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1

Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agroforestry Systems in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agroforestry can raise carbon (C) stocks of agricultural systems, and such increases can potentially be sold as CO2 emission offsets. We assembled information on the biophysical, technical, economic, and practical potential of agroforestry\\u000a to sequester C for the West African Sahel, East Africa, and Southern Africa. Agroforestry systems (AFS) such as parklands,\\u000a live fences, and homegardens had substantial C stocks,

Eike Luedeling; Gudeta Sileshi; Tracy Beedy; Johannes Dietz

2

Classification of agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification of agroforestry (AF) systems is necessary in order to provide a framework for evaluating systems and developing action plans for their improvement. The AF Systems Inventory (AFSI) being undertaken by ICRAF provides the background information for an approach to classification.

P. K. R. Nair

1985-01-01

3

Fertilizers in agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review encompasses results of fertilization experiments on several agroforestry systems—alley cropping, perennial shade systems, home gardens—in which fertilizer use is a likely management alternative. Fertilizer response was found to be most common in alley cropping, variable in perennial shade systems, and rarely reported in home gardens. Level of nutrient removal in harvested products is probably the overriding factor in

L. T. Szott; D. C. L. Kass

1993-01-01

4

Hill agroforestry systems in south Sikkim, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Mamlay watershed of south Sikkim, India, about 80% of the population depend on land for their livelihood. The agricultural land-use activity includes agroforestry, horticulture and animal husbandry besides growing crops in irrigated or unirrigated fields. Trees are maintained in the farms mainly for fodder and rarely for fuel purposes. Cropping system is characterised by cultivation of cereals and

R. C. Sundriyal; S. C. Rai; E. Sharma; Y. K. Rai

1994-01-01

5

Enchanted Parklands  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the religious or spiritual significance of the Australian natural environment to non-Indigenous Australians? This question is asked in relation to the parklands along the Georges River, in south-western Sydney, and some of the ethnic groups who live in the ‘social catchment’ of these parklands. The post-Reformation rationalist Christianity of Anglo-Celtic migrants led to a degree of institutional religious

Denis Byrne; Heather Goodall; Stephen Wearing; Allison Cadzow

2006-01-01

6

Classifications and Functions of Agroforestry Systems in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry systems have often been neglected in Europe because administrative structures within many national governments\\u000a have considered that only agriculture or forestry are legitimate within their remit. This has resulted in the loss of agroforestry\\u000a systems in European countries and an impoverishment of the benefits that they provide. This paper argues that agroforestry\\u000a systems are a complex interaction of agricultural

J. H. McAdam; P. J. Burgess; A. R. Graves; A. Rigueiro-Rodríguez; M. R. Mosquera-Losada

7

Interactive Indian Agroforestry Information System under INARIS arena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry has been a way of life in India for many years now. Information on packages, practices and system of agroforestry is very scattered and scanty, thus not readily available to the end user, a farmer or extension worker. With the rapid development of information technology, it is possible to put the information in electronic format, so that, it can

A. K. Handa; P. Rai; Sudhakar Choudhari; Ajay Babu Pilli; Sanjay Srivastava

8

Testing the shade tolerance of selected crops under Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Western Africa, interactions between trees and agricultural crops are a key element in determining parkland management\\u000a in an agricultural environment that is rapidly changing. Eggplant (Solanum melongena), chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum), taro (Colocasia esculenta) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) were tested for their shade tolerance under Parkia biglobosa trees in south-central Burkina Faso using a split-plot design. Soil characteristics,

Mariève Pouliot; Jules Bayala; Anders Ræbild

9

Tree root characteristics as criteria for species selection and systems design in agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature review presents information about the role of tree root systems for the functioning of agroforestry associations and rotations and attempts to identify root-related criteria for the selection of agroforestry tree species and the design of agroforestry systems. Tree roots are expected to enrich soil with organic matter, feed soil biomass, reduce nutrient leaching, recycle nutrients from the subsoil

G. Schroth

1995-01-01

10

Insect pest problems in tropical agroforestry systems: Contributory factors and strategies for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry trees are attacked by a wide spectrum of insects at all stages of their growth just like other annual and perennial crops. Pest management in agroforestry has not received much attention so far, but recent emphasis on producing high value tree products in agroforestry and using improved germplasm in traditional systems, and emergence of serious pest problems in some

M. R. Rao; M. P. Singh; R. Day

2000-01-01

11

Multistoried agroforestry garden system in West Sumatra, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agroforestry garden system in Maninjau in West Sumatra is characterized by an intensive integration of forest species and commercial crops, forming a forest-like system. The intimate association of different species provides both subsistence and commercial products which supplement rice production. This complex agroforest is managed by the combination between cultural practices and respect of natural processes of vegetation production

G. Michon; F. Mary; J. Bompard

1986-01-01

12

A Framework for Institutional Analysis of Agroforestry Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT An institutionalanalysis of“ agro-forestry”syste ms is necessaryto evaluatesoci al, economic,and ecological sustainability of these systems,a nd this requires an institutionalanalysis framework thatincorporates the specific features of agro-forestrysy stems. The main characteristics of agro-forestry systems are the integration of agriculture and forestry systems, the provision as well as the appropriation of resources, sequential stages in production, the relevance of macro-level

Shashi Kant; Emma Lehrer

13

Soil Biology in Traditional Agroforestry Systems of the Indian Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Traditional arid and semi-arid agroforestry systems serve as models for the ‘protective-productive’ rehabilitation strategies\\u000a of agrarians. The nature of the organic materials present and their decomposition governs nutrient availability in soil systems.\\u000a Indian desert vegetation has various non-fodder plants in and around farms that can well be used, along with diverse microbes,\\u000a for improving soil biological fertility. The higher percentage

S. Sundaramoorthy; Santosh Kumar Mehar; Manohar Singh Suthar

14

Belowground interactions for water between trees and grasses in a temperate semiarid agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental hypothesis of agroforestry is the complementary use of soil resources. However, productivity of many agroforestry\\u000a systems has been lower than expected due to net competition for water, highlighting the need for a mechanistic understanding\\u000a of belowground interactions. The goal of this study was to examine root–root interactions for water in a temperate semiarid\\u000a agroforestry system, based on ponderosa

María Elena Fernández; Javier Gyenge; Julian Licata; Tomás Schlichter; Barbara J. Bond

2008-01-01

15

Agroforestry Systems in Italy: Traditions Towards Modern Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long history of civilization and the passage of several different cultures have produced slow changes in the Italian landscape.\\u000a Changes in land use have created a large number of agroforestry systems, comprising natural or planted tree stands and shrub\\u000a species with different densities in which botanical composition, productivity and management are much diversified. The traditional\\u000a integration of pasture and

A. Pardini

16

AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: INTEGRATED LAND USE TO STORE AND CONSERVE CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Agroforestry is a promising land use practice to maintain or increase agricultural productivity while preserving or improving fertility. n extensive literature survey was conducted to evaluate the carbon dynamics of agroforestry practices and to assess their potential to store ca...

17

Seasonal variations in organic carbon and nutrient availability in arid zone agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out on the temporal variations in organic carbon and nutrient availability in arid zone agroforestry systems. Organic carbon, extractable P, NO3-N and NH4-N were determined in top 20 cm soil layer under three year old agroforestry systems comprising Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Hardwickia binata Roxb. and Colophosper- mum mopane (Kirk ex Benth.) Kirk ex J. Leonard tree species

G. SINGH; G. N. GUPTA; V. KUPPUSAMY

18

Agroecological Transition of Conilon Coffee (Coffea canephora) Agroforestry Systems in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee is a very important product in the State of Espírito Santo, and most of it is planted as unshaded coffee monocultures, with few growers managing shaded coffee agroforestry systems (AFS). To analyze the opportunities and challenges associated with coffee agroforestry management we conducted 58 semi-structured interviews with coffee growers. In addition, we conducted a field investigation that tested production

Eduardo Ferreira Sales; V. Ernesto Méndez; Francisco Roberto Caporal

2012-01-01

19

Carbon sequestration in tropical agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removing atmospheric carbon (C) and storing it in the terrestrial biosphere is one of the options, which have been proposed to compensate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agricultural lands are believed to be a major potential sink and could absorb large quantities of C if trees are reintroduced to these systems and judiciously managed together with crops and\\/or animals. Thus, the

Alain Albrecht; Serigne T Kandji

2003-01-01

20

Carbon sequestration: An underexploited environmental benefit of agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry has importance as a carbon sequestration strategy because of carbon storage potential in its multiple plant species\\u000a and soil as well as its applicability in agricultural lands and in reforestation. The potential seems to be substantial; but\\u000a it has not been even adequately recognized, let alone exploited. Proper design and management of agroforestry practices can\\u000a make them effective carbon

F. Montagnini; P. K. R. Nair

2004-01-01

21

Coffee Agroforestry Systems for Conservation and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agroforestry program of the AMISCONDE Initiative was implemented in 13 buffer zone communities of La Amistad Biosphere Reserve. This program introduced citrus (Citrus spp.) and promoted the widespread inclusion of poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) shade trees, ground story vegetation, and soil conservation techniques to the local cultivation of coffee (Coffea arabica var caturra). This program sought long-term socioeconomic and ecological

Christie M. Young

2003-01-01

22

Changes of dung beetle communities from rainforests towards agroforestry systems and annual cultures in Sulawesi (Indonesia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about how tropical land-use systems contribute to the conservation of functionally important insect groups, including dung beetles. In a study at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park (a biodiversity hotspot in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia) dung-beetle communities were sampled in natural forest, young secondary forest, agroforestry systems (cacao plantations with shade trees) and annual cultures (maize fields),

Shahabuddin; Christian H. Schulze; Teja Tscharntke

2005-01-01

23

An electromagnetic induction method for monitoring variation in soil moisture in agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of soil water extraction by trees in agroforestry systems has long been seen as an important step towards understanding their functioning. Traditional methods of soil moisture monitoring have been employed with some success but limitations in utilising them efficiently across both time and space have led to restrictions in their use. An

N. I. HuthA; P. L. PoultonA

2007-01-01

24

KURA CLOVER INTERCROPPED IN A PECAN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM IMPROVES SOIL QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intercropping the alleys of agroforestry systems is desirable to provide income from the field until the tree crop begins to yield. However, cultivation of annual crops in the alleys may decrease soil organic matter and increase soil erosion, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintai...

25

Intercropping with Kura Clover Improves Soil Quality in a Pecan Agroforestry System  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intercropping the alleys of agroforestry systems provides income until the tree crop begins to yield. However, cultivation of annual crops or intensive herbicidal control of vegetation in the alleys decreases soil organic matter and increases soil erosion, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial...

26

Agroforestry systems for the production of woody biomass for energy transformation purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the temperate zone, agroforestry systems come increasingly into focus as they offer an approach for the production of fuelwood, thus matching the increasing demand for a self-supply with bioenergy in rural decentralized areas. Because of the large area potential of marginal land, research activities aimed at a reliable estimation of the minimum productivity of fast–growing tree species under most

Holger Gruenewald; Barbara K. V. Brandt; B. Uwe Schneider; Oliver Bens; Gerald Kendzia; Reinhard F. Hüttl

2007-01-01

27

Productivity, microclimate and water use in Grevillea robusta-based agroforestry systems on hillslopes in semi-arid Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a multi-disciplinary project to examine the changing interactions between trees and crops as the trees in semi-arid agroforestry systems establish and mature; the project is one of the most detailed and highly instrumented long-term studies of tree and crop growth, system performance, resource capture, hydrology and microclimate ever carried out within an agroforestry context. Its primary objective

C. K. Ong; C. R. Black; J. S. Wallace; A. A. H. Khan; J. E. Lott; N. A. Jackson; S. B. Howard; D. M. Smith

2000-01-01

28

Spatial distribution of root length density and soil water of linear agroforestry systems in sub-humid Kenya: implications for agroforestry models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In simultaneous agroforestry systems trees can compete with crops for water, especially in semi-arid areas. However, in the (sub)humid tropics, on P-fixing Oxisols\\/Ferralsols small decreases in soil water content caused a decrease in P-transport to roots and therewith a soil-drying induced P-deficiency.The aim of this study was to assess the spatial distribution of soil water content in crop fields bordering

Simone Radersma; Chin K Ong

2004-01-01

29

Earthworms, soil fertility and aggregate-associated soil organic matter dynamics in the Quesungual agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues of food security, environmental degradation and global climate change underscore the need for the improved understanding of sustainable agricultural systems around the globe. The Quesungual slash-and-mulch agroforestry system (QSMAS) of western Honduras offers a promising alternative to traditional slash-and-burn (SB) agriculture for the mountainous tropical dry forest zones of Central America, but the overall influence of this system on

Steven J. Fonte; Edmundo Barrios; Johan Six

2010-01-01

30

Two successful models for preparing competent critical care nurses. The Parkland Health and Hospital System Critical Care and Trauma Nurse Internship and Critical Care Residency.  

PubMed

Part of the mission statement of Parkland Health and Hospital System involves participating in educational programs dedicated to the art and science of caring for the sick and injured, the promotion of wellness, and the delivery of health services. The concept of the Nurse Internship and Nurse Residency fits well in the framework of this hospital. The continued support of these programs from the PHHS administration is visible evidence of the institution's commitment to excellence. Together these programs provide a continual supply of competent critical care practitioners to meet the never-ending demand in this large county facility as well as opportunities for new graduates to begin the exciting and rewarding journey into critical care nursing. PMID:11863139

Jones, T L; Mims, B C; Luecke, L E

2001-03-01

31

Timber Tree-Based Contour Hedgerow System On Sloping Acid Upland Soils: The Use of 15 N In Quantifying Tree-Crop Interaction In Agroforestry System  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the population pressures in the upland increase, agroforestry is inevitably the most appropriate technology to enhance the productive and protective functions of farming systems to benefit both the people living inside and outside the watersheds in a suitable manner. Contour hedgerow is one of the agroforestry systems suitable for sloping uplands where farmers grow tree crops as hedgerows and

Crispina M. Rosales; Agustin R. Mercado; Charmaine Pailagao; Alfonso O. Garfia; Faye G. Rivera

32

Carbon and nutrient stocks in the litter layer of agroforestry systems in central Amazonia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both second-growth and agroforestry systems (AFs) have the potential for recovering thousands of abandoned pasturelands in\\u000a Amazon. The AFs may do it faster and, at the same time, produce direct economic benefits for farmers. Improved nutrient recycling\\u000a may be expected due to distinctive litter production in AFs, but lacks experimental data yet. The stocks of carbon and nutrients\\u000a of the

Sandra C. Tapia-Coral; Flávio J. Luizão; Elisa Wandelli; Erick C. M. Fernandes

2005-01-01

33

Soil Carbon Sequestration in Cacao Agroforestry Systems: A Case Study from Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agroforestry systems (AFS) based on cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) may play an important role in capturing carbon (C) aboveground and storing it belowground (soil) through continuous deposition\\u000a of plant residues. Cacao AFS in Bahia, Brazil, are comprised of cacao planted either with woody species such as Erythrina spp. and Gliricidia spp. or under tree canopies in natural forest, the latter

E. F. Gama-Rodrigues; A. C. Gama-Rodrigues; P. K. Ramachandran Nair

34

Tree leafing phenology and crop productivity in semi-arid agroforestry systems in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that temporal separation of resource use between trees and crops minimises competition for wa ter in agroforestry\\u000a systems during the cropping period and increases utilisation of annual rainfall was tested at Machakos in semi-arid Kenya.\\u000a Four popular tree species were chosen to provide a range of leafing phenologies. These included Melia volkensii, which sheds\\u000a its leaves twice a

J. S. Broadhead; C. R. Black; C. K. Ong

2003-01-01

35

Ecological interactions, management lessons and design tools in tropical agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1980s, land- and labor-intensive simultaneous agroforestry systems (SAFS) were promoted in the tropics, based on\\u000a the optimism on tree-crop niche differentiation and its potential for designing tree-crop mixtures using high tree-densities.\\u000a In the 1990s it became clearer that although trees would yield crucial products and facilitate simultaneous growing of crops,\\u000a they would also exert strong competitive effects on

L. García-Barrios; C. K. Ong

2004-01-01

36

Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted\\u000a in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical\\u000a agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter pools. The objective of this experiment\\u000a was to assess the affect

Hollie Hall; Yuncong Li; Nicholas Comerford; Enrique Arévalo Gardini; Luis Zuniga Cernades; Virupax Baligar; Hugh Popenoe

2010-01-01

37

Prevalence of antibody to Trypanosoma cruzi in Hispanic-surnamed patients seen at Parkland Health & Hospital System, Dallas, Texas  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease constitutes an important public health threat in terms of morbidity and mortality in the areas in the United States where immigrant populations from Latin America are conspicuous. We conducted a survey to assess the prevalence of anti-T. cruzi antibody in Hispanic-surnamed patients seen at Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, Texas. Findings Five hundred serum specimens from Hispanic-surnamed patients were tested by a preliminary ELISA method. On a subset of 50 sera confirmatory testing was also performed using an alternative ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence, and TESA immunoblot. For 274 of 500 Hispanic-surnamed patients, we were able to ascertain immigration status upon medical chart review. Of the 274 sera analyzed, one sample tested as positive for anti-T. cruzi antibody by the preliminary ELISA, and by the three confirmatory methods. Conclusions The goal of this study is to increase the awareness of T. cruzi infection and Chagas disease in areas where the Latin American immigrant communities are growing. Our study highlights the importance of testing for Chagas disease in the populations most at risk, and the need for current data on the actual seroprevalence in areas where such immigrant populations are conspicuous. Larger-scale epidemiologic surveys on Chagas disease in the immigrant communities from Latin America are warranted.

2011-01-01

38

Managing biological and genetic diversity in tropical agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issues of biological and genetic diversity management in agroforestry are extremely complex. This paper focuses on genetic\\u000a diversity management and its implications for sustainable agroforestry systems in the tropics, and presents an analysis of\\u000a the role and importance of inter- and intra-specific diversity in agroforestry. Diversity within and between tree species\\u000a in traditional agroforestry systems and modern agroforestry technologies

K. Atta-Krah; R. Kindt; J. N. Skilton; W. Amaral

2004-01-01

39

Intercropping Competition between Apple Trees and Crops in Agroforestry Systems on the Loess Plateau of China  

PubMed Central

Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems.

Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

2013-01-01

40

Structure and dynamics of coconut-based agroforestry systems in Melanesia: A case study from the Vanuatu archipelago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coconut (Cocos nucifera)-based agroforestry systems hold promise as a sustainable land use activity in the Melanesian islands, where food dependency on foreign sources and land shortages are increasing dramatically. This chapter describes the dynamics of these smallholder production systems in the Malo Island of northern Vanuatu (Melanesia), where a dual economy operates in which resources are dedicated to both subsistence

N. Lamanda; E. Malézieux; P. Martin

41

[Transpiration of Choerospondias axillaris in agro-forestrial system and its affecting factors].  

PubMed

Measurement of transpiration is essential to assess plant water use efficiency. Applying Grainer method, this paper measured the sap flow of Choerospondias axillaries in an agro-forestrial system, aimed to evaluate the effects of intercropping and pruning on the diurnal variation of transpiration, and to relate the transpiration rate with climatic factors. The results showed that the diurnal variation of Choerospondias arillaries transpiration rate appeared in parabola, low in the morning and evening, and high at noon. The transpiration rate was closely related to leaf stomatal conductivity and soil water potential, especially the water potential in 100 cm soil depth (R = 0.737). The transpiration rate of Choerospondias axillaries was increased by about 40% approximately 160% in agro-forestrial system through the changes in regional environment and in the deep soil water use by tree. Correlation analysis and multi-factor successive regression analysis indicated that the transpiration was controlled by ray radiation intensity, air temperature and ground temperature, followed by the difference between saturated and actual vapor pressure and the wind speed. A statistical model for calculating the sap flow rate by micrometeorological factors was also provided. PMID:16471335

Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Huachun; Wang, Mingzhu

2005-11-01

42

Perennial crop-based agroforestry systems in Northeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use systems in the Northeast Region of Brazil are dominated by large holdings and extensive cultivation of perennial crops such as cashew, coconut, carnauba wax palm, babaçu palm and so on. The common feature which links these crops is the silvopastoral system of livestock (chiefly cattle, sheep and donkeys) grazing under them. Agrosilvicultural systems involving cultivation of annual subsistence

Dennis V. Johnson; P. K. R. Nair

1985-01-01

43

Organic carbon pools in a Luvisol under agroforestry and conventional farming systems in the semi-arid region of Ceará, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many environmental benefits have been attributed to agroforestry systems in various ecosystems around the world. However,\\u000a there is a limited amount of information to evaluate this agricultural system in the semi-arid region, specifically in the\\u000a region of Ceará, Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate five agricultural (four agroforestry and one conventional)\\u000a systems in order to test the

Stoécio Malta Ferreira Maia; Francisco Alisson S. Xavier; Teógenes Senna Oliveira; Eduardo Sá Mendonça; João A. Araújo Filho

2007-01-01

44

Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 ?m, 250-53 ?m, and <53 ?m)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

2010-02-01

45

Insect diversity responses to forest conversion and agroforestry management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The ongoing loss of pristine tropical rainforests increases the potential im- portance of agroforestry systems for the conservation of tropical arthropod diversity. Shaded agroforestry systems can still support high levels of biodiver- sity, even resembling those supported by undisturbed forests, but intensively managed open agroforestry systems may cause severe losses in insect diver- sity. In this study we evaluate

Merijn M. Bos; Patrick Hohn; Shahabuddin Saleh; Boris Buche; Damayanti Buchori; Ingolf Stean-Dewenter

2007-01-01

46

Agroforestry systems in the rural landscape – a case study in Garhwal Himalaya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mid altitude (700–1200 m amsl.) village in Garhwal Himalaya was analysed in terms of energy and economic efficiency of different\\u000a land use-land cover types constituting the landscape. Simultaneous agroforestry, sequential agroforestry, home garden and\\u000a community forests accounted for 27.47%, 27.47%, 1.1% and 43.96% of the total geographical area of the village. Simultaneous\\u000a agroforestry is the traditional land use involving

S. Nautiyal; R. K. Maikhuri; R. L. Semwal; K. S. Rao; K. G. Saxena

1998-01-01

47

Sediment, nutrient and water losses by water erosion under agroforestry systems in the semi-arid region in northeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadequate soil management practices adopted in the Brazilian semi-arid region contribute to erosive processes. Agroforestry\\u000a systems (AFs) have been considered an alternative to reduce water erosion. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of two\\u000a alternatives AFs, a traditional and an intensive cropping system on the losses of sediments, water, organic carbon and nutrients\\u000a caused by water erosion in comparison

Maria Ivanilda de Aguiar; Stoécio Malta Ferreira Maia; Francisco Alisson da Silva Xavier; Eduardo de Sá Mendonça; João Ambrósio Araújo Filho; Teógenes Senna de Oliveira

2010-01-01

48

Indigenous fruit trees of Madagascar: potential components of agroforestry systems to improve human nutrition and restore biological diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity in Eastern Madagascar is threatened by slash and burn agriculture, which is resulting in species extinction,\\u000a land and soil degradation and rural impoverishment. An ethnobotanical study was undertaken to determine the domestication\\u000a potential of indigenous fruit tree species as components of agroforestry systems. Four major selection criteria were used:\\u000a nutritional and income needs of the population, diversification of the

E. Styger; J. E. M. Rakotoarimanana; R. Rabevohitra; E. C. M. Fernandes

1999-01-01

49

Earthworms and litter management contributions to ecosystem services in a tropical agroforestry system.  

PubMed

The development of sustainable agricultural systems depends in part upon improved management of non-crop species to enhance the overall functioning and provision of services by agroecosystems. To address this need, our research examined the role of earthworms and litter management on nutrient dynamics, soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization, and crop growth in the Quesungual agroforestry system of western Honduras. Field mesocosms were established with two earthworm treatments (0 vs. 8 Pontoscolex corethrurus individuals per mesocosm) and four litter quality treatments: (1) low-quality Zea mays, (2) high-quality Diphysa robinioides, (3) a mixture of low- and high-quality litters, and (4) a control with no organic residues applied. Mesocosms included a single Z. mays plant and additions of 15N-labeled inorganic nitrogen. At maize harvest, surface soils (0-15 cm) in the mesocosms were sampled to determine total and available P as well as the distribution of C, N, and 15N among different aggregate-associated SOM pools. Maize plants were divided into grain and non-grain components and analyzed for total P, N, and 15N. Earthworm additions improved soil structure as demonstrated by a 10% increase in mean weight diameter and higher C and N storage within large macro-aggregates (>2000 microm). A corresponding 17% increase in C contained in micro-aggregates within the macro-aggregates indicates that earthworms enhance the stabilization of SOM in these soils; however, this effect only occurred when organic residues were applied. Earthworms also decreased available P and total soil P, indicating that earthworms may facilitate the loss of labile P added to this system. Earthworms decreased the recovery of fertilizer-derived N in the soil but increased the uptake of 15N by maize by 7%. Litter treatments yielded minimal effects on soil properties and plant growth. Our results indicate that the application of litter inputs and proper management of earthworm populations can have important implications for the provision of ecosystem services (e.g., C sequestration, soil fertility, and plant production) by tropical agroforestry systems. PMID:20597290

Fonte, Steven J; Six, Johan

2010-06-01

50

[Light competition and productivity of agroforestry system in loess area of Weibei in Shaanxi].  

PubMed

Agroforestry is the most effective way for the restoration of disturbed land on Loess Plateau and the development of poorly local economy. Taking the tree-based intercropping systems of walnut or plum with soybean or pepper in the loess area of Weibei as test objects, the photosynthesis, growth, and yield of soybean (Qindou 8) and pepper (Shanjiao 981) in the systems were studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), growth, and yield of individual soybean or pepper plants were significantly decreased, with the effects increased with decreasing distance from tree rows. Leaf water potential was not significantly or poorly correlated with the Pn, growth, and yield of the two crops. However, there were significant positive correlations between the soil moisture content in 10-20 cm layer and the biomass and yield of soybean, and the above-ground biomass of pepper. PAR was highly correlated with the yield of both crops, which indicated that light competition was one of the key factors leading to the decrease of crop yield. PMID:19238840

Peng, Xiao-bang; Cai, Jing; Jiang, Zai-min; Zhang, Yuan-ying; Zhang, Shuo-xin

2008-11-01

51

[Canopy conductance characteristics of poplar in agroforestry system in west Liaoning Province of Northeast China].  

PubMed

By using Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of poplar in a poplar-maize agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and as well, the environmental factors such as air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, wind speed, soil temperature, and soil moisture content were synchronically measured. Based on the sap flow data, the canopy conductance of poplar was calculated with simplified Penman-Monteith equation. In the study area, the diurnal variation of poplar' s canopy conductance showed a "single peak" curve, whereas the seasonal variation showed a decreasing trend. There was a negative logarithm relationship between the canopy conductance and vapor pressure deficit, with the sensitivity of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit change decreased gradually from May to September. The canopy conductance had a positive relationship with solar radiation. In different months, the correlation degree of canopy conductance with environmental factors differed. The vapor pressure deficit in the whole growth period of poplar was the most significant environmental factor correlated with the canopy conductance. PMID:23431778

Li, Zheng; Niu, Li-Hua; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Guan, De-Xin; Wang, An-Zhi; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

2012-11-01

52

Biodiversity in Dublin City Urban Parklands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity was measured for five regional and fifteen neighbourhood urban parklands in the south-west Dublin city area, including a recently developed municipal golf course. Plant species were inventoried by habitat type in the spring, summer and autumn. Birds, mammals and fish were also recorded for each park with substantial input from environmental groups and members of the local community. The

D. E. Lynn; N. E. Kingston; J. R. Martin; S. Waldren

53

Study of Parkland College Core Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report on how Parkland College's (Illinois) core values are communicated to students and the community. Four focus groups--one with 11 faculty members, one with 10 students, 1 with 6 professional staff, and 1 with 7 administrators--were asked to discuss 6 core values: (1) honesty and integrity; (2) fairness and just treatment; (3)…

Bers, Trudy

54

Parkland acquisition and urbanization: Implications for managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of original research into the problem of acquiring parkland in an era of severe budgetary constraints on local government. Data on a variety of acquisition methods was collected and analyzed, and recommendations were developed to improve the efficiency of local parks planning. While these methods have previously been discussed separately in the literature, comparative studies

1993-01-01

55

Water use efficiency and uptake patterns in a runoff agroforestry system in an arid environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is the most limiting factor for plant production in arid to semiarid regions. In order to overcome this limitation surface runoff water can be used to supplement seasonal rainfall. During 1996 we conducted a runoff irrigated agroforestry field trial in the Turkana district of Northern Kenya. The effects of two different Acacia saligna (Labill.) H. Wendl. tree planting densities

K. J. DROPPELMANN; J. LEHMANN; J. E. EPHRATH; P. R. BERLINER

2000-01-01

56

Improved fodder tree management in the agroforestry systems of central and western Nepal  

SciTech Connect

Ten, three year old, fodder tree species were evaluated at four on-station and three on-farm sites in Nepal. Ficus semicordata (Buchattam. ex Sm.) growth was found to be significantly higher than the rest in diameter and dry foliage weight values. Species were significantly different in height, diameter, and foliage and wood growth. Sites were significantly different in total height growth only. On-farm species evaluation indicated that A. lakoocha and F. semicordata had significantly higher growth. Allometric regression equations were developed to predict foliage, total wood, and total biomass yield of F. semicordata, and B. variegata. Individual-tree models were developed. For B. variegata, diameter at 50 cm. and for F. semicordata, crown diameter and height gave the best fitted equations. Regression equations for three sites did not differ significantly. Therefore, data were pooled and a common model was estimated for each species. In on-farm regression models, height and crown diameter were the best predictors for F. semicordata and dbh gave the best fit for B. variegata. The models for the two species were used to construct regional fodder and fuelwood biomass tables. An improved crop-livestock-fodder agroforestry system was designed for a village in Nepal. Linear programming was used to demonstrate the use of a tool to optimize land allocation maximizing net returns while satisfying the supply of minimum needs of food, fodder, and fuelwood. The optimal solution indicated that, by improving the returns to labor and by applying more compost, the village should be able to increase the annual net farm returns from NRs. 2.94 million to NRs. 3.85 million. The food, fodder and fuelwood production levels were shown to increase by 17%, 130%, and 537% respectively. The labor and compost requirements were up by 138% and 59% respectively, over the five year period. The soil loss through run-off was estimated to decrease by about 15% over the same period.

Karki, M.B.

1992-01-01

57

Does parkland influence walking? The relationship between area of parkland and walking trips in Melbourne, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Using two different measures of park area, at three buffer distances, we sought to investigate the ways in which park area and proximity to parks, are related to the frequency of walking (for all purposes) in Australian adults. Little previous research has been conducted in this area, and results of existing research have been mixed. Methods Residents of 50 urban areas in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia completed a physical activity survey (n = 2305). Respondents reported how often they walked for ?10 minutes in the previous month. Walking frequency was dichotomised to ‘less than weekly’ (less than 1/week) and ‘at least weekly’ (1/week or more). Using Geographic Information Systems, Euclidean buffers were created around each respondent’s home at three distances: 400metres (m), 800 m and 1200 m. Total area of parkland in each person’s buffer was calculated for the three buffers. Additionally, total area of ‘larger parks’, (park space???park with Australian Rules Football oval (17,862 m2)), was calculated for each set of buffers. Area of park was categorised into tertiles for area of all parks, and area of larger parks (the lowest tertile was used as the reference category). Multilevel logistic regression, with individuals nested within areas, was used to estimate the effect of area of parkland on walking frequency. Results No statistically significant associations were found between walking frequency and park area (total and large parks) within 400 m of respondent’s homes. For total park area within 800 m, the odds of walking at least weekly were lower for those in the mid (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46-0.91) and highest (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.95) tertile of park area compared to those living in areas with the least amount of park area. Similar results were observed for total park area in the 1200 m buffers. When only larger parks were investigated, again more frequent walking was less likely when respondents had access to a greater amount of park area. Conclusions In this study we found that more park area in residential environments reduced the odds of walking more frequently. Other area characteristics such as street connectivity and destinations may underlie these associations by negatively correlating with park area.

2012-01-01

58

Effects of Land-Use Intensity in Tropical Agroforestry Systems on Coffee Flower-Visiting and Trap-Nesting Bees and Wasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical landscapes are dominated by agroecosystems, and most species that survive in forest rem- nants interact with these agroecosystems. The potential value of agroecosystems for aiding species survival is often ignored. Essential ecosystem services may suffer when functional groups such as pollinators and preda- tors are affected by land use. We used agroforestry systems differing in land-use intensity to examine

Alexandra-Maria Klein; Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter; Damayanti Buchori; Teja Tscharntke

2002-01-01

59

Future Directions of Agroforestry in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main direction of current research on Agroforestry systems in Europe has been summarised in this book. These have included\\u000a general descriptions of the different areas where there are good examples of how agroforestry practices are currently being\\u000a implemented or could be implemented from farm to landscape level and, as a land use option, at a local level. The book

M. R. Mosquera-Losada; J. H. McAdam; A. Rigueiro-Rodríguez

60

Nitrogen use efficiency and carbon sequestration in legume tree-based agroforestry systems. A case study in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous cropping of maize withGliricidia<\\/span>sepium<\\/span> and relay cropping of maize withSesbania<\\/span>sesban<\\/span> are the twoagroforestry<\\/span>systems for soil fertility improvement which fit well within the small land holdings in the densely populated southern part of<\\/span>Malawi<\\/span><\\/st1:place><\\/st1:country-region>, in Sub Saharan Africa. These systems have been promoted because of their postulated beneficial effects,i.c<\\/span>. provision of

W. I. H. Makumba

2003-01-01

61

Tree gardening and taungya on Java: examples of agroforestry techniques in the humid tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry is a general concept for a land management system combining trees and agricultural crops. For application, various specific techniques can be chosen. Each of these techniques is adjusted to a specific set of environmental as well as socio-economic factors. Agroforestry cultivators or managers belonging to varying social strata and institutional groupings may practice different forms of agroforestry, even within

K. F. Weersum

1982-01-01

62

Sustainability Attributes of a Small-Scale Betel Leaf Agroforestry System: A Case Study in North-eastern Hill Forests of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Khasia ethnic community of Bangladesh has been a population of forest villagers in the north-eastern hill forests of Bangladesh\\u000a since the early 1950s, practicing a betel leaf-based agroforestry system on land granted by the Forest Department. Taking\\u000a a sample forest village of the Sylhet forest division as a case study, this article examines the sustainability attributes\\u000a of betel leaf

Tapan Kumar Nath; Makoto Inoue

2009-01-01

63

Performance of Coffea arabica F1 hybrids in agroforestry and full-sun cropping systems in comparison with American pure line cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffea arabica F1 hybrids derived from crosses between wild Sudan-Ethiopian and American cultivars and propagated by somatic embryogenesis\\u000a have been obtained in Central America. These new hybrids considerably enhanced the genetic diversity of coffee in the region.\\u000a We conducted 15 trials to assess whether using hybrids represents substantial genetic progress in terms of productivity in\\u000a agroforestry and full-sun cropping systems.

B. Bertrand; E. Alpizar; L. Lara; R. SantaCreo; M. Hidalgo; J. M. Quijano; C. Montagnon; F. Georget; H. Etienne

64

Effect of shade on Arabica coffee berry disease development: Toward an agroforestry system to reduce disease impact.  

PubMed

Coffee berry disease (CBD), caused by Colletotrichum kahawae, is a major constraint for Arabica coffee cultivation in Africa. The disease is specific to green berries and can lead to 60% harvest losses. In Cameroon, mixed cropping systems of coffee with other crops, such as fruit trees, are very widespread agricultural practices. Fruit trees are commonly planted at random on coffee farms, providing a heterogeneous shading pattern for coffee trees growing underneath. Based on a recent study of CBD, it is known that those plants can reduce disease incidence. To assess the specific effect of shade, in situ and in vitro disease development was compared between coffee trees shaded artificially by a net and trees located in full sunlight. In the field, assessments confirmed a reduction in CBD on trees grown under shade compared with those grown in full sunlight. Artificial inoculations in the laboratory showed that shade did not have any effect on the intrinsic susceptibility of coffee berries to CBD. Coffee shading mainly acts on environmental parameters in limiting disease incidence. In addition to reducing yield losses, agroforestry system may also be helpful in reducing chemical control of the disease and in diversifying coffee growers' incomes. PMID:19000007

Mouen Bedimo, J A; Njiayouom, I; Bieysse, D; Ndoumbè Nkeng, M; Cilas, C; Nottéghem, J L

2008-12-01

65

Eucalyptus agroforestry system for small farms: 2-year experiment with rice and beans in Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Minas Gerais, Brazil, Eucalyptus plantation agroforestry techniques for small farms appear to be an adequate alternative to small-scale plantations, and by integrating timber and food production, they can meet local demands for aliment and wood. Intercropping of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with rice and beans was studied to compare yields of intercropping and monocultures over 2 years. In the first year,

Eliane Ceccon

2005-01-01

66

Agroforestry: mapping the way with GIS  

Treesearch

Science.gov - We Participate ... Source: Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 148-153. Description: Agroforestry combines agriculture and forestry technologies to create diverse, profitable, and sustainable land-use systems ( Rietveld, 1995). ... innovations needed to meet food demands for a growing global population.

67

A review of traditional agroforestry in Micronesia - Treesearch  

Treesearch

... the social and environmental problems associated with modern agriculture, particularly ... This paper is an overview of the agroforestry systems of Micronesia . ... We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the  ...

68

Ensemble composition and activity levels of insectivorous bats in response to management intensification in coffee agroforestry systems.  

PubMed

Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats--nearly half the Neotropical bat species--change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices) across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures. PMID:21298059

Williams-Guillén, Kimberly; Perfecto, Ivette

2011-01-26

69

Ensemble Composition and Activity Levels of Insectivorous Bats in Response to Management Intensification in Coffee Agroforestry Systems  

PubMed Central

Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats – nearly half the Neotropical bat species – change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices) across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures.

Williams-Guillen, Kimberly; Perfecto, Ivette

2011-01-01

70

Root length density and carbon content of agroforestry and grass buffers under grazed pasture systems in a Hapludalf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhancement of root development helps to improve soil physical properties, carbon sequestration, and water quality of streams.\\u000a The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in root length density (RLD) and root and soil carbon content within\\u000a grass buffer (GB), agroforestry buffer (AgB), rotationally grazed pasture (RG) and continuously grazed pasture (CG) treatments.\\u000a Pasture and GB areas included red

Sandeep KumarRanjith; Ranjith P. Udawatta; Stephen H. Anderson

2010-01-01

71

Investigation on effect of Populus alba stands distance on density of pests and their natural enemies population under poplar/alfalfa agroforestry system.  

PubMed

This study was carried out in order to distinguish the effect of agroforestry system (combination of agriculture and forestry) on pests and natural enemy's population in poplar research station. Wood is one of the first substances that naturally was used for a long period of time. Forage is an important production of natural resources too. Some factors such as proper lands deficit, lack of economy, pest and disease attacks and faced production of these materials with serious challenges. Agroforestry is a method for decrease of the mentioned problems. The stands of poplar had have planted by complete randomized design with 4 treatments (stand distance) of poplar/alfalfa include 3x4, 3x6.7, 3x8, 3x10 m and 2 control treatments, alfalfa and poplar. The results showed that Chaitophorus populeti had the highest density in poplar and 3x10 m treatments. Monosteira unicostata is another insect pest that had most density in 3x10 m treatment. And alfalfa had high density of Chrysoperla carnea. The density of Coccinella septempunctata, were almost equal in all treatments. PMID:19579945

Khabir, Z H; Sadeghi, S E; Hanifeh, S; Eivazi, A

2009-01-15

72

Biomass production and C-sequestration of Gmelina arborea in plantation and agroforestry system in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree based land use systems make a valuable contribution to sequester carbon and improve productivity and nutrient cycling\\u000a within the systems. This study was conducted to determine biomass production, C-sequestration and nitrogen allocation in Gmelina arborea planted as sole and agrisilviculture system on abandoned agricultural land. At 5 years, total stand biomass in agrisilviculture\\u000a system was 14.1 Mg ha?1. Plantations had 35% higher

S. L. Swamy; Sunil Puri

2005-01-01

73

Nitrogen balance for an agroforestry system irrigated with a saline, high nitrogen effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land disposal is commonly used for urban and industrial wastewater, largely due to the high costs involved in alternative treatments or disposal systems. However, the viability of such systems depends on many factors, including the composition of the effluent water, soil type, the plant species grown, growth rate, and planting density. The objective of this study is to establish whether

C. A. MacDonald; Neal W. Menzies; P. Dart; Ross C. Bigwood

2004-01-01

74

Determining options for agroforestry systems for the rehabilitation of degraded watersheds in Alemaya Basin, Hararghe Highlands, Ethiopia  

SciTech Connect

Deforestation, accelerated soil erosion, and land degradation are serious problems in Ethiopia. The uncontrolled removal of natural forests, demographic pressures and cyclical drought has aggravated the situation, resulting in massive environmental degradation and a serious threat to sustainable agriculture and forestry. To overcome these problems efforts have been made to launch an afforestation and conservation program; however, success to data has been limited. Thus, the main objective of this study is to find the reasons for lack of success in tree planting in the Alemaya Basin both from biophysical and socio-economic perspectives. And, based on this analysis, to propose an alternative strategy for agroforestry for the Basin. The study has identified and characterized major land uses, socio-economic constraints and agricultural and forestry practices which have limited forestry development in the Alemaya Basin. To gather the necessary information for the study, existing information sources were reviewed. Two state sampling was used for a land-use survey, and stratified random sampling for the socio-economic study. Decrease in farm size due to population increases, soil erosion, shortage of fuelwood and fodder for livestock and lack of appropriate extension service were found to be the major problems that affect sustainable production in the Alemaya Basin. Agroforestry is one of the appropriate technologies to overcome some of the problem faced by the farmers in the Alemaya Basin. The study proposed a desired state of sustainable agriculture and forestry for the Basin based on population projections, agriculture and forest products needs, and stable or improved living standards for a 20 year planning period. Alley cropping with and without fertilizers was identified as a promising agroforestry technology. Its economic feasibility was assessed by estimating costs and returns both for traditional farming and alley cropping.

Bishaw, B.

1993-01-01

75

Does ‘jungle rubber’ deserve its name? An analysis of rubber agroforestry systems in southeast Sumatra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jungle rubber is a blanced, diversified system derived from swidden cultivation, in which man-made forests with a high concentration of rubber trees replace fallows. Most of the income comes from rubber, complemented with temporary food and cash crops during the early years. Perennial species that grow spontaneously with rubber provide fruits, fuelwood and timber, mostly for household consumption. Jungle rubber

A. Gouyon; H. DE FORESTA; P. Levang

1993-01-01

76

Habitat relationships of eastern red-backed salamanders ( Plethodon cinereus) in Appalachian agroforestry and grazing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woodland salamander responses to either traditional grazing or silvopasture systems are virtually unknown. An information-theoretic modelling approach was used to evaluate responses of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to silvopasture and meadow conversions in southern West Virginia. Searches of area-constrained plots and artificial coverboards that were distributed across a gradient of agricultural conversion and grazing intensity, including hardwood silvopastures, hay meadows,

Breanna L. Riedel; Kevin R. Russell; W. Mark Ford; Katherine P. O’Neill; Harry W. Godwin

2008-01-01

77

Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: Pollination in coffee agroforestry systems  

PubMed Central

Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables.

Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G.; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

2013-01-01

78

Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: pollination in coffee agroforestry systems.  

PubMed

Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables. PMID:23671073

Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

2013-05-13

79

The effects of rainfall partitioning and evapotranspiration on the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content in a Mediterranean agroforestry system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree plantation for wood production has been proposed to mitigate CO2-related climate change. Although these agroforestry systems can contribute to maintain the agriculture in some areas placed between rainfed crops and secondary forests, water scarcity in Mediterranean climate could restrict its growth, and their presence will affect the water balance. Tree plantations management (species, plant density, irrigation, etc), hence, can be used to affect the water balance, resulting in water availability improvement and buffering of the water cycle. Soil water content and meteorological data are widely used in agroforestry systems as indicators of vegetation water use, and consequently to define water management. However, the available information of ecohydrological processes in this kind of ecosystem is scarce. The present work studies how the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content is affected by transpiration and interception loss fluxes in a Mediterranean rainfed plantation of cherry tree (Prunus avium) located in Caldes de Montbui (Northeast of Spain). From May till December 2011, rainfall partitioning, canopy transpiration, soil water content and meteorological parameters were continuously recorded. Rainfall partitioning was measured in 6 trees, with 6 automatic rain recorders for throughfall and 1 automatic rain recorder for stemflow per tree. Transpiration was monitored in 12 nearby trees by means of heat pulse sap flow sensors. Soil water content was also measured at three different depths under selected trees and at two depths between rows without tree cover influence. This work presents the relationships between rainfall partitioning, transpiration and soil water content evolution under the tree canopy. The effect of tree cover on the soil water content dynamics is also analyzed.

Biel, C.; Molina, A.; Aranda, X.; Llorens, P.; Savé, R.

2012-04-01

80

Improving the issuing, absorption and use of climate forecast information in agroforestry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry includes a range of practices that combine partial canopies of perennial woody vegetation (trees, shrubs, or hedges) with below-canopy production of forages, arable crops, fruits, berries, and nuts, herbs, or medicinal plants. Agroforestry systems can be broadly grouped into windbreaks ...

81

Adoption of agroforestry in the hills of Nepal: a logistic regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread deforestation and increasingly intensive use of land to sustain a growing population has increased soil erosion, lowered soil fertility, and reduced agricultural productivity in the hills of Nepal. This has raised concern over sustainability of the hill farming system. There is growing evidence that agroforestry can be a potential solution to above problems. However, the development of agroforestry as

Ramji P. Neupane; Khem R. Sharma; Gopal B. Thapa

2002-01-01

82

A GIS-based database management application for agroforestry planning and tree selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry (the deliberate growing of trees or shrubs in rural lands) is being promoted in the United States as an alternative resource management system that can bring landowners economic benefits and provide environmental services such as reduced soil erosion, improved water quality and wildlife habitat. Landowners, farmers and extension agents need to be better informed about different agroforestry opportunities and

E. A. Ellis; P. K. R. Nair; P. E. Linehan; H. W. Beck; C. A. Blanche

2000-01-01

83

Agroforestry for water management in the cropping zone of southern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry has been advocated as a means of managing excess water that has accu- mulated in the agricultural landscape of southern Australia since clearing of native vegetation. This article examines the feasibility and profitability of agroforestry systems designed to manage rising, saline watertables. A framework for Australian conditions is described that considers the interactions between trees, crops and their below

E. C. LEFROY; R. J. STIRZAKER

1999-01-01

84

Phosphorus mobilization in agroforestry: Organic anions, phosphatase activity and phosphorus fractions in the rhizosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

In agroforestry systems on Ferralsols in the tropics, maize crop yields are low owing to a lack of P. However, some agroforestry tree species adapted to P-fixing soils may be able to utilize less available P sources and concurrently increase P availability to adjacent crops. Adaptations for enhanced P acquisition from P-fixing soils include exudation of low molecular weight (LMW)

Simone Radersma; Pauline F. Grierson

2004-01-01

85

Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots). The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive) to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all (non-responsive) (n=7). A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

2010-04-01

86

Effects of climate change and land use on duck abundance in Canadian prairie-parklands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent declines in breeding ducks in the Canadian prairie-parklands may be due to loss of habitat to agriculture. However, prairie-parkland also has experienced wetland loss to drought as well as to agriculture. For sucessful habitat restoration, it is important to separate the effects of anthropogenic changes to the landscape from those caused by changes in climate. The researchers used data

R. W. Bethke; T. D. Nudds

1995-01-01

87

C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 ?m, 1000-2000 ?m, 250-1000 ?m, 53-250 ?m, and <53 ?m). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 ?m) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 ?m size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby minimizing the impact of conversion of forest to cacao AFS.

Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

2011-07-01

88

The molecular abnormality of albumin Parklands: 365 Asp----His.  

PubMed

An electrophoretically slow albumin variant was isolated from the plasma of a patient with bisalbuminemia. Reverse-phase peptide mapping revealed a single altered peak when tryptic digests of the normal and variant albumin were compared. After rechromatography and amino acid analysis, a sequence/composition of Cys-Cys-Ala-Ala-Ala-His-Pro,His,Glu,Cys,Tyr,Ala,Lys was obtained for the mutant peptide, while a sequence of Cys-Cys-Ala-Ala-Ala-Asp-Pro-His-Glu-Cys-Tyr,Ala,Lys was obtained for the normal peptide. This establishes the mutation as 365 Asp----His and the new albumin has been named albumin Parklands. Interestingly, this mutation results in the loss of the single Asp-Pro bond that is normally present between residues 365 and 366. Predictably, this confers on albumin Parklands a greater resistance to partial acid hydrolysis, a feature which, when employed together with SDS-gel electrophoresis, can be used as a diagnostic test for the presence of this variant. PMID:4027254

Brennan, S O

1985-08-23

89

Drought effects on soil COagroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month replicated experiment, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) in three simulated drought plots compared with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), but also decreased when soils became water saturated, as evidenced in control plots. The simulated drought plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly ("responsive") to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all ("non-responsive") (n=7). The degree of soil CO2 respiration drought response was highest around cacao tree stems and decreased with distance from the stem (R2=0.22). A significant correlation was measured between "responsive" soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. During dry periods the litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux and up to 40% during wet periods. A CO2 flush was recorded during the rewetting phase that lasted for approximately two weeks, during which time accumulated labile carbon stocks mineralized. The net effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was neutral, control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1.

van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

2009-12-01

90

REGIONAL DRAINWATER MANAGEMENT: SOURCE CONTROL, AGROFORESTRY, AND EVAPORATION PONDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source control is one way to address salinity and drainage problems in irrigated agriculture, and reuse of drainage flows on salt-tolerant crops or trees in agroforestry production is another. A regional model of agricultural production with drainwater reuse and disposal is developed. Deep percolation flows are controlled through choice of crop areas, irrigation systems, and applied-water quantities. Crop drainwater may

Judith F. Posnikoff; Keith C. Knapp

1996-01-01

91

Agriculture-related injuries in the parkland region of Manitoba.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review a series of farm injuries in the parkland region of Manitoba, compare the collected data to similar studies, and provide a baseline for deriving effective preventive measures for the local community. DESIGN: Retrospective case study involving review of hospital charts. SETTING: The population studied was derived from the catchment area for Dauphin General Hospital, a referral centre servicing an agricultural region of 57,000 people. PATIENTS: Seventy-two patients were admitted to hospital between January 1981 and December 1991 after being injured by agricultural machines, farm animals, herbicides or other chemicals, and fertilizers. Four fatalities were identified through a review of local medical examiner records, for a total of 76 cases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The following data were abstracted for each case: sex, age, time and date of injury, cause, type of injury, and body part involved. RESULTS: Most cases involved men, between the ages of 20 and 69, during the afternoon and early evening with a seasonal peak in late summer. More than 60% of injuries were caused by agricultural machinery, followed by animal-related injuries (25%). Grain augers were the most common type of machine causing injury (35%). All patients younger than 9 years were female, and 75% of their injuries involved farm animals. A decreasing annual frequency of farm injuries was noted over the 11-year period. Fewer accidents involving farm machinery appear most responsible for this trend. CONCLUSIONS: Many agriculture-related injuries occur in the parkland region of Manitoba. The type and pattern of injuries observed resembles those documented in other studies. With effective education and preventive measures, most injuries and fatalities could be prevented. Physicians are obliged to encourage and support educational programs in their communities and to review safety practices with patients. Images p1191-a

Young, S. K.

1995-01-01

92

Agroforestry research and development in southern Africa during the 1990s: Review and challenges ahead  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) initiated in 1987 the Southern Africa Regional Agroforestry\\u000a Programme in partnership with the national research systems in Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Tanzania to address the problems\\u000a of low soil fertility and consequent low crop and livestock production, low cash income, and shortages of fuelwood and timber\\u000a that are common to most rural

F. Kwesiga; F. K. Akinnifesi; P. L. Mafongoya; M. H. McDermott; A. Agumya

2003-01-01

93

Computer-based tools for decision support in agroforestry: Current state and future needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful design of agroforestry practices hinges on the ability to pull together very diverse and sometimes large sets of\\u000a information (i.e., biophysical, economic and social factors), and then implementing the synthesis of this information across\\u000a several spatial scales from site to landscape. Agroforestry, by its very nature, creates complex systems with impacts ranging\\u000a from the site or practice level up

E. A. Ellis; G. Bentrup; M. M. Schoeneberger

2004-01-01

94

Agroforestry for water management in the cropping zone of southern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry has been advocated as a means of managing excess water that has accumulated in the agricultural landscape of\\u000a southern Australia since clearing of native vegetation. This article examines the feasibility and profitability of agroforestry\\u000a systems designed to manage rising, saline watertables. A framework for Australian conditions is described that considers the\\u000a interactions between trees, crops and their below ground

E. C. Lefroy; R. J. Stirzaker

1999-01-01

95

Linking Carbon, Biodiversity and Livelihoods Near Forest Margins: The Role of Agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agroforestry systems distinguish themselves from other forms of agriculture through their ability to store higher amounts\\u000a of carbon (C) in their biomass, and often also to conserve more biodiversity. However, in both regards they are generally\\u000a inferior to forests. Therefore, the impact of agroforestry practices on landscape C stocks and biodiversity needs to be analyzed\\u000a both in terms of the

Götz Schroth; Maria do Socorro Souza da Mota; Terry Hills; Lorena Soto-Pinto; Iwan Wijayanto; Candra Wirawan Arief; Yatziri Zepeda

96

Yield-SAFE: A parameter-sparse, process-based dynamic model for predicting resource capture, growth, and production in agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) is the cultivation of trees and arable crops on the same parcel of land. SAF may contribute to modern diversified land use objectives in Europe, such as enhanced biodiversity and productivity, reduced leaching of nitrogen, protection against flooding and erosion, and attractiveness of the landscape. Long-term yield predictions are needed to assess long-term economic profitability of SAF.2.A

Wopke van der Werf; Karel Keesman; Paul Burgess; Anil Graves; David Pilbeam; L. D. Incoll; Klaas Metselaar; Martina Mayus; Roel Stappers; Herman van Keulen; João Palma; Christian Dupraz

2007-01-01

97

IMPROVED TOOLS FOR MANAGING AGROFORESTRY LANDSCAPES IN NORTHERN THAILAND: PILOT APPLICATION OF SPATIAL ANALYSIS AND NEGOTIATION SUPPORT SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current landscape mosaic patterns of land cover in Northern Thailand can be seen as resulting from adaptation of traditional agricultural systems over time. During the 1950s, little influence from the lowlands had yet imposed itself on traditional systems in higher elevation zones. Subsequent outside influences, such as markets for new crops associated with both opium crop replacement programs and expansion

David Thomas; Horst Weyerhaeuser

98

Factors driving land use change: Effects on watershed functions in a coffee agroforestry system in Lampung, Sumatra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest cover in Sumberjaya declined from 60% to 10% over the past three decades; current land uses are a mosaic of smallholder coffee fields on slopes, and rice paddies and vegetables in the valleys. While deforestation was continuing at the forest frontier, farmers were already ‘re-treeing’ the landscape and many monoculture coffee gardens were gradually transformed into mixed systems with

Bruno Verbist; Andree Eka Dinata Putra; Suseno Budidarsono

2005-01-01

99

‘Without bamboo, the land dies’: A conceptual model of the biogeochemical role of bamboo in an Indonesian agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘talun-kebun’ system consists of a 6–7 year management cycle in which a 4–5 year fallow period of perennial clump bamboo is alternated with 2 years of food crop production. Clearcutting, raking the forest floor and slash into piles for burning, and hoeing the soil to a depth of 25 cm reduces the vigour of the bamboo to the point

L Christanty; J. P Kimmins; D Mailly

1997-01-01

100

Smallholder Cacao (Theobroma cacao Linn.) cultivation in agroforestry systems of West and Central Africa: challenges and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultural features, management practice, environmental sustainability, and economic profitability of smallholder cacao\\u000a (Theobroma cacao)production in West and Central Africa are reviewed. The aim is tohighlight factors affecting the cacao production and marketing\\u000a sectorand to propose appropriate strategies to ensure sustainable and profitable cacao production in the region. The cacao\\u000a cultivation system causes minimum damage to soil resources. In terms

B. Duguma; J. Gockowski; J. Bakala

2001-01-01

101

Biotechnology and Agroforestry in Indian Arid Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agroforestry evolved with agriculture to make the best use of the land and to maintain equilibrium between man, land, livestock\\u000a and plants. In recent years, agroforestry has been developed as an autonomous science that can help farmers to increase profitability\\u000a and land sustainability. Tree growing in combination with agriculture, including individual farms, watersheds and regional\\u000a landscape can be integrated to

Varsha Sharma; Shaily Goyal; K. G. Ramawat

102

Impacts of Public Policies and Farmer Preferences on Agroforestry Practices in Kerala, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.

Guillerme, S.; Kumar, B. M.; Menon, A.; Hinnewinkel, C.; Maire, E.; Santhoshkumar, A. V.

2011-08-01

103

School as Parkland: Re-Storying the Story of Cochrane School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The narrative inquiry reported in this study offers a partial view of Cochrane Academy's nuanced landscape. This article elaborates a theoretical frame, then uses different story perspectives to survey Cochrane's professional knowledge landscape over time. It relates what currently is Cochrane Academy to parkland landscape, and it discusses the…

Craig, Cheryl J.

2007-01-01

104

Effects of climate change and land use on duck abundance in Canadian prairie-parklands  

SciTech Connect

Recent declines in breeding ducks in the Canadian prairie-parklands may be due to loss of habitat to agriculture. However, prairie-parkland also has experienced wetland loss to drought as well as to agriculture. For sucessful habitat restoration, it is important to separate the effects of anthropogenic changes to the landscape from those caused by changes in climate. The researchers used data from annual air-ground surveys and from precipitation records to develop relationships between indices of abundance of each of 10 species of ducks and indices of wetland conditions during 1955-1974. Average annual deficits within Canadian prairie-parkland over the period 1975-1989 were estimated at 1.2 x 10{sup 6} birds for both Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Northern Pintail (A. acuta), 480 000 for Blue-winged Teal (A. discors), 190 000 for American Wigeon (A. americana), 175 000 for Northern Shoveler (A. clypeata), 50 000 for Gadwall (A. strepera), 10 000 for Green-winged Teal (A. crecca), 40 000 for Canvasback (Aythya valisineria), 25 000 for Lesser Scaup (A. affinis), and 5000 for Redhead (A. americana). The effect of agricultural expansion in the east on prime waterfowl habitat since 1951 appears to have been negligible. There, as much as 90% had been already lost prior to 1951. In the west, however, where prime waterfowl habitat was still relatively abundant in 1951, agricultural development has encroached substantially. The relationship between the lost area of the best breeding habitats and the size of population deficits for Mallards and Northern Pintails in the entire Canadian prairie-parkland region was significant for both species (P < 0.0027 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Consequently, habitat restoration programs located where the highest quality waterfowl habitat and the lowest quality agricultural lands overlap most should have the greatest potential to affect recovery of breeding duck populations in the Canadian prairie-parklands. 39 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Bethke, R.W.; Nudds, T.D. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

1995-08-01

105

Forest management and agroforestry to sequester and conserve atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Global Change Research Program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), an assessment was initiated in 1990 to evaluate forest establishment and management options to sequester carbon and reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Three specific objectives are to: identify site-suitable technologies and practices that could be utilized to manage forests and agroforestry systems to sequester and conserve carbon; assess available data on site-level costs of promising forest and agroforestry management practices; evaluate estimates of technically suitable land in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets.

Schriwder, P.E.; Dixon, R.K.; Winjum, J.K.

1993-01-01

106

Litter fall, litter stocks and decomposition rates in rainforest and agroforestry sites in central Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of agroforestry systems in Amazonia was assessed from their litter dynamics and decomposition. Litter fall and litter stocks were determined from July 1997 to March 1999 in four sites in central Amazonia: a primary rainforest, a 13-year-old secondary forest, and two sites of a polyculture forestry system which consisted of four planted tree species of commercial use amidst

Christopher Martius; Hubert Höfer; Marcos V. B. Garcia; Jörg Römbke; Werner Hanagarth

2004-01-01

107

Incorporating agroforestry approaches into commodity value chains.  

PubMed

The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach. PMID:21556936

Millard, Edward

2011-05-10

108

Traditional tree crop based agroforestry in coffee producing areas of Harerge, Eastern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary survey of seven coffee producing Awrajas (Provinces) in eastern Ethiopia revealed that there is a traditional tree crop based agroforestry system being practised by the farmers. Coffee (C. arabica) was found to grow under the shade of several trees, 16 species, usually intercropped by one or several, a total of 15, important grain, fruit, vegetable, stimulant, oil-seed and

D. Teketay; A. Tegineh

1991-01-01

109

Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize…

Zschocke, Thomas

2012-01-01

110

An evaluation of the Acacia albida -based agroforestry practices in the Hararghe highlands of Eastern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing Acacia albida as a permanent tree crop, on farmlands with cereals, vegetables and coffee underneath or in between, is an indigenous agroforestry system in the Hararghe highlands of Eastern Ethiopia. However, there is practically no systematic record or data on the merits and benefits of this practice.

Peter Poschen

1986-01-01

111

Assessing Local Knowledge Use in Agroforestry Management with Cognitive Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 ± 3 variables and 19 ± 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

Isaac, Marney E.; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

2009-06-01

112

Agroforestry and the Maintenance of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Agroforestry is a land-use method that allows trees to grow in crop and livestock areas. Studies have shown that it is one way to conserve biodiversity, attracts species beneficial to farming, such as pollinators, improves farms by, for example, reducing soil erosion and is economically beneficial to farmers.

Peter Bichier (Migratory Bird Center of the Smithsonian National Zoological Park;)

2006-05-01

113

Can joint carbon and biodiversity management in tropical agroforestry landscapes be optimized?  

PubMed

Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential 'win-win' scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi, Indonesia, ranging from natural rainforest to cacao agroforests that have replaced former natural forest. The conversion of natural forests with carbon stocks of 227-362 Mg C ha(-1) to agroforests with 82-211 Mg C ha(-1) showed no relationships to overall biodiversity but led to a significant loss of forest-related species richness. We conclude that the conservation of the forest-related biodiversity, and to a lesser degree of carbon stocks, mainly depends on the preservation of natural forest habitats. In the three most carbon-rich agroforestry systems, carbon stocks were about 60% of those of natural forest, suggesting that 1.6 ha of optimally managed agroforest can contribute to the conservation of carbon stocks as much as 1 ha of natural forest. However, agroforestry systems had comparatively low biodiversity, and we found no evidence for a tight link between carbon storage and biodiversity. Yet, potential win-win agroforestry management solutions include combining high shade-tree quality which favours biodiversity with cacao-yield adapted shade levels. PMID:23077569

Kessler, Michael; Hertel, Dietrich; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Kluge, Jürgen; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Bos, Merijn; Buchori, Damayanti; Gerold, Gerhard; Gradstein, S Robbert; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Moser, Gerald; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Saleh, Shahabuddin; Schulze, Christian H; Sporn, Simone G; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S; Tscharntke, Teja

2012-10-15

114

Parkland and Golf Course Management: Managing Wildlife Habitat on Public Open Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses methods for managing parkland and golf courses in a wildlife-friendly manner. The article contains a number of practical tips for managing parks and golf courses, and covers such topics as lawn size, the use of native plants, and eco-friendly turf-grass management. The piece was authored by Amanda D. Rodewald Ph.D. of the School of Natural Resources at Ohio State University. Anyone in the Turf or Golf Management industry with a desire to improve the environmental consequences will find this article very useful.

Rodewald, Amanda D.

2006-12-04

115

Engaging in School-Led Multisectoral Collaboration: Implications to Agroforestry Promotion in the Philippine Uplands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Agroforestry Support Program for Empowering Communities Towards Self-Reliance (ASPECTS) was conceived to develop a model of two-stage approach in agroforestry promotion by capacitating the upland communities to establish community-managed agroforestry extension services, while strengthening the agroforestry education programs of the three…

Landicho, Leila D.; Cabahug, Rowena D.; De Luna, Catherine C.

2009-01-01

116

Agroforestry research for development in India: 25 years of experiences of a national program  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has been in the forefront of agroforestry research ever since organized research in agroforestry started worldwide about\\u000a 25 years ago. Considering the country's unique land-use, demographic, political, and sociocultural characteristics as well\\u000a as its strong record in agricultural and forestry research, India's experience in agroforestry research is important to agroforestry\\u000a development, especially in developing nations. Agroforestry has received much

S. Puri; P. K. R. Nair

2004-01-01

117

Agroforestry in the management of sloping lands in Asia and the Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steeply sloping lands are widespread in the tropics. An estimated 500 million people practice subsistence agriculture in these\\u000a marginal areas. Continued population growth has led to the intensified cultivation of large areas of the sloping lands, exacerbating\\u000a the problem of soil erosion. Although research shows that alley cropping and other contour agroforestry systems can stabilize\\u000a the sloping lands, these systems

E. T. Craswell; A. Sajjapongse; D. J. B. Howlett; A. J. Dowling

1997-01-01

118

Nature vs. nurture: managing relationships between forests, agroforestry and wild biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many agroforestry systems are found in places that otherwise would be appropriate for natural forests, and often have replaced\\u000a them. Humans have had a profound influence on forests virtually everywhere they both are found. Thus ‘natural’ defined as\\u000a ‘without human influence’ is a hypothetical construct, though one that has assumed mythological value among many conservationists.\\u000a Biodiversity is a forest value

J. A. McNeely

2004-01-01

119

Agroforestry associating coffee and Inga densiflora results in complementarity for water uptake and decreases deep drainage in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shade impact by Inga densiflora on water use and drainage in a coffee agroforestry system (AFS) was compared to coffee monoculture (MC) in Costa Rica. Rainfall interception, transpiration, runoff and soil water content were monitored during 3 years. Runoff was lower in AFS than MC (5.4 and 8.4% of total rainfall, respectively) and a higher water infiltration was observed

P. Cannavo; J. Sansoulet; J.-M. Harmand; P. Siles; E. Dreyer; P. Vaast

2011-01-01

120

Agroforestry-working trees for sequestering carbon on ag-lands  

Treesearch

Southern Research Station ... Reasons for this include the limited information base and tools agroforestry can currently offer compared to ... Enhanced communication of agroforestry's carbon cobenefit, as well as the other benefits afforded by ...

121

Food-Web Relations of the Horned Grebe ( Podiceps auritus ) on Constructed Ponds in the Peace Parkland, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borrow-pit constructed ponds, formed during road building, are common along highways that run through the Peace Parkland,\\u000a Alberta, Canada, providing habitat for a variety of aquatic birds. The horned grebe (Podiceps auritus) is a migratory diving bird that is in decline, likely due to native habitat destruction; however, it readily nests on roadside\\u000a borrow pits. We conducted stable isotope analysis

Eva C. Kuczynski; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

2010-01-01

122

Agroforestry for soil and water conservation in the western Himalayan Valley Region of India 2. Crop and tree production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ten-year-study (1983 to 1992) conducted on nine 15 90 m runoff plots at 4% slope compared production efficiency of Leucaena\\u000a leucocephala and Eucalyptus hybrid based agroforestry as well as monocropping landuse systems in the warm, subhumid climate\\u000a of the western Himalayan region of India. Treatments for the first sequence were: monocropping systems of leucaena, eucalyptus,\\u000a Chrysopogon fulvus grass and

Pratap Narain; R. K. Singh; N. S. Sindhwal; P. Joshie

1997-01-01

123

Effects of terracing and agroforestry on soil and water loss in hilly areas of the Sichuan Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil erosion in hilly areas of the Sichuan Basin is a serious concern over sustainable crop production and sound ecosystem.\\u000a A 3-year experiment was conducted using the method of runoff plots to examine the effects of terracing and agroforestry in\\u000a farmland systems on soil and water conservation of slope fields in the hilly areas in Jianyang County, Sichuan Province, Southwestern

J. H. Zhang; Z. A. Su; G. C. Liu

2008-01-01

124

Decomposition and nutrient release from pruning residues of two indigenous agroforestry species during the wet and dry seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decomposition of leaves from Cordia africana Lam. and Albizia gummifera G. F.Gmel was investigated during the wet and dry seasons at Wondo Genet (Ethiopia). Litterbags of leaves were buried in\\u000a soils under farmland and shaded-coffee agroforestry systems. Residual matter was recovered after 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks and\\u000a analysed for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), cellulose, lignin, soluble

Tesfay Teklay

2007-01-01

125

Nutritional and anti-nutritional characters and rumen degradability of dry matter and nitrogen for some multipurpose tree species with potential for agroforestry in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a preliminary study on the nutritional value of seven multipurpose trees (MPTs), currently showing potential use in agroforestry systems in Zimbabwe, crude protein values ranged from 189 g kg?1 DM in Flemingia macrophylla to 292 g kg?1 DM in Acacia angustissima. Acid detergent fibre (ADF) content was low especially in Sesbania sesban (99 g kg?1 DM), while ADF contents

B. H. Dzowela; L. Hove; J. H. Topps; P. L. Mafongoya

1995-01-01

126

People, Trees, and Parks: Is Agroforestry In or Out?  

Microsoft Academic Search

New conservation approaches challenge us to go beyond parks and protected areas to conservation in a matrix of land uses. Promoting the use of trees and woody species in landscapes and on farms is a frequently used but under-studied aspect of this approach. This article synthesizes recent field research at six sites in Africa on agroforestry in and around protected

Diane Russell; Rebecca A. Asare; J. Peter Brosius; Rebecca C. Witter; Meredith L. Welch-Devine; Kirsten Spainhower; Robin Barr

2010-01-01

127

Agroforestry education and training activities at the University of Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interdisciplinary program in agroforestry was established at the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Science in 1987 in response to the growing interest in the subject among students and faculty members from different units of the university. It is now an internationally recognized center for education, training, and research in the subject. Pursuant to the overwhelming student

P. K. R. Nair; C. R. Latt

1994-01-01

128

Contribution of agroforestry trees to nutrient requirements of intercropped plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major tenet of agroforestry, that trees maintain soil fertility, is based primarily on observations of higher crop yields near trees or where trees were previously grown. Recently objective analyses and controlled experiments have addressed this topic. This paper examines the issues of tree prunings containing sufficient nutrients to meet crop demands, the timing of nutrient transfer from decomposition to

C. A. Palm

1995-01-01

129

Inpang Carbon Bank in Northeast Thailand: A Community Effort in Carbon Trading from Agroforestry Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Carbon (C) is a new commodity that is now traded in financial markets and there is potential for farmers adopting agroforestry\\u000a to sell C in addition to traditional timber and non-timber agroforestry commodities. Implementing agroforestry C offset projects\\u000a is a challenging task, however, and it requires new, market-approved, C accounting methods that reduce transaction costs.\\u000a This paper describes the Inpang

Jay H. Samek; David L. Skole; Chetphong Butthep; Charlie Navanugraha; Pornchai Uttaruk; Teerawong Laosuwan

130

The use and value of multiple methods to capture the diversity of endogenous agroforestry knowledge: an example from Rwanda  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand endogenous agroforestry knowledge and the processes behind the generation of such knowledge, multiple methods are needed. In this paper, the identification and characterization of farmer agroforestry experts will illustrate the necessity of multiple methods. Nonformal, participatory methods were employed to identify the research subjects (farmer agroforestry experts) and to gain insights into the emic conception and understanding of

C. Den Biggelaar; M. A. Gold

1995-01-01

131

Climate change: linking adaptation and mitigation through agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is the human enterprise that is most vulnerable to climate change. Tropical agriculture, particularly subsistence\\u000a agriculture is particularly vulnerable, as smallholder farmers do not have adequate resources to adapt to climate change.\\u000a While agroforestry may play a significant role in mitigating the atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG), it also\\u000a has a role to play in helping smallholder farmers

Louis V. Verchot; Meine Van Noordwijk; Serigne Kandji; Tom Tomich; Chin Ong; Alain Albrecht; Jens Mackensen; Cynthia Bantilan; K. V. Anupama; Cheryl Palm

2007-01-01

132

Assessing Local Knowledge Use in Agroforestry Management with Cognitive Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production.\\u000a In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm\\u000a development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework\\u000a to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators

Marney E. Isaac; Evans Dawoe; Krystyna Sieciechowicz

2009-01-01

133

Economic factors in farmer adoption of agroforestry: Patterns observed in Western Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of agroforestry adoption by 3,000 project participants in Siaya and South Nyanza Districts in Kenya supports three hypotheses. 1.(1) Historical increases in tree domestication and management intensity are responses to declining supply of uncultivated tree resources, increased subsistence and commercial demand for tree products, and perceived risks of ecological degradation. Adoption of agroforestry is most likely where consistent

Sara J. Scherr

1995-01-01

134

PARTICIPATORY ASSESSMENT OF FARMERS' EXPERIENCES OF TERMITE PROBLEMS IN AGROFORESTRY IN TORORO DISTRICT, UGANDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

As agroforestry technologies are developed and promoted, there is a need to integrate indigenous knowledge about pest identification and management techniques into the scaling-up process in order to improve farmers' pest management practices. This paper documents farmers' knowledge, perceptions and management practices against termites in agroforestry in Tororo District, Uganda. The applicability and implications of such information in the development

Philip Nyeko; Florence M. Olubayo

135

Field Note: Standard Web Application for Information Exchange on Agroforestry in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Agroforestry (AF)/forestry is no longer an isolated field, with so many developmental activities having links with this sector, and thus the information required to be handled by the researchers all over the world has increased exponentially. This article discusses a website that was developed by the National Research Centre for Agroforestry

Ajit; Nighat Jabeen; Handa, A. K.; Uma

2008-01-01

136

Field Note: Standard Web Application for Information Exchange on Agroforestry in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agroforestry (AF)/forestry is no longer an isolated field, with so many developmental activities having links with this sector, and thus the information required to be handled by the researchers all over the world has increased exponentially. This article discusses a website that was developed by the National Research Centre for Agroforestry

Ajit; Nighat Jabeen; Handa, A. K.; Uma

2008-01-01

137

Production of bioenergy on small farms: a two-year agroforestry experiment using Eucalyptus urophylla intercropped with rice and beans in Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  Agroforestry systems using Eucalyptus for biomass production are important alternatives for small farms in the southeast of Brazil because they integrate timber\\u000a and food production while reducing the environmental impact of large plantations. In this article, I studied the intercropping\\u000a of Eucalyptus urophylla with rice and beans for two years to compare yields using intercropping versus monocultures. During the first

Eliane Ceccon

2008-01-01

138

Decomposition and nutrient release patterns of the leaf biomass of the wild sunflower ( Tithonia diversifolia ): a comparative study with four leguminous agroforestry species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection and use of appropriate plant materials to maintain a sufficiently high nutrient supply to meet crop needs remains\\u000a a major challenge of nutrient management under low input systems. Therefore, research on plant biomass quality as it relates\\u000a to decomposition and nutrient release has become imperative. This research was conducted at the Agroforestry Research Station\\u000a of the Kwame Nkrumah

S. T. Partey; S. J. Quashie-Sam; N. V. Thevathasan; A. M. Gordon

2011-01-01

139

Mitigation Potential and Cost in Tropical Forestry- Relative Role for Agroforestry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (...

W. R. Makundi J. A. Sathaye

2004-01-01

140

Non-operator landowner interest in agroforestry practices in two Missouri watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land tenure has long been considered a critical factor in determining the adoption and long-term maintenance of agroforestry\\u000a practices. Empirical evidence from non-US settings has consistently shown that secure land tenure is positively associated\\u000a with agroforestry adoption. In the US, over 40% of private agricultural land is farmed by someone other than the owner. Given\\u000a the importance of land tenure

J. Gordon Arbuckle; Corinne Valdivia; Andrew Raedeke; John Green; J. Sanford Rikoon

2009-01-01

141

ECOFARMING AND AGROFORESTRY FOR SELF-RELIANCE: Small-scale, Sustainable Growing Practices in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry concepts are applicable to both small-scale (family farm) and microscale (e.g., home garden) cultivation. However, there is little research on the relevance of gardening practices in temperate zones to agroforestry and vice versa. In Russia, microscale ecofarming is an extremely widespread, time-tested practice. Despite the minuscule size (600 m2) of individual plots and absence of machinery, cultivators have demonstrated

Leonid Sharashkin; Michael Gold; Elizabeth Barham

142

Disentangling herbivore impacts on Populus tremuloides: a comparison of native ungulates and cattle in Canada's Aspen Parkland.  

PubMed

Ungulates impact woody species' growth and abundance but little is understood about the comparative impacts of different ungulate species on forest expansion in savanna environments. Replacement of native herbivore guilds with livestock [i.e., beef cattle (Bos taurus)] has been hypothesized as a factor facilitating trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) encroachment into grasslands of the Northern Great Plains. We used a controlled herbivory study in the Parklands of western Canada to compare the impact of native ungulates and cattle on aspen saplings. Native ungulate treatments included a mixed species guild and sequences of herbivory by different ungulates [bison (Bison bison subsp. bison), elk (Cervus elaphus) then deer (Odocoileus hemionus); or deer, elk, then bison]. Herbivory treatments were replicated in three pastures, within which sets of 40 marked aspen saplings (<1.8 m) were tracked along permanent transects at 2-week intervals, and compared to a non-grazed aspen stand. Stems were assessed for mortality and incremental damage (herbivory, leader breakage, stem abrasion and trampling). Final mortality was greater with exposure to any type of herbivore, but remained similar between ungulate treatments. However, among all treatments, the growth of aspen was highest with exposure only to cattle. Herbivory of aspen was attributed primarily to elk within the native ungulate treatments, with other forms of physical damage, and ultimately sapling mortality, associated with exposure to bison. Overall, these results indicate that native ungulates, specifically elk and bison, have more negative impacts on aspen saplings and provide evidence that native and domestic ungulates can have different functional effects on woody plant dynamics in savanna ecosystems. PMID:23649757

Bork, Edward W; Carlyle, Cameron N; Cahill, James F; Haddow, Rae E; Hudson, Robert J

2013-05-07

143

Economic evaluation of financial and non-financial costs and benefits in agroforestry development and the value of sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial appraisal of agroforestry is not different in kind from appraisals applied to pure forestry. Existing techniques for valuing non-market effects may also be applied. Effects on hydrological and carbon fluxes might be less favourable than those of pure forests. In the confusing field of biodiversity valuation too, only limited and specific claims can be made for agroforestry. Amenity valuation

C. Price; Gwynedd LL

1995-01-01

144

Farmers, the Practice of Farming and the Future of Agroforestry: An Application of Bourdieu's Concepts of Field and Habitus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Agroforestry, the practice of raising crops and trees together in ways that are mutually beneficial, provides farmers with an alternative to more conventional farming practices. In this paper, we apply Bourdieu's concepts of "field" and "habitus" in an attempt to better understand the practice of farming and the role that agroforestry may have in…

Raedeke, Andrew H.; Green, John J.; Hodge, Sandra S.; Valdivia, Corinne

2003-01-01

145

Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment of Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a NS coefficient equal to 0.80, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2=0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2=0.49) and water table level (R2=0.90). An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow, 25% as evapotranspiration and the remaining 11% was attributed to deep percolation. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 5% and an infiltration component of 91%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 63% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 29% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 8% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Moussa, R.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Voltz, M.; Imbach, P.; Harmand, J. M.

2010-05-01

146

Ecological Impacts of Ashe Juniper on Subtropical Savanna Parklands and Woodlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Savannas are inherently patchy systems where the distribution and abundance of the two dominant plant growth forms (woody\\u000a plants and grasses) varies greatly over space and time in response to grazing, browsing, fire, drought, and topographic\\/ edaphic\\u000a factors (Huntley and Walker 1982; Scholes and Archer 1997). In recent times, the balance between woody plants and grasses\\u000a has been disrupted in

Paul W. Barnes; Suh-Yuen Liang; Kirk E. Jessup; Patricia A. Ramirez; Lana E. D'Souza; Kristine G. Elliott; Patricia L. Phillips

147

Taxonomic diversity of bacteria associated with the roots of field-grown transgenic Brassica napus cv. Quest, compared to the non-transgenic B. napus cv. Excel and B. rapa cv. Parkland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and diversity of the bacterial community associated with plant roots is influenced by a variety of plant factors such as root density and exudation. In turn, these factors are influenced by plant breeding programs. This study assessed the diversity of root-endophytic and rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with three canola cultivars (Parkland, Brassica rapa; Excel, B. napus; and Quest,

S. D Siciliano; J. J Germida

1999-01-01

148

Immature mosquitoes associated with urban parklands: implications for water and mosquito management.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to compare 2 urban habitat types: pools artificially filled with water from damaged or leaking water pipes (AF) and pools naturally filled by rainwater (NF), with regard to their favorability as breeding sites for mosquitoes. Two study areas were analyzed, 1 for 5 months and the other for 9 months, covering the whole period when AF pools contained water. The AF pools held water during the entire study, and showed lower fluctuations in surface area than NF pools. The AF pools showed higher levels of total mosquitoes and of stagnant-water mosquitoes. The floodwater mosquitoes were numerically (but not significantly) more abundant in NF pools. Nine mosquito species were identified. Habitat type, temperature, and season were significant in explaining the variability in species composition according to the canonical correspondence analysis. The most abundant species were Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (= Aedes albifasciatus, predominantly in NF pools), Culex dolosus, and Cx. pipiens (mainly in AF pools). The latter 2 species differed in their temporal dynamics, with Cx. dolosus associated with lower temperatures and Cx. pipiens with higher temperatures. Overall, the results indicate that although both habitat types harbored immature mosquitoes, the AF pools were more favorable than co-occurring rain pools. Easy-to-implement management actions such as the design of adequate drainage systems and the fast repair of broken pipes will be helpful to reduce the risk of human illness associated with mosquitoes in urban green areas. PMID:23687852

Quiroga, Laura; Fischer, Sylvia; Schweigmann, Nicolás

2013-03-01

149

DEM modelling, vegetation characterization and mapping of aspen parkland rangeland using LIDAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed geographic information system (GIS) studies on plant ecology, animal behavior and soil hydrologic characteristics across spatially complex landscapes require an accurate digital elevation model (DEM). Following interpolation of last return LIDAR data and creation of a LIDAR-derived DEM, a series of 260 points, stratified by vegetation type, slope gradient and off-nadir distance, were ground-truthed using a total laser station, GPS, and 27 interconnected benchmarks. Despite an overall mean accuracy of +2 cm across 8 vegetation types, it created a RMSE (square root of the mean square error) of 1.21 m. DEM elevations were over-estimated within forested areas by an average of 20 cm with a RMSE of 1.05 m, under-estimated (-12 cm, RMSE = 1.36 m) within grasslands. Vegetation type had the greatest influence on DEM accuracy, while off-nadir distance (P = 0.48) and slope gradient (P = 0.49) did not influence DEM accuracy; however, the latter factors did interact (P < 0.10) to effect accuracy. Vegetation spatial structure (i.e., physiognomy) including plant height, cover, and vertical or horizontal heterogeneity, are important factors influencing biodiversity. Vegetation over and understory were sampled for height, canopy cover, and tree or shrub density within 120 field plots, evenly stratified by vegetation formation (grassland, shrubland, and aspen forest). Results indicated that LIDAR data could be used for estimating the maximum height, cover, and density, of both closed and semi-open stands of aspen (P < 0.001). However, LIDAR data could not be used to assess understory (<1.5 m) height within aspen stands, nor grass height and cover. Recognition and mapping of vegetation types are important for rangelands as they provide a basis for the development and evaluation of management policies and actions. In this study, LIDAR data were found to be superior to digital classification schedules for their mapping accuracy in aspen forest and grassland, but not shrubland. No single classification schedule created a high classification accuracy map for all types; however, the integration of LIDAR data and digital images achieved maps with corresponding overall accuracies of 91% and 83.9% with 3 and 8 classes of vegetation.

Su, Guangquan

150

Relationship between land-use in the agro-forestry system of les Landes, nitrogen loading to and risk of macro-algal blooming in the Bassin d'Arcachon coastal lagoon (SW France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen loading to the Bassin d'Arcachon coastal lagoon (SW France) was evaluated by studying land-use and nitrogen output in its 3001 km2 catchment. At present, the catchment is dominated by forestry (79%), while intensive agriculture occupies 9% of the surface. The N-output of two hydrological subunits, i.e. the Tagon subunit dominated by pine forestry and the Arriou II subunit comprising both forestry and intensive agriculture, were monitored for a seven year period (1996 2002). From these observations it was calculated that forestry contributes on average 1.6 kg total N ha-1 yr-1, which is dominated by organic nitrogen (DON + PON are 70% of N). On an areal basis, intensive agriculture contributes 26 times more than forestry, i.e. 41.6 kg total N ha-1 yr-1, which is mainly in the form of nitrate (65% of N). These data were upscaled to the catchment and the upscaling was validated by comparison to gauged nitrogen throughputs for the catchment of the Leyre river that is the major tributary to the system. Taking into account the other known N sources and the interannual variability in the catchment it was estimated that nitrogen loading to the lagoon was on average 90 kg ha-1 yr-1 (range from 54 to 126 kg ha-1 yr-1). The sandy soils of the catchment have a clear potential for denitrification, but anoxic conditions (waterlogged) and input of organic matter to fuel this process are required. Currently, agricultural practices and spatial planning do not make use of this potential. Nitrogen loading in the Bassin d'Arcachon is reflected by 10 40 ?M nitrate concentrations in winter, which became depleted during spring as a result of uptake by vegetation. Short-term uptake experiments showed that the macroalga Monostroma obscurum is well adapted to temperatures between 10 to 20 °C and competitive with respect to the seagrass Zostera noltii when the nitrate concentrations are above 10 ?M. Spring conditions with high nitrate and high insolation are therefore favourable for M. obscurum and this species presents a high risk for algal blooming. In contrast, the macroalga Enteromorpha clathrata well adapted to summertime temperatures around 25 °C, forms occasionally blooms in the lagoon. This phenomenon is limited due to the low DIN concentrations in summer.

de Wit, R.; Leibreich, J.; Vernier, F.; Delmas, F.; Beuffe, H.; Maison, Ph.; Chossat, J.-C.; Laplace-Treyture, C.; Laplana, R.; Clavé, V.; Torre, M.; Auby, I.; Trut, G.; Maurer, D.; Capdeville, P.

2005-02-01

151

Barriers and Coping Mechanisms Relating to Agroforestry Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe. Design/Methodology/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations. Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional…

Chitakira, Munyaradzi; Torquebiau, Emmanuel

2010-01-01

152

ICE DAMAGE IN A CHRONOSEQUENCE OF AGROFORESTRY PINE PLANTATIONS IN ARKANSAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acute (broken and leaning) and transient (bending) damage to loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were assessed in a case study of experimental agroforestry plantations following a December 2000 ice storm. Stand ages were 7-, 9-, and 17-years-old and tree density ranged from 150 to 3,360 trees ha-1 in re...

153

Factors Affecting Agroforestry Sustainability in Bee Endemic Parts of Southeastern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts, in an exploratory manner, to identify the various ways in which unsustainable beekeeping and honey hunting practices result in the loss of important multi-purpose agroforestry tree species in bee endemic parts of Southeastern Nigeria. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches (Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA), community fora, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and semi-structured interview schedules) were used

Chukwuemeka U. Okoye; Agwu E. Agwu

2008-01-01

154

VARIATIONS IN SOIL AGGREGATE STABILITY AND ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN A TEMPERATE AGROFORESTRY PRACTICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry and grass buffers have been shown to improve soil properties and overall environmental quality. The objective of this study was to examine management and landscape effects on water stable soil aggregates (WSA), soil carbon, soil nitrogen, enzyme activity, and microbial community DNA co...

155

Farmers’ perceptions of tree mortality, pests and pest management practices in agroforestry in Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest management research within the context of agroforestry is in its infancy, and it is often difficult to say when a particular\\u000a pest justifies investment in research to establish facts. Understanding the potentials and drawbacks of farmers’ indigenous\\u000a ecological knowledge (ethnoecology) may form the basis for constructive collaboration between farmers, agroforestry scientists\\u000a and extension staff. Therefore, the objectives of the

Gudeta Weldesemayat Sileshi; Elias Kuntashula; Patrick Matakala; Philip O. Nkunika

2008-01-01

156

Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment for Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficient equal to 0.89 for the year 2009, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2 = 0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2 = 0.35) and water table level (R2 = 0.84). Eight months of data from 2010 were used to validate modelled streamflow, resulting in a NS = 0.75. An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow and 25% as evapotranspiration, while the remaining 11% is probably explained by deep percolation, measurement errors and/or inter-annual changes in soil and aquifer water stocks. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 4% and an infiltration component of 92%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 87% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 7% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 6% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Harmand, J. M.; Voltz, M.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Imbach, P.; Moussa, R.

2011-01-01

157

Review of Oxaliplatin Billing at Parkland Health and Hospital System for the Period January 1 Through December 31, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pursuant to Title XVIII of the Social Security Act, the Medicare program provides health insurance for people age 65 and over and those who are disabled or have permanent kidney disease. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997, P.L. No. 105-33, authorized the imp...

2010-01-01

158

The Policy Terrain in Protected Area Landscapes: Challenges for Agroforestry in Integrated Landscape Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated ecosystem and landscape approaches to conservation are moving from concept to practice in many parts of the developing\\u000a world. Agroforestry – the deliberate management of trees on farms and in agricultural landscapes – is emerging as one of the\\u000a most promising approaches to enhance and stabilize rural livelihoods, while reducing pressure on protected areas, enhancing\\u000a habitat for some wild

Rebecca Ashley; Diane Russell; Brent Swallow

2006-01-01

159

Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

2004-01-01

160

The Socioeconomic Context of Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry: A Case Study from Homegardens of Kerala, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While the biological and ecological role of agroforestry (AF) on climate change mitigation has received considerable research\\u000a attention lately, the role of socio-psychological factors in this context has been left largely unexplored. Socio-psychological\\u000a variables such as culture, demography, economy, and social values play important roles in farmers’ decision making with the\\u000a land management, which in turn influence the ability of

Subhrajit K. Saha; Taylor V. Stein; P. K. Ramachandran Nair; Michael G. Andreu

161

Local and landscape factors determine functional bird diversity in Indonesian cacao agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale intensification of smallholder cacao management is currently affecting the agroforestry landscapes of Sulawesi (Indonesia), the world’s third largest cacao producer. Little is known about how this shift from diverse plantations to full-sun cacao will affect functionally important biodiversity within the agroecosystem, and how this is related to landscape-wide patterns in land-use and natural ecosystems. We recorded birds in 43

Yann Clough; Dadang Dwi Putra; Ramadhanil Pitopang; Teja Tscharntke

2009-01-01

162

Agroforestry as an approach to minimizing nutrient loss from heavily fertilized soils: The Florida experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient buildup in the soil caused by increased animal manure and fertilizer use in agricultural and forestry practices may\\u000a increase the potential for their loss from the soil, leading to groundwater contamination and nonpoint source pollution. Studies\\u000a in the tropics have suggested that agroforestry practices can reduce such nutrient (especially nitrogen) losses because of\\u000a enhanced nutrient uptake by tree and

V. D. Nair; D. A. Graetz

2004-01-01

163

Nutritive quality and morphological development under partial shade of some forage species with agroforestry potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shade environment produced in agroforestry practices affects the morphology, anatomy and chemical composition of intercropped\\u000a forages and, therefore, may affect forage quality. During the summer-fall growing season of 1994 and 1995, 30 forage cultivars\\u000a were grown in 7.6 L (two gallon) pots in full sun, 50%, and 80% shade created by placing shade cloth over a greenhouse frame.\\u000a Fifteen

C. H. Lin; M. L. McGraw; M. F. George; H. E. Garrett

2001-01-01

164

Propagation of trembling aspen and hybrid poplar for agroforestry: potential benefits of elevated CO 2 in the greenhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the usefulness of elevated CO2 in the greenhouse to aid in early selection of genotypes and in the propagation of Populus tremuloides Michaux (aspen) and hybrid poplars for agroforestry, afforestation, or reclamation. Growth in elevated (800 ppm) vs ambient (375 ppm) CO2 for 95 days resulted in greater height (14%), stem caliper (16%), overall biomass, and proportional allocation

Kendall A. Tupker; Barb R. Thomas; S. Ellen Macdonald

2003-01-01

165

The role of agroforestry in industrialized nations: the southern hemisphere perspective with special emphasis on Australia and New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry in Australia and New Zealand is dominated by silvopastoralism. Farmers may employ combinations of shelterbelts, shade trees, widely spaced trees over pasture, or more densely planted woodlots. In addition to wood production and shelter, erosion control, amenity and landscape planting, and conservation of natural forest are often important. Many farm forestry people show considerable innovation.In temperate wetter areas of

D. J. Mead

1995-01-01

166

Changes in soil nitrogen storage and ?15N with woody plant encroachment in a subtropical savanna parkland landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subtropical woodlands dominated by N-fixing tree legumes have largely replaced grasslands in the Rio Grande Plains, southwestern United States, during the past century. To evaluate the impact of this vegetation change on the N cycle, we measured the mass and isotopic composition (?15N) of N in the soil system of remnant grasslands and woody plant stands ranging in age from

T. W. Boutton; J. D. Liao

2010-01-01

167

Changes in soil nitrogen storage and ?15N with woody plant encroachment in a subtropical savanna parkland landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subtropical woodlands dominated by N-fixing tree legumes have largely replaced grasslands in the Rio Grande Plains, southwestern United States, during the past century. To evaluate the impact of this vegetation change on the N cycle, we measured the mass and isotopic composition (?15N) of N in the soil system of remnant grasslands and woody plant stands ranging in age from 10 to 130 years. Nitrogen accumulated at linear rates following woody encroachment in the litter (0.10-0.14 g N m-2 yr-1), roots (0.63-0.98 g N m-2 yr-1), and soils (0.75-3.50 g N m-2 yr-1), resulting in a 50%-150% increase in N storage in the soil system (0-30 cm) in woody stands older than 60 years. Simultaneous decreases in soil ?15N of up to 2‰ in the upper 30 cm of the profile are consistent with a scenario in which N inputs have exceeded losses following woody encroachment and suggest N accrual was derived from symbiotic N fixation by tree legumes and/or differential atmospheric N deposition to wooded areas. Vertical uplift and lateral transfer of N by the more deeply and intensively rooted woody plants may have contributed to N accumulation in wooded areas, but soil ?15N values are inconsistent with this explanation. N accumulation following woody encroachment may alter soil N availability, species interactions and successional dynamics, flux rates of key trace gases such as NOX and N2O and ecosystem C sequestration. Given the geographic dimensions of woody encroachment, these results may have implications for atmospheric composition and the climate system.

Boutton, T. W.; Liao, J. D.

2010-09-01

168

Seeing beyond fertiliser trees : a case study of a community based participatory approach to agroforestry research and development in western Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key words: village committee approach, agroforestry, improved tree fallows, biomass transfer, realist evaluation, soil fertility, adoption, dissemination.<\\/i><\\/div>
 <\\/div>
The thesis explores and describes various processes that take place in the implementation of a community based participatory initiative known as the village committee approach by a collaborative agroforestry programme between the Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI)

E. Kiptot

2007-01-01

169

Tropical Forest Ecosystem and Agroforestry Management (Forest TEAM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Forest TEAM project seeks to reverse the decline of native forests and plants in Hawaii due to the introduction of alien plant species and other encroachments. They hope to reverse this trend by educating technicians in the management and regeneration of native ecosystems on the Hawaiian Islands. In order to accomplish this goal, Forest TEAM developed an associate of science degree program with 14 new courses. The curriculum includes the most current geographic information system and geographic positioning system technologies. Internships and service learning projects give students hands-on experience with potential employers, who serve on the project's advisory board. The college students also interact with high school students who take summer courses, participate in junior Forest TEAM club activities, and participate in field trips to help with reforestation projects. The site includes course requirements, a nice set of conservation links, an excellent set of web resources related to ecology (especially tropical and Hawaiian), information about program sponsors and the advisory board, as well as information on upcoming events and the Forest TEAM Club.

2008-07-24

170

Achieving food and nutritional security through agroforestry: a case of Faidherbia albida in sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faidherbia albida is an ideal agroforestry tree commonly intercropped with annual crops like millet and groundnuts in the dry and densely populated\\u000a areas of Africa. With its peculiar reverse phenology, it makes growth demands at a different time from that of crops. In addition,\\u000a it deposits great amount of organic fertilizer on food crops. Leaves entering soils are comparable to

Neo C. Mokgolodi; Moffat P. Setshogo; Ling-ling Shi; Yu-jun Liu; Chao Ma

2011-01-01

171

The Australian Master TreeGrower Program 1996-2004. Development, delivery and impact of a national agroforestry education program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Master TreeGrower Porgram is a comprehensive outreach and extension package that aims to ensure that the development of agroforestry is driven by the aspirations and opportunities of farmers and supported by the interests of industry, governments and community groups. By the end of 2004, sixty-three regional Master TreeGrower landholder education programs had been conducted involving over 1240 participants

Rowan Reid

172

Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In KhammamDistrict Of India  

SciTech Connect

Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.

Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

2007-06-01

173

Growth and yield of eight agroforestry tree species in line plantings in Western Kenya and their effect on maize yields and soil properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between October 1988 and August 1992, field experiments were carried out in West Kenya to evaluate the suitability of Leucaena leucocephala, L. collinsii, Gliricidia sepium, Calliandra calothyrsus, Sesbania sesban, S. grandiflora, Senna siamea and S. spectabilis to provide a range of agroforestry products and services. The initial objective was to establish the growth rates and wood and leaf yields of

A. M Heineman; H. J. O Otieno; E. K Mengich; B. A Amadalo

1997-01-01

174

The development of a farming systems model (APSIM) - a disciplined approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) is a mature and stable modelling framework used widely in Australia and elsewhere in the domain of farming systems research and extension. It is capable of simulating a diverse range of farming systems including broadacre dryland and irrigated cropping, small holder farming and on-farm agroforestry systems. This includes the interaction of trees and crops

Dean Holzworth; Holger Meinke; Peter DeVoil; Malcolm Wegener; Neil Huth; Graeme Hammer; Mark Howden; Michael Robertson; Peter Carberry; David Freebairn; Chris Murphy

175

The Influence of Agroforestry and Other Land-Use Types on the Persistence of a Sumatran Tiger ( Panthera tigris sumatrae) Population: An Individual-Based Model Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of preserving both protected areas and their surrounding landscapes as one of the major conservation strategies for tigers has received attention over recent decades. However, the mechanism of how land-use surrounding protected areas affects the dynamics of tiger populations is poorly understood. We developed Panthera Population Persistence (PPP)—an individual-based model—to investigate the potential mechanism of the Sumatran tiger population dynamics in a protected area and under different land-use scenarios surrounding the reserve. We tested three main landscape compositions (single, combined and real land-uses of Tesso-Nilo National Park and its surrounding area) on the probability of and time to extinction of the Sumatran tiger over 20 years in Central Sumatra. The model successfully explains the mechanisms behind the population response of tigers under different habitat landscape compositions. Feeding and mating behaviours of tigers are key factors, which determined population persistence in a heterogeneous landscape. All single land-use scenarios resulted in tiger extinction but had a different probability of extinction within 20 years. If tropical forest was combined with other land-use types, the probability of extinction was smaller. The presence of agroforesty and logging concessions adjacent to protected areas encouraged the survival of tiger populations. However, with the real land-use scenario of Tesso-Nilo National Park, tigers could not survive for more than 10 years. Promoting the practice of agroforestry systems surrounding the park is probably the most reasonable way to steer land-use surrounding the Tesso-Nilo National Park to support tiger conservation.

Imron, Muhammad Ali; Herzog, Sven; Berger, Uta

2011-08-01

176

The influence of agroforestry and other land-use types on the persistence of a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) population: an individual-based model approach.  

PubMed

The importance of preserving both protected areas and their surrounding landscapes as one of the major conservation strategies for tigers has received attention over recent decades. However, the mechanism of how land-use surrounding protected areas affects the dynamics of tiger populations is poorly understood. We developed Panthera Population Persistence (PPP)--an individual-based model--to investigate the potential mechanism of the Sumatran tiger population dynamics in a protected area and under different land-use scenarios surrounding the reserve. We tested three main landscape compositions (single, combined and real land-uses of Tesso-Nilo National Park and its surrounding area) on the probability of and time to extinction of the Sumatran tiger over 20 years in Central Sumatra. The model successfully explains the mechanisms behind the population response of tigers under different habitat landscape compositions. Feeding and mating behaviours of tigers are key factors, which determined population persistence in a heterogeneous landscape. All single land-use scenarios resulted in tiger extinction but had a different probability of extinction within 20 years. If tropical forest was combined with other land-use types, the probability of extinction was smaller. The presence of agroforesty and logging concessions adjacent to protected areas encouraged the survival of tiger populations. However, with the real land-use scenario of Tesso-Nilo National Park, tigers could not survive for more than 10 years. Promoting the practice of agroforestry systems surrounding the park is probably the most reasonable way to steer land-use surrounding the Tesso-Nilo National Park to support tiger conservation. PMID:20967444

Imron, Muhammad Ali; Herzog, Sven; Berger, Uta

2010-10-22

177

A review of tree fodder production and utilization within smallholder agroforestry systems in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the biological advantages in terms of animal production and improved soil fertility of the use of herbaceous legumes\\u000a have been well demonstrated in Kenya and elsewhere, adoption by small-scale farmers has often been disappointing. This has\\u000a led to increased research into the use of both indigenous and exotic fodder trees. In common with conventional pasture legumes,\\u000a tree fodders contain

G. M. Karanja; O. Z. Nyaata; I. W. Kariuki; R. L. Roothaert

1998-01-01

178

Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

179

Assessment of Soil Quality for Grazed Pastures with Agroforestry Buffers and Row Crop Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are believed to enhance soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates have been identified as good indices for assessing soil quality to evaluate early responses to changes in soil management. However, studies comparing these p...

180

Soil organic matter, microbial biomass and enzyme activities in a tropical agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of growing trees in combination with field crops on soil organic matter, microbial biomass C, basal respiration\\u000a and dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities were studied in soils under a 12-year-old Dalbergia sissoo (a N2-fixing tree) plantation intercropped with a wheat (Triticum aestivum) – cowpea (Vigna sinensis) cropping sequence. The inputs of organic matter through D. sissoo leaf litter

K. Chander; S. Goyal; D. P. Nandal; K. K. Kapoor

1998-01-01

181

Improved fodder tree management in the agroforestry systems of central and western Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten, three year old, fodder tree species were evaluated at four on-station and three on-farm sites in Nepal. Ficus semicordata (Buchattam. ex Sm.) growth was found to be significantly higher than the rest in diameter and dry foliage weight values. Species were significantly different in height, diameter, and foliage and wood growth. Sites were significantly different in total height growth

Karki

1992-01-01

182

Climate change and tree genetic resource management: maintaining and enhancing the productivity and value of smallholder tropical agroforestry landscapes. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic climate change has significant consequences for the sustainability and productivity of agroforestry ecosystems\\u000a upon which millions of smallholders in the tropics depend and that provide valuable global services. We here consider the\\u000a current state of knowledge of the impacts of climate change on tree genetic resources and implications for action in a smallholder\\u000a setting. Required measures to respond to

Ian K. Dawson; Barbara Vinceti; John C. Weber; Henry Neufeldt; Joanne Russell; Ard G. Lengkeek; Antoine Kalinganire; Roeland Kindt; Jens-Peter B. Lillesø; Jim Roshetko; Ramni Jamnadass

2011-01-01

183

Application of the pipe model theory to non-destructive estimation of leaf biomass and leaf area of pruned agroforestry trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of branch cross sectional area (CS) to leaf biomass (LM) and leaf area (LA) was studied in three agroforestry tree species,Calliandra calothyrsus Maissn.,Erythrina berteroana Urban andErythrina poeppigiana (Walpers) O.F. Cook, to develop a non-destructive method for the estimation of LM and LA for trees managed with periodic pruning. Variation in these relationships was observed according to the bifurcation

P. Nygren; S. Rebottaro; R. Chavarría

1993-01-01

184

Soil respiration and microbial biomass in a pecan — cotton alley cropping system in Southern USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available on soil respiration and microbial biomass in soils under agroforestry systems. We measured soil respiration rate and microbial biomass under two age classes (young and old) of a pecan (Carya illinoinensis) — cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) alley cropping system, two age classes of pecan orchards, and a cotton monoculture on a well-drained, Redbay sandy loam (a fine-loamy,

K.-H. Lee; S. Jose

2003-01-01

185

Characterization of nutrient transport below the root zone of a willow plantation irrigated with municipal waste water in the Boreal-Parkland transition zone, Alberta, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irrigation of willow and poplar species with municipal waste water offers municipalities a variety of opportunities including reduced energy and waste management costs and preservation of surface water quality. Municipal waste water contains various nutrients that are beneficial to plants such as nitrogen and phosphorus. The woody species reduce treatment costs by further removing many of these nutrients and potentially using the resulting biomass to fuel the facilities. Diversion of municipal waste water from rivers and water bodies improves water quality by reducing the amount of nutrients entering water bodies, decreasing pollution such as eutrophication. As found by many European countries, the bioenergy combined with waste water treatment approach is promising but there are environmental drawbacks including nutrient leaching to groundwater and degradation to soil hydraulic properties. Various nitrogen forms like nitrate are of concern due to impacts on human and environmental health, most notably methemoglobinemia in infants. The overall objective of this research is to assess ecosystem resilience and sustainability with repeated applications of municipal wastewater over the life cycle of a willow plantation. The specific objective of this presentation is to quantify nutrient transport below the root zone of a poplar plantation previously irrigated with municipal waste water under natural climatic conditions using soil solution samplers at 4 depths (50 cm, 90 cm, 120 cm and 150 cm). Meteorological data (precipitation, temperature, evaporimeter) was collected as well. Transport of conservative tracers, bromide and chloride, are compared to the transport of nutrients (nitrogen forms and DOC,). Parameterization of the measured breakthrough curves may be used to predict future nutrient fluxes. The goal of this research is to improve the design of municipal waste water subsurface irrigation systems by minimizing leaching and water losses.

Gainer, A. E.; Dyck, M. F.; Kachanoski, G.

2010-12-01

186

Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

187

FOREST MANAGEMENT AND AGROFORESTRY TO SEQUESTER AND CONSERVE ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Overall, the biological opportunity to conserve and sequester carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, especially in forest systems, appears significant. ith careful planning and implementation, management practices useful for this carbon benefit would appear to have potential to pro...

188

Environmental Services of Agroforestry in Southern Africa: Lessons, Challenges and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although traditional farming systems in southern Africa encompassed a remarkable agro- biodiversity, this has been eroded over time through national and international policies that promoted monocultures and chemical inputs. Such policies have served as disincentives for adoption of low-input agricultural practices. Deforestation, overgrazing and cultivation of land unsuitable for agriculture are increasing at an alarming rate. As a result land

G. Sileshi; P. W. Matakala; F. K. Akinnifesi; O. C. Ajayi

189

Traditional cocoa-based agroforestry and forest species conservation in Ondo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa agroforests are a common farming system in the humid zone of West and Central Africa, in which forest trees provide shade and other environmental services as well as marketable products. To determine the extent of these benefits, data were collected in nine cocoa farms located in three major cocoa producing local government areas (LGAs) in Ondo State. Reserved natural

D. O. Oke; K. A. Odebiyi

2007-01-01

190

Two-dimensional finite elements model for boron management in agroforestry sites.  

PubMed

Agroforesty systems, which are recommended as a management option to lower the shallow groundwater level and to reuse saline subsurface drainage waters from the tile-drained croplands in the drainage-impacted areas of Jan Joaquin Valley of California, have resulted in excessive boron buildup in the soil root zone. To assess the efficacy of the long-term impacts of soil boron buildup in agroforesty systems, a mathematical model was developed to simulate non-conservative boron transport. The developed dynamic two-dimensional finite element model simulates water flow and boron transport in saturated-unsaturated soil system, including boron sorption and boron uptake by root-water extraction processes. The simulation of two different observed field data sets by the developed model is satisfactory, with mean absolute error of 1.5 mg/L and relative error of 6.5%. Application of the model to three different soils shows that boron adsorption is higher in silt loam soil than that in sandy loam and clay loam soils. This result agrees with the laboratory experimental observations. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that boron uptake by root-water extraction process influences the boron concentration distribution along the root zone. Also, absorption coefficient and maximum adsorptive capacity of a soil for boron are found to be sensitive parameters. PMID:19184495

Tayfur, Gokmen; Tanji, Kenneth K; Baba, Alper

2010-01-01

191

Understanding an indigenous knowledge system for tree fodder via a multi-method on-farm research approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the dynamics of indigenous resource management systems can benefit natural resource development efforts and\\u000a contribute to effective on-farm agroforestry research initiatives. This paper reports on the authors' investigation of an\\u000a indigenous knowledge systems for the management, cultivation, and use of private tree fodder resources in a community in the\\u000a middle hills of Central Nepal. It focuses on the methods

Eric P. Rusten; Michael A. Gold

1991-01-01

192

Carbon Pools in Tree Biomass and Soils Under Rotational Woodlot Systems in Eastern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Landscape approaches to carbon (C) accounting in agriculture, forest, and other land uses are being promoted as a win-win\\u000a option for integrating climate change mitigation with sustainable rural development. However, limited data on the C sequestration\\u000a potential of agroforestry systems in the semiarid tropics imply that subsistent farmers may not fully benefit from this opportunity.\\u000a This chapter quantifies C stocks

A. A. Kimaro; M. E. Isaac; S. A. O. Chamshama

193

Above and below-ground biomass dynamics in a sole cropping and an alley cropping system with Gliricidia sepium in the semi-deciduous rainforest zone of West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable amount of data is available about above-ground biomass production and turnover in tropical agroforestry systems, but quantitative information concerning root turnover is lacking. Above- and below-ground biomass dynamics were studied during one year in an alley cropping system withGliricidia sepium and a sole cropping system, on aPlinthic Lixisol in the semi-deciduous rainforest zone of the Côte d'Ivoire. Field

G. Schroth; W. Zech

1995-01-01

194

Land quality changes following the conversion of the natural vegetation into silvo-pastoral systems in semi-arid NE Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of trees in grasslands frequently results in resource islands of higher soil quality. Therefore, some native\\u000a trees are often preserved or agroforestry species are interplanted when land is cleared for pasture. We evaluated soil quality\\u000a changes associated with the conversion of a native thorn forest (caatinga) into silvo-pastoral systems in semiarid NE Brazil.\\u000a Soil nutrients, organic matter, microbial

Barbara Wick; Holm Tiessen; Romulo S. C. Menezes

2000-01-01

195

Ligand-binding properties of albumin Parklands: Asp365----His.  

PubMed

An albumin variant, isolated from the plasma of a patient with bisalbuminemia, was compared with albumin A from the same patient for binding of long-chain fatty acids and bilirubin. No differences in binding of [14C]palmitate, cis-parinaric acid or bilirubin could be detected for the variant form. These results suggest that the region adjacent to residue 365 is unlikely to be part of a major binding site for any of these ligands. PMID:3365447

Reed, R G

1988-05-12

196

Technical and institutional innovation in agroforestry for protected areas management in the Brazilian Amazon: opportunities and limitations.  

PubMed

Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them. PMID:23636205

Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S

2013-05-01

197

The Integration of Medicinal Plants and Culinary Herbs in Agroforestry Systems for the Caribbean: A Study in the U.S. Virgin Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants and culinary herbs are horticultural crops with socio- economic significance in the Caribbean. People of the Caribbean maintain the tradition of making 'bush (herb) tea' as part of their daily activity. 'Bush tea' is made with a variety of herbs that are combined for their culinary and medicinal properties. A project was initiated to study the role of

M. C. Palada; J. M. Mitchell; B. N. Becker; P. K. R. Nair

198

Analysis And Assistant Planning System Ofregional Agricultural Economic Inform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the common problems existed in regional development and planning, we try to design a decision support system for assisting regional agricultural development and alignment as a decision-making tool for local government and decision maker. The analysis methods of forecast, comparative advantage, liner programming and statistical analysis are adopted. According to comparative advantage theory, the regional advantage can be determined by calculating and comparing yield advantage index (YAI), Scale advantage index (SAI), Complicated advantage index (CAI). Combining with GIS, agricultural data are presented as a form of graph such as area, bar and pie to uncover the principle and trend for decision-making which can't be found in data table. This system provides assistant decisions for agricultural structure adjustment, agro-forestry development and planning, and can be integrated to information technologies such as RS, AI and so on.

Han, Jie; Zhang, Junfeng

199

Valuing soil conservation benefits of agroforestry: contour ...  

Treesearch

By constructing a weighted soil quality index that also incorporates measures of soil ... profit function to directly relate agricultural profits and soil quality. ... intensity, private ownership, land fragmentation, and familiarity with soil conservation as ...

200

Assessing Conservation Values: Biodiversity and Endemicity in Tropical Land Use Systems  

PubMed Central

Despite an increasing amount of data on the effects of tropical land use on continental forest fauna and flora, it is debatable whether the choice of the indicator variables allows for a proper evaluation of the role of modified habitats in mitigating the global biodiversity crisis. While many single-taxon studies have highlighted that species with narrow geographic ranges especially suffer from habitat modification, there is no multi-taxa study available which consistently focuses on geographic range composition of the studied indicator groups. We compiled geographic range data for 180 bird, 119 butterfly, 204 tree and 219 understorey plant species sampled along a gradient of habitat modification ranging from near-primary forest through young secondary forest and agroforestry systems to annual crops in the southwestern lowlands of Cameroon. We found very similar patterns of declining species richness with increasing habitat modification between taxon-specific groups of similar geographic range categories. At the 8 km2 spatial level, estimated richness of endemic species declined in all groups by 21% (birds) to 91% (trees) from forests to annual crops, while estimated richness of widespread species increased by +101% (trees) to +275% (understorey plants), or remained stable (- 2%, butterflies). Even traditional agroforestry systems lost estimated endemic species richness by - 18% (birds) to - 90% (understorey plants). Endemic species richness of one taxon explained between 37% and 57% of others (positive correlations) and taxon-specific richness in widespread species explained up to 76% of variation in richness of endemic species (negative correlations). The key implication of this study is that the range size aspect is fundamental in assessments of conservation value via species inventory data from modified habitats. The study also suggests that even ecologically friendly agricultural matrices may be of much lower value for tropical conservation than indicated by mere biodiversity value.

Waltert, Matthias; Bobo, Kadiri Serge; Kaupa, Stefanie; Montoya, Marcela Leija; Nsanyi, Moses Sainge; Fermon, Heleen

2011-01-01

201

Hepatitis B vaccination of high risk pregnant women: A clinical trial at Parkland Memorial Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B infection is a major public health problem of global proportions. It is estimated that 2 billion people worldwide are infected by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) at some point, and 350 million are chronic carriers. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report an incidence in the United States of 140,000–320,000 infections each year (asymptomatic and symptomatic),

Atoosa Kourosh

2007-01-01

202

Shift of Conifer Boreal Forest to Lichen–Heath Parkland Caused by Successive Stand Disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the southern boreal forest (Québec, Canada), tree harvesting is a major disturbance affecting the dominant black spruce ( Picea mariana) stands already suffering from naturally recurrent insect and fire disturbances. Although recovery of the spruce forest after an insect infestation or a fire is possible under current site conditions, it is less likely when both types of disturbance occur

Serge Payette; Ann Delwaide

2003-01-01

203

IMPLANTAÇÃO, MANEJO E UTILIZAÇÃO DO SISTEMA AGROFLORESTAL CERCAS VIVAS DE Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud. NA COSTA RICA (Establishment, management and utilization of agroforestry systems (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud.), living fences, in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

O melhor aproveitamento de agroecossiste mas pouco produtivos, para a racionalização no uso da terra e a identificação de espécies para usos múltiplos, que cumpram objetivos sócio-econômicos e ecológicos, são aspectos que justificam esse trabalho. Efetuou-se um levantamento, a nível de Costa Rica, com o intuito de codificar o conhecimento dos agricultores quanto aos fatores que influem na implantação, manejo

Amilton J. Baggio; Jochen Heuveldop

204

Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in German Alley Cropping Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alley cropping systems (ACS) are agroforestry practices in which perennial trees or shrubs are grown in wide rows and arable crops are cultivated in the alleys between the tree rows. Recently, ACS which integrate stripes of short rotation coppices into conventional agricultural sites have gained interest in Germany. These systems can be used for simultaneous production of crops and woody biomass which enables farmers to diversify the provision of market goods. Adding trees into the agricultural landscape creates additional benefits for the farmer and society also known as ecosystem services. An ecosystem service provided by land use systems is carbon sequestration. The literature indicates that ACS are able to store more carbon compared to agriculture and their implementation may lead to greater benefits for the environment and society. Moreover, carbon sequestration in ACS could be included in carbon trading schemes and farmers rewarded additionally for the provision of this ecosystem service. However, methods are required which are easy to use and provide reliable information regarding change in carbon sequestration with change of the land use practice. In this context, our aim was to develop a methodology to assess carbon sequestration benefit provided by ACS in Germany. Therefore, the change of carbon in both soil and biomass had to be considered. To predict the change in soil carbon our methodology combined the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and the soil organic carbon balance recommended by the Association of German Agricultural Investigation and Research Centers (VDLUFA). To reflect the change in biomass carbon average annual yields were adopted. The results showed that ACS established on agricultural sites can increase the carbon stored because in the new soil-plant system carbon content is higher compared to agriculture. ACS have been recommended as suitable land use systems for marginal sites, such as post-mining areas. In such areas soil carbon usually increases at a faster initial rate compared to agricultural land which means that these areas could provide high level of carbon sequestration service in the short term. The approach will be broadened to include assessment of other ecosystem services provided by ACS in Germany which would increase the possibility to adequately compensate farmers for the supply of environmental benefits. Keywords: agroforestry, biomass production, carbon sequestration, ecosystem services, marginal sites

Tsonkova, P. B.; Quinkenstein, A.; Böhm, C.; Freese, D.

2012-04-01

205

Distribución espacio-temporal de hormigas en un gradiente de luz, dentro de un sistema agroforestal de café, en Turrialba, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal and spatial distribution of ants in a light gradient, in a coffee agroforestry system, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Shade trees are frequently present in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) agroforestry systems of Mesoamerica. These systems can harbor a rich entomofauna, including ants, which could be predators of key pests in these systems. However, the role of shade on the distribution and

Edgar H. Varón; Paul Hanson; John T. Longino; Olger Borbón; Manuel Carballo; Luko Hilje

206

Shade tree management affects fruit abortion, insect pests and pathogens of cacao  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mortality of cacao fruits caused by early fruit abortion or insect and pathogen attacks was investigated in differently managed agroforestry systems in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Nine agroforestry systems shaded by three different types of tree stands were selected, which represented a decrease in structural heterogeneity: forest remnants, diverse planted trees and one or two species of planted leguminose trees.

Merijn M. Bos; Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter; Teja Tscharntke

2007-01-01

207

Consequences of increasing forest use intensity for biomass, morphology and growth of fine roots in a tropical moist forest on Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical moist forests in South-East Asia are heavily exploited by timber extraction and forest conversion into agroforestry systems. Twelve forest stands were selected to investigate fine root biomass, morphology, and growth along a gradient of increasing forest conversion from near-natural forest to cacao agroforestry systems in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Fine root biomass decreased markedly with increasing forest disturbance. Fine root

Christoph Leuschner; Marieke Harteveld; Dietrich Hertel

2009-01-01

208

Re-marriage of crops and trees  

SciTech Connect

Agroforestry is defined and its role in the productive use and conservation of marginal or forested lands explained. Examples are given of existing agroforestry and silvo-pastural systems involving plantation crops (coffee, tea, cacao, rubber) and multipurpose species (Leucaena leucocephale, Casuarina, Almis, Parasponia, Acacia, Prosopis). The origin and activities of ICRAF are outlined.

Nair, P.K.R.

1983-01-01

209

High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.  

PubMed

It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity), as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity) of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity) increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems. PMID:23300598

Schüepp, Christof; Rittiner, Sarah; Entling, Martin H

2012-12-26

210

Optimizing yield and quality of canola seed with balanced fertilization in the parkland zone of Western Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of field experiments were conducted from 1998 to 2001 (or are underway) in northeastern Saskatchewan to determine the effects of various rates (0 to 30 kg S ha-1), sources (sulphate S-potassium sulphate, ammonium sulphate, potassium thiosulphate and ammonium thiosulphate; and elemental S-ES 90 and ES 95), times (autumn, sowing, bolting and flowering) and methods (incorporation, sideband, seedrow, topdress

211

Influence of an overstorey tree ( Prosopis glandulosa ) on associated shrubs in a savanna parkland: implications for patch dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arborescent legume, honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), appears to play a central role in patch dynamics of southern Texas savannas by modifying soils and microclimate and by facilitating the ingress, establishment and\\/or growth of shrubs in its understorey. As an indirect test for the occurrence and persistence of facilitation in mature shrub clusters (patches), we examined the gas exchange, water

Paul W. Barnes; Steve Archer

1996-01-01

212

Quantification and simulation of nitrous oxide emissions from agroecosystems in the Boreal and Parkland regions of Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) is increasing rapidly. Nitrous oxide, a 'greenhouse gas', contributes to global warming. It is also involved in the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. Best estimates indicate that the increase is almost exclusively attributable to agricultural activities. These contributions need to be accurately quantified to reduce uncertainties in global N2O budgets and facilitate the

Reynald L. Lemke

1997-01-01

213

How (not) to write research papers in agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication of research results is an integral part of research. The most recognized way of doing that is through well-presented\\u000a publications. In order to get published, papers should be written well; but many writers, especially early-career professionals,\\u000a have difficulty with that. This paper presents some of the common problems the author has come across in his capacity as the\\u000a Editor-in-Chief

P. K. R. Nair

2005-01-01

214

HOME GARDENS AS A SPRINGBOARD FOR AGROFORESTRY DEVELOPMENT IN AMAZONIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home gardens are an often overlooked resource for agricultural development. In both upland and floodplain areas of the Brazilian Amazon, home gardens contain a wealth of promising material that could be planted on a wider scale for income generation and restoring degraded habitats. Over seventy perennial species are cultivated in dooryard gardens in Amazonia, and new domesticated plants are being

NIGEL J. H. SMITH

1996-01-01

215

Assessing Farmer Innovations in Agroforestry in Eastern Zambia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes farmer innovations on improved fallows developed by researchers to replenish soil fertility. The reasons for the innovations and how these innovations are facilitating wide adoption of improved fallows are discussed. Research designed trial results to evaluate the ecological robustness of these innovations are also analyzed in…

Katanga, R.; Kabwe, G.; Kuntashula, E.; Mafongoya, P. L.; Phiri, S.

2007-01-01

216

Cordia alliodora: A Promising Tree for Tropical Agroforestry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Much more could be done to help tropical forest conservation if known facts were collated, reviewed and made available in an easily-read form. The Oxford Forestry Institute (OFI), with its unrivalled library and broad professional experience of tropical f...

A. Greaves P. S. McCarter

1990-01-01

217

Agroforestry and Conservation Agriculture: Complementary practices for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of many current agricultural practices is having a deplorable effect on the world's soils, water resources and rural environments. Natural levels of annual soil loss are very small (Morgan, 2005) in the region of 0.0045 t ha -1 for areas of moderate relief and only rising to 0.45 tha -1 on steep slopes. This can be compared with

Brian Sims; Theodor Friedrich; Amir Kassam; Josef Kienzle

218

Occurrence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in trap cultures from soils under different land use systems in the Amazon, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species diversity in soil samples from the Amazon region under distinct land use systems (Forest, Old Secondary Forest, Young Secondary Forest, Agroforestry systems, Crops and Pasture) using two distinct trap cultures. Traps established using Sorghum sudanense and Vigna unguiculata (at Universidade Regional de Blumenau -FURB) and Brachiaria decumbens and Neonotonia wightii (at Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA) were grown for 150 days in greenhouse conditions, when spore density and species identification were evaluated. A great variation on species richness was detected in several samples, regardless of the land use systems from where samples were obtained. A total number of 24 AMF species were recovered using both methods of trap cultures, with FURB?s traps yielding higher number of species. Acaulospora delicata, A. foveata, Entrophospora colombiana and two undescribed Glomus species were the most abundant and frequent species recovered from the traps. Number of species decreased in each genus according to this order: Acaulospora, Glomus, Entrophospora, Gigaspora, Archaeospora, Scutellospora and Paraglomus. Spore numbers were higher in Young Secondary Forest and Pastures. Our study demonstrated that AMF have a widespread occurrence in all land use systems in Amazon and they sporulate more abundantly in trap cultures from land uses under interference than in the pristine Forest ecosystem.

Leal, Patricia Lopes; Sturmer, Sidney Luiz; Siqueira, Jose Oswaldo

2009-01-01

219

TropSoils Technical Report, 1986-1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction; Personnel; Research Network; Legume-Based Pastures; Low-Input Systems; Agroforestry Systems; Continuous Cultivation; Comparative Soil Dynamics; Soil Characterization and Interpretation; Soil Fertility Management in Oxisols of Manau...

N. Caudle

1989-01-01

220

Soil phosphorus dynamics in a humid tropical silvopastoral system  

SciTech Connect

In developing countries of the humid tropics, timber exploitation and agricultural expansion frequently result in deforestation. Extensive land management, coupled with inherently low soil fertility invariably produce declines in agricultural/livestock productivity which eventually lead to land abandonment and further deforestation. Phosphorus is often the major nutrient limiting plant growth in tropical soils. Agroforestry systems have been considered as viable alternatives to current land use practices. Several hypotheses suggest that combining trees with crops or pasture, especially leguminous species will improve soil nutrient cycling, soil structure and soil organic matter. In this experiment Erythrina berteroana (an arboreous legume) was grown in native grass pastures in Costa Rica to determine the effects of tree pruning and cattle grazing on soil P availability. I measured soil P fluxes as well as changes in pasture biomass over an 18-month period. In a separate field experiment, I determined decomposition rates and P release characteristics of Erythrina leaves, pasture grass clippings and cattle dung. Erythrina leaves decomposed faster than both pasture grass and cattle dung. Erythrina and pasture residues released 4-5 times less P than dung. Phosphorus fluxes after tree pruning and grazing were highly dynamic for all treatments. Tree pruning increased labile soil P over time when coupled with grazing. Pasture biomass production was greatest in the grazed tree treatment. Pasture biomass P production and concentration was greatest in the non-grazed treatment. Trees and grazing together tended to increase nutrient (P) turnover which stimulated biomass production. In contrast, trees without grazing promoted nutrient (P) accumulation in pasture biomass.

Cooperband, L.R.

1992-01-01

221

Creating the Sustainable City: Building a Seminar (and Curriculum) through Interdisciplinary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using the wealth of sites available in the Chicago metropolitan area, online learning technologies, and classroom interactions, Roosevelt University's seminar "The Sustainable City" takes a multidisciplinary approach to urban ecology, waste management, green design, climate change, urban planning, parklands, water systems, environmental justice,…

Bryson, Michael A.; Zimring, Carl A.

2010-01-01

222

Creating the Sustainable City: Building a Seminar (and Curriculum) through Interdisciplinary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the wealth of sites available in the Chicago metropolitan area, online learning technologies, and classroom interactions, Roosevelt University's seminar "The Sustainable City" takes a multidisciplinary approach to urban ecology, waste management, green design, climate change, urban planning, parklands, water systems, environmental justice,…

Bryson, Michael A.; Zimring, Carl A.

2010-01-01

223

The contribution of wild plants to human nutrition in the Ferlo (Northern Senegal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aspect of agroforestry is the integration of indigenous species into appropriate land use systems. Some local trees and shrubs are particularly appreciated because of their value in human nutrition.

Barbara Becker

1983-01-01

224

Diversidad de aves en agropaisajes en la region norte de Nicaragua  

Treesearch

Treesearch Home ... We used fixed-width point counts (distance sampling: 4843 detections during 86 h of observation) to ... in agroforestry systems under five land uses (secondary and riparian forest, forest fallow, coffee plantations, and ' open ...

225

Nitrogen competition in contour hedgerow systems in subtropical China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contour hedgerow agroforestry has been studied for soil erosion control and soil fertility improvement in subtropical China.\\u000a However, below-ground competitive and complementary interactions between tree hedges and crops have received relatively little\\u000a attention in the scientific literature. A field experiment was conducted to explore the effects of a leguminous shrub hedge,\\u000a false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa) and a non-legume gramineous hedge,

Z. L. Guo; C. Zhong; C. F. Cai; S. W. Ding; Z. M. Wang

2008-01-01

226

DETERMINACIÓN DE LAS RESERVAS DE CARBONO EN LA BIOMASA AÉREA DE SISTEMAS AGROFORESTALES DE Theobroma cacao L. EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE SAN MARTÌN, PERU DETERMINATION OF CARBON RESERVATIONS IN THE AERIAL BIOMASS OF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS OF Theobroma cacao L. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF SAN MARTÌN, PERU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen En este estudio se evaluó la biomasa aérea en seis diferentes sistemas agroforestales de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) asociado con especies forestales maderables y frutales; con el propósito de conocer el potencial de captura de carbono por cada sistema. El estudio se realizó en dos diferentes sitios ubicados en la región San Martín (provincias de San Martín y Mariscal

Juanita Y. Concha; Julio C. Alegre; Vicente Pocomucha

227

EMS activation in a cohort of critically ill patients ? ? Data collection was performed at Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, Texas, with institutional department funding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine Emergency Medical Services (EMS) activation in a cohort of critically ill patients and to evaluate whether factors such as perceived difficulty of access to emergency care, insurance status, and educational level are associated with EMS use. Patients admitted from the emergency department to the intensive care unit (ICU) of an urban county

Molly A Phelps; Robert M Rodriguez; Michael Passanante; Graham Dresden; Karen Kriza

2002-01-01

228

Dry matter partitions and specific leaf weight of soybean change with tree competition in an intercropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004 and 2005, the yield, leaf area, dry weight and dry weight partitions of soybeans were determined at the Agroforestry\\u000a Research Site (ARS) (est. 1987, Ontario, Canada). Soybean was intercropped with poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra DN-177 L., 556 m3crown tree?1), silver maple (Acer saccharinum L., 308 m3), black walnut (Juglans nigra L., 148 m3) and pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh., 114 m3), or grown

Ameur M. Manceur; Greg J. Boland; Naresh V. Thevathasan; Andrew M. Gordon

2009-01-01

229

Systeme multifonctions. (Multifunction system).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development, the characteristics and the applications of a multifunction system are presented. The system is used on the RBES laboratory pipes, at Marcoule. The system was developed in order to allow, without time loss, the modification of the circuit...

J. Wauthier R. Fiori

1990-01-01

230

Rain forest promotes trophic interactions and diversity of trap-nesting Hymenoptera in adjacent agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Human alteration of natural ecosystems to agroecosystems continues to accelerate in tropical countries. The resulting world-wide decline of rain forest causes a mosaic land- scape, comprising simple and complex agroecosystems and patchily distributed rain for- est fragments of different quality. Landscape context and agricultural management can be expected to affect both species diversity and ecosystem services by trophic

ALEXANDRA-MARIA KLEIN; INGOLF STEFFAN-DEWENTER; TEJA TSCHARNTKE

2006-01-01

231

Veterinary antibiotic sorption and transport through agroforestry buffer, grass buffer and cropland soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Veterinary antibiotics (VAs), such as sulfamethazine (SMZ) are released into the environment by application of manure to agricultural fields. Understanding the fate and transport of VAs is important for assessing and mitigating possible environmental hazards. To study the effects of dissolved organi...

232

Veterinary antibiotic sorption to agroforestry buffer, grass buffer and cropland soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) to impact human and environmental health requires the development and evaluation\\u000a of land management practices that mitigate VA loss from manure-treated agroecosystems. Vegetative buffer strips (VBS) are\\u000a postulated to be one management tool that can reduce VA transport to surface water resources. The objectives of this study\\u000a were to (1) investigate oxytetracycline (OTC) and

Bei Chu; Keith W. Goyne; Stephen H. Anderson; Chung-Ho Lin; Ranjith P. Udawatta

2010-01-01

233

Deforestation, agroforestry, and sustainable land management practices among the Classic period Maya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores evidence of deforestation and forest management practices in the Maya lowlands during the pre-Columbian period. In the early twentieth century, scholars first began to examine the role of the environment in the rise and collapse of the great southern Maya polities of the Classic period, proposing that deforestation was an important factor in their political fragmentation and

Cameron L. McNeil

234

A participatory Agroforestry approach for soil and water conservation in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of soil erosion and land degradation in Ethiopia are frighteningly high. Crop production, livestock keeping and energy supply situations are at risk. The highlands are the most affected. Past rehabilitation efforts have been immense. Much labour, capital and trained staff have been mobilized to correct the situation, but the outcome has not been encouraging. There are a number

A. Bekele-Tesemma

1997-01-01

235

The tree tenure factor in agroforestry with particular reference to Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rights over trees are often distinct from rights over land. Tree tenure consists of a bundle of rights over trees and their produce which may be held by different people at different times. These rights include the right to own or inherit trees, the right to plant trees, the right to use trees and tree products, the right to dispose

Louise Fortmann

1985-01-01

236

Lignocellulosic Feedstock Biorefinery - Combination of technologies of agroforestry and a biobased substance and energy economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of biorefineries represents the key for the access to an integrated production of food, feed, chemicals, materials, goods, and fuels of the future (NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, USA, 2000). Biorefineries combine the necessary technologies of the biogenic raw materials with those of intermediates and final products. The main fo- cus is directed on the new land use forms for

Birgit Kamm; B. Uwe Schneider; Reinhard F. Hüttl; Holger Grünewald; Hans-Jörg Gusovius; Christian Stollberg; Peter Ay; Michael Kamm

2006-01-01

237

Agroforestry: Conifers. (Latest citations from the Cab Abstracts database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of lands forested with conifers for crop and livestock production. Citations cover the grazing of livestock and the production of crops, including tomatoes, soybeans, lespedeza, wheat, rape, taro, cotton, cabbages, ginger, watermelons, and strawberries. Livestock discussed include cattle, sheep, geese, and horses. Economic analyses and economic models are presented. (Contains a minimum of 147 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

238

POTENTIAL OF FORESTRY AND AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES TO STORE CARBON IN THE TROPICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Terrestrial vegetation plays a pivotal role in the global carbon cycle. ot only are tremendous amounts of. carbon stored in terrestrial egetation, but large amounts are also actively exchanged,between vegetation and the atmosphere. his suggests that vegetation, and specifically f...

239

Agroforestry, water and soil fertility management to fight erosion in tropical mountains of Rwanda  

Microsoft Academic Search

African tropical mountains are often overcrowded because the climate is healthy and favorable to intensive agriculture. Consequently the density of population in the mountains of Rwanda and Burundi has reached an exceptional level (150 to 800 inhabitants\\/km2) that leads to delicate problems of soil protection against runoff and various types of erosion on steep cultivated hillslopes. Previous measurements on runoff

Eric Roose; François Ndayizigiye

1997-01-01

240

APEX simulation: environmental benefits of agroforestry and grass buffers on corn-soybean watersheds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX) model has the ability to simulate the effects of vegetative filter strips on runoff and pollutant loadings from agricultural watersheds. The objectives of this study were to calibrate and validate the APEX model for three adjacent watersheds and...

241

Effect of perennial mulches on moisture conservation and soil-building properties through agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of perennial mulches on moisture status, soil characteristics and on crop yields (maize-wheat rotation) was evaluated from 1986 through 1989 in a silty loam acidic soil (pH 5.6, PWP 11.4 & FC 25.6%) at the Research Farm of the Central Soil & Water Conservation Research & Training Institute, Dahra Dun. Mulch materials, comprised of leaves of Leucaena leucocephala,

V. P. S. Tomar; P. Narain; K. S. Dadhwal

1992-01-01

242

Tree crop based agroforestry in Nigeria: a checklist of crops intercropped with cocoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of cocoa farmers in Bendel, Ogun, Ondo and Oyo States of Nigeria, carried out in 1985, showed that almost all the farmers intercropped other crops with cocoa. The intercrops included food crops such as plantain (92.3), cocoyam (85.7%), cassava (51.3%), yam (41.3%), maize (38.9%), melon (31.4%), cowpea (28.6%) and pineapple (26.0%) and tree crops such as oil palm

M. A. O. Oladokun

1990-01-01

243

Calibration of a water content reflectometer and soil water dynamics for an agroforestry practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water content reflectometers allow temporal and continuous assessment of spatial differences in soil water dynamics. We hypothesized\\u000a that volumetric soil water content estimated by the water content reflectometers (CS616 Campbell Sci. Inc., Logan, UT) is\\u000a influenced by clay content and temperature and therefore site- and or soil-specific equations are required for accurate estimations\\u000a of soil water. Objectives of the study

Ranjith P. UdawattaStephen; Stephen H. Anderson; Peter P. Motavalli; Harold E. Garrett

2011-01-01

244

Recreation and Agroforestry: Examining New Dimensions of Multifunctionality in Family Farms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multifunctionality serves as an analytical framework to recognize many services that farms provide to their surrounding communities and society. This study explores an often overlooked dimension of multifunctionality by examining different recreational services provided by landowners in Missouri and analyzing the relationship between recreational…

Barbieri, Carla; Valdivia, Corinne

2010-01-01

245

STUDIES ON ROOTING PATTERNS OF 5YEAROLD IMPORTANT AGROFORESTRY TREE SPECIES IN NORTH BIHAR, INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on rooting patterns of eight important multipurpose tree species demonstrated large variation in root depth and horizontal root spread 5 year after planting. The root depth varied between 1.01m (Acacia lenticularis L.) and 2.71m (Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd ex. Del.). Variation in horizontal root spread was 1.69m in Syzygium cumini (L.) and 7.70m in Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth…Root spread

O. P. CHATURVEDI; D. K. DAS

2002-01-01

246

APEX model simulation of runoff and sediment losses for grazed pasture watersheds with agroforestry buffers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffers have been found to reduce non-point source pollution (NPSP) from watersheds. Hydrologic simulation models assist in\\u000a predicting the effects of buffers on runoff and sediment losses from small watersheds. The objective of this study was to\\u000a calibrate, validate and simulate runoff and sediment losses and compare buffer effects on NPSP losses relative to control\\u000a watersheds (no buffer) for seven

Sandeep Kumar; Ranjith P. Udawatta; Stephen H. Anderson; Ashish Mudgal

2011-01-01

247

Agroforestry management as an adaptive strategy against potential microclimate extremes in coffee agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current climate change patterns may cause more extreme and variable climates in the future, threatening agricultural productivity in many areas of the world. Because many smallholder, rural farmers depend on subsistence, rainfed agriculture, priorities should be focused on coping mechanisms that protect these farmers from future vulnerabilities. This paper examines one possible adaptive strategy for coffee agriculture. A high (60–80%),

Brenda B. Lin

2007-01-01

248

Assessment of promising forest-management practices and technologies for enhancing the conservation and sequestration of atmospheric carbon and their costs at the site level  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: (1) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequestering and conserving carbon; (2) Assess available data on costs at the site level for promising forest and agroforestry management practices; and (3) Evaluate estimates of land technically suitable in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets and the proposed Global Forest Agreement goals.

Dixon, R.K.; Schroeder, P.E.; Winjum, J.K.

1991-10-01

249

An Empirical Analysis of the Biodiversity and Economic Returns to Cocoa Agroforests in Southern Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguing that agroforestry associations are important for biodiversity conservation, certification schemes are seeking to differentiate commodities on the basis of the biodiversity included in the cropping system, in order to financially encourage more “wildlife friendly” production systems through market mechanisms. However, biologists and economists have begun to question the overall impact on biodiversity and poverty when relatively extensive “wildlife friendly”

James Gockowski; Mathurin Tchatat; Jean-Paul Dondjang; Gisele Hietet; Terese Fouda

2010-01-01

250

Homegarden plant diversity in relation to remoteness from urban centers: A case study from the Peruvian Amazon region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Note: Adapted from: Wezel A. and Ohl J. 2005. Does remoteness from urban centres influence plant diversity in homegardens and swidden fields: a case study from the Matsiguenka in the Amazonian rainforest of Peru. Agroforestry Systems 65: 241 - 251. Abstract. Swidden cultivation is the traditional agricultural system in most parts of the Amazonian rainforest, and in many situations swiddens

A. Wezel; J. Ohl

251

Acacia albida and other multipurpose trees on the fur farmlands in the Jebel Marra highlands, Western Darfur, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the traditional agroforestry systems based on Acacia albida and other multipurpose trees as practised by the sedentary Fur people on the lower slopes and highlands of the Jebel Marra massif, Sudan. The basic agrosilvopastoral system consists of terraced village fields, where semipermanent rainfed cropping of staple millet and other subsistence crops takes place under stands of multipurpose

S. Miehe

1986-01-01

252

Spatial variability in soil properties on slow-forming terraces in the Andes region of Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to severe land degradation problems, soil conservation is a matter of major concern in the Ecuadorian Andes. Slow-forming terraces, a variation of hedgerow agro-forestry systems composed by contour grass barrier strips, can be considered as the most frequently used technique in Andean rural communities of Ecuador. However, due to shallow soils, terrace development often has the disadvantage causing gradients

Gerd Dercon; Jozef Deckers; Gerard Govers; Jean Poesen; Henrry Sánchez; Raúl Vanegas; Marco Ram??rez; George Loaiza

2003-01-01

253

Biological nitrogen fixation in trees in agro-ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of trees, especially nitrogen fixing trees (NFTs), into agroforestry and silvo-pastoral systems can make a major contribution to sustainable agriculture by restoring and maintaining soil fertility, and in combating erosion and desertification as well as providing fuelwood. The particular advantage of NFTs is their biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), their ability to establish in nitrogen-deficient soils and the benefits

S. K. A. Danso; G. D. Bowen; N. Sanginga

1992-01-01

254

Coffee and Sustainability: The Multiple Values of Traditional Shaded Coffee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee is grown widely throughout the tropics on about 5 million farms from 85 countries. Several studies carried out during the last decade revealed the importance of traditional shaded coffee for biodiversity maintenance and protection. However, there is only biological and no interdisciplinary exploration of the multiple values and benefits of these agroforestry systems. We identify and review four kinds

Víctor M. Toledo; Patricia Moguel

2012-01-01

255

Conservation of tree seeds from tropical dry-lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tropical trees, Azadirachta indica (neem), Lannea microcarpa, Sclerocarya birrea and Khaya senegalensis, are important multipurpose species. Unfortunately, difficult seed storage behaviour limits the utilization of these species in reforestation programs and agroforestry systems. This thesis presents the results of investigations aimed at a better understanding of the seed biology, particularly focussed on the improvement of seed survival after drying

Oblé Neya

2006-01-01

256

Recuperation of Degraded Areas: Achievements and Prospects of Cooperative Research in the Projects of SHIFT and WAVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

section. The projects in Manaus represent a joint research ef fort of several research institutes from Germany together with the Amazônia Ocidental (Manaus) on the recuperation of degraded areas of former rainforest through permanent agroforestry systems. The program was established with the installation of a 18-ha experimental study site in 1992 and has gained considerable momentum by constantly adding research

C. Martius

257

Fire as an economic disincentive to smallholder rubber planting in Imperata areas of Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fire dimension was incorporated into an existing bioeconomic spreadsheet model of a smallholder rubber agroforestry system, with Imperata as the understorey to rubber. The augmented model was then used to trace the physical and economic consequences of fire. Imperata is regarded as providing the fire fuel load in the model, either as the rubber understorey, or as separate grassland.

Ken Menz; Katie Ellis; Czech Conroy; Peter Grist

1998-01-01

258

ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENHANCING THE CONSERVATION AND SEQUESTRATION OF ATMOSPHERIC CARBON AND THEIR COSTS AT SITE LEVEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: ) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequesteri...

259

Intercropping of two Leucaena spp. with sweet potato: yield, growth rate and biomass  

SciTech Connect

Results of trials with Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena diversifolia at Wau, Papua New Guinea, showed potential benefits of the agroforestry cropping system. The total biomass yield (sweet potato plus firewood and green manure) was considerably greater than the yield per unit area of sweet potato alone. 3 references.

Swift, J.F.

1982-01-01

260

Trees outside forests: agro-, community, and urban forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planted forests are often considered to consist of tree plantings at a scale large enough to satisfy such objectives as commercial production of timber and fiber, protection of watersheds, and preservation of natural habitats. However, trees are planted also at greatly reduced scales in agroforestry systems or as community woodlots to provide a mixture of products and services to resident

Alan J. Long; P. K. Ramachandran Nair

1999-01-01

261

Diversity and change in homegarden cultivation in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homegardens have been described as traditional agroforestry systems that are ecologically and socially sustainable. The concept of social sustainability has two dimensions: positive role to present livelihood conditions and ability to respond to socioeconomic changes. The dynamics of homegardens and its repercussions on social sustainability have received relatively little research attention. On the basis of results of extensive studies in

K. F. Wiersum

2006-01-01

262

AVALIAÇÃO DE ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS EM ÁREA DE MATA NO ESTADO DE RORAIMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to evaluate 19 native and exotic species and to identify potential species for plantation in homogeneous stands and in agroforestry systems in forest ecosystem in Roraima State. The species were planted from 1997 to 2000. When the objective was sawn wood production the spacing was 4 x 3 m and when the objective was energy

Helio Tonini; Marcelo Francia Arco-Verde; Dalton Schwengber; Moises Mourão Junior

2006-01-01

263

Factors affecting the germination of doum palm ( Hyphaene thebaica Mart.) seeds from the semi-arid zone of Niger, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard-seeded tropical tree species such as doum palm (Hyphaene thebaica Mart.), a common component of the traditional agroforestry systems practiced in semi-arid West Africa, often present considerable problems to nursery managers because their hard, impermeable seed coats (pericarps) restrict the entry of both water and oxygen and offer high physical resistance to the growth of the embryo. Such seeds often

Hassane Moussa; Hank A Margolis; Pierre-André Dubé; Julius Odongo

1998-01-01

264

DOMESTICATION OF DACRYODES EDULIS IN WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA: CHARACTERISATION OF GENETIC VARIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

New initiatives in agroforestry are seeking to integrate trees with marketable products into farming systems. This is being done in order to provide marketable timber and non-timber forest products from farms that will enhance rural livelihoods by generating cash for subsistence farmers. Dacryodes edulis (Safou) is one of the candidate tree species in West and Central Africa for domestication, which

R. R. B. LEAKEY; A. R. ATANGANA; E. KENGNI; A. N. WARUHIU; C. USORO; P. O. ANEGBEH; Z. TCHOUNDJEU

2002-01-01

265

Efficacy of Aqueous Extracts of Five Arable Trees on The Seed Germination of Pisum sativum L. Var-VRP-6 and KPM522  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: Allelopathy can simply be understood as the ability of plants to inhibit or stimulate growth of other plants in the environment by exuding chemicals. Decline in crop yield in cropping and agroforestry system in recent years has been attributed to allelopathic effects. Plants may favorably or adversely affect other plants through allelochemicals, which may be released directly or

Sazada Siddiqui; Mukesh K. Meghvansi; Ruchi Yadav; Feroze Ahmad Wani; Ajaz Ahmad

266

Use of a 15N tracer to determine linkages between a mangrove and an upland freshwater swamp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forests and adjacent upland freshwater swamps are important components of subsistence-based economies of Pacific islands. Mangroves provide valuable firewood (Rhizophora apiculata) and mangrove crabs (Scylla serrata); intact freshwater swamps are often used for agroforestry (e.g., taro cultivation). While these two systems are connected hydrologically via groundwater and surface flows, little information is available on how they may be biogeochemically

R. A. MacKenzie; N. Cormier

2005-01-01

267

The role of fertilizers in sustaining agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

African farmers have relied traditionally on fallowing for up to 15 years to restore soil fertility. Leaving land unproductive for such periods is a luxury many regions cannot afford, given the contemporary decline in per capita food production (1%\\/year). Thus, alternative soil fertility maintenance measures such as agroforestry, novel intercropping systems, residue conservation, the use of manure, soil amendments, and

P. L. G. Vlek

1990-01-01

268

Napier grass strips and livestock: a bioeconomic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Napier grass strips are gaining some acceptance in Southeast Asia as a vegetative means of soil erosion control, due to the relative ease of establishment and management. In addition, the napier grass strips aid productivity of agroforestry systems by providing mulch or by being fed to livestock. In this paper, a bioeconomic comparison of different ways of utilising the napier

D. B. Magcale-Macandog; C. D. Predo; K. M. Menz; A. D. Predo

1998-01-01

269

Immune System  

MedlinePLUS

... could put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih- myoon ) system, which ... Continue Things That Can Go Wrong With the Immune System Disorders of the immune system can be broken ...

270

Dynamical System  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper addresses the parameter estimation problem of an interval-based hybrid dynamical system (interval system). The interval system has a two-layer architecture that comprises a finite state automaton and multiple linear dynam- ical systems. The automaton controls the activation timing of the dynamical systems based on a stochastic transition model between intervals. Thus, the interval system can generate and

Takashi MATSUYAMA

271

Aerospace Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf contains a syllabus for a course on aerospace systems as part of the Aerospace Technology Program. This course covers an introduction to expendable and reusable Space Launch Vehicle (SLV) systems including hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, propulsion, mechanical, HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), and ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support Systems). How systems interact with computer and data acquisition systems is also covered.

2011-08-11

272

Aesthetics Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The formal structure of aesthetics systems is defined. Aesthetics systems provide for the essential tasks of interpretation and evaluation is aesthetic analysis. Kolmogorov's formulation of information theory is applicable. An aesthetics system for a clas...

J. Gips G. Stiny

1973-01-01

273

Rebreathing System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application is a constant volume rebreathing system when utilized in conjunction with an external air source, such as man. The rebreathing system forms a completely closed system between man and the environment. There is a stainless steel bello...

J. P. Conkle

1974-01-01

274

Systems Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective...

R. L. Graham

1998-01-01

275

Ensuring Dependable Systems of Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging class of systems known as Systems of Systems (SoS) are composed of many distributed, heterogeneous and autonomous components. Such systems are typically separately designed and manufactured and evolve throughout their lifetime. However, they are expected to work together, often in safety-critical areas of operation such as civil transportation, military operations and space exploration. As such, the systems are

Robert Alexander; Martin Hall-May; Tim Kelly

276

Systems thinking or systems engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem faced by most systems organisations is how to develop and sustain staff with the appropriate systems skills and experience. To date, much has been made of the delineation of systems thinking and systems engineering. In this research, the partitioning of \\

Kate M. Gill

2009-01-01

277

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the end of this project, you will be able to explain the components of the Solar System and know the order of the planets starting from the Sun. Objective Question: What is the Solar System? First, listen and read about the Solar System 1. How many planets make up our Solar System? 2. What is at the center of the Solar System? Next,listen and read about the Planets. 1. Can you name all of the planets? Finally, listen and watch The Solar System Movie. 1. Can you list the ...

Ms.west

2009-07-07

278

Stimulator system  

SciTech Connect

An electrical stimulator system is described incorporating rechargeable batteries and a charging circuit. A charging set and electrode support are alternatively connected to the stimulator system via a single common two-pole terminal. The system is designed to prevent current from flowing directly from the battery to the electrode support along the charging circuit while allowing charge current to flow in the opposite direction along the charging circuit if the charging set is connected to the system instead of the electrode support.

Hakansson, B.H.; Saario, R.A.

1984-02-14

279

Energy Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posters are provided for several different energy conversion systems. Students are provided with cards that give the name and a description of each of the components in an energy system. They match these with the figures on the diagram. Since the groups look at different systems, they also describe their results to the class to share their knowledge.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

280

Systems Liaisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

As computer technology increases its role within academic libraries, one of the problems faced by systems librarians is maintaining the equipment and training needed for the technology without overworking the library's systems staff. This article describes the development of a group of systems liaisons within an academic library to serve as front line managers for computer hardware, software, and simpler

Pam Burton; Margaret Foote

2000-01-01

281

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to to the solar system. How to distinguish between the different planets. Activities to play while getting to know the solar system. Cosmic Cookies Solar System Scavenger Hunt Edible Earth Strawkets and Control Strawkets and Thrust Strawkets and Weight ...

Wright, Ms.

2009-10-09

282

Systems biotechnology.  

PubMed

Systems biology has been changing the way biological and biotechnological research is performed. Now, systems biological approaches can be taken to develop bioprocesses for the production of valuable drugs, commodity and fine chemicals, fuels, and polymers and other materials; this is termed systems biotechnology. Here I present the general strategies for systems biotechnology and several examples of applying systems biotechnological strategies for the development of bioprocesses for the efficient production of chemicals and materials. This also includes a strategy of systems metabolic engineering for the development of microbial strains. It is expected that systems biotechnology will be at the heart of successful industrial biotechnology towards low carbon green growth of the world. PMID:20180277

Lee, Sang Yup

2009-10-01

283

Micropower system  

SciTech Connect

A micropower DC/DC conversion system is disclosed providing a stabilized voltage output at a predetermined voltage higher than that of the energy source. The system is powered by one or more primary cells in parallel or by a suitable battery, and the system is of special use with systems requiring low power at stabilized voltage which is substantially independent of the energy source impedance and load variations. According to the preferred embodiment of the system the output voltage stabilization is controlled by voltage detection circuit based on C-MOS inverters which allows extremely low power drain. The system is of special value for use with electronic implantable devices such as cardiac pacemakers.

Krupka, Y.; Bachar, A.; Yerushalmi, S.

1983-11-01

284

Autogeneric system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention of the "autogeneric system" in the form of <> is a closed recursive manufacturing cycle. Present technology is probably sufficient to build fifth generation computing systems, but the actual construction of inductive and deductive logic machines awaits the discovery of real methods. The working model <> operates by the relentless application of directed trial and error. The operation of <> has been directed to produce "better" versions of <>. The copyrighted version of <> can be used to manufacture microcomputer systems, and process control systems. The value of "autogeneric systems" rests in the inherent ability to create or manufacture complex systems on demand. The ability to incorporate expert knowledge into reusable modules allows a multiplication of the efforts of experts. The error detection allows real telecommunications networks to be used to create a distributed computer.

Davis; Dannie E. (Elmore, AL)

1988-03-29

285

Agroforestry: British Association for the Advancement of Science Annual Meeting. Held in Oxford (England) on September 5-9, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report consists of the following papers: Trees in support of agriculture; the evolution of rural policies in the European Community - agriculture, forestry and the environment; educating agri-foresters for the 21st centure; and harvesting and marketin...

J. Burley R. Fennel J. Burnett J. Dewar

1988-01-01

286

DEFORESTATION AND AGROFORESTRY ADOPTION IN TROPICAL FORESTS: CAN WE GENERALIZE? SOME RESULTS FROM CAMPECHE, MEXICO AND RONDONIA, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of sustainable agriculture and other sustainable forestry methods that can help to reduce tropical deforestation have received a great deal of attention in the literature (Adesina and Zinnah 1993, Akinola and Young 1985, Feder and Slade 1984, Holden 1993, Kebede et al. 1990). Although results from different studies can be compared in an absolute sense, there are very

James F. Casey; Jill L. Caviglia-Harris

2000-01-01

287

Potential of agroforestry for carbon sequestration and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from soils in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Losses of carbon (C) stocks in terrestrial ecosystems and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are challenges that scientists and policy makers have been facing in the recent past. Intensified agricultural practices lead to a reduction in ecosystem carbon stocks, mainly due to removal of aboveground biomass as harvest and loss of carbon as CO2 through burning and\\/or

Patrick K. Mutuo; G. Cadisch; A. Albrecht; C. A. Palm; L. Verchot

2005-01-01

288

Local solutions to global problems: the potential of agroforestry for climate change adaptation and mitigation in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a global phenomenon that imposes economic, social, and ecological challenges to the global community and, to smallholder farmers particularly in low- income countries. Sustainable land use practices offer opportunities for smallholder farmers to adapt to climate change and related risks, but the challenge is that the adoption of such practices by farmers is low due to policy

Ajayi OC; Akinnifesi FK; Sileshi G; Chakeredza S

289

The development of short-rotation willow in the northeastern United States for bioenergy and bioproducts, agroforestry and phytoremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on willow (Salix spp.) as a locally produced, renewable feedstock for bioenergy and bioproducts began in New York in the mid-1980s in response to growing concerns about environmental impacts associated with fossil fuels and declining rural economies. Simultaneous and integrated activities—including research, large-scale demonstrations, outreach and education, and market development—were initiated in the mid-1990s to facilitate the commercialization of

T. A. Volk; L. P. Abrahamson; C. A. Nowak; L. B. Smart; P. J. Tharakan; E. H. White

2006-01-01

290

From the laboratory to the field: contrasting effects of multi-trophic interactions and agroforestry management on coffee pest densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only few factors influencing pest populations can be studied in the laboratory, but many population- driving factors interact in the field. Therefore, complementary laboratory and field approaches are required for reliable predictions of real-world patterns and processes. Laboratory and field experi- ments with the red spider mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae), and the coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella Guérin-Méneville

Adenir V. Teodoro; Teja Tscharntke; Alexandra-Maria Klein

2009-01-01

291

Modeling carbon sequestration in afforestation, agroforestry and forest management projects: the CO2FIX V.2 approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the Version 2 of the CO2FIX (CO2FIX V.2) model, a user-friendly tool for dynamically estimating the carbon sequestration potential of forest management, agroforesty and afforestation projects. CO2FIX V.2 is a multi-cohort ecosystem-level model based on carbon accounting of forest stands, including forest biomass, soils and products. Carbon stored in living biomass is estimated with a forest cohort

Omar R. Maseraa; J. F. Garza-Caligaris; M. Kanninen; T. Karjalainen; J. Liski; G. J. Nabuurs; A. Pussinen; B. H. J. de Jong; G. M. J. Mohren

2003-01-01

292

Factors affecting soil loss at plot scale and sediment yield at catchment scale in a tropical volcanic agroforestry landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical deforestation and land use change is often perceived as the major cause of soil loss by water erosion and of sediment load in rivers that has a negative impact on the functioning of hydropower storage reservoirs. The Sumberjaya area in Sumatra, Indonesia is representative for conflicts and evictions arising from this perception. The purpose of this study as part

Bruno Verbist; Jean Poesen; Meine van Noordwijk; Widianto; Didik Suprayogo; Fahmuddin Agus; Jozef Deckers

2010-01-01

293

Operating Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rashid Bin Muhammad at Kent State University presents his page of lectures notes and other instructional materials on operating systems. The site is divided into a number of topics about operating systems: history, structure, process, threads, Solaris-2, CPU / process scheduling, schedule algorithm, interprocess communication, deadlock, important UNIX commands, and references. The site is then followed by links to outside resources to help supplement the material presented here. This is a great resource for computer science instructors teaching students about operating systems.

Bin Muhammad, Rashid

2009-06-24

294

Serials Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The criteria for selecting a serials management system are often the same as those for selecting an integrated library system in toto. In the post-selection\\/production environment, the library–vendor relationship matures as a new operational framework is established. Serials management systems must become more efficient and make better use of electronic commerce, especially as a greater emphasis is placed on access

Pamela Bluh; Marc Truitt; Bob Boissy

2002-01-01

295

CALUTRON SYSTEM  

DOEpatents

A calutron system capable of functioning with only a portion of the separation tanks in the system operating is described. The invention is a calutron system comprssing a closed series of alternated tanks and electromagnets having a mid-yoke connecting intermediate positions of the series. dividing the series into twv-o portions, and thereby providing a closed magnetic path through either of the portions.

Lawrence, E.O.

1958-08-12

296

Forage Production Under and Adjacent to Robinia pseudoacacia in Central Appalachia, West Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species-diverse production systems, such as agroforestry, provide opportunities to increase the value of total production\\u000a through marketing of multiple products from a given unit of land. Designing successful systems requires an understanding of\\u000a how species compete for resources and grow in proximity to other species with distinctly different growth habits and resource\\u000a demands (Sanchez, 1995; Ong and Leakey, 1999). Systems

C. M. Feldhake; D. P. Belesky; E. L. Mathias

297

Systemic Darwinism  

PubMed Central

Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a “compositional paradigm” according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality.

Winther, Rasmus Gr?nfeldt

2008-01-01

298

Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the implication that anticipatory behavior can only partially be described in a computer language and, furthermore, it shows that only a restricted class of anticipatory systems can be transferred to computers. .

Ekdahl, Bertil

2000-05-01

299

Ecological Settings and State Economies as Factor Inputs in the Provision of Outdoor Recreation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State parks play a substantial role in the provision of outdoor recreation opportunities within the United States. Park operators must make crucial decisions in how they allocate capital expenditures, labor, and parkland to maintain recreation opportunities. Their decisions are influenced, in part, by the ecological characteristics of their state's park system as well as the vitality of their state's economy. In this research, we incorporate the characteristics of states' ecosystems and their local economies into a formal production analysis of the states' park systems from the years 1986 to 2011. Our analysis revealed all three factors of production were positive and inelastic. Expenditures on labor had the largest effect on both park utilization and operational expenditures. Our analysis also found a large degree of variability in the effects of ecological characteristics on both utilization and operating expenditures. Parkland utilization and operational expenditures were more elastic in areas such as Oceania and Mediterranean California relative to other ecological regions. These findings lead us to conclude that state park operators will experience variable levels of difficulty in both accommodating increasing demands for recreation from state parks and maintaining the existing quality of outdoor recreation provided within their system.

Siderelis, Christos; Smith, Jordan W.

2013-09-01

300

Systems Thinking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center explains the General Systems Model and how consider the entire system when performing aerospace work. This three and a half minute video is one of the aerospace certification readiness courses.

2011-07-27

301

ECONOMIC SYSTEMS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The information you will explore is: List and categorize the four main types of Economic Systems in our world today. Create graphic Illustrations of thoughts and concepts. Express how economic system structures effect the lives of the people living in that system. Write to express an opinion or point of view. Experience a simulation of the marketplace. Research a country of your choice and find important factors about their economic system. Each country structures their economic system after one of the four main types or a combination of these. The assignments on this page will help you to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of the four main types of economic systems. Process: 1. Click on the following link Marketing Calendar Open the Global Economy power point. Use the Chapter 4 listening guide with the power point. chap4 listening guide 2. List the four main economic systems and find the main characterisitics of each. Compare strengths and weaknesses of each. Economic Systems Characteristics 3.Create a ...

Mrs.owen

2006-10-10

302

Propulsion System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The closed cycle propulsion system for a torpedo uses aluminum as a source of hydrogen. The system includes a fuel generator, a store of oxidizer, a combustion chamber, a steam-driven prime mover, a condenser and three displacement pumps driven by a commo...

N. Fatica

1966-01-01

303

Heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for recovering waste heat from heating system exhaust gas is described. In a heating system located in a furnace room and including a furnace and an air blower for delivering air to the furnace via an inlet stack and heating pipes for the delivery of heated air from the furnace to the areas to be heated, the improvement

Anable

1975-01-01

304

Decimal system  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Early scientific efforts by the Chinese yielded the decimal system. The Chinese were mostly known for their physical inventions during this time, so it was unusual to see something like the decimal system come from China at this point in history.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-10-24

305

Systems Librarianship  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The SYSLIB-L list serves as a vehicle for the discussion of topics related to systems librarianship and for the collection of information related to systems librarianship. Postings may include, but are not limited to, job postings, technical questions, philosophical discussions, and education.

1997-01-01

306

Organ Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Organ Systems" module has five units of instruction that focus on the main classes of functions that a body must perform. Rather than just naming organs of the body and what they do, they present a perspective on the body as a coordinated group of systems that must do certain things correctly in order to survive and thrive.

Klemm, W. R.

2001-01-01

307

System Toolbox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

System Toolbox is designed for system administrators who deal with a variety of platforms. The site covers Windows NT, General Unix, Novell, Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, and the Mac OS. The "toolbox" for each platform offers annotated links to Tools (Disk Management, Anti-Virus, Security, etc.), Articles, and other useful Links. While the information here is hardly comprehensive, the site offers useful, if often basic, resources for administrators. System Toolbox's brand new History section looks promising, with two articles currently posted, "Von Braun's Slide Rule" and "The Godfather of Computing - Charles Babbage." The Comments section allows users to post questions or comments.

2001-01-01

308

Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur , Huntsville, Madison County, AL

309

SAMPLING SYSTEM  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is given for the batch sampling of radioactive liquids such as slurries from a system by remote control, while providing shielding for protection of operating personnel from the harmful effects of radiation.

Hannaford, B.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Segaser, C.L.; Terry, C.L.

1961-01-17

310

Root systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One purpose that roots serve is that of anchoring the plant in the ground. Roots also take up water and nutrients for the plant. Plants all have different root system types to fit their individual needs and locations.

N/A N/A (U.S. Government;)

2004-10-30

311

Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... remove inflamed or damaged areas of the intestine. Celiac disease is a disorder in which the digestive system ... from breakfast cereal to pizza crust. People with celiac disease have difficulty digesting the nutrients from their food ...

312

Respiratory System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose, components, and functions of the respiratory system are presented in this learning through disussion and visualizations. Participants learn about the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.

Bidlack, Jim

313

Embedded Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Embedded systems are dedicated computers designed to perform a specific task. They are usually fairly simple devices that are used in areas where powerful, customizable computers are unnecessary; however, they can also be quite complex on occasion. Embedded systems can be found almost anywhere, including automobiles and cellular phones, and their importance is reflected in their near omnipresence.An excellent introduction to embedded systems can be found in the first three pages of this online course material (1). The educational module gives a thorough definition of embedded systems, several examples of where they are used, and a discussion of their common components. For a more detailed explanation of how these devices are used to control various appliances, motors, and other real world products, this site (2) is worth a visit. Sixteen sections comprise the site, and each includes background information and an example experiment. Although certain equipment is required for the experiments, much can be learned simply from reading the introductions. This enlightening essay (3) documents the history and development of embedded systems. Despite being somewhat specific to the author's life, it effectively illustrates the evolution of embedded systems and their incorporation into many facets of everyday life. A paper presented at the 2003 International Cryptology Conference (4) considers the vulnerability of embedded cryptosystems to side channel attacks, which are different from normal security violations because they involve monitoring parts of the hardware system instead of the software. The authors propose the design of private circuits that are resistant to such attacks. The Center for Robotics and Embedded Systems at the University of Southern California is the source of this paper (5) about networked robots. Although it is somewhat dated, the paper provides some valuable insights into how robots can be used in human environments and how they can be controlled and coordinated with wireless communications. An article from Dedicated Systems Magazine (6) highlights the role of embedded systems in NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, which were launched in June and July 2003. The technologies that enabled the rovers to have powerful, reliable operation are described. The April 2003 issue of ACM Queue (7), the online magazine of the Association for Computing Machinery, is dedicated to embedded systems. Seven articles are included in the issue, dealing with the design and construction process of embedded devices and the hardware/software interface. Lastly, a short paper that was presented at a computer architecture symposium in January 2003 looks ahead to the realization of ubiquitous computing (8). This technology revolution, which has been predicted for many years, promises to make tiny computers embedded in virtually everything, even clothing and walls. The author focuses on the area of intelligent vehicles and wheeled mobile robots.

Leske, Cavin.

314

System Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a System dynamics is an approach for thinking about and simulating situations and organisations of all kinds and sizes by visualising\\u000a how the elements fit together, interact and change over time. This chapter, written by John Morecroft, describes modern system\\u000a dynamics which retains the fundamentals developed in the 1950s by Jay W. Forrester of the MIT Sloan School of Management.\\u000a It

John Morecroft

2010-01-01

315

Scoring systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severity of illness scoring systems are helpful for defining populations of critically ill patients because they facilitate,\\u000a for example, comparison of different groups of patients enrolled in clinical trials. Such scoring systems may also guide more\\u000a effective allocation of resources, such as nursing and ancillary care and help in assessing the quality of care in the intensive\\u000a care unit (ICU)

John Kress

316

Biological and Social Feasibility of Sesbania Fallow Practice in Small Holder Agricultural Farms in Developing Countries: A Zambian Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many small holder farmers in developing countries face problems of declining soil fertility and crop yields and insufficient\\u000a money to buy expensive inorganic fertilizers. The Sesbania fallow system, an agroforestry technology, seems to hold a key to these problems. Based on field studies in eastern Zambia,\\u000a this paper reports that fallow system has the potential to improve and sustain soil

CHRISTOPHER OPIO; Prince George

2001-01-01

317

The argan tree ( Argania spinosa ) in Morocco: Propagation by seeds, cuttings and in-vitro techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In South-western Morocco, the argan tree (Argania spinosa) is basis of a traditional agroforestry system. However, this system is no longer at equilibrium and there is an urgent need\\u000a to renovate it. The natural reproduction of the tree has become difficult, and most attempts of artificial regeneration have\\u000a failed. We have assessed three different propagation methods: seedlings, cuttings, and in-vitro

R. Nouaim; G. Mangin; M. C. Breuil; R. Chaussod

2002-01-01

318

Synergies between Agricultural Intensification and Climate Change Could Create Surprising Vulnerabilities for Crops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An inevitable consequence of global climate change is that altered patterns of temperature and precipitation threaten agriculture in many tropical regions, requiring strategies of human adaptation. Moreover, the process of management intensification in agriculture has increased and may exacerbate vulnerability to climate extremes. Although many solutions have been presented, the role of simple agro-ecological and agroforestry management has been largely ignored. Some recent literature has shown how sustainable management may improve resistance to extreme climate events. We comment specifically on a prevalent form of agriculture throughout Latin America, the coffee agroforestry system. Results from the coffee literature have shown that shade management in coffee systems may mitigate the effects of extreme temperature and precipitation, thereby reducing the ecological and economic vulnerability of many rural farmers. We conclude that more traditional forms of agriculture can offer greater potential for adapting to changing conditions than do current intensive systems.

Brenda B. Lin (University of Michigan;); Ivette Perfecto (University of Michigan;); John Vandermeer (University of Michigan;)

2008-10-01

319

Systems Studies  

SciTech Connect

The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

Graham, R.L.

1998-03-17

320

System of Hungarian System Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The new disaster management direction and responsibility system and the professional disaster management organization were tested last year in practice. Perhaps liquidation of consequences of terrorist acts was the only threat, which it did not need to fa...

L. Kozari

2001-01-01

321

FDA Industry Systems - System Status  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... November 14, 2009: ESG Pre-Production (Test) system was unavailable from 6:00pm November 13, 2009 EST to 11:59pm November 14, 2009 EST ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/foodfacilityregistration

322

Systemic fluoride.  

PubMed

There is substantial evidence that fluoride, through different applications and formulas, works to control caries development. The first observations of fluoride's effects on dental caries were linked to fluoride naturally present in the drinking water, and then from controlled water fluoridation programs. Other systemic methods to deliver fluoride were later suggested, including dietary fluoride supplements such as salt and milk. These systemic methods are now being questioned due to the fact that many studies have indicated that fluoride's action relies mainly on its post-eruptive effect from topical contact with the tooth structure. It is known that even the methods of delivering fluoride known as 'systemic' act mainly through a topical effect when they are in contact with the teeth. The effectiveness of water fluoridation in many geographic areas is lower than in previous eras due to the widespread use of other fluoride modalities. Nevertheless, this evidence should not be interpreted as an indication that systemic methods are no longer relevant ways to deliver fluoride on an individual basis or for collective health programs. Caution must be taken to avoid excess ingestion of fluoride when prescribing dietary fluoride supplements for children in order to minimize the risk of dental fluorosis, particularly if there are other relevant sources of fluoride intake - such as drinking water, salt or milk and/or dentifrice. Safe and effective doses of fluoride can be achieved when combining topical and systemic methods. PMID:21701196

Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Levy, Steven Marc

2011-06-23

323

Manufacturing Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective 7:05 - Students will develop an awareness of the designed World through : Describing a manufacturing system; listing and describing the basic type of manufacturing; defining production and manufacturing enterprise;defining AGV, CAD, CIM, CAM, CNC, production tooling, automation, and material processes. Day 1: Introduction/Background Objective Preassessment: Use a KWL chart to assess your students prior knowledge. This will also help you deal with any misconceptions regarding manufacturing system. Students will use the curriculum companion PowerPoint and Objective 7.05 Outline to develop an awarness of: Define manufacturing List and describe the basic types of Manufacturing Student ...

Wallace, S.

2010-07-16

324

System Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Technicians face the challenge of building and maintaining knowledge and skills that are applicable to microcomputer architecture. These challenges include keeping up to date on improvements in PC components, changes in PC hardware configurations, integration of new devices within PC systems, and the ability to readily apply their knowledge within the microcomputer manufacturing industry. This module provides an introduction and overview to the major system features that define the architecture of an Intel-based PC. A unique multimedia self-tutorial is included.

2011-08-22

325

[Systemic scleroderma].  

PubMed

Systemic scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting the skin, internal organs and the musculoskeletal system. The presence of Raynaud phenomenon, anti-nuclear antibodies and pathologic capillaroscopy are early signs of the disease. Limited cutaneous SSc, diffuse cutaneous SSc and SSc-overlap syndromes are the main clinical subtypes. Multidisciplinary care is mandatory. Follow-up examinations should be performed at least annually in order to recognize in a timely fashion treatable organ involvement such as pulmonary arterial hypertension. Besides symptomatic treatment of organ involvement, immunosuppressive therapy is indicated for a progressive inflammatory course. PMID:23576170

Hunzelmann, N

2013-04-01

326

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of the space page of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), and provides information about the Sun, the planets and their moons, and other bodies in the solar system. It contains a travel guide to the Solar System including such topics as what to see, reason to visit, how to get there, and local history. A similar travel guide is then available for the Sun, each of the planets, asteroids, and comets. In addition, multiple links for more detailed information as well as space games and puzzles are provided.

2007-12-12

327

Rabbit System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A rabbit system for ultrafast transport of a sampler between a sampling point and an analysis position is described. The sampler is transported pneumatically in a carrier capsule first to a sampling point and then to a separating structure in front of the...

1978-01-01

328

Telemetry system  

SciTech Connect

A telemetry system is descried for transmitting data between a downhole location in a wellbore and the surface of a well. It utilizes an acoustic signal which operates within naturally occurring passbands on a string of pipe and has substantially fixed frequency ranges which are related to pipe length and condition.

Chaney, P.E.; Cox, W.H.

1981-10-06

329

Immune System  

EPA Science Inventory

A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

330

Windpower system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A windpower system includes a support and a turbine having a shaft rotatively mounted to the support. The turbine has variable pitch blades whose pitch is controlled by the differential motion of a rotary control shaft coaxial with the turbine shaft and the turbine shaft itself so that the blade pitch can be varied by a stationary motor without requiring

A. Chertok; J. Gjertsen Sr; L. Manfredi

1984-01-01

331

Nanoelectromechanical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) are nano-to-micrometer scale mechanical resonators coupled to electronic devices of similar dimensions. NEMS show promise for fast, ultrasensitive force microscopy and for deepening our understanding of how classical dynamics arises by approximation to quantum dynamics. This article begins with a survey of NEMS and then describes certain aspects of their classical dynamics. In particular, we show that

Mp Blencowe

2005-01-01

332

System Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

System dynamics is an approach for thinking about and simulating situations and organisations of all kinds and sizes by visualising how the elements fit together, interact and change over time. This chapter, written by John Morecroft, describes modern system dynamics which retains the fundamentals developed in the 1950s by Jay W. Forrester of the MIT Sloan School of Management. It looks at feedback loops and time delays that affect system behaviour in a non-linear way, and illustrates how dynamic behaviour depends upon feedback loop structures. It also recognises improvements as part of the ongoing process of managing a situation in order to achieve goals. Significantly it recognises the importance of context, and practitioner skills. Feedback systems thinking views problems and solutions as being intertwined. The main concepts and tools: feedback structure and behaviour, causal loop diagrams, dynamics, are practically illustrated in a wide variety of contexts from a hot water shower through to a symphony orchestra and the practical application of the approach is described through several real examples of its use for strategic planning and evaluation.

Morecroft, John

333

Respiratory System  

MedlinePLUS

... Search Form Advanced Search Search the NHLBI, use radio buttons below to select whole site or Disease and Conditions Index only NHLBI Entire ... Information for the Public » Health Topics » How the Lungs Work » The Respiratory System How the Lungs Work Explore ...

334

POWER SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low power output of other devices at this time dictates the use of ; nuclear-reactor systems for manned space explorations. Work up to the present is ; briefly reviewed, and progress and utilization of other power supplies are ; discussed. Pros and cons of solar cells, fuel cells, and thermoelectric and ; thermionic devices are included as well as consideration

1962-01-01

335

Optoelectronic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necessity of devices and systems for identity verification and individualization of security holograms (SH) is growing together with the growth of SH production. The hidden coded micro image as a set of points (bits) was chosen as a new security element. This image is separately added into hologram by laser perforation on the final stage of SH production after replication.

Dmitry Sergeevich Lushnikov; Sergey Borisovich Odinokov; Alexander Yurievich Pavlov

2011-01-01

336

Embedded Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The April 2003 issue of ACM Queue, the online magazine of the Association for Computing Machinery, is dedicated to embedded systems. Seven articles are included in the issue, dealing with the design and construction process of embedded devices, programming, and the hardware/software interface.

2008-02-08

337

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a section of an online Biology Textbook - developed by Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College - providing a concise overview of the digestive system. It describes the enzymes, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids involved in digestion and outlines the role that each part of the body plays from the mouth the large intestine.

Gregory, Michael

1969-12-31

338

Gear system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a gear system comprising a center gear; gears each having a center axis and each meshing with the center gear; main shafts each having an axis and a conical form and each rotatably carrying one of the gears directly through a bearing having a conical hole, a clearance being provided between an outer surface of each main

K. Shinjo; M. Go

1988-01-01

339

Multipositronic Systems  

SciTech Connect

The stability and structure of systems comprising a negative ion and positrons are investigated by the stochastic variational method. It is shown that the H{sup -} and the Li{sup -} ions can bind not only one but two positrons. The binding energies of these double positronic atoms, E(H{sup -} , e{sup +}, e{sup +})=0.57 eV , and E(Li{sup -} , e{sup +}, e{sup +})=0.15 eV are somewhat smaller than those of their single positronic counterparts [E(HPs)=1.06 eV and E(LiPs)=0.32 eV ]. We have also found that two Ps{sup -} 's can form a bound system with a proton. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

Varga, Kalman

1999-12-27

340

Multipositronic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability and structure of systems comprising a negative ion and positrons are investigated by the stochastic variational method. It is shown that the H- and the Li- ions can bind not only one but two positrons. The binding energies of these double positronic atoms, E\\(H-,e+,e+\\) = 0.57 eV, and E\\(Li-,e+,e+\\) = 0.15 eV are somewhat smaller than those of their single positronic counterparts [ E\\(HPs\\) = 1.06 eV and E\\(LiPs\\) = 0.32 eV]. We have also found that two Ps-'s can form a bound system with a proton.

Varga, Kálmán

1999-12-01

341

Surveying System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sunrise Geodetic Surveys are setting up their equipment for a town survey. Their equipment differs from conventional surveying systems that employ transit rod and chain to measure angles and distances. They are using ISTAC Inc.'s Model 2002 positioning system, which offers fast accurate surveying with exceptional signals from orbiting satellites. The special utility of the ISTAC Model 2002 is that it can provide positioning of the highest accuracy from Navstar PPS signals because it requires no knowledge of secret codes. It operates by comparing the frequency and time phase of a Navstar signal arriving at one ISTAC receiver with the reception of the same set of signals by another receiver. Data is computer processed and translated into three dimensional position data - latitude, longitude and elevation.

1988-01-01

342

Neuroendocrine System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological systems of the human body are placed under a great deal of stress during the process of exercise training.\\u000a Within elite athletes this stress can be of enormous levels because of the volume and intensity of work they perform in their\\u000a training regimes . When training stress is of an appropriate level then there is a positive adaptation

A. C. Hackney

343

Combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an external combustion engine such as a Stirling engine and the like, having an external heat system housing in which is defined a heater space, a hollow liner formed of a ceramic material disposed in the heater space and defining a combustion chamber. Biasing means are coupled to a first end of the liner and coupled with the housing so as to maintain the liner in the heater space while dampening transmission of vibration in the housing to the liner.

Kralick, J.

1986-03-04

344

Adrenergic System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The adrenergic system is an essential regulator of cardiovascular, endocrine, neuronal, vegetative, and metabolic function.\\u000a The biological effects of the endogenous catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine are mediated by nine distinct G protein-coupled\\u000a receptor subtypes. These adrenergic receptors can be divided into three different groups, the a1-receptors (?1A, ?1B, ?1D), ?2-receptors (?2A, ?2B ?2C) ?-receptors (?1, ?2, ?3). In the absence

S. Engelhardt; L. Hein

345

Representational Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of representation has been a key element in the scientific study of mental processes, ever since such studies\\u000a commenced. However, usage of the term has been all but too liberal—if one were to adhere to common use it remains unclear\\u000a if there are examples of physical systems which cannot be construed in terms of representation. The problem is

Tomer Fekete

2010-01-01

346

Positive nitrogen balance of Acacia mangium woodlots as fallows in the Philippines based on 15 N natural abundance data of N 2 fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen inputs from biological nitrogen fixation contribute to productivity and sustainability of agroforestry systems but\\u000a they need to be able to offset export of N when trees are harvested. This study assessed magnitudes of biological nitrogen\\u000a fixation (natural 15N abundance) and N balance of Acacia mangium woodlots grown in farmer’s fields, and determined if N2 fixation capacity was affected by

Augustin R. Mercado Jr; Meine Van Noordwijk; Georg Cadisch

2011-01-01

347

Domestication of Irvingia gabonensis : 3. Phenotypic variation of fruits andkernels in a Nigerian village  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestication of Irvingia gabonensis, a fruit tree grown in agroforestry systems in West and Central Africa, offers considerable scope for enhancing the nutritional\\u000a and economic security of subsistence farmers in the region. Assessments of phenotypic variation in ten fruit, nut and kernel\\u000a traits were made on twenty-four ripe fruits from 100 Irvingia gabonensis trees in Ugwuaji village in southeast Nigeria,

P. O. Anegbeh; C. Usoro; V. Ukafor; Z. Tchoundjeu; R. R. B. Leakey; K. Schreckenberg

2003-01-01

348

Soil carbon stock in relation to plant diversity of homegardens in Kerala, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of biodiversity and mitigation of global warming are two major environmental challenges today. In this context,\\u000a the relationship between biodiversity (especially plant diversity) and soil carbon (C) sequestration (as a means of mitigating\\u000a global warming) has become a subject of considerable scientific interest. This relationship was tested for homegardens (HG),\\u000a a popular and sustainable agroforestry system in the tropics,

Subhrajit K. Saha; P. K. Ramachandran Nair; Vimala D. Nair; B. Mohan Kumar

2009-01-01

349

From Forest to Farmland: Species Richness Patterns of Trees and Understorey Plants along a Gradient of Forest Conversion in Southwestern Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation surveys were carried out at 24 sampling stations distributed over four land use types, namely near-primary forest,\\u000a secondary forest, agroforestry systems and annual crop lands in the northeastern part of the Korup region, Cameroon, to assess\\u000a the impact of forest conversion on trees and understorey plants. Tree species richness decreased significantly with increasing\\u000a level of habitat modification, being highest

K. Serge Bobo; Matthias Waltert; N. Moses Sainge; John Njokagbor; Heleen Fermon; Michael Mühlenberg

2006-01-01

350

Effects of Inga densiflora on the microclimate of coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) and overall biomass under optimal growing conditions in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of associating shade trees in coffee agroforestry systems (AFS) are generally thought to be restricted mostly\\u000a to poor soil and sub-optimal ecological conditions for coffee cultivation whereas their role in optimal conditions remains\\u000a controversial. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate, under the optimal coffee cultivation conditions of the\\u000a Central Valley of Costa Rica, the impact

Pablo Siles; Jean-Michel Harmand; Philippe Vaast

2010-01-01

351

Natural Resource Management: Historical Lessons from Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a variety of historical evidence from Indonesia to explore the conditions for sustainable management of natural\\u000a resources. In the agricultural sphere, history gives reason for optimism regarding the ability of individuals to conserve\\u000a and improve soil resources on an uncoordinated, anarchic basis under systems of intensive smallholder farming and agroforestry.\\u000a It also suggests that this ability may

David Henley

2008-01-01

352

Chapter 17 Slash-and-Burn Agriculture in a Japanese Cedar ( Cryptomeria japonica D. Don.) Plantation: Effects of Fire on Nutrients and Soil Emissions of Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the temperate coast of central Japan, a unique agroforestry system exists, wherein red turnips (Brassica rapa L. var. glabra Kitam.) are grown on slash-and-burn sites following the harvesting of mature Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don.) plantations. We studied the effect of fire on nutrient dynamics, soil CO2 efflux, and microbial biomass at two slash-and-burned sites. Burning, besides raising

Toshiyuki Ohtsuka; Wenhong Mo; Masaki Uchida; Hironori Sako; Hiroshi Koizumi

2007-01-01

353

Effects of water stress on water use efficiency and water balance components of Hippophae rhamnoides and Caragana intermedia in the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hippophae rhamnoides (Sea buckthorn) and Caragana intermedia (Intermediate peashrub), which are nitrogen-fixing and perennial temperate shrubs, are extensively used in the agroforestry\\u000a systems in the loess areas of China. In this study, artificially controlled water gradient experiments were carried out with\\u000a both shrubs, based on four levels of water supply (normal precipitation, slight drought, drought, and extreme drought). The\\u000a results

Weihua GuoBo; Bo Li; Xinshi Zhang; Renqing Wang

2010-01-01

354

Root length and nitrate under Sesbania sesban: Vertical and horizontal distribution and variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of root and nutrient distributions in agroforestry systems have often been obtained from unreplicated plots.\\u000a We, therefore, measured the vertical and horizontal distribution of root length and soil nitrate in replicated plots of sesbania\\u000a [Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.] to assess plot-to-plot variation and identify appropriate sampling schemes. Sampling was on profile\\u000a walls exposed from pits at two on-farm sites

Kindu Mekonnen; Roland J. Buresh; Richard Coe; Kering Maru Kipleting

1998-01-01

355

Sugar composition and yield of syrup production from the pulp of Moroccan carob pods ( Ceratonia siliqua L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to provide a process for obtaining natural carob syrup of Morocco carob pods and their total and reducing sugar. Samples were collected from different regions in the agro-forestry system of Morocco. The total sugar and reducing sugar in pods obtained from different regions were 31.5–50.1 and 10.2–14.6g\\/100g “%w\\/w”, respectively. The yield of syrup from

H. El Batal; A. Hasib; A. Ouatmane; F. Dehbi; A. Jaouad; A. Boulli

356

Characterizing land-use diversity in village landscapes for sustainable mountain development: a case study from Indian Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to analyze the ecological, socio-economic and policy implications of land-use diversity in a traditional\\u000a village landscape (900–1,000 m amsl.) in the Garhwal region of Indian Himalaya. The village landscape was differentiated into three major land-use types viz.,\\u000a forests, settled agriculture and shifting agriculture. Settled agriculture was further differentiated into four agroecosystem\\u000a types viz., homegarden system (HGS), rainfed agroforestry

K. Singh; R. K. Maikhuri; K. S. Rao; K. G. Saxena

2008-01-01

357

Nitrogen recovery by alley-cropped maize and treesfrom 15N-labeled tree biomass in the subhumid highlands of Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of tree-leaf biomass as a source of N to crops in agroforestry systems depends on the rate at which crops\\u000a can obtain N from the biomass. A study was conducted to determine the fate of 15N labeled, soil-applied biomass of two hedgerow species, Calliandra calothyrsus Meissner (calliandra) and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (leucaena), in the subhumid highlands

D. N. Mugendi; P. K. R. Nair; D. A. Graetz; J. N. Mugwee; M. K. O'Neill

2000-01-01

358

Functional branch analysis as tool for fractal scaling above- and belowground trees for their additive and non-additive properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical allometric scaling equations (Y = aDb) for tree biomass on the basis of stem diameter D are often used in forest inventories and for assessment of carbon and nutrient stocks in vegetation. When shifting from plantation forestry to mixed forestry or multi-species agroforestry systems, however, short-cuts to the empirical approach for establishing such equations are desirable. Fractal branchin& models

van Noordwijk; Rachmat Mulia

359

Wood and biomass production of Leucaena in subtropical Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although only Leucaena leucocephala is widely used, most members of the Leucaena genus have potential as multipurpose species for tropical agroforestry systems. To investigate the wood and biomass production\\u000a potential of the Leucaena genus, 116 accessions covering the 22 species were evaluated over a two-year period at Brisbane, southeast Queensland, Australia.\\u000a Trees were planted into replicated line plots 5 m

B. F. Mullen; R. C. Gutteridge

2002-01-01

360

Functional branch analysis as tool for fractal scaling above- and belowground trees for their additive and non-additive properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical allometric scaling equations (Y=aDb) for tree biomass on the basis of stem diameter D are often used in forest inventories and for assessment of carbon and nutrient stocks in vegetation. When shifting from plantation forestry to mixed forestry or multi-species agroforestry systems, however, short-cuts to the empirical approach for establishing such equations are desirable. Fractal branching models provide a

Meine van Noordwijk; Rachmat Mulia

2002-01-01

361

Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

1994-01-01

362

D0 Cryo System Control System Autodialer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DO cryogenic system is controlled by a TI565-PLC based control system. This allows the system to be unmanned when in steady state operation. System experts will need to be contacted when system parameters exceed normal operating points and reach alarm setpoints. The labwide FIRUS system provides one alarm monitor and communication link. An autodialer provides a second and more

J. Urbin

1990-01-01

363

Fruit set of highland coffee increases with the diversity of pollinating bees.  

PubMed Central

The worldwide decline of pollinators may negatively affect the fruit set of wild and cultivated plants. Here, we show that fruit set of the self-fertilizing highland coffee (Coffea arabica) is highly variable and related to bee pollination. In a comparison of 24 agroforestry systems in Indonesia, the fruit set of coffee could be predicted by the number of flower-visiting bee species, and it ranged from ca. 60% (three species) to 90% (20 species). Diversity, not abundance, explained variation in fruit set, so the collective role of a species-rich bee community was important for pollination success. Additional experiments showed that single flower visits from rare solitary species led to higher fruit set than with abundant social species. Pollinator diversity was affected by two habitat parameters indicating guild-specific nesting requirements: the diversity of social bees decreased with forest distance, whereas the diversity of solitary bees increased with light intensity of the agroforestry systems. These results give empirical evidence for a positive relationship between ecosystem functions such as pollination and biodiversity. Conservation of rainforest adjacent to adequately managed agroforestry systems could improve the yields of farmers.

Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

2003-01-01

364

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA is charting a bold new course into the cosmos, a journey that will take humans back to the Moon, and eventually to Mars and beyond. Exploration of the solar system and beyond will be guided by compelling questions of scientific and societal importance. NASA exploration programs will seek profound answers to questions about the origins of our solar system, whether life exists beyond Earth, and how we could live on other worlds. The NASA Vision for space exploration calls for a combination of human and robotic missions to achieve new exploration goals. Robotic missions to the Moon will be followed by an extended human expedition as early as 2015. Lunar exploration will lay the groundwork for future exploration of Mars and other destinations. A new spacecraft to support these journeys--the Crew Exploration Vehicle--will be tested before the end of this decade. Space exploration holds a special place in the human imagination. Youth are especially drawn to Mars rovers, astronauts, and telescopes. If used effectively and creatively, space can inspire children to seek careers in math, science, and engineering. Exploration and discovery are key agents of growth in society--technologically, economically, socially, internationally, and intellectually. This module is a first step in engaging today's youth in space exploration and serves as an invitation to participate in the excitement of discovery.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

365

Refrigeration system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a chamber including an expandable refrigerant system associated therewith. The system comprises reservoir containing an expandable refrigerant coolant and lead piping connecting the reservoir to conduits carrying the coolant therein. The chamber comprises top, bottom and side walls, accordingly defining an interior and an exterior to the chamber, one of the walls comprises a door affording access into the chamber, each of the walls being insulated with insulating material. At least one of the walls comprises a first layer of the insulating material extending thereover adjacent the exterior and a second layer of the insulating material extending thereover adjacent the interior. The reservoir, lead piping and conduits are disposed intermediate the first and second layers of insulating material thereby isolating them from both the interior and exterior. Heat transferring through the at least one wall is substantially absorbed by the coolant and the insulating material cooled by the coolant, before it is able to penetrate through the at least one wall, permitting a product placed in the chamber to effectively maintain or substantially maintain a selected even temperature.

Pagani, R.F.; Clarke, K.J.; Avon, E.J.

1986-11-11

366

Solar System!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to our solar system: the planets, our Sun and our Moon. Students begin by learning the history and engineering of space travel. They make simple rockets to acquire a basic understanding Newton's third law of motion. They explore energy transfer concepts and use renewable solar energy for cooking. They see how engineers design tools, equipment and spacecraft to go where it is too far and too dangerous for humans. They explore the Earth's water cycle, and gravity as applied to orbiting bodies. They learn the steps of the design process as they create their own planetary rovers made of edible parts. Students conduct experiments to examine soil for signs of life, and explore orbit transfers. While studying about the International Space Station (ISS), they investigate the realities of living in space. Activities explore low gravity on human muscles, eating in microgravity, and satellite tracking. Finally, students learn about the context of our solar system, the universe, as they learn about the Hubble Space Telescope, celestial navigation and spectroscopy.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

367

Ignition system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an ignition system of an internal combustion engine which consists of: a permanent magnet supported by a rotary member of the engine adapted to rotate in synchronism with a rotary shaft of the engine; a generating coil for generating an electromotive force to produce an electric current as the permanent magnet acts on the generating coil during the rotation of the rotary member; an ignition capacitor charged by the electric current generated by the generating coil; a thyristor caused to turn on by a counter electromotive force generated by the generating coil to thereby cause the ignition capacitor to begin to discharge; and an ignition coil generating a high voltage as the ignition capacitor begins to discharge, to cause a spark discharge to take place in an ignition plug of the internal combustion engine.

Kondo, T.; Ohno, S.

1986-09-16

368

Transfer system  

SciTech Connect

A transport system includes a traveling rail (1) which constitutes a transport route and a transport body (3) which is capable of traveling on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. Flexible drive tubes (5) are arranged on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. The transport body includes a traveling wheel (4) which is capable of rolling on the traveling rail and drive wheels (2) which are capable of rolling on the drive tubes upon receiving the rotational drive power generated by pressure of a pressure medium supplied to the drive tubes while depressing the drive tubes. The traveling rail includes a plurality of transport sections and the transport body is capable of receiving a rotational drive force from the drive tubes at every transport sections. If necessary, a transport route changeover switch which changes over the transport route can be provided between the transport sections.

Kurosawa, Kanji (Tokyo, JP); Koga, Bunichiro (Miyagi, JP); Ito, Hideki (Miyagi, JP); Kiriyama, Shigeru (Miyagi, JP); Higuchi, Shizuo (Kanagawa, JP)

2003-05-20

369

Numeration Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Numeration Systems, is the first chapter in Volume IV âÂÂDigital. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Numbers and symbols; Octal and hexadecimal numeration; and Conversion from decimal numeration. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-02

370

Mooring system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a mooring system for use on a body of water and having an anchoring structure and a flotation platform. It comprises a waterward end, a coupler comprising means for attaching the coupler with the anchoring structure to permit substantially unrestricted independent movement of the coupler in a direction substantially perpendicular to the surface of the water with substantially restricted movement of the coupler in a direction substantially parallel to the surface of the water; a link member coupled to the attachment means; means for allowing limited rotation of the link member with respect to the attachment means about a horizontally disposed axis perpendicular to the direction of movement of the coupler and means for allowing the waterward end of the flotation platform to pivot upward around the link member while preventing the flotation platform from pivoting downward substantially below the horizontal plane defined by the attachment means and the pivot means.

Hemminger, P.W.

1991-09-03

371

Skeletal System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this unit, written for an honors anatomy and physiology class, students become familiar with the human skeletal system and answer the Challenge Question: When you get home from school, your mother grabs you, and you race to the hospital. Your grandmother fell and was rushed to the emergency room. The doctor tells your family your grandmother has a fractured hip, and she is referring her to an orthopedic specialist. The orthopedic doctor decides to perform a DEXA scan. The result show her BMD is -3.3. What would be a probable diagnosis to her condition? What are some possible causes of her condition? Should her daughter and granddaughter be worried about this condition, and if so, what are measures they could take to prevent this from happening to them?

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

372

Systems toxicology.  

PubMed

The need for a more mechanistic understanding of the ways in which chemicals modulate biological pathways is urgent if we are to identify and better assess safety issues relating to a wide range of substances developed by the pharmaceutical, chemical, agri-bio, and cosmetic industries. Omics technologies provide a valuable opportunity to refine existing methods and provide information for so-called integrated testing strategies via the creation of signatures of toxicity. By mapping these signatures to underlying pathways of toxicity, some of which have been identified by toxicologists over the last few decades, and bringing them together with pathway information determined from biochemistry and molecular biology, a "systems toxicology" approach will enable virtual experiments to be conducted that can improve the prediction of hazard and the assessment of compound toxicity. PMID:22562485

Hartung, Thomas; van Vliet, Erwin; Jaworska, Joanna; Bonilla, Leo; Skinner, Nigel; Thomas, Russell

2012-01-01

373

Battery system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A battery system includes: a battery unit formed by electrically connected in series a plurality of cell groups each made up with a plurality of battery cells electrically connected in series; a plurality of sensing lines for detecting voltages of respective battery cells in the battery unit; an integrated circuit provided to each of the cell group, to which the sensing lines for detecting voltages of respective battery cells in the cell group are connected; a case having housed therein a substrate at which a plurality of integrated circuits provided for the cell groups respectively are mounted; noise protection capacitors disposed between input terminals of the plurality of sensing lines; and at least one protection element against static electricity which is connected between the input terminals and the case.

2013-08-27

374

Solar system  

SciTech Connect

An improved solar heat collecting system is described comprising: a collecting means having upper and lower end caps; means for supporting the collecting means in a position generally perpendicular to ambit solar radiation and to permit periodic adjustment thereof; the support means including a base, a first support bar pivotally secured to the base and extending parallel to the ground, and a first support member extending perpendicular from the first support bar to the lower end cap. The support means also includes a second support bar pivotally secured to the base and extending generally parallel to the first support bar, a support leg having a lower portion that extends perpendicularly from the second support bar, an intermediate leg portion slidingly mounted on the lower leg portion and an upper leg portion pivotally secured to the intermediate leg portion, and a second support member extending perpendicularly from the upper leg portion to the upper end cap; lens means disposed above the collecting means for concentrating solar radiation on the collecting means; a pair of reflector means mounted below and on opposite sides of the radiation shadow of the lens means for concentrating solar radiation on the collecting means; mounting means for mounting the lens means and the reflector means. The mounting means includes first and second bracket means rotatively mounted respectively to the first and second support members. A pair of radially extending U-shaped reflector mounts have opposite ends secured to respective bracket means, and a pair of radially extending lens supports secured to respective bracket means; and means for rotating the mounting means and associated lens mean and reflector means to track the source of solar radiation whereby an improved, highly efficient solar heat collecting system is provided.

Gregory, S.T.

1987-02-24

375

Technology reviews: Glazing systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present a representative review of existing, emerging, and future technology options in each of five hardware and systems areas in envelope and lighting technologies: lighting systems, glazing systems, shading systems, daylighting optical systems, and ...

J. Schuman F. Rubinstein K. Papamichael L. Beltran E. S. Lee

1992-01-01

376

Prosthetic Knee Systems  

MedlinePLUS

... of fluid control systems — pneumatic (using air) and hydraulic (using fluid). Pneumatic control. These systems: compress air ... control than friction systems are less effective than hydraulic systems. Hydraulic control. These systems: use liquid (usually ...

377

Soil Carbon Sequestration in Pastureland and Rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degraded land with less than 1.5% organic carbon (class 4 and 5 land) in the Parkland of Western Canada has significant potential, from 5 to 15 Mg C ha-1 depending on management, for carbon storage with forages in the Parkland. The potential ranges from 5 to 15 Mg C ha-1, over a period from 15 to 20 years, depending on

A. P. Moulin; P. McCaughey; D. McCartney; M. Entz; S. Bittman; W. F. Nuttall

378

Systems concepts for training systems development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews literature showing the effects of fragmented training development and presents systems theory and training systems concepts and definitions. The author also discusses system-oriented research issues in the areas of training needs and goals analysis, training device design and use, and training system evaluation. It is shown that a systems perspective will facilitate communication between the diverse individuals engaged in

Robert T. Hays

1992-01-01

379

Acquisitions Systems: Sydney Micro Library System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Sydney Micro Library System is a microcomputer-based integrated library system with cataloging, inquiry, and system management modules that form the base system for running the optional acquisitions, circulation, serials, and MARC record modules. Designed for small special libraries, the system has parallel minicomputer and microcomputer…

Desmarais, Norman

1986-01-01

380

A planning support system for system of systems engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a planning system for SOSE (system of systems engineering). Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the planning for SOSE, the architecture framework of the planning system is introduced, which not only supports the process design and organization design, but also monitor of SOSE process. A plan representation is proposed for planning SOSE, which emphasizes on

Yong Wang; Zhong Liu; Wei-Ming Zhang; Jin-Cai Huang; Bao-Xin Xiu

2007-01-01

381

Ignition system  

SciTech Connect

An ignition system for a spark ignited internal combustion engine is described comprising, a source of direct voltage having positive and negative terminals, an ignition coil having a primary winding and a secondary winding, an N-channel semiconductor device having a gate, a drain and a source, means connecting the positive terminal of the direct voltage source to the drain means connecting the primary winding between the source of the N-channel semiconductor device and the negative terminal of the direct voltage source, a semiconductor switch means connected between the gate and source of the N-channel semiconductor device. The semiconductor switch means when conductive connecting the gate and source of the N-channel semiconductor device, means for biasing the N-channel semiconductor device on and off. The primary winding develops a flyback voltage that is negative at its end that is connected to the source of the N-channel semiconductor device when the N-channel semiconductor device is biased off, and means for causing the semiconductor switch means to be biased conductive in response to the development of the flyback voltage to thereby maintain the N-channel semiconductor device off.

Haines, D.L.; Hopper, D.H.

1988-04-19

382

Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID...

M. L. Grygiel

1996-01-01

383

A preliminary report of Norplant implant insertions in a large urban family planning program.  

PubMed

During the 21-month period between August 1, 1991, and April 30, 1993, 2,358 women received Norplant system insertions in either Parkland Memorial Hospital or the Dallas Maternal Health and Family Planning clinics. Forty-three percent of these women were teenagers with 14% 16 years of age or less. Overall, 431 patients received Norplant implants insertions postpartum prior to discharge from the hospital. To date, 138 Norplant systems have been removed, with the proportion of contraceptive implant removals among teenagers being essentially the same as that in more mature women. Of the reasons given by women discontinuing the Norplant system, an unanticipated high incidence of pain in the arm containing the implants, hair loss, and mood changes were noted. We have found the Norplant system to be a highly effective and highly acceptable contraceptive method for a large number of indigent women. PMID:8222663

Crosby, U D; Schwarz, B E; Gluck, K L; Heartwell, S F

1993-10-01

384

System design description cone penetrometer system  

SciTech Connect

The system design description documents in detail the design of the cone penetrometer system. The systems includes the cone penetrometer physical package, raman spectroscopy package and moisture sensor package. Information pertinent to the system design, development, fabrication and testing is provided.

Seda, R.Y., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-12

385

Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering

Grygiel

1996-01-01

386

D0 Cryo System Control System Autodialer  

SciTech Connect

The DO cryogenic system is controlled by a TI565-PLC based control system. This allows the system to be unmanned when in steady state operation. System experts will need to be contacted when system parameters exceed normal operating points and reach alarm setpoints. The labwide FIRUS system provides one alarm monitor and communication link. An autodialer provides a second and more flexible alarm monitor and communication link. The autodialer monitors contact points in the control system and after receiving indication of an alarm accesses a list of experts which it calls until it receives an acknowledgement. There are several manufacturers and distributors of autodialer systems. This EN explains the search process the DO cryo group used to fmd an autodialer system that fit the cryo system's needs and includes information and specs for the unit we chose.

Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

1990-04-17

387

Photovoltaic System Research Status.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After a decade of photovoltaic system research, most system related issues have been successfully resolved. Current system research activities are now oriented toward maintaining and updating the comprehensive database on system performance established by...

H. N. Post G. J. Jones M. G. Thomas

1989-01-01

388

A Stimuli Presentation System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory and research field trip requirements have revealed the need for a programmable audio switching system. This system, the stimuli presentation system (SPS), is designed with general versatility in mind. Although the system was conceived for use i...

W. D. Harrington H. Hollien H. Rothman

1969-01-01

389

Integrated library systems.  

PubMed Central

The development of integrated library systems is discussed. The four major discussion points are (1) initial efforts; (2) network resources; (3) minicomputer-based systems; and (4) beyond library automation. Four existing systems are cited as examples of current systems.

Goldstein, C M

1983-01-01

390

Continuous Informations Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The motion of an algebraic information system is generalized to that of a continuous information system. Just as algebraic information systems are concrete representations of bounded complete algebraic dcpo's (Scott domains), continuous information system...

R. Hoofman

1990-01-01

391

Mechanical Systems: A Compilation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A compilation of several mechanized systems is presented. The articles are contained in three sections: robotics, industrial mechanical systems, including several on linear and rotary systems and lastly mechanical control systems, such as brakes and clutc...

1975-01-01

392

TPAP Operating System Executive.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a special purpose, virtual operating system designed to enhance the flexibility and capability of the Transaction Processing System within the Honeywell Series 60/6000/600 Information Systems. The special purpose operating system is ...

R. Ewing

1975-01-01

393

Stanchion System Upgrade  

NSF Publications Database

... utility systems on poles will be relocated to the above ground stanchion system. As part of this ... current utility system will remain the same at McMurdo Station. The current system presents numerous ...

394

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the parts of our solar system? Let's learn about the parts of our Solar System! First, use the Solar System Chart Now read the Introduction to the Solar System and begin filling out the Solar System Chart by listing one fact for each planet. Now watch the Video 1 on the Solar System and fill out one characteristic about each planet in our Solar System. Now read the Facts about the Solar System and find ...

Kathrynbyers

2012-04-05

395

Extensible Virtual Environment Systems Using System of Systems Engineering Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of Virtual Environment (VE) systems is a challenging endeavor with a complex problem domain. The experience in the past decade has helped contribute significantly to various measures of software quality of the resulting VE systems. However, the resulting solutions remain monolithic in nature without addressing successfully the issue of system interoperability and software aging. This paper argues that

Manuel Oliveira; Joao Pereira

2007-01-01

396

On Long Lifespan systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex systems are not only characterized by their magnitudes, but also their lifespans. This paper presents a theory of Long-Lifespan systems (LLS's) and its applications in explaining the properties of complex systems from both the function and time dimensions. The mathematical models of LLS's such as those of the abstract systems, system magnitudes, and system lifespan, are established. Then, properties

Yingxu Wang

2008-01-01

397

Controllability of molecular systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyze the controllability of quantum systems arising in molecular dynamics. We model these systems as systems with finite numbers of levels, and examine their controllability. To do this we pass to their unitary generators and use results on the controllability of invariant systems on Lie groups. Examples of molecular systems, modeled as finite-dimensional control systems, are

Viswanath Ramakrishna; Murti V. Salapaka; Mohammed Dahleh; Herschel Rabitz; Anthony Peirce

1995-01-01

398

System of systems modeling and analysis.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of an LDRD program entitled 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' that was conducted during FY 2003 and FY 2004. Systems that themselves consist of multiple systems (referred to here as System of Systems or SoS) introduce a level of complexity to systems performance analysis and optimization that is not readily addressable by existing capabilities. The objective of the 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' project was to develop an integrated modeling and simulation environment that addresses the complex SoS modeling and analysis needs. The approach to meeting this objective involved two key efforts. First, a static analysis approach, called state modeling, has been developed that is useful for analyzing the average performance of systems over defined use conditions. The state modeling capability supports analysis and optimization of multiple systems and multiple performance measures or measures of effectiveness. The second effort involves time simulation which represents every system in the simulation using an encapsulated state model (State Model Object or SMO). The time simulation can analyze any number of systems including cross-platform dependencies and a detailed treatment of the logistics required to support the systems in a defined mission.

Campbell, James E.; Anderson, Dennis James; Longsine, Dennis E. (Intera, Inc., Austin, TX); Shirah, Donald N.

2005-01-01

399

Land use change effects on trace gas fluxes in the forest margins of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use changes and land use intensification are considered important processes contributing to the increasing concentrations of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) and of nitric oxide (NO), a precursor of ozone. Studies on the effects of land use changes and land use intensification on soil trace gas emissions were mostly conducted in Latin America and only very few in Asia. Here we present results from Central Sulawesi where profound changes in land use and cultivation practices take place: traditional agricultural practices like shifting cultivation and slash-and-burn agriculture are replaced by permanent cultivation systems and introduction of income-generating cash crops like cacao. Our results showed that N2O emissions were higher from cacao agroforestry (35 ± 10 ?g N m-2 h-1) than maize (9 ± 2 ?g N m-2 h-1), whereas intermediate rates were observed from secondary forests (25 ± 11 ?g N m-2 h-1). NO emissions did not differ among land use systems, ranging from 12 ± 2 ?g N m-2 h-1 for cacao agroforestry and secondary forest to 18 ± 2 ?g N m-2 h-1 for maize. CH4 uptake was higher for maize (-30 ± 4 ?g C m-2 h-1) than cacao agroforestry (-18 ± 2 ?g C m-2 h-1) and intermediate rates were measured from secondary forests (-25 ± 4 ?g C m-2 h-1). Combining these data with results from other studies in this area, we present chronosequence effects of land use change on trace gas emissions from natural forest, through maize cultivation, to cacao agroforestry (with or without fertilizer). Compared to the original forests, this typical land use change in the study area clearly led to higher N2O emissions and lower CH4 uptake with age of cacao agroforestry systems. We conclude that this common land use sequence in the area combined with the increasing use of fertilizer will strongly increase soil trace gas emissions. We suggest that the future hot spot regions of high N2O (and to a lesser extend NO) emissions in the tropics are those areas where climatic and edaphic conditions allow for intensive agriculture. This scenario is probably preferable over the alternative of agriculture extensification, which would imply a dramatic increase in deforestation rates with accompanying CO2 emissions.

Veldkamp, Edzo; Purbopuspito, Joko; Corre, Marife D.; Brumme, Rainer; Murdiyarso, Daniel

2008-06-01

400

Quantitative solar system science with AO systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive Optics systems, today available on 8-10m class telescopes are playing a significant role in the study of our solar system bodies. We describe three main science cases i) small solar system bodies ii) satellites of giant planets iii) giant planets atmospheres. We describe recent results acquired with these systems in these fields. We discuss the limitation and potential of AO systems for these studies, and address the problem of observability specific to moving targets. The potential for planetary science of future and improved AO systems is described.

Marchis, Franck; Berthier, Jerome; Wong, Michael H.

2012-07-01

401

Social Services Information System: System Description Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and implementation philosophy of the Social Services Information System (SSIS) of the Colorado Department of Social Services are described, and technical background and systems documentation are provided in a manual intended for technical perso...

1975-01-01

402

An Operating System Independent WORM Archival System  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We describe the organization of a general purpose data archival system for Write-Once, Read-Many (WORM) optical disks. The system has been designed for large-scale and long-term data storage and retrieval. The archival system is independent of the operating system, flat, self-consistent, does not use any write cache on magnetic disk, and allows the exploitation of auxiliary information on magnetic

Guido Russo; Stefano Russo

1995-01-01

403

LCLS XTOD Attenuator System System Concept Report  

SciTech Connect

The attenuator system for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics (XTOD) system has been configured and analyzed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The system layout, performance analyses and selection of the vacuum components are presented in this System Conceptual Review (SCR) report. Also included are the plans for prototype, procurement, mechanical integration, and the cost estimates.

Kishiyama, K; Roeben, M; Trent, J; Ryutov, D; Shen, S

2006-04-12

404

Randomization for Testing Systems of Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies randomization theory to the problem of selecting software test cases for software systems and applications in order to overcome the hurdle of high cost in testing componentized systems of systems (SoS). We have used a corner point semantics, which can approximate a proof of correctness - termed a pseudo-proof of correctness. Test cases for each component are

Qianhui Althea Liang; Stuart Harvey Rubin

2009-01-01

405

A systems analysis of systems integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most if not all complex issues stated as problems intended to result in new systems may be analyzed using systems decomposition and then constructed by synthesis. Systems decomposition starts with a complex problem that may or may not be obviously solvable and deconstructs that problem into smaller more tractable problems that can be solved. Construction by synthesis treats the smaller

Robert Schaefer

2008-01-01

406

Systems Engineering Cost Estimation for Space Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of COSYSMO, a systems engineering cost model, is explored in the context of space systems through the analysis of two main assumptions. First, the WBS elements of the model are mapped to a prototypical WBS for space systems. Second, the life cycle phases assumed in the model are mapped to the phases outlined in the latest National Security

Ricardo Valerdi; Marilee J. Wheaton; Jared Fortune

2007-01-01

407

CPS (Collective Protective System) Alarm System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved collective protection system (CPS) alarm is generally comprised of an electronic circuit board terminal box that is readily connectable to any selected point of a ship power bus system. The system is provided with a plurality of pressure trans...

B. A. Repp A. M. Wurm A. J. Simonoff S. R. Courtney

1988-01-01

408

Immune System Based Intrusion Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threats and intrusions in IT systems can basically be compared to human diseases with the difference that the human body has an effective way to deal with them, what still need to be designed for IT systems. The human immune system (HIS) can detect and defend against yet unseen intruders, is distributed, adaptive and multilayered to name only a

Christoph Ehret; Ulrich Ultes-nitsche

2008-01-01

409

Intelligence systems: a sociotechnical systems perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

To effectively compete a firm needs to take advantage of their intellectual capital. However, intellectual capital alone is not sufficient to capitalize on the intellectual assets of the firm. An intelligence system is also necessary. We propose an intelligence system, consisting of four evolving components: a corporate data base of transaction processing and management information systems, a decision-making environment of

James A. Sena

1999-01-01

410

Enhancing Ubiquitous Systems through System Call Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collecting, monitoring, and analyzing data automatically by well instrumented systems is frequently motivated by human decision-making. However, the same need occurs when system software decisions are to be justified. Compiler optimization or storage management requires several decisions which result in more or less resource consumption, be it energy, memory, or runtime. A magnitude of system data can be collected in

Katharina Morik; Felix Jungermann; Nico Piatkowski; Michael Engel

2010-01-01

411

Clinical information systems.  

PubMed

Clinical information systems are the computer and information systems used by health care personnel to facilitate patient care. These systems have evolved from financial systems to true patient care systems with variable levels of functionality. Early systems provided laboratory and radiology results, and modern systems now provide copies of the radiology images and decision support for therapeutic orders. The rapidly changing technological infrastructure has created barriers to implementation of the electronic medical record, while coding schemes continue to be refined to enable data access and aggregate data analysis. Further refinement of clinical information systems is required before the potential value of these systems is realized in the clinical management of patients. PMID:10688384

Hardin, W D

2000-02-01

412

Expert Systems: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses: (1) the architecture of expert systems; (2) features that distinguish expert systems from conventional programs; (3) conditions necessary to select a particular application for the development of successful expert systems; (4) issues to be resolved when building expert systems; and (5) limitations. Examples of selected expert systems

Adiga, Sadashiv

1984-01-01

413

Interactive Video Authoring Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Five articles describe the following microcomputer-based interactive video authoring aids: (1) IBM's Learning System/1; (2) Video Nova Authoring System; (3) IMSATT Corporation's expert-based authoring system; (4) the System for Authoring Microtraining (SAM); and (5) Omnicom's Content Expert Interviewer and Interactive Design and Authoring System.…

Taylor, Timothy D.; And Others

1987-01-01

414

Power system commonality study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system\\/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this

Franklin D. Littman

1992-01-01

415

Heliospheric coordinate systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview and reference to the most common coordinate systems currently used in space science. While coordinate systems used in near-Earth space physics have been described in previous work we extend that description to systems used for physical observations of the Sun and the planets and to systems based on spacecraft location. For all systems, we define

M. Fränz; D. Harper

2002-01-01

416

Anticipatory systems in physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The study of anticipatory systems assumes the existence of two distinct types of systems in nature. Some systems anticipate the future and such anticipation forms part of the system itself, while other systems, however, do not anticipate and solely rely on past states. This article aims to argue that this distinction is inadequate given the current understanding of

J. Ferret

2010-01-01

417

Organization in Biological Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological systems are typically hierarchically organized, open, nonlinear systems, and inherit all of the characteristics of such systems that are found in the purely physical and chemical domains, to which all biological systems belong. In addition, biological systems exhibit functional properties, and they contain information in a form that is used internally to make required functional distinctions. The existence of

John Collier

418

System Specification in Rosetta  

Microsoft Academic Search

System level specification and analysis has become a critical issue in designing today's ever increasingly complex systems. System level design is distinguished from other design activities by its heterogeneous nature. Specifically, systems level designers must integrate information from many different design domains in a single design decision making activity. Rosetta is a systems level specification language that addresses problems specific

Perry Alexander; Roshan Kamath; David Barton

2000-01-01

419

A model of greenhouse gas emissions from the management of turf on two golf courses.  

PubMed

An estimated 32,000 golf courses worldwide (approximately 25,600 km(2)), provide ecosystem goods and services and support an industry contributing over $ 124 billion globally. Golf courses can impact positively on local biodiversity however their role in the global carbon cycle is not clearly understood. To explore this relationship, the balance between plant-soil system sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management on golf courses was modelled. Input data were derived from published studies of emissions from agriculture and turfgrass management. Two UK case studies of golf course type were used, a Links course (coastal, medium intensity management, within coastal dune grasses) and a Parkland course (inland, high intensity management, within woodland). Playing surfaces of both golf courses were marginal net sources of greenhouse gas emissions due to maintenance (Links 0.4 ± 0.1Mg CO(2)e ha(-1)y(-1); Parkland 0.7 ± 0.2Mg CO(2)e ha(-1)y(-1)). A significant proportion of emissions were from the use of nitrogen fertiliser, especially on tees and greens such that 3% of the golf course area contributed 16% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The area of trees on a golf course was important in determining whole-course emission balance. On the Parkland course, emissions from maintenance were offset by sequestration from trees which comprised 48% of total area, resulting in a net balance of -4.3 ± 0.9 Mg CO(2e) ha(-1)y(-1). On the Links course, the proportion of trees was much lower (2%) and sequestration from links grassland resulted in a net balance of 0.0 ± 0.2Mg CO(2e) ha(-1)y(-1). Recommendations for golf course management and design include the reduction of nitrogen fertiliser, improved operational efficiency when mowing, the inclusion of appropriate tree-planting and the scaling of component areas to maximise golf course sequestration capacity. The findings are transferrable to the management and design of urban parks and gardens, which range between fairways and greens in intensity of management. PMID:21288561

Bartlett, Mark D; James, Iain T

2011-02-01

420

A model of greenhouse gas emissions from the management of turf on two golf courses.  

PubMed

An estimated 32,000 golf courses worldwide (approximately 25,600 km2), provide ecosystem goods and services and support an industry contributing over $124 billion globally. Golf courses can impact positively on local biodiversity however their role in the global carbon cycle is not clearly understood. To explore this relationship, the balance between plant–soil system sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management on golf courses was modelled. Input data were derived from published studies of emissions from agriculture and turfgrass management. Two UK case studies of golf course type were used, a Links course (coastal, medium intensity management, within coastal dune grasses) and a Parkland course (inland, high intensity management, within woodland).Playing surfaces of both golf courses were marginal net sources of greenhouse gas emissions due to maintenance (Links ?2.2 ± 0.4 Mg CO2e ha(?1) y(?1); Parkland ? 2.0 ± 0.4 Mg CO2e ha(?1) y(?1)). A significant proportion of emissions were from the use of nitrogen fertiliser, especially on tees and greens such that 3% of the golf course area contributed 16% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The area of trees on a golf course was important in determining whole-course emission balance. On the Parkland course, emissions from maintenance were offset by sequestration from turfgrass, and trees which comprised 48% of total area, resulting in a net balance of ?5.4 ± 0.9 Mg CO2e ha(?1) y(?1). On the Links course, the proportion of trees was much lower (2%) and sequestration from links grassland resulted in a net balance of ?1.6 ± 0.3 Mg CO2e ha(?1) y(?1). Recommendations for golf course management and design include the reduction of nitrogen fertiliser, improved operational efficiency when mowing, the inclusion of appropriate tree-planting and the scaling of component areas to maximise golf course sequestration capacity. The findings are transferrable to the management and design of urban parks and gardens, which range between fairways and greens in intensity of management. PMID:22066130

Bartlett, Mark D; James, Iain T

2011-11-01

421

The LSST: A System of Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complete observing system that acquires and archives images, processes and analyzes them, and publishes reduced images and catalogs of sources and objects. The LSST will operate over a ten year period producing a survey of 20,000 square degrees over the entire [Southern] sky in 6 filters (ugrizy) with each field having been visited several hundred times enabling a wide spectrum of science from fast transients to exploration of dark matter and dark energy. The LSST itself is a complex system of systems consisting of the 8.4m 3-mirror telescope, a 3.2 billion pixel camera, and a peta-scale data management system. The LSST project uses a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methodology to ensure an integrated approach to system design and rigorous definition of system interfaces and specifications. The MBSE methodology is applied through modeling of the LSST's systems with the System Modeling Language (SysML). The SysML modeling recursively establishes the threefold relationship between requirements, logical & physical functional decomposition and definition, and system and component behavior at successively deeper level of abstraction and detail. The LSST modeling includes the analysis and documenting the flow of command and control information and data between the suite of systems in the LSST observatory that are needed to carry out the activities of the survey. The MBSE approach is applied throughout all stages of the project from design, to validation and verification, though to commissioning.

Claver, Chuck F.; Debois-Felsmann, G. P.; Delgado, F.; Hascall, P.; Marshall, S.; Nordby, M.; Schumacher, G.; Sebag, J.; LSST Collaboration

2011-01-01

422

What Are Expert Systems?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for potential business users, this paper describes the main characteristics of expert systems; discusses practical use considerations; presents a taxonomy of the systems; and reviews several expert system development projects in business and industry. (MBR)

d'Agapeyeff, A.

1986-01-01

423

Spaceplane system studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic system concepts of Japanese spaceplane research and development are presented. The single stage to orbit system of the spaceplane is illustrated. The hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system is addressed.

Masataka Maita

1991-01-01

424

Orthopedics Clinic Assistant System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research proposed a system, which integrated the complete patient information, including the medical images, for assisting orthopedics clinic diagnosis. The system concurrently operated with legacy systems and conformed itself to correspond with the ...

S. Tang Y. Huang M. Hsiao T. Lee S. Young

2001-01-01

425

Lesson 44: Nonlinear Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using a cost/revenue application problem, the lesson begins with systems involving quadratic equations. Systems with conics are introduced next along with the elimination method for solving these systems.

2011-01-01

426

Maglev systems development status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status and future potential of Maglev systems is reviewed. Modes of noncontact suspension and propulsion are described, and prototype systems and design concepts are indicated. A number of existing systems are described in more detail

A. R. Eastham; W. F. Hayes

1988-01-01

427

Neutron Radiographic Viewing System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and application of a neutron radiographic viewing system for use in nondestructive testing applications is considered. The system consists of a SEC vidicon camera, neutron image intensifier system, disc recorder, and TV readout. Ne...

1972-01-01

428

Assistive Listening Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pamphlet describes commercially available devices and systems for making public address and other types of communication systems more accessible to persons with hearing impairments. It describes types of systems and their installation.

1989-01-01

429

Flash Evaporator Systems Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A flash evaporator heat rejection system representative of that proposed for the space shuttle orbiter underwent extensive system testing at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to determine its operational suitability and to establish system performance/o...

J. B. Dietz

1976-01-01

430

Street Address Conversion System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents the genesis of the Urban Data Center 'Street Address Conversion System,' the prototype street address geocoding system operational in the Seattle, Washington, area. Three basic system concepts are defined: the 'grid block,' the 'stree...

R. B. Dial

1964-01-01

431

Hybrid Systems Diagnosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reports on an on-going Project to investigate techniques to diagnose complex dynamical systems that are modeled as hybrid systems. In particular, we examine continuous systems with embedded supervisory controllers that experience abrupt, partia...

S. McIlraith G. Biswas D. Clancy V. Gupta

2005-01-01

432

Ammonia Production Systems Integration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conceptual designs of 11 mobile ammonia fuel production systems were prepared. These systems represent various combinations of total electric power to the system, mobility class, electrical power frequency, and cooling medium. This report presents a descr...

B. N. Thomson G. E. Hook N. T. Mills R. A. Coval R. M. Reinstrom

1966-01-01

433

Autonomic Nervous System Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

434

Hermes Propulsion System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The initial baseline concept of the storable bipropellant propulsion system of the Hermes spaceplane is discussed. The general architecture of the propulsion system is shown. The design features of the engines of the main propulsion system and of the thru...

H. Immich H. Hopmann T. Caussin

1987-01-01

435

Tropix Power System Architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains results obtained in the process of performing a power system definition study of the TROPIX power management and distribution system (PMAD). Requirements derived from the PMADs interaction with other spacecraft systems are discussed...

D. B. Manner J. M. Hickman

1995-01-01

436

Portable Graphics System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

LASL implemented a graphics system designed to support all graphics devices in all operating environments at LASL. This system, Common Graphics System (CGS), supports level one of the graphics standard proposed by the ACM/SIGGRAPH Graphics Standards Plann...

R. G. Kellner T. N. Reed A. V. Solem

1978-01-01

437

Fireproof Brake Hydraulic System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of a fireproof two-fluid brake hydraulic system which utilizes nonflammable chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) fluid in a dead ended brake hydraulic system mechanically isolated from the primary MIL-H-5606 hydraulic system was studied. Experim...

S. M. Warren J. R. Kilner

1981-01-01

438

Systems interface biology  

PubMed Central

The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines.

Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jorg

2006-01-01

439

The LSST: A System of Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LSST is a complete observing system that acquires and archives images, processes and analyzes them, and publishes reduced images and catalogs of sources and objects. The LSST will operate over a ten year period producing a survey of 20,000 square degrees over the entire southern sky in 6 filters (ugrizy) with each field having been visited several hundred times enabling a wide spectrum of science from fast transients to exploration of dark matter and dark energy. The LSST itself is a complex system of systems consisting of the 8.4m three mirror telescope, a 3.2 billion pixel camera, and a peta-scale data management system. The LSST project uses a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methodology to ensure an integrated approach to system design and rigorous definition of system interfaces and specifications. The MBSE methodology is applied through modeling of the LSST's systems with the System Modeling Language (SysML). The SysML modeling recursively establishes the threefold relationship between requirements, logical & physical functional decomposition and definition, and system and component behavior at successively deeper levels of abstraction and detail. The MBSE approach is applied throughout all stages of the project from design, to validation and verification, though to commissioning.

Claver, Chuck F.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Delgado, F.; Hascall, P.; Horn, D.; Marshall, S.; Nordby, M.; Schalk, T. L.; Schumacher, G.; Sebag, J.; LSST Project Team

2010-01-01

440

Umbra's system representation.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Umbra System representation. Umbra System representation, initially developed in the spring of 2003, is implemented in Incr/Tcl using concepts borrowed from Carnegie Mellon University's Architecture Description Language (ADL) called Acme. In the spring of 2004 through January 2005, System was converted to Umbra 4, extended slightly, and adopted as the underlying software system for a variety of Umbra applications that support Complex Systems Engineering (CSE) and Complex Adaptive Systems Engineering (CASE). System is now a standard part Of Umbra 4. While Umbra 4 also includes an XML parser for System, the XML parser and Schema are not described in this document.

McDonald, Michael James

2005-07-01

441

Spectra Optia Apheresis System  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Spectra Optia Apheresis System. Applicant: Terumo BCT, Inc. 510(k) number: BK120076. Product: Spectra Optia® Apheresis System. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

442

Control system design method  

DOEpatents

A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

Wilson, David G. (Tijeras, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM)

2012-02-21

443

Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

444

INSENS sensor system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an unattended ground sensor system that has been developed for the immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The system, known as INSENS, was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use by the United States Border Patrol. This system assists in the detection of illegal entry of aliens and contraband (illegal drugs, etc.) into the United States along its land borders. Key to the system is its flexible modular design which allows future software and hardware enhancements to the system without altering the fundamental architecture of the system. Elements of the system include a sensor system capable of processing signals from multiple directional probes, a repeater system, and a handheld monitor system. Seismic, passive infrared (PIR), and magnetic probes are currently supported. The design of the INSENS system elements and their performance are described.

Myers, D.W.; Baker, J.; Benzel, D.M.; Fuess, D.A.

1993-09-29

445

Forming different planetary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing number of detected exoplanet samples, the statistical properties of planetary systems have become much clearer. In this review, we summarize the major statistical results that have been revealed mainly by radial velocity and transiting observations, and try to interpret them within the scope of the classical core-accretion scenario of planet formation, especially in the formation of different orbital architectures for planetary systems around main sequence stars. Based on the different possible formation routes for different planet systems, we tentatively classify them into three major catalogs: hot Jupiter systems, standard systems and distant giant planet systems. The standard system can be further categorized into three sub-types under different circumstances: solar-like systems, hot Super-Earth systems, and subgiant planet systems. We also review the theory of planet detection and formation in binary systems as well as planets in star clusters.

Zhou, Ji-Lin; Xie, Ji-Wei; Liu, Hui-Gen; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Yi-Sui

2012-08-01

446

Qualitative Action Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extension to action systems is presented facilitating the modeling of continuous behavior in the discrete domain. The original action system formalism has been developed by Back et al. in order to describe parallel and distributed computations of discrete systems, i.e. systems with discrete state space and discrete control. In order to cope with hybrid systems, i.e. systems with continuous evolution and discrete control, two extensions have been proposed: hybrid action systems and continuous action systems. Both use differential equations (relations) to describe continuous evolution. Our version of action systems takes an alternative approach by adding a level of abstraction: continuous behavior is modeled by Qualitative Differential Equations that are the preferred choice when it comes to specifying abstract and possibly non-deterministic requirements of continuous behavior. Because their solutions are transition systems, all evolutions in our qualitative action systems are discrete.

Aichernig, Bernhard K.; Brandl, Harald; Krenn, Willibald

447

The planning and construction of an urban stormwater management scheme.  

PubMed

Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) offers a means to integrate stormwater best management practices into urban planning and design to achieve multiple objectives. Some of these objectives relate to stormwater drainage, water quality improvements, aquatic habitat protection, stormwater harvesting and use, and landscape amenity. The Lynbrook Estate, Australia, has incorporated bio-filtration systems and wetlands into the design of major roads, local access streets and parklands that attenuate and treat roof runoff and road runoff from a 32 ha, 270 allotment residential precinct. This paper outlines the process that enabled the concept of a stormwater drainage design to be translated into on-ground works. Details of the construction activities, costs and market acceptance highlight the potential for the adoption of similar practices elsewhere. PMID:11989883

Lloyd, S D; Wong, T H F; Porter, B

2002-01-01

448

Exposure to carbon monoxide, respirable suspended particulates, and volatile organic compounds while commuting by bicycle  

SciTech Connect

A portable air sampling system has been used to assess exposures to various substances while commuting by bicycle in an urban area. The major source of pollutants in this situation is motor vehicle exhaust emissions. Carbon monoxide, measured by electrochemical detection, was found at peak concentrations in excess of 62 ppm, with mean values over 16 individual 35-mm journeys being 10.5 ppm. Respirable suspended particulates, averaged over each journey period, were found at higher concentrations (mean 130 {mu}g m{sup {minus}3}) than would be expected in indoor situations. Mean exposure to benzene (at 56 {mu}g m{sup {minus}3}) and other aromatic volatile organic compounds was also relatively high. The influence of wind conditions on exposure was found to be significant. Commuting exposures to carbon monoxide, respirable suspended particulates, and aromatic VOCs were found to be higher than exposures in a busy high street and on common parkland.

Bevan, M.A.J.; Proctor, C.J.; Baker-Rogers, J.; Warren, N.D. (British-American Tobacco Co. Ltd., Southampton (England))

1991-04-01

449

INMARSAT communications system: A systems approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes the history of satellite communications from its beginning to the current date and explains the major components of satellite communications. It describes the satellite communications technology, and identifies some of its problems such as speech echo, data transmission, and digital network synchronization. It deals with U.S. military and international satellite communications systems, and especially with Inmarsat. It also presents the possible threats for a satellite communications system and discusses how to deal with them. Finally, it introduces some conditions and technical considerations of the Inmarsat system in the Hellenic environment and provides some basic information for choosing a satellite system from an economic point of view.

Fasoulas, Aristides I.

1991-06-01

450

Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

Grygiel, M.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-05-03

451

Solar energy recovery system  

SciTech Connect

A solar tracking system for a sun sensitive system such as a solar energy generating unit is described. Means for tracking the sun in bright sunlight and in cloudy conditions having a sun sensing mode and a blind mode are disclosed. Solar energy generating units compatible with the solar tracking system capable of automatically operating a stock watering system are also disclosed.

Arbogast, C.C.

1984-10-16

452

Coaches as System Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of school leadership--of principals and coaches--must be played out on a systems level to get widespread and sustainable improvement. Successful, whole-system education reform relies on capacity building, teamwork, pedagogy, and systemic reform. The strategies of good coaches and the right drivers for whole-system reform go hand in hand.…

Fullan, Michael; Knight, Jim

2011-01-01

453

Designing Project Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to develop the concept of project management system from the perspective of systems science. There is a need to extend the body of knowledge for project management. In particular, the application of systems perspectives and systems theory offers a significant opportunity to advance the current state of project management knowledge. Although there have been

Gamze Karayaz; Charles B. Keating; Morgan Henrie

2011-01-01

454

Automated reasoning system ITP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a system designed to provide a portable environment for the study of automated reasoning. The system is built on the LMA automated reasoning subroutine package. This program is not part of LMA itself but illustrates the level of inference-based system that can be constructed from the LMA package of tools. It is a clause-based reasoning system supporting

E. L. Lusk; R. A. Overbeek

1984-01-01

455

Polymer Electronics Systems - Polytronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current trends in the development of electronics systems show that the provision of thin flexible components and semiconductors plays a decisive role in the steadily progressing development of highly integrated systems. A new generation of thin flexible electronic systems arises. At Fraunhofer IZM, inline manufacturing processes for polymer electronic systems are developed on production type equipment. A low-cost process for

KARLHEINZ BOCK

2005-01-01

456

Observers for multivariable systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Often in control design it is necessary to construct estimates of state variables which are not available by direct measurement. If a system is linear, its state vector can be approximately reconstructed by building an observer which is itself a linear system driven by the available outputs and inputs of the original system. The state vector of annth order system

D. Luenberger

1966-01-01

457

Coaches as System Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role of school leadership--of principals and coaches--must be played out on a systems level to get widespread and sustainable improvement. Successful, whole-system education reform relies on capacity building, teamwork, pedagogy, and systemic reform. The strategies of good coaches and the right drivers for whole-system reform go hand in hand.…

Fullan, Michael; Knight, Jim

2011-01-01

458

System Reliability Sensitivity Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

System reliability sensitivity measures are proposed to assist designers and reliability analysts in prioritizing reliability improvement and testing activities. In complex system designs, a common goal is to improve system reliability by increasing the reliability of the components to be used within the system. Component reliability is generally estimated from field failure data or test data. Unfortunately, these data are

Tongdan Jin; David W. Coit

459

Systems engineering management plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to prescribe the systems engineering procedures to be implemented at the Program level and the minimum requirements for systems engineering at the Program-element level. The Program level corresponds to the Director, OCRWM, or to the organizations within OCRWM to which the Director delegates responsibility for the development of the System

Conner

1985-01-01

460

Developing Systems Engineering Ontologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems engineering ontologies are required to assist interested parties in understanding the systems engineering discipline's broad and multi-faceted nature. This paper discusses the need for and general benefits of an ontology. The authors discuss the use of the domain knowledge acquisition process ontology modeling technique and its application to capture a systems engineering functional domain ontology. A preliminary systems engineering

B. Sarder; S. Ferreira

2007-01-01

461

Multipurpose Visualization System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the design and architecture of the low cost multipurpose flight visualization system (MFVS). The MFVS system was originally developed as a passive IFR approach system for general aviation small planes. A relatively high adaptability is one of the main advantages. It can be easily used with many types of avionics devices. The GPS\\/INS system is used

P. Bojda; P. Frantis

2006-01-01

462

Computer Center: CIBE Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differentiates between computer systems and Computers in Biological Education (CIBE) systems (computer system intended for use in biological education). Describes several CIBE stand alone systems: single-user microcomputer; single-user microcomputer/video-disc; multiuser microcomputers; multiuser maxicomputer; and local and long distance computer…

Crovello, Theodore J.

1982-01-01

463

The immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immune system consists of a heterogenous collection of cells that are exquisitely designed to function as a means of protection from colonization by infectious agents. The cells comprising the immune system are described as well as their development and function. The immune system is tightly regulated by a system of signals transmitted by soluble substances (interleukins) as well as

Philip J. Morrissey

1997-01-01

464

Medical imaging systems  

DOEpatents

A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

Frangioni, John V

2013-06-25

465

Stability of hybrid systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a model of hybrid systems as a combination of discrete state and continuous state systems. The continuous state space is divided into regions so that in every region, depending on the discrete state of hybrid system, the continuous state system dynamic functions which are called representative functions are found. The switching situation in a region is studied and

Murat Dogruel; Umit Ozguner

1994-01-01

466

Integrated library systems.  

PubMed

The development of integrated library systems is discussed. The four major discussion points are (1) initial efforts; (2) network resources; (3) minicomputer-based systems; and (4) beyond library automation. Four existing systems are cited as examples of current systems. PMID:6354321

Goldstein, C M

1983-07-01

467

Electronic Document Supply Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…

Cawkell, A. E.

1991-01-01

468

The IRIDIUM communications system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the IRIDIUM communication system, so-called because the system design originally consisted of 77 networked satellites, and the element iridium has the atomic number 77. The goal is to make instant global communications a reality. The system design now consists of 60 satellites, a system control facility, gateways, and subscriber units. Each of these components is

R. J. Leopold; A. Miller

1993-01-01

469

Vehicle tracking systems  

SciTech Connect

Several systems have been developed to accomplish vehicle location. The systems consist of three types: Dead Reckoning, Satellite, and LORAN C. If the information is to be sent back to a central location, some type of radiocommunication system is needed. One can use the existing voice radio or add a radio system just for transmitting the data.

Schwalm, R.W.

1987-01-01

470

Broad Bandwidth Telecommunications Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Broad bandwidth transmission systems have been around for years. They include microwave, assorted cable systems, and recently, satellites. With the exception of some privately owned systems, broadband services have been furnished by the common carriers. Recently, a new element has been added--Cable Antenna Television (CATV) distribution systems.…

Sodolski, John

471

Corba for control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Common Project Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is a middle-ware specification for the development of interoperable, distributed object systems. Object technology is of extreme importance in complex control system development besides its progressive use in other types of real-time systems. This paper tries to provide a general overview of the topics in distributed object systems, focusing on CORBA aspects that

Ricardo Sanz; Mariano Alonso

2001-01-01

472

Parameterised boolean equation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boolean equation system are a useful tool for verifying formulas from modal mu-calculus on transition systems (see (18) for an excellent treatment). We are interested in an extension of boolean equation systems with data. This allows to formulate and prove a substantially wider range of properties on much larger and even infinite state systems. In previous works (11, 15) it

Jan Friso Groote; Tim A. C. Willemse

2005-01-01

473

Linear Systems: Using Algebra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn to solve a system of linear equations (2 equations with 2 variables) by substitution and elimination methods. They also review the definitions of consistent (independent and dependent) and inconsistent systems, and associate the number of solutions of a system with them. Detailed instructions guide students in using their graphing calculators to solve the systems of equations.

2009-06-14

474

Digital Storage System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The digital storage system has a short access time and a high read-out rate. It is used in burst communication systems. The system is a binary-coded digital system and it employs a plurality of dynamic storage lines, one of which is used to store index bi...

H. L. Heibeck C. G. Wilhelm W. M. Oleson

1966-01-01

475

Graduate Grading Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A questionnaire on grading systems was sent to the 287 members of the Council of Graduate Schools. Of the 240 responses, 127 indicated that they used systems other than the A-F traditional system, either in part or in toto. Other systems used include pass/fail, satisfactory/unsatisfactory, pass/no credit, and some variations of the A-F…

Benson, Winston W.

476

EPICS system: system structure and user interface  

SciTech Connect

This paper present the user's view of and the general organization of the EPICS control system at Fermilab. Various subsystems of the EPICS control system are discussed. These include the user command language, software protection, the device database, remote computer interfaces, and several application utilities. This paper is related to two other papers on EPICS: an overview paper and a detailed implementation paper.

West, R.E.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bobbitt, J.S.; Lahey, T.E.; Kramper, B.J.; MacKinnon, B.A.

1984-02-01

477

Joint Tactical Radio System - Enterprise System Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) is a core transformational program within the Department of Defense (DoD), critical to extending the Global Information Grid (GIG) to the tactical edge. The Joint Program Executive Office (JPEO) was established in 2005 to manage the development of JTRS. One of the JPEO's assigned responsibilities was to expand the approach to systems engineering across

Richard North; Calvin Vu; Tom Woodland

2007-01-01

478

An expert system for power systems maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

When power equipment fails, maintenance personnel have traditionally had to investigate and repair the equipment by using information supplied by supervision and control systems, specified in manuals, or gained through personal experience. To enable maintenance personnel to respond more quickly and accurately, the authors have developed an expert system (called ALICE-ES), that provides diagnostic expert know-how and emergency procedures arranged

A. Mitsuhashi; T. Maruyama; H. Inoue; T. Takeda

1993-01-01

479

Evolving Information Systems: Beyond Temporal Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, in order for an organisation to be competitive, it must be able to adapt quickly to its dynamic environment. In this paper, we discuss the need for information systems which are capable to evolve to the same extent as organisations do. Requirements of evolving organisations on their in- formation systems are identied, followed by alternative approaches to adequate information

Eckhard D. Falkenberg; J. L. Han Oei; Henderik Alex Proper

1992-01-01

480

System identification of nonlinear resonant systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation addresses the problem of thermo-acoustic combustion instability modelling using nonlinear system identification. Specifically we are interested in the identification of closed loop limit cycling systems composed of a linear transfer function with a static nonlinearity in feedback. To begin we address the feasibility of the identification task, in terms of both data quality and dynamical capabilities of the

Wayne John Dunstan

2003-01-01

481

Electric system restructuring and system reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996 the California legislature passed AB 1890, explicitly defining economic benefits and detailing specific mechanisms for initiating a partial restructuring the state's electric system. Critics have since sought re-regulation and proponents have asked for patience as the new institutions and markets take shape. Other states' electric system restructuring activities have been tempered by real and perceived problems in the

Catherine Miller Horiuchi

2001-01-01

482

Performance, Performance System, and High Performance System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article proposes needed transitions in the field of human performance technology. The following three transitions are discussed: transitioning from training to performance, transitioning from performance to performance system, and transitioning from learning organization to high performance system. A proposed framework that comprises…

Jang, Hwan Young

2009-01-01

483

Subobject Transformation Systems and Elementary Net Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph transformation systems (GTSs) (10) are a powerful specification formal- ism for concurrent and distributed systems, generalising another classical model of concurrency, namely Place\\/Transition Petri nets (8). Along the years, the con- current behaviour of GTSs has been deeply studied and a consolidated theory of concurrency is now available. In particular, by exploiting the relationship with Petri nets, several concurrent

Andrea Corradini; Frank Hermann

484

Vending machine accountability system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An accountability system for a vending machine system having means for vending products and means for determining credit, the accountability system comprising a portable electronic data file module which is removable from the system, and means for collecting transaction data from the vending machine system and recording it in the portable electronic data file module. A module interlock and a power monitor are provided to ensure that accurate information is stored in the module.

1981-06-09

485

Identification of hybrid systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid or continuous\\/discrete systems have attracted increased scientific attention in recent years. In fact, most technical systems consist of physical (sub)systems which are governed by continuous dynamics, continuous or discrete-time controllers, and logical systems which react to and trigger events in the continuous parts. Hybrid systems also arise from modeling of physical phenomena alone, e.g. in evaporation and other processes

Ingo Hoffmann; Sebastian Engell

1998-01-01

486

System of Systems Enterprise Systems Engineering, the Enterprise Architecture Management Framework, and System of Systems Cost Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's need for more complex, more capable systems in a short timeframe is leading more organizations towards the integration of existing systems, Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) products, and new systems into network-centric, knowledge-based Systems of Systems (SoSs). With this development approach, system development processes to define the new architecture, identify sources to either supply or develop the required components, and eventually integrate

Paul Carlock

2006-01-01

487

The Influence of Agroforestry and Other Land-Use Types on the Persistence of a Sumatran Tiger ( Panthera tigris sumatrae ) Population: An Individual-Based Model Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of preserving both protected areas and their surrounding landscapes as one of the major conservation strategies\\u000a for tigers has received attention over recent decades. However, the mechanism of how land-use surrounding protected areas\\u000a affects the dynamics of tiger populations is poorly understood. We developed Panthera Population Persistence (PPP)—an individual-based\\u000a model—to investigate the potential mechanism of the Sumatran tiger

Muhammad Ali Imron; Sven Herzog; Uta Berger

2011-01-01

488

Five native tree species and manioc under slash-and-mulch agroforestry in the eastern Amazon of Brazil: plant growth and soil responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the Amazon of Brazil, manioc (Manihot esculenta) is a staple crop produced through slash-and-burn agriculture. Nutrient losses during slash-and-burn can be large and nutrient\\u000a demand by food crops so great that fields are often abandoned after two years. In recent decades, farmers have reduced the\\u000a fallow phase from 20 to ~5 years, limiting plant nutrient accumulation to sustain crop yields.

Aaron H. Joslin; Daniel Markewitz; Lawrence A. Morris; Francisco DeAssis Oliveira; Ricardo O. Figueiredo; Oswaldo R. Kato

2011-01-01

489

The challenge of maintaining Atlantic forest biodiversity: A multi-taxa conservation assessment of specialist and generalist species in an agro-forestry mosaic in southern Bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments have highlighted the importance of forest amount at large spatial scales and of matrix quality for ecological processes in remnants. These developments, in turn, suggest the potential for reducing biodiversity loss through the maintenance of a high percentage of forest combined with sensitive management of anthropogenic areas. We conducted a multi-taxa survey to evaluate the potential for biodiversity

Renata Pardini; Deborah Faria; Gustavo M. Accacio; Rudi R. Laps; Eduardo Mariano-Neto; Mateus L. B. Paciencia; Marianna Dixo; Julio Baumgarten

2009-01-01

490

Modeling gross primary production of agro-forestry ecosystems by assimilation of satellite-derived information in a process-based model.  

PubMed

In this paper we present results obtained in the framework of a regional-scale analysis of the carbon budget of poplar plantations in Northern Italy. We explored the ability of the process-based model BIOME-BGC to estimate the gross primary production (GPP) using an inverse modeling approach exploiting eddy covariance and satellite data. We firstly present a version of BIOME-BGC coupled with the radiative transfer models PROSPECT and SAILH (named PROSAILH-BGC) with the aims of i) improving the BIOME-BGC description of the radiative transfer regime within the canopy and ii) allowing the assimilation of remotely-sensed vegetation index time series, such as MODIS NDVI, into the model. Secondly, we present a two-step model inversion for optimization of model parameters. In the first step, some key ecophysiological parameters were optimized against data collected by an eddy covariance flux tower. In the second step, important information about phenological dates and about standing biomass were optimized against MODIS NDVI. Results obtained showed that the PROSAILH-BGC allowed simulation of MODIS NDVI with good accuracy and that we described better the canopy radiation regime. The inverse modeling approach was demonstrated to be useful for the optimization of ecophysiological model parameters, phenological dates and parameters related to the standing biomass, allowing good accuracy of daily and annual GPP predictions. In summary, this study showed that assimilation of eddy covariance and remote sensing data in a process model may provide important information for modeling gross primary production at regional scale. PMID:22399948

Migliavacca, Mirco; Meroni, Michele; Busetto, Lorenzo; Colombo, Roberto; Zenone, Terenzio; Matteucci, Giorgio; Manca, Giovanni; Seufert, Guenther

2009-02-13

491

Modeling Gross Primary Production of Agro-Forestry Ecosystems by Assimilation of Satellite-Derived Information in a Process-Based Model  

PubMed Central

In this paper we present results obtained in the framework of a regional-scale analysis of the carbon budget of poplar plantations in Northern Italy. We explored the ability of the process-based model BIOME-BGC to estimate the gross primary production (GPP) using an inverse modeling approach exploiting eddy covariance and satellite data. We firstly present a version of BIOME-BGC coupled with the radiative transfer models PROSPECT and SAILH (named PROSAILH-BGC) with the aims of i) improving the BIOME-BGC description of the radiative transfer regime within the canopy and ii) allowing the assimilation of remotely-sensed vegetation index time series, such as MODIS NDVI, into the model. Secondly, we present a two-step model inversion for optimization of model parameters. In the first step, some key ecophysiological parameters were optimized against data collected by an eddy covariance flux tower. In the second step, important information about phenological dates and about standing biomass were optimized against MODIS NDVI. Results obtained showed that the PROSAILH-BGC allowed simulation of MODIS NDVI with good accuracy and that we described better the canopy radiation regime. The inverse modeling approach was demonstrated to be useful for the optimization of ecophysiological model parameters, phenological dates and parameters related to the standing biomass, allowing good accuracy of daily and annual GPP predictions. In summary, this study showed that assimilation of eddy covariance and remote sensing data in a process model may provide important information for modeling gross primary production at regional scale.

Migliavacca, Mirco; Meroni, Michele; Busetto, Lorenzo; Colombo, Roberto; Zenone, Terenzio; Matteucci, Giorgio; Manca, Giovanni; Seufert, Guenther

2009-01-01

492

ArcAPEX modeling of optimum widths and placement of grass and agroforestry buffers to reduce runoff and sediment transport in claypan watersheds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Existence of a claypan layer in soils at depths ranging from 4 to 37 cm restricts vertical water movement and has contributed significantly to high rates of runoff, sediment transport, and other non-point source loadings from croplands in watersheds. The deposition of these pollutants in rivers, st...

493

On evolutionary systems.  

PubMed

This paper develops a metatheoretical framework for understanding evolutionary systems (systems that develop in ways that increase their own variety). The framework addresses shortcomings seen in other popular systems theories. It concerns both living and nonliving systems, and proposes a metahierarchy of hierarchical systems. Thus, it potentially addresses systems at all descriptive levels. We restrict our definition of system to that of a core system whose parts have a different ontological status than the system, and characterize the core system in terms of five global properties: minimal length interval, minimal time interval, system cycle, total receptive capacity, and system potential. We propose two principles through the interaction of which evolutionary systems develop. The Principle of Combinatorial Expansion describes how a core system realizes its developmental potential through a process of progressive differentiation of the single primal state up to a limit stage. The Principle of Generative Condensation describes how the components of the last stage of combinatorial expansion condense and become the environment for and components of new, enriched systems. The early evolution of the Universe after the "big bang" is discussed in light of these ideas as an example of the application of the framework. PMID:3689299

Alvarez de Lorenzana, J M; Ward, L M

1987-01-01

494

Biological and social feasibility of Sesbania fallow practice in small holder agricultural farms in developing countries: a Zambian case study.  

PubMed

Many small holder farmers in developing countries face problems of declining soil fertility and crop yields and insufficient money to buy expensive inorganic fertilizers. The Sesbania fallow system, an agroforestry technology, seems to hold a key to these problems. Based on field studies in eastern Zambia, this paper reports that fallow system has the potential to improve and sustain soil productivity in the small holder farms. However, the paper also reports that the ability for subsistence farmers to adopt the Sesbania fallow system is affected by gender differences in resource allocation to productive resources and institutional, cultural, and social structural settings in which farmers exist and make decisions. PMID:11083909

Opio, C

2001-01-01

495

Enhanced nurse call systems.  

PubMed

This Evaluation focuses on high-end computerized nurse call systems--what we call enhanced systems. These are highly flexible systems that incorporate microprocessor and communications technologies to expand the capabilities of the nurse call function. Enhanced systems, which vary in configuration from one installation to the next, typically consist of a basic system that provides standard nurse call functionality and a combination of additional enhancements that provide the added functionality the facility desires. In this study, we examine the features that distinguish enhanced nurse call systems from nonenhanced systems, focusing on their application and benefit to healthcare facilities. We evaluated seven systems to determine how well they help (1) improve patient care, as well as increase satisfaction with the care provided, and (2) improve caregiver efficiency, as well as increase satisfaction with the work environment. We found that all systems meet these objectives, but not all systems perform equally well for all implementations. Our ratings will help facilities identify those systems that offer the most effective features for their intended use. The study also includes a Technology Management Guide to help readers (1) determine whether they'll benefit from the capabilities offered by enhanced systems and (2) target a system for purchase and equip the system for optimum performance and cost-effective operation. PMID:11382209

2001-04-01

496

Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems  

SciTech Connect

Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

2004-12-30

497

Systems Engineering for Large-Scale Fingerprint Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems engineering for large-scale Automated Fingerprint Recognition Systems (AFIS) involves system planning, specification,\\u000a design, development, testing, and operational support. Testing these systems includes the complex activity of measuring the\\u000a system’s performance. The desired system performance, however, affects each of the system’s engineering functions. For large-scale\\u000a systems, estimating the performance of the full-scale operational system and planning for its development are

Rajiv Khanna

498

Verification of Adaptive Systems  

SciTech Connect

Adaptive systems are critical for future space and other unmanned and intelligent systems. Verification of these systems is also critical for their use in systems with potential harm to human life or with large financial investments. Due to their nondeterministic nature and extremely large state space, current methods for verification of software systems are not adequate to provide a high level of assurance for them. The combination of stabilization science, high performance computing simulations, compositional verification and traditional verification techniques, plus operational monitors, provides a complete approach to verification and deployment of adaptive systems that has not been used before. This paper gives an overview of this approach.

Pullum, Laura L [ORNL; Cui, Xiaohui [New York Institute of Technology (NYIT); Vassev, Emil [Lero – The Irish Software Engineering Research Centre; Hinchey, Mike [Lero – The Irish Software Engineering Research Centre; Rouff, Christopher [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Buskens, Richard [Lockheed Martin Corporation

2012-01-01

499

FPD plasma heating systems  

SciTech Connect

Tandem mirror devices rely on a number of plasma heating systems to create and maintain potential and density profiles which axially confine the central cell and provide MHD stability. The Fusion Power Demonstrator (FPD) tandem mirror study was carried out in three stages, each facility was configured with a slightly different mission and set of constraints. Although the heating system requirements varied in the three stages, the potential peak and thermal barrier ECRH systems and the sloshing ion neutral beam system were common elements of the configurations. The heating systems' requirements, the design approach, and the systems' description are presented.

Freije, S.A.

1985-07-01

500

On maximally superintegrable systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Locally any completely integrable system is maximally superintegrable system since we have the necessary number of the action-angle variables. The main problem is the construction of the single-valued additional integrals of motion on the whole phase space by using these multi-valued action-angle variables. Some constructions of the additional integrals of motion for the Stäckel systems and for the integrable systems related with two different quadratic r-matrix algebras are discussed. Among these system there are the open Heisenberg magnet and the open Toda lattices associated with the different root systems.

Tsiganov, A. V.

2008-06-01