R; Borzone, R; D'Aria, S; Annunziata, P; Piccolo, P; Brunetti-Pierri, N

    2016-02-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an inborn error of liver metabolism due to deficiency of the peroxisomal enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), which catalyzes conversion of glyoxylate into glycine. AGT deficiency results in overproduction of oxalate that ultimately leads to end-stage renal disease and death. Organ transplantation as either preemptive liver transplantation or combined liver/kidney transplantation is the only available therapy to prevent disease progression. Gene therapy is an attractive option to provide an alternative treatment for PH1. Toward this goal, we investigated helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vectors for liver-directed gene therapy of PH1. Compared with saline controls, AGT-deficient mice injected with an HDAd encoding the AGT under the control of a liver-specific promoter showed a significant reduction of hyperoxaluria and less increase of urinary oxalate following challenge with ethylene glycol, a precursor of glyoxylate. These studies may thus pave the way to clinical application of HDAd for PH1 gene therapy. PMID:26609667

  10. Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors for liver-directed gene therapy of primary hyperoxaluria type 1

    PubMed Central

    Castello, Raffaele; Borzone, Roberta; D’Aria, Stefania; Annunziata, Patrizia; Piccolo, Pasquale; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an inborn error of liver metabolism due to deficiency of the peroxisomal enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) which catalyzes conversion of glyoxylate into glycine. AGT deficiency results in overproduction of oxalate which ultimately leads to end-stage renal disease and death. Organ transplantation as either preemptive liver transplantation or combined liver/kidney transplantation is the only available therapy to prevent disease progression. Gene therapy is an attractive option to provide an alternative treatment for PH1. Towards this goal, we investigated helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vectors for liver-directed gene therapy of PH1. Compared to saline controls, AGT-deficient mice injected with an HDAd encoding the AGT under the control of a liver-specific promoter showed a significant reduction of hyperoxaluria and less increase of urinary oxalate following challenge with Ethylene Glycol (EG), a precursor of glyoxylate. These studies may thus pave the way to clinical application of HDAd for PH1 gene therapy. PMID:26609667

  11. VIRTUAL REALITY CUE EXPOSURE THERAPY FOR THE TREATMENT OF TOBACCO DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Culbertson, Christopher S.; Shulenberger, Stephanie; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F.; Brody, Arthur L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians have recently begun using Virtual Reality (VR) to create immersive and interactive cue exposure paradigms. The current study aimed to assess the effectiveness of individual cue exposure therapy (CET), using smoking-related VR cues (smoking-VR) as a smoking cessation treatment compared to a placebo-VR (neutral cue) treatment. The sample consisted of healthy treatment-seeking cigarette smokers, who underwent bi-weekly cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBT) plus either smoking-VR CET or placebo-VR CET (random assignment). Smoking-VR CET participants had a higher quit rate than placebo-VR CET participants (P = 0.015). Smoking-VR CET treated participants also reported smoking significantly fewer cigarettes per day at the end of treatment than placebo-VR CET treated participants (P = 0.034). These data indicate that smoking-related VR CET may prove useful in enhancing the efficacy of CBT treatment for tobacco dependence. PMID:25342999

  12. Randomized Trial of Dual-Focused versus Single-Focused Individual Therapy for Personality Disorders and Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Samuel A.; Maccarelli, Lisa M.; LaPaglia, Donna M.; Ostrowski, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a randomized comparison of Dual Focus Schema Therapy with Individual Drug Counseling as enhancements to residential treatment for 105 substance dependent patients with versus without specific personality disorders. Both therapies were manual-guided and delivered for 6 months by experienced psychotherapists intensively trained and supervised with independent fidelity assessment. Using Cox Proportional Hazards, we found no psychotherapy differences in retention (days in treatment). Hierarchical Linear Modeling indicated that personality disordered participants started with higher psychiatric, interpersonal, and dysphoria symptoms, and both therapies reduced symptoms over 6 months. Contrary to predictions, Individual Drug Counseling resulted in more sustained reductions than Dual Focus Schema Therapy in several symptoms for several personality disorders. Our findings raised important questions about the added value of integrative or dual-focus therapies for co-occurring personality disorders and substance dependence relative to empirically supported therapies focused more specifically on addiction symptoms. PMID:21543951

  13. Economics of dialysis dependence following renal replacement therapy for critically ill acute kidney injury patients

    PubMed Central

    Ethgen, Olivier; Schneider, Antoine G.; Bagshaw, Sean M.; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Kellum, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The obective of this study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing intermittent with continuous renal replacement therapy (IRRT versus CRRT) as initial therapy for acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods Assuming some patients would potentially be eligible for either modality, we modeled life year gained, the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and healthcare costs for a cohort of 1000 IRRT patients and a cohort of 1000 CRRT patients. We used a 1-year, 5-year and a lifetime horizon. A Markov model with two health states for AKI survivors was designed: dialysis dependence and dialysis independence. We applied Weibull regression from published estimates to fit survival curves for CRRT and IRRT patients and to fit the proportion of dialysis dependence among CRRT and IRRT survivors. We then applied a risk ratio reported in a large retrospective cohort study to the fitted CRRT estimates in order to determine the proportion of dialysis dependence for IRRT survivors. We conducted sensitivity analyses based on a range of differences for daily implementation cost between CRRT and IRRT (base case: CRRT day $632 more expensive than IRRT day; range from $200 to $1000) and a range of risk ratios for dialysis dependence for CRRT as compared with IRRT (from 0.65 to 0.95; base case: 0.80). Results Continuous renal replacement therapy was associated with a marginally greater gain in QALY as compared with IRRT (1.093 versus 1.078). Despite higher upfront costs for CRRT in the ICU ($4046 for CRRT versus $1423 for IRRT in average), the 5-year total cost including the cost of dialysis dependence was lower for CRRT ($37 780 for CRRT versus $39 448 for IRRT on average). The base case incremental cost-effectiveness analysis showed that CRRT dominated IRRT. This dominance was confirmed by extensive sensitivity analysis. Conclusions Initial CRRT is cost-effective compared with initial IRRT by reducing the rate of long-term dialysis

  14. The Use of Contingency Management and Motivational/Skills-Building Therapy to Treat Young Adults with Marijuana Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Easton, Caroline J.; Nich, Charla; Hunkele, Karen A.; Neavins, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Ford, Haley L.; Vitolo, Sally A.; Doebrick, Cheryl A.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2006-01-01

    Marijuana-dependent young adults (N = 136), all referred by the criminal justice system, were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment conditions: a motivational/skills-building intervention (motivational enhancement therapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy; MET/CBT) plus incentives contingent on session attendance or submission of marijuana-free urine…

  15. Dependence of simulated positron emitter yields in ion beam cancer therapy on modeling nuclear fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Lühr, Armin; Priegnitz, Marlen; Fiedler, Fine; Sobolevsky, Nikolai; Bassler, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In ion beam cancer therapy, range verification in patients using positron emission tomography (PET) requires the comparison of measured with simulated positron emitter yields. We found that (1) changes in modeling nuclear interactions strongly affected the positron emitter yields and that (2) Monte Carlo simulations with SHIELD-HIT10Areasonably matched the most abundant PET isotopes (11)C and (15)O. We observed an ion-energy (i.e., depth) dependence of the agreement between SHIELD-HIT10Aand measurement. Improved modeling requires more accurate measurements of cross-section values. PMID:23352823

  16. PSYCHO-EDUCATIONAL GROUP THERAPY FOR ALCOHOL AND DRUG DEPENDENCE RECOVERY

    PubMed Central

    Chandiramani, Kishore; Tripathi, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY A brief psychosocial intervention model for alcohol and drug dependence recovery has been evolved in the form of psycho-educational group therapy. The package comprises of eight sessions conducted thrice a week over a period of about three weeks following detoxification. It aims to equip the patients with information and knowledge relevant to the needs of recovery. The program covers topics such as craving and relapse, medical complications, treatment process and recovery, family, social and job problems and structuring free time. Apart from achieving abstinence, the objectives of the program include enhancing functioning in personal, social and professional spheres by developing healthy and intimate relationships and promoting alternate activities. PMID:21743631

  17. National Environmental Research Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

  18. Medication reconciliation and therapy management in dialysis-dependent patients: need for a systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Pai, Amy Barton; Cardone, Katie E; Manley, Harold J; St Peter, Wendy L; Shaffer, Rachel; Somers, Michael; Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2013-11-01

    Patients with ESRD undergoing dialysis have highly complex medication regimens and disproportionately higher total cost of care compared with the general Medicare population. As shown by several studies, dialysis-dependent patients are at especially high risk for medication-related problems. Providing medication reconciliation and therapy management services is critically important to avoid costs associated with medication-related problems, such as adverse drug events and hospitalizations in the ESRD population. The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 included an unfunded mandate stipulating that medication therapy management be offered to high-risk patients enrolled in Medicare Part D. Medication management services are distinct from the dispensing of medications and involve a complete medication review for all disease states. The dialysis facility is a logical coordination center for medication management services, like medication therapy management, and it is likely the first health care facility that a patient will present to after a care transition. A dedicated and adequately trained clinician, such as a pharmacist, is needed to provide consistent, high-quality medication management services. Medication reconciliation and medication management services that could consistently and systematically identify and resolve medication-related problems would be likely to improve ESRD patient outcomes and reduce total cost of care. Herein, this work provides a review of available evidence and recommendations for optimal delivery of medication management services to ESRD patients in a dialysis facility-centered model. PMID:23990162

  19. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy Compared to the Usual Opioid Dependence Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Saeed; Atef Vahid, Mohammad Kazem; Gharraee, Banafsheh; Noroozi, Alireza; Habibi, Mojtaba; Bowen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based group therapy (MBGT) compared to the usual opioid dependence treatment (TAU).Thirty outpatients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for opioid dependence from Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS) were randomly assigned into experimental (Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy) and control groups (the Usual Treatment).The experimental group undertook eight weeks of intervention, but the control group received the usual treatment according to the INCAS program. Methods: The Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Addiction Sevier Index (ASI) were administered at pre-treatment and post-treatment assessment periods. Thirteen patients from the experimental group and 15 from the control group completed post-test assessments. Results: The results of MANCOVA revealed an increase in mean scores in observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging, non-reacting, and decrease in mean scores of alcohol and opium in MBGT patient group. Conclusion: The effectiveness of MBGT, compared to the usual treatment, was discussed in this paper as a selective protocol in the health care setting for substance use disorders. PMID:26877751

  20. Activity dependent therapies modulate the spinal changes that motoneurons suffer after a peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Torres-Espín, Abel; Navarro, Xavier; Udina, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Injury of a peripheral nerve not only leads to target denervation, but also induces massive stripping of spinal synapses on axotomized motoneurons, with disruption of spinal circuits. Even when regeneration is successful, unspecific reinnervation and the limited reconnection of the spinal circuits impair functional recovery. The aim of this study was to describe the changes that axotomized motoneurons suffer after peripheral nerve injury and how activity-dependent therapies and neurotrophic factors can modulate these events. We observed a marked decrease in glutamatergic synapses, with a maximum peak at two weeks post-axotomy, which was only partially reversed with time. This decrease was accompanied by an increase in gephyrin immunoreactivity and a disintegration of perineuronal nets (PNNs) surrounding the motoneurons. Direct application of neurotrophins at the proximal stump was not able to reverse these effects. In contrast, activity-dependent treatment, in the form of treadmill running, reduced the observed destructuring of perineuronal nets and the loss of glutamatergic synapses two weeks after injury. These changes were proportional to the intensity of the exercise protocol. Blockade of sensory inputs from the homolateral hindlimb also reduced PNN immunoreactivity around intact motoneurons, and in that case treadmill running did not reverse that loss, suggesting that the effects of exercise on motoneuron PNN depend on increased sensory activity. Preservation of motoneuron PNN and reduction of synaptic stripping by exercise could facilitate the maintenance of the spinal circuitry and benefit functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25448160

  1. [Is the availability of buprenorphine/naloxone therapy for opioid-dependent inmates a necessity? ].

    PubMed

    Marco, A; López-Burgos, A; García-Marcos, L; Gallego, C; Antón, J J; Errasti, A

    2013-02-01

    Agonist therapy (OAT) programs in combination with a psychosocial approach are the most effective way to prevent relapse in opioid-dependent patients. These programs reduce morbidity and risk behaviours for HIV transmission and other infections, improve quality of life and retention in treatment, and have a positive impact on antisocial behaviour. They are therefore very useful for prisoners with a history of opiate use. OATs based on buprenorphine/naloxone (B/N), along with others using methadone, are currently available in Spain. Diversified treatment offers an alternative treatment for opioid dependence that is more personalized and tailored to the patient's characteristics. As regards effectiveness, both drugs are very similar, but B/N shows a better safety profile and fewer drug-drug interactions and can be dispensed in pharmacies once the patient is released, which can assist with the patient' social reintegration. B/N treatment is more expensive than methadone. It is advisable to have different modes of OAT. These should be prescribed according to the characteristics and needs of each case, without incarceration impeding the right to drug treatment, which should be similar to that performed outside prison. PMID:24270319

  2. Marriage of scintillator and semiconductor for synchronous radiotherapy and deep photodynamic therapy with diminished oxygen dependence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Zhao, Kuaile; Bu, Wenbo; Ni, Dalong; Liu, Yanyan; Feng, Jingwei; Shi, Jianlin

    2015-02-01

    Strong oxygen dependence and limited penetration depth are the two major challenges facing the clinical application of photodynamic therapy (PDT). In contrast, ionizing radiation is too penetrative and often leads to inefficient radiotherapy (RT) in the clinic because of the lack of effective energy accumulation in the tumor region. Inspired by the complementary advantages of PDT and RT, we present herein the integration of a scintillator and a semiconductor as an ionizing-radiation-induced PDT agent, achieving synchronous radiotherapy and depth-insensitive PDT with diminished oxygen dependence. In the core-shell Ce(III)-doped LiYF4@SiO2@ZnO structure, the downconverted ultraviolet fluorescence from the Ce(III)-doped LiYF4 nanoscintillator under ionizing irradiation enables the generation of electron-hole (e(-)-h(+)) pairs in ZnO nanoparticles, giving rise to the formation of biotoxic hydroxyl radicals. This process is analogous to a type I PDT process for enhanced antitumor therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25483028

  3. Yellowstone Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen years after devastating forest fires burned over 1.6 million acres in Yellowstone National Park, the scars are still evident. In this simulated natural color ASTER image, burned areas appear gray, in contrast to the dark green of unburned forests. The image covers an area of 60 x 63 km. This image was acquired on July 2, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the

  4. Pharmacological management of alcohol dependence: from mono-therapy to pharmacogenetics and beyond.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Fabio; Vignoli, Teo; Grignaschi, Alice; Cibin, Mauro; Addolorato, Giovanni; Bernardi, Mauro

    2014-02-01

    Almost 10% of the world's population is affected by alcohol use disorders, and the treatment of alcohol dependence (AD) still remains a challenge. Patients with AD can differ in many traits. Three drugs (disulfiram, naltrexone, and acamprosate) have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of AD, and in some European countries sodium oxybate is also approved for this purpose. Combined pharmacological therapy has not provided such convincing results. Considering the fact that the "ideal" and effective drug for all types of alcoholic patients does not exists, the future challenge will be to identify a personalized approach. Recent data has shown that this objective can be achieved by investigating the genetic variability of the patient. Moreover, the use of replacement molecules can probably be considered an advantageous therapeutic opportunity (i.e. sodium oxybate). In addition, reduction of alcohol consumption is increasingly accepted as a viable treatment goal, and the use of nalmefene "as-needed" (a pharmacological approach similar to naltrexone, but, possibly, with lower hepatotoxicity) may help in the treatment of AD. Thus, it is important to stress that a pharmacological approach to treat AD should be preceded by the definition of patient characteristics; this may help in the choice of the most appropriate drug and it can be done more easily when more pharmacological options approved for the treatment of AD are also available. PMID:24182622

  5. State-dependent block of HERG potassium channels by R-roscovitine: implications for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Sindura B.; Kester, Mark; Elmslie, Keith S.

    2009-01-01

    Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) potassium channel acts as a delayed rectifier in cardiac myocytes and is an important target for both pro- and antiarrhythmic drugs. Many drugs have been pulled from the market for unintended HERG block causing arrhythmias. Conversely, recent evidence has shown that HERG plays a role in cell proliferation and is overexpressed both in multiple tumor cell lines and in primary tumor cells, which makes HERG an attractive target for cancer treatment. Therefore, a drug that can block HERG but that does not induce cardiac arrhythmias would have great therapeutic potential. Roscovitine is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that is in phase II clinical trials as an anticancer agent. In the present study we show that R-roscovitine blocks HERG potassium current (human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably expressing HERG) at clinically relevant concentrations. The block (IC50 = 27 μM) was rapid (τ = 20 ms) and reversible (τ = 25 ms) and increased with channel activation, which supports an open channel mechanism. Kinetic study of wild-type and inactivation mutant HERG channels supported block of activated channels by roscovitine with relatively little effect on either closed or inactivated channels. A HERG gating model reproduced all roscovitine effects. Our model of open channel block by roscovitine may offer an explanation of the lack of arrhythmias in clinical trials using roscovitine, which suggests the utility of a dual CDK/HERG channel block as an adjuvant cancer therapy. PMID:19244476

  6. [HORMONALLY-GENETICALLY DEPENDENT THERAPY, USING VITAMIN K IN PATIENTS, SUFFERING THE ULCER HEMORRHAGE].

    PubMed

    Duzhyi, I D; Kharchenko, S V

    2016-04-01

    Pathophysiological mechanisms of the vitamin K impact, including those in the gut with ulcerative affection, are studied still insufficiently. Investigations of pharmacogenomics of the vitamin K gives a new approach to therapy in patients, suffering gastro-intestinal hemorrhage. Possibilities of titration of the vitamin K3 (menadione) doses, depending on level of estrogenemia and genetic constitution, concerning genes-candidates ESR1 (rs2234693) and VKORC1 (rs9923231), were studied. There were examined 36 patients, who were treated for the ulcer hemorrhage. The blood serum concentration of estradiol was investigated in accordance to method of solid phase enzyme immunoassay, the genotyping procedure was performed in accordance to indices of polymerase chain reaction with analysis of the restrictional fragments length. The initial daily dose of menadione have constituted 20 mg. After a genotype determination made (first-second day after admittance to hospital) in patients with normoestrogenemia in genotypes CC/GG, CC/GA, CT/GG, CT/GA a vitaminotherapy was prolonged in daily dose of 20 mg, and in a conditionally-pathological variant of genotype the dose of vitamin K was enhanced up to 30 mg. Determination of hormones and the patients' genetic constitution makes possible to apply a personified approach for the vitamin K3 application in the ulcerative hemorrhage. PMID:27434945

  7. When to consider transfusion therapy for patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Taher, A T; Radwan, A; Viprakasit, V

    2015-01-01

    Non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) refers to all thalassaemia disease phenotypes that do not require regular blood transfusions for survival. Thalassaemia disorders were traditionally concentrated along the tropical belt stretching from sub-Saharan Africa through the Mediterranean region and the Middle East to South and South-East Asia, but global migration has led to increased incidence in North America and Northern Europe. Transfusionists may be familiar with β-thalassaemia major because of the lifelong transfusions needed by these patients. Although patients with NTDT do not require regular transfusions for survival, they may require transfusions in some instances such as pregnancy, infection or growth failure. The complications associated with NTDT can be severe if not properly managed, and many are directly related to chronic anaemia. Awareness of NTDT is important, and this review will outline the factors that should be taken into consideration when deciding whether to initiate and properly plan for transfusion therapy in these patients in terms of transfusion interval and duration of treatment. PMID:25286743

  8. Schedule Dependence in Cancer Therapy: Intravenous Vitamin C and the Systemic Saturation Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Miranda Massari, Jorge R.; Duconge, Jorge; Riordan, Neil H.; Ichim, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant number of in vitro and in vivo studies to assess vitamin C effects on cancer following the application of large doses and its extensive use by alternative medicine practitioners in the USA; the precise schedule for successful cancer therapy is still unknown. Based on interpretation of the available data, we postulate that the relationship between Vitamin C doses and plasma concentration x time, the capability of tissue stores upon distribution, and the saturable mechanism of urinary excretion are all important determinants to understand the physiology of high intravenous vitamin C dose administration and its effect on cancer. Practitioners should pay more attention to the cumulative vitamin C effect instead of the vitamin C concentrations to account for observed discrepancy in antitumor response. We suggest that multiple, intermittent, short-term intravenous infusions of vitamin C over a longer time period will correlate with greater antitumor effects than do single continuous IV doses of the same total exposure. This approach would be expected to minimize saturation of renal reabsorption, providing a continuous “dynamic flow” of vitamin C in the body for optimal systemic exposure and clinical outcomes. This prevents the “systemic saturation” phenomena, which may recycle vitamin C and render it less effective as an anticancer agent. Nonetheless, more pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies are needed to fully understand this schedule-dependence phenomenon. PMID:24860238

  9. The history and future of targeting cyclin-dependent kinases in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Uzma; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K.; Turner, Nicholas C.; Knudsen, Erik S.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer represents a pathological manifestation of uncontrolled cell division; therefore, it has long been anticipated that our understanding of the basic principles of cell cycle control would result in effective cancer therapies. In particular, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) that promote transition through the cell cycle were expected to be key therapeutic targets because many tumorigenic events ultimately drive proliferation by impinging on CDK4 or CDK6 complexes in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Moreover, perturbations in chromosomal stability and aspects of S phase and G2/M control mediated by CDK2 and CDK1 are pivotal tumorigenic events. Translating this knowledge into successful clinical development of CDK inhibitors has historically been challenging, and numerous CDK inhibitors have demonstrated disappointing results in clinical trials. Here, we review the biology of CDKs, the rationale for therapeutically targeting discrete kinase complexes and historical clinical results of CDK inhibitors. We also discuss how CDK inhibitors with high selectivity (particularly for both CDK4 and CDK6), in combination with patient stratification, have resulted in more substantial clinical activity. PMID:25633797

  10. Glucose-dependent acetylation of Rictor promotes targeted cancer therapy resistance

    PubMed Central

    Masui, Kenta; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Ikegami, Shiro; Villa, Genaro R.; Yang, Huijun; Yong, William H.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Yamagata, Kanato; Arai, Nobutaka; Cavenee, Webster K.; Mischel, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells adapt their signaling in response to nutrient availability. To uncover the mechanisms regulating this process and its functional consequences, we interrogated cell lines, mouse tumor models, and clinical samples of glioblastoma (GBM), the highly lethal brain cancer. We discovered that glucose or acetate is required for epidermal growth factor receptor vIII (EGFRvIII), the most common growth factor receptor mutation in GBM, to activate mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) and promote tumor growth. Glucose or acetate promoted growth factor receptor signaling through acetyl-CoA–dependent acetylation of Rictor, a core component of the mTORC2 signaling complex. Remarkably, in the presence of elevated glucose levels, Rictor acetylation is maintained to form an autoactivation loop of mTORC2 even when the upstream components of the growth factor receptor signaling pathway are no longer active, thus rendering GBMs resistant to EGFR-, PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-, or AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog)-targeted therapies. These results demonstrate that elevated nutrient levels can drive resistance to targeted cancer treatments and nominate mTORC2 as a central node for integrating growth factor signaling with nutrient availability in GBM. PMID:26170313

  11. Kruger National Park

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... images of northeastern South Africa, near Kruger National Park, were acquired on September 7, 2000. The left image shows an 85-kilometer ... Sep 7, 2000 Images:  Kruger Park location:  Africa thumbnail:  ...

  12. Effects of Forgiveness Therapy on Anger, Mood, and Vulnerability to Substance Use among Inpatient Substance-Dependent Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Wei-Fen; Mack, David; Enright, Robert D.; Krahn, Dean; Baskin, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    Anger and related emotions have been identified as triggers in substance use. Forgiveness therapy (FT) targets anger, anxiety, and depression as foci of treatment. Fourteen patients with substance dependence from a local residential treatment facility were randomly assigned to and completed either 12 approximately twice-weekly sessions of…

  13. NATIONAL PARK BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Park Service has produced a data base of boundaries for its National Parks. A copy of this data was downloaded from the National Parks Service ftp site by Region 10. These digital boundaries represent the best guess and data that could be collected in a short time....

  14. PARKING PROGRAMS FOR UNIVERSITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KINNE, W.S., JR.

    PARKING FACILITIES WERE SURVEYED AT 83 REPRESENTATIVE UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES, AND THE METHODS USED IN ADMINISTERING, CONTROLLING AND FINANCING WERE EVALUTED. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS WERE MADE CONCERNING (1) THE LOCATION AND DESIGN OF PARKING LOTS AND GARAGES, (2) THE PRACTICE OF CURB PARKING ON CAMPUS, AND (3) THE FINANCING OF PARKING…

  15. Parks In Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Sally-Jo

    1998-01-01

    More than 50 National Park Service (NPS) sites interpret Native cultures or early Native contact with Europeans. In about 30 of those, American Indians, Alaska Natives, or Native Hawaiians, in partnership with the NPS, present their own heritage and issues. Describes Native-run aspects of Sitka National Historical Park, Glacier National Park, and…

  16. Orienting Park Visitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormrod, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    To utilize park facilities to their fullest, visitors must be well-oriented to the park's physical layout. The results of a study undertaken at Rocky Mountain National Park indicate that information should be readily accessible and easy to use. (DF)

  17. Using Relationship Enhancement Therapy with an Adolescent with Serious Mental Illness and Substance Dependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accordino, Michael P.; Keat, Donald B., II; Guerney, Bernard G., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Relationship Enhancement (RE) therapy can be a useful intervention for adolescents with serious mental illness and their family members. This article reviews the basic concepts and effectiveness of RE therapy and illustrates how it is implemented. Presents a case example and discusses implications for research and mental health counseling.…

  18. Small molecule modulators of cyclin-dependent kinases for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Senderowicz, A M

    2000-12-27

    The majority of human malignancies have aberrancies in the Retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway. Loss in Rb function results from the phosphorylation and inactivation of Rb by the cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks), main regulators of cell cycle progression. Thus, modulators of cdks may have a role in the treatment of human malignancies. Flavopiridol, the first cdk modulator tested in clinical trials, demonstrates interesting preclinical features: cell cycle block, induction of apoptosis, promotion of differentiation, inhibition of angiogenic processes and modulation of transcriptional events. Initial clinical trials with infusional flavopiridol demonstrated activity in some patients with lymphomas and renal, colon gastric carcinomas. Main side effects were diarrhea and hypotension. Phase 2 trials with infusional flavopiridol, other schedules and combination with standard chemotherapies are ongoing. The second cdk modulator tested in clinical trials, UCN-01, is a PKC inhibitor that can also modulate cdk activity. Similar to flavopiridol, UCN-01 blocks cell cycle progression and promotes apoptosis. Moreover, UCN-01 may abrogate checkpoints induced by genotoxic stress due to inhibition of chk1 kinase. The first clinical trial of UCN-01 demonstrated very prolonged half-life (approximately 600 h), due to high binding affinity of UCN-01 to the human alpha-1-acid glycoprotein. Main side effects were headaches, vomiting, hypoxemia and hyperglycemia. Clinical activity was observed in some patients with melanoma and lymphoma. Trials of shorter infusions of UCN-01 or in combination with standard chemotherapeutic agents are ongoing. Although several important basic and clinical questions remain unanswered, development of cdk modulators is a reasonable strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:11426645

  19. Dose dependency of outcomes of intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy in new rabbit empyema models.

    PubMed

    Komissarov, Andrey A; Florova, Galina; Azghani, Ali O; Buchanan, Ann; Boren, Jake; Allen, Timothy; Rahman, Najib M; Koenig, Kathleen; Chamiso, Mignote; Karandashova, Sophia; Henry, James; Idell, Steven

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of empyema (EMP) is increasing worldwide; EMP generally occurs with pleural loculation and impaired drainage is often treated with intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy (IPFT) or surgery. A number of IPFT options are used clinically with empiric dosing and variable outcomes in adults. To evaluate mechanisms governing intrapleural fibrinolysis and disease outcomes, models of Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus pneumoniae were generated in rabbits and the animals were treated with either human tissue (tPA) plasminogen activator or prourokinase (scuPA). Rabbit EMP was characterized by the development of pleural adhesions detectable by chest ultrasonography and fibrinous coating of the pleura. Similar to human EMP, rabbits with EMP accumulated sizable, 20- to 40-ml fibrinopurulent pleural effusions associated with extensive intrapleural organization, significantly increased pleural thickness, suppression of fibrinolytic and plasminogen-activating activities, and accumulation of high levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, plasminogen, and extracellular DNA. IPFT with tPA (0.145 mg/kg) or scuPA (0.5 mg/kg) was ineffective in rabbit EMP (n = 9 and 3 for P. multocida and S. pneumoniae, respectively); 2 mg/kg tPA or scuPA IPFT (n = 5) effectively cleared S. pneumoniae-induced EMP collections in 24 h with no bleeding observed. Although intrapleural fibrinolytic activity for up to 40 min after IPFT was similar for effective and ineffective doses of fibrinolysin, it was lower for tPA than for scuPA treatments. These results demonstrate similarities between rabbit and human EMP, the importance of pleural fluid PAI-1 activity, and levels of plasminogen in the regulation of intrapleural fibrinolysis and illustrate the dose dependency of IPFT outcomes in EMP. PMID:27343192

  20. Comparing Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy With Treatment as Usual for Opioid Dependents: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Saeed; Atef Vahid, Mohammad Kazem; Gharraee, Banafsheh; Habibi, Mojtaba; Bowen, Sarah; Noroozi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: In response to high burden of opioid abuse in Iran, Ministry of Health has launched a large-scale opioid maintenance treatment program, delivered through a network of certified drug treatment centers. To promote opioid pharmacotherapies, there is an urgent need to develop and introduce evidence-based psychosocial interventions into the network. Patients and Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to investigate feasibility and effectiveness of adding mindfulness-based group therapy to opioid pharmacotherapies as compared to opioid pharmacotherapies alone. The primary outcomes were treatment retention and percentage of weekly morphine, methamphetamine, and benzodiazepine negative tests. Discussion: This is the first RCT that explores the effectiveness of mindfulness-based relapse prevention group therapy among opioid dependent clients in Iran. The feasibility of group therapy and comparison of outcomes in intervention and control groups should be discussed in the outcome article. PMID:26251659

  1. [Risk factors for substance abuse and dependence in opioid therapy for chronic noncancer-related pain].

    PubMed

    Jage, J; Willweber-Strumpf, A; Maier, C

    2005-10-01

    Opioids are valuable analgesics, capable of providing pain relief and functional improvement not only in patients with cancer-related pain, but also in chronic noncancer-related pain patients. However, recent data have shown that the increasing prescription of opioids is associated with a rise in aberrant drug-related behaviour. The causes of this behaviour are multifactorial. Some pharmacotherapeutic, but in particular psychosocial risk and etiologic pain factors have been identified. The indication for the prescription of opioids must be very carefully weighed in the presence of any risk factors. In these cases the integration into a multimodal, interdisciplinary therapy programme is mandatory. A contractual agreement on the opioid therapy including goals, side effects, controls including urine drug testing and criteria to finish the opioid therapy are advisable. Assessment of the progress of therapy is based on the following factors: analgesic efficacy, adverse side effects, functional status and aberrant drug-related behaviour. In the absence of a successful opioid therapy, the treatment must be discontinued to avoid iatrogenic damage, substance abuse and illegal diversion. After discontinuation of the therapy, a comprehensive interdisciplinary re-evaluation is required. PMID:16133301

  2. Multiple Roles of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4/6 Inhibitors in Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Patrick J.; Bisi, John E.; Strum, Jay C.; Combest, Austin J.; Darr, David B.; Usary, Jerry E.; Zamboni, William C.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Perou, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    carboplatin plus PD0332991 decreased antitumor activity compared with carboplatin alone in Rb-competent mice (mean percent change in tumor volume at day 21 = −52.6% vs 3.7% for carboplatin and carboplatin plus PD0332991, respectively, difference = 56.3%, 95% CI = −109.0% to −3.6%, P = .04). In contrast, Rb-deficient tumors in C3-Tag mice were resistant to PD0332991, and coadministration of PD0332991 plus carboplatin had no effect on in vivo tumor growth (mean percent change in tumor volume at day 21 = 118.8% and 109.1% for carboplatin and carboplatin plus PD0332991, respectively, difference = 9.7%, 95% CI = −183.5% to 202.9%, P = .92). Finally, in tumor-bearing mice, coadministration of PD0332991 with carboplatin provided statistically significant protection of platelets (P = .04). Conclusion We believe that the present data support a possible role for CDK4/6 inhibitors in a majority of patients with advanced cancer: to either inhibit tumor growth in CDK4/6-dependent tumors or ameliorate the dose-limiting toxicities of chemotherapy in CDK4/6-indepdendent tumors. Our data also suggest CDK4/6 inhibitors should not be combined with DNA-damaging therapies, such as carboplatin, to treat tumors that require CDK4/6 activity for proliferation. PMID:22302033

  3. Parks, Recreation and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the…

  4. [Neuroleptic therapy of comorbid narcotic dependent patients in ambulatory methadone maintenance].

    PubMed

    Unglaub, Willi; Kandel, Michael; Zenner, Dirk; Wodarz, Norbert; Klein, Helmfried

    2003-05-01

    Methadon maintenance therapy with opiate addicts who suffer from a comorbid schizophrenia in an outpatient treatment setting of a psychiatric hospital is described. We examined five patients looking for periods of inpatient treatment, drug free urine tests, social integration and illegal activities before and after neuroleptic treatment. In comparison with standard neuroleptics patients show under the therapy with atypical neuroleptics better outcome in drug urine tests especially concerning cannabis and benzodiazepines. According to these findings, the best improvements seem to occur with a combination of methadone and clozapine. PMID:14509056

  5. [Indicators of course of inpatient therapy in offenders with substance dependency].

    PubMed

    Fries, D; Endrass, J; Ridinger, M; Urbaniok, F; Rossegger, A

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this review is to summarise the recent state of research on intake criteria for forensic psychiatry in Germany. Therefore, a systematic literature review was conducted on the legal basis of paragraph 64 of the German Penal Code for forensic psychiatry. Although the patients were very heterogeneous, relatively robust indicators were identified that may yield an unsuccessful therapy outcome. A younger age, previous delinquency, absence of an educational and vocational qualification, and personality disorders are the most robust indicators adversely affecting therapy in German forensic psychiatric institutions. PMID:21425031

  6. 5. VIEW OF NORTH PARK AVENUE TRAILHEAD PARKING AREA FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF NORTH PARK AVENUE TRAILHEAD PARKING AREA FACING SOUTHEAST. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  7. Contrasting responses of non-small cell lung cancer to antiangiogenic therapies depend on histological subtype

    PubMed Central

    Larrayoz, Marta; Pio, Ruben; Pajares, María J; Zudaire, Isabel; Ajona, Daniel; Casanovas, Oriol; Montuenga, Luis M; Agorreta, Jackeline

    2014-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway is a clinically validated antiangiogenic target for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some contradictory results have been reported on the biological effects of antiangiogenic drugs. In order to evaluate the efficacy of these drugs in NSCLC histological subtypes, we analyzed the anticancer effect of two anti-VEGFR2 therapies (sunitinib and DC101) in chemically induced mouse models and tumorgrafts of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Antiangiogenic treatments induced vascular trimming in both histological subtypes. In ADC tumors, vascular trimming was accompanied by tumor stabilization. In contrast, in SCC tumors, antiangiogenic therapy was associated with disease progression and induction of tumor proliferation. Moreover, in SCC, anti-VEGFR2 therapies increased the expression of stem cell markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1, CD133, and CD15, independently of intratumoral hypoxia. In vitro studies with ADC cell lines revealed that antiangiogenic treatments reduced pAKT and pERK signaling and inhibited proliferation, while in SCC-derived cell lines the same treatments increased pAKT and pERK, and induced survival. In conclusion, this study evaluates for the first time the effect of antiangiogenic drugs in lung SCC murine models in vivo and sheds light on the contradictory results of antiangiogenic therapies in NSCLC. PMID:24500694

  8. [Substance dependence. Information, diagnosis and therapy--encouragement for pragmatic treatment].

    PubMed

    Salloch-Vogel, R R; Frege, I

    1996-06-01

    According to the author's experience with addiction diseases, questions of etiology, diagnostics, and therapy are reviewed. Starting with basic terms: such as the addicted human and his background, the drugs and the disease, chosen facts are combined with the author's individual experiences and theories for pragmatic actions are derived. PMID:8928527

  9. Multiple disturbances of free fatty acid metabolism in noninsulin-dependent diabetes. Effect of oral hypoglycemic therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Taskinen, M R; Bogardus, C; Kennedy, A; Howard, B V

    1985-01-01

    To assess the mechanisms for the elevation of free fatty acids in noninsulin-dependent diabetes, free fatty acid metabolism and lipid and carbohydrate oxidation were compared in 14 obese diabetic Pima Indians and in 13 age-, sex-, and weight-matched nondiabetics. The studies were repeated in 10 of the diabetics after 1 mo of oral hypoglycemic therapy. Fasting plasma glucose concentrations were elevated in diabetics (242 +/- 14 vs. 97 +/- 3 mg/dl, P less than 0.01) and decreased to 142 +/- 12 (P less than 0.01) after therapy. Fasting free fatty acid concentrations were elevated in diabetics (477 +/- 26 vs. 390 +/- 39 mumol/liter, P less than 0.01) and declined to normal values after therapy (336 +/- 32, P less than 0.01). Although free fatty acid transport rate was correlated with obesity (r = 0.75, P less than 0.001), the transport of free fatty acid was not higher in diabetics than in nondiabetics and did not change after therapy. On the other hand, the fractional catabolic rate for free fatty acid was significantly lower in untreated diabetics (0.55 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.71 +/- 0.06 min-1, P less than 0.05); it increased after therapy to 0.80 +/- 0.09 min-1, P less than 0.05, and was inversely correlated with fasting glucose (r = -0.52, P less than 0.01). In diabetics after therapy, lipid oxidation rates fell significantly (from 1.35 +/- 0.06 to 1.05 +/- 0.01 mg/min per kg fat-free mass, P less than 0.01), whereas carbohydrate oxidation increased (from 1.21 +/- 0.10 to 1.73 +/- 0.13 mg/min per kg fat-free mass, P less than 0.01); changes in lipid and carbohydrate oxidation were correlated (r = 0.72, P less than 0.02), and in all subjects lipid oxidation accounted for only approximately 40% of free fatty acid transport. The data suggest that in noninsulin-dependent diabetics, although free fatty acid production may be elevated because of obesity, the elevations in plasma free fatty acid concentrations are also a result of reduced removal, and fractional clearance of free

  10. Splendor In The Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    1979-01-01

    Civilization is more and more intruding on the esthetic and recreational resources of the National Park System. Increased attention must be paid to controlling noise, pollution, and even the effects of urban lighting which detract from the enjoyment of the parks. (RE)

  11. Oregon's first wind park

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The bringing on-line of the 1.25 MW wind park at Whiskey Run, Oregon, is reported. The park features twenty-five 50 KW wind turbine generators and is expected to produce about three million kilowatt-hours per year for the Pacific Power and Light system.

  12. Canadian Science Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Charles H.

    1988-01-01

    Only 45 percent of Canadian research is funded and executed by the private sector. Influenced by success stories such as the U.S. Stanford Research Park, Canadians have looked at science parks as a means to diversify their economy and to increase cooperation among government, industry, and universities. (Author/MLW)

  13. Preserving DOE's Research Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Virginia H.; Parr, Patricia D.

    1998-01-01

    Seven sites are designated as Department of Energy (DOE) National Environmental Research Parks and serve as irreplaceable outdoor laboratories for scientific research and education. The DOE has recommended the disposal of nearly one- quarter of the research park land holdings. Offers suggestions for developing a plan for protecting the…

  14. Future Trends in Park Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, William O.; Murrell, Dan S.

    1986-01-01

    The roles of ranger and park police in America's parks have shifted from visitor protection and resources management to visitor management and resources protection. Eight issues facing park police are discussed. (MT)

  15. Effects of cognitive and experiential group therapy on self-efficacy and perceptions of employability of chemically dependent women.

    PubMed

    Washington, O

    1999-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study assessed effects of cognitive and experiential group therapy on self-efficacy and perceptions of employability for 52 chemically dependent adult women. The sample was 98% African American. Therapy consisted of six 90-min group sessions held twice weekly. The participants were pre- and posttested with the Self-Efficacy Scale (M. Sherer et al., 1982) and the Ghiselli Self-Description Inventory (E. E. Ghiselli, 1975). After the intervention, the cognitive group had significantly higher levels than the experiential group of social self-efficacy and need for self-actualization, an indicator of aspiration for employment. General self-efficacy and decisiveness, indicators of employability, significantly increased over time for both groups. Interventions to enhance people's belief in their ability to successfully perform tasks and control outcomes, promote personal growth, teach responsibility, and enhance self-awareness could be used to develop employability skills that reduce recidivism. PMID:10633639

  16. Effects of forgiveness therapy on anger, mood, and vulnerability to substance use among inpatient substance-dependent clients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Fen; Mack, David; Enright, Robert D; Krahn, Dean; Baskin, Thomas W

    2004-12-01

    Anger and related emotions have been identified as triggers in substance use. Forgiveness therapy (FT) targets anger, anxiety, and depression as foci of treatment. Fourteen patients with substance dependence from a local residential treatment facility were randomly assigned to and completed either 12 approximately twice-weekly sessions of individual FT or 12 approximately twice-weekly sessions of an alternative individual treatment based on routine drug and alcohol therapy topics. Participants who completed FT had significantly more improvement in total and trait anger, depression, total and trait anxiety, self-esteem, forgiveness, and vulnerability to drug use than did the alternative treatment group. Most benefits of FT remained significant at 4-month follow-up. These results support FT as an efficacious newly developed model for residential drug rehabilitation. PMID:15612857

  17. Women with alcohol dependence: A randomized trial of couple versus individual plus couple therapy.

    PubMed

    McCrady, Barbara S; Epstein, Elizabeth E; Hallgren, Kevin A; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle K

    2016-05-01

    Couple therapy for women with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) yields positive drinking outcomes, but many women prefer individual to conjoint treatment. The present study compared conjoint cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for women with AUDs to a blend of individual and conjoint therapy. Participants were 59 women with AUDs (95% Caucasian, mean age = 46 years) and their male partners randomly assigned to 12 sessions of Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy (ABCT) or to a blend of 5 individual CBT sessions and 7 sessions of ABCT (Blended-ABCT). Drinking and relationship satisfaction were assessed during and for 1-year posttreatment. Treatment conditions did not differ significantly on number of treatment sessions attended, percentage of drinking days (PDD), or percentage of heavy drinking days (PDH), during or in the 12 months following treatment. However, effect size estimates suggested a small to moderate effect of Blended-ABCT over ABCT in number of treatment sessions attended (d = -.41), and first- and second-half within treatment PDD (d = -.41, d = -.28), and PDH (d = -.46, d = -.38). Moderator analyses found that women lower in baseline sociotropy had lower PDH across treatment weeks 1-8 than in Blended-ABCT than ABCT and that women lower in self-efficacy had lower PDH during follow-up in Blended-ABCT than in ABCT. The 2 treatment groups did not differ significantly in within-treatment or posttreatment relationship satisfaction. Results suggest that blending individual and conjoint treatment yields similar or slightly better outcomes than ABCT, is responsive to women's expressed desire for individual sessions as part of their treatment, and decreases the challenges of scheduling conjoint sessions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27214168

  18. Women with Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized Trial of Couple versus Individual plus Couple Therapy

    PubMed Central

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Hallgren, Kevin A.; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle K.

    2016-01-01

    Couple therapy for women with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) yields positive drinking outcomes, but many women prefer individual to conjoint treatment. The present study compared conjoint cognitive behavioral therapy for women with AUDs to a blend of individual and conjoint therapy. Participants were 59 women with AUDs (95% Caucasian, mean age = 46 years) and their male partners randomly assigned to 12 sessions of Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy (ABCT) or to a blend of five individual CBT sessions and seven sessions of ABCT (Blended-ABCT). Drinking and relationship satisfaction were assessed during and for one year post-treatment. Treatment conditions did not differ significantly on number of treatment sessions attended, percent of drinking days (PDD), or heavy drinking days (PDH), during or in the 12 months following treatment. However, effect size estimates suggested a small to moderate effect of Blended-ABCT over ABCT in number of treatment sessions attended, d=−.41, and first- and second-half within treatment PDD, d=−.41, d=−.28, and PDH, d=−.46, d=−.38. Moderator analyses found that women lower in baseline sociotropy had lower PDH across treatment weeks 1–8 in Blended-ABCT than ABCT and that women lower in self-efficacy had lower PDH during follow-up in Blended-ABCT than ABCT. The two treatment groups did not differ significantly in within-treatment or post-treatment relationship satisfaction. Results suggest that blending individual and conjoint treatment yields similar or slightly better outcomes than ABCT, is responsive to women’s expressed desire for individual sessions as part of their treatment, and decreases the challenges of scheduling conjoint sessions. PMID:27214168

  19. The indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase pathway controls complement-dependent enhancement of chemo-radiation therapy against murine glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an enzyme with immune-suppressive properties that is commonly exploited by tumors to evade immune destruction. Anti-tumor T cell responses can be initiated in solid tumors, but are immediately suppressed by compensatory upregulation of immunological checkpoints, including IDO. In addition to these known effects on the adaptive immune system, we previously showed widespread, T cell-dependent complement deposition during allogeneic fetal rejection upon maternal treatment with IDO-blockade. We hypothesized that IDO protects glioblastoma from the full effects of chemo-radiation therapy by preventing vascular activation and complement-dependent tumor destruction. Methods To test this hypothesis, we utilized a syngeneic orthotopic glioblastoma model in which GL261 glioblastoma tumor cells were stereotactically implanted into the right frontal lobes of syngeneic mice. These mice were treated with IDO-blocking drugs in combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Results Pharmacologic inhibition of IDO synergized with chemo-radiation therapy to prolong survival in mice bearing intracranial glioblastoma tumors. We now show that pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of IDO allowed chemo-radiation to trigger widespread complement deposition at sites of tumor growth. Chemotherapy treatment alone resulted in collections of perivascular leukocytes within tumors, but no complement deposition. Adding IDO-blockade led to upregulation of VCAM-1 on vascular endothelium within the tumor microenvironment, and further adding radiation in the presence of IDO-blockade led to widespread deposition of complement. Mice genetically deficient in complement component C3 lost all of the synergistic effects of IDO-blockade on chemo-radiation-induced survival. Conclusions Together these findings identify a novel mechanistic link between IDO and complement, and implicate complement as a major downstream effector mechanism for the beneficial

  20. Triple therapy with pyridoxine, arginine supplementation and dietary lysine restriction in pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy: Neurodevelopmental outcome.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Curtis R; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Al-Hertani, Walla; Shuen, Andrew Y; Jaggumantri, Sravan; Jack, Rhona M; Gaughan, Sommer; Burns, Casey; Mirsky, David M; Gallagher, Renata C; Van Hove, Johan L K

    2015-01-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is an epileptic encephalopathy characterized by response to pharmacologic doses of pyridoxine. PDE is caused by deficiency of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase resulting in impaired lysine degradation and subsequent accumulation of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde. Despite adequate seizure control with pyridoxine monotherapy, 75% of individuals with PDE have significant developmental delay and intellectual disability. We describe a new combined therapeutic approach to reduce putative toxic metabolites from impaired lysine metabolism. This approach utilizes pyridoxine, a lysine-restricted diet to limit the substrate that leads to neurotoxic metabolite accumulation and L-arginine to compete for brain lysine influx and liver mitochondrial import. We report the developmental and biochemical outcome of six subjects who were treated with this triple therapy. Triple therapy reduced CSF, plasma, and urine biomarkers associated with neurotoxicity in PDE. The addition of arginine supplementation to children already treated with dietary lysine restriction and pyridoxine further reduced toxic metabolites, and in some subjects appeared to improve neurodevelopmental outcome. Dietary lysine restriction was associated with improved seizure control in one subject, and the addition of arginine supplementation increased the objective motor outcome scale in two twin siblings, illustrating the contribution of each component of this treatment combination. Optimal results were noted in the individual treated with triple therapy early in the course of the disease. Residual disease symptoms could be related to early injury suggested by initial MR imaging prior to initiation of treatment or from severe epilepsy prior to diagnosis. This observational study reports the use of triple therapy, which combines three effective components in this rare condition, and suggests that early diagnosis and treatment with this new triple therapy may ameliorate the

  1. Colon-targeted delivery of budesonide using dual pH- and time-dependent polymeric nanoparticles for colitis therapy

    PubMed Central

    Naeem, Muhammad; Choi, Moonjeong; Cao, Jiafu; Lee, Yujeong; Ikram, Muhammad; Yoon, Sik; Lee, Jaewon; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Kim, Min-Soo; Jung, Yunjin; Yoo, Jin-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Single pH-dependent drug delivery systems have been widely used for colon-targeted delivery, but their efficiency is often hampered by the variation in gut pH. To overcome the limitation of single pH-dependent delivery systems, in this study, we developed and evaluated the therapeutic potential of budesonide-loaded dual pH/time-dependent nanoparticles (NPs) for the treatment of colitis. Eudragit FS30D was used as a pH-dependent polymer, and Eudragit RS100 as a time-dependent controlled release polymer. Single pH-dependent NPs (pH_NPs), single time-dependent NPs (Time_NPs), and dual pH/time-dependent NPs (pH/Time_NPs) were prepared using the oil-in-water emulsion method. The physicochemical properties and drug release profiles of these NPs in gastrointestinal (GI) tract conditions were investigated. The therapeutic potential and in vivo distribution of the NPs were evaluated in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice model. The pH/Time_NPs prevented a burst drug release in acidic pH conditions and showed sustained release at a colonic pH. The in vivo distribution study in the mice GI tract demonstrated that pH/Time_NPs were more efficiently delivered to the inflamed colon than pH_NPs were. Compared to the single pH_NPs-treated group, the pH/Time_NPs-treated group showed increased body weight and colon length and markedly decreased disease activity index, colon weight/length ratios, histological damage, and inflammatory cell infiltration in colon tissue. Our results demonstrate that the dual pH/time-dependent NPs are an effective oral colon-targeted delivery system for colitis therapy. PMID:26229440

  2. Colon-targeted delivery of budesonide using dual pH- and time-dependent polymeric nanoparticles for colitis therapy.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Muhammad; Choi, Moonjeong; Cao, Jiafu; Lee, Yujeong; Ikram, Muhammad; Yoon, Sik; Lee, Jaewon; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Kim, Min-Soo; Jung, Yunjin; Yoo, Jin-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Single pH-dependent drug delivery systems have been widely used for colon-targeted delivery, but their efficiency is often hampered by the variation in gut pH. To overcome the limitation of single pH-dependent delivery systems, in this study, we developed and evaluated the therapeutic potential of budesonide-loaded dual pH/time-dependent nanoparticles (NPs) for the treatment of colitis. Eudragit FS30D was used as a pH-dependent polymer, and Eudragit RS100 as a time-dependent controlled release polymer. Single pH-dependent NPs (pH_NPs), single time-dependent NPs (Time_NPs), and dual pH/time-dependent NPs (pH/Time_NPs) were prepared using the oil-in-water emulsion method. The physicochemical properties and drug release profiles of these NPs in gastrointestinal (GI) tract conditions were investigated. The therapeutic potential and in vivo distribution of the NPs were evaluated in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice model. The pH/Time_NPs prevented a burst drug release in acidic pH conditions and showed sustained release at a colonic pH. The in vivo distribution study in the mice GI tract demonstrated that pH/Time_NPs were more efficiently delivered to the inflamed colon than pH_NPs were. Compared to the single pH_NPs-treated group, the pH/Time_NPs-treated group showed increased body weight and colon length and markedly decreased disease activity index, colon weight/length ratios, histological damage, and inflammatory cell infiltration in colon tissue. Our results demonstrate that the dual pH/time-dependent NPs are an effective oral colon-targeted delivery system for colitis therapy. PMID:26229440

  3. Geographical variations in current clinical practice on transfusions and iron chelation therapy across various transfusion-dependent anaemias

    PubMed Central

    Viprakasit, Vip; Gattermann, Norbert; Lee, Jong Wook; Porter, John B.; Taher, Ali T.; Habr, Dany; Martin, Nicolas; Domokos, Gabor; Cappellini, Maria Domenica

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Many patients with chronic anaemia require blood transfusions as part of their treatment regimen. As a result, iron overload will inevitably develop if not adequately managed by iron chelation therapy. There are many guidelines relating to transfusion and chelation practices for patients with transfusion-dependent anaemia; however, there is a lack of information on how treatment practices differ around the world. The objective of this manuscript is to highlight key features of current transfusion and chelation management, including similarities and differences across various anaemias and between geographical regions worldwide. Materials and methods Data collected at study entry to the multicentre Evaluation of Patients’ Iron Chelation with Exjade (EPIC) study, which recruited 1,744 patients with a variety of transfusion-dependent anaemias across 23 countries from three geographic regions, were assessed. These analyses compared transfusion and chelation treatment prior to the start of study treatment, together with iron burden assessed at study entry by serum ferritin, liver iron concentration and labile plasma iron levels. Results and conclusions Data show that transfusion and iron chelation practices differ between anaemias and between geographical regions; this may be linked to availability and accessibility of transfusion and chelation therapy, patients’ compliance, physicians’ attitudes, costs and use of treatment guidelines. Approximately 60% of these transfusion-dependent patients were severely iron overloaded with a serum ferritin level over 2,500 ng/mL, indicating that the risks of iron burden may have been underestimated and current iron chelation therapy, if considered, may not have been adequate to control iron burden. PMID:22871821

  4. Long-Term Agonist and Antagonist Therapy for Adolescent Opioid Dependence: A Description of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Dhawan, Anju

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents constitute only a small percentage of treatment seekers in drug dependence treatment settings. Little research evidence is available for pharmacological treatment of adolescent opioid dependence and no prior case report is available from India. We discuss two adolescent patients with opioid (heroin) dependence visiting a tertiary care center who have been stabilized on agonist (sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone) and antagonist (oral naltrexone) respectively for a substantial period of time. A comprehensive management approach, including intensive psychosocial interventions and family involvement, was followed in addition to pharmacotherapies. More research is needed on the efficacy of pharmacological treatment in adolescent opioid users. PMID:25336782

  5. Paclitaxel therapy promotes breast cancer metastasis in a TLR4-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Volk-Draper, Lisa; Hall, Kelly; Griggs, Caitlin; Rajput, Sandeep; Kohio, Pascaline; DeNardo, David; Ran, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that cytotoxic therapy may actually promote drug resistance and metastasis while inhibiting the growth of primary tumors. Work in preclinical models of breast cancer have shown that acquired chemoresistance to the widely used drug paclitaxel (PXL) can be mediated by activation of the Toll-like receptor TLR4 in cancer cells. In this study, we determined the pro-metastatic effects of tumor-expressed TLR4 and PXL therapy and we investigated the mechanisms mediating these effects. While PXL treatment was largely efficacious in inhibiting TLR4-negative tumors, it significantly increased the incidence and burden of pulmonary and lymphatic metastasis by TLR4-positive tumors. TLR4 activation by PXL strongly increased the expression of inflammatory mediators, not only locally in the primary tumor microenvironment but also systemically in the blood, lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow and lungs. These pro-inflammatory changes promoted the outgrowth of Ly6C+ and Ly6G+ myeloid progenitor cells and their mobilization to tumors, where they increased blood vessel formation but not invasion of these vessels. In contrast, PXL-mediated activation of TLR4-positive tumors induced de novo generation of deep intratumoral lymphatic vessels that were highly permissive to invasion by malignant cells. These results suggest that PXL therapy of patients with TLR4-expressing tumors may activate systemic inflammatory circuits that promote angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and metastasis, both at local sites and premetastatic niches where invasion occurs in distal organs. Taken together, our findings suggest that efforts to target TLR4 on tumor cells may simultaneously quell local and systemic inflammatory pathways that promote malignant progression, with implications for how to prevent tumor recurrence and the establishment of metastatic lesions, either during chemotherapy or after it is completed. PMID:25274031

  6. Direct Photocontrol of Peptidomimetics: An Alternative to Oxygen-Dependent Photodynamic Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Babii, Oleg; Afonin, Sergii; Garmanchuk, Liudmyla V; Nikulina, Viktoria V; Nikolaienko, Tetiana V; Storozhuk, Olha V; Shelest, Dmytro V; Dasyukevich, Olga I; Ostapchenko, Liudmyla I; Iurchenko, Volodymyr; Zozulya, Sergey; Ulrich, Anne S; Komarov, Igor V

    2016-04-25

    Conventional photodynamic treatment strategies are based on the principle of activating molecular oxygen in situ by light, mediated by a photosensitizer, which leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species and thereby causes cell death. A diarylethene-derived peptidomimetic is presented that is suitable for photodynamic cancer therapy without any involvement of oxygen. This light-sensitive molecule is not a mediator but is itself the cytotoxic agent. As a derivative of the cyclic amphiphilic peptide gramicidin S, the peptidomimetic exists in two thermally stable photoforms that are interconvertible by light of different wavelengths. The isomer generated by visible light shows much stronger toxicity against tumor cells than the UV-generated isomer. First in vivo applications are demonstrated on a tumor animal model to illustrate how the peptidomimetic can be administered in the less toxic form and then activated locally in a solid tumor by visible light. PMID:27028784

  7. High School Parking Lots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Thomas G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the reorganization of the site of Ben Davis High School in Wayne Township, Indiana as an example of improvements to school parking lot design and vehicle/pedestrian traffic flow and security. Includes design drawings. (EV)

  8. Master Plans for Park Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Jerry R.

    This booklet is a general guide to park site planning. The four basic steps involved in developing a park site are a) determination of the uses of the site, b) analysis of the site potential for these uses, c) identification of the functional relationship among the uses, and d) coordination of the uses to the park sites. Uses of park sites are…

  9. Nonlinear parameters of surface EMG in schizophrenia patients depend on kind of antipsychotic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Meigal, Alexander Yu.; Miroshnichenko, German G.; Kuzmina, Anna P.; Rissanen, Saara M.; Georgiadis, Stefanos D.; Karjalainen, Pasi A.

    2015-01-01

    We compared a set of surface EMG (sEMG) parameters in several groups of schizophrenia (SZ, n = 74) patients and healthy controls (n = 11) and coupled them with the clinical data. sEMG records were quantified with spectral, mutual information (MI) based and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) parameters, and with approximate and sample entropies (ApEn and SampEn). Psychotic deterioration was estimated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and with the positive subscale of PANSS. Neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism (NIP) motor symptoms were estimated with Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS). Dyskinesia was measured with Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). We found that there was no difference in values of sEMG parameters between healthy controls and drug-naïve SZ patients. The most specific group was formed of SZ patients who were administered both typical and atypical antipsychotics (AP). Their sEMG parameters were significantly different from those of SZ patients taking either typical or atypical AP or taking no AP. This may represent a kind of synergistic effect of these two classes of AP. For the clinical data we found that PANSS, SAS, and AIMS were not correlated to any of the sEMG parameters. Conclusion: with nonlinear parameters of sEMG it is possible to reveal NIP in SZ patients, and it may help to discriminate between different clinical groups of SZ patients. Combined typical and atypical AP therapy has stronger effect on sEMG than a therapy with AP of only one class. PMID:26217236

  10. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III Subtypes of Opioid Dependence: Validity and Matching to Behavioral Therapies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Samuel A.; Nich, Charla; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Eagan, Dorothy; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    The concurrent and predictive validity of 2 different methods of Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III subtyping (protocol sorting, cluster analysis) was evaluated in 125 recently detoxified opioid-dependent outpatients in a 12-week randomized clinical trial. Participants received naltrexone and relapse prevention group counseling and were…

  11. The Swallow Park Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Villiers, P.

    2014-02-01

    The Hermanus Astronomy Centre recently erected a pair of back-to-back sundials in Swallow Park in the centre of Hermanus as part of the upgrading of this historical public park by the Ward committee. Since these two are intended to be the first of many different design sundials to be erected in Hermanus by the HAC, the designs were purposefully chosen to be "unusual" to illustrate the point that even unfamiliar designs and orientations give the same end result....

  12. Parking in the City:. AN Example of Limited Resource Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šeba, Petr

    2010-03-01

    During the attempt to park a car in the city the drivers have to share limited resources (the available roadside). We show that this fact leads to a predictable distribution of the distances between the cars that depends on the length of the street segment used for the collective parking. We demonstrate in addition that the individual parking maneuver is guided by generic psychophysical perceptual correlates. Both predictions are compared with the actual parking data collected in the city of Hradec Králové (Czech Republic).

  13. Effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for co-morbid depression in drug-dependent males.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh Asl, Navidreza; Barahmand, Usha

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed at examining the effect of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) in decreasing depression symptoms in dully diagnosed males (drug dependent males with co-morbid depression).An experimental research design with pre- and post-tests and a control group was used. The sample of the study comprised 33 drug-dependent men who also endorsed depression symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). All the selected individuals were assigned randomly to either the intervention group or control group (16 to the intervention and 17 to the control group). The intervention group experienced eight 2-h sessions of training in MBCT. At the end of the training, the subjects were once again evaluated using the BDI-II. Analysis of co-variance was used to analyze the data. The results suggested that MBCT did contribute to a significant decrease in the depression symptoms of the dully diagnosed individuals. It is recommended that the MBCT be used for treating depression in drug-dependent males undergoing detoxification and treatment for their drug dependence. PMID:25439972

  14. Better retention of Malaysian opiate dependents treated with high dose methadone in methadone maintenance therapy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Methadone is a synthetic opiate mu receptor agonist that is widely used to substitute for illicit opiates in the management of opiate dependence. It helps prevent opiate users from injecting and sharing needles which are vehicles for the spread of HIV and other blood borne viruses. This study has the objective of determining the utility of daily methadone dose to predict retention rates and re-injecting behaviour among opiate dependents. Methods Subjects comprised opiate dependent individuals who met study criteria. They took methadone based on the Malaysian guidelines and were monitored according to the study protocols. At six months, data was collected for analyses. The sensitivity and specificity daily methadone doses to predict retention rates and re-injecting behaviour were evaluated. Results Sixty-four patients volunteered to participate but only 35 (54.69%) remained active and 29 (45.31%) were inactive at 6 months of treatment. Higher doses were significantly correlated with retention rate (p < 0.0001) and re-injecting behaviour (p < 0.001). Of those retained, 80.0% were on 80 mg or more methadone per day doses with 20.0% on receiving 40 mg -79 mg. Conclusions We concluded that a daily dose of at least 40 mg was required to retain patients in treatment and to prevent re-injecting behaviour. A dose of at least 80 mg per day was associated with best results. PMID:21167035

  15. Hormonal therapy with estradiol and drospirenone improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the coronary bed of ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Borgo, M.V.; Claudio, E.R.G.; Silva, F.B.; Romero, W.G.; Gouvea, S.A.; Moysés, M.R.; Santos, R.L.; Almeida, S.A.; Podratz, P.L.; Graceli, J.B.; Abreu, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Drospirenone (DRSP) is a progestin with anti-aldosterone properties and it reduces blood pressure in hypertensive women. However, the effects of DRSP on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation have not been evaluated. This study investigated the effects of combined therapy with estrogen (E2) and DRSP on endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the coronary bed of ovariectomized (OVX) spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female spontaneously hypertensive rats (n=87) at 12 weeks of age were randomly divided into sham operated (Sham), OVX, OVX treated with E2 (E2), and OVX treated with E2 and DRSP (E2+DRSP) groups. Hemodynamic parameters were directly evaluated by catheter insertion into the femoral artery. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to bradykinin in the coronary arterial bed was assessed using isolated hearts according to a modified Langendorff method. Coronary protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) was assessed by Western blotting. Histological slices of coronary arteries were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and morphometric parameters were analyzed. Oxidative stress was assessed in situ by dihydroethidium fluorescence. Ovariectomy increased systolic blood pressure, which was only prevented by E2+DRSP treatment. Estrogen deficiency caused endothelial dysfunction, which was prevented by both treatments. However, the vasodilator response in the E2+DRSP group was significantly higher at the three highest concentrations compared with the OVX group. Reduced ER-α expression in OVX rats was restored by both treatments. Morphometric parameters and oxidative stress were augmented by OVX and reduced by E2 and E2+DRSP treatments. Hormonal therapy with E2 and DRSP may be an important therapeutic option in the prevention of coronary heart disease in hypertensive post-menopausal women. PMID:26577845

  16. Hormonal therapy with estradiol and drospirenone improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the coronary bed of ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Borgo, M V; Claudio, E R G; Silva, F B; Romero, W G; Gouvea, S A; Moysés, M R; Santos, R L; Almeida, S A; Podratz, P L; Graceli, J B; Abreu, G R

    2016-01-01

    Drospirenone (DRSP) is a progestin with anti-aldosterone properties and it reduces blood pressure in hypertensive women. However, the effects of DRSP on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation have not been evaluated. This study investigated the effects of combined therapy with estrogen (E2) and DRSP on endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the coronary bed of ovariectomized (OVX) spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female spontaneously hypertensive rats (n=87) at 12 weeks of age were randomly divided into sham operated (Sham), OVX, OVX treated with E2 (E2), and OVX treated with E2 and DRSP (E2+DRSP) groups. Hemodynamic parameters were directly evaluated by catheter insertion into the femoral artery. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to bradykinin in the coronary arterial bed was assessed using isolated hearts according to a modified Langendorff method. Coronary protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) was assessed by Western blotting. Histological slices of coronary arteries were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and morphometric parameters were analyzed. Oxidative stress was assessed in situ by dihydroethidium fluorescence. Ovariectomy increased systolic blood pressure, which was only prevented by E2+DRSP treatment. Estrogen deficiency caused endothelial dysfunction, which was prevented by both treatments. However, the vasodilator response in the E2+DRSP group was significantly higher at the three highest concentrations compared with the OVX group. Reduced ER-α expression in OVX rats was restored by both treatments. Morphometric parameters and oxidative stress were augmented by OVX and reduced by E2 and E2+DRSP treatments. Hormonal therapy with E2 and DRSP may be an important therapeutic option in the prevention of coronary heart disease in hypertensive post-menopausal women. PMID:26577845

  17. The effect of hormone therapy on olfactory sensitivity is dependent on apolipoprotein E genotype.

    PubMed

    Sundermann, Erin E; Gilbert, Paul E; Murphy, Claire

    2008-09-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show a deficit in olfactory threshold sensitivity. The Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) epsilon4 allele is associated with increased risk of AD and earlier symptom onset. Hormone therapy (HT) may exert neuroprotective effects on brain areas affected by AD. The current study investigated the effect of HT on performance on an olfactory threshold test in epsilon4 positive and epsilon4 negative non-hysterectomized, non-demented, elderly females and AD patients. Among the non-demented participants, epsilon4 positive females who had received HT performed 1) significantly better than those without HT, and 2) at levels similar to those of epsilon4 negative females. In contrast, those without HT who were epsilon4 positive performed significantly worse than those who were epsilon4 negative. HT had no effect on performance in AD patients regardless of epsilon4 status. These results suggest that HT may offer protection against loss of olfactory function in epsilon4 positive individuals in preclinical stages of AD. Future research is warranted in order to investigate further the neuroprotective role of HT on sensory and cognitive functions in non-demented aging individuals. PMID:18620351

  18. Suitability of human mesenchymal stem cells for gene therapy depends on the expansion medium

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, Anja; Groth, Ariane; Schlesinger, Sabine; Bruns, Helge; Schemmer, Peter; Buechler, Markus W.; Herr, Ingrid

    2009-02-01

    Great hope is set in the use of mesenchymal stem cells for gene therapy and regenerative medicine. Since the frequency of this subpopulation of stem cells in bone marrow is low, mesenchymal stem cells are expanded ex vivo and manipulated prior to experimental or clinical use. Different methods for isolation and expansion are available, but the particular effect on the stem cell character is unclear. While the isolation of mesenchymal stem cells by density centrifugation followed by selection of the plastic adherent fraction is frequently used, the composition of expansion media differs. Thus, in the present study we cultured mesenchymal stem cells isolated from five healthy young volunteers in three widely used expansion media and performed a detailed analysis of the effect on morphology, proliferation, clonogenicity, passaging, differentiation and senescence. By this way we clearly show that the type of expansion medium used determines the stem cell character and time of senescence which is critical for future gene therapeutic and regenerative approaches using mesenchymal stem cells.

  19. Targeting the IL-6 Dependent Phenotype Can Identify Novel Therapies for Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kogure, Takayuki; Huang, Nianyuan; Patel, Tushar

    2010-01-01

    Background The need for new therapies for cholangiocarcinoma is highlighted by their poor prognosis and refractoriness to chemotherapy. Increased production of Interleukin-6 promotes cholangiocarcinoma growth and contributes to chemoresistance by activating cell survival mechanisms. We sought to identify biologically active compounds capable of ameliorating the phenotypic effects of IL-6 expression and to explore their potential therapeutic use for cholangiocarcinoma. Methodology A genomic signature associated with Interleukin-6 expression in Mz-ChA-1 human malignant cholangiocytes was derived. Computational bioinformatics analysis was performed to identify compounds that induced inverse gene changes to the signature. The effect of these compounds on cholangiocarcinoma growth was then experimentally verified in vitro and in vivo. Interactions with other therapeutic agents were evaluated using median effects analysis. Principal Findings A group of structurally related compounds, nitrendipine, nifedipine and felodipine was identified. All three compounds were cytotoxic to Mz-ChA-1 cells with an IC50 for felodipine of 26 µM, nitrendipine, 44 µM and nifedipine, 15 µM. Similar results were observed in KMCH-1, CC-LP-1 and TFK-1 cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. At a fractional effect of 0.5, all three agents were synergistic with either camptothecin or gemcitabine in Mz-ChA-1 cells in vitro. Co-administration of felodipine and gemcitabine decreased the growth of Mz-ChA-1 cell xenografts in nude athymic mice. Conclusions Computational bioinformatics analysis of phenotype-based genomic expression can be used to identify therapeutic agents. Using this drug discovery approach based on targeting a defined tumor associated phenotype, we identified compounds with the potential for therapeutic use in cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:21179572

  20. Temperature dependence of the optoacoustic transformation efficiency in ex vivo tissues for application in monitoring thermal therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Sergey M.; Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Pelivanov, Ivan M.

    2012-06-01

    The calibration dependencies of the optoacoustic (OA) transformation efficiency on tissue temperature are obtained for the application in OA temperature monitoring during thermal therapies. Accurate measurement of the OA signal amplitude versus temperature is performed in different ex vivo tissues in the temperature range 25°C to 80°C. The investigated tissues were selected to represent different structural components: chicken breast (skeletal muscle), porcine lard (fatty tissue), and porcine liver (richly perfused tissue). Backward mode of the OA signal detection and a narrow probe laser beam were used in the experiments to avoid the influence of changes in light scattering with tissue coagulation on the OA signal amplitude. Measurements were performed in heating and cooling regimes. Characteristic behavior of the OA signal amplitude temperature dependences in different temperature ranges were described in terms of changes in different structural components of the tissue samples. The accuracy of temperature reconstruction from the obtained calibration dependencies for the investigated tissue types is evaluated.

  1. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory–III Subtypes of Opioid Dependence: Validity and Matching to Behavioral Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Samuel A.; Nich, Charla; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Eagan, Dorothy; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    The concurrent and predictive validity of 2 different methods of Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory–III subtyping (protocol sorting, cluster analysis) was evaluated in 125 recently detoxified opioid-dependent outpatients in a 12-week randomized clinical trial. Participants received naltrexone and relapse prevention group counseling and were assigned to 1 of 3 intervention conditions: (a) no-incentive vouchers, (b) incentive vouchers alone, or (c) incentive vouchers plus relationship counseling. Affective disturbance was the most common Axis I protocol-sorted subtype (66%), antisocial–narcissistic was the most common Axis II subtype (46%), and cluster analysis suggested that a 2-cluster solution (high vs. low psychiatric severity) was optimal. Predictive validity analyses indicated less symptom improvement for the higher problem subtypes, and patient treatment matching analyses indicated that some subtypes had better outcomes in the no-incentive voucher conditions. PMID:15301655

  2. Treatment of Concurrent Substance Dependence, Child Neglect and Domestic Violence: A Single Case Examination Involving Family Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Valerie; Allen, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Although child neglect and substance abuse co-occur in greater than 60% of child protective service cases, intervention outcome studies are deplorably lacking. Therefore, a home-based Family Behavior Therapy is described in the treatment of a woman evidencing child neglect, substance dependence, domestic violence and other co-occurring problems. Treatment included contingency management, self control, stimulus control, communication and child management skills training exercises, and financial management components. Results indicated improvements in child abuse potential, home hazards, domestic violence, and drug use, which were substantiated by objective urinalysis testing, and tours of her home. Validity checks indicated the participant was being truthful in her responses to standardized questionnaires, and assessors were “blind” to study intent. Limitations (i.e., lack of experimental control and follow-up data collection) of this case example are discussed in light of these results. PMID:23226920

  3. Dose-Dependent Effects of Radiation Therapy on Cerebral Blood Flow, Metabolism, and Neurocognitive Dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Carol A. Zhou Sumin; Raynor, Renee; Tisch, Andrea; Light, Kim; Shafman, Timothy; Kirkpatrick, John; Turkington, Timothy; Hollis, Donna; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: A prospective study was performed to formally relate dose-dependent radiologically defined changes in normal brain induced by radiotherapy (RT) to neurocognitive dysfunction in subjects with primary brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Adult patients receiving three-dimensional RT for central nervous system (CNS) tumors were enrolled. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning and neuropsychological testing were performed before RT and 3 weeks and 6 months after treatment. Analyses were performed for correlations between changes in 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-PET (metabolism), {sup 15}O-PET (relative blood flow), regional radiation dose, follow-up time, and neuropsychological test scores. Results: Eleven subjects were enrolled and 6 completed follow-up studies. The PET data showed reduced FDG uptake, with average decreases of 2-6% in regions of the brain receiving greater than 40 Gy at 3 weeks' and 6 months' follow-up. The {sup 15}O-H{sub 2}O PET showed increases (<10%) at 3 weeks in relative regional blood flow in brain receiving greater than 30 Gy, but less at the 6-month follow-up studies. There were significant correlations between decreases in FDG uptake and increased scores from the Symptom Checklist-90-R, with an average increase in T score of 2 (p < 0.0001). The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test showed a significant correlation of decreased FDG uptake with increased errors and perseveration in test performance, with an average decrease in T score of 11 (p = 0.037). Conclusions: A dose-dependent response of CNS tissue was detected using FDG PET in this small number of patients. Decreases in CNS metabolism correlated with decreased performance on neuropsychological tests for problem solving, cognitive flexibility, and global measures of psychopathology. Additional research is needed to verify and define these findings.

  4. Impact of DCS-facilitated cue exposure therapy on brain activation to cocaine cues in cocaine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Prisciandaro, James J.; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Ana, Elizabeth J. Santa; Saladin, Michael E.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of addiction is marked by a pathological associative learning process that imbues incentive salience to stimuli associated with drug use. Recent efforts to treat addiction have targeted this learning process using cue exposure therapy augmented with D-cycloserine (DCS), a glutamatergic agent hypothesized to enhance extinction learning. To better understand the impact of DCS-facilitated extinction on neural reactivity to drug cues, the present study reports fMRI findings from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of DCS-facilitated cue exposure for cocaine dependence. Methods Twenty-five participants completed two MRI sessions (before and after intervention), with a cocaine-cue reactivity fMRI task. The intervention consisted of 50mg of DCS or placebo, combined with two sessions of cocaine cue exposure and skills training. Results Participants demonstrated cocaine cue activation in a variety of brain regions at baseline. From the pre- to post-study scan, participants experienced decreased activation to cues in a number of regions (e.g., accumbens, caudate, frontal poles). Unexpectedly, placebo participants experienced decreases in activation to cues in the left angular and middle temporal gyri and the lateral occipital cortex, while DCS participants did not. Conclusions Three trials of DCS-facilitated cue exposure therapy for cocaine dependence have found that DCS either increases or does not significantly impact response to cocaine cues. The present study adds to this literature by demonstrating that DCS may prevent extinction to cocaine cues in temporal and occipital brain regions. Although consistent with past research, results from the present study should be considered preliminary until replicated in larger samples. PMID:23497788

  5. Parking management tactics. Volume 3: reference guide. [Parking

    SciTech Connect

    DiRenzo, J.F.; Cima, B.; Barber, E.

    1981-06-01

    Information contained in this guide was formulated from parking management experiences of 20 cities previously investigated and documented. The guide provides information on the planning, implementation, and operation of six types of parking management tactics: on-street parking supply tactics, off-street parking supply tactics for activity centers, fringe and corridor parking facilities, pricing tactics, enforcement and adjudication tactics, and marketing tactics. The guide assesses the essential aspects of the tactics as well as presents some useful analysis procedures for evaluating parking management actions. The Reference Guide is a stand-alone document for use by transportation planners and traffic engineers. It is the third volume of a three-volume series of reports on parking management. The first volume, entitled Overview, is designed for management. The second volume, entitled Overview and Case Studies, is designed for technical staff or managers who want detailed city-by-city information on parking management tactics.

  6. FACING NORTHWEST TOWARD NORTHERN END OF PARK Candler Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTHWEST TOWARD NORTHERN END OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  7. FACING NORTHEAST OF NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF PARK Candler Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTHEAST OF NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  8. Park Z-epicanthoplasty.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung I; Park, Min S

    2007-08-01

    Numerous procedures to eliminate medial epicanthal folds have been described. Despite an abundance of available procedures, most surgeons are reluctant to perform medial epicanthoplasty for Asian eyelid cosmetic surgery because of frequent development of unsightly scars. The Park Z-epicanthoplasty differs from the previously described procedures by placement of the incision within, as opposed to adjacent to, the eyelid skin. The Park Z-epicanthoplasty is most beneficial in type III epicanthal folds and is also widely used for type II epicanthal folds. It is most useful for individuals seeking higher double folds and outer-parallel-type double eyelid folds. PMID:17658430

  9. Effects of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence on adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive patients in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nhung T P; Tran, Bach X; Hwang, Lu Y; Markham, Christine M; Swartz, Michael D; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Phan, Huong T T; Latkin, Carl A; Vidrine, Damon J

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is increasingly recognized as an indicator for inferior adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-positive patients. Given the limited body of work on this issue, we aimed to explore the relations between cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence, and ART adherence in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study of 1050 HIV-positive people was conducted from January to September 2013 in Hanoi (the capital) and Nam Dinh (a rural city). Adherence to ART during the last 30 days was measured by the 100-point visual analog scale (VAS). Smoking history and nicotine dependence (Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence) were self-reported by participants. Multiple logistic regression was performed to examine the association of current smoking and nicotine dependence with ART nonadherence. Using the established VAS cut point of 95 to indicate adequate adherence, the prevalence of ART nonadherence was 30.9%. Approximately 35.5% of the sample reported current smoking. No association between smoking status and ART nonadherence was found. However, participants with greater nicotine dependence (OR = 1.1, 95%CI = 1.0-1.2 per unit increase) were more likely to be nonadherent. Also, individuals who were female (OR = 1.70, 95%CI = 1.19-2.42), receiving ART in Nam Dinh (OR = 1.6, 95%CI = 1.1-2.4), and currently feeling anxiety (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2-2.1) had a higher likelihood of ART nonadherence. Additionally, current smokers reporting current pain (OR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.2-3.1) were more likely to be nonadherent. Conversely, protective factors included living with a spouse/partner (OR = 0.5, 95%CI = 0.3-0.7) and having more than a high school education (OR = 0.4, 95%CI = 0.1-1.0). Given the high prevalence of suboptimal adherence and current smoking among HIV-positive patients, screening for smoking status and nicotine dependence during ART treatment may help to improve patients' adherence to medication. More efforts

  10. Targeting EZH2 and PRC2 dependence as novel anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bowen; Konze, Kyle D.; Jin, Jian; Wang, Gang Greg

    2016-01-01

    Distinctive patterns of chromatin modification control gene expression and define cellular identity during development and cell differentiation. Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), the sole mammalian enzymatic complex capable of establishing gene-repressive high-degree methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27), plays crucial roles in regulation of normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that recurrent gain-of-function mutation and overexpression of EZH2, the catalytic subunit of PRC2, drive and promote malignant transformation such as B-cell lymphomagenesis, providing a rationale for PRC2 inhibition as a novel anticancer strategy. Here, we summarize the recently developed strategies for inhibition of PRC2, which include a series of highly specific, highly potent, small-molecule inhibitors of EZH2 and EZH1, an EZH2-related methyltransferase. PRC2 establishes functional crosstalk with numerous epigenetic machineries during dynamic regulation of gene transcription. Perturbation of such functional crosstalk caused by genetic events observed in various hematologic cancers, such as inactivation of SNF5 and somatic mutation of UTX, confers PRC2 dependence, thus rendering an increased sensitivity to PRC2 inhibition. We discuss our current understanding of EZH2 somatic mutations frequently found in B-cell lymphomas and recurrent mutations in various other epigenetic regulators as novel molecular predictors and determinants of PRC2 sensitivity. As recent advances have indicated a critical developmental or tumor-suppressive role for PRC2 and EZH2 in various tissue types, we discuss concerns over potentially toxic or even adverse effects associated with EZH2/1 inhibition in certain biological contexts or on cancer genetic background. Collectively, inhibition of PRC2 catalytic activity has emerged as a promising therapeutic intervention for the precise treatment of a range of genetically defined hematologic malignancies and can be

  11. Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles as Carriers for Nucleus-Based Gene Therapy Due to Size-Dependent Nuclear Entry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the size-dependent penetration ability of gold nanoparticles and the potential application of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles for intranucleus delivery and therapy. We synthesized gold nanoparticles with diameters of 2, 6, 10, and 16 nm and compared their intracellular distribution in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm (2 and 6 nm) could enter the nucleus, whereas larger ones (10 and 16 nm) were found only in the cytoplasm. We then investigated the possibility of using ultrasmall 2 nm nanoparticles as carriers for nuclear delivery of a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) that binds to the c-myc promoter. Compared to free TFO, the nanoparticle-conjugated TFO was more effective at reducing c-myc RNA and c-myc protein, which resulted in reduced cell viability. Our result demonstrated that the entry of gold nanoparticles into the cell nucleus is critically dependent on the size of the nanoparticles. We developed a strategy for regulating gene expression, by directly delivering TFOs into the nucleus using ultrasmall gold nanoparticles. More importantly, guidelines were provided to choose appropriate nanocarriers for different biomedical purposes. PMID:24824865

  12. Ultrasmall gold nanoparticles as carriers for nucleus-based gene therapy due to size-dependent nuclear entry.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shuaidong; Jin, Shubin; Ma, Xiaowei; Xue, Xiangdong; Yang, Keni; Kumar, Anil; Wang, Paul C; Zhang, Jinchao; Hu, Zhongbo; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2014-06-24

    The aim of this study was to determine the size-dependent penetration ability of gold nanoparticles and the potential application of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles for intranucleus delivery and therapy. We synthesized gold nanoparticles with diameters of 2, 6, 10, and 16 nm and compared their intracellular distribution in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm (2 and 6 nm) could enter the nucleus, whereas larger ones (10 and 16 nm) were found only in the cytoplasm. We then investigated the possibility of using ultrasmall 2 nm nanoparticles as carriers for nuclear delivery of a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) that binds to the c-myc promoter. Compared to free TFO, the nanoparticle-conjugated TFO was more effective at reducing c-myc RNA and c-myc protein, which resulted in reduced cell viability. Our result demonstrated that the entry of gold nanoparticles into the cell nucleus is critically dependent on the size of the nanoparticles. We developed a strategy for regulating gene expression, by directly delivering TFOs into the nucleus using ultrasmall gold nanoparticles. More importantly, guidelines were provided to choose appropriate nanocarriers for different biomedical purposes. PMID:24824865

  13. Emotion Regulation and Substance Use Frequency in Women with Substance Dependence and Borderline Personality Disorder Receiving Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Seth R.; Perepletchikova, Francheska; Holtzman, Kevin; Sinha, Rajita

    2011-01-01

    Background Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) identifies emotion dysregulation as central to the dangerous impulsivity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) including substance use disorders, and DBT targets improved emotion regulation as a primary mechanism of change. However, improved emotion regulation with DBT and associations between such improvement and behavioral outcomes such as substance use has not been previously reported. Objective Thus, the goal of this study was to assess for improvement in emotion regulation and to examine the relationship between improvements in the emotion regulation and substance use problems following DBT treatment. Method Emotion regulation as assessed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, depressed mood as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory, and their associations with substance use frequency were investigated in 27 women with substance dependence and BPD receiving 20 weeks of DBT in an academic community outpatient substance abuse treatment program. Results indicated improved emotion regulation, improved mood, and decreased substance use frequency. Further, emotion regulation improvement, but not improved mood, explained the variance of decreased substance use frequency. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate improved emotion regulation in BPD patients treated with DBT and to show that improved emotion regulation can account for increased behavioral control in BPD patients. Significance and Future Research Emotion regulation assessment is recommended for future studies to further clarify the etiology and maintenance of disorders associated with emotional dyregulation such as BPD and substance dependence, and to further explore emotion regulation as a potential mechanism of change for clinical interventions. PMID:21091162

  14. Nitrite Anion Therapy Protects Against Chronic Ischemic Tissue Injury in db/db Diabetic Mice in a NO/VEGF-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Bir, Shyamal C.; Pattillo, Christopher B.; Pardue, Sibile; Kolluru, Gopi K.; Shen, Xinggui; Giordano, Tony; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrite anion has been demonstrated to be a prodrug of nitric oxide (NO) with positive effects on tissue ischemia/reperfusion injury, cytoprotection, and vasodilation. However, effects of nitrite anion therapy for ischemic tissue vascular remodeling during diabetes remain unknown. We examined whether sodium nitrite therapy altered ischemic revascularization in BKS-Leprdb/db mice subjected to permanent unilateral femoral artery ligation. Sodium nitrite therapy completely restored ischemic hind limb blood flow compared with nitrate or PBS therapy. Importantly, delayed nitrite therapy 5 days after ischemia restored ischemic limb blood flow in aged diabetic mice. Restoration of blood flow was associated with increases in ischemic tissue angiogenesis activity and cell proliferation. Moreover, nitrite but not nitrate therapy significantly prevented ischemia-mediated tissue necrosis in aged mice. Nitrite therapy significantly increased ischemic tissue vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein expression that was essential for nitrite-mediated reperfusion of ischemic hind limbs. Nitrite significantly increased ischemic tissue NO bioavailability along with concomitant reduction of superoxide formation. Lastly, nitrite treatment also significantly stimulated hypoxic endothelial cell proliferation and migration in the presence of high glucose in an NO/VEGF-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that nitrite therapy effectively stimulates ischemic tissue vascular remodeling in the setting of metabolic dysfunction that may be clinically useful. PMID:24009258

  15. Optimising iron chelation therapy with deferasirox for non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia patients: 1-year results from the THETIS study.

    PubMed

    Taher, Ali T; Cappellini, M Domenica; Aydinok, Yesim; Porter, John B; Karakas, Zeynep; Viprakasit, Vip; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Kattamis, Antonis; Wang, Candace; Zhu, Zewen; Joaquin, Victor; Uwamahoro, Marie José; Lai, Yong-Rong

    2016-03-01

    Efficacy and safety of iron chelation therapy with deferasirox in iron-overloaded non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) patients were established in the THALASSA study. THETIS, an open-label, single-arm, multicentre, Phase IV study, added to this evidence by investigating earlier dose escalation by baseline liver iron concentration (LIC) (week 4: escalation according to baseline LIC; week 24: adjustment according to LIC response, maximum 30mg/kg/day). The primary efficacy endpoint was absolute change in LIC from baseline to week 52. 134 iron-overloaded non-transfusion-dependent anaemia patients were enrolled and received deferasirox starting at 10mg/kg/day. Mean actual dose±SD over 1year was 14.70±5.48mg/kg/day. At week 52, mean LIC±SD decreased significantly from 15.13±10.72mg Fe/g dw at baseline to 8.46±6.25mg Fe/g dw (absolute change from baseline, -6.68±7.02mg Fe/g dw [95% CI: -7.91, -5.45]; P<0.0001). Most common drug-related adverse events were gastrointestinal: abdominal discomfort, diarrhoea and nausea (n=6 each). There was one death (pneumonia, not considered drug related). With significant and clinically relevant reductions in iron burden alongside a safety profile similar to that in THALASSA, these data support earlier escalation with higher deferasirox doses in iron-overloaded non-transfusion-dependent anaemia patients. PMID:26852651

  16. Parking in the City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šeba, P.

    2007-10-01

    We show that the spacing distribution between parked cars can be obtained as a solution of certain linear distributional fixed point equation. The results are compared with the data measured on the streets of Hradec Krälový. We also discuss a relation of these results to the random matrix theory.

  17. Parks or Prisons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Gareth

    1998-01-01

    Presents a simulation activity in which students assume the role of grizzly bears in Banff National Park. Concepts such as species diversity, fitness, natural selection, habitat loss, extinction, and population dynamics are discussed. Children learn how human activities can affect the bear's reproductive success. Lists materials, instructional…

  18. Park a La Cart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susie; Roell, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Using discovery stations offers solutions for increasing attendance at park interpretive programs. Compact, portable stations can be used in playgrounds, special events, trailheads, picnic areas, campgrounds, nursing homes, and scouts and day camps. Describes a case in which stations were used 85 times and reached 4,927 visitors between July 1996…

  19. The Clover Park Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Don

    1974-01-01

    Describes an aviation trades training program offered by the Clover Park schools in Washington which exposes students to all facets of the aviation industry from record keeping to air traffic control in addition to the specific skill of piloting the aircraft. (BR)

  20. Pinnacles National Park Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Boxer, Barbara [D-CA

    2011-01-25

    05/11/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-124. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3641, which became Public Law 112-245 on 1/10/2013. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Exploring Jurassic Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Patricia E.; Wiley, Clyde

    1993-01-01

    Describes several student-tested activities built around "Jurassic Park." The activities feature students engaged in role-playing scenarios, investigative research projects, journal writing and communications skills activities, cooperative learning groups, and learning experiences that make use of reading skills and mathematical knowledge. (PR)

  2. Kruger National Park

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... and to the right of image center is the Palabora Copper Mine, and the water body near upper right is Lake Massingir in Mozambique. ... South Africa showing Kruger Park, the Palabora Copper Mine, and Lake Massingir. project:  MISR category:  ...

  3. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them ... places inside your body. The type of radiation therapy you receive depends on many factors, including The ...

  4. Nonmethane hydrocarbons in the rural southeast United States national parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Daiwen; Aneja, Viney P.; Zika, Rod G.; Farmer, Charles; Ray, John D.

    2001-02-01

    Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made at three rural sites in the southeast U.S. national parks: Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky; Cove Mountain, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee; and Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. In 1995 the three locations were sampling sites for the Southern Oxidants Study (SOS) Nashville Intensive, and the measurements of VOCs for Shenandoah were also made under contract with the National Park Service. Starting in 1996, the National Park Service added the other two parks to the monitoring contract. Hydrocarbon measurements made during June through September for the years 1995, 1996, and 1997 were analyzed in this study. Source classification techniques based on correlation coefficient, chemical reactivity, and ratioing were developed and applied to these data. The results show that anthropogenic VOCs from automobile exhaust appeared to be dominant at Mammoth Cave National Park, and at Cove Mountain, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, but other sources were also important at Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park. Correlation and ratio analysis based on chemical reactivity provides a basis for source-receptor relationship. The most abundant ambient VOCs varied both in concentration and order depending on park and year, but the following VOCs appeared on the top 10 list for all three sites: isoprene (6.3 to 18.4 ppbv), propane (2.1 to 12.9 ppbv), isopentane (1.3 to 5.7 ppbv), and toluene (1.0 to 7.2 ppbv). Isoprene is naturally emitted by vegetation, and the others are produced mainly by fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes. Propylene-equivalent concentrations were calculated to account for differences in reaction rates between the hydroxyl radical and individual hydrocarbons, and to thereby estimate their relative contributions to ozone formation.

  5. Expression of PARK7 is increased in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Vörös, Péter; Sziksz, Erna; Himer, Leonóra; Onody, Anna; Pap, Domonkos; Frivolt, Klára; Szebeni, Beáta; Lippai, Rita; Győrffy, Hajnalka; Fekete, Andrea; Brandt, Ferenc; Molnár, Kriszta; Veres, Gábor; Arató, András; Tulassay, Tivadar; Vannay, Adám

    2013-09-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that the gene called Parkinson's disease 7 (PARK7) might be an upstream activator of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, which plays a major role in sustaining intestinal barrier integrity. Furthermore, PARK7 has been proposed to participate in the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent regulation of the innate immune system. Our aim was to investigate the involvement of PARK7 in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease (CD). Duodenal biopsy specimens were collected from 19 children with untreated CD, five children with treated CD (maintained on gluten-free diet), and ten children with histologically normal duodenal biopsies. PARK7 mRNA expression and protein level were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot, respectively. Localization of PARK7 was visualized by immunofluorescence staining. Protein level of PARK7 increased in the duodenal mucosa of children with untreated CD compared to children with treated CD or to control biopsies (p <0.03). We detected intensive PARK7 staining in the epithelial cells and lamina propria of the duodenal mucosa of children with untreated CD compared with that in control biopsies. Our finding that mucosal expression of PARK7 is increased suggests that PARK7 is involved in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal diseases, notably CD. Our results suggest that PARK7 may alter processes mediated by HIF-1α and TLR4, which supports a role for PARK7 in the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity, immune homeostasis, or apoptosis. PMID:23832581

  6. Neonatal helper-dependent adenoviral vector gene therapy mediates correction of hemophilia A and tolerance to human factor VIII

    PubMed Central

    Cela, Racel G.; Suzuki, Masataka; Lee, Brendan; Lipshutz, Gerald S.

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal gene therapy is a promising strategy for treating a number of congenital diseases diagnosed shortly after birth as expression of therapeutic proteins during postnatal life may limit the pathologic consequences and result in a potential “cure.” Hemophilia A is often complicated by the development of antibodies to recombinant protein resulting in treatment failure. Neonatal administration of vectors may avoid inhibitory antibody formation to factor VIII (FVIII) by taking advantage of immune immaturity. A helper-dependent adenoviral vector expressing human factor VIII was administered i.v. to neonatal hemophilia A knockout mice. Three days later, mice produced high levels of FVIII. Levels declined rapidly with animal growth to 5 wk of age with stable factor VIII expression thereafter to >1 y of age. Decline in factor VIII expression was not related to cell-mediated or humoral responses with lack of development of antibodies to capsid or human factor VIII proteins. Subsequent readministration and augmentation of expression was possible as operational tolerance was established to factor VIII without development of inhibitors; however, protective immunity to adenovirus remained. PMID:21245323

  7. Renewable energy implementation at Channel Islands National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, K.

    1997-12-31

    With facilities located 14 to 60 miles (22 to 96 km) offshore, Channel Islands National Park naturally lends itself to the implementation of renewable energy projects in many locations. The park first began utilizing photovoltaics in the early 1970`s for communications at remote locations and presently has fifty-seven applications in operation. Renewable Energy systems have proven to be a reliable, cost efficient and environmentally friendly way of conducting business. They now provide the park with power for remote facility operations, water pumping, resource monitoring and communications. Currently the park has 29 kW of photovoltaics and 21.5 kW of wind generation in operation, with additional installations planned for the immediate future. Visitors to Channel Islands National Park have the opportunity to see renewable energy applications in use on all the park islands. The parks extensive utilization of renewables has educated the public about the practical uses of alternative energy and demonstrated the parks commitment to reducing dependence on non-renewable resources.

  8. The energy Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2005-10-01

    If world development is to continue, per capita energy use in the developing world must increase to levels in the developed world. Restrictions on how much CO2 mankind can responsibly put into the atmosphere complicate the task further. Studies show that by 2050 the world will require an additional 10-30 terawatts (TW) of carbon free power, at least as much additional, as the 10 TW generated today with fossil fuel. Neither mined uranium nor renewable energy is capable of sustained power production at this level. This paper proposes, an "energy park", a self contained unit a square mile or two in area which supplies about 7 GW of electrical power or hydrogen, emits no CO2, has little or no proliferation problem, and cleans up its own waste. Most of the energy is supplied by conventional nuclear power plants. However the nuclear fuel is bred by a fusion reactor, which is the key to the energy park. The waste cleanup is done by a combination of fission, fusion, and patience. There is neither long time storage nor long distance travel for materials with proliferation risk or long lived radio nuclides. Thus only thorium comes into the park, and only electricity and hydrogen go out.

  9. Achieving a Spiritual Therapy Standard for Drug Dependency in Malaysia, from an Islamic Perspective: Brief Review Article.

    PubMed

    Seghatoleslam, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain; Hatim, Ahmad; Rashid, Rusdi; Ardakan, Abolfazl; Esmaeili Motlaq, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Religion is one of the protective factors that facilities positive outcomes by preventing individuals from engaging in addictive substance. A recent study has confirmed that religion inhibits drug addiction. The concept of psychospiritual therapy was to introduce drug addiction. Therefore, of the various methods of psychotherapy, the usage of Taqwa (piety) emerged as an applicable method of Islamic spiritual therapy. This study was conducted in Malaysia as a Muslim country and focuses on Islamic recommendations and its relation to spiritual therapy. PMID:26060772

  10. The Effect of Methadone-Maintenance Therapy With and Without Interactive Treatment on Improving Emotion-Regulation Strategies and Resilience Among Opiate-Dependent Clients

    PubMed Central

    Hoseiny, Hadis; Jadidi, Mohsen; Habiballah Nataj, Leila; Saberi- Zafarghandi, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to the chronic and recurrent nature of addiction, many people who quit drug addiction may slip back into the pattern of using drugs shortly after the detoxification period. Emotion-regulation strategies and resilience play an important role in preventing the recurrences of substance abuse. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of methadone-maintenance therapy (MMT) and interactive therapy (a combination of MMT and cognitive-behavioral therapy) on improving emotion-regulation strategies and resilience among opiate-dependent clients. Patients and Methods: This pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study was performed on 60 patients with substance abuse admitted to Methadone Addiction Treatment Centers and Detox Centers in Sari within three months of therapy for their addiction (from October to December 2013). Then, the participants were randomly assigned to two different groups (n = 30) were examined in two groups of 30 people targeted to be available in the selected population. Participants in all three groups, before and after the intervention, filled out the questionnaires of Schutte emotional intelligence scale and Connor-Davidson resiliency questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance method. Results: The results showed that an interactive therapy would be significantly more effective than the MMT on improving emotion-regulation strategies and promoting the resilience level among opiate-dependent clients. Moreover, the results showed that cognitive- behavior therapy combined with MMT may improve emotion-regulation strategies, and promote the amount of resiliency and recovery. Conclusions: The cognitive-behavior therapy combined with MMT can improve emotion-regulation strategies and resiliency and thus prevent the substance-abuse relapse. PMID:25821751

  11. Cancer cell dependence on unsaturated fatty acids implicates stearoyl-CoA desaturase as a target for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Roongta, Urvashi V; Pabalan, Jonathan G; Wang, Xinyu; Ryseck, Rolf-Peter; Fargnoli, Joseph; Henley, Benjamin J; Yang, Wen-Pin; Zhu, Jun; Madireddi, Malavi T; Lawrence, R Michael; Wong, Tai W; Rupnow, Brent A

    2011-11-01

    Emerging literature suggests that metabolic pathways play an important role in the maintenance and progression of human cancers. In particular, recent studies have implicated lipid biosynthesis and desaturation as a requirement for tumor cell survival. In the studies reported here, we aimed to understand whether tumor cells require the activity of either human isoform of stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (SCD1 or SCD5) for survival. Inhibition of SCD1 by siRNA or a small molecule antagonist results in strong induction of apoptosis and growth inhibition, when tumor cells are cultured in reduced (2%) serum conditions, but has little impact on cells cultured in 10% serum. Depletion of SCD5 had minimal effects on cell growth or apoptosis. Consistent with the observed dependence on SCD1, but not SCD5, levels of SCD1 protein increased in response to decreasing serum levels. Both induction of SCD1 protein and sensitivity to growth inhibition by SCD1 inhibition could be reversed by supplementing growth media with unsaturated fatty acids, the product of the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by SCD1. Transcription profiling of cells treated with an SCD inhibitor revealed strong induction of markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Underscoring its importance in cancer, SCD1 protein was found to be highly expressed in a large percentage of human cancer specimens. SCD inhibition resulted in tumor growth delay in a human gastric cancer xenograft model. Altogether, these results suggest that desaturated fatty acids are required for tumor cell survival and that SCD may represent a viable target for the development of novel agents for cancer therapy. PMID:21954435

  12. Scale Modelling of Nocturnal Cooling in Urban Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spronken-Smith, R. A.; Oke, T. R.

    Scale modelling is used to determine the relative contribution of heat transfer processes to the nocturnal cooling of urban parks and the characteristic temporal and spatial variation of surface temperature. Validation is achieved using a hardware model-to-numerical model-to-field observation chain of comparisons. For the calm case, modelling shows that urban-park differences of sky view factor (s) and thermal admittance () are the relevant properties governing the park cool island (PCI) effect. Reduction in sky view factor by buildings and trees decreases the drain of longwave radiation from the surface to the sky. Thus park areas near the perimeter where there may be a line of buildings or trees, or even sites within a park containing tree clumps or individual trees, generally cool less than open areas. The edge effect applies within distances of about 2.2 to 3.5 times the height of the border obstruction, i.e., to have any part of the park cooling at the maximum rate a square park must be at least twice these dimensions in width. Although the central areas of parks larger than this will experience greater cooling they will accumulate a larger volume of cold air that may make it possible for them to initiate a thermal circulation and extend the influence of the park into the surrounding city. Given real world values of s and it seems likely that radiation and conduction play almost equal roles in nocturnal PCI development. Evaporation is not a significant cooling mechanism in the nocturnal calm case but by day it is probably critical in establishing a PCI by sunset. It is likely that conditions that favour PCI by day (tree shade, soil wetness) retard PCI growth at night. The present work, which only deals with PCI growth, cannot predict which type of park will be coolest at night. Complete specification of nocturnal PCI magnitude requires knowledge of the PCI at sunset, and this depends on daytime energetics.

  13. Nanoformulation of Geranylgeranyltransferase-I Inhibitors for Cancer Therapy: Liposomal Encapsulation and pH-Dependent Delivery to Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jie; Yoshimura, Kohei; Goto, Koichi; Lee, Craig; Hamura, Ken; Kwon, Ohyun; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Small molecule inhibitors against protein geranylgeranyltransferase-I such as P61A6 have been shown to inhibit proliferation of a variety of human cancer cells and exhibit antitumor activity in mouse models. Development of these inhibitors could be dramatically accelerated by conferring tumor targeting and controlled release capability. As a first step towards this goal, we have encapsulated P61A6 into a new type of liposomes that open and release cargos only under low pH condition. These low pH-release type liposomes were prepared by adjusting the ratio of two types of phospholipid derivatives. Loading of geranylgeranyltransferase-I inhibitor (GGTI) generated liposomes with average diameter of 50–100 nm. GGTI release in solution was sharply dependent on pH values, only showing release at pH lower than 6. Release of cargos in a pH-dependent manner inside the cell was demonstrated by the use of a proton pump inhibitor Bafilomycin A1 that Increased lysosomal pH and inhibited the release of a dye carried in the pH-liposome. Delivery of GGTI to human pancreatic cancer cells was demonstrated by the inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation inside the cell and this effect was blocked by Bafilomycin A1. In addition, GGTI delivered by pH-liposomes induced proliferation inhibition, G1 cell cycle arrest that is associated with the expression of cell cycle regulator p21CIP1/WAF1. Proliferation inhibition was also observed with various lung cancer cell lines. Availability of nanoformulated GGTI opens up the possibility to combine with other types of inhibitors. To demonstrate this point, we combined the liposomal-GGTI with farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI) to inhibit K-Ras signaling in pancreatic cancer cells. Our results show that the activated K-Ras signaling in these cells can be effectively inhibited and that synergistic effect of the two drugs is observed. Our results suggest a new direction in the use of GGTI for cancer therapy. PMID:26352258

  14. Automated Car Park Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  15. Achieving a Spiritual Therapy Standard for Drug Dependency in Malaysia, from an Islamic Perspective: Brief Review Article

    PubMed Central

    SEGHATOLESLAM, Tahereh; HABIL, Hussain; HATIM, Ahmad; RASHID, Rusdi; ARDAKAN, Abolfazl; ESMAEILI MOTLAQ, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Religion is one of the protective factors that facilities positive outcomes by preventing individuals from engaging in addictive substance. A recent study has confirmed that religion inhibits drug addiction. The concept of psychospiritual therapy was to introduce drug addiction. Therefore, of the various methods of psychotherapy, the usage of Taqwa (piety) emerged as an applicable method of Islamic spiritual therapy. This study was conducted in Malaysia as a Muslim country and focuses on Islamic recommendations and its relation to spiritual therapy. PMID:26060772

  16. Optimal parking orbits for manned Mars missions. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, Michael L.; Nordwall, Jill A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes a Mars parking orbit optimization effort. This parking orbit study includes the selection of optimal elliptic Mars parking orbits that meet mission constraints and that include pertinent apsidal misalignment losses. Mars missions examined are for the opportunity years of 2014, 2016, and 2018. For these mission opportunities, it is shown that the optimal parking orbits depend on the year that the mission occurs and are coupled with the outbound, Mars stay, and return phases of the mission. Constraints included in the parking orbit optimization process are periapsis lighting angle (related to a daylight landing requirement), periapsis latitude (related to a landing latitude range requirement) and the vehicle Trans-Earth-Injection stage mass. Also, effects of mission abort requirements on optimal parking orbits are investigated. Off-periapsis maneuvers for Mars orbit capture were found to be cost effective in reducing the mission delta-V for the 2016 abort from Mars capture scenario. The total capture and departure delta-V was `split' between the capture maneuver and the departure maneuver to reduce the 2016 Mars departure delta-V to below the level of the corresponding stage of the 2014 baseline mission. Landing results are provided that show Mars landing site access from the optimal elliptic parking orbits for Mars excursion vehicles with low (0.2) and high (1.3 and 1.6) lift to drag ratio.

  17. Sensor-guided parking system for a carlike robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Kaichum; Seneviratne, L. D.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents an automated parking strategy for a car- like mobile robot. The study considers general parking manoeuvre cases for a rectangular robot, including parallel parking. The robot is constructed simulating a conventional car, which is subject to non-holonomic constraints and thus only has two degrees of freedom. The parking space is considered as rectangular, and detected by ultrasonic sensors mounted on the robot. A motion planning algorithm develops a collision-free path for parking, taking into account the non- holonomic constraints acting on the car-like robot. A research into general car maneuvers has been conducted and useful results have been achieved. The motion planning algorithm uses these results, combined with configuration space method, to produce a collision-free path for parallel parking, depending on the parking space detected. A control program in the form of a graphical user interface has been developed for users to operate the system with ease. The strategy is implemented on a modified B12 mobile robot. The strategy presented has the potential for application in automobiles.

  18. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  19. Salute to the National Park Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Edward K.

    1976-01-01

    Current National Parks Service's design policy is summarized and the manner in which this policy produces national park transportation, planning, visitor center siting, architecture, preservation, and exhibits, is detailed. Organizations lobbying for better parks are listed. (BT)

  20. Cryo-thermal therapy elicits potent anti-tumor immunity by inducing extracellular Hsp70-dependent MDSC differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Aili; He, Kun; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X

    2016-01-01

    Achieving control of metastatic disease is a long-sought goal in cancer therapy. Treatments that encourage a patient's own immune system are bringing new hopes in reaching such a goal. In clinic, local hyperthermia and cryoablation have been explored to induce anti-tumor immune responses against tumors. We have also developed a novel therapeutic modality of cryo-thermal treatment by alternating liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooling and radio frequency (RF) heating, and better therapeutic effect was achieved in treating metastatic cancer in animal model. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of systemic immune response elicited by cryo-thermal therapy. In the 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model, we found that local cryo-thermal therapy resulted in a considerable reduction of distant lung metastases, and improved long-term survival. Moreover, results of tumor re-challenge experiments indicated generation of a strong tumor-specific immune memory after the local treatment of primary tumors. Our further study indicated that cryo-thermal therapy caused an elevated extracellular release of Hsp70. Subsequently, Hsp70 induced differentiation of MDSCs into mature DCs, contributing to the relief of MDSCs-mediated immunosuppression and ultimately the activation of strong anti-tumor immune response. Our findings reveal new insight into the mechanism of robust therapeutic effects of cryo-thermal therapy against metastatic cancers. PMID:27256519

  1. Cryo-thermal therapy elicits potent anti-tumor immunity by inducing extracellular Hsp70-dependent MDSC differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Aili; He, Kun; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X.

    2016-06-01

    Achieving control of metastatic disease is a long-sought goal in cancer therapy. Treatments that encourage a patient’s own immune system are bringing new hopes in reaching such a goal. In clinic, local hyperthermia and cryoablation have been explored to induce anti-tumor immune responses against tumors. We have also developed a novel therapeutic modality of cryo-thermal treatment by alternating liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooling and radio frequency (RF) heating, and better therapeutic effect was achieved in treating metastatic cancer in animal model. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of systemic immune response elicited by cryo-thermal therapy. In the 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model, we found that local cryo-thermal therapy resulted in a considerable reduction of distant lung metastases, and improved long-term survival. Moreover, results of tumor re-challenge experiments indicated generation of a strong tumor-specific immune memory after the local treatment of primary tumors. Our further study indicated that cryo-thermal therapy caused an elevated extracellular release of Hsp70. Subsequently, Hsp70 induced differentiation of MDSCs into mature DCs, contributing to the relief of MDSCs-mediated immunosuppression and ultimately the activation of strong anti-tumor immune response. Our findings reveal new insight into the mechanism of robust therapeutic effects of cryo-thermal therapy against metastatic cancers.

  2. Cryo-thermal therapy elicits potent anti-tumor immunity by inducing extracellular Hsp70-dependent MDSC differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Aili; He, Kun; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X.

    2016-01-01

    Achieving control of metastatic disease is a long-sought goal in cancer therapy. Treatments that encourage a patient’s own immune system are bringing new hopes in reaching such a goal. In clinic, local hyperthermia and cryoablation have been explored to induce anti-tumor immune responses against tumors. We have also developed a novel therapeutic modality of cryo-thermal treatment by alternating liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooling and radio frequency (RF) heating, and better therapeutic effect was achieved in treating metastatic cancer in animal model. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of systemic immune response elicited by cryo-thermal therapy. In the 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model, we found that local cryo-thermal therapy resulted in a considerable reduction of distant lung metastases, and improved long-term survival. Moreover, results of tumor re-challenge experiments indicated generation of a strong tumor-specific immune memory after the local treatment of primary tumors. Our further study indicated that cryo-thermal therapy caused an elevated extracellular release of Hsp70. Subsequently, Hsp70 induced differentiation of MDSCs into mature DCs, contributing to the relief of MDSCs-mediated immunosuppression and ultimately the activation of strong anti-tumor immune response. Our findings reveal new insight into the mechanism of robust therapeutic effects of cryo-thermal therapy against metastatic cancers. PMID:27256519

  3. Wheeling and Dealing in the National Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Sydney

    1973-01-01

    Motor vehicles and commercialism have generated serious problems within the national park system. A Conservation Foundation suggests new directions in management for the National Park Service. (Editors)

  4. Perception of urban park soundscape.

    PubMed

    Tse, Man Sze; Chau, Chi Kwan; Choy, Yat Sze; Tsui, Wai Keung; Chan, Chak Ngai; Tang, Shiu Keung

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have been initiated to explore how to improve the soundscape quality in urban parks. However, good soundscape quality in parks cannot be provided without a thorough understanding of the complex relationships among sound, environment, and individuals. As acoustic comfort is considered to be an important outcome of soundscape quality, this study investigates the relative impacts of the factors influencing acoustic comfort evaluation by formulating a multivariate ordered logit model. This study also explores the inter-relationships among acoustic comfort evaluation, acceptability of the environment, and preference to stay in a park using a path model. A total of 595 valid responses were obtained from interview surveys administered in four parks in Hong Kong while objective sound measurements were carried out at the survey spots concurrently. The findings unveil that acoustic comfort evaluation, besides visual comfort evaluation of landscape, also plays an important role on users' acceptability of the urban park environment. Compared with all the studied acoustic related factors, acoustic comfort evaluation serves as a better proxy for park users' preference to stay in urban parks. Hearing the breeze will significantly increase the likelihood of individuals in giving high acoustic comfort evaluation. Conversely, hearing the sounds from heavy vehicles or sounds from bikes will significantly reduce the likelihood in giving a high acoustic evaluation. PMID:22501055

  5. Aftermath of Griffith Park Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2007, wind-driven flames raced through Griffith Park in Los Angeles, forcing hasty evacuations and threatening numerous famous landmarks and tourist spots, such as the Los Angeles Zoo and the Hollywood Sign. Ultimately, no one was injured in the fire, which may have been started by a cigarette. About 800 acres burned in the urban park, which is itself a Hollywood landmark, having been the location for several movies, including Rebel Without A Cause. This image of the park was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on June 6, 2007, about a month after the fire. ASTER detects both visible and infrared wavelengths of light, and both kinds have been used to make this image. Vegetation appears in various shades of red, while the burned areas appear charcoal. Roads and dense urban areas appear purplish-gray or white. Water is dark blue. Large burned areas are evident in the northwest and southeast parts of the park, with scattered smaller patches along the southern margin. Some botanical gardens and parts of a bird sanctuary, as well as some park structures like restrooms, were destroyed. The park's unburned, natural vegetation appears brick red, while the irrigated golf courses adjacent to the park are bright red. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  6. 78 FR 14822 - Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Concessions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Concessions AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (National Park Service, NPS... Madonna L. Baucum, Information Collection Clearance Officer, National Park Service, 1201 I Street NW.,...

  7. Chronic L-DOPA induces hyperactivity, normalization of gait and dyskinetic behavior in MitoPark mice

    PubMed Central

    Gellhaar, S; Marcellino, D; Abrams, M B; Galter, D

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) replacement therapy continues to be the gold standard treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), as it improves key motor symptoms including bradykinesia and gait disturbances. With time, treatment induces side effects in the majority of patients, known as L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), which are often studied in animals by the use of unilateral, toxin-induced rodent models. In this study, we used the progressive, genetic PD model MitoPark to specifically evaluate bilateral changes in motor behavior following long-term L-DOPA treatment at three different stages of striatal DA depletion. Besides locomotor activity, we assessed changes in gait with two automated gait analysis systems and the development of dyskinetic behavior. Long-term treatment with a moderate, clinically relevant dose of L-DOPA (8 mg/kg) gradually produced age-dependent hyperactivity in MitoPark mice. In voluntary and forced gait analyses, we show that MitoPark mice with severe DA depletion have distinct gait characteristics, which are normalized to control levels following long-term L-DOPA treatment. The cylinder test showed an age-dependent and gradual development of bilateral LID. Significant increase in striatal FosB and prodynorphin expression was found to accompany the behavior changes. Taken together, we report that MitoPark mice model both behavioral and biochemical characteristics of long-term L-DOPA treatment in PD patients and provide a novel, consistent and progressive animal model of dyskinesia to aid in the discovery and evaluation of better treatment options to counteract LID. PMID:25752644

  8. Family Behavior Therapy for Use in Child Welfare: Results of a Case Study Involving an Abused Woman Formally Diagnosed With Alcohol Dependence, Bipolar Disorder, and Several Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Valerie; Donohue, Brad C.; Hill, Heather H.; Powell, Suzanne; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Azrin, Nathan; Allen, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    The results of a multiple-baseline case study of family behavior therapy (FBT) is described in a woman formally diagnosed with alcohol dependence, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and panic disorder. She was referred to treatment from the local Department of Family Services for child neglect and domestic violence. After baseline measures were administered, the first phase of treatment involved home safety tours aimed at reducing home hazards and cleanliness. A second phase of treatment additionally targeted family relationships through communication skills training exercises, and a third phase involved administration of the remaining FBT components to assist in comprehensively addressing other problem areas. Results indicated most problem areas were substantially improved, but only after they were comprehensively targeted in therapy. PMID:23136557

  9. Associations of neighborhood characteristics with active park use: an observational study in two cities in the USA and Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public parks can be an important setting for physical activity promotion, but to increase park use and the activity levels of park users, the crucial attributes related to active park use need to be defined. Not only user characteristics and structural park attributes, but also characteristics of the surrounding neighborhood are important to examine. Furthermore, internationally comparable studies are needed, to find out if similar intervention strategies might be effective worldwide. The main aim of this study was to examine whether the overall number of park visitors and their activity levels depend on study site, neighborhood walkability and neighborhood income. Methods Data were collected in 20 parks in Ghent, Belgium and San Diego, USA. Two trained observers systematically coded park characteristics using the Environmental Assessment of Public Recreation Spaces (EAPRS) tool, and park user characteristics using the System for Observing Play and recreation in Communities (SOPARC) tool. Multilevel multiple regression models were conducted in MLwiN 2.25. Results In San Diego parks, activity levels of park visitors and number of vigorously active visitors were higher than in Ghent, while the number of visitors walking and the overall number of park visitors were lower. Neighborhood walkability was positively associated with the overall number of visitors, the number of visitors walking, number of sedentary visitors and mean activity levels of visitors. Neighborhood income was positively associated with the overall number of visitors, but negatively with the number of visitors being vigorously active. Conclusions Neighborhood characteristics are important to explain park use. Neighborhood walkability-related attributes should be taken into account when promoting the use of existing parks or creating new parks. Because no strong differences were found between parks in high- and low-income neighborhoods, it seems that promoting park use might be a promising

  10. Need for validation of Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence in Indian Context: Implications for Nicotine Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Priyamvada

    2016-01-01

    Background: Variety of smokeable and chewable tobacco products with diverse nicotine content are used in India. Nicotine quantity in tobacco products has a direct bearing on developing tobacco dependence. The present work used this information to derive scores on the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND). It was used to determine the dosing of nicotine replacement treatment (NRT). Materials and Methods: Nicotine score quantitation was taken from the previous study. This data was applied to FTND to determine the relationship of nicotine content to the potential degree of dependence. Results: Application of nicotine quantitation to FTND in a hypothetical experiment significantly altered the scores from medium to high depending on the brand the used. Conclusion: Application of qunatitation of nicotine content in FTND score has implications for the assessment of tobacco dependence and NRT dose. The study implies validation of FTND using nicotine quantity in the consumed tobacco product as a scorable parameter in the FTND. PMID:27114620

  11. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.W.; Giraud, K.M.

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  12. Vandal-Proof Your Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattuck, J. Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Responses of 380 park maintenance and facility managers to a questionnaire provided information on how they try to prevent vandalism affecting signs, picnic and related services, and sanitary facilities. (CB)

  13. Jurassic Park: Adventure in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shams, Marcia; Boteler, Trina

    1993-01-01

    Describes using the movie "Jurassic Park" as a foundation for a middle school interdisciplinary unit involving science, math, language arts, history, and geography. Suggested books and activities are presented. (PR)

  14. Teacher's Guide to Independence National Historical Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Philadelphia, PA. Independence National Historical Park.

    Independence National Historical Park, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is operated by the National Park Service. The park was authorized by an Act of Congress on June 28, 1948, and formally established on July 4, 1956. The mission of Independence National Historical Park is to preserve its stories, buildings, and artifacts as a source of…

  15. Elements related to heterogeneity of antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity in patients under trastuzumab therapy for primary operable breast cancer overexpressing Her2.

    PubMed

    Varchetta, Stefania; Gibelli, Nadia; Oliviero, Barbara; Nardini, Elena; Gennari, Roberto; Gatti, Giovanna; Silva, Luzemira Santos; Villani, Laura; Tagliabue, Elda; Ménard, Sylvie; Costa, Alberto; Fagnoni, Francesco F

    2007-12-15

    Preliminary results from a pilot trial on trastuzumab's mechanism of action against operable breast tumors overexpressing Her2 suggested a role for antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). To examine factors affecting ADCC intensity and variability, we extended this study to the phenotypic and functional analysis of circulating mononuclear cells in 18 patients. ADCC was induced by trastuzumab therapy in 15 of 18 patients (83%). Inability to develop ADCC in three patients did not depend on inadequate levels of trastuzumab because further increase in its concentration in vitro was ineffective. Rather, susceptibility to develop ADCC was fairly predicted by test with trastuzumab before therapy and was correlated to the number of lymphocytes coexpressing CD16 and CD56. Phenotypic analysis at the end of ADCC evaluating down-regulation of CD16, and up-regulation of CD69 and CD107a, confirmed that natural killer (NK) cells and CD56(+) T cells were involved in productive engagement of trastuzumab. Also, the killing efficiency of CD16(+) lymphocytes was influenced by 158 V/F polymorphism of Fc gamma RIII (CD16), whereas variations of CD247 on NK cells were consistent with trends between ADCC before and after therapy. Complete pathologic response was observed in one patient showing ADCC of outstanding intensity, whereas four cases of partial response showed intermediate ADCC; none of the three patients unable to mount ADCC had significant tumor regression. These data indicate that quantity and lytic efficiency of CD16(+) lymphocytes are major factors for ADCC induction by trastuzumab, and confirm that breast cancer responses to short-term trastuzumab monotherapy may depend on involvement of the ADCC mechanism. PMID:18089830

  16. Medication-assisted therapy for opioid-dependent incarcerated populations in New Mexico: statewide efforts to increase access.

    PubMed

    Trigg, Bruce G; Dickman, Samuel L

    2012-01-01

    An acute awareness of the profound social and medical costs associated with heroin and opiate addiction in New Mexico has led a group of advocates from public health, state and local governments, corrections, academia, and community activists to collaborate for the purpose of increasing access to medication-assisted therapy (MAT) with buprenorphine and methadone in New Mexico. This paper describes these collaborations, with a focus on the evolution of harm reduction approaches to substance abuse disorders and successful efforts to make MAT available to incarcerated persons. PMID:22263716

  17. Risk of Hormone Escape in a Human Prostate Cancer Model Depends on Therapy Modalities and Can Be Reduced by Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Guyader, Charlotte; Céraline, Jocelyn; Gravier, Eléonore; Morin, Aurélie; Michel, Sandrine; Erdmann, Eva; de Pinieux, Gonzague; Cabon, Florence; Bergerat, Jean-Pierre; Poupon, Marie-France; Oudard, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Almost all prostate cancers respond to androgen deprivation treatment but many recur. We postulated that risk of hormone escape -frequency and delay- are influenced by hormone therapy modalities. More, hormone therapies induce crucial biological changes involving androgen receptors; some might be targets for escape prevention. We investigated the relationship between the androgen deprivation treatment and the risk of recurrence using nude mice bearing the high grade, hormone-dependent human prostate cancer xenograft PAC120. Tumor-bearing mice were treated by Luteinizing-Hormone Releasing Hormone (LHRH) antagonist alone, continuous or intermittent regimen, or combined with androgen receptor (AR) antagonists (bicalutamide or flutamide). Tumor growth was monitored. Biological changes were studied as for genomic alterations, AR mutations and protein expression in a large series of recurrent tumors according to hormone therapy modalities. Therapies targeting Her-2 or AKT were tested in combination with castration. All statistical tests were two-sided. Tumor growth was inhibited by continuous administration of the LH-RH antagonist degarelix (castration), but 40% of tumors recurred. Intermittent castration or complete blockade induced by degarelix and antiandrogens combination, inhibited tumor growth but increased the risk of recurrence (RR) as compared to continuous castration (RRintermittent: 14.5, RRcomplete blockade: 6.5 and 1.35). All recurrent tumors displayed new quantitative genetic alterations and AR mutations, whatever the treatment modalities. AR amplification was found after complete blockade. Increased expression of Her-2/neu with frequent ERK/AKT activation was detected in all variants. Combination of castration with a Her-2/neu inhibitor decreased recurrence risk (0.17) and combination with an mTOR inhibitor prevented it. Anti-hormone treatments influence risk of recurrence although tumor growth inhibition was initially similar. Recurrent tumors displayed

  18. Fc-dependent depletion of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells co-defines the efficacy of anti–CTLA-4 therapy against melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Tyler R.; Li, Fubin; Montalvo-Ortiz, Welby; Sepulveda, Manuel A.; Bergerhoff, Katharina; Arce, Frederick; Roddie, Claire; Henry, Jake Y.; Yagita, Hideo; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Peggs, Karl S.; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment with monoclonal antibody specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), an inhibitory receptor expressed by T lymphocytes, has emerged as an effective therapy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Although subject to debate, current models favor a mechanism of activity involving blockade of the inhibitory activity of CTLA-4 on both effector (T eff) and regulatory (T reg) T cells, resulting in enhanced antitumor effector T cell activity capable of inducing tumor regression. We demonstrate, however, that the activity of anti–CTLA-4 antibody on the T reg cell compartment is mediated via selective depletion of T reg cells within tumor lesions. Importantly, T reg cell depletion is dependent on the presence of Fcγ receptor–expressing macrophages within the tumor microenvironment, indicating that T reg cells are depleted in trans in a context-dependent manner. Our results reveal further mechanistic insight into the activity of anti-CTLA-4–based cancer immunotherapy, and illustrate the importance of specific features of the local tumor environment on the final outcome of antibody-based immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:23897981

  19. Fc-dependent depletion of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells co-defines the efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 therapy against melanoma.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Tyler R; Li, Fubin; Montalvo-Ortiz, Welby; Sepulveda, Manuel A; Bergerhoff, Katharina; Arce, Frederick; Roddie, Claire; Henry, Jake Y; Yagita, Hideo; Wolchok, Jedd D; Peggs, Karl S; Ravetch, Jeffrey V; Allison, James P; Quezada, Sergio A

    2013-08-26

    Treatment with monoclonal antibody specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), an inhibitory receptor expressed by T lymphocytes, has emerged as an effective therapy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Although subject to debate, current models favor a mechanism of activity involving blockade of the inhibitory activity of CTLA-4 on both effector (T eff) and regulatory (T reg) T cells, resulting in enhanced antitumor effector T cell activity capable of inducing tumor regression. We demonstrate, however, that the activity of anti-CTLA-4 antibody on the T reg cell compartment is mediated via selective depletion of T reg cells within tumor lesions. Importantly, T reg cell depletion is dependent on the presence of Fcγ receptor-expressing macrophages within the tumor microenvironment, indicating that T reg cells are depleted in trans in a context-dependent manner. Our results reveal further mechanistic insight into the activity of anti-CTLA-4-based cancer immunotherapy, and illustrate the importance of specific features of the local tumor environment on the final outcome of antibody-based immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:23897981

  20. Multisystemic Therapy Improves the Patient-Provider Relationship in Families of Adolescents with Poorly Controlled Insulin Dependent Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Carcone, April Idalski; Ellis, Deborah A; Chen, Xinguang; Naar, Sylvie; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Moltz, Kathleen

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if multisystemic therapy (MST), an intensive, home and community-based family treatment, significantly improved patient-provider relationships in families where youth had chronic poor glycemic control. One hundred forty-six adolescents with type 1 or 2 diabetes in chronic poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥8 %) and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to MST or a telephone support condition. Caregiver perceptions of their relationship with the diabetes multidisciplinary medical team were assessed at baseline and treatment termination with the Measure of Process of Care-20. At treatment termination, MST families reported significant improvement on the Coordinated and Comprehensive Care scale and marginally significant improvement on the Respectful and Supportive Care scale. Improvements on the Enabling and Partnership and Providing Specific Information scales were not significant. Results suggest MST improves the ability of the families and the diabetes treatment providers to work together. PMID:25940767

  1. Multisystemic Therapy Improves the Patient-Provider Relationship in Families of Adolescents with Poorly Controlled Insulin Dependent Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Carcone, April Idalski; Ellis, Deborah A.; Chen, Xinguang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Moltz, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an intensive, home and community-based family treatment, significantly improved patient-provider relationships in families where youth had chronic poor glycemic control. Methods One hundred forty-six adolescents with type 1 or 2 diabetes in chronic poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 8%) and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to MST or a telephone support condition. Caregiver perceptions of their relationship with the diabetes multidisciplinary medical team were assessed at baseline and treatment termination with the Measure of Process of Care-20. Results At treatment termination, MST families reported significant improvement on the Coordinated and Comprehensive Care scale and marginally significant improvement on the Respectful and Supportive Care scale. Improvements on the Enabling and Partnership and Providing Specific Information scales were not significant. Conclusions Results suggest MST improves the ability of the families and the diabetes treatment providers to work together. PMID:25940767

  2. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Behavioral Couples Therapy versus Individually-Based Treatment for Women with Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Schumm, Jeremiah A.; O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Murphy, Marie M.; Muchowski, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Multiple studies show that behavioral couples therapy (BCT) is more efficacious than individually-based therapy (IBT) for substance use and relationship outcomes among men with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The present study compared BCT with IBT for women with AUD. Method: Participants were women with AUD (N = 105) and their male partners without SUD. Participants were mostly White and in their forties. Women were randomized to equally intensive treatments consisting of either BCT plus 12-step-oriented IBT or IBT only. Primary outcomes included: Timeline Followback Interview percentage days abstinent (PDA) and Inventory of Drug Use Consequences measure of substance-related problems. Secondary outcomes included: Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), Relationship Happiness Scale (RHS), and Revised Conflict Tactics Scales measure of intimate partner violence (IPV). Outcome data were collected at baseline, post-treatment, and quarterly for 1-yr follow-up. Results: Compared to IBT only, BCT plus IBT had significantly better primary outcomes of higher PDA and fewer substance-related problems during the 1-yr follow-up period. Compared to IBT only, BCT had significantly higher male RHS during the 1-yr follow-up. Women with lower pretreatment DAS had significantly higher DAS following BCT versus IBT, and there was an increasing advantage for BCT on female DAS over the follow-up. IPV was significantly reduced from pretreatment to follow-up, with no differences between treatment conditions. Conclusion: Results showed that BCT for women with AUD was more efficacious than IBT in reducing substance use and substance-related problems and improving partner relationships. PMID:25045910

  3. Psychiatric comorbidities in opioid-dependent patients undergoing a replacement therapy programme in Spain: The PROTEUS study.

    PubMed

    Roncero, Carlos; Barral, Carmen; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Pérez-Pazos, Jesús; Martinez-Luna, Nieves; Casas, Miguel; Torrens, Marta; Grau-López, Lara

    2016-09-30

    Opioid-dependent patients show a high rate of psychiatric comorbidities. The prevalence and characteristics of patients with dual diagnosis have not been well established in Spanish opioid agonist treatment (OAT) programmes. Thus, 621 opioid-dependent patients enrolled in OAT programmes were assessed, using the EuropASI questionnaire, for psychiatric comorbidities, which were detected in 67% of patients (anxiety 53%, mood disorders 48%, sleep disorders 41%, substance-related disorders 36%). In addition, compared with patients without a dual diagnosis, patients with dual pathology were significantly older, used benzodiazepines and cannabis in significantly greater percentages, and showed significantly more frequent infectious and non-infectious comorbidities, worse overall working status, a lower proportion of drivers and higher levels of severity regarding medical, employment, alcohol, legal, family and psychological issues. Therefore, the data showed a very high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in opioid-dependent patients receiving OAT in Spain and several problems frequently associated with patients with dual diagnosis. Physicians treating opioid-dependent patients should be aware of these facts to correctly identify and manage patients with a dual diagnosis. PMID:27416536

  4. Deficits in Emotion-Regulation Skills Predict Alcohol Use during and after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berking, Matthias; Margraf, Matthias; Ebert, David; Wupperman, Peggilee; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Junghanns, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As emotion regulation is widely considered to be a primary motive in the misuse of alcohol, our aim in the study was to investigate whether deficits in adaptive emotion-regulation skills maintain alcohol dependence (AD). Method: A prospective study investigated whether emotion-regulation skills were associated with AD and whether these…

  5. Effects of Park Improvements on Park Use and Physical Activity Policy and Programming Implications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah; Golinelli, Daniela; Williamson, Stephanie; Sehgal, Amber; Marsh, Terry; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2009-01-01

    Background Many assume that improving the quality and the perceived safety of facilities in parks and recreation centers are critical to attracting more users and increasing population physical activity. There are few studies in which these assumptions have been tested. Purpose To assess the impact of park improvements on park use and physical activity. Methods Five intervention parks and five matched comparison parks were studied by objectively measuring park use and collecting self reports of park use by residents before and after park improvements. After using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) to count park users and measure their activity levels and conducting household interviews and intercept surveys with park users, propensity score analyses were used to adjust for differences in respondents’ characteristics between pre- and post-intervention and across conditions. Results Overall park use and physical activity declined in both intervention and control parks, with 39% of the decline directly attributable to fewer scheduled organized activities. Perceptions of park safety increased more in the intervention parks than in the comparison parks. Conclusions Improvements to parks may not automatically result in increased use and physical activity, especially when programming decreases. Multiple factors contribute to park use and need to be accounted for in future community-level interventions. Improving perceptions of safety alone are unlikely to result in increased park use. PMID:19944911

  6. Applications of solar energy in industrial parks

    SciTech Connect

    Greaver, V.W.; Farrington, R.B.; Leboeuf, C.M.

    1980-05-01

    The four phases of ongoing work at SERI that examines many unresolved questions regarding the purpose, solar applicability, economics, and energy modeling of industral parks are presented. The first phase involved site visits to approximately 300 parks in 12 major metropolitan areas of 9 states. Phase 2 entails an analysis of four parks selected from those parks surveyed. Phase 3 narrows the focus to two parks to be examined for detailed technical and engineering analysis. Phase 4 incorporates all of the work of the earlier phases with economic criteria to produce an energy allocation model describing energy delivery and consumption within the park.

  7. A longitudinal mediational study on the stability of alexithymia among alcohol-dependent outpatients in cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Thorberg, Fred Arne; Young, Ross McD; Sullivan, Karen A; Lyvers, Michael; Hurst, Cameron P; Connor, Jason P; Tyssen, Reidar; London, Edythe D; Noble, Ernest P; Feeney, Gerald F X

    2016-02-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings, and an externally oriented thinking style. Alexithymia has been described as a trait-like risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorders. Few studies have investigated the absolute (whether mean scores change over time) and relative (extent to which relative differences among individuals remain the same over time) stability of alexithymia among men and women with alcohol dependence, or have considered potential underlying mechanisms. Social learning processes contribute to and maintain alcohol problems. The reinforcement of alcohol expectancies is one plausible mechanism that links the difficulties in emotional processing associated with alexithymia and alcohol use. The present study investigated the stability of alexithymia as well as alcohol expectancy as a mediator of alexithymia. Three hundred fifty-five alcohol-dependent patients were enrolled in a cognitive behavioral treatment program. Ninety-two alcohol-dependent patients completed assessments at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Results indicated that total Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20; Bagby, Parker, & Taylor, 1994) mean score, difficulty identifying feelings, and difficulty describing feelings decreased significantly over time with a larger decrease in alexithymia mean scores for females. Externally oriented thinking mean scores did not change. The TAS-20 and its subfactors demonstrated significant correlations, from baseline to follow-up, which were stronger for males than for females. Regression analyses showed that the total TAS-20 mean scores, difficulty identifying feelings, and difficulty describing feelings were partially mediated through assertion alcohol expectancies. In conclusion, this suggests that alexithymia has relative stability and is a trait-like factor among alcohol-dependent treatment seekers. PMID:26795394

  8. Amusement park injuries and deaths.

    PubMed

    Braksiek, Robert J; Roberts, David J

    2002-01-01

    Media coverage of amusement park injuries has increased over the past several years, raising concern that amusement rides may be dangerous. Amusement park fatalities and increases in reported injuries have prompted proposed legislation to regulate the industry. Since 1979, the medical literature has published reports of 4 subdural hematomas, 4 internal carotid artery dissections, 2 vertebral artery dissections, 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 1 intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and 1 carotid artery thrombosis with stroke, all related to roller coaster rides. In this article, we review reports of amusement park injuries in the medical literature and Consumer Product Safety Commission data on the overall risk of injury. We also discuss the physics and the physiologic effects of roller coasters that may influence the type and severity of injuries. Although the risk of injury is low, emergency physicians are advised to include participation on thrill rides as part of their history, particularly when evaluating patients presenting with neurologic symptoms. PMID:11782733

  9. Bibliography of Doctor Chul Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gochberg, Lawrence A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Park, Chul

    1995-01-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography of the published works, and a short biography, of Dr. Chul Park. The contents of this bibliography were compiled primarily from the NASA RECON data base. The RECON citations have been modified to appear in a uniform format with all other listed citations . These other citations were located by computer searches in the INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, and Chemical Abstracts data bases, as well as through the cooperation of Dr. Chul Park, and his associates in the Reacting Flow Environments Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. All citations are presented in an approximate reverse chronological order from the present date. This work was created to honor the occasion of Dr. Chul Park's retirement on December 14, 1994, after 27 years of distinguished government service at the NASA Ames Research Center.

  10. ATL response to arsenic/interferon therapy is triggered by SUMO/PML/RNF4-dependent Tax degradation.

    PubMed

    Dassouki, Zeina; Sahin, Umut; El Hajj, Hiba; Jollivet, Florence; Kfoury, Youmna; Lallemand-Breitenbach, Valérie; Hermine, Olivier; de Thé, Hugues; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2015-01-15

    The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1) Tax transactivator initiates transformation in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), a highly aggressive chemotherapy-resistant malignancy. The arsenic/interferon combination, which triggers degradation of the Tax oncoprotein, selectively induces apoptosis of ATL cell lines and has significant clinical activity in Tax-driven murine ATL or human patients. However, the role of Tax loss in ATL response is disputed, and the molecular mechanisms driving degradation remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that ATL-derived or HTLV-1-transformed cells are dependent on continuous Tax expression, suggesting that Tax degradation underlies clinical responses to the arsenic/interferon combination. The latter enforces promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear body (NB) formation and partner protein recruitment. In arsenic/interferon-treated HTLV-1 transformed or ATL cells, Tax is recruited onto NBs and undergoes PML-dependent hyper-sumoylation by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)2/3 but not SUMO1, ubiquitination by RNF4, and proteasome-dependent degradation. Thus, the arsenic/interferon combination clears ATL through degradation of its Tax driver, and this regimen could have broader therapeutic value by promoting degradation of other pathogenic sumoylated proteins. PMID:25395419

  11. Wind power parks: 1983 survey

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, E.M.; Loperena, G.A.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to survey the status of wind parks owned by non-utility organizations which generate electricity for sale to electric utilities under the provisions of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act. Both technical (including wind turbine descriptions) and business-related information were gathered from over 100 wind park developers who were interviewed by telephone or in person. Following the survey, the wind parks were screened so that only those already on-line or with very good possibilities of coming on-line by mid-1984 were included. This screening, although subject to judgment, was based primarily on the status of several of the critical milestones necessary for project completion. This document includes descriptions of 85 wind parks established by over 60 developers. Of these, 73 are located in California. This concentration in California is the result of the confluence of tax advantages, financial, institutional, and resource factors currently most favorably found in that state. For the wind parks described in this document, installed generating capacity (based on nameplate ratings) is 87 MW as of July 1983, with plans calling for aggregate installation of some 730 MW by mid-1984. Continued expansion in wind turbine installations over the next several years will require that wind turbines demonstrate high equipment availability with acceptable operating and maintenance costs. If these can be achieved, if the cost effectiveness of the equipment improves by 20%, and if borrowing terms improve, then wind parks could remain economically viable businesses for non-utility owners even after the current tax advantages expire.

  12. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Mediated Sonodynamic Therapy Inhibits RIPK1/RIPK3-Dependent Necroptosis in THP-1-Derived Foam Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fang; Yao, Jianting; Yan, Meng; Sun, Xin; Wang, Wei; Gao, Weiwei; Tian, Zhen; Guo, Shuyuan; Dong, Zengxiang; Li, Bicheng; Gao, Tielei; Shan, Peng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Haiyang; Cheng, Jiali; Gao, Qianping; Zhang, Zhiguo; Cao, Wenwu; Tian, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Necroptosis, or programmed necrosis, contributes to the formation of necrotic cores in atherosclerotic plaque in animal models. However, whether inhibition of necroptosis ameliorates atherosclerosis is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that necroptosis occurred in clinical atherosclerotic samples, suggesting that it may also play an important role in human atherosclerosis. We established an in vitro necroptotic model in which necroptosis was induced in THP-1-derived foam cells by serum deprivation. With this model, we demonstrated that 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated sonodynamic therapy (ALA-SDT) inhibited necroptosis while promoting apoptosis. ALA-SDT activated the caspase-3 and caspase-8 pathways in foam cells, which is responsible for the switch from necroptosis to apoptosis. The inhibition of either caspase-8 or caspase-3 abolished the anti-necroptotic effect of ALA-SDT. In addition, we found that caspase-3 activation peaked 4 hours after ALA-SDT treatment, 2 hours earlier than maximal caspase-8activation. Taken together, our data indicate that ALA-SDT mediates the switch from necroptosis to apoptosis by activating the caspase-3 and caspase-8 pathways and may improve the prognosis of atherosclerosis. PMID:26911899

  13. [AGE-SPECIFIC METABOLIC THERAPY FOR ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH REGARD TO THEIR AKMEOLOGICAL FEATURES].

    PubMed

    Zaplutanov, V A; Spikina, A A; Belov, V G; Parfyonov, U A; Ermishin, Ye V

    2015-01-01

    Aocoholism in the elderly determines tne protracted nature or tne pathological craving for etnanol in post-abstinence syndrome period, restricts arsenal of active pharmacotherapy and updates the search for new pharmacological therapeutic strategies. The results showed that the inclusion of the drug "Remaxol" in the treatment of clinical manifestations of craving for ethanol in post-abstinence syndrome period of associated forms of alcoholism in the elderly provides better in relation to conventional therapy dynamics of reduction of somatovegetative and neurological manifestations of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as well as the main components of craving for alcohol, will increase the efficiency of outpatient treatment at the stage of remission. The duration of remission of mental and behavioral disorders caused by alcohol use in elderly patients is, apart from pharmacotherapy, due to such social and psychological factors and akmeological features as education, leadership potential, high social activity, a high level of social intelligence and its implementation, lack of intense intrapersonal conflict, high ductility and activity. PMID:26856103

  14. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  15. Lichens of the U. S. national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium. Copyright ?? 2005 by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

  16. Alcohol-Adapted Anger Management Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Therapy for Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Walitzer, Kimberly S; Deffenbacher, Jerry L; Shyhalla, Kathleen

    2015-12-01

    A randomized controlled trial for an innovative alcohol-adapted anger management treatment (AM) for outpatient alcohol dependent individuals scoring moderate or above on anger is described. AM treatment outcomes were compared to those of an empirically-supported intervention, Alcoholics Anonymous Facilitation treatment (AAF). Clients in AM, relative to clients in AAF, were hypothesized to have greater improvement in anger and anger-related cognitions and lesser AA involvement during the 6-month follow-up. Anger-related variables were hypothesized to be stronger predictors of improved alcohol outcomes in the AM treatment condition and AA involvement was hypothesized to be a stronger predictor of alcohol outcomes in the AAF treatment group. Seventy-six alcohol dependent men and women were randomly assigned to treatment condition and followed for 6 months after treatment end. Both AM and AAF treatments were followed by significant reductions in heavy drinking days, alcohol consequences, anger, and maladaptive anger-related thoughts and increases in abstinence and self-confidence regarding not drinking to anger-related triggers. Treatment with AAF was associated with greater AA involvement relative to treatment with AM. Changes in anger and AA involvement were predictive of posttreatment alcohol outcomes for both treatments. Change in trait anger was a stronger predictor of posttreatment alcohol consequences for AM than for AAF clients; during-treatment AA meeting attendance was a stronger predictor of posttreatment heavy drinking and alcohol consequences for AAF than for AM clients. Anger-related constructs and drinking triggers should be foci in treatment of alcohol dependence for anger-involved clients. PMID:26387049

  17. Nutritional condition of elk in rocky mountain national park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Cook, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that elk in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) were at ecological carrying capacity by determining herd-specific levels of nutritional condition and fecundity. Ingesta-free body fat levels in adult cows that were lactating were 10.6% (s = 1.7; range = 6.2-15.4) and 7.7% (s = 0.5; range = 5.9-10.1) in November 2001 for the Horseshoe and Moraine Park herds, respectively. Cows that were not lactating were able to accrue significantly more body fat: 14.0% (s = 1.1; range = 7.7-19.3) and 11.5% (s = 0.8; range = 8.6-15.1) for the Horseshoe and Moraine Park herds, respectively. Cow elk lost most of their body fat over winter (April 2002 levels were 3.9% [s = 0.4] and 2.9% [s = 0.4] for the Horseshoe and Moraine Park herds, respectively). Nutritional condition indicated that both Horseshoe Park and Moraine Park elk were well below condition levels elk can achieve on very good-excellent nutrition (i.e., >15% body fat; Cook et al. 2004) and were comparable to other free-ranging elk populations. However, condition levels were higher than those expected at a "food-limited" carrying capacity, and a proportion of elk in each herd were able to achieve condition levels indicative of very good-excellent nutrition. Elk in RMNP are likely regulated and/or limited by a complex combination of density-independent (including significant heterogeneity in forage conditions across RMNP's landscape) and density-dependent processes, as condition levels contradict a simple density-dependent model of a population at ecological carrying capacity.

  18. TH-C-19A-07: Output Factor Dependence On Range and Modulation for a New Proton Therapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, B; Zhao, T; Grantham, K; Goddu, S; Santanam, L; Klein, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Proton treatment planning systems are not able to accurately predict output factors and do not calculate monitor units (MU) for proton fields. Output factors (cGy/MU) for patient-specific fields are usually measured in phantoms or modeled empirically. The purpose of this study is to predict the output factors (OFs) for a given proton (R90) and modulation width (Mod) for the first Mevion S250 proton therapy system. Methods: Using water phantoms and a calibrated ionization chamber-electrometer, over 100 OFs were measured for various R90 and Mod combinations for 24 different options. OFs were measured at the center of the Mod, which coincided with the isocenter. The measured OFs were fitted using an analytic model developed by Kooy (Phys.Med.Biol. 50, 2005) for each option and a derived universal empirical-based polynomial as a function of R90 and Mod for all options. Options are devised for ranges of R90 and Mod. The predicted OFs from both models were compared to measurements. Results: Using the empirical-based model, the values could be predicted to within 3% for at least 90% of measurements and within 5% for 98% of the measurements. Using the analytic model to fit each option with the same effective source position, the prediction is much more accurate. The maximal uncertainty between measured and predicted is within 2% and the averaged root-mean-square is 1.5%. Conclusion: Although the measured data was not exhaustive, both models predicted OFs within acceptable uncertainty. Both models are currently used for a sanity check of our continual patient field OF measurements. As we acquire more patient-field OFs, the model will be refined with an ultimate goal of eliminating the time-consuming patient-specific OF measurements.

  19. SU-E-T-604: Dosimetric Dependence On the Collimator Angle in Prostate Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M; Rehman, J; Khan, M; Chow, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the dose-volume variations of planning target volume (PTV) and organs-at-risk (OARs) in prostate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) when using different collimator angles. It is because collimator angle awareness is essential for planner to produce an optimal prostate VMAT plan in a rational time. Methods: Single-arc VMAT plans at different collimator angles (0o, 15o, 30o, 45o, 60o, 75o and 90o) were created systematically using a Harold heterogeneous pelvis phantom. For each change of collimator angle, a new plan was re-optimized for that angle. The prescription dose was 78 Gy per 39 fractions. Conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), gradient index, machine monitor unit, dose-volume histogram, the mean and maximum doses of the PTV were calculated and analyzed. On the other hand, dose-volume histogram, the mean and maximum doses of the OARs such as bladder, rectum and femoral heads for different collimator angles were determined from the plans. Results: There was no significance difference, based on the plan dose-volume evaluation criteria, found in the VMAT optimizations for all studied collimator angles. Higher CI and lower HI were found for the 45o collimator angle. In addition, the 15o collimator angle provided lower HI similar to the 45o collimator angle. The 75o and 90o collimator angle were found good for the rectum sparing, and the 75o and 30o collimator angle were found good for the right and left femur sparing, respectively. The PTV dose coverage for each plan was comparatively independent of the collimator angle. Conclusion: The dosimetric results in this study are useful to the planner to select different collimator angles to improve the PTV coverage and OAR sparing in prostate VMAT.

  20. Light parameters influence cell viability in antifungal photodynamic therapy in a fluence and rate fluence-dependent manner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prates, Renato A.; da Silva, Eriques G.; Yamada, Aécio M.; Suzuki, Luis C.; Paula, Claudete R.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of light parameters on yeast cells. It has been proposed for many years that photodynamic therapy (PDT) can inactivate microbial cells. A number of photosensitizer and light sources were reported in different light parameters and in a range of dye concentrations. However, much more knowledge concerning the importance of fluence, fluence rate and exposure time are required for a better understanding of the photodynamic efficiency. Suspensions (106 CFU/mL) of Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii were used. Two fluence rates, 100 and 300 mW/cm2 were compared at 3, 6, and 9 min of irradiation, resulting fluences from 18 to 162 J/cm2. The light source was a laser emitting at λ = 660 nm with output power adjusted at 30 and 90 mW. As photosensitizer, one hundred-μM methylene blue was used. Temperature was monitored to verify possible heat effect and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was evaluated. The same fluence in different fluence rates showed dissimilar levels of inactivation on yeast cells as well as in ROS formation. In addition, the increase of the fluence rate showed an improvement on cell photoinactivation. PDT was efficient against yeast cells (6 log reduction), and no significant temperature increase was observed. Fluence per se should not be used as an isolate parameter to compare photoinactivation effects on yeast cells. The higher fluence rate was more effective than the lower one. Furthermore, an adequate duration of light exposure cannot be discarded.

  1. Receptor-dependent antiproliferative effects of corticosteroids in radiation-induced fibrosarcomas and implications for sequential therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Braunschweiger, P.G.; Ting, H.L.; Schiffer, L.M.

    1982-05-01

    Competitive binding studies with (/sup 3/H)dexamethasone and Scatchard analysis demonstrated a single class of high-affinity, low-capacity glucocorticoid receptor sites in 105,000 x g cytosols from radiation-induced fibrosarcomas. In vivo, both dexamethasone (DEX) and methylprednisolone treatments resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of tumor growth and cell proliferation. Changes in the sensitivity of the clonogenic cell population to 3 mM hydroxyurea were used to assess changes in the clonogenic cell proliferation during and after treatments with DEX or methylprednisolone. Neither methylprednisolone nor DEX given every 12 hr for three doses resulted in significant cell kill in the clonogenic fraction. However, changes in the hydroxyurea sensitivity of the clonogenic population after cessation of DEX treatments indicated G1 cell cycle progression delay with transient enrichment of S-phase clonogenic cells 24 to 48 hr after cessation of DEX treatments. The duration of the DEX-induced progression delay and the timing of maximal S-phase cellularity after DEX was directly correlated with the level of glucocorticoid receptors in the treated tumors. Using regrowth delay to assess the efficacy of kinetically directed sequential chemotherapy, the effectiveness of vincristine, given after DEX, was highly sequence dependent, with the most effective treatment interval being coincident with maximal S-phase clonogenic fraction. Other studies indicated that the effectiveness of cyclophosphamide could also be increased by time sequencing after DEX.

  2. Narcotic antagonists in drug dependence: pilot study showing enhancement of compliance with SYN-10, amino-acid precursors and enkephalinase inhibition therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Thomas J H; Blum, Kenneth; Payte, James T; Schoolfield, John; Hopper, David; Stanford, Mathew; Braverman, Eric R

    2004-01-01

    We decided to test the hypothesis that possibly by combining a narcotic antagonist and amino-acid therapy consisting of an enkephalinase inhibitor (D-phenylalanine) and neurotransmitter precursors (L-amino- acids) to promote neuronal dopamine release might enhance compliance in methadone patients rapidly detoxified with the narcotic antagonist Trexan (Dupont, Delaware). In this regard, Thanos et al. [J. Neurochem. 78 (2001) 1094] and associates found increases in the dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2) via adenoviral vector delivery of the DRD2 gene into the nucleus accumbens, significantly reduced both ethanol preference (43%) and alcohol intake (64%) of ethanol preferring rats, which recovered as the DRD2, returned to baseline levels. This DRD2 overexpression similarly produced significant reductions in ethanol non-preferring rats, in both alcohol preference (16%) and alcohol intake (75%). This work further suggests that high levels of DRD2 may be protective against alcohol abuse [JAMA 263 (1990) 2055; Arch, Gen. Psychiatr. 48 (1991) 648]. The DRD2 A1 allele has also been shown to associate with heroin addicts in a number of studies. In addition, other dopaminergic receptor gene polymorphisms have also associated with opioid dependence. For example, Kotler et al. [Mol. Phychiatr. 3 (1997) 251] showed that the 7 repeat allele of the DRD4 receptor is significantly overpresented in the opioid-dependent cohort and confers a relative risk of 2.46. This has been confirmed by Li et al. [Mol. Psychiatry 2 (1997) 413] for both the 5 and 7 repeat alleles in Han Chinese case control sample of heroin addicts. Similarly Duaux et al. [Mol. Psychiatry 3 (1998) 333] in French Heroin addicts, found a significant association with homozygotes alleles of the DRD3-Bal 1. A study from NIAAA, provided evidence which strongly suggests that DRD2 is a susceptibility gene for substance abusers across multiple populations (2003). Moreover, there are a number of studies utilizing amino-acid and

  3. Low-dose add-on memantine treatment may improve cognitive performance and self-reported health conditions in opioid-dependent patients undergoing methadone-maintenance-therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Po See; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, I. Hui; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-01-01

    An important interaction between opioid and dopamine systems has been indicated, and using opioids may negatively affect cognitive functioning. Memantine, a medication for Alzheimer's disease, increasingly is being used for several disorders and maybe important for cognitive improvement. Opioid-dependent patients undergoing methadone-maintenance-therapy (MMT) and healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Patients randomly assigned to the experimental (5 mg/day memantine (MMT+M) or placebo (MMT+P) group: 57 in MMT+M, 77 in MMT+P. Those completed the cognitive tasks at the baseline and after the 12-week treatment were analyzed. Thirty-seven age- and gender-matched HCs, and 42 MMT+P and 39 MMT+M patients were compared. The dropout rates were 49.4% in the MMT+P and 26.3% in the MMT+M. Both patient groups' cognitive performances were significantly worse than that of the HCs. After the treatment, both patient groups showed improved cognitive performance. We also found an interaction between the patient groups and time which indicated that the MMT+M group's post-treatment improvement was better than that of the MMT+P group. Memantine, previously reported as neuroprotective may attenuate chronic opioid-dependence-induced cognitive decline. Using such low dose of memantine as adjuvant treatment for improving cognitive performance in opioid dependents; the dose of memantine might be a worthy topic in future studies. PMID:25989606

  4. [ESTIMATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF HYPOLIPIDEMIC THERAPY WITH ROSUVASTATIN IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY HEART DISEASE DEPENDING ON THE GENOTYPE OF LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE].

    PubMed

    Zvyagina, M V; Mal, G S; Bushueva, O Yu; Alymenko, M A; Bykanova, M A; Letova, I M; Gribovskaya, I A; Churnosov, M I; Solodilova, M A; Polonikov, A V

    2016-01-01

    Taking into account the genetic heterogeneity of hyperlipidemias, polymorphic genes involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism may explain differences in the efficacy of hypolipidemic therapy. In the present prospective and randomized study, we have investigated the efficacy of rosuvastatin (10 mg/day) in the therapy of atherogenic hyperlipidemias in a group of 62 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), depending on the genotype of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). The pharmacological correction was carried out during one year under control of lipid metabolism parameters (total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, HDL-unrelated cholesterol, triglycerides, atherogenic index) at the baseline and on 4th, 8th, 24th and 48th week. The HindIII polymorphism (+495T > G, rs320) of the LPL gene was genotyped in all patients studied through a real-time PCR TaqMan assay. Rosuvastatin produced a significant hypolipidemic effect with respect to all investigated lipid metabolism parameters for 24 weeks of treatment. Changes in the parameters of lipid metabolism upon rosuvastatin treatment differed in patients with genotype +495GG as compared to the rest LPL genotypes. In comparison to the +495TT and TG genotypes, the genotype +495GG showed a greater reduction in total cholesterol on 8th week, and in LDL-C, HDL-unrelated cholesterol, and atherogenic index on the 48th week of rosuvastatin therapy (p <0.01). It can be suggested that the pronounced hypolipidemic effect of rosuvastatin in homozygotes +495GG of the LPL gene is associated with modulation of the LPL activity, as it has been previously reported for other statin drugs. PMID:27159952

  5. Injuries At Indoor Trampoline Parks Jump

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160460.html Injuries at Indoor Trampoline Parks Jump Researchers say finding shows need for safety ... News) -- A wave of injuries at indoor trampoline parks has prompted a call for design and safety ...

  6. Injuries Soar as Trampoline Parks Expand

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160184.html Injuries Soar as Trampoline Parks Expand Broken bones, fractures the most common complaints ... MONDAY, Aug. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- As trampoline parks spring up across the United States, injuries to ...

  7. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... by category of eligible parkers. Designation of parking spaces by name, grade, rank, or title...

  8. Androgen deprivation therapy sensitizes prostate cancer cells to T-cell killing through androgen receptor dependent modulation of the apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Ardiani, Andressa; Gameiro, Sofia R; Kwilas, Anna R; Donahue, Renee N; Hodge, James W

    2014-10-15

    Despite recent advances in diagnosis and management, prostrate cancer remains the second most common cause of death from cancer in American men, after lung cancer. Failure of chemotherapies and hormone-deprivation therapies is the major cause of death in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Currently, the androgen inhibitors enzalutamide and abiraterone are approved for treatment of metastatic CRPC. Here we show for the first time that both enzalutamide and abiraterone render prostate tumor cells more sensitive to T cell-mediated lysis through immunogenic modulation, and that these immunomodulatory activities are androgen receptor (AR)-dependent. In studies reported here, the NAIP gene was significantly down-regulated in human prostate tumor cells treated in vitro and in vivo with enzalutamide. Functional analysis revealed that NAIP played a critical role in inducing CTL sensitivity. Amplification of AR is a major mechanism of resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Here, we show that enzalutamide enhances sensitivity to immune-mediated killing of prostate tumor cells that overexpress AR. The immunomodulatory properties of enzalutamide and abiraterone provide a rationale for their use in combination with immunotherapeutic agents in CRPC, especially for patients with minimal response to enzalutamide or abiraterone alone, or for patients who have developed resistance to ADT. PMID:25344864

  9. How Much Neighborhood Parks Contribute to Local Residents’ Physical Activity in the City of Los Angeles: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Marsh, Terry; Williamson, Stephanie; Raaen, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective To quantify the contribution of neighborhood parks to population-level, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Method We studied park use in 83 neighborhood parks in Los Angeles between 2003 and 2014 using systematic observation and surveys of park users and local residents. We observed park use at least 3–4 times per day over 4–7 clement days. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate total, age group and gender-specific park use and total MVPA time in parks. Results An average park measuring 10 acres and with 40,000 local residents in a one-mile radius accrued 5,301 hours of use (SE=1,083) during one week, with 35% (1,850 hours) spent in MVPA and 12% (635 hours) spent in vigorous physical activity (VPA). As much as a 10.7-fold difference in weekly MVPA hours was estimated across study parks. Parks’ main contribution to population-level MVPA is for males, teenagers, and residents living within a half mile. Conclusion Neighborhood parks contribute substantially to population MVPA. The contribution may depend less on size and facilities than on “demand goods” – programming and activities--that draw users to a park. PMID:25199733

  10. Coltsville National Historical Park Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lieberman, Joseph I. [ID-CT

    2011-07-12

    10/19/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-224. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Coltsville National Historical Park Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Blumenthal, Richard [D-CT

    2013-03-19

    04/23/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-27. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3979, which became Public Law 113-291 on 12/19/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. National Zoological Park Branch Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Kay A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the functions of the National Zoological Park Branch of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, which is dedicated to supporting the special information needs of the zoo. Topics covered include the library's history, collection, programs, services, future plans, and relations with other zoo libraries. (two references) (Author/CLB)

  13. UV - RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brewer 087 is located in Research Triangle Park NC, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instru...

  14. Symmetry in the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…

  15. 'Shockley park' stirs racism row

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-07-01

    A local authority in Northern California has encountered unexpected resistance to its decision to name a park after the Nobel-prize-winning physicist William Shockley, with a coalition of churches and civic groups preparing to petition against the name at a meeting scheduled for 23 July.

  16. Egmont National Park, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The lush forests of Egmont National Park, on New Zealand's North Island, contrast with the pasturelands outside the circular park boundaries. The unique shape of the park results from its first protection in 1881, which specified that a forest reserve would extend in a 9.6 km radius from the summit of Mt. Taranaki (named Mt. Egmont by Captain Cook). The park covers about 33,500 hectares and Mt. Egmont stands at 2518 m. The volcano began forming 70,000 years ago, and last erupted in 1755. A series of montane habitats occur in procession up the flanks of the volcano-from rainforest, to shrubs, to alpine, and finally snow cover. Image STS110-726-6, was taken by Space Shuttle crewmembers on 9 April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  17. Cyanidiales diversity in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Skorupa, D J; Reeb, V; Castenholz, R W; Bhattacharya, D; McDermott, T R

    2013-11-01

    The Cyanidiales are unicellular red algae that are unique among phototrophs. They thrive in acidic, moderately high-temperature habitats typically associated with geothermally active regions, although much remains to be learned about their distribution and diversity within such extreme environments. We focused on Yellowstone National Park (YNP), using culture-dependent efforts in combination with a park-wide environmental polymerase chain reaction (PCR) survey to examine Cyanidiales diversity and distribution in aqueous (i.e. submerged), soil and endolithic environments. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Cyanidiales biodiversity demonstrated the presence of Cyanidioschyzon and Galdieria lineages exhibiting distinct habitat preferences. Cyanidioschyzon was the only phylotype detected in aqueous environments, but was also prominent in moist soil and endolithic habitats, environments where this genus was thought to be scarce. Galdieria was found in soil and endolithic samples, but absent in aqueous habitats. Interestingly, Cyanidium could not be found in the surveys, suggesting this genus may be absent or rare in YNP. Direct microscopic counts and viable counts from soil samples collected along a moisture gradient were positively correlated with moisture content, providing the first in situ evidence that gravimetric moisture is an important environmental parameter controlling distribution of these algae. PMID:23865641

  18. 23 CFR 1235.6 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parking. 1235.6 Section 1235.6 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR PARKING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES § 1235.6 Parking. Special license plates, removable windshield placards, or...

  19. "The Rosa Parks Story": Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onish, Liane B.

    On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, refused to give up her seat to a white man on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and she was arrested. On that day, Rosa Parks became the mother of the modern civil rights movement. This study guide may be used as a companion to "The Rosa Parks Story" video which aired on CBS television…

  20. 75 FR 12254 - National Park Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... National Park Service AGENCY: National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. ACTION: National... National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, National Park Service, will meet on Thursday and... amended, (16 U.S.C. 470x-2(e)). The PTTBoard will meet at Lee H. Nelson Hall, the headquarters of...

  1. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National...

  2. 49 CFR 397.7 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Parking. 397.7 Section 397.7 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.7 Parking. (a) A motor vehicle which contains Division 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3... traveled portion of a public street or highway; (2) On private property (including premises of fueling...

  3. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National...

  4. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National...

  5. 49 CFR 397.7 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Parking. 397.7 Section 397.7 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.7 Parking. (a) A motor vehicle which contains Division 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3... traveled portion of a public street or highway; (2) On private property (including premises of fueling...

  6. Moon Park: A research and educational facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriki, Kyoichi; Saito, Takao; Ogawa, Yukimasa

    1992-01-01

    Moon Park has been proposed as an International Space Year (ISY) event for international cooperative efforts. Moon Park will serve as a terrestrial demonstration of a prototype lunar base and provide research and educational opportunities. The kind of data that can be obtained in the Moon Park facilities is examined taking the minimum number of lunar base residents as an example.

  7. What's Ahead for our National Parks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Jean Craighead

    1972-01-01

    To insure the future of our National Parks, sweeping changes must be made. Encroaching civilization at the expense of nature has forced National Park officials to consider alternatives to future development - limiting number of visitors, facilities outside the parks and curtailing vehicular traffic. (BL)

  8. 77 FR 24575 - National Park Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8801 of April 20, 2012 National Park Week... National Park Week, all 397 National Parks will offer free admission from April 21 through April 29,...

  9. 76 FR 22001 - National Park Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-9730 Filed 4-19-11; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8656 of April 15, 2011 National Park Week, 2011 By the President of the.... ``Healthy Parks, Healthy People,'' the focus for this year's National Park Week, highlights the role...

  10. Hepcidin Response to Iron Therapy in Patients with Non-Dialysis Dependent CKD: An Analysis of the FIND-CKD Trial.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Carlo A; Bock, Andreas H; Carrera, Fernando; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Van Wyck, David B; Bansal, Sukhvinder S; Cronin, Maureen; Meier, Yvonne; Larroque, Sylvain; Roger, Simon D; Macdougall, Iain C

    2016-01-01

    Hepcidin is the key regulator of iron homeostasis but data are limited regarding its temporal response to iron therapy, and response to intravenous versus oral iron. In the 56-week, open-label, multicenter, prospective, randomized FIND-CKD study, 626 anemic patients with non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) and iron deficiency not receiving an erythropoiesis stimulating agent were randomized (1:1:2) to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), targeting higher (400-600μg/L) or lower (100-200μg/L) ferritin, or to oral iron. Serum hepcidin levels were measured centrally in a subset of 61 patients. Mean (SD) baseline hepcidin level was 4.0(3.5), 7.3(6.4) and 6.5(5.6) ng/mL in the high ferritin FCM (n = 17), low ferritin FCM (n = 16) and oral iron group (n = 28). The mean (SD) endpoint value (i.e. the last post-baseline value) was 26.0(9.1),15.7(7.7) and 16.3(11.0) ng/mL, respectively. The increase in hepcidin from baseline was significantly smaller with low ferritin FCM or oral iron vs high ferritin FCM at all time points up to week 52. Significant correlations were found between absolute hepcidin and ferritin values (r = 0.65, p<0.001) and between final post-baseline increases in both parameters (r = 0.70, p<0.001). The increase in hepcidin levels over the 12-month study generally mirrored the cumulative iron dose in each group. Hepcidin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) absolute values showed no correlation, although there was an association between final post-baseline increases (r = 0.42, p<0.001). Absolute values (r = 0.36, p = 0.004) and final post-baseline increases of hepcidin and hemoglobin (p = 0.30, p = 0.030) correlated weakly. Baseline hepcidin levels were not predictive of a hematopoietic response to iron therapy. In conclusion, hepcidin levels rose in response to either intravenous or oral iron therapy, but the speed and extent of the rise was greatest with intravenous iron targeting a higher ferritin level. However neither the

  11. Hepcidin Response to Iron Therapy in Patients with Non-Dialysis Dependent CKD: An Analysis of the FIND-CKD Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, Carlo A.; Bock, Andreas H.; Carrera, Fernando; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Van Wyck, David B.; Bansal, Sukhvinder S.; Cronin, Maureen; Meier, Yvonne; Larroque, Sylvain; Roger, Simon D.; Macdougall, Iain C.

    2016-01-01

    Hepcidin is the key regulator of iron homeostasis but data are limited regarding its temporal response to iron therapy, and response to intravenous versus oral iron. In the 56-week, open-label, multicenter, prospective, randomized FIND-CKD study, 626 anemic patients with non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) and iron deficiency not receiving an erythropoiesis stimulating agent were randomized (1:1:2) to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), targeting higher (400–600μg/L) or lower (100–200μg/L) ferritin, or to oral iron. Serum hepcidin levels were measured centrally in a subset of 61 patients. Mean (SD) baseline hepcidin level was 4.0(3.5), 7.3(6.4) and 6.5(5.6) ng/mL in the high ferritin FCM (n = 17), low ferritin FCM (n = 16) and oral iron group (n = 28). The mean (SD) endpoint value (i.e. the last post-baseline value) was 26.0(9.1),15.7(7.7) and 16.3(11.0) ng/mL, respectively. The increase in hepcidin from baseline was significantly smaller with low ferritin FCM or oral iron vs high ferritin FCM at all time points up to week 52. Significant correlations were found between absolute hepcidin and ferritin values (r = 0.65, p<0.001) and between final post-baseline increases in both parameters (r = 0.70, p<0.001). The increase in hepcidin levels over the 12-month study generally mirrored the cumulative iron dose in each group. Hepcidin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) absolute values showed no correlation, although there was an association between final post-baseline increases (r = 0.42, p<0.001). Absolute values (r = 0.36, p = 0.004) and final post-baseline increases of hepcidin and hemoglobin (p = 0.30, p = 0.030) correlated weakly. Baseline hepcidin levels were not predictive of a hematopoietic response to iron therapy. In conclusion, hepcidin levels rose in response to either intravenous or oral iron therapy, but the speed and extent of the rise was greatest with intravenous iron targeting a higher ferritin level. However neither the

  12. Combining Motivational Interviewing With Compliance Enhancement Therapy (MI-CET): Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a New, Manual-Guided Psychosocial Adjunct to Alcohol-Dependence Pharmacotherapy*

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Jaimee L.; Tran, Giao Q.; Johnson, Candace S.; Barrett, Suzan Winders; Blom, Thomas J.; Thompson, Rachel D.; Anthenelli, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Psychosocial interventions that are practical, transportable, and effective in promoting treatment adherence and efficacy are greatly needed in both research and clinical settings involving alcohol-dependence pharmacotherapy. In this article, we describe the development and preliminary evaluation of an integrative treatment blending motivational interviewing and compliance enhancement therapy (MI-CET) as a means of enhancing adherence and retention in an ongoing clinical trial. Method: Medication adherence, session attendance, and study completion rates were examined for 121 treatment-seeking, alcohol-dependent adults participating in a randomized clinical trial of citalopram (n = 81) versus placebo (n = 40). All participants received the manual-guided MI-CET intervention as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. Preliminary adherence and retention data for this trial were compared with data from prior studies involving treatment for alcohol dependence with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Results: High rates of medication adherence (79% of citalopram and 91% of placebo completers took ≥80% of doses), session attendance (average of 90% for citalopram and 93% for placebo groups), and study completion (81% for citalopram and 88% for placebo groups) were obtained in the present study using MI-CET. These rates were at least comparable to or were, in some cases, 20%–30% higher than rates obtained in the comparison trials. Conclusions: These results suggest that MI-CET is feasible as a psychosocial adjunct to alcohol-dependence pharmacotherapy. Given its strengths as a clinical and research intervention (e.g., practicality, transportability), further evaluation of its efficacy is warranted. PMID:20105415

  13. The Effectiveness of Methadone Maintenance Therapy Among Opiate - Dependants Registered with Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II Kota Bharu, Kelantan

    PubMed Central

    Premila Devi, Jeganathan; Azriani, Ab Rahman; Zahiruddin, Wan Mohd; Mohd Ariff, Mohd Noor; Noor Hashimah, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of MMT program among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Methods: The study was a retrospective study based on the records of injecting drug users (IDUs) involved in the MMT program from November 2005 to 31st Jan 2008, registered at the Psychiatric Clinic of Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II. Opiate Treatment Index (OTI) was used as the research instrument. Repeated measures ANCOVA was used to compare the mean scores during the entry period and after completing twelve months of MMT program after adjusted for age, marital status, and level of education. Results: A total of 117 file records were reviewed. There was significant reduction in the mean scores after 12 months of heroin Q score, HIV Risk-taking Behavior Scale and health scale after adjusted for age, marital status, and level of education. For Heroin Q score, mean difference was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.45, 2.56), for HIV Risk-taking Behavior Scale, mean difference was 7.64 (95% CI: 6.03, 9.26), and for health scale, mean difference was 5.35(95% CI: 3.90, 6.79). Conclusion: This study supports the evidence that MMT program is effective in treating heroin and opiate dependence. PMID:23613645

  14. Metabolic Symbiosis Enables Adaptive Resistance to Anti-angiogenic Therapy that Is Dependent on mTOR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Allen, Elizabeth; Miéville, Pascal; Warren, Carmen M; Saghafinia, Sadegh; Li, Leanne; Peng, Mei-Wen; Hanahan, Douglas

    2016-05-10

    Therapeutic targeting of tumor angiogenesis with VEGF inhibitors results in demonstrable, but transitory efficacy in certain human tumors and mouse models of cancer, limited by unconventional forms of adaptive/evasive resistance. In one such mouse model, potent angiogenesis inhibitors elicit compartmental reorganization of cancer cells around remaining blood vessels. The glucose and lactate transporters GLUT1 and MCT4 are induced in distal hypoxic cells in a HIF1α-dependent fashion, indicative of glycolysis. Tumor cells proximal to blood vessels instead express the lactate transporter MCT1, and p-S6, the latter reflecting mTOR signaling. Normoxic cancer cells import and metabolize lactate, resulting in upregulation of mTOR signaling via glutamine metabolism enhanced by lactate catabolism. Thus, metabolic symbiosis is established in the face of angiogenesis inhibition, whereby hypoxic cancer cells import glucose and export lactate, while normoxic cells import and catabolize lactate. mTOR signaling inhibition disrupts this metabolic symbiosis, associated with upregulation of the glucose transporter GLUT2. PMID:27134166

  15. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  16. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  17. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  18. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  19. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a)...

  20. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... College Park. (a) The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park,...

  1. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  2. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  3. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  4. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  7. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  8. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  9. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  10. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  11. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  12. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  13. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  15. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Voyageurs National Park. 7.33 Section 7.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless...

  16. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  17. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  18. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  19. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  20. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  1. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  2. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  3. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  4. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  5. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  7. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  8. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  9. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  10. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....