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1

Agroforestry systems in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry systems in North America vary widely in terms of components (tree, forb, graminoid, and shrub species) and outputs. Most of the agroforestry systems used in North America have emphasized wood and livestock production. The objective of each system has been to produce annual and long term economic returns and sustainable yields. Inputs such as fossil fuels, fertilizers, herbicides and

T. H. Bandolin; R. F. Fisher

1991-01-01

2

Agroforestry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impacts of agroforestry systems (AFS) on soil management in temperate, subtropical, and tropical biomes support the beneficial, holistic role of tree components in agricultural land-use systems. Compared to annual monocultures, AFS can enhance several soil physical properties improving soil resi...

3

The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands. Key Points Trees in dryland landscapes increase soil infiltrability and preferential flow Termite mounds in association with trees further enhance preferential flow PMID:25641996

Bargués Tobella, A; Reese, H; Almaw, A; Bayala, J; Malmer, A; Laudon, H; Ilstedt, U

2014-01-01

4

Agroforestry systems for the temperate zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical development of a permanent agriculture system based on the use of agroforestry in the temperate zone is traced. In general, reasons for a renewed interest in agroforestry include the end of cheap, subsidized fossil fuels; increased concern about soil erosion and marginal land use; an international awakening as to the dangers of indiscriminate use of pesticides, herbicides and other

Michael A. Gold; James W. Hanover

1987-01-01

5

Birds as predators in tropical agroforestry systems.  

PubMed

Insectivorous birds reduce arthropod abundances and their damage to plants in some, but not all, studies where predation by birds has been assessed. The variation in bird effects may be due to characteristics such as plant productivity or quality, habitat complexity, and/or species diversity of predator and prey assemblages. Since agroforestry systems vary in such characteristics, these systems provide a good starting point for understanding when and where we can expect predation by birds to be important. We analyze data from bird exclosure studies in forests and agroforestry systems to ask whether birds consistently reduce their arthropod prey base and whether bird predation differs between forests and agroforestry systems. Further, we focus on agroforestry systems to ask whether the magnitude of bird predation (1) differs between canopy trees and understory plants, (2) differs when migratory birds are present or absent, and (3) correlates with bird abundance and diversity. We found that, across all studies, birds reduce all arthropods, herbivores, carnivores, and plant damage. We observed no difference in the magnitude of bird effects between agroforestry systems and forests despite simplified habitat structure and plant diversity in agroforests. Within agroforestry systems, bird reduction of arthropods was greater in the canopy than the crop layer. Top-down effects of bird predation were especially strong during censuses when migratory birds were present in agroforestry systems. Importantly, the diversity of the predator assemblage correlated with the magnitude of predator effects; where the diversity of birds, especially migratory birds, was greater, birds reduced arthropod densities to a greater extent. We outline potential mechanisms for relationships between bird predator, insect prey, and habitat characteristics, and we suggest future studies using tropical agroforests as a model system to further test these areas of ecological theory. PMID:18481517

Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Barber, Nicholas A; Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S

2008-04-01

6

Biophysical interactions in tropical agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate and extent to which biophysical resources are captured and utilized by the components of an agroforestry system are determined by the nature and intensity of interac- tions between the components. The net effect of these interactions is often determined by the influence of the tree component on the other component(s) and\\/or on the overall system, and is expressed

M. R. RAO; P. K. R. NAIR; C. K. ONG

1998-01-01

7

Hill agroforestry systems in south Sikkim, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Mamlay watershed of south Sikkim, India, about 80% of the population depend on land for their livelihood. The agricultural land-use activity includes agroforestry, horticulture and animal husbandry besides growing crops in irrigated or unirrigated fields. Trees are maintained in the farms mainly for fodder and rarely for fuel purposes. Cropping system is characterised by cultivation of cereals and

R. C. Sundriyal; S. C. Rai; E. Sharma; Y. K. Rai

1994-01-01

8

Agroforestry Systems in Zimbabwe: Promoting Trees in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agroforestry has been defined as a sustainable crop management system which combines the production of forest crops with field crops. In June, 1987, an agroforestry workshop took place in Nyanga, Manicaland, Zimbabwe. This document was prepared to share the information presented at this workshop with other non-government organizations around the…

Vukasin, Helen L., Ed.

9

A common framework for greenhouse gas assessment protocols in temperate agroforestry systems: Connecting via GRACEnet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems offer many ecosystem benefits, but such systems have previously been marginalized in temperate environments due to overriding economic goals and perceived management complexity. In view of adaptation to a changing climate, agroforestry systems offer advantages that require quan...

10

Environmental Services of Native Tree Plantations and Agroforestry Systems in Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides supplying the growing demand for wood, plantations and agroforestry systems provide environmental services such as carbon sequestration and recovery of biodiversity. Several countries of Central America have recently started incentive programs to encourage plantation and agroforestry development. In Costa Rica, Payment for Environmental Services (PES) provides subsidies to farmers for plantations and agroforestry systems. Funding for these subsidies comes

Florencia Montagnini; Daniela Cusack; Bryan Petit; Markku Kanninen

2004-01-01

11

CARBON STORAGE BENEFITS OF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The process of land degradation is a local phenomenon that occurs field by field but also has a global dimension because of the sheer extent at which it is taking place. groforestry represents a link between the local and global scales. rom the farmer's perspective, agroforestry ...

12

Insect pest problems in tropical agroforestry systems: Contributory factors and strategies for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry trees are attacked by a wide spectrum of insects at all stages of their growth just like other annual and perennial crops. Pest management in agroforestry has not received much attention so far, but recent emphasis on producing high value tree products in agroforestry and using improved germplasm in traditional systems, and emergence of serious pest problems in some

M. R. Rao; M. P. Singh; R. Day

2000-01-01

13

Belowground interactions for water between trees and grasses in a temperate semiarid agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental hypothesis of agroforestry is the complementary use of soil resources. However, productivity of many agroforestry\\u000a systems has been lower than expected due to net competition for water, highlighting the need for a mechanistic understanding\\u000a of belowground interactions. The goal of this study was to examine root–root interactions for water in a temperate semiarid\\u000a agroforestry system, based on ponderosa

María Elena Fernández; Javier Gyenge; Julian Licata; Tomás Schlichter; Barbara J. Bond

2008-01-01

14

AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: INTEGRATED LAND USE TO STORE AND CONSERVE CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Agroforestry is a promising land use practice to maintain or increase agricultural productivity while preserving or improving fertility. n extensive literature survey was conducted to evaluate the carbon dynamics of agroforestry practices and to assess their potential to store ca...

15

Agroforestry system effects on soil characteristics of tropical soils in the Sarapiqui Region of Costa Rica  

E-print Network

and their impact on selected soil properties as compared to baseline data and pastures utilizing on-farm agroforestry plots established in the Sarapiqui Region of Costa Rica in 1990. Tree components of the agroforestry systems were Vochysia ferruginea and V...

Tornquist, Carlos G.

1997-01-01

16

Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems  

E-print Network

Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems Andy Hankins, Extension Specialist, Alternative Agriculture; Virginia State University Introduction American ginseng mountain people. American ginseng is native to many states, east of the Mississippi River, in the United

Liskiewicz, Maciej

17

Comparing common methods for assessing understory light availability in shaded-perennial agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulating the shade provided by overstory trees is important in the management of shaded-perennial agroforestry systems. In order to compare the merits of commonly used light-assessment techniques that could potentially be useful to farmers and extensionists and to quantify the extent of shading in multistrata agroforestry systems, understory photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was measured beneath 28 single-species and four mixed-species

J. G Bellow; P. K. R Nair

2003-01-01

18

LLUVIA, ESCURRIMIENTO SUPERFICIAL Y EROSIÓN DEL SUELO EN SISTEMAS AGROFORESTALES DE CAFÉ BAJO SOMBRA RAIN, RUNOFF AND SOIL EROSION IN SHADED COFFEE AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a tropical region of Veracruz, México, five shaded coffee agroforestry systems were evaluated without repetition: 1) wild agroforestry system; 2) improved traditional polycultivation (PTM) with live barriers of \\

Joel Pérez-Nieto; Eduardo Valdés-Velarde; Matías E. Hernández-San Román; Víctor Ordaz-Chaparro

19

Intercropping Competition between Apple Trees and Crops in Agroforestry Systems on the Loess Plateau of  

E-print Network

Intercropping Competition between Apple Trees and Crops in Agroforestry Systems on the Loess of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing

Xi, Weimin

20

Changes of dung beetle communities from rainforests towards agroforestry systems and annual cultures in Sulawesi (Indonesia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about how tropical land-use systems contribute to the conservation of functionally important insect groups, including dung beetles. In a study at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park (a biodiversity hotspot in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia) dung-beetle communities were sampled in natural forest, young secondary forest, agroforestry systems (cacao plantations with shade trees) and annual cultures (maize fields),

Shahabuddin; Christian H. Schulze; Teja Tscharntke

2005-01-01

21

Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

22

MODELING MULTIFUNCTIONAL AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES: DEHESA IN SPAIN AND WOODLAND  

E-print Network

Chapter MODELING MULTIFUNCTIONAL AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES: DEHESA IN SPAIN Research (CSIC) Pinar 25, 28006, Madrid, Spain. e-mail: pcampos@ieg.csic.es; acaparros@ieg.csic.es 2 University Complutense, Madrid, Spain. E-mail: ecerdate@ccee.ucm.es 3 College of Natural Resources

Standiford, Richard B.

23

An electromagnetic induction method for monitoring variation in soil moisture in agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of soil water extraction by trees in agroforestry systems has long been seen as an important step towards understanding their functioning. Traditional methods of soil moisture monitoring have been employed with some success but limitations in utilising them efficiently across both time and space have led to restrictions in their use. An

N. I. HuthA; P. L. PoultonA

2007-01-01

24

Distribution of organic C oxidizable fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in southern Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic material to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measuremen...

25

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in neem-based agroforestry systems in Rajasthan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study of traditional agroforestry systems in six districts of the arid and semiarid zones of Rajasthan was undertaken where annual rainfall varied from 140 to 1000mm and soil types ranged from coarse fine sand in Jaisalmer to clay loams in Kota. The field investigation showed that Glomus, Gigaspora and Sclerocystis were the genera of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi present

Manish Pande; J. C Tarafdar

2004-01-01

26

Factors determining the occurrence of the agroforestry system with Acacia mearnsii in Central Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1922, the colonial government introducedAcacia mearnsii in the tobacco-growing region of Wonosobo. Soon this species was accepted by the local people who developed an agroforestry system based on a rotation ofA. mearnsii and agricultural crops.

Luciënne M. Berenschot; Bram M. Filius; Soedarwono Hardjosoediro

1988-01-01

27

Carbon storage in soil-size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shaded-perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively higher quantities of soil carbon (C) because of continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the amount of C sequestered in the soil will vary depending on the turnover time and the extent of physical protection of different soil organic ...

28

Distribution of oxidizable organic c fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Southern Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic materials to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measureme...

29

Soil Quality in a Pecan Agroforestry System is Improved with Intercropped Kura Clover  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intercropping alleys of agroforestry systems provides an income source until the tree crop produces harvestable yields. However, cultivation of annual crops decreases soil organic matter and increases soil erosion, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintain a continuous soil cover, m...

30

KURA CLOVER INTERCROPPED IN A PECAN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM IMPROVES SOIL QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intercropping the alleys of agroforestry systems is desirable to provide income from the field until the tree crop begins to yield. However, cultivation of annual crops in the alleys may decrease soil organic matter and increase soil erosion, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintai...

31

Dung Beetle and Terrestrial Mammal Diversity in Forests, Indigenous Agroforestry Systems and Plantain Monocultures in Talamanca, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore the importance of indigenous agroforestry systems for biodiversity conservation, we compared the abundance,\\u000a species richness and diversity of dung beetles and terrestrial mammals across a gradient of different land use types from\\u000a agricultural monocultures (plantains) to agroforestry systems (cocoa and banana) and forests in the BriBri and Cabcar indigenous\\u000a reserves in Talamanca, Costa Rica. A total

Celia A. Harvey; Jorge Gonzalez; Eduardo Somarriba

2006-01-01

32

Production Potential and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Agrihorticulture Agroforestry Systems in Northeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree growth, crop yield and cost benefit analysis of guava (Psidum guajava cv. Allahabad safeda) and Assam lemon (Citrus lemon cv. Local) based agrihorticulture agroforestry system (AFS) was analyzed in a split plot experiment on acid alfisol under rainfed conditions at ICAR Research farm, Umiam, Meghalaya, India. Three rice varieties, RCPL-1-24, RCPL-1-25 and RCPL-1-29, were intercropped with guava and Assam

B. P. Bhatt; L. K. Misra

2003-01-01

33

Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted\\u000a in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical\\u000a agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter pools. The objective of this experiment\\u000a was to assess the affect

Hollie Hall; Yuncong Li; Nicholas Comerford; Enrique Arévalo Gardini; Luis Zuniga Cernades; Virupax Baligar; Hugh Popenoe

2010-01-01

34

Soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience in agroforestry systems: effects on wheat growth under controlled drought and flooding conditions.  

PubMed

Agroforestry is increasingly viewed as an effective means of maintaining or even increasing crop and tree productivity under climate change while promoting other ecosystem functions and services. This study focused on soil biochemical properties and resilience following disturbance within agroforestry and conventional agricultural systems and aimed to determine whether soil differences in terms of these biochemical properties and resilience would subsequently affect crop productivity under extreme soil water conditions. Two research sites that had been established on agricultural land were selected for this study. The first site included an 18-year-old windbreak, while the second site consisted in an 8-year-old tree-based intercropping system. In each site, soil samples were used for the determination of soil nutrient availability, microbial dynamics and microbial resilience to different wetting-drying perturbations and for a greenhouse pot experiment with wheat. Drying and flooding were selected as water stress treatments and compared to a control. These treatments were initiated at the beginning of the wheat anthesis period and maintained over 10 days. Trees contributed to increase soil nutrient pools, as evidenced by the higher extractable-P (both sites), and the higher total N and mineralizable N (tree-based intercropping site) found in the agroforestry compared to the conventional agricultural system. Metabolic quotient (qCO2) was lower in the agroforestry than in the conventional agricultural system, suggesting higher microbial substrate use efficiency in agroforestry systems. Microbial resilience was higher in the agroforestry soils compared to soils from the conventional agricultural system (windbreak site only). At the windbreak site, wheat growing in soils from agroforestry system exhibited higher aboveground biomass and number of grains per spike than in conventional agricultural system soils in the three water stress treatments. At the tree-based intercropping site, higher wheat biomass, grain yield and number of grains per spike were observed in agroforestry than in conventional agricultural system soils, but in the drought treatment only. Drought (windbreak site) and flooding (both sites) treatments significantly reduced wheat yield and 1000-grain weight in both types of system. Relationships between soil biochemical properties and soil microbial resilience or wheat productivity were strongly dependent on site. This study suggests that agroforestry systems may have a positive effect on soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience, which could operate positively on crop productivity and tolerance to severe water stress. PMID:23792247

Rivest, David; Lorente, Miren; Olivier, Alain; Messier, Christian

2013-10-01

35

Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.  

PubMed

Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems. PMID:23936246

Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

2013-01-01

36

Intercropping Competition between Apple Trees and Crops in Agroforestry Systems on the Loess Plateau of China  

PubMed Central

Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems. PMID:23936246

Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

2013-01-01

37

Comparative studies of the associated soil moisture regimes and their productivity in an agroforestry system  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented on the effects of Eucalyptus hybrid, Casuarina equisetifolia, Dalbergia sissoo and Acacia nilotica on certain field crops (finger millet, redgram, horsegram and castor) under dryland conditions. Eucalyptus hybrid showed the maximum border effect on field crops, followed by D. sissoo. C. equisetifolia and A. nilotica. The adverse effect of Eucalyptus was chiefly due to depletion of moisture in the upper surface layers of the soil, whereas shade and allelopathic effects were negligible. The reduction in the crop yield due to competition by trees has been compared with wood yield from trees. Over a period of three years it was found that with the exception of Acacia, there was distinct economic gain under an agroforestry system as the loss in agricultural crops due to the effect of trees was compensated for by wood yield. However, this gain varied considerably depending upon the tree species, crop combination and the prevailing market price of the wood and crop. Eucalyptus hybrid produced the highest wood yield at the expense of field crops than any other tree species. Hence it is recommended that, where food production is the main objective, preference should be given to species like Castuarina, D. Sissoo and Acacia, which have minimum border effect on agricultural crops for dryland agroforestry systems.

Bhaskar, V.; Rao, N.S.; Reddy, B.G.; Vedavyasa, K.; Ravishankar, H.M.; Venkatesh, R. [Univ. of Agricultural Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Farm Forestry

1992-12-31

38

Maize stem borer colonization, establishment and crop damage levels in a maize-leucaena agroforestry system in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of resource concentration on the population of stem-borers of maize in the maize-leucaena agroforestry system was evaluated. The studies covered six cropping seasons from October 1992 to August 1995, and were conducted at Mtwapa and Amoyo in coastal and western Kenya, respectively. Treatments included monocropped and intercropped (maize, leucaena) plots, weeded and unweeded plots, mulched and unmulched plots,

Callistus K. P. O. Ogol; John R. Spence; Andrew Keddie

1999-01-01

39

Microbial Community Diversity in Agroforestry and Grass Buffer Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforesty and grass buffer systems have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many environmental benefits. Previous research has described the ability of buffer systems to retain nutrients, slow water flow and soil erosion, or mitigate the potentially harmful effects of e...

40

Soil quality indicators of a mature alley-cropping agroforestry system in temperate North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although agroforestry practices are believed to improve soil quality, reports on long-term effects of alley cropping on soils within agroforestry in the temperate zone are limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth of an established agrofores...

41

Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 ?m, 250-53 ?m, and <53 ?m)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

2010-02-01

42

Soil carbon, microbial activity and nitrogen availability in agroforestry systems on moderately alkaline soils in northern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation aimed to analyze the role of agroforestry systems in improving soil organic matter status, microbial activity and nitrogen availability with a view to effective management of the fertility of moderately alkaline soils. The study site was located at Karnal (29°59?N, 76°51?E, 250m.s.l.) and the systems were characterized by a rice–berseem crop rotation; agrisilvicultural systems of Acacia, Eucalyptus

B. Kaur; S. R. Gupta; G. Singh

2000-01-01

43

Possibilities for agroforestry development in Bulgaria: Outlooks and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current conditions in Bulgaria are favorable for the development of agroforestry due to socio-economic incentives and environmental necessities. As a scientific theory and practice, agroforestry is less familiar than other farming systems in Bulgaria. Hence, to ensure successful agroforestry development in Bulgaria, four necessary movements (or collective national ‘moments’) are described here: (1) wide-scale popularization of agroforesty's fundamental tenets, including

Jordanka Stancheva; Sonja Bencheva; Krasimira Petkova; Vladimir Piralkov

2007-01-01

44

Geomorphological impact on agroforestry systems in the interior highlands of Nicaragua, Central America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerro el Castillo is located in the NW of Nicaragua, Central America, close to the border of Honduras (Provincia Central de las Cordilleras) at 1000-1200m above sea level. In this region, small and medium-sized farms are agroforestry systems with mangos, avocados, coffee, papayas, bananas, strawberries, maize, pumpkins, beans and other vegetables. The production systems are strongly linked to facilities for raising small domestic animals and cows. Main regional agricultural production problems are steep slopes, soil erosion, varying precipitation and distribution, water management and the unstable family income. An investigation of topsoil properties with comparable management systems showed on small scales significant differences in key values of soil chemistry and mineralogy. The outline of the analytical parameters included determination of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) in soil solution, and plant available nutrients (P and K). The soil's mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The area is a highly weathered karst landscape within a tropical limestone region displaying different amounts of volcanic pyroclastic parent material. The dominant Nitisoils and Andosols show degraded argic and andic horizons along the upper half of the mountainside. The pH values in the topsoil are moderate from pH 5.0 to 5.6. The upland topsoil is decalcified and the amount of plant available phosphorous is very low with significant low Ca concentration at the sorption complex. The mineralogical composition points to the high weathering intensity of this area (high content of kaolinite and a lower concentration of potassium and plagioclase feldspars and andesite). Along the upper half of the mountain, the soil profiles show wider C:N ratios and lower amounts of organic matter. Topsoil at lower altitude and with a lower slope is influenced by accumulation of pyroclastic material. Theses soils can be characterized through a closer C:N ratio, higher pH (5.7-6.2) values, and plant available phosphorus reach values of 23 mg/kg. The mineralogical analyses illustrated less weathered volcanic material here and in the investigated samples zeolithe, smectite and a higher amount of plagioclase could be found. Cristobalite und pyroxene could be detected in all samples and indicate the influence of volcanic activity. Smectite und zeolithe are reason for the higher CEC values of these soils. Erosion and intensive tropical weathering processes including solutional weathering of limestones decline production potential at higher altitudes. Agroforestry systems are the most adapted systems for sustainable plant production systems in this area. Phosphorus release of soil is strongly influenced by the geomorphology of this landscape. Limiting parameters of this production system is the amount and the distribution of precipitation. The impact of global change to this specific area of Nicaragua will lead to extreme values of local precipitation events and an increase in temperature. If these events continue important production areas for optimum coffee production in agroforestry systems in Central America will be lost. Acknowledgement: This project was financed through the Austrian APPEAR program (OEAD).

Mentler, Axel; Wriessnig, Karin; Ottner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Benavides González, Álvaro; Cisne Contreras, José Dolores; Querol Lipcovich, Daniel

2013-04-01

45

Prevalence of antibody to Trypanosoma cruzi in Hispanic-surnamed patients seen at Parkland Health & Hospital System, Dallas, Texas  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease constitutes an important public health threat in terms of morbidity and mortality in the areas in the United States where immigrant populations from Latin America are conspicuous. We conducted a survey to assess the prevalence of anti-T. cruzi antibody in Hispanic-surnamed patients seen at Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, Texas. Findings Five hundred serum specimens from Hispanic-surnamed patients were tested by a preliminary ELISA method. On a subset of 50 sera confirmatory testing was also performed using an alternative ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence, and TESA immunoblot. For 274 of 500 Hispanic-surnamed patients, we were able to ascertain immigration status upon medical chart review. Of the 274 sera analyzed, one sample tested as positive for anti-T. cruzi antibody by the preliminary ELISA, and by the three confirmatory methods. Conclusions The goal of this study is to increase the awareness of T. cruzi infection and Chagas disease in areas where the Latin American immigrant communities are growing. Our study highlights the importance of testing for Chagas disease in the populations most at risk, and the need for current data on the actual seroprevalence in areas where such immigrant populations are conspicuous. Larger-scale epidemiologic surveys on Chagas disease in the immigrant communities from Latin America are warranted. PMID:21529355

2011-01-01

46

Parklands Partnership: Education through Reforestation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes New York City's Parklands Partnership Program, in which elementary and secondary students visit natural woodlands areas in their neighborhood, learn about forest ecology, and engage in restoration and reforestation activities that foster a connection between themselves and their local environment. (SV)

Scalia, Josephine A.

1992-01-01

47

[Light competition and productivity of agroforestry system in loess area of Weibei in Shaanxi].  

PubMed

Agroforestry is the most effective way for the restoration of disturbed land on Loess Plateau and the development of poorly local economy. Taking the tree-based intercropping systems of walnut or plum with soybean or pepper in the loess area of Weibei as test objects, the photosynthesis, growth, and yield of soybean (Qindou 8) and pepper (Shanjiao 981) in the systems were studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), growth, and yield of individual soybean or pepper plants were significantly decreased, with the effects increased with decreasing distance from tree rows. Leaf water potential was not significantly or poorly correlated with the Pn, growth, and yield of the two crops. However, there were significant positive correlations between the soil moisture content in 10-20 cm layer and the biomass and yield of soybean, and the above-ground biomass of pepper. PAR was highly correlated with the yield of both crops, which indicated that light competition was one of the key factors leading to the decrease of crop yield. PMID:19238840

Peng, Xiao-bang; Cai, Jing; Jiang, Zai-min; Zhang, Yuan-ying; Zhang, Shuo-xin

2008-11-01

48

Spatial genetic structuring of baobab (Adansonia digitata, Malvaceae) in the traditional agroforestry systems of West Africa.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the spatial genetic structure of baobab (Adansonia digitata) populations from West African agroforestry systems at different geographical scales using AFLP fingerprints. Eleven populations from four countries (Benin, Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Senegal) had comparable levels of genetic diversity, although the two populations in the extreme west (Senegal) had less diversity. Pairwise F(ST) ranged from 0.02 to 0.28 and increased with geographic distance, even at a regional scale. Gene pools detected by Bayesian clustering seem to be a byproduct of the isolation-by-distance pattern rather than representing actual discrete entities. The organization of genetic diversity appears to result essentially from spatially restricted gene flow, with some influences of human seed exchange. Despite the potential for relatively long-distance pollen and seed dispersal by bats within populations, statistically significant spatial genetic structuring within populations (SGS) was detected and gave a mean indirect estimate of neighborhood size of ca. 45. This study demonstrated that relatively high levels of genetic structuring are present in baobab at both large and within-population level, which was unexpected in regard to its dispersal by bats and the influence of human exchange of seeds. Implications of these results for the conservation of baobab populations are discussed. PMID:21628247

Kyndt, Tina; Assogbadjo, Achille E; Hardy, Olivier J; Glele Kakaï, Romain; Sinsin, Brice; Van Damme, Patrick; Gheysen, Godelieve

2009-05-01

49

Effect of selective logging on genetic diversity and gene flow in Cariniana legalis sampled from a cacao agroforestry system.  

PubMed

The fragments of the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia have a long history of intense logging and selective cutting. Some tree species, such as jequitibá rosa (Cariniana legalis), have experienced a reduction in their populations with respect to both area and density. To evaluate the possible effects of selective logging on genetic diversity, gene flow, and spatial genetic structure, 51 C. legalis individuals were sampled, representing the total remaining population from the cacao agroforestry system. A total of 120 alleles were observed from the 11 microsatellite loci analyzed. The average observed heterozygosity (0.486) was less than the expected heterozygosity (0.721), indicating a loss of genetic diversity in this population. A high fixation index (FIS = 0.325) was found, which is possibly due to a reduction in population size, resulting in increased mating among relatives. The maximum (1055 m) and minimum (0.095 m) distances traveled by pollen or seeds were inferred based on paternity tests. We found 36.84% of unique parents among all sampled seedlings. The progenitors of the remaining seedlings (63.16%) were most likely out of the sampled area. Positive and significant spatial genetic structure was identified in this population among classes 10 to 30 m away with an average coancestry coefficient between pairs of individuals of 0.12. These results suggest that the agroforestry system of cacao cultivation is contributing to maintaining levels of diversity and gene flow in the studied population, thus minimizing the effects of selective logging. PMID:24615028

Leal, J B; Santos, R P; Gaiotto, F A

2014-01-01

50

Agroforestry for ecosystem services and environmental benefits: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry systems are believed to provide a number of ecosystem services; however, until recently evidence in the agroforestry\\u000a literature supporting these perceived benefits has been lacking. This special issue brings together a series of papers from\\u000a around the globe to address recent findings on the ecosystem services and environmental benefits provided by agroforestry.\\u000a As prelude to the special issue, this

Shibu Jose

2009-01-01

51

Rubber based Agroforestry Systems (RAS) as Alternatives for Rubber Monoculture System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smallholder rubber plantations in Indonesia, representing more than 80% of the total rubber areas, are very unique in the world. Most smallholder rubber areas are multi-strata in nature. Rubber is not the only perennial crop in that area, but also mixed with timber trees (forest re-growth), fruit trees, and different annual crops. Scientists identified these multistrata systems or called “Jungle

Gede Wibawa; Laxman Joshi; Meine Van Noordwijk; Eric André Penot

2006-01-01

52

The farming system and traditional agroforestry systems in the Maya community of San Jose, Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shifting slash-and-burn agriculture is likely one of the main causes of forest degra- dation in southern Belize. Although many development projects have attempted to reduce the impacts of agriculture on the tropical rainforest, the situation is still a cause for concern. A study of the farming system of the San Jose Maya community was therefore carried out to examine agricultural

V. LEVASSEUR; A. OLIVIER

2000-01-01

53

The farming system and traditional agroforestry systems in the Maya community of San Jose, Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shifting slash-and-burn agriculture is likely one of the main causes of forest degradation in southern Belize. Although many development projects have attempted to reduce the impacts of agriculture on the tropical rainforest, the situation is still a cause for concern. A study of the farming system of the San Jose Maya community was therefore carried out to examine agricultural production

V. Levasseur; A. Olivier

2000-01-01

54

Nutrient cycling and Above- and Below-ground Interactions in a Runoff Agroforestry System Applied with Composted Tree Trimmings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary production in arid zones is limited due to shortage of water and nutrients. Conveying flood water and storing it in plots surrounded by embankments allows their cropping. The efficient exploitation of the stored water can be achieved through an agroforestry system, in which two crops are grown simultaneously: annual crops with a shallow root system and trees with a deeper root system. We posit that the long-term productivity of this system can be maintained by intercropping symbiotic N fixing shrubs with annual crops, and applying the pruned and composted shrub leaves to the soil, thus ensuring an adequate nitrogen level (a limiting factor in drylands) in the soil. To test our hypothesis we carried a two year trial in which fast-growing acacia (A. saligna) trees were the woody component and maize (Zea mays L.) the intercrop. Ten treatments were applied over two maize growth seasons to examine the below- and above-ground effects of tree pruning, compost application and interactions. The addition of compost in the first growth season led to an increase of the soil organic matter reservoir, which was the main N source for the maize during the following growth season. In the second growth season the maize yield was significantly higher in the plots to which compost was applied. Pruning the tree's canopies changed the trees spatial and temporal root development, allowing the annual crop to develop between the trees. The roots of pruned trees intercropped with maize penetrated deeper in the soil. The intercropping of maize within pruned trees and implementing compost resulted in a higher water use efficiency of the water stored in the soil when compared to the not composted and monoculture treatments. The results presented suggest that the approach used in this study can be the basis for achieving sustainable agricultural production under arid conditions.

Ilani, Talli; Ephrath, Jhonathan; Silberbush, Moshe; Berliner, Pedro

2014-05-01

55

Ensemble Composition and Activity Levels of Insectivorous Bats in Response to Management Intensification in Coffee Agroforestry Systems  

PubMed Central

Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats – nearly half the Neotropical bat species – change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices) across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures. PMID:21298059

Williams-Guillén, Kimberly; Perfecto, Ivette

2011-01-01

56

Productivity of Theobroma cacao agroforestry systems with timber or legume service shade trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timber production and cocoa yields were studied (initial 10–11 years) in two experimental plantations: a Cocoa-Legume system\\u000a (CL, Erythrina\\u000a poeppigiana, Gliricidia\\u000a sepium or Inga\\u000a edulis), and a Cocoa-Timber system (CT, Cordia alliodora, Tabebuia\\u000a rosea or Terminalia\\u000a ivorensis, plus I. edulis for inter-site comparisons). These trials had two major goals: (1) to evaluate the use of mono-specific timber shade canopies\\u000a as an

Eduardo Somarriba; John Beer

2011-01-01

57

Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry system with runoff irrigation in Northern Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nutrient balance was determined for sole and alley cropped Sorghum bicolor and Acacia saligna in a runoff irrigation system in Northern Kenya. Nutrient input including pre- cipitation and runoff, and output through harvest and leaching were measured for N, P, K, Ca and Mg using adsorption resins, tensiometry and suction cups. Various management scenarios are discussed with respect to

J. LEHMANN; D. WEIGL; K. DROPPELMANN; B. HUWE; W. ZECH

1999-01-01

58

Title : Olympe, a multiscale tool to explore management options in Agroforestry Systems.  

E-print Network

. As sustainable development is on the way to becoming the new "priority objective", the rehabilitation : Olivier Deheuvels, Eric Penot, CIRAD Summary : Olympe is a software developed by INRA, IAMM and CIRAD to model and simulate cropping and farming systems functioning. As it is based on economic analysis

Boyer, Edmond

59

Habitat relationships of eastern red-backed salamanders ( Plethodon cinereus) in Appalachian agroforestry and grazing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woodland salamander responses to either traditional grazing or silvopasture systems are virtually unknown. An information-theoretic modelling approach was used to evaluate responses of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to silvopasture and meadow conversions in southern West Virginia. Searches of area-constrained plots and artificial coverboards that were distributed across a gradient of agricultural conversion and grazing intensity, including hardwood silvopastures, hay meadows,

Breanna L. Riedel; Kevin R. Russell; W. Mark Ford; Katherine P. O’Neill; Harry W. Godwin

2008-01-01

60

Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry system with runoff irrigation in Northern Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nutrient balance was determined for sole and alley cropped Sorghum bicolor and Acacia saligna in a runoff irrigation system\\u000a in Northern Kenya. Nutrient input including precipitation and runoff, and output through harvest and leaching were measured\\u000a for N, P, K, Ca and Mg using adsorption resins, tensiometry and suction cups. Various management scenarios are discussed with\\u000a respect to nutrient

J. Lehmann; D. Weigl; K. Droppelmann; B. Huwe; W. Zech

1998-01-01

61

Tree Crown Mapping in Managed Woodlands (Parklands) of Semi-Arid West Africa Using WorldView-2 Imagery and Geographic Object Based Image Analysis  

PubMed Central

Detailed information on tree cover structure is critical for research and monitoring programs targeting African woodlands, including agroforestry parklands. High spatial resolution satellite imagery represents a potentially effective alternative to field-based surveys, but requires the development of accurate methods to automate information extraction. This study presents a method for tree crown mapping based on Geographic Object Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) that use spectral and geometric information to detect and delineate individual tree crowns and crown clusters. The method was implemented on a WorldView-2 image acquired over the parklands of Saponé, Burkina Faso, and rigorously evaluated against field reference data. The overall detection rate was 85.4% for individual tree crowns and crown clusters, with lower accuracies in areas with high tree density and dense understory vegetation. The overall delineation error (expressed as the difference between area of delineated object and crown area measured in the field) was 45.6% for individual tree crowns and 61.5% for crown clusters. Delineation accuracies were higher for medium (35–100 m2) and large (?100 m2) trees compared to small (<35 m2) trees. The results indicate potential of GEOBIA and WorldView-2 imagery for tree crown mapping in parkland landscapes and similar woodland areas. PMID:25460815

Karlson, Martin; Reese, Heather; Ostwald, Madelene

2014-01-01

62

Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: Pollination in coffee agroforestry systems  

PubMed Central

Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables. PMID:23671073

Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G.; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

2013-01-01

63

A GIS-based database management application for agroforestry planning and tree selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry (the deliberate growing of trees or shrubs in rural lands) is being promoted in the United States as an alternative resource management system that can bring landowners economic benefits and provide environmental services such as reduced soil erosion, improved water quality and wildlife habitat. Landowners, farmers and extension agents need to be better informed about different agroforestry opportunities and

E. A. Ellis; P. K. R. Nair; P. E. Linehan; H. W. Beck; C. A. Blanche

2000-01-01

64

Agroforestry is a Form of Sustainable Forest Management: Lessons from South East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry as land use based on planted trees, provides productive and protective (biological diversity, healthy ecosystems, protection of soil and water resources, terrestrial carbon storage) forest functions that societies care about in the debate on sustainable forest management. Yet, the trees planted in agroforestry systems are excluded in formal definitions and statistics of 'forestry plantations' and overlooked in the legal

Meine van Noordwijk; James M. Roshetko; Marian Delos Angeles; Chip Fay; Thomas P. Tomich

2003-01-01

65

Improving the issuing, absorption and use of climate forecast information in agroforestry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry includes a range of practices that combine partial canopies of perennial woody vegetation (trees, shrubs, or hedges) with below-canopy production of forages, arable crops, fruits, berries, and nuts, herbs, or medicinal plants. Agroforestry systems can be broadly grouped into windbreaks ...

66

Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots). The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive) to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all (non-responsive) (n=7). A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

2010-04-01

67

Land cover changes and forest landscape evolution (1985-2009) in a typical Mediterranean agroforestry system (High Agri Valley)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (High Agri Valley - Basilicata region) occurred during 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European on-shore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes) and the Forest/Non Forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern: increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.

Simoniello, T.; Coluzzi, R.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.

2014-08-01

68

Rainfall partitioning into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss in a coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) monoculture compared to an agroforestry system with Inga densiflora  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryPartitioning of gross rainfall into throughfall, stemflow and rainfall interception was assessed in Costa Rica during two rainy seasons (mean annual rainfall of 2900 mm) in two coffee systems: (1) a monoculture (MC) and (2) an agroforestry system (AFS) including Inga densiflora as the associated shade tree species. Coffee architecture, not LAI, appeared to be the main driver of stemflow as stemflow was higher for shaded coffee plants (10.6% of incident rainfall) than for coffee plants in MC (7.2%), despite the fact that these shaded plants had lower LAI. The presence of Inga trees modified coffee architecture with shaded coffee plants presenting larger stems and branches resulting in higher coffee funneling ratio under shade. In AFS, coffee plants and trees accounted respectively for 88% and 12% of total stemflow which represented 11.8% of incident rainfall. AFS displayed larger cumulative stemflow and smaller total throughfall compared to MC. Cumulative throughfall expressed in % of the gross rainfall, differed between systems and monitoring periods and the trend showed a decrease with increasing LAI. Nevertheless, as stemflow measurement and interception loss estimation were done only during the second year of the study, the shade tree showed a low influence in increasing interception loss, as the combined LAI of coffee plants and shade trees was rather similar in AFS as that of coffee in MC. Furthermore, coffee plants accounted for the largest fraction of the interception loss in AFS as the coffee LAI was more than 3-fold that of shade trees.

Siles, Pablo; Vaast, Philippe; Dreyer, Erwin; Harmand, Jean-Michel

2010-12-01

69

Drought effects on soil COagroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month replicated experiment, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) in three simulated drought plots compared with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), but also decreased when soils became water saturated, as evidenced in control plots. The simulated drought plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly ("responsive") to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all ("non-responsive") (n=7). The degree of soil CO2 respiration drought response was highest around cacao tree stems and decreased with distance from the stem (R2=0.22). A significant correlation was measured between "responsive" soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. During dry periods the litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux and up to 40% during wet periods. A CO2 flush was recorded during the rewetting phase that lasted for approximately two weeks, during which time accumulated labile carbon stocks mineralized. The net effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was neutral, control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1.

van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

2009-12-01

70

Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described.

Wright, L L; Ranney, J W

1991-01-01

71

The impact of agroforestry combined with water harvesting on soil carbon and nitrogen stocks in central Chile evaluated using the ICBM\\/N model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (N) stocks in an agroforestry system with water harvesting were analysed in a field experiment and the results compared with those of other crop management systems in the Mediterranean zone of central Chile. Agroforestry with water harvesting showed higher positive effects on N stocks, mainly in the upper soil layer, than the other

Osvaldo Salazar; Manuel Casanova; Thomas Kätterer

2011-01-01

72

IMPROVED TOOLS FOR MANAGING AGROFORESTRY LANDSCAPES IN NORTHERN THAILAND: PILOT APPLICATION OF SPATIAL ANALYSIS AND NEGOTIATION SUPPORT SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current landscape mosaic patterns of land cover in Northern Thailand can be seen as resulting from adaptation of traditional agricultural systems over time. During the 1950s, little influence from the lowlands had yet imposed itself on traditional systems in higher elevation zones. Subsequent outside influences, such as markets for new crops associated with both opium crop replacement programs and expansion

David Thomas; Horst Weyerhaeuser

73

Effects of climate change and land use on duck abundance in Canadian prairie-parklands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent declines in breeding ducks in the Canadian prairie-parklands may be due to loss of habitat to agriculture. However, prairie-parkland also has experienced wetland loss to drought as well as to agriculture. For sucessful habitat restoration, it is important to separate the effects of anthropogenic changes to the landscape from those caused by changes in climate. The researchers used data

R. W. Bethke; T. D. Nudds

1995-01-01

74

Carbon, nitrogen, organic phosphorus, microbial biomass and N mineralization in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the soil organic P cycle is important to improve the P fertilization management in low-input tropical agricultural systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate organic P (Po) content by Bowman extraction method and labile P fractions by NaHCO3 extraction in soil profiles under cacao ...

75

Biotechnology and Agroforestry in Indian Arid Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agroforestry evolved with agriculture to make the best use of the land and to maintain equilibrium between man, land, livestock\\u000a and plants. In recent years, agroforestry has been developed as an autonomous science that can help farmers to increase profitability\\u000a and land sustainability. Tree growing in combination with agriculture, including individual farms, watersheds and regional\\u000a landscape can be integrated to

Varsha Sharma; Shaily Goyal; K. G. Ramawat

76

Smallholder Cacao (Theobroma cacao Linn.) cultivation in agroforestry systems of West and Central Africa: challenges and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultural features, management practice, environmental sustainability, and economic profitability of smallholder cacao\\u000a (Theobroma cacao)production in West and Central Africa are reviewed. The aim is tohighlight factors affecting the cacao production and marketing\\u000a sectorand to propose appropriate strategies to ensure sustainable and profitable cacao production in the region. The cacao\\u000a cultivation system causes minimum damage to soil resources. In terms

B. Duguma; J. Gockowski; J. Bakala

2001-01-01

77

Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agroforestry Practices in Temperate North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agroforestry, an ecologically and environmentally sustainable land use, offers great promise to sequester carbon (C). The\\u000a objectives of this chapter are to (1) provide a review of C sequestration opportunities available under various agroforestry\\u000a practices in temperate North America, and (2) estimate C sequestration potential by agroforestry in the US. Since accurate\\u000a land area under agroforestry was not available, the

Ranjith P. Udawatta; Shibu Jose

78

Tillage and N-source influence soil-emitted nitrous oxide in the Alberta Parkland region  

SciTech Connect

Zero tillage systems are receiving attention as possible strategies for sequestering atmospheric carbon. This benefit may be offset by increased N2O emissions, which have been reported for soils under zero tillage (ZT) compared to those under more intensive tillage (IT). Comparisons of N2O emissions from the two systems have been restricted to the growing season, but substantial losses of N2O have been reported during spring thaw events in many regions. Inorganic and organic additions of nitrogen and fallowing have also been shown to increase levels of soil-emitted N2O. The objectives for this study were: (i) to confirm that losses of N2O are higher under ZT than under IT in Alberta Parkland agroecosystems; (ii) to compare the relative influence of urea fertilizer (56 or 100 kg N h--1), field pea residue (dry matter at 5 Mg h--1), sheep manure (dry matter at 40 Mg h--1) additions, and fallow on total N2O losses; and (iii) to investigate possible interactions between fertility and tillage treatments. Gas samples were collected using vented soil covers at three sites near Edmonton, Alberta during 1993, 1994, and 1995. Gas samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a 63Ni electron capture detector. Estimated annual N2O loss ranged from 0.1 to 4.0 kg N ha-1. Emissions during summer were slightly higher, similar, or lower on ZT compared to those under IT, but were consistently lower on ZT plots during spring thaw. Combined estimates (spring plus summer) of N2O loss under ZT were equal to or lower than those under IT. Highest overall losses were observed on fallow plots, followed by fertilizer, pea residue, and then either manure or control plots. We conclude that ZT management systems have potential for reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in the Alberta Parkland region.

Lemke , R L.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E D.

1999-01-01

79

Forest management and agroforestry to sequester and conserve atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Global Change Research Program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), an assessment was initiated in 1990 to evaluate forest establishment and management options to sequester carbon and reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Three specific objectives are to: identify site-suitable technologies and practices that could be utilized to manage forests and agroforestry systems to sequester and conserve carbon; assess available data on site-level costs of promising forest and agroforestry management practices; evaluate estimates of technically suitable land in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets.

Schriwder, P.E.; Dixon, R.K.; Winjum, J.K.

1993-01-01

80

Mandatory dedication of parkland in Texas: a survey of municipal practices  

E-print Network

Of Fees In Lieu Case Law in Texas Berg Development v. Missouri City College Station v. Turtle Rock Summary of Review Of Legal Issues 10 12 13 14 16 III RESEARCH DESIGN 18 Population Studied Data Collection Data Analysis 18 19 20 IV SURVEY... e tion v. Turtle Rock or or , the constitutionality of properly constructed municipal mandatory parkland dedication ordinances was finally affirmed. This effectively opened the door for Texas communities to enact parkland dedication ordinances...

Rockefeller, David Kenneth

1990-01-01

81

An evaluation of the Acacia albida -based agroforestry practices in the Hararghe highlands of Eastern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing Acacia albida as a permanent tree crop, on farmlands with cereals, vegetables and coffee underneath or in between, is an indigenous agroforestry system in the Hararghe highlands of Eastern Ethiopia. However, there is practically no systematic record or data on the merits and benefits of this practice.

Peter Poschen

1986-01-01

82

Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize controlled…

Zschocke, Thomas

2012-01-01

83

Assessing Local Knowledge Use in Agroforestry Management with Cognitive Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 ± 3 variables and 19 ± 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

Isaac, Marney E.; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

2009-06-01

84

Agroforestry and the Maintenance of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Agroforestry is a land-use method that allows trees to grow in crop and livestock areas. Studies have shown that it is one way to conserve biodiversity, attracts species beneficial to farming, such as pollinators, improves farms by, for example, reducing soil erosion and is economically beneficial to farmers.

Peter Bichier (Migratory Bird Center of the Smithsonian National Zoological Park; )

2006-05-01

85

Can Joint Carbon and Biodiversity Management in Tropical Agroforestry Landscapes Be Optimized?  

PubMed Central

Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential ‘win-win’ scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi, Indonesia, ranging from natural rainforest to cacao agroforests that have replaced former natural forest. The conversion of natural forests with carbon stocks of 227–362 Mg C ha?1 to agroforests with 82–211 Mg C ha?1 showed no relationships to overall biodiversity but led to a significant loss of forest-related species richness. We conclude that the conservation of the forest-related biodiversity, and to a lesser degree of carbon stocks, mainly depends on the preservation of natural forest habitats. In the three most carbon-rich agroforestry systems, carbon stocks were about 60% of those of natural forest, suggesting that 1.6 ha of optimally managed agroforest can contribute to the conservation of carbon stocks as much as 1 ha of natural forest. However, agroforestry systems had comparatively low biodiversity, and we found no evidence for a tight link between carbon storage and biodiversity. Yet, potential win-win agroforestry management solutions include combining high shade-tree quality which favours biodiversity with cacao-yield adapted shade levels. PMID:23077569

Kessler, Michael; Hertel, Dietrich; Jungkunst, Hermann F.; Kluge, Jürgen; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Bos, Merijn; Buchori, Damayanti; Gerold, Gerhard; Gradstein, S. Robbert; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Moser, Gerald; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Saleh, Shahabuddin; Schulze, Christian H.; Sporn, Simone G.; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S.; Tscharntke, Teja

2012-01-01

86

Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification  

PubMed Central

Losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning due to rainforest destruction and agricultural intensification are prime concerns for science and society alike. Potentially, ecosystems show nonlinear responses to land-use intensification that would open management options with limited ecological losses but satisfying economic gains. However, multidisciplinary studies to quantify ecological losses and socioeconomic tradeoffs under different management options are rare. Here, we evaluate opposing land use strategies in cacao agroforestry in Sulawesi, Indonesia, by using data on species richness of nine plant and animal taxa, six related ecosystem functions, and on socioeconomic drivers of agroforestry expansion. Expansion of cacao cultivation by 230% in the last two decades was triggered not only by economic market mechanisms, but also by rarely considered cultural factors. Transformation from near-primary forest to agroforestry had little effect on overall species richness, but reduced plant biomass and carbon storage by ?75% and species richness of forest-using species by ?60%. In contrast, increased land use intensity in cacao agroforestry, coupled with a reduction in shade tree cover from 80% to 40%, caused only minor quantitative changes in biodiversity and maintained high levels of ecosystem functioning while doubling farmers' net income. However, unshaded systems further increased income by ?40%, implying that current economic incentives and cultural preferences for new intensification practices put shaded systems at risk. We conclude that low-shade agroforestry provides the best available compromise between economic forces and ecological needs. Certification schemes for shade-grown crops may provide a market-based mechanism to slow down current intensification trends. PMID:17360392

Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kessler, Michael; Barkmann, Jan; Bos, Merijn M.; Buchori, Damayanti; Erasmi, Stefan; Faust, Heiko; Gerold, Gerhard; Glenk, Klaus; Gradstein, S. Robbert; Guhardja, Edi; Harteveld, Marieke; Hertel, Dietrich; Höhn, Patrick; Kappas, Martin; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Maertens, Miet; Marggraf, Rainer; Migge-Kleian, Sonja; Mogea, Johanis; Pitopang, Ramadhaniel; Schaefer, Matthias; Schwarze, Stefan; Sporn, Simone G.; Steingrebe, Andrea; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S.; Tjitrosoemito, Soekisman; Twele, André; Weber, Robert; Woltmann, Lars; Zeller, Manfred; Tscharntke, Teja

2007-01-01

87

Guide to monitoring carbon storage in forestry and agroforestry projects  

SciTech Connect

As the international Joint Implementation (JI) program develops a system for trading carbon credits to offset greenhouse gas emissions, project managers need a reliable basis for measuring the carbon storage benefits of carbon offset projects. Monitoring and verifying carbon storage can be expensive, depending on the level of scientific validity needed. This guide describes a system of cost-effective methods for monitoring and verification on a commercial basis, for three types of land use; forest plantations, managed natural forests and agroforestry. Winrock International`s Forest Carbon Monitoring Program developed this system with its partners as a way to provide reliable results using accepted principles and practices of forest inventory, soil science and ecological surveys. Perhaps most important, the system brings field research methods to bear on commercial-scale inventories, at levels of precision specified by funding agencies.

MacDicken, K.G.

1997-10-01

88

Agroforestry research for development in India: 25 years of experiences of a national program  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has been in the forefront of agroforestry research ever since organized research in agroforestry started worldwide about\\u000a 25 years ago. Considering the country's unique land-use, demographic, political, and sociocultural characteristics as well\\u000a as its strong record in agricultural and forestry research, India's experience in agroforestry research is important to agroforestry\\u000a development, especially in developing nations. Agroforestry has received much

S. Puri; P. K. R. Nair

2004-01-01

89

SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction  

E-print Network

SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Roundtable (CAPR) GEO Forest Monitoring SymposiumGEO Forest Monitoring)Amazon Initiative Consortium (IA) #12;Carbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Carbon for Poverty Reduction

90

Application of Constructed Wetlands in Recycling, Agriculture and Agroforestry: Water Management for Changing Flow Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Increasingly, constructed wetland systems are being utilized for treatment and buffering of effluent and runoff water, functioning\\u000a in nutrient removal, disinfection and also as transitional environments in recycling applications. Agriculture and agroforestry\\u000a opportunities are abundant for water treated by wetland systems. Progressively, wetland use as a component in potable recycling\\u000a may be more acceptable in areas as changing flow regimes

Herbert John Bavor

91

Agroforests: an original agro-forestry model from smallholder farmers for environmental conservation and sustainable development pp. 52-58 in Traditional Technology for Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development in the Asian-Pacific Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforests are defined as complex agroforestry systems which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems, but are integrated into agricultural management systems. Their conception, their management and their economic and environmental qualities, clearly differentiate them from better known \\

G. Michon; H. de Foresta

92

Parkland College Transfer Program Graduate Follow-Up Survey, 2001-2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents findings from the 2001-2002 Transfer Program Follow-Up Survey of Parkland College (Illinois) graduates. A total of 423 students from baccalaureate/transfer programs were contacted approximately 6 weeks after graduation. Of those, 253 returned surveys, for a response rate of 59.8%. More than 58% of respondents were female, 81%…

Parkland Coll., Champaign, IL. Office of Institutional Research and Evaluation.

93

Fate of carbofuran and its effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates in Canadian prairie parkland ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multipond study was conducted in 1986 to determine the fate of carbofuran and its effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates in alkaline, Canadian prairie parkland ponds. Four ponds were sprayed with carbofuran in late July; four other ponds served as controls. Sixteen hours after spraying, concentrations of carbofuran in the water column ranged from 9–32 µg l-1. After 124 h, concentrations

Mark Wayland; David A. Boag

1995-01-01

94

Nature vs. nurture: managing relationships between forests, agroforestry and wild biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many agroforestry systems are found in places that otherwise would be appropriate for natural forests, and often have replaced\\u000a them. Humans have had a profound influence on forests virtually everywhere they both are found. Thus ‘natural’ defined as\\u000a ‘without human influence’ is a hypothetical construct, though one that has assumed mythological value among many conservationists.\\u000a Biodiversity is a forest value

J. A. McNeely

2004-01-01

95

Effects of climate change and land use on duck abundance in Canadian prairie-parklands  

SciTech Connect

Recent declines in breeding ducks in the Canadian prairie-parklands may be due to loss of habitat to agriculture. However, prairie-parkland also has experienced wetland loss to drought as well as to agriculture. For sucessful habitat restoration, it is important to separate the effects of anthropogenic changes to the landscape from those caused by changes in climate. The researchers used data from annual air-ground surveys and from precipitation records to develop relationships between indices of abundance of each of 10 species of ducks and indices of wetland conditions during 1955-1974. Average annual deficits within Canadian prairie-parkland over the period 1975-1989 were estimated at 1.2 x 10{sup 6} birds for both Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Northern Pintail (A. acuta), 480 000 for Blue-winged Teal (A. discors), 190 000 for American Wigeon (A. americana), 175 000 for Northern Shoveler (A. clypeata), 50 000 for Gadwall (A. strepera), 10 000 for Green-winged Teal (A. crecca), 40 000 for Canvasback (Aythya valisineria), 25 000 for Lesser Scaup (A. affinis), and 5000 for Redhead (A. americana). The effect of agricultural expansion in the east on prime waterfowl habitat since 1951 appears to have been negligible. There, as much as 90% had been already lost prior to 1951. In the west, however, where prime waterfowl habitat was still relatively abundant in 1951, agricultural development has encroached substantially. The relationship between the lost area of the best breeding habitats and the size of population deficits for Mallards and Northern Pintails in the entire Canadian prairie-parkland region was significant for both species (P < 0.0027 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Consequently, habitat restoration programs located where the highest quality waterfowl habitat and the lowest quality agricultural lands overlap most should have the greatest potential to affect recovery of breeding duck populations in the Canadian prairie-parklands. 39 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Bethke, R.W.; Nudds, T.D. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

1995-08-01

96

Rain forest promotes trophic interactions and diversity of trap-nesting Hymenoptera in adjacent agroforestry.  

PubMed

1. Human alteration of natural ecosystems to agroecosystems continues to accelerate in tropical countries. The resulting world-wide decline of rain forest causes a mosaic landscape, comprising simple and complex agroecosystems and patchily distributed rain forest fragments of different quality. Landscape context and agricultural management can be expected to affect both species diversity and ecosystem services by trophic interactions. 2. In Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, 24 agroforestry systems, differing in the distance to the nearest natural forest (0-1415 m), light intensity (37.5-899.6 W/m(-2)) and number of vascular plant species (7-40 species) were studied. Ten standardized trap nests for bees and wasps, made from reed and knotweed internodes, were exposed in each study site. Occupied nests were collected every month, over a period totalling 15 months. 3. A total of 13,617 brood cells were reared to produce adults of 14 trap-nesting species and 25 natural enemy species, which were mostly parasitoids. The total number of species was affected negatively by increasing distance from forest and increased with light intensity of agroforestry systems. The parasitoids in particular appeared to benefit from nearby forests. Over a 500-m distance, the number of parasitoid species decreased from eight to five, and parasitism rates from 12% to 4%. 4. The results show that diversity and parasitism, as a higher trophic interaction and ecosystem service, are enhanced by (i) improved connectivity of agroecosystems with natural habitats such as agroforestry adjacent to rain forest and (ii) management practices to increase light availability in agroforestry, which also enhances richness of flowering plants in the understorey. PMID:16637985

Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

2006-03-01

97

Farmer perspectives on agroforestry opportunities and constraints in cape verde  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ?gua de Gato Watershed on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde Islands, 51 farmers were surveyed regarding their attitudes\\u000a and knowledge of agroforestry. The farmers identified eight constraints to agroforestry implementation, with virtually all\\u000a indicating that a source of loan funds was the major concern. Space or land constraints and availability of tree seedlings\\u000a were identified as constraints

James E. Johnson; Orlando J. Delgado

2003-01-01

98

Soil water content and infiltration in agroforestry buffer strips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry practices are receiving increased attention in temperate zones due to their environmental and economic benefits.\\u000a To test the hypothesis that agroforestry buffers reduce runoff by increased infiltration, water use, and water storage; profile\\u000a water content and soil water infiltration were measured for a Putnam soil (fine, smectitic, mesic Vertic Albaqualf). The watershed\\u000a was under no-till management with a corn

Stephen H. Anderson; Ranjith P. Udawatta; Tshepiso Seobi; Harold E. Garrett

2009-01-01

99

Economic analysis of industrial agroforestry: poplar ( Populus deltoides ) in Uttar Pradesh (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet raw material requirements, Wimco, the biggest manufacturer of matches in India, has been promoting poplar-based agroforestry through an agroforestry project since 1984 approved by the National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development (NABARD) in the northern region of India. This study aims at evaluating the performance of poplar-based agroforestry in terms of income, employment and environmental impact from

S. K. Jain; P. Singh

2000-01-01

100

Parkland and Golf Course Management: Managing Wildlife Habitat on Public Open Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses methods for managing parkland and golf courses in a wildlife-friendly manner. The article contains a number of practical tips for managing parks and golf courses, and covers such topics as lawn size, the use of native plants, and eco-friendly turf-grass management. The piece was authored by Amanda D. Rodewald Ph.D. of the School of Natural Resources at Ohio State University. Anyone in the Turf or Golf Management industry with a desire to improve the environmental consequences will find this article very useful.

Rodewald, Amanda D.

101

Effects of terracing and agroforestry on soil and water loss in hilly areas of the Sichuan Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil erosion in hilly areas of the Sichuan Basin is a serious concern over sustainable crop production and sound ecosystem.\\u000a A 3-year experiment was conducted using the method of runoff plots to examine the effects of terracing and agroforestry in\\u000a farmland systems on soil and water conservation of slope fields in the hilly areas in Jianyang County, Sichuan Province, Southwestern

J. H. Zhang; Z. A. Su; G. C. Liu

2008-01-01

102

Barriers and Coping Mechanisms Relating to Agroforestry Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe.Design\\/Methodology\\/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations.Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional agroforestry was common in the study area. There were no cases of innovative agroforestry other than dwindling remnants from

Munyaradzi Chitakira; Emmanuel Torquebiau

2010-01-01

103

Climate change: linking adaptation and mitigation through agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is the human enterprise that is most vulnerable to climate change. Tropical agriculture, particularly subsistence\\u000a agriculture is particularly vulnerable, as smallholder farmers do not have adequate resources to adapt to climate change.\\u000a While agroforestry may play a significant role in mitigating the atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG), it also\\u000a has a role to play in helping smallholder farmers

Louis V. Verchot; Meine Van Noordwijk; Serigne Kandji; Tom Tomich; Chin Ong; Alain Albrecht; Jens Mackensen; Cynthia Bantilan; K. V. Anupama; Cheryl Palm

2007-01-01

104

Agroforestry Tree Products (AFTPs): Targeting Poverty Reduction and Enhanced Livelihoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry tree domestication emerged as a farmer-driven, market-led process in the early 1990s and became an international initiative. A participatory approach now supplements the more traditional aspects of tree improvement, and is seen as an important strategy towards the Millennium Development Goals of eradicating poverty and hunger, promoting social equity and environmental sustainability. Considerable progress has been made towards the

Roger R. B. Leakey; Zac Tchoundjeu; Kate Schreckenberg; Sheona E. Shackleton; Charlie M. Shackleton

2005-01-01

105

Field Note: Standard Web Application for Information Exchange on Agroforestry in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agroforestry (AF)/forestry is no longer an isolated field, with so many developmental activities having links with this sector, and thus the information required to be handled by the researchers all over the world has increased exponentially. This article discusses a website that was developed by the National Research Centre for Agroforestry

Ajit; Nighat Jabeen; Handa, A. K.; Uma

2008-01-01

106

Variations in soil aggregate stability and enzyme activities in a temperate agroforestry practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry and grass buffers have been shown to improve soil properties and overall environmental quality. The objective of this study was to examine management and landscape effects on water stable soil aggregates (WSA), soil carbon, soil nitrogen, enzyme activity, and microbial community DNA content. Treatments were row crop (RC), grass buffer (GB), agroforestry buffer (AG), and grass waterways (GWW). A

Ranjith P. Udawatta; Robert J. Kremer; Brandon W. Adamson; Stephen H. Anderson

2008-01-01

107

Food-Web Relations of the Horned Grebe ( Podiceps auritus ) on Constructed Ponds in the Peace Parkland, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borrow-pit constructed ponds, formed during road building, are common along highways that run through the Peace Parkland,\\u000a Alberta, Canada, providing habitat for a variety of aquatic birds. The horned grebe (Podiceps auritus) is a migratory diving bird that is in decline, likely due to native habitat destruction; however, it readily nests on roadside\\u000a borrow pits. We conducted stable isotope analysis

Eva C. Kuczynski; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

2010-01-01

108

Changes in the parkland-boreal forest boundary in northwestern Ontario over the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in vegetation were tracked from a well-dated sediment core from a boreal lake, Lake 239, at ˜200-year resolution over the Holocene. This presently oligotrophic lake is located ˜100-km east from the present-day parkland-forest ecotone in northwestern Ontario. Near-shore sediment core transects from Lake 239 have previously shown this lake was at least 8-m lower than present in the mid-Holocene, or ˜58% less lake volume in comparison to today. Large shifts were expected in the terrestrial vegetation if the low lake levels were related to climate. The core from Lake 239 shows increases in the relative abundance and concentration of pollen such as Cupressaceae and Ambrosia, indicating a more open boreal forest between ˜4500-8000 cal yr BP. Pollen-based inferences of average, summer and winter temperatures suggest that temperatures were on average up to 1-2 °C warmer than today, with winter temperatures up to 4 °C warmer. The pollen inferences also suggest enhanced precipitation, likely in the summer, but with an overall increase in evaporation and evapotranspiration resulting in reduced effective moisture. To assess regional climate changes, pollen-based reconstructions of temperature and precipitation were developed and synthesized from sediment cores from eight previously published lakes, from which pollen sites were available to both the west and east of Lake 239, spanning present-day prairie lakes to forested lakes up to 300 km east of the prairie-boreal ecotone. All sites show shifts in pollen assemblages that indicate a warm mid-Holocene period; prairie sites west of the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) show mid-Holocene decreases in precipitation relative to today, whereas sites near or east of ELA show consistent increases in precipitation, but with increased temperatures and enhanced evaporation during the mid-Holocene.

Moos, Melissa T.; Cumming, Brian F.

2011-05-01

109

Hydrologic Activity of Deciduous Agroforestry Tree : Observed through Monitoring of Stable Isotopes in Stem Water, Solar Radiation Attenuation, and Sapflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The net benefit of agroforestry trees for small scale farmers in dryland agricultural systems is debatable because while they provide significant direct and indirect services, they also consume considerable amounts of scare water resources. In this study we monitor the stable isotopes of water to improve a water budget of a Sclerocarya birrea tree in a millet field in South Eastern Burkina Faso. Data obtained from air temperature and humidity, surface temperature, solar radiation, and soil moisture sensors attached to a wireless sensor network uniquely configured around the agroforestry tree provided the initial calculation of the local water balance. Isotopic ratios were determined from water extracted from stems and sub canopy soil, and from nearby ground water, precipitation, and surface water that was sampled weekly. A linear mixing model is used to predict when the tree switched between water sources. The results from the linear mixing model coupled with a tree water balance demonstrate the extreme seasonality of the annual cycle of water use by this deciduous species.

Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Parlange, M. B.

2012-12-01

110

Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.  

PubMed

Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management. PMID:24131776

Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

2013-12-01

111

Farmers, the Practice of Farming and the Future of Agroforestry: An Application of Bourdieu's Concepts of Field and Habitus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agroforestry, the practice of raising crops and trees together in ways that are mutually beneficial, provides farmers with an alternative to more conventional farming practices. In this paper, we apply Bourdieu's concepts of "field" and "habitus" in an attempt to better understand the practice of farming and the role that agroforestry may have in…

Raedeke, Andrew H.; Green, John J.; Hodge, Sandra S.; Valdivia, Corinne

2003-01-01

112

Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment of Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a NS coefficient equal to 0.80, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2=0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2=0.49) and water table level (R2=0.90). An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow, 25% as evapotranspiration and the remaining 11% was attributed to deep percolation. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 5% and an infiltration component of 91%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 63% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 29% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 8% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Moussa, R.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Voltz, M.; Imbach, P.; Harmand, J. M.

2010-05-01

113

Modelling agro-forestry scenarios for ammonia abatement in the landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia emissions from livestock production can have negative impacts on nearby protected sites and ecosystems that are sensitive to eutrophication and acidification. Trees are effective scavengers of both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere making tree belts potentially effective landscape features to support strategies aiming to reduce ammonia impacts. This research used the MODDAS-THETIS a coupled turbulence and deposition turbulence model, to examine the relationships between tree canopy structure and ammonia capture for three source types—animal housing, slurry lagoon, and livestock under a tree canopy. By altering the canopy length, leaf area index, leaf area density, and height of the canopy in the model the capture efficiencies varied substantially. A maximum of 27% of the emitted ammonia was captured by tree canopy for the animal housing source, for the slurry lagoon the maximum was 19%, while the livestock under trees attained a maximum of 60% recapture. Using agro-forestry systems of differing tree structures near ‘hot spots’ of ammonia in the landscape could provide an effective abatement option for the livestock industry that complements existing source reduction measures.

Bealey, W. J.; Loubet, B.; Braban, C. F.; Famulari, D.; Theobald, M. R.; Reis, S.; Reay, D. S.; Sutton, M. A.

2014-12-01

114

Barriers and Coping Mechanisms Relating to Agroforestry Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe. Design/Methodology/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations. Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional…

Chitakira, Munyaradzi; Torquebiau, Emmanuel

2010-01-01

115

ICE DAMAGE IN A CHRONOSEQUENCE OF AGROFORESTRY PINE PLANTATIONS IN ARKANSAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acute (broken and leaning) and transient (bending) damage to loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were assessed in a case study of experimental agroforestry plantations following a December 2000 ice storm. Stand ages were 7-, 9-, and 17-years-old and tree density ranged from 150 to 3,360 trees ha-1 in re...

116

Bats Limit Insects in a Neotropical Agroforestry System  

E-print Network

the importance of avian predators in arthropod control (2). Although insectivorous bats are ex- pected to have of insectivorous overwintering migrants from North America (4). We have no data on the ab- solute density of bats

117

Quantification and simulation of nitrous oxide emissions from agroecosystems in the Boreal and Parkland regions of Alberta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentration of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) is increasing rapidly. Nitrous oxide, a 'greenhouse gas', contributes to global warming. It is also involved in the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. Best estimates indicate that the increase is almost exclusively attributable to agricultural activities. These contributions need to be accurately quantified to reduce uncertainties in global N2O budgets and facilitate the development of mitigation strategies. The objectives of this study were to: (1) quantify the seasonal and annual N2O emissions from selected field plots in the Boreal and Parkland regions of Alberta; (2) identify the principle controls regulating N2O emissions; (3) compare total N2O emissions from plots under zero and conventional till managements; (4) evaluate the extent to which urea fertilizer, pea residue, manure and fallow promote N2O emissions and; (5) test the ability of the DNDC model to simulate N2O emissions under conditions prevailing in the Boreal and Parkland regions. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured from spring thaw to fall freeze-up at six sites over a three year period. Vented soil covers were placed on the soil surface for one hour. A gas sample was drawn from the headspace and transferred to pre-evacuated vacutainers. Gas samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a 63Ni electron capture detector. Measurements of soil temperature, soil water content, mineral N and water-soluble organic C were taken periodically at some of the sites. Estimates of annual N2O-N losses ranged from 0.5 to 4.0 kg N ha-1. Up to 70% of this loss occurred during and just following spring thaw. There were significant differences in the magnitude of estimated annual N2O-N losses among the sites. More than 90% of this variation could be explained by differences in soil clay content. When the spring thaw event was considered individually, variability was better explained by differences in the concentration of soil mineral N. Summer fallowing and additions of urea fertilizer and pea residue increased N2O-N losses compared to control plots. Losses of N2O-N were significantly lower from zero compared to conventional till plots during spring thaw, but differences were not significant on an annual basis.

Lemke, Reynald L.

118

Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment for Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficient equal to 0.89 for the year 2009, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2 = 0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2 = 0.35) and water table level (R2 = 0.84). Eight months of data from 2010 were used to validate modelled streamflow, resulting in a NS = 0.75. An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow and 25% as evapotranspiration, while the remaining 11% is probably explained by deep percolation, measurement errors and/or inter-annual changes in soil and aquifer water stocks. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 4% and an infiltration component of 92%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 87% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 7% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 6% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Harmand, J. M.; Voltz, M.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Imbach, P.; Moussa, R.

2011-01-01

119

Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

2004-01-01

120

Abundance of springtails (Collembola) under four agroforestry tree species with contrasting litter quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil- and litter-dwelling Collembola under four agroforestry tree species (Treculia africana, Dactyladenia (Acioa) barteri, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala) were monitored monthly for a period of 12 months and results were compared with those of a secondary forest and a grass\\u000a plot. Treculia and Dactyladenia produced lower quality litter, leading to lower soil temperature and higher soil moisture under

M. A. Badejo; T. I. Nathaniel; G. Tian

1998-01-01

121

GHG Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - Relative role for agroforestry  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

2004-01-01

122

The Parkland Protocol's Modified Berne-Norwood Criteria Predict Two Tiers of Risk for Traumatic Brain Injury Progression  

PubMed Central

Abstract As a basis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after traumatic brain injury (TBI), we have previously published an algorithm known as the Parkland Protocol. Patients are classified by risk for spontaneous progression of hemorrhage with chemoprophylaxis regimens tailored to each tier. We sought to validate this schema. In our algorithm, patients with any of the following are classified “low risk” for spontaneous progression: subdural hemorrhage ?8?mm thick; epidural hemorrhage ?8?mm thick; contusions ?20?mm in diameter; a single contusion per lobe; any amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage; or any amount of intraventricular hemorrhage. Patients with any injury exceeding these are “moderate risk” for progression, and any patient receiving a monitor or craniotomy is “high risk.” From February 2010 to November 2012, TBI patients were entered into a dedicated database tracking injury types and sizes, risk category at presentation, and progression on subsequent computed tomgraphies (CTs). The cohort (n=414) was classified as low risk (n=200), moderate risk (n=75), or high risk (n=139) after first CT. After repeat CT scan, radiographic progression was noted in 27% of low-risk, 53% of moderate-risk, and 58% of high-risk subjects. Omnibus analysis of variance test for differences in progression rates was highly significant (p<0.0001). Tukey's post-hoc test showed the low-risk progression rate to be significantly different than both the moderate- and high-risk arms; no difference was noted between the moderate- and high-risk arms themselves. These criteria are a valid tool for classifying TBI patients into two categories of risk for spontaneous progression. This supports tailored chemoprophylaxis regimens for each arm. PMID:24945196

Pastorek, Rachel A.; Cripps, Michael W.; Bernstein, Ira H.; Scott, William W.; Madden, Christopher J.; Rickert, Kim L.; Wolf, Steven E.

2014-01-01

123

Pattern and potential causes of White-faced Ibis, Plegadis chihi, establishment in the northern prairie and parkland region of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Northern Prairie and Parkland Waterbird Conservation Plan calls for renewed attention to determining the current status of waterbird populations, their distributions, and conservation needs. It highlights the need for baseline information on the White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi). In response, we examined the historical and current distribution of the ibis in North Dakota and summarized first sightings and nest records for the provinces and other states composing the northern prairie and parkland region. The establishment of breeding colonies of White-faced Ibis here may be due to climate and precipitation patterns, invasion and spread of Narrowleaf Cattail (Typha angustifolia), changes in agricultural practices, habitat loss and range expansion in the southern and western portions of the species' range, and increases in ibis populations in the Intermountain West. We placed special emphasis on North Dakota, a state for which there is scant published information concerning the current status of this species. In recent decades, the ibis has become a regular breeding-season resident in North Dakota and in other areas of the northern prairie and parkland region. From 1882 to 2002, there were 145 reports of one or more White-faced Ibis in North Dakota, including 93 reports during the breeding season (15 May to 31 August), 49 during the non-breeding season (1 September to 14 May), and three for which the season of occurrence was not reported. Prior to the 1960s, there were only three records of the species in North Dakota. Observations of White-faced Ibises in North Dakota increased dramatically between the 1960s and the early 21st century, and the species has been observed nearly annually since 1971. The first White-faced Ibis nesting activity in the state was recorded in 1978, and to date, there have been 21 known records of nesting activity in the state. The species nested in large (>300 ha) semipermanent or permanent wetlands within mixed-species colonies ranging in areal extent from small (0.1 ha) to fairly large (27 ha), and colonies were located in patches of emergent vegetation dominated by cattails (Typha) and bulrushes (Scirpus). We classify the White-faced Ibis as a fairly common migrant and a locally uncommon breeder east of the Missouri River and a casual migrant west of the Missouri River.

Shaffer, J.A.; Knutsen, G.A.; Martin, R.E.; Brice, J.S.

2008-01-01

124

Guide to monitoring carbon storage in forestry and agroforestry projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the international Joint Implementation (JI) program develops a system for trading carbon credits to offset greenhouse gas emissions, project managers need a reliable basis for measuring the carbon storage benefits of carbon offset projects. Monitoring and verifying carbon storage can be expensive, depending on the level of scientific validity needed. This guide describes a system of cost-effective methods for

K. G. MacDicken

1997-01-01

125

Short-rotation woody crops and phytoremediation: Opportunities for agroforestry?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, fuelwood demands, soil and groundwater contamination, and agriculture's impact on nature are growing concerns.\\u000a Fast growing trees in short rotation woody crop (SRWC) systems may increasingly meet societal needs ranging from renewable\\u000a energy to environmental mitigation and remediation. Phytoremediation, the use of plants for environmental cleanup, systems\\u000a utilizing SRWCs have potential to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater. Non-hyperaccumulating, i.e.,

D. L. Rockwood; C. V. Naidu; D. R. Carter; M. Rahmani; T. A. Spriggs; C. Lin; G. R. Alker; J. G. Isebrands; S. A. Segrest

2004-01-01

126

Tropical Forest Ecosystem and Agroforestry Management (Forest TEAM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Forest TEAM project seeks to reverse the decline of native forests and plants in Hawaii due to the introduction of alien plant species and other encroachments. They hope to reverse this trend by educating technicians in the management and regeneration of native ecosystems on the Hawaiian Islands. In order to accomplish this goal, Forest TEAM developed an associate of science degree program with 14 new courses. The curriculum includes the most current geographic information system and geographic positioning system technologies. Internships and service learning projects give students hands-on experience with potential employers, who serve on the project's advisory board. The college students also interact with high school students who take summer courses, participate in junior Forest TEAM club activities, and participate in field trips to help with reforestation projects. The site includes course requirements, a nice set of conservation links, an excellent set of web resources related to ecology (especially tropical and Hawaiian), information about program sponsors and the advisory board, as well as information on upcoming events and the Forest TEAM Club.

2008-07-24

127

Distribution of throughfall and stemflow in multi-strata agroforestry, perennial monoculture, fallow and primary forest in central Amazonia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partitioning of rain water into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss when passing through plant canopies depends on properties of the respective plant species, such as leaf area and branch angles. In heterogeneous vegetation, such as tropical forest or polycultural systems, the presence of different plant species may consequently result in a mosaic of situations with respect to quantity and quality of water inputs into the soil. As these processes influence not only the water availability for the plants, but also water infiltration and nutrient leaching, the understanding of plant effects on the repartitioning of rain water may help in the optimization of land use systems and management practices. We measured throughfall and stemflow in a perennial polyculture (multi-strata agroforestry), monocultures of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) for fruit and for palmito, a monoculture of cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), spontaneous fallow and primary forest during one year in central Amazonia, Brazil. The effect on rain water partitioning was measured separately for four useful tree species in the polyculture and for two tree species in the primary forest. Throughfall at two stem distances, and stemflow, differed significantly between tree species, resulting in pronounced spatial patterns of water input into the soil in the polyculture system. For two tree species, peach palm for fruit (Bactris gasipaes) and Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa), the water input into the soil near the stem was significantly higher than the open-area rainfall. This could lead to increased nutrient leaching when fertilizer is applied close to the stem of these trees. In the primary forest, such spatial patterns could also be detected, with significantly higher water input near a palm (Oenocarpus bacaba) than near a dicotyledonous tree species (Eschweilera sp.). Interception losses were 6·4% in the polyculture, 13·9 and 12·3% in the peach palm monocultures for fruit and for palmito, respectively, 0·5% in the cupuaçu monoculture and 3·1% in the fallow. With more than 20% of the open-area rainfall, the highest stemflow contributions to the water input into the soil were measured in the palm monocultures and in the fallow.

Schroth, Götz; Ferreira da Silva, Luciana; Wolf, Marc-Andree; Geraldes Teixeira, Wenceslau; Zech, Wolfgang

1999-07-01

128

Elephants Also Like Coffee: Trends and Drivers of Human-Elephant Conflicts in Coffee Agroforestry Landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

Bal, P.; Nath, C. D.; Nanaya, K. M.; Kushalappa, C. G.; Garcia, C.

2011-05-01

129

Erratum: Erratum to: Elephants Also Like Coffee: Trends and Drivers of Human-Elephant Conflicts in Coffee Agroforestry Landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

Bal, P.; Nath, C. D.; Nanaya, K. M.; Kushalappa, C. G.; Garcia, C.

2011-08-01

130

Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In KhammamDistrict Of India  

SciTech Connect

Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.

Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

2007-06-01

131

Changes in soil nitrogen storage and ?15N with woody plant encroachment in a subtropical savanna parkland landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subtropical woodlands dominated by N-fixing tree legumes have largely replaced grasslands in the Rio Grande Plains, southwestern United States, during the past century. To evaluate the impact of this vegetation change on the N cycle, we measured the mass and isotopic composition (?15N) of N in the soil system of remnant grasslands and woody plant stands ranging in age from

T. W. Boutton; J. D. Liao

2010-01-01

132

Contrasting Effects of Cattle Grazing Intensity on Upland-Nesting Duck Production at Nest and Field Scales in the Aspen Parkland, Canada Effets contrastants du pâturage par les bestiaux sur la productivité des canards des terres émergées aux échelles du nid et du champ dans la forêt-parc de peuplier faux-tremble du Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aspen Parkland of Canada is one of the most important breeding areas for temperate nesting ducks in North America. The region is dominated by agricultural land use, with approximately 9.3 million ha in pasture land for cattle grazing. However, the effects of using land for cattle grazing on upland-nesting duck production are poorly understood. The current study was undertaken

Jeffrey M. Warren; Jay Rotella; Jonathan E. Thompson

133

Changes in soil nitrogen storage and ?15N with woody plant encroachment in a subtropical savanna parkland landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subtropical woodlands dominated by N-fixing tree legumes have largely replaced grasslands in the Rio Grande Plains, southwestern United States, during the past century. To evaluate the impact of this vegetation change on the N cycle, we measured the mass and isotopic composition (?15N) of N in the soil system of remnant grasslands and woody plant stands ranging in age from 10 to 130 years. Nitrogen accumulated at linear rates following woody encroachment in the litter (0.10-0.14 g N m-2 yr-1), roots (0.63-0.98 g N m-2 yr-1), and soils (0.75-3.50 g N m-2 yr-1), resulting in a 50%-150% increase in N storage in the soil system (0-30 cm) in woody stands older than 60 years. Simultaneous decreases in soil ?15N of up to 2‰ in the upper 30 cm of the profile are consistent with a scenario in which N inputs have exceeded losses following woody encroachment and suggest N accrual was derived from symbiotic N fixation by tree legumes and/or differential atmospheric N deposition to wooded areas. Vertical uplift and lateral transfer of N by the more deeply and intensively rooted woody plants may have contributed to N accumulation in wooded areas, but soil ?15N values are inconsistent with this explanation. N accumulation following woody encroachment may alter soil N availability, species interactions and successional dynamics, flux rates of key trace gases such as NOX and N2O and ecosystem C sequestration. Given the geographic dimensions of woody encroachment, these results may have implications for atmospheric composition and the climate system.

Boutton, T. W.; Liao, J. D.

2010-09-01

134

Davide Pettenella and Enrico Vidale Dept. Landuse and Agro-forestry Systems  

E-print Network

.L.= Decree law; M.D.=Ministerial Decree; M.O.=Ministerial Ordinance; P.D.=Presidential Decree; R [Kg/day], n°of permits) R.L. implementation within Province, "Mountain Community Authority of their own permit (day, week, month, year) Pickers living in plain area Pickers living in

Pettenella, Davide

135

Linking deforestation scenarios to pollination services and economic returns in coffee agroforestry systems.  

PubMed

The ecological and economic consequences of rain forest conversion and fragmentation for biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and ecosystem services like protection of soils, water retention, pollination, or biocontrol are poorly understood. In human-dominated tropical landscapes, forest remnants may provide ecosystem services and act as a source for beneficial organisms immigrating into adjacent annual and perennial agro-ecosystems. In this study, we use empirical data on the negative effects of increasing forest distance on both pollinator diversity and fruit set of coffee to estimate future changes in pollination services for different land use scenarios in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Spatially explicit land use simulations demonstrate that depending on the magnitude and location of ongoing forest conversion, pollination services are expected to decline continuously and thus directly reduce coffee yields by up to 18%, and net revenues per hectare up to 14% within the next two decades (compared to average yields of the year 2001). Currently, forests in the study area annually provide pollination services worth 46 Euros per hectare. However, our simulations also revealed a potential win-win constellation, in which ecological and economic values can be preserved, if patches of forests (or other natural vegetation) are maintained in the agricultural landscape, which could be a viable near future option for local farmers and regional land use planners. PMID:17489248

Priess, J A; Mimler, M; Klein, A M; Schwarze, S; Tscharntke, T; Steffan-Dewenter, I

2007-03-01

136

Financial evaluation of smallholder timber-based agroforestry systems in Claveria, Northern Mindanao, the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Philippines, timber production on small farms has become profitable as a result of reduced supplies due to extensive\\u000a deforestation and increasing demand. In the early 1990s, when the price of timber was high, farmers were promised huge returns\\u000a from tree farming. However, widespread planting of few species has led to oversupply and a sharp decline in the price

M. Bertomeu

2006-01-01

137

Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

138

Spatial variability in the soil water content of a Mediterranean agroforestry system with high soil heterogeneity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variability of soil water content is known to increase with the size of spatial domain in which measurements are taken. At field scale, heterogeneity in soil, vegetation, topography, water input volume and management affects, among other factors, hydrologic plot behaviour under different mean soil water contents. The present work studies how the spatial variability of soil water content (SWC) is affected by soil type (texture, percentage of stones and the combination of them) in a timber-orientated plantation of cherry tree (Prunus avium) under Mediterranean climatic conditions. The experimental design is a randomized block one with 3 blocks * 4 treatments, based on two factors: irrigation (6 plots irrigated versus 6 plots not irrigated) and soil management (6 plots tillaged versus 6 plots not tillaged). SWC is continuously measured at 25, 50 and 100 cm depth with FDR sensors, located at two positions in each treatment: under tree influence and 2.5 m apart. This study presents the results of the monitoring during 2012 of the 24 sensors located at the 25 cm depth. In each of the measurement point, texture and percentage of stones were measured. Sandy-loam, sandy-clay-loam and loam textures were found together with a percentage of stones ranging from 20 to 70 %. The results indicated that the relationship between the daily mean SWC and its standard deviation, a common procedure used to study spatial variability, changed with texture, percentage of stones and the estimation of field capacity from the combination of both. Temporal stability analysis of SWC showed a clear pattern related to field capacity, with the measurement points of the sandy-loam texture and the high percentage of stones showing the maximun negative diference with the global mean. The high range in the mean relative difference observed (± 75 %), could indicate that the studied plot may be considered as a good field-laboratory to extrapolate results at higher spatial scales. Furthermore, the pattern in the temporal stability of tree growth was clearly related to that one in SWC. Nevertheless, the treatments that represent the mean conditions in growth were not exactly the same than those in SWC, which could be attributable to other characteristics than soil.

Molina, Antonio Jaime; Llorens, Pilar; Aranda, Xavier; Savé, Robert; Biel, Carmen

2013-04-01

139

Relationships of stable carbon isotopes, plant water potential and growth: an approach to asses water use efficiency and growth strategies of dry land agroforestry species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between annual wood stable carbon isotope composition (?13C), dry season midday plant water potential, and annual growth rate were investigated to asses the ability of agroforestry\\u000a species to adapt to climate changes. 6–8 stem disks from four co-occurring species (Acacia senegal, A. seyal, A. tortilis and Balanites aegyptiaca) were collected for radial growth measurements using tree-ring analysis spanning

Aster Gebrekirstos; Meine van Noordwijk; Henry Neufeldt; Ralph Mitlöhner

2011-01-01

140

Is soil degradation unrelated to deforestation? Examining soil parameters of land use systems in upland Central Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally assumed that declining soil fertility during cultivation forces farmers to clear forest. We wanted to test this for a rainforest margin area in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. We compared soil characteristics in different land-use systems and after different length of cultivation. 66 sites with four major land-use systems (maize, agroforestry, forest fallow and natural forest) were sampled. Soils

Georg Dechert; Edzo Veldkamp; Iswandi Anas

2004-01-01

141

Sustainable agriculture in the semi-arid tropics: Agroforestry and the suitability of bamboo  

E-print Network

in rural areas and lack food security (Ryan and Spencer, 2001). The problems faced by populations substantial pressure to produce sufficient food. It is expected that poverty will increase and food security populations have caused traditional systems of shifting cultivation (slash and burn) to be abandoned in favour

Nottingham, University of

142

Two-dimensional finite elements model for boron management in agroforestry sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforesty systems, which are recommended as a management option to lower the shallow groundwater level and to reuse saline\\u000a subsurface drainage waters from the tile-drained croplands in the drainage-impacted areas of Jan Joaquin Valley of California,\\u000a have resulted in excessive boron buildup in the soil root zone. To assess the efficacy of the long-term impacts of soil boron\\u000a buildup in

Gokmen Tayfur; Kenneth K. Tanji; Alper Baba

2010-01-01

143

Two-dimensional finite elements model for boron management in agroforestry sites.  

PubMed

Agroforesty systems, which are recommended as a management option to lower the shallow groundwater level and to reuse saline subsurface drainage waters from the tile-drained croplands in the drainage-impacted areas of Jan Joaquin Valley of California, have resulted in excessive boron buildup in the soil root zone. To assess the efficacy of the long-term impacts of soil boron buildup in agroforesty systems, a mathematical model was developed to simulate non-conservative boron transport. The developed dynamic two-dimensional finite element model simulates water flow and boron transport in saturated-unsaturated soil system, including boron sorption and boron uptake by root-water extraction processes. The simulation of two different observed field data sets by the developed model is satisfactory, with mean absolute error of 1.5 mg/L and relative error of 6.5%. Application of the model to three different soils shows that boron adsorption is higher in silt loam soil than that in sandy loam and clay loam soils. This result agrees with the laboratory experimental observations. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that boron uptake by root-water extraction process influences the boron concentration distribution along the root zone. Also, absorption coefficient and maximum adsorptive capacity of a soil for boron are found to be sensitive parameters. PMID:19184495

Tayfur, Gokmen; Tanji, Kenneth K; Baba, Alper

2010-01-01

144

Relationships between invertebrate communities, litter quality and soil attributes under different cacao agroforestry systems in the south of Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to understand how soil and litter attributes interact with the faunal community, this study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between soil and litter attributes to soil and litter fauna, and further to determine which of these attributes would be most significant in explaining ...

145

Screening indigenous tree species for suitable tree–crop combinations in the agroforestry system of Mizoram, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted in the northeastern state of Mizoram in India to find out the allelopathic effect of trees on agricultural crops. The study was conducted in a bioassay culture and a pot culture. The following results were received: • In the bioassay culture, the germination and radicle length of all food crops decreased in leaf and bark extracts

Munesh Kumar; S Singshi; B Singh

2008-01-01

146

Modeling cotton production response to shading in a pecan alleycropping system using CROPGRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light optimization assessment in alleycropping systems through model application is becoming an integral part of agroforestry\\u000a research. The objective of this study was to use CROPGRO-cotton, a process-based model, to simulate cotton (Gossypium\\u000a hirsutum L.) production under different levels of light in a pecan (Carya\\u000a illinoensis K. Koch) alleycropping system in Jay, Florida, USA. Soil classification in the area was

Diomides S. Zamora; Shibu Jose; James W. Jones; Wendell P. Cropper Jr

2009-01-01

147

Competition for water in a pecan ( Carya illinoensis K. Koch) – cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) alley cropping system in the southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the belowground interactions between trees and crops is critical to successful management of agroforestry systems.\\u000a In a study of competition for water in an alley cropping system consisting of pecan (Carya illinoensis) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) in a sandy loam soil (Rhodic Paleudult) in Jay, Florida, root systems of the two species were separated by trenching to\\u000a 120 cm

Robert H. Wanvestraut; Shibu Jose; P. K. Ramachandran Nair; Barry J. Brecke

2004-01-01

148

Technical and institutional innovation in agroforestry for protected areas management in the Brazilian Amazon: opportunities and limitations.  

PubMed

Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them. PMID:23636205

Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S

2013-08-01

149

Technical and Institutional Innovation in Agroforestry for Protected Areas Management in the Brazilian Amazon: Opportunities and Limitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them.

Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S.

2013-08-01

150

Cost-Benefit Analysis in a Computer-Based Hospital Information System  

PubMed Central

A unique cost benefit analysis model is developed for a Hospital Information System which is being used in an ancillary (service) department. The objective of this analysis approach is to determine the financial impact of a proposed hospital/clinical information system at the department and hospital level. Based on industrial engineering techniques and compartmental analysis, the mathematical model is applied to the Dallas County Hospital District Radiology Department considering the procedure costs before and after installation of the Parkland On-Line Information System (POIS). Using the concepts of an “average procedure” and Standard Patient Load, preliminary results from the model indicated the unit procedure cost would drop from $8.66 to $8.63 each. Further savings were generated because of a 3% decrease in volume due to elimination of duplicate procedures. These combined effects give a preliminary calculated annualized savings of $70,887.

Mishelevich, D.J.; Gipe, W.G.; Roberts, J.R.; Denney, C.; Stem, A.D.; Day, M.W.

1979-01-01

151

The Integration of Medicinal Plants and Culinary Herbs in Agroforestry Systems for the Caribbean: A Study in the U.S. Virgin Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants and culinary herbs are horticultural crops with socio- economic significance in the Caribbean. People of the Caribbean maintain the tradition of making 'bush (herb) tea' as part of their daily activity. 'Bush tea' is made with a variety of herbs that are combined for their culinary and medicinal properties. A project was initiated to study the role of

M. C. Palada; J. M. Mitchell; B. N. Becker; P. K. R. Nair

152

Diversity and habitat use of understorey bats in forest and agroforestry systems at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park (Central Sulawesi, Indonesia).  

E-print Network

??Tropische Landschaften sind zunehmend durch landwirtschaftliche Flächen dominiert. Bis heute ist jedoch nur wenig bekannt, welchen Beitrag Landnutzungssystemen für den Erhalt tropischer Biodiversität leisten. Vor… (more)

Graf, Stefan

2010-01-01

153

The maintenance of soil fertility in Amazonian managed systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of Brazilian Amazonia faces important limitations for conventional agriculture and pastures due to a generally poor chemical fertility as well as the region's environmental conditions, especially high temperature and moisture. Without proper management, degradation of the soil and resulting unsustainability of agricultural and ranching production occur within a few years, leading to land abandonment. Use of perennial crops, especially those based on native tree species, would be instrumental in order to achieve best management such as that which assure recycling processes similar to those in the primary forest. Recommended alternative land uses are those producing high soil organic matter, recycling of nutrients, substantial agricultural production, and economic viability. These include agroforestry systems, enrichment of second growth with valuable native timber or fruit species, accelerated fallow regrowth via enrichment plantings, sequential agroforestry with slash-and-mulch, and diversified forest plantations. Improvement of agricultural soils can be based on lessons learned from the study of processes involved in the formation and maintenance of the rich "dark earths" (terra preta), which owe their high carbon content and fertility in part to high content of charcoal. Adding powdered charcoal combined with selected nutrients can increase soil carbon in modern agriculture. Considering that limitations to expansion of intensified land uses in Amazonia are serious, regional development should emphasize the natural forest, which can maintain itself without external inputs of nutrients. Instead of creating conditions to further expand deforestation, these forests may be used as they stand to provide a variety of valuable environmental services that could offer a sustainable basis for development of Amazonia.

Luizão, Flávio J.; Fearnside, Philip M.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Lehmann, Johannes

154

Agroforestry in Palau1 Ebals Sadang2  

E-print Network

the taro swamps are planted to fruit trees such as mango, Eugenia, betel nut, lemon and other citrus such as lemon, guava, orange, Spondias, and others are inter-mixed with Xanthosoma taro, banana, and papaya

Standiford, Richard B.

155

Recent Transitions in Ethiopian Homegarden Agroforestry: Driving  

E-print Network

, shrinking farm size, poverty and a new market situation and has gradually been changing towards monoculture cash crop production and its proximate and underlying causes and ii) to analyse and explain how production (fertilizer and seed), experience of others, risk of theft, and wildlife disturbance. These causes

156

Assessing Conservation Values: Biodiversity and Endemicity in Tropical Land Use Systems  

PubMed Central

Despite an increasing amount of data on the effects of tropical land use on continental forest fauna and flora, it is debatable whether the choice of the indicator variables allows for a proper evaluation of the role of modified habitats in mitigating the global biodiversity crisis. While many single-taxon studies have highlighted that species with narrow geographic ranges especially suffer from habitat modification, there is no multi-taxa study available which consistently focuses on geographic range composition of the studied indicator groups. We compiled geographic range data for 180 bird, 119 butterfly, 204 tree and 219 understorey plant species sampled along a gradient of habitat modification ranging from near-primary forest through young secondary forest and agroforestry systems to annual crops in the southwestern lowlands of Cameroon. We found very similar patterns of declining species richness with increasing habitat modification between taxon-specific groups of similar geographic range categories. At the 8 km2 spatial level, estimated richness of endemic species declined in all groups by 21% (birds) to 91% (trees) from forests to annual crops, while estimated richness of widespread species increased by +101% (trees) to +275% (understorey plants), or remained stable (- 2%, butterflies). Even traditional agroforestry systems lost estimated endemic species richness by - 18% (birds) to - 90% (understorey plants). Endemic species richness of one taxon explained between 37% and 57% of others (positive correlations) and taxon-specific richness in widespread species explained up to 76% of variation in richness of endemic species (negative correlations). The key implication of this study is that the range size aspect is fundamental in assessments of conservation value via species inventory data from modified habitats. The study also suggests that even ecologically friendly agricultural matrices may be of much lower value for tropical conservation than indicated by mere biodiversity value. PMID:21298054

Waltert, Matthias; Bobo, Kadiri Serge; Kaupa, Stefanie; Montoya, Marcela Leija; Nsanyi, Moses Sainge; Fermon, Heleen

2011-01-01

157

Effects of different agricultural systems on soil quality in Northern Limón province, Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Conversion of native rainforest ecosystems in Limón Province of Costa Rica to banana and pineapple monoculture has led to reductions in biodiversity and soil quality. Agroforestry management of cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an alternative system that may maintain the agricultural livelihood of the region while more closely mimicking native ecosystems. This study compared physical, biological and chemical soil quality indicators of a cacao plantation under organic agroforestry management with banana, pineapple, and pasture systems; a native forest nearby served as a control. For bulk density and earthworm analysis, 18 samples were collected between March and April 2012 from each ecosystem paired with 18 samples from the cacao. Cacao had a lower bulk density than banana and pineapple monocultures, but greater than the forest (p < 0.05). Cacao also hosted a greater number and mass of earthworms than banana and pineapple (p < 0.05), but similar to forest and pasture. For soil chemical characteristics, three composite samples were collected in March 2012 from each agroecosystem paired with three samples from the cacao plantation. Forest and pineapple ecosystems had the lowest pH, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable nutrient cations, while cacao had the greatest (p < 0.05). Total nutrient levels of P and N were slightly greater in banana, pineapple and pasture than in cacao; probably related to addition of chemical fertilizer and manure from cattle grazing. Forest and cacao also had greater %C, than other ecosystems, which is directly related to soil organic matter content (p < 0.0001). Overall, cacao had more favorable physical, biological and chemical soil characteristics than banana and pineapple monocultures, while trends were less conclusive compared to the pastureland. While organic cacao was inferior to native forest in some soil characteristics such as bulk density and organic carbon, its soil quality did best mimic that of the native forest. This supports the organic cultivation of cacao as a desirable alternative to banana and pineapple monoculture. PMID:25412521

Cornwell, Emma

2014-09-01

158

Sources of water used by trees and millet in Sahelian windbreak systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent to which water use by trees and crops is complementary in agroforestry systems may be affected by the proximity of groundwater to the soil surface. This may have important implications for the planning and management of agroforestry in semi-arid regions such as the Sahel of West Africa. A method of distinguishing uptake of water by plants from different sources was used, therefore, at locations with contrasting water table levels, to determine whether Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) trees in windbreaks utilised water from the same depths as adjacent crops of pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). Comparisons of ratios of the stable isotopes of oxygen ( 18O/ 16O) in plant sap, groundwater and water in the unsaturated zone of the soil profile were made in the Majjia Valley, in south-central Niger, where groundwater was found at depths of 6-8 m, and at Sadoré in south-western Niger, where the water table was at a depth of 35 m. In the Majjia Valley, the trees obtained large portions of their water from surface layers of the soil only after rain, when water there was abundant. During dry periods, roots of the trees extracted groundwater or deep reserves of soil water, while the millet crop extracted water from closer to the top of the soil profile. In contrast, at Sadoré, both the trees and crop fulfilled their water requirements from the top 2-3 m of the soil throughout the year. Thus, utilisation of water by windbreak trees and crops is more complementary where groundwater is accessible to tree roots. Competition for water is likely reduced at such locations as a consequence, but may affect the productivity of windbreak systems where groundwater is inaccessible. To maximise the benefits of establishing windbreaks, therefore, it is important that planners recommend strategies for reducing competition for water between trees and crops at sites where groundwater cannot be reached by tree roots.

Smith, D. Mark; Jarvis, Paul G.; Odongo, Julius C. W.

1997-11-01

159

Soil quality in a pecan – Kura clover alley cropping system in the midwestern USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intercropping alleys in agroforestry provides an income source until the tree crop produces harvestable yields. However, cultivation of annual crops decreases soil organic matter and increases soil erosion potential, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintain a continuous soil cover,...

160

An exploratory survey on community use of park exactions  

E-print Network

, the basis for determining land dedication requirements, fee administration, and the amounts of acreage and revenue contributed to the park system through impact fees. 18 Closed-ended and multi-item questions were used throughout the instrument. Space...). With mandatory parkland dedication, land for parks and recreation facilities joined the ranks of dedications for public streets, schools and utility systems as exactions for subdivision plat approval. In the 1950's and 1960's, mandatory parkland dedication...

Groger, Susan May

2012-06-07

161

Permanent Field Plot Methodology and Equipment1 Thomas G. Cole2  

E-print Network

Permanent Field Plot Methodology and Equipment1 Thomas G. Cole2 Abstract: Long-term research of what changes occur over time in indigenous agroforestry systems. Permanent plot methodology can be used on Research Methodologies and Applications for Pacific Island Agroforestry, July 16-20, 1990, Kolonia, Pohnpei

Standiford, Richard B.

162

Re-marriage of crops and trees  

SciTech Connect

Agroforestry is defined and its role in the productive use and conservation of marginal or forested lands explained. Examples are given of existing agroforestry and silvo-pastural systems involving plantation crops (coffee, tea, cacao, rubber) and multipurpose species (Leucaena leucocephale, Casuarina, Almis, Parasponia, Acacia, Prosopis). The origin and activities of ICRAF are outlined.

Nair, P.K.R.

1983-01-01

163

Framework for studying the hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alley cropping is an agroforestry practice whereby crops are grown between hedgerows of trees planted at wide spacings. The local climate and the physiological adaptation mechanisms of the trees are key factors in the growth and survival of the trees and intercrops, because they directly affect the soil moisture distribution. In order to evaluate the long-term hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system in eastern Canada, we developed a framework that combines local soil moisture data with local projections of climate change and a model of soil water movement, root uptake and evapotranspiration. Forty-five frequency domain reflectometers (FDR) along a transect perpendicular to the tree rows generated a two-year dataset that we used for the parameterization and evaluation of the model. An impact study with simulations based on local projections of three global and one regional climate simulation suggest that the soil becomes drier overall in the period between 2041 and 2070, while the number of critically wet periods with a length of one day increases slightly with respect to the reference period between 1967 and 1996. Hydrological simulations based on a fourth climate scenario however point toward wetter conditions. In all cases the changes are minor. Although our simulations indicate that the experimental alley cropping system will possibly suffer drier conditions in response to higher temperatures and increased evaporative demand, these conditions are not necessarily critical for vegetation during the snow-free season.

Hallema, Dennis W.; Rousseau, Alain N.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Périard, Yann; Hiemstra, Paul H.; Bouttier, Léa; Fossey, Maxime; Paquette, Alain; Cogliastro, Alain; Olivier, Alain

2014-09-01

164

High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.  

PubMed

It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity), as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity) of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity) increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems. PMID:23300598

Schüepp, Christof; Rittiner, Sarah; Entling, Martin H

2012-01-01

165

Microbial community diversity in agroforestry and grass vegetative filter strips  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetative filter strips (VFS) have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many additional environmental benefits. Most previous studies have focused primarily on the role of vegetation and/or soil physical properties in these ecosystem services. Few studies have investigated...

166

Occurrence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in trap cultures from soils under different land use systems in the Amazon, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species diversity in soil samples from the Amazon region under distinct land use systems (Forest, Old Secondary Forest, Young Secondary Forest, Agroforestry systems, Crops and Pasture) using two distinct trap cultures. Traps established using Sorghum sudanense and Vigna unguiculata (at Universidade Regional de Blumenau -FURB) and Brachiaria decumbens and Neonotonia wightii (at Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA) were grown for 150 days in greenhouse conditions, when spore density and species identification were evaluated. A great variation on species richness was detected in several samples, regardless of the land use systems from where samples were obtained. A total number of 24 AMF species were recovered using both methods of trap cultures, with FURB?s traps yielding higher number of species. Acaulospora delicata, A. foveata, Entrophospora colombiana and two undescribed Glomus species were the most abundant and frequent species recovered from the traps. Number of species decreased in each genus according to this order: Acaulospora, Glomus, Entrophospora, Gigaspora, Archaeospora, Scutellospora and Paraglomus. Spore numbers were higher in Young Secondary Forest and Pastures. Our study demonstrated that AMF have a widespread occurrence in all land use systems in Amazon and they sporulate more abundantly in trap cultures from land uses under interference than in the pristine Forest ecosystem. PMID:24031328

Leal, Patrícia Lopes; Stürmer, Sidney Luiz; Siqueira, José Oswaldo

2009-01-01

167

System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the anionic structures of the molten CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system. The results show that the average first nearest-neighbor distances for Si-O and P-O pairs are 1.61 and 1.53 Å, respectively. As expected, above 98 pct P and 95 pct Si show fourfold coordination and form tetrahedral structures. Due to the high basicity, nonbridging oxygen occupies a predominant position in Si and P tetrahedron. Based on the oxygen number of different types, the structures of both Si and P tetrahedron were classified as Q 0, Q 1, Q 2, Q 3, and Q 4, where the superscript referred to the number of bridging oxygen atoms. With the substitution of P2O5 for SiO2, Q 0 decreased and other type of Q i units increased. For Si tetrahedron, Q 2 and Q 3 show most notable change, for P tetrahedron, Q 1and Q 2 show the most notable change. The change of Q i units for Si tetrahedron is larger than that for P tetrahedron. The concentration of free oxygen decreases remarkably with the increase of P2O5 content. The Si-O-P linkage is energetically more favorable than Si-O-Si and P-O-P linkages. P ion has a tendency to promote the polymerization of phosphosilicate melts.

Diao, Jiang; Fan, Guozheng; Liu, Xuan; Xie, Bing

2014-10-01

168

Effect of liming and organic and inorganic fertilization on soil carbon sequestered in macro-and microaggregates in a 17-year old Pinus radiata silvopastoral system.  

PubMed

Agroforestry systems have been recognized as a potential greenhouse gas mitigation strategy under the Kyoto Protocol because of their ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store carbon mainly in the soil. Soil particle size and land management practices are known to have a considerable influence on carbon storage in soils. This study evaluated changes in soil chemical and physical properties, and quantified and compared the amount of C stored in the bulk soil and in three different soil fractions (250-2000, 53-250 and <53 ?m) at each of four soil depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm) in a silvopastoral system located on an acidic forest soil under Pinus radiata D. Don. Areas of this system were subjected ten years ago to one of nine fertilization treatments: three different doses of sewage sludge or no fertilization, all with or without the addition of lime, and mineral fertilizer with no liming. Seventeen years after reforestation and seven years after canopy closure, strong gradients with soil depth were found regarding soil bulk density, pH and carbon storage. Intense soil management (high doses of sewage sludge and liming) generally reduced soil carbon storage, mainly in coarse aggregates, but this could be compensated by the increase in tree and pasture development observed in soils subject to intermediate sewage sludge doses. PMID:25460421

Mosquera-Losada, M R; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N

2015-03-01

169

The contribution of wild plants to human nutrition in the Ferlo (Northern Senegal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aspect of agroforestry is the integration of indigenous species into appropriate land use systems. Some local trees and shrubs are particularly appreciated because of their value in human nutrition.

Barbara Becker

1983-01-01

170

Soil quality differences in a mature alley cropping system in temperate North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alley cropping in agroforestry practices has been shown to improve soil quality, however information on long-term effects (>10 years) of alley cropping on soils in the temperate zone is very limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth on soil...

171

Litter dynamics and fine root production in Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum plantations and regrowth forest in Eastern Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest plantations and agroforestry systems with Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum have greatly expanded in the Brazilian Amazon, generally as an alternative for reforesting degraded areas. To our knowledge\\u000a there are no reports of above- and below-ground production in these forest systems. We quantified litter and fine root production\\u000a in 6-yr old Schizolobium-based plantation forests (monospecific: MON, mixture: MIX, and agroforestry

Antonio Kledson Leal Silva; Steel Silva Vasconcelos; Claudio José Reis de Carvalho; Iracema Maria Castro Coimbra Cordeiro

172

Nitrogen and phosphorus economy of a legume tree-cereal intercropping system under controlled conditions.  

PubMed

Considerable amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been mis-used in agroecosystems, with profound alteration to the biogeochemical cycles of these two major nutrients. To reduce excess fertilizer use, plant-mediated nutrient supply through N(2)-fixation, transfer of fixed N and mobilization of soil P may be important processes for the nutrient economy of low-input tree-based intercropping systems. In this study, we quantified plant performance, P acquisition and belowground N transfer from the N(2)-fixing tree to the cereal crop under varying root contact intensity and P supplies. We cultivated Acacia senegal var senegal in pot-culture containing 90% sand and 10% vermiculite under 3 levels of exponentially supplied P. Acacia plants were then intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) in the same pots with variable levels of adsorbed P or transplanted and intercropped with durum wheat in rhizoboxes excluding direct root contact on P-poor red Mediterranean soils. In pot-culture, wheat biomass and P content increased in relation to the P gradient. Strong isotopic evidence of belowground N transfer, based on the isotopic signature (?(15)N) of tree foliage and wheat shoots, was systematically found under high P in pot-culture, with an average N transfer value of 14.0% of wheat total N after 21 days of contact between the two species. In the rhizoboxes, we observed limitations on growth and P uptake of intercropped wheat due to competitive effects on soil resources and minimal evidence of belowground N transfer of N from acacia to wheat. In this intercrop, specifically in pot-culture, facilitation for N transfer from the legume tree to the crop showed to be effective especially when crop N uptake was increased (or stimulated) as occurred under high P conditions and when competition was low. Understanding these processes is important to the nutrient economy and appropriate management of legume-based agroforestry systems. PMID:22446108

Isaac, M E; Hinsinger, P; Harmand, J M

2012-09-15

173

Modeling Hydrological Services in Shade Grown Coffee Systems: Case Study of the Pico Duarte Region of the Dominican Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modification of hydrologic systems in coffee-dominated landscapes varies widely according to the degree of shade trees incorporated in coffee farms. Compared to mono-cropping systems, shade coffee can produce both on- and off-farm benefits in the form of soil retention, moderation of sediment transport, and lower hydropower generating costs. The Pico Duarte Coffee Region and surrounding Madres de Las Aguas (Mother of Waters) Conservation Area in the Dominican Republic is emblematic of the challenges and opportunities of ecosystem service management in coffee landscapes. Shade coffee poly-cultures in the region play an essential role in ensuring ecosystem function to conserve water resources, as well as provide habitat for birds, sequester carbon, and provide consumptive resources to households. To model the provision, use, and flow of ecosystem services from coffee farms in the region, an application of the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) model was developed with particular focus on sediment regulation. ARIES incorporates an array of techniques from data mining, image analysis, neural networks, Bayesian statistics, information theory, and expert systems to model the production, delivery, and demand for ecosystem services. Geospatial data on slope, soils, and vegetation cover is combined with on-farm data collection of coffee production, tree diversity, and intercropping of household food. Given hydropower production and river recreation in the region, the management of sedimentation through on-farm practices has substantial, currently uncompensated value that has received recent attention as the foundation for a payment for ecosystem services system. Scenario analysis of the implications of agro-forestry management choices on farmer livelihoods and the multiple beneficiaries of farm-provided hydrological services provide a foundation for ongoing discussions in the region between local, national, and international interests.

Erickson, J. D.; Gross, L.; Agosto Filion, N.; Bagstad, K.; Voigt, B. G.; Johnson, G.

2010-12-01

174

Soil respiration and microbial biomass in a savanna parkland landscape: spatio-temporal variation and environmental controls  

E-print Network

) in this region. The objective of this study was to quantify variation in soil respiration, soil microbial biomass (SMB), and potential C and N mineralization rates in relation to landscape heterogeneity and woody plant encroachment in this region. In addition...

McCulley, Rebecca Lynne

2012-06-07

175

Effects of small-bodied fish on invertebrate prey and foraging patterns of waterbirds in Aspen Parkland wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition between large-bodied fish and waterbirds for aquatic invertebrates is well documented in oligotrophic lakes. Recent\\u000a evidence suggests that small-bodied fish that colonize eutrophic, hypoxia-prone wetlands such as prairie potholes can also\\u000a reduce aquatic invertebrates, but the effects of these reductions on breeding waterbirds have so far not been directly documented.\\u000a We added brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) and fathead minnow

Caroline E. McParland; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

176

Effects of small-bodied fish on invertebrate prey and foraging patterns of waterbirds in Aspen Parkland wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition between large-bodied fish and waterbirds for aquatic invertebrates is well documented in oligotrophic lakes. Recent\\u000a evidence suggests that small-bodied fish that colonize eutrophic, hypoxia-prone wetlands such as prairie potholes can also\\u000a reduce aquatic invertebrates, but the effects of these reductions on breeding waterbirds have so far not been directly documented.\\u000a We added brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) and fathead minnow

Caroline E. McParland; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

2006-01-01

177

Influence of an overstorey tree ( Prosopis glandulosa ) on associated shrubs in a savanna parkland: implications for patch dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arborescent legume, honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), appears to play a central role in patch dynamics of southern Texas savannas by modifying soils and microclimate and by facilitating the ingress, establishment and\\/or growth of shrubs in its understorey. As an indirect test for the occurrence and persistence of facilitation in mature shrub clusters (patches), we examined the gas exchange, water

Paul W. Barnes; Steve Archer

1996-01-01

178

Predictions of enteric methane emissions for various summer pasture and winter feeding strategies for cow calf production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanistic (COWPOLL and MOLLY) and empirical (IPCC Tier 2 and ELLIS) models were used to predict enteric CH4 emissions from 2 summer pasture systems and 4 winter feeding strategies for cow calf production in the Western Canadian Parkland. The models used average values for nutrient composition of diets, body weight and body condition score of multi- and primiparous cows to

Getahun Legesse; Julie A. Small; Shannon L. Scott; Gary H. Crow; Hushton C. Block; Aklilu W. Alemu; Clayton D. Robins; Ermias Kebreab

2011-01-01

179

Soil moisture mapping in an alley cropping system in Quebec, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alley cropping is an agroforestry practice whereby trees are planted in rows, thus creating alleyways within which companion crops are grown. The alley cropping systems as we call them may not only influence the local thermal energy balance by changes in airflow and solar irradiance, but also affect water uptake in plant roots and evapotranspiration. However, our understanding of the soil water balance and regulating mechanisms in alley cropping systems is very limited compared to what we know about the more common monoculture farming. Root systems of the trees are known to interact with soil water dynamics, in that they tend to grow in the direction of soil layers with a water content corresponding to a pF between 2-2.4, and conversely, water flows in the direction of decreasing hydraulic head, which, close to the root system, is in the direction of the roots when the trees absorb water by applying a suction gradient. As such, the trees in alley cropping systems either improve the resilience to drought by retaining more water in the upper soil layers, or they compete with the crops for water. With the eye on the future environmental conditions that may result from a shift in the local climate in southern Quebec, Canada, our objective is to characterize and evaluate the influence of alley cropping systems on soil water dynamics under various climate conditions. In order to evaluate the interaction between root system and soil water dynamics, we adopt an approach divided into three steps: (i) a field campaign where we monitor soil water patterns on an alley cropping site during the growing season; (ii) simulation of these soil water patterns with the HYDRUS model for two-dimensional movement of water; and (iii) the evolution of these patterns for a given scenario of climate change. Our submission focuses on the field campaign in which we used forty-five frequency domain reflectometers (FDR) along a 25-m transect perpendicular to the tree rows in order to monitor moisture patterns within the first 100 cm of the soil. Analysis showed that the presence of trees has a pronounced influence on the water distribution within the soil. (This submission is part of Climate Change Action Plan 26 funded by Ouranos-ICAR.)

Hallema, D. W.; Rousseau, A. N.; Gumiere, S. J.

2012-12-01

180

Soil carbon sequestration in rainfed production systems in the semiarid tropics of India.  

PubMed

Severe soil organic carbon (SOC) depletion is a major constraint in rainfed agroecosystems in India because it directly influences soil quality, crop productivity and sustainability. The magnitude of soil organic, inorganic and total carbon stocks in the semi-arid bioclimate is estimated at 2.9, 1.9 and 4.8 Pg respectively. Sorghum, finger millet, pearl millet, maize, rice, groundnut, soybean, cotton, food legumes etc. are predominant crop production systems with a little, if any, recycling of organic matter. Data from the long term experiments on major rainfed production systems in India show that higher amount of crop residue C input (Mg/ha/y) return back to soil in soybean-safflower (3.37) system practiced in Vertisol region of central India. Long term addition of chemical fertilizer and organic amendments improved the SOC stock. For every Mg/ha increase in SOC stock in the root zone, there occurs an increase in grain yield (kg/ha) of 13, 101, 90, 170, 145, 18 and 160 for groundnut, finger millet, sorghum, pearl millet, soybean and rice, respectively. Long-term cropping without using any organic amendment and/or mineral fertilizers can severely deplete the SOC stock which is the highest in groundnut-finger millet system (0.92 Mg C/ha/y) in Alfisols. Some agroforestry systems also have a huge potential of C sequestration to the extent of 10Mg/ha/y in short rotation eucalyptus and Leucaena plantations. The critical level of C input requirements for maintaining SOC at the antecedent level ranges from 1.1 to 3.5 Mg C/ha/y and differs among soil type and production systems. National level policy interventions needed to promote sustainable use of soil and water resources include prohibiting residue burning, reducing deforestation, promoting integrated farming systems and facilitating payments for ecosystem services. A wide spread adoption of these measures can improve soil quality through increase in SOC sequestration and improvement in agronomic productivity of rainfed agroecosystems. PMID:24210647

Srinivasarao, Ch; Lal, Rattan; Kundu, Sumanta; Babu, M B B Prasad; Venkateswarlu, B; Singh, Anil Kumar

2014-07-15

181

Diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi from different agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in two regions of Veracruz, Mexico.  

PubMed

Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some endophytic fungi and their communities as potential management tools against coffee plant pests and pathogens. PMID:24887512

Saucedo-García, Aurora; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Espinosa-García, Francisco J; González, María C

2014-01-01

182

Dry matter partitions and specific leaf weight of soybean change with tree competition in an intercropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004 and 2005, the yield, leaf area, dry weight and dry weight partitions of soybeans were determined at the Agroforestry\\u000a Research Site (ARS) (est. 1987, Ontario, Canada). Soybean was intercropped with poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra DN-177 L., 556 m3crown tree?1), silver maple (Acer saccharinum L., 308 m3), black walnut (Juglans nigra L., 148 m3) and pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh., 114 m3), or grown

Ameur M. Manceur; Greg J. Boland; Naresh V. Thevathasan; Andrew M. Gordon

2009-01-01

183

Biodiversity Conservation, Ecosystem Services and Livelihoods in Tropical Landscapes: Towards a Common Agenda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trade-offs between ecosystem conservation and agricultural production can more easily be addressed by shifting the view from the plot scale to the scale of the landscape and integrating biodiversity friendly land use systems into development strategies. The provision of ecosystem services such as watershed protection and carbon sequestration by natural and complex agro-ecosystems can play an important role in making such integrated landscape approaches viable. This special issue brings together papers that were presented at a symposium on agroforestry and landscape scale conservation at the Second World Agroforestry Congress in Nairobi in August 2009. It is divided into two sections focusing on: (1) the biological mechanisms and implications of landscape scale conservation strategies as influenced by land use, especially agroforestry; and (2) the economic drivers and public policies that determine to a large extent the success of agroforestry-based landscape conservation strategies. The contributions provide evidence both for the potential and limitations of agroforestry in landscape scale conservation and development strategies and highlight the importance of economic incentives and policies to promote integrated landscape solutions. This introductory paper summarizes and discusses the contributions and concludes with policy recommendations and research needs.

Schroth, Götz; McNeely, Jeffrey A.

2011-08-01

184

Distribution and diversity of rhizobia nodulating agroforestry legumes in soils from three continents in the tropics.  

PubMed

The natural rhizobial populations of Calliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban were assessed in soils from nine sites across tropical areas of three continents. The rhizobial population size varied from undetectable numbers to 1.8 x 104 cells/g of soil depending on the trap host and the soil. Calliandra calothyrsus was the most promiscuous legume, nodulating in eight soils, while S. sesban nodulated in only one of the soils. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes were used to assess the diversity and relative abundance of rhizobia trapped from seven of the soils by C. calothyrsus, G. sepium and L. leucocephala. Representatives of the 16S rRNA RFLP groups were also subjected to sequence analysis of the first 950 base pairs of the 16S rRNA gene. Eighty ITS groups were obtained, with none of the ITS types being sampled in more than one soil. RFLP analysis of the 16S rRNA yielded 23 'species' groups distributed among the Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium and Agrobacterium branches of the rhizobial phylogenetic tree. The phylogeny of the isolates was independent of the site or host of isolation, with different rhizobial groups associated with each host across the soils from widely separated geographical regions. Although rhizobial populations in soils sampled from the centre of diversity of the host legumes were the most genetically diverse, soil acidity was highly correlated with the diversity of ITS types. Our results support the hypothesis that the success of these tree legumes in soils throughout the tropics is the result of their relative promiscuity (permissiveness) allowing nodulation with diverse indigenous rhizobial types. PMID:12753212

Bala, Abdullah; Murphy, Phillip; Giller, Ken E

2003-04-01

185

Lignocellulosic Feedstock Biorefinery - Combination of technologies of agroforestry and a biobased substance and energy economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of biorefineries represents the key for the access to an integrated production of food, feed, chemicals, materials, goods, and fuels of the future (NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, USA, 2000). Biorefineries combine the necessary technologies of the biogenic raw materials with those of intermediates and final products. The main fo- cus is directed on the new land use forms for

Birgit Kamm; B. Uwe Schneider; Reinhard F. Hüttl; Holger Grünewald; Hans-Jörg Gusovius; Christian Stollberg; Peter Ay; Michael Kamm

2006-01-01

186

Agroforestry: Conifers. (Latest citations from the Cab Abstracts database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of lands forested with conifers for crop and livestock production. Citations cover the grazing of livestock and the production of crops, including tomatoes, soybeans, lespedeza, wheat, rape, taro, cotton, cabbages, ginger, watermelons, and strawberries. Livestock discussed include cattle, sheep, geese, and horses. Economic analyses and economic models are presented. (Contains a minimum of 147 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

187

LANDOWNER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS FOR FORESTRY/AGROFORESTRY IN COLORADO UPDATED APRIL 2010  

E-print Network

No EQIP provides up to 75% Natural Resources Conservation Service local offices http Continuous No Yes Assistance up to 100% Natural Resources Conservation Service local offices http No No Assistance up to 75% Natural Resources Conservation Service local offices http://www.nrcs.usda.gov Tree

188

POTENTIAL OF FORESTRY AND AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES TO STORE CARBON IN THE TROPICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Terrestrial vegetation plays a pivotal role in the global carbon cycle. ot only are tremendous amounts of. carbon stored in terrestrial egetation, but large amounts are also actively exchanged,between vegetation and the atmosphere. his suggests that vegetation, and specifically f...

189

Rain forest promotes trophic interactions and diversity of trap-nesting Hymenoptera in adjacent agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Human alteration of natural ecosystems to agroecosystems continues to accelerate in tropical countries. The resulting world-wide decline of rain forest causes a mosaic land- scape, comprising simple and complex agroecosystems and patchily distributed rain for- est fragments of different quality. Landscape context and agricultural management can be expected to affect both species diversity and ecosystem services by trophic

ALEXANDRA-MARIA KLEIN; INGOLF STEFFAN-DEWENTER; TEJA TSCHARNTKE

2006-01-01

190

Organic farming and agroforestry: Alleycropping for mulch production for organic farms of southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic farming offers an alternative that can eliminate many of the environmental problems of conventional agriculture in\\u000a the industrialized world. Instead of using petroleum-derived chemicals to fertilize and protect crops, farmers manage their\\u000a fields so as to take advantage of naturally-produced composts and mulches that recycle nutrients, and control pests and weeds.\\u000a However, organic farming is often logistically inefficient, because

C. F. Jordan

2004-01-01

191

Veterinary antibiotic sorption and transport through agroforestry buffer, grass buffer and cropland soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Veterinary antibiotics (VAs), such as sulfamethazine (SMZ) are released into the environment by application of manure to agricultural fields. Understanding the fate and transport of VAs is important for assessing and mitigating possible environmental hazards. To study the effects of dissolved organi...

192

APEX simulation: environmental benefits of agroforestry and grass buffers on corn-soybean watersheds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX) model has the ability to simulate the effects of vegetative filter strips on runoff and pollutant loadings from agricultural watersheds. The objectives of this study were to calibrate and validate the APEX model for three adjacent watersheds and...

193

Assessment of promising forest-management practices and technologies for enhancing the conservation and sequestration of atmospheric carbon and their costs at the site level  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: (1) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequestering and conserving carbon; (2) Assess available data on costs at the site level for promising forest and agroforestry management practices; and (3) Evaluate estimates of land technically suitable in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets and the proposed Global Forest Agreement goals.

Dixon, R.K.; Schroeder, P.E.; Winjum, J.K.

1991-10-01

194

Cabruca its agrobiodiversity potential on small farmers in Southern region of Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Cacao Cabruca Agroforestry system of production was developed by farmers in Bahia over 200 years ago. This system consists of planting cacao under the shade of trees in the Atlantic rain forest and has on an average 693 cacao plants and 93 trees per hectare. Even though the local community utili...

195

Acacia albida and other multipurpose trees on the fur farmlands in the Jebel Marra highlands, Western Darfur, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the traditional agroforestry systems based on Acacia albida and other multipurpose trees as practised by the sedentary Fur people on the lower slopes and highlands of the Jebel Marra massif, Sudan. The basic agrosilvopastoral system consists of terraced village fields, where semipermanent rainfed cropping of staple millet and other subsistence crops takes place under stands of multipurpose

S. Miehe

1986-01-01

196

Cabruca agroforests of southern Bahia Brazil: tree component, management, species conservation and sustainability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In southern Bahia, cabruca is the agroforestry system in which cocoa is cultivated under the shade of sparse native forest trees. Aiming to characterize the tree component of this system and its management practices, we conducted an inventory of the non-cocoa trees in 16 ha of cabruca and do intervi...

197

Factors affecting the germination of doum palm ( Hyphaene thebaica Mart.) seeds from the semi-arid zone of Niger, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard-seeded tropical tree species such as doum palm (Hyphaene thebaica Mart.), a common component of the traditional agroforestry systems practiced in semi-arid West Africa, often present considerable problems to nursery managers because their hard, impermeable seed coats (pericarps) restrict the entry of both water and oxygen and offer high physical resistance to the growth of the embryo. Such seeds often

Hassane Moussa; Hank A Margolis; Pierre-André Dubé; Julius Odongo

1998-01-01

198

CURRENT CHALLENGES OF TROPICAL TREE CROP IMPROVEMENT: INTEGRATING GENOMICS INTO AN APPLIED CACAO BREEDING PROGRAM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Theobroma cacao L. is an understory tree from the Amazon basin that can be cultivated in a sustainable agro-forestry system, providing income to small farmers while maintaining biodiversity. Four main genetic groups of cacao are traditionally described: Criollo, Trinitario, and lower and upper Amazo...

199

Kebon tatangkalan: a disappearing agroforest in the Upper Citarum Watershed, West Java, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study was carried out on a typical indigenous agroforestry system, called kebon tatangkalan, in the changing agricultural landscape of the Upper Citarum Watershed, West Java, Indonesia. The main objectives of the study are to elucidate the structural patterns, multidimensional functions, and dynamics of this multi-layered agroforest. The study has identified 12 groups of different plant assemblages indicating that

Parikesit; K. Takeuchi; A. Tsunekawa; O. S. Abdoellah

2005-01-01

200

Tropical Resources Bulletin 1 TROPICALRESOURCESThe Bulletin of the Yale Tropical Resources Institute  

E-print Network

2012 56 Opportunity Analysis of Payment for Ecosystem Services: Policy Design and Implementation for Co ee Agroforestry Systems in Costa Rica Paulo Barreiro Sanjines, MEM 2012 III. THE TECHNICAL AND SOCIAL new strategies and leaders who are able to function across a diversity of disciplines and sectors

Haller, Gary L.

201

Payments for Forest Environmental and Social Services: organisational models and related experiences in Italy  

E-print Network

experiences in Italy Paola Gatto, Davide Pettenella and Laura Secco Department of Agro-forestry Systems and Land use University of Padova, Italy EFI 2008 Annual Conference Week 15 - 20 September 2008 Orvieto. quality of water). Main instrument Contractual agreements, tickets to access the recreational area

Pettenella, Davide

202

Estimating surface energy fluxes over an Andalusian Dehesa ecosystem using a thermal-based two-source energy balance model and validation with flux tower measurements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Dehesa, the most widespread agroforestry land-use system in Europe (˜ 3 million ha), is recognized as an example of sustainable land use and for its importance in the rural economy (Diaz et al., 1997; Plieninger and Wilbrand, 2001). It consists of widely-spaced oak forest (mostly Quercus Ilex L....

203

Sustainable development and use of ecosystems with non-forest trees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Non-forest trees are components of managed ecosystems including orchards and agroforestry systems and natural ecosystems such as savannas and riparian corridors. Each of these ecosystems includes trees but does not have a complete tree canopy or spatial extent necessary to create a true forest ecosy...

204

Modelling surface energy fluxes over a Dehesa ecosystem using a two-source energy balance model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Dehesa is the most widespread agroforestry land-use system in Europe, covering more than 3 million hectares in the Iberian Peninsula and Greece (Grove and Rackham, 2001; Papanastasis, 2004). It is an agro-silvo-pastural ecosystem consisting of widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus ilex L.), co...

205

Microclimate modification and response of wheat planted under trees in a fan design in northern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of trees in fields may help overcome the physiological stress that happens to late sown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in subtropical India. Wheat was planted in an agroforestry system with Eucalyptus tereticornis trees on 7 January 1998 in a fan design that provided different combinations of tree row spacing and orientations. Crop profile\\u000a microclimatic conditions and the resulting

Anshuman Kohli; B. C. Saini

2003-01-01

206

DOMESTICATION OF DACRYODES EDULIS IN WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA: CHARACTERISATION OF GENETIC VARIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

New initiatives in agroforestry are seeking to integrate trees with marketable products into farming systems. This is being done in order to provide marketable timber and non-timber forest products from farms that will enhance rural livelihoods by generating cash for subsistence farmers. Dacryodes edulis (Safou) is one of the candidate tree species in West and Central Africa for domestication, which

R. R. B. LEAKEY; A. R. ATANGANA; E. KENGNI; A. N. WARUHIU; C. USORO; P. O. ANEGBEH; Z. TCHOUNDJEU

2002-01-01

207

Análise florística e estrutural de sistemas agroflorestais das várzeas do rio Juba, Cametá, Pará1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed the floristic composition and the structure of traditional agroforestry systems (SAF) in the floodplains of the river Juba, Cametá, Pará. The survey was made on seven plots of 0.25 ha (50 m x 50 m). Each plot was divided into 25 sub-plots of 10 m x 10 m. The species were classified in types of use and

Roberto Miranda; Manoel Malheiros TOURINHO

2004-01-01

208

Evaluation of soil quality in areas of cocoa cabruca, forest and multicropping in southern Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Atlantic Rain Forest is one of the most complex natural environments of the earth and, linked with this ecosystem, the cacao-cabruca system is agroforestry cultivation with an arrangement including a range of environmental, social and economical benefits and can protect many features of the biod...

209

White-tailed Deer Browsing and Rubbing Preferences for Trees and Shrubs That Produce Nontimber Forest Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nontimber forest products (food, herbal medicinals, and woody floral and handicraft products) produced in forest, agroforestry, and horticultural systems can be important sources of income to landowners. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can reduce the quality, quantity, and profitability of forest products by browsing twigs and rubbing stems, resulting in direct and indirect losses to production enterprises. We evaluated deer damage

Scott E. Hygnstrom; Peter D. Skelton; Scott J. Josiah; Jason M. Gilsdorf; Dallas R. Virchow; James A. Brandle; Anil K. Jayaprakash; Kent M. Eskridge; Kurt C. VerCauteren

2009-01-01

210

INFLUENCE OF ALLEY CROP ENVIRONMENT ON ORCHARDGRASS AND TALL FESCUE HERBAGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The design of agroforestry systems requires a thorough understanding of biological interactions that might complement or constrain production. The objective of this study was to examine effects of alley crop environment on herbage yield, nutritive value (crude protein and in vitro dry matter digest...

211

Library System Library System  

E-print Network

Library System #12;Library System 5150 Anthony Wayne Drive David Adamany Undergraduate Library that for the current fiscal year, we've been given an additional $600,000 for our library materials budget. We're very subscriptions. The Wayne State University Libraries are deeply committed to providing our faculty and students

Cinabro, David

212

Data Systems vs. Information Systems  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

Amatayakul, Margret K.

1982-01-01

213

Solar system positioning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

2006-01-01

214

Systems autonomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on systems autonomy is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on space systems integration, intelligent autonomous systems, automated systems for in-flight mission operations, the Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project on the Space Station Thermal Control System, the architecture of an autonomous intelligent system, artificial intelligence research issues, machine learning, and real-time image processing.

Lum, Henry, Jr.

1988-01-01

215

Immune System  

MedlinePLUS

... could put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih- myoon ) system, which ... Continue Things That Can Go Wrong With the Immune System Disorders of the immune system can be broken ...

216

SYSTEMS BIOM BIOMEDICAL SYSTEMS,  

E-print Network

and communication, cost-effective in vitro diagnostics, and continuous in vivo diagnostics. Metabolic Systems exercise studies under normal and diseased conditions. Cellular metabolic changes are quantitatively artificial joints, prosthetic limbs, dental implants, bone healing, and meth- ods to counteract loss of bone

Rollins, Andrew M.

217

Operating Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer operating system spans multiple layers of complexity, from commands entered at a keyboard to the details of electronic switching. In addition, the system is organized as a hierarchy of abstractions. Various parts of such a system and system dynamics (using the Unix operating system as an example) are described. (JN)

Denning, Peter J.; Brown, Robert L.

1984-01-01

218

Aerospace Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf contains a syllabus for a course on aerospace systems as part of the Aerospace Technology Program. This course covers an introduction to expendable and reusable Space Launch Vehicle (SLV) systems including hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, propulsion, mechanical, HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), and ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support Systems). How systems interact with computer and data acquisition systems is also covered.

2011-08-11

219

Operating Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 342. Operating Systems (3) Prerequisite: CSC 332. Study of supervisory programs. System services and file systems; CPU scheduling; memory management; virtual memory; disk scheduling. Deadlock characterization, prevention, and avoidance; concurrent processes; semaphores; critical sections; synchronization. Distributed systems and communication protocols.

Dr Clayton Ferner

220

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the end of this project, you will be able to explain the components of the Solar System and know the order of the planets starting from the Sun. Objective Question: What is the Solar System? First, listen and read about the Solar System 1. How many planets make up our Solar System? 2. What is at the center of the Solar System? Next,listen and read about the Planets. 1. Can you name all of the planets? Finally, listen and watch The Solar System Movie. 1. Can you list the ...

Ms.west

2009-07-07

221

The development of short-rotation willow in the northeastern United States for bioenergy and bioproducts, agroforestry and phytoremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on willow (Salix spp.) as a locally produced, renewable feedstock for bioenergy and bioproducts began in New York in the mid-1980s in response to growing concerns about environmental impacts associated with fossil fuels and declining rural economies. Simultaneous and integrated activities—including research, large-scale demonstrations, outreach and education, and market development—were initiated in the mid-1990s to facilitate the commercialization of

T. A. Volk; L. P. Abrahamson; C. A. Nowak; L. B. Smart; P. J. Tharakan; E. H. White

2006-01-01

222

Potential of agroforestry for carbon sequestration and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from soils in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Losses of carbon (C) stocks in terrestrial ecosystems and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are challenges that scientists and policy makers have been facing in the recent past. Intensified agricultural practices lead to a reduction in ecosystem carbon stocks, mainly due to removal of aboveground biomass as harvest and loss of carbon as CO2 through burning and\\/or

Patrick K. Mutuo; G. Cadisch; A. Albrecht; C. A. Palm; L. Verchot

2005-01-01

223

Forage Production Under and Adjacent to Robinia pseudoacacia in Central Appalachia, West Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species-diverse production systems, such as agroforestry, provide opportunities to increase the value of total production\\u000a through marketing of multiple products from a given unit of land. Designing successful systems requires an understanding of\\u000a how species compete for resources and grow in proximity to other species with distinctly different growth habits and resource\\u000a demands (Sanchez, 1995; Ong and Leakey, 1999). Systems

C. M. Feldhake; D. P. Belesky; E. L. Mathias

224

Crystal Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

1985-01-01

225

Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The region of the universe in which we live, the Solar System, is but one of many clusters of stars and planets in space. Our Solar System lies in a particular region of the universe called the `Milky Way Galaxy'....

P. Masson

2000-01-01

226

Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... the body can absorb and use. About the Digestive System Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive ... the anus as a bowel movement. Back Continue Digestive System Problems Nearly everyone has a digestive problem at ...

227

Micrographic Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The micrographic system utilizes microimaging in the areas of space saving, reproducibility, durability, file integrity, and automated retrieval. This manual about micrographics is organized into 10 chapters, each covers a major facet of the system. The first chapters cover the basics of the system: objectives, classification, searching and…

Costigan, Daniel M.

228

Linked Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three papers are compiled here for research library directors: (1) "Background: Open Systems Interconnection," in which David F. Bishop provides fundamental background information to explain the concept of the emerging technology of linked systems and open systems interconnection--i.e., an agreed upon standard set of conventions or rules that,…

Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC.

229

Energy Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posters are provided for several different energy conversion systems. Students are provided with cards that give the name and a description of each of the components in an energy system. They match these with the figures on the diagram. Since the groups look at different systems, they also describe their results to the class to share their knowledge.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

230

System Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk. The risk importance factors show the amount of risk reduction achievable with potential upgrades and the amount of risk reduction actually achieved after upgrades are completed. Applying the risk assessment tool gives support to budget prioritization by showing where budget support levels must be sustained for MC&A functions most important to risk. Results of the risk assessment are also useful in supporting funding justifications for system improvements that significantly reduce system risk.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

231

Antenna Systems Advanced Antenna Systems  

E-print Network

EEL4461 EEL5462 Fall 2014 Antenna Systems Advanced Antenna Systems Instructor Dr. Jenshan Lin://lss.at.ufl.edu/) Textbooks Required: Balanis, Antenna Theory - Analysis and Design, 3rd ed. 2005 Prerequisite EEL3472 principles of antenna and to apply them to the design and analysis of antenna systems. Students will learn

Fang, Yuguang "Michael"

232

Systems Thinking 2: Thermodynamic Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains thermodynamic systems, open and closed systems, and the four key properties of a system. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives, Assessment, and Activities.

Linda Vanasupa

233

Nitrous oxide emissions following incorporation of improved-fallow residues in the humid tropics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotation of crops with fast-growing tree, shrub, and herbaceous N2-fixing legume species (improved fallows) is a central agroforestry technology for soil fertility management in the humid tropics. Maize yields are increased following improved fallows compared with continuous maize cropping or traditional natural-fallow systems consisting of broadleaved weeds and grasses. However, the effect of these improved-fallow systems on N availability and N2O emissions following residue application has yet to be determined. Emissions from these systems not only have a detrimental effect on the environment, but are of additional concern in that they represent a potentially significant loss of N and a reduction in N-use efficiency. Emissions of N2O were measured from improved-fallow agroforestry systems in western Kenya, being characteristic of agroforestry systems in the humid tropics. Emissions were increased after incorporation of fallow residues and were higher after incorporation of improved-fallow legume residues (Sesbania sesban, Crotalaria grahamiana, Macroptilium atropurpureum) than natural-fallow residues (mainly consisting of Digitaria abyssibica, Habiscus cannabinus, Bidens pilosa, Guizotia scabra, Leonotis nepetifolia, Commelina benghalensis). Following incorporation of Sesbania and Macroptilium residues (7.4 t dry matter ha-1; 2.9% N) in a mixed fallow system, 4.1 kg N2O-N ha-1 was emitted over 84 days. The percentages of N applied emitted as N2O following residue incorporation in these tropical agroforestry systems were of the same magnitude as in temperate agricultural systems. N2O (loge) emissions were positively correlated with residue N content (r = 0.93; P < 0.05), and thus the residue composition, particularly its N content, is an important consideration when proposing management practices to mitigate N2O emissions from these systems.

Millar, N.; Ndufa, J. K.; Cadisch, G.; Baggs, E. M.

2004-03-01

234

Geothermal systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

Mohl, C.

1978-01-01

235

Operating Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rashid Bin Muhammad at Kent State University presents his page of lectures notes and other instructional materials on operating systems. The site is divided into a number of topics about operating systems: history, structure, process, threads, Solaris-2, CPU / process scheduling, schedule algorithm, interprocess communication, deadlock, important UNIX commands, and references. The site is then followed by links to outside resources to help supplement the material presented here. This is a great resource for computer science instructors teaching students about operating systems.

Bin Muhammad, Rashid

2009-06-24

236

Land Cover in a Managed Forest Ecosystem: Mexican Shade Coffee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managed forest ecosystems—agroforestry systems in which crops such as coffee and bananas are planted side-by-side with woody perennials—are being touted as a means of safeguarding forests along with the ecological services they provide. Yet we know little about the determinants of land cover in such systems, information needed to design effective forest conservation policies. This paper presents a firstever spatial

Allen Blackman; Heidi Albers; Beatriz Ávalos Sartorio; Lisa Crooks

2003-01-01

237

Systemic Darwinism  

PubMed Central

Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a “compositional paradigm” according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality. PMID:18697926

Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

2008-01-01

238

Carbon Systems  

SciTech Connect

The electronic states of a 'quantum dot-graphene monolayer-SiO{sub 2} + n{sup +}-Si substrate' system in an external magnetic field are studied. An analytical expression for charge transfer in this system is obtained. The electronic states of a 'quantum dot-graphene bilayer-SiO{sub 2} + n{sup +}-Si substrate' system are considered. The systems under study are interesting from the viewpoint of controlling the optical properties of a quantum dot by means of an applied electric field.

Alisultanov, Z. Z., E-mail: zaur0102@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

2013-06-15

239

Synergies between Agricultural Intensification and Climate Change Could Create Surprising Vulnerabilities for Crops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An inevitable consequence of global climate change is that altered patterns of temperature and precipitation threaten agriculture in many tropical regions, requiring strategies of human adaptation. Moreover, the process of management intensification in agriculture has increased and may exacerbate vulnerability to climate extremes. Although many solutions have been presented, the role of simple agro-ecological and agroforestry management has been largely ignored. Some recent literature has shown how sustainable management may improve resistance to extreme climate events. We comment specifically on a prevalent form of agriculture throughout Latin America, the coffee agroforestry system. Results from the coffee literature have shown that shade management in coffee systems may mitigate the effects of extreme temperature and precipitation, thereby reducing the ecological and economic vulnerability of many rural farmers. We conclude that more traditional forms of agriculture can offer greater potential for adapting to changing conditions than do current intensive systems.

Brenda B. Lin (University of Michigan;); Ivette Perfecto (University of Michigan;); John Vandermeer (University of Michigan;)

2008-10-01

240

Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the implication that anticipatory behavior can only partially be described in a computer language and, furthermore, it shows that only a restricted class of anticipatory systems can be transferred to computers.

Ekdahl, Bertil

2000-05-01

241

Systems Librarianship  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The SYSLIB-L list serves as a vehicle for the discussion of topics related to systems librarianship and for the collection of information related to systems librarianship. Postings may include, but are not limited to, job postings, technical questions, philosophical discussions, and education.

242

Systems Thinking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center explains the General Systems Model and how consider the entire system when performing aerospace work. This three and a half minute video is one of the aerospace certification readiness courses.

2011-07-27

243

Multimedia Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 304. Multimedia Systems (3) Prerequisite: CSC 121. Introduction to technologies of the Internet and networked multimedia systems. Issues in web page design; Internet client/server programming; collaborative computing and group work; network publishing; security and encryption; audio and video compression; ethical issues and privacy; e-commerce; and distributed object computing. Open only to students of junior or senior standing.

Patterson, Ms L.

2003-04-21

244

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system is investigated in this learning activity to help participants learn how food is broken down and prepared for absorption, and list the components of the digestive system as well as their functions. Organs investigated include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Bidlack, Jim

245

Organ Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Organ Systems" module has five units of instruction that focus on the main classes of functions that a body must perform. Rather than just naming organs of the body and what they do, they present a perspective on the body as a coordinated group of systems that must do certain things correctly in order to survive and thrive.

Klemm, W. R.

2001-01-01

246

Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

247

System Toolbox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

System Toolbox is designed for system administrators who deal with a variety of platforms. The site covers Windows NT, General Unix, Novell, Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, and the Mac OS. The "toolbox" for each platform offers annotated links to Tools (Disk Management, Anti-Virus, Security, etc.), Articles, and other useful Links. While the information here is hardly comprehensive, the site offers useful, if often basic, resources for administrators. System Toolbox's brand new History section looks promising, with two articles currently posted, "Von Braun's Slide Rule" and "The Godfather of Computing - Charles Babbage." The Comments section allows users to post questions or comments.

2001-01-01

248

Earth Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth systems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

249

Immune System  

MedlinePLUS

... together to protect the body from infection. The human body provides an ideal environment for many microbes, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites, and the immune system prevents and limits their entry and growth to ...

250

Root systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One purpose that roots serve is that of anchoring the plant in the ground. Roots also take up water and nutrients for the plant. Plants all have different root system types to fit their individual needs and locations.

N/A N/A (U.S. Government;)

2004-10-30

251

Microelectromechanical Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) is an enabling technology that merges computation and communication with sensing and actuation to change the way people and machines interact with the physical world. MEMS is a manufacturing technology that will impact widespread applications including: miniature inertial measurement measurement units for competent munitions and personal navigation; distributed unattended sensors; mass data storage devices; miniature analytical instruments; embedded pressure sensors; non-invasive biomedical sensors; fiber-optics components and networks; distributed aerodynamic control; and on-demand structural strength. The long term goal of ARPA's MEMS program is to merge information processing with sensing and actuation to realize new systems and strategies for both perceiving and controlling systems, processes, and the environment. The MEMS program has three major thrusts: advanced devices and processes, system design, and infrastructure.

Gabriel, Kaigham J.

1995-01-01

252

Trees, soils, and food security  

PubMed Central

Trees have a different impact on soil properties than annual crops, because of their longer residence time, larger biomass accumulation, and longer-lasting, more extensive root systems. In natural forests nutrients are efficiently cycled with very small inputs and outputs from the system. In most agricultural systems the opposite happens. Agroforestry encompasses the continuum between these extremes, and emerging hard data is showing that successful agroforestry systems increase nutrient inputs, enhance internal flows, decrease nutrient losses and provide environmental benefits: when the competition for growth resources between the tree and the crop component is well managed. The three main determinants for overcoming rural poverty in Africa are (i) reversing soil fertility depletion, (ii) intensifying and diversifying land use with high-value products, and (iii) providing an enabling policy environment for the smallholder farming sector. Agroforestry practices can improve food production in a sustainable way through their contribution to soil fertility replenishment. The use of organic inputs as a source of biologically-fixed nitrogen, together with deep nitrate that is captured by trees, plays a major role in nitrogen replenishment. The combination of commercial phosphorus fertilizers with available organic resources may be the key to increasing and sustaining phosphorus capital. High-value trees, 'Cinderella' species, can fit in specific niches on farms, thereby making the system ecologically stable and more rewarding economically, in addition to diversifying and increasing rural incomes and improving food security. In the most heavily populated areas of East Africa, where farm size is extremely small, the number of trees on farms is increasing as farmers seek to reduce labour demands, compatible with the drift of some members of the family into the towns to earn off-farm income. Contrary to the concept that population pressure promotes deforestation, there is evidence that demonstrates that there are conditions under which increasing tree planting is occurring on farms in the tropics through successful agroforestry as human population density increases.

Sanchez, P. A.; Buresh, R. J.; Leakey, R. R. B.

1997-01-01

253

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system is amazing: it takes the foods we eat and breaks them into smaller components that our bodies can use for energy, cell repair and growth. This lesson introduces students to the main parts of the digestive system and how they interact. In addition, students learn about some of the challenges astronauts face when eating in outer space. Engineers figure out how to deal with such challenges.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

254

A geologic guide to Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; a tectonic collage of northbound terranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, the largest unit in the U.S. National Park System, encompasses near 13.2 million acres of geological wonderments. This geologic guide presents history of exploration and Earth-science investigation; describes the complex geologic makeup; characterizes the vast college of accretion geologic terranes in this area of Alaska's continental margin; recapitulates the effects of earthquakes, volcanoes, and glaciers; characterizes the copper and gold resources of the parklands; and describes outstanding locales within the park and preserve area. A glossary of geologic terms and a categorized list of additional sources of information complete this report.

Winkler, Gary R.; with contributions by MacKevett, E. M., Jr.; Plafker, George; Richter, D.H.; Rosenkrans, D.S.; Schmoll, H.R.

2000-01-01

255

Effects of water stress on water use efficiency and water balance components of Hippophae rhamnoides and Caragana intermedia in the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hippophae rhamnoides (Sea buckthorn) and Caragana intermedia (Intermediate peashrub), which are nitrogen-fixing and perennial temperate shrubs, are extensively used in the agroforestry\\u000a systems in the loess areas of China. In this study, artificially controlled water gradient experiments were carried out with\\u000a both shrubs, based on four levels of water supply (normal precipitation, slight drought, drought, and extreme drought). The\\u000a results

Weihua GuoBo; Bo Li; Xinshi Zhang; Renqing Wang

2010-01-01

256

Understanding and Integrating Local Perceptions of Trees and Forests into Incentives for Sustainable Landscape Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine five forested landscapes in Africa (Cameroon, Madagascar, and Tanzania) and Asia (Indonesia and Laos) at different\\u000a stages of landscape change. In all five areas, forest cover (outside of protected areas) continues to decrease despite local\\u000a people’s recognition of the importance of forest products and services. After forest conversion, agroforestry systems and\\u000a fallows provide multiple functions and valued products,

Jean-Laurent Pfund; John Daniel Watts; Manuel Boissière; Amandine Boucard; Renee Marie Bullock; Andree Ekadinata; Sonya Dewi; Laurène Feintrenie; Patrice Levang; Salla Rantala; Douglas Sheil; Terence Clarence Heethom Sunderland; Zora Lea Urech

2011-01-01

257

Balance of Competitive and Facilitative Effects of Exotic Trees on a Native Patagonian Grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The balance between facilitation and competition in plants changes with species characteristics and environmental conditions.\\u000a Facilitative effects are common in natural ecosystems, particularly in stressful environments or years. Contrarily, in artificial\\u000a associations of plants, such as agroforestry systems, some authors have suggested that even when facilitative effects may\\u000a occur, net balance of tree effects on grasses is usually negative, particularly

M. E. Fernández; J. E. Gyenge; T. M. Schlichter

2007-01-01

258

The Functioning, Management and Persistence of Dehesas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dehesas are the most widespread agroforestry systems in Europe, where they cover 3.1 million hectares. They are multipurpose\\u000a open woodlands, mostly created by clearing the natural forests, where livestock rearing, cereal cropping, cork and firewood\\u000a harvesting, and hunting are combined. In dehesas, trees can be seen as “ecosystem engineers”, as they allow the maintenance\\u000a of grass production in poor soils

G. Moreno; F. J. Pulido

259

Systemic trauma.  

PubMed

Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering. PMID:24617751

Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

2014-01-01

260

Computer systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to the discussions, Ocean Climate Data Workshop hosts gave participants an opportunity to hear about, see, and test for themselves some of the latest computer tools now available for those studying climate change and the oceans. Six speakers described computer systems and their functions. The introductory talks were followed by demonstrations to small groups of participants and some opportunities for participants to get hands-on experience. After this familiarization period, attendees were invited to return during the course of the Workshop and have one-on-one discussions and further hands-on experience with these systems. Brief summaries or abstracts of introductory presentations are addressed.

Olsen, Lola

1992-01-01

261

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of the space page of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), and provides information about the Sun, the planets and their moons, and other bodies in the solar system. It contains a travel guide to the Solar System including such topics as what to see, reason to visit, how to get there, and local history. A similar travel guide is then available for the Sun, each of the planets, asteroids, and comets. In addition, multiple links for more detailed information as well as space games and puzzles are provided.

2007-12-12

262

Microbiology System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

1992-01-01

263

Clinical and radiological outcomes following traumatic Grade 3 and 4 vertebral artery injuries: a 10-year retrospective analysis from a Level I trauma center. The Parkland Carotid and Vertebral Artery Injury Survey.  

PubMed

OBJECT Grade 3 and 4 blunt vertebral artery (VA) injuries may carry a different natural course from that of lower-grade blunt VA injuries. Proper screening, management, and follow-up of these injuries remain controversial. Grade 3 and 4 blunt VA injuries were analyzed to define their natural history and establish a rational management plan based on lesion progression and cerebral infarction. METHODS A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all blunt traumatic carotid and vertebral artery injuries from August 2003 to April 2013 was performed, and Grade 3 and 4 blunt VA injuries were identified. Grade 3 injuries were defined as stenosis of the vessel greater than 50% or the development of a pseudoaneurysm, and Grade 4 injuries were defined as complete vessel occlusion. Demographic information, radiographic imaging findings, number of imaging sessions performed per individual, length of radiographic follow-up, radiographic outcome at end of follow-up, treatment(s) provided, and documentation of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were recorded. RESULTS A total of 79 high-grade (Grade 3 and 4) blunt VA injuries in 67 patients were identified. Fifty-nine patients with 66 high-grade blunt VA injuries were available for follow-up. There were 17 patients with 23 Grade 3 injuries and 42 patients with 43 Grade 4 injuries. The mean follow-up duration was 58 days for Grade 3 and 67 days for Grade 4 blunt VA injuries. Repeat imaging of Grade 3 blunt VA injuries showed that 39% of injuries were radiographically stable, 43% resolved, and 13% improved, while 1 injury radiographically worsened. Repeat imaging of the Grade 4 blunt VA injuries showed that 65% of injuries were radiographically stable (persistent occlusion), 30% improved (recanalization of the vessel), and in 2 cases (5%) the injury resolved. All Grade 3 injuries that were treated were managed with aspirin or clopidogrel alone, as were the majority of Grade 4 injuries. There were 3 cerebral infarctions thought to be related to Grade 4 blunt VA injuries, which were likely present on admission. All 3 of these patients died at a mean of 13.7 days after hospital admission. No cerebral infarctions directly related to Grade 3 blunt VA injuries were identified. CONCLUSIONS The majority of high-grade blunt VA injuries remain stable or are improved at final follow-up. Despite a 4% rate of radiographic worsening in the Grade 3 blunt VA injury group and a 35% recanalization rate in the Grade 4 blunt VA injury group, there were no adverse clinical outcomes associated with these radiographic changes. No cerebral infarctions were noted in the Grade 3 group. A 7% stroke rate was identified in the Grade 4 blunt VA injury group; however, this was confined to the immediate postinjury period and was associated with 100% mortality. While these data suggest that these high-grade vertebral artery injuries may require less intensive radiographic follow-up, future prospective studies are needed to make conclusive changes related to treatment and management. PMID:25343180

Scott, William W; Sharp, Steven; Figueroa, Stephen A; Eastman, Alexander L; Hatchette, Charles V; Madden, Christopher J; Rickert, Kim L

2014-10-24

264

Investigating Army systems and Systems of Systems for value robustness  

E-print Network

This thesis proposes a value robustness approach to architect defense systems and Systems of Systems (SoS). A value robust system or SoS has the ability to provide continued value to stakeholders by performing well to meet ...

Koo, Kevin C. K. (Kevin Cheng Keong)

2010-01-01

265

Fruit set of highland coffee increases with the diversity of pollinating bees.  

PubMed Central

The worldwide decline of pollinators may negatively affect the fruit set of wild and cultivated plants. Here, we show that fruit set of the self-fertilizing highland coffee (Coffea arabica) is highly variable and related to bee pollination. In a comparison of 24 agroforestry systems in Indonesia, the fruit set of coffee could be predicted by the number of flower-visiting bee species, and it ranged from ca. 60% (three species) to 90% (20 species). Diversity, not abundance, explained variation in fruit set, so the collective role of a species-rich bee community was important for pollination success. Additional experiments showed that single flower visits from rare solitary species led to higher fruit set than with abundant social species. Pollinator diversity was affected by two habitat parameters indicating guild-specific nesting requirements: the diversity of social bees decreased with forest distance, whereas the diversity of solitary bees increased with light intensity of the agroforestry systems. These results give empirical evidence for a positive relationship between ecosystem functions such as pollination and biodiversity. Conservation of rainforest adjacent to adequately managed agroforestry systems could improve the yields of farmers. PMID:12803911

Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

2003-01-01

266

Systems overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Charts and accompanying text are presented that provide a brief synopsis of the contracted efforts for FY-92 in assessing nuclear thermal propulsion requirements, concepts, and associated issues. The objective of the effort is to provide NASA LeRC with assistance in space nuclear propulsion system requirements management and public acceptance planning.

Corban, Robert

1993-01-01

267

Irrigation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under contract with Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a Lubrication Handbook intended as a reference source for designers and manufacturers of aerospace hardware and crews responsible for maintenance of such equipment. Engineers of Lindsay Manufacturing Company learned of this handbook through NASA Tech Briefs and used it for supplemental information in redesigning gear boxes for their center pivot agricultural irrigation system.

1984-01-01

268

Circulatory system  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The circulatory system includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood. Arteries take blood with oxygen to our organs; veins bring deoxygenated blood to the heart (to be pumped to the lungs to get oxygen). Arteries and veins bring essential nutrients from digestion (such as glucose) to our tissues as well.

Katie Hale (CSUF; )

2007-01-22

269

Systems Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent

2013-01-01

270

Auditory system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical correlations of hearing, i.e. the acoustic stimuli, are reported. The auditory system, consisting of external ear, middle ear, inner ear, organ of Corti, basilar membrane, hair cells, inner hair cells, outer hair cells, innervation of hair cells, and transducer mechanisms, is discussed. Both conductive and sensorineural hearing losses are also examined.

Ades, H. W.

1973-01-01

271

POWER SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low power output of other devices at this time dictates the use of ; nuclear-reactor systems for manned space explorations. Work up to the present is ; briefly reviewed, and progress and utilization of other power supplies are ; discussed. Pros and cons of solar cells, fuel cells, and thermoelectric and ; thermionic devices are included as well as consideration

1962-01-01

272

Immune System  

EPA Science Inventory

A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

273

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a section of an online Biology Textbook - developed by Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College - providing a concise overview of the digestive system. It describes the enzymes, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids involved in digestion and outlines the role that each part of the body plays from the mouth the large intestine.

Gregory, Michael

1969-12-31

274

Immune System 1 Running Head: IMMUNE SYSTEM  

E-print Network

Immune System 1 Running Head: IMMUNE SYSTEM Immune System Structure and Function Mary W. Meagher: 979-845-4727 CITATION: Meagher, M. W. (2004). Immune system structure and function. In A. Christensen System 2 Immune System Structure and Function The immune system is engaged in a constant surveillance

Meagher, Mary

275

Surveying System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sunrise Geodetic Surveys are setting up their equipment for a town survey. Their equipment differs from conventional surveying systems that employ transit rod and chain to measure angles and distances. They are using ISTAC Inc.'s Model 2002 positioning system, which offers fast accurate surveying with exceptional signals from orbiting satellites. The special utility of the ISTAC Model 2002 is that it can provide positioning of the highest accuracy from Navstar PPS signals because it requires no knowledge of secret codes. It operates by comparing the frequency and time phase of a Navstar signal arriving at one ISTAC receiver with the reception of the same set of signals by another receiver. Data is computer processed and translated into three dimensional position data - latitude, longitude and elevation.

1988-01-01

276

Solar Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

1979-01-01

277

Burner systems  

DOEpatents

A burner system particularly useful for downhole deployment includes a tubular combustion chamber unit housed within a tubular coolant jacket assembly. The combustion chamber unit includes a monolithic tube of refractory material whose inner surface defines the combustion zone. A metal reinforcing sleeve surrounds and extends the length of the refractory tube. The inner surface of the coolant jacket assembly and outer surface of the combustion chamber unit are dimensioned so that those surfaces are close to one another in standby condition so that the combustion chamber unit has limited freedom to expand with that expansion being stabilized by the coolant jacket assembly so that compression forces in the refractory tube do not exceed about one-half the safe compressive stress of the material; and the materials of the combustion chamber unit are selected to establish thermal gradient parameters across the combustion chamber unit to maintain the refractory tube in compression during combustion system start up and cool down sequences.

Doherty, Brian J. (Marblehead, MA)

1984-07-10

278

Systemic treatment.  

PubMed

In the last years the management of patients with liver cancer has been improved. The BCLC staging/treatment strategy identifies the optimal candidates for each treatment option and sorafenib is the only effective systemic treatment. Others (sunitinib, brivanib, linifanib, everolimus, ramucirumab) have failed in terms of safety/survival benefit. Some patients at intermediate/early stage, may be considered for systemic therapy when options of higher priority may have failed or not be feasible. The 800 mg/day is the recommended starting dose. Close follow-up and easy access for the patients so that they can report any adverse event and implement dose adjustments is the key point in the management of them. Development of early dermatologic adverse events has been correlated with better outcome and the pattern of radiologic progression characterizes better the prognosis/outcome of these patients. Treatment beyond progression may be considered if there is no option for a second line research trial. PMID:25260318

Reig, Maria; Gazzola, Alessia; Di Donato, Roberto; Bruix, Jordi

2014-10-01

279

Copernican System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heliocentric (i.e. `Sun-centered') theory proposed by the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), and published by him in 1543 in his book, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium. In this system Copernicus placed the Sun at the center of the universe and regarded the Earth and the planets as moving around it in circular orbits. Because of his retention of the notion of circular motion...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

280

Gasification system  

DOEpatents

A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

1983-01-01

281

Gasification system  

DOEpatents

A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

1985-01-01

282

Imaging System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1100C Virtual Window is based on technology developed under NASA Small Business Innovation (SBIR) contracts to Ames Research Center. For example, under one contract Dimension Technologies, Inc. developed a large autostereoscopic display for scientific visualization applications. The Virtual Window employs an innovative illumination system to deliver the depth and color of true 3D imaging. Its applications include surgery and Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans, viewing for teleoperated robots, training, and in aviation cockpit displays.

1995-01-01

283

Tychonic System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world system proposed in 1583 by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601). Unable to accept the Copernican doctrine that the Earth moves around the Sun, he put forward the view, later disproved by Kepler (1571-1630), that the planets move around the Sun, but the Sun and Moon move around the Earth. The theory explained the observed variations of the phases of Venus, for which the Ptolemai...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

284

Braking system  

DOEpatents

A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

Norgren, D.U.

1982-09-23

285

Bearing system  

DOEpatents

A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

Kapich, Davorin D. (Carlsbad, CA)

1987-01-01

286

Sterilization System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

1990-01-01

287

Videobasierte Systeme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Videosensoren spielen für Fahrerassistenz systeme eine zentrale Rolle, da sie die Interpretation visueller Informationen (Objektklassifikation) gezielt unterstützen. Im Heckbereich kann die Video sensorik in der einfachsten Variante die ultraschallbasierte Einparkhilfe bei Einpark- und Rangiervorgängen unterstützen. Beim Nachtsichtsystem NightVision wird das mit Infrarotlicht angestrahlte Umfeld vor dem Fahrzeug mit einer Frontkamera aufgenommen und im Fahrzeugcockpit auf einem Display dem Fahrer angezeigt (s. Nachtsichtsysteme). Andere Fahrerassistenzsysteme verarbeiten die Videosignale und generieren daraus gezielt Informationen, die für eigenständige Funktionen (z. B. Spurverlassenswarner) oder aber als Zusatzinformation für andere Funktionen ausgewertet werden (Sensordatenfusion).

Knoll, Peter

288

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA is charting a bold new course into the cosmos, a journey that will take humans back to the Moon, and eventually to Mars and beyond. Exploration of the solar system and beyond will be guided by compelling questions of scientific and societal importance. NASA exploration programs will seek profound answers to questions about the origins of our solar system, whether life exists beyond Earth, and how we could live on other worlds. The NASA Vision for space exploration calls for a combination of human and robotic missions to achieve new exploration goals. Robotic missions to the Moon will be followed by an extended human expedition as early as 2015. Lunar exploration will lay the groundwork for future exploration of Mars and other destinations. A new spacecraft to support these journeys--the Crew Exploration Vehicle--will be tested before the end of this decade. Space exploration holds a special place in the human imagination. Youth are especially drawn to Mars rovers, astronauts, and telescopes. If used effectively and creatively, space can inspire children to seek careers in math, science, and engineering. Exploration and discovery are key agents of growth in society--technologically, economically, socially, internationally, and intellectually. This module is a first step in engaging today's youth in space exploration and serves as an invitation to participate in the excitement of discovery.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

289

Gastrointestinal system  

PubMed Central

The functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract include digestion, absorption, excretion, and protection. In this review, we focus on the electrical activity of the stomach and small intestine, which underlies the motility of these organs, and where the most detailed systems descriptions and computational models have been based to date. Much of this discussion is also applicable to the rest of the GI tract. This review covers four major spatial scales: cell, tissue, organ, and torso, and discusses the methods of investigation and the challenges associated with each. We begin by describing the origin of the electrical activity in the interstitial cells of Cajal, and its spread to smooth muscle cells. The spread of electrical activity through the stomach and small intestine is then described, followed by the resultant electrical and magnetic activity that may be recorded on the body surface. A number of common and highly symptomatic GI conditions involve abnormal electrical and/or motor activity, which are often termed functional disorders. In the last section of this review we address approaches being used to characterize and diagnose abnormalities in the electrical activity and how these might be applied in the clinical setting. The understanding of electrophysiology and motility of the GI system remains a challenging field, and the review discusses how biophysically based mathematical models can help to bridge gaps in our current knowledge, through integration of otherwise separate concepts. PMID:20836011

Cheng, Leo K.; O’Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Egbuji, John U.; Windsor, John A.; Pullan, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

290

Skeletal System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this unit, written for an honors anatomy and physiology class, students become familiar with the human skeletal system and answer the Challenge Question: When you get home from school, your mother grabs you, and you race to the hospital. Your grandmother fell and was rushed to the emergency room. The doctor tells your family your grandmother has a fractured hip, and she is referring her to an orthopedic specialist. The orthopedic doctor decides to perform a DEXA scan. The result show her BMD is -3.3. What would be a probable diagnosis to her condition? What are some possible causes of her condition? Should her daughter and granddaughter be worried about this condition, and if so, what are measures they could take to prevent this from happening to them?

2014-09-18

291

Transfer system  

DOEpatents

A transport system includes a traveling rail (1) which constitutes a transport route and a transport body (3) which is capable of traveling on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. Flexible drive tubes (5) are arranged on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. The transport body includes a traveling wheel (4) which is capable of rolling on the traveling rail and drive wheels (2) which are capable of rolling on the drive tubes upon receiving the rotational drive power generated by pressure of a pressure medium supplied to the drive tubes while depressing the drive tubes. The traveling rail includes a plurality of transport sections and the transport body is capable of receiving a rotational drive force from the drive tubes at every transport sections. If necessary, a transport route changeover switch which changes over the transport route can be provided between the transport sections.

Kurosawa, Kanji (Tokyo, JP); Koga, Bunichiro (Miyagi, JP); Ito, Hideki (Miyagi, JP); Kiriyama, Shigeru (Miyagi, JP); Higuchi, Shizuo (Kanagawa, JP)

2003-05-20

292

Introduction System Informatics  

E-print Network

separated the Computer Science and Systems Engineering Department from the Graduate School of Engineering: Systems Science, Information Science, and Computational Science. In the Department of Computer Science Departments Divisions Outline Systems Science Fundamentals of Systems Science Innovation of Systems Science

Banbara, Mutsunori

293

Prosthetic Knee Systems  

MedlinePLUS

... of fluid control systems — pneumatic (using air) and hydraulic (using fluid). Pneumatic control. These systems: compress air ... control than friction systems are less effective than hydraulic systems. Hydraulic control. These systems: use liquid (usually ...

294

Intelligent Engine Systems: Bearing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall requirements necessary for sensing bearing distress and the related criteria to select a particular rotating sensor were established during the phase I. The current phase II efforts performed studies to evaluate the Robustness and Durability Enhancement of the rotating sensors, and to design, and develop the Built-in Telemetry System concepts for an aircraft engine differential sump. A generic test vehicle that can test the proposed bearing diagnostic system was designed, developed, and built. The Timken Company, who also assisted with testing the GE concept of using rotating sensors for the differential bearing diagnostics during previous phase, was selected as a subcontractor to assist General Electric (GE) for the design, and procurement of the test vehicle. A purchase order was prepared to define the different sub-tasks, and deliverables for this task. The University of Akron was selected to provide the necessary support for installing, and integrating the test vehicle with their newly designed test facility capable of simulating the operating environment for the planned testing. The planned testing with good and damaged bearings will be on hold pending further continuation of this effort during next phase.

Singh, Arnant P.

2008-01-01

295

Systems Biology and Systems Medicine: Technology,  

E-print Network

Systems Biology and Systems Medicine: Technology, Measurement and Validation Lee Hood Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle How Might One Think About Systems Biology? #12;Radio Waves Sound Waves #12;Immune Response Intra- and inter- cellular networks Development Physiology #12;Contemporary Systems Biology

296

Artificial Immune Systems 209 Artificial Immune Systems  

E-print Network

Artificial Immune Systems 209 Chapter XI Artificial Immune Systems: Using the Immune System, Idea Group Publishing. The immune system is highly distributed, highly adaptive, self encounters. From a computational view- point, the immune system has much to offer by way of inspiration

Timmis, Jon

297

System safety education focused on system management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System safety is defined and characteristics of the system are outlined. Some of the principle characteristics include role of humans in hazard analysis, clear language for input and output, system interdependence, self containment, and parallel analysis of elements.

Grose, V. L.

1971-01-01

298

Mapping elk distribution on the Canadian prairies: Applying local knowledge to support conservation.  

E-print Network

??Once abundant across the Great Plains of North America, prairie-parkland elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis) underwent a catastrophic population collapse and dramatic contraction of their overall… (more)

Patterson, Molly

2014-01-01

299

Integrated Nanofluidic Systems for Systems Biotechnology  

E-print Network

Integrated Nanofluidic Systems for Systems Biotechnology Wednesday October 28 2009 Burchard 118, 11 in prestigious journals including Science and Nature Biotechnology. Hong's research interests include Bio

Fisher, Frank

300

Understanding supervisory systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a summary of Chapter 1, `Introduction and Rational for Supervisory Systems' of the IEEE tutorial course, Fundamentals of Supervisory Systems. An overview of supervisory system concepts is provided. Various types of supervisory systems are identified, including SCADA, SCADA\\/automatic gain control, energy management systems, distribution management systems, load management systems, and automatic meter reading. Some important design and

W. J. Ackerman; W. R. Block

1992-01-01

301

Expanding Alternative Delivery Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative educational delivery systems that might be useful to community colleges are considered. The following categories of delivery systems are covered: broadcast delivery systems; copy delivery systems, print delivery systems, computer delivery systems, telephone delivery systems, and satellites. Among the applications for broadcast…

Baltzer, Jan A.

302

Selforganizing Systems Case Study: peertopeer systems ?  

E-print Network

Self­organizing Systems Case Study: peer­to­peer systems ? Emmanuelle Anceaume, Maria Gradinariu­to­peer networks relying on the self­organization of the system in multiple layers, each of them reflecting. In peer­to­peer systems, self­organization is handled through protocols for node arrivals and departures

Roy, Matthieu

303

Reuse in Systems Engineering Systems Engineering  

E-print Network

1 Lecture 12 Reuse in Systems Engineering Systems Engineering Dr. Joanna Bryson Dr. Leon Watts should be able to: Explain why reuse is important in systems engineering. Define the term "Reuse engineering Systems engineering projects generally involve engineers from different disciplines. Different

Bryson, Joanna J.

304

Mechanical systems: A compilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation of several mechanized systems is presented. The articles are contained in three sections: robotics, industrial mechanical systems, including several on linear and rotary systems and lastly mechanical control systems, such as brakes and clutches.

1975-01-01

305

Immune System (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... can lead to illness and infection. About the Immune System The immune system is the body's defense against ... that cause colds. Back Continue Problems of the Immune System Disorders of the immune system fall into four ...

306

Industrial and Systems engineering  

E-print Network

Industrial and Systems engineering COLLEGE of ENGINEERING DepartmentofIndustrialandSystemsEngineering EDGE Engineering Entrepreneur Certificate Program is a great addition to an industrial and systems to expert clinical recommendations. engineering.wayne.edu/isefaculty Industrial and systems engineering

Berdichevsky, Victor

307

Complex System Classification  

E-print Network

The use of terms such as “Engineering Systems”, “System of systems” and others have been coming into greater use over the past decade to denote systems of importance but with implied higher complexity than for the term ...

Magee, Christopher

2004-07-24

308

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the parts of our solar system? Let's learn about the parts of our Solar System! First, use the Solar System Chart Now read the Introduction to the Solar System and begin filling out the Solar System Chart by listing one fact for each planet. Now watch the Video 1 on the Solar System and fill out one characteristic about each planet in our Solar System. Now read the Facts about the Solar System and find ...

Kathrynbyers

2012-04-05

309

System Software Framework for System of Systems Avionics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Project Constellation implements NASA's vision for space exploration to expand human presence in our solar system. The engineering focus of this project is developing a system of systems architecture. This architecture allows for the incremental development of the overall program. Systems can be built and connected in a "Lego style" manner to generate configurations supporting various mission objectives. The development of the avionics or control systems of such a massive project will result in concurrent engineering. Also, each system will have software and the need to communicate with other (possibly heterogeneous) systems. Fortunately, this design problem has already been solved during the creation and evolution of systems such as the Internet and the Department of Defense's successful effort to standardize distributed simulation (now IEEE 1516). The solution relies on the use of a standard layered software framework and a communication protocol. A standard framework and communication protocol is suggested for the development and maintenance of Project Constellation systems. The ARINC 653 standard is a great start for such a common software framework. This paper proposes a common system software framework that uses the Real Time Publish/Subscribe protocol for framework-to-framework communication to extend ARINC 653. It is highly recommended that such a framework be established before development. This is important for the success of concurrent engineering. The framework provides an infrastructure for general system services and is designed for flexibility to support a spiral development effort.

Ferguson, Roscoe C.; Peterson, Benjamin L; Thompson, Hiram C.

2005-01-01

310

[X-33 Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. This portion of the report is comprised of a status report of Allied-Signal Aerospace's contribution to the program. The following is a summary of the work reviewed under their portion of the agreement: (1) Communication Systems; (2) Environmental Control Systems- Active Thermal Control System (ATCS), Purge and Vent System, Hydrogen Detection System (HDS), Avionics Bay Inerting System (ABIS), and Flush Air Data System (FADS); (2) Landing Systems; (3) Power Management and Generation Systems; (4) Flight Control Actuation System (FCAS)- Electric Power Control & Distribution System (EPCDS), and Battery Power System (BPS); and (5) Vehicle Management Systems (VMS)- VMS Hardware, VMS Software Development Activities, and System Integration Laboratory (SIL).

1999-01-01

311

March 23, 2008 Databases: Information Systems 1 Information Systems  

E-print Network

March 23, 2008 Databases: Information Systems 1 Information Systems #12;March 23, 2008 Databases: Information Systems 2 Objectives What is an Information System (IS) + Classification of Information Systems + Evolution of Information Systems + Information System Management + Performance Requirements of ISs + #12

Adam, Salah

312

Evolving Systems Engineering as a Field within Engineering Systems  

E-print Network

Evolving Systems Engineering as a Field within Engineering Systems Donna H. Rhodes Massachusetts Management Social Science Engineering Systems Engineering Systems: Field of Scholarship ENGINEERING SYSTEMS Massachusetts Institute of Technology 4 Systems Engineering Field of Practice Systems Engineering Considers both

de Weck, Olivier L.

313

Influence strategies for systems of systems  

E-print Network

Distributed decision making has been identified as a source of managerial complexity for leaders of systems of systems (SoS). A new framework, AIR (Anticipation-Influence-Reaction), is proposed to capture the feedback ...

Shah, Nirav Bharat, 1979-

2013-01-01

314

System of Systems - the meaning of of  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present distinguishing characteristics (i.e. autonomy, belonging, connectivity, diversity, and emergence), that can help us to recognize or to realize a System of Systems (SoS). The principle differentiation that we make between a thing being either a `system' or a SoS focuses on the nature of a system's composition. We will distinctly define this set of distinguishing characteristics which will

John Boardman; Brian Sauser

2006-01-01

315

Liberating Systems Theory: Toward Critical Systems Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article contains an exploration of a number of the many interpretations of its title Liberating Systems Theory. It is in fact a point of reflection on the way to realizing Critical Systems Thinking. Particular points of focus are critical theory integrated to practice in systems \\

R. L. Flood

1990-01-01

316

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

of GSM overview ­ GSM interfaces ­ GSM network components Mobile switching center,visitor location;3 | 36 Communication Systems GSM interfaces and components #12;4 | 36 Communication Systems GSM (HLR) #12;5 | 36 Communication Systems GSM interfaces and components The several MSC

Schindelhauer, Christian

317

LRRB Pavement Management Systems Pavement Management Systems  

E-print Network

LRRB Pavement Management Systems Pavement Management Systems Presented by: Michael Marti SRF for implementing and monitoring research results (RIC) #12;LRRB Pavement Management Systems LRRB Structure LRRB and counties in implementing Pavement Management and/or using better §Project produced several deliverables

Minnesota, University of

318

Vision System for a Robot Guide System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to design a vision system using fuzzy logical control and real time image processing technologies. The system developed is for an autonomous guide robot which is expected to be able to navigate in an unknown environment and search for a given object. There are many considerations necessary for the vision system of a robot due

Yu Wua Wong; Liqiong Tang; Donald Bailey

319

Intelligent tutoring systems for systems engineering methodologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general goal is to provide the technology required to build systems that can provide intelligent tutoring in IDEF (Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing Definition Method) modeling. The following subject areas are covered: intelligent tutoring systems for systems analysis methodologies; IDEF tutor architecture and components; developing cognitive skills for IDEF modeling; experimental software; and PC based prototype.

Meyer, Richard J.; Toland, Joel; Decker, Louis

1991-01-01

320

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA SYSTEMS: SYSTEMS OVERVIEW MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a systems overview manual and technical reference guide for the Environmental Assessment Data Systems (EADS), a group of related computerized data bases which describe multimedia discharges from energy systems and industrial processes. The EADS have been designed to...

321

Heliospheric coordinate systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview and reference to the most common coordinate systems currently used in space science. While coordinate systems used in near-Earth space physics have been described in previous work we extend that description to systems used for physical observations of the Sun and the planets and to systems based on spacecraft location. For all systems, we define

M. Fränz; D. Harper

2002-01-01

322

Systems Science Harder House  

E-print Network

Systems Science Harder House 1604 SW 10th Avenue 503-725-4960 www.sysc.pdx.edu/ M.S. Ph.D. Systems, and the natural and social sciences, systems theorists continue to make important contributions to the growth and contemporary form of systems science, which crystallized after World War II around general systems theory

323

Introduction System Informatics  

E-print Network

separated the Computer Science and Systems Engineering Department from the Graduate School of Engineering: Systems Science, Information Science, and Computational Science. In the Department of Computer Science Divisions Outline Systems Science Fundamentals of Systems Science Innovation of Systems Acience A study

Banbara, Mutsunori

324

Energy Systems Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PRESTO, a COSMIC program, handles energy system specifications and predicts design efficiency of cogeneration systems. These systems allow a company to use excess energy produced to generate electricity. PRESTO is utilized by the Energy Systems Division of Thermo Electron Corporation in the custom design of cogeneration systems.

1986-01-01

325

DDL system: Design systhesis of digital systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital Systems Design Language was integrated into the CADAT system environment of NASA-MSFC. The major technical aspects of this integration are summarized. Automatic hardware synthesis is now possible starting with a high level description of the system to be synthesized. The DDL system provides a high level design verification capability, thereby minimizing design changes in the later stages of the design cycle. An overview of the DDL system covering the translation, simulation and synthesis capabilities is provided. Two companion documents (the user's and programmer's manuals) are to be consulted for detailed discussions.

Shiva, S. G.

1983-01-01

326

Systems biology approach to developing "systems therapeutics".  

PubMed

The standard drug development model uses reductionist approaches to discover small molecules targeting one pathway. Although systems biology analyzes multiple pathways, the approach is often used to develop a small molecule interacting at only one pathway in the system. Similar to that in physics where a departure from the old reductionist "Copenhagen View" of quantum physics to a new and predictive systems based, collective model has emerged yielding new breakthroughs such as the LASER, a new model is emerging in biology where systems biology is used to develop a new technology acting at multiple pathways called "systems therapeutics." PMID:24900858

Maguire, Greg

2014-05-01

327

Manager's assistant systems for space system planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a class of knowledge-based 'assistant' systems for space system planning. Derived from technology produced for the DARPA/USAF Pilot's Associate program, these assistant systems help the human planner by doing the bookkeeping to maintain plan data and executing the procedures and heuristics currently used by the human planner to define, assess, diagnose, and revise plans. Intelligent systems for Space Station Freedom assembly sequence planning and Advanced Launch System modeling will be presented as examples. Ongoing NASA-funded work on a framework supporting the development of such tools will also be described.

Bewley, William L.; Burnard, Robert; Edwards, Gary E.; Shoop, James

1992-01-01

328

Evidence of hydraulic lift for pre-rainy season leaf out and dry-season stem water enrichment in Sclerocarya birrea, a tropical agroforestry tree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use stable isotopes of water as tracers to follow water use by five Sclerocarya birrea trees in a catchment in South Eastern Burkina Faso interspersed with millet fields, gallery forest, Sudanian savanna, and fallow fields. Isotopic ratios were determined from water extracted from stems of the trees and sub-canopy soil of two of them, while nearby ground water, precipitation, and surface water was sampled weekly. A unique configuration of sensors connected with a wireless sensor network of meteorological stations measured sub-canopy shading, the temperature and humidity in the canopy, through-fall, and soil moisture under two of the trees. Both water extracted from sap and water extracted from soil is extremely enriched in the dry season, but drop to levels close to the ground water in February or March, which coincides with the growth of leaves. Dates of leaf out were confirmed by changes in ?DH and ?O18 concentrations of water, photographic documentation & pixel analysis, and analysis of sub-canopy radiation and proceeded the rise in humidity and flow that was later detected in the sub-canopy soil, the trunk of the tree (sap-flow), and atmosphere (canopy VPD). Examination of the isotopic signature suggests that size of tree plays an important role in duration and timing of this leaf-out as well as the degree of enrichment during the peak of the dry season. Further examination of the isotopic signatures of the roots suggested that the trees are performing hydraulic redistribution, or lifting the ground water and "sharing it" with the soil in the rooting zone in the dry season. The enriched level of xylem in this case is a product of water loss, and enrichment, along the travel path of the water from the roots to the tip of the stem, as evidenced by the variation according to size of tree. Vapor pressure deficit, soil water, and soil moisture interactions support this picture of interacting controls, separate from hydrologic triggers on the water movement in the tree.

Ceperley, Natalie; Mande, Theophile; Rinaldo, Andrea; Parlange, Marc B.

2014-05-01

329

Modeling Gross Primary Production of Agro-Forestry Ecosystems by Assimilation of Satellite-Derived Information in a Process-Based Model  

PubMed Central

In this paper we present results obtained in the framework of a regional-scale analysis of the carbon budget of poplar plantations in Northern Italy. We explored the ability of the process-based model BIOME-BGC to estimate the gross primary production (GPP) using an inverse modeling approach exploiting eddy covariance and satellite data. We firstly present a version of BIOME-BGC coupled with the radiative transfer models PROSPECT and SAILH (named PROSAILH-BGC) with the aims of i) improving the BIOME-BGC description of the radiative transfer regime within the canopy and ii) allowing the assimilation of remotely-sensed vegetation index time series, such as MODIS NDVI, into the model. Secondly, we present a two-step model inversion for optimization of model parameters. In the first step, some key ecophysiological parameters were optimized against data collected by an eddy covariance flux tower. In the second step, important information about phenological dates and about standing biomass were optimized against MODIS NDVI. Results obtained showed that the PROSAILH-BGC allowed simulation of MODIS NDVI with good accuracy and that we described better the canopy radiation regime. The inverse modeling approach was demonstrated to be useful for the optimization of ecophysiological model parameters, phenological dates and parameters related to the standing biomass, allowing good accuracy of daily and annual GPP predictions. In summary, this study showed that assimilation of eddy covariance and remote sensing data in a process model may provide important information for modeling gross primary production at regional scale. PMID:22399948

Migliavacca, Mirco; Meroni, Michele; Busetto, Lorenzo; Colombo, Roberto; Zenone, Terenzio; Matteucci, Giorgio; Manca, Giovanni; Seufert, Guenther

2009-01-01

330

ArcAPEX modeling of optimum widths and placement of grass and agroforestry buffers to reduce runoff and sediment transport in claypan watersheds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Existence of a claypan layer in soils at depths ranging from 4 to 37 cm restricts vertical water movement and has contributed significantly to high rates of runoff, sediment transport, and other non-point source loadings from croplands in watersheds. The deposition of these pollutants in rivers, st...

331

Long-term assessment of runoff and sediment transport from grass and agroforestry buffers in corn/soybean watersheds using APEX  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Existence of a claypan layer in soils at depths ranging from 4 to 37 cm restricts water movement and has contributed significantly to high rates of runoff, sediment transport, and other non-point source loadings from croplands in watersheds. The deposition of these pollutants in rivers, streams and...

332

Integrated Agricultural Systems Workgroup  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Integrated Agricultural Systems Workgroup is conducting research to developing principles of sustainable integrated agricultural systems. The Integrated Agriculture Systems (IAS) workgroup hosts producer focused workshops to examine crop and animal production practices. At each workshop, several...

333

Maglev systems development status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status and future potential of Maglev systems is reviewed. Modes of noncontact suspension and propulsion are described, and prototype systems and design concepts are indicated. A number of existing systems are described in more detail

A. R. Eastham; W. F. Hayes

1988-01-01

334

Reuse in Systems Engineering  

E-print Network

Reuse in systems engineering is a frequent but poorly understood phenomenon. Nevertheless, it has a significant impact on system development and on estimating the appropriate amount of systems engineering effort with models ...

Wang, Gan

335

Wind energy systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

Stewart, H. J.

1978-01-01

336

Observability of complex systems  

E-print Network

A quantitative description of a complex system is inherently limited by our ability to estimate the system’s internal state from experimentally accessible outputs. Although the simultaneous measurement of all internal ...

Liu, Yang-Yu

337

Air cushion landing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

1978-01-01

338

Unlocking the Endocrine System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how the endocrine system works and compare it to the mail delivery system. Students discuss the importance of communication in human body systems and relate that to engineering and astronauts.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

339

Lesson 44: Nonlinear Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using a cost/revenue application problem, the lesson begins with systems involving quadratic equations. Systems with conics are introduced next along with the elimination method for solving these systems.

2011-01-01

340

TWRSview system requirements specification  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

1995-12-01

341

Multimode ergometer system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System overcomes previous ergometer design and calibration problems including inaccurate measurements, large weight, size, and input power requirements, poor heat dissipation, high flammability, and inaccurate calibration. Device consists of lightweight, accurately controlled ergometer, restraint system, and calibration system.

Bynum, B. G.; Gause, R. L.; Spier, R. A.

1971-01-01

342

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify basic components of our solar system, including the sun, planets, and Earth's moon. We have just learned about the Solar System. Click here to watch an informational overview of the Solar System: Overview of the Solar System.. The planets in our Solar System are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto. Every planet in our Solar System revolves around the sun. The sun provides the energy ...

Ms. Smithson

2009-07-07

343

System status display information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the flight crew with enhanced capabilities for monitoring and managing aircraft systems. Guidelines for the design of the electronic system displays were established. The technical approach involved the application of a system engineering approach to the design of candidate displays and the evaluation of a Hernative concepts by part-task simulation. The system engineering and selection of candidate displays are covered.

Summers, L. G.; Erickson, J. B.

1984-01-01

344

Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

1993-01-01

345

Intelligent transportation systems.  

E-print Network

??Many transportation systems used today are costly, slow, fragmented, and dangerous. This paper explores the inefficiencies and negative impacts associated with our current transportation systems.… (more)

Locke, Danielle Marie

2011-01-01

346

Control system design method  

DOEpatents

A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

Wilson, David G. (Tijeras, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM)

2012-02-21

347

Lightside Atmospheric Revitalization System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system was studied as a replacement to the present baseline LiOH system for extended duration shuttle missions. The system consists of three subsystems: a solid amine water desorbed regenerable carbon dioxide removal system, a water vapor electrolysis oxygen generating system, and a Sabatier reactor carbon dioxide reduction system. The system is designed for use on a solar powered shuttle vehicle. The majority of the system's power requirements are utilized on the Sun side of each orbit, when solar power is available.

Colling, A. K.; Cushman, R. J.; Hultman, M. M.; Nason, J. R.

1980-01-01

348

Endocrine System (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... System The major glands that make up the human endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive glands, which include the ovaries ...

349

Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

350

Systems engineering for very large systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

Lewkowicz, Paul E.

1993-01-01

351

Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

2011-01-01

352

Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases. PMID:24325540

Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

2014-05-01

353

Phytologia (April 2007) 89 (1) 8 PLEISTOCENE INFRASPECIFIC EVOLUTION IN  

E-print Network

Ozarks were covered with boreal spruce forest from about 25,000 to at least 13,000 B.P., with pine parkland preceding the boreal spruce forest. The pine parkland and boreal spruce forest both appeared variate analyses (Adams, 1977). These coordinate scores, when plotted onto maps, show a sharp divergence

Adams, Robert P.

354

HF system design principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general principles of HF communication system design, using as a framework a generalized communication system comprising: propagation path, information source and sink, source encoder/decoder, channel encoder/decoder, and RF equipment. The basic properties of the medium relevant to the design, control and operation of HF systems are considered. In particular, the problems of HF system control are examined in depth.

Darnell, M.

1983-05-01

355

HF system design principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general principles of HF communication system design, using as a framework a generalized communication system comprising: propagation path, information source and sink, source encoder\\/decoder, channel encoder\\/decoder, and RF equipment. The basic properties of the medium relevant to the design, control and operation of HF systems are considered. In particular, the problems of HF system control are examined in depth.

M. Darnell

1983-01-01

356

Broad Bandwidth Telecommunications Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Broad bandwidth transmission systems have been around for years. They include microwave, assorted cable systems, and recently, satellites. With the exception of some privately owned systems, broadband services have been furnished by the common carriers. Recently, a new element has been added--Cable Antenna Television (CATV) distribution systems.…

Sodolski, John

357

Thermalization in Quantum Systems  

E-print Network

atom system Not only of academic interest. Open questions in closed system quantum dynamics: i of equilibrated states. iv. Definition for "quantum integrability". v. Many-body localization... vi. Open systems. Localization and absence of ETH. 3 #12;Quantum Thermalization 4 #12;System THERMAL BATH () Quantum

358

Universal Index System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Universal Index System (UIS) is an index management system that uses a uniform interface to solve the heterogeneity problem among database management systems. UIS provides an easy-to-use common interface to access all underlying data, but also allows different underlying database management systems, storage representations, and access methods.

Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos; Wallace, Sarah

1993-01-01

359

Vehicle tracking systems  

SciTech Connect

Several systems have been developed to accomplish vehicle location. The systems consist of three types: Dead Reckoning, Satellite, and LORAN C. If the information is to be sent back to a central location, some type of radiocommunication system is needed. One can use the existing voice radio or add a radio system just for transmitting the data.

Schwalm, R.W.

1987-01-01

360

Program (systems) engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program Systems Engineering applies the principles of Systems Engineering at the program level. Space programs are composed of interrelated elements which can include collections of projects, advanced technologies, information systems, etc. Some program elements are outside traditional engineering's physical systems, such as education and public outreach, public relations, resource flow, and interactions within the political environments.

Baroff, Lynn E.; Easter, Robert W.; Pomphrey, Richard B.

2004-01-01

361

Polymer Electronics Systems - Polytronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current trends in the development of electronics systems show that the provision of thin flexible components and semiconductors plays a decisive role in the steadily progressing development of highly integrated systems. A new generation of thin flexible electronic systems arises. At Fraunhofer IZM, inline manufacturing processes for polymer electronic systems are developed on production type equipment. A low-cost process for

KARLHEINZ BOCK

2005-01-01

362

Linear Systems: Using Algebra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn to solve a system of linear equations (2 equations with 2 variables) by substitution and elimination methods. They also review the definitions of consistent (independent and dependent) and inconsistent systems, and associate the number of solutions of a system with them. Detailed instructions guide students in using their graphing calculators to solve the systems of equations.

2009-06-14

363

The New Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the definitive guide for the armchair astronomer, The New Solar System has established itself as the leading book on planetary science and solar system studies. Incorporating the latest knowledge of the solar system, a distinguished team of researchers, many of them Principal Investigators on NASA missions, explain the solar system with expert ease. The completely-revised text includes the most

J. Kelly Beatty; Carolyn Collins Petersen; Andrew Chaikin

1999-01-01

364

On the Systems Engineering and Management of Systems of Systems and Federations of Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the engineering of systems that are themselves comprised of other com- ponent systems, and where each of the component systems serves organizational and human purposes. These com- ponent purposes may be locally managed and optimized independently, or nearly so, of the objectives to be met by the composite system. There are a number of inherent

Andrew P. Sage; Christopher D. Cuppan

2001-01-01

365

Hypermedia Intelligent System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. In this article techniques are developed together for use of hypermedia systems with techniques of artificial intelligence. The hypermedia intelligent system (HIS) uses the language HTML and, consequently, such related systems as Java, JavaScript, VBScript, Shockwave, among others. A system servant can be used locally, in the Internet or in a intranet. This article presents the

Vincenzo De Roberto Junior; Emmanuel L. P. Passos; Fernando Hideo Fukuda; Elias Restum Antonio; Luiz Biondi Neto; Luiz Chiganer

2000-01-01

366

The IRIDIUM communications system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the IRIDIUM communication system, so-called because the system design originally consisted of 77 networked satellites, and the element iridium has the atomic number 77. The goal is to make instant global communications a reality. The system design now consists of 60 satellites, a system control facility, gateways, and subscriber units. Each of these components is

R. J. Leopold; A. Miller

1993-01-01

367

Microsphere insulation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new insulation system is provided that contains microspheres. This insulation system can be used to provide insulated panels and clamshells, and to insulate annular spaces around objects used to transfer, store, or transport cryogens and other temperature-sensitive materials. This insulation system provides better performance with reduced maintenance than current insulation systems.

Allen, Mark S. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

368

Precision Battery Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new battery management system for a lithium ion battery pack for more efficient operation and sturdy. The new system contains an embedded microcontroller to track the energy content of cell battery, optimize the output current, and to provide extensive feedback of all the measurements taken. This system sends all data to a telemetry system so that

J. A. Asumadu; Mohammed Haque; Helio Vogel; Charles Willards

2005-01-01

369

Battery management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery management system is described, comprising: a main battery; main battery charging system means coupled to the main battery for charging the main battery during operation of the main battery charging system means; at least one auxiliary battery; primary switching means for coupling the auxiliary battery to a parallel configuration with the main battery charging system means and with

Albright

1993-01-01

370

Computer Center: CIBE Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differentiates between computer systems and Computers in Biological Education (CIBE) systems (computer system intended for use in biological education). Describes several CIBE stand alone systems: single-user microcomputer; single-user microcomputer/video-disc; multiuser microcomputers; multiuser maxicomputer; and local and long distance computer…

Crovello, Theodore J.

1982-01-01

371

Distribution system grounding fundamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common medium voltage electric distribution system in the United States is multigrounded wye using a common neutral for both primary and secondary systems. The effective interconnection of the multigrounded wye neutral conductor with the earth ground reference is very important for safe and effective operation of these systems. Areas of concern include: public safety, operating personnel safety, system

Edward S. Thomas; Richard A. Barber; J. B. Dagenhart; A. L. Clapp

2004-01-01

372

Information system security assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the processes of information system design even as in continuous auditing from the reason of changes of application or its environment we are facing to information system security assessment. Reasons of assets are mainly securing information system from unauthorized usage same as to process information system by the correct data with high availability without data loose.

I. F. Mrazik; d. I. J. Kollar

2008-01-01

373

Lightning mapping system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) System is being implemented at KSC in Florida. The first operational use is expected in the late summer of 1991. The system is designed to map the location of in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning based on the time of arrival (TOA) of electromagnetic radiation. The system detects very high frequency (VHF) radiation and designed to map the volumetric extent of lightning. The system implements two independent antenna arrays to provide a fast data quality check, as necessary for a real-time warning system. The system performance goals and a comparison with a similar system implemented in the mid-1970's is made.

Lennon, C.; Maier, L.

1991-01-01

374

On generalized Volterra systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a large family of evidently integrable Hamiltonian systems which are generalizations of the KM system. The algorithm uses the root system of a complex simple Lie algebra. The Hamiltonian vector field is homogeneous cubic but in a number of cases a simple change of variables transforms such a system to a quadratic Lotka-Volterra system. We present in detail all such systems in the cases of A3, A4 and we also give some examples from higher dimensions. We classify all possible Lotka-Volterra systems that arise via this algorithm in the An case.

Charalambides, S. A.; Damianou, P. A.; Evripidou, C. A.

2015-01-01

375

Evolvable synthetic neural system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

376

Photovoltaic systems and applications  

SciTech Connect

Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

Not Available

1982-01-01

377

Data Acquisition Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology developed during a joint research program with Langley and Kinetic Systems Corporation led to Kinetic Systems' production of a high speed Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) data acquisition system. The study, which involved the use of CAMAC equipment applied to flight simulation, significantly improved the company's technical capability and produced new applications. With Digital Equipment Corporation, Kinetic Systems is marketing the system to government and private companies for flight simulation, fusion research, turbine testing, steelmaking, etc.

1989-01-01

378

Automated Pilot Advisory System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Automated Pilot Advisory System (APAS) was developed and operationally tested to demonstrate the concept that low cost automated systems can provide air traffic and aviation weather advisory information at high density uncontrolled airports. The system was designed to enhance the see and be seen rule of flight, and pilots who used the system preferred it over the self announcement system presently used at uncontrolled airports.

Parks, J. L., Jr.; Haidt, J. G.

1981-01-01

379

Fluid infusion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance testing carried out in the development of the prototype zero-g fluid infusion system is described and summarized. Engineering tests were performed in the course of development, both on the original breadboard device and on the prototype system. This testing was aimed at establishing baseline system performance parameters and facilitating improvements. Acceptance testing was then performed on the prototype system to verify functional performance. Acceptance testing included a demonstration of the fluid infusion system on a laboratory animal.

1974-01-01

380

Residential photovoltaic system designs  

SciTech Connect

A project to develop Residential Photovoltaic Systems has begun at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory with the construction and testing of five Prototype Systems. All of these systems utilize a roof-mounted photovoltaic array and allow excess solar-generated electric energy to be fed back to the local utility grid, eliminating the need for on-site storage. Residential photovoltaic system design issues are discussed and specific features of the five Prototype Systems now under test are presented.

Russell, M. C.

1981-01-01

381

Rf systems for RHIC  

SciTech Connect

The RHIC rf systems must capture the injected beam, accelerate it through transition to top energy, shorten the bunches prior to rebucketing, and store the beam for 10 hours in the presence of strong intra-beam scattering. These different functions are met by three independent systems. An accelerating system at 26.7 Mhz (h = 342), a storage system at 196.1 MHz (h = 2508), and a wideband system for the damping of injection efforts.

Rose, J.; Brodowski, J.; Connolly, R.; Deng, D.P.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Pirkl, W.; Ratti, A.

1995-05-01

382

Solar photovoltaic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Department of Energy's photovoltaic program is outlined. The main objective of the program is the development of low cost reliable terrestrial photovoltaic systems. A second objective is to foster widespread use of the system in residential, industrial and commercial application. The system is reviewed by examining each component; silicon solar cell, silicon solar cell modules, advanced development modules and power systems. Cost and applications of the system are discussed.

Forney, R. G.

1978-01-01

383

Sona Systems, Ltd. EXPERIMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM  

E-print Network

. As a licensee of the software, you are granted a right to copy this documentation, modify it, and distribute of your organization. You will find this documentation covers every feature of the software, while you maySona Systems, Ltd. EXPERIMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Master Documentation Set Version 2.65 Copyright

Cooper, Brenton G.

384

Efficient Evaluation System for Learning Management Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A learning management system (LMS) provides the platform for web-based learning environment by enabling the management, delivery, tracking of learning, testing, communication, registration process and scheduling. There are many LMS systems on the market that can be obtained for free or through payment. It has now become an important task to choose…

Cavus, Nadire

2009-01-01

385

Advanced information processing system: Local system services  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a multi-computer architecture composed of hardware and software building blocks that can be configured to meet a broad range of application requirements. The hardware building blocks are fault-tolerant, general-purpose computers, fault-and damage-tolerant networks (both computer and input/output), and interfaces between the networks and the computers. The software building blocks are the major software functions: local system services, input/output, system services, inter-computer system services, and the system manager. The foundation of the local system services is an operating system with the functions required for a traditional real-time multi-tasking computer, such as task scheduling, inter-task communication, memory management, interrupt handling, and time maintenance. Resting on this foundation are the redundancy management functions necessary in a redundant computer and the status reporting functions required for an operator interface. The functional requirements, functional design and detailed specifications for all the local system services are documented.

Burkhardt, Laura; Alger, Linda; Whittredge, Roy; Stasiowski, Peter

1989-01-01

386

On evolutionary systems.  

PubMed

This paper develops a metatheoretical framework for understanding evolutionary systems (systems that develop in ways that increase their own variety). The framework addresses shortcomings seen in other popular systems theories. It concerns both living and nonliving systems, and proposes a metahierarchy of hierarchical systems. Thus, it potentially addresses systems at all descriptive levels. We restrict our definition of system to that of a core system whose parts have a different ontological status than the system, and characterize the core system in terms of five global properties: minimal length interval, minimal time interval, system cycle, total receptive capacity, and system potential. We propose two principles through the interaction of which evolutionary systems develop. The Principle of Combinatorial Expansion describes how a core system realizes its developmental potential through a process of progressive differentiation of the single primal state up to a limit stage. The Principle of Generative Condensation describes how the components of the last stage of combinatorial expansion condense and become the environment for and components of new, enriched systems. The early evolution of the Universe after the "big bang" is discussed in light of these ideas as an example of the application of the framework. PMID:3689299

Alvarez de Lorenzana, J M; Ward, L M

1987-01-01

387

System identification for passive linear quantum systems  

E-print Network

System identification is a key enabling component for the implementation of quantum technologies, including quantum control. In this paper, we consider the class of passive linear input-output systems, and investigate several basic questions: (1) which parameters can be identified? (2) Given sufficient input-output data, how do we reconstruct system parameters? (3) How can we optimize the estimation precision by preparing appropriate input states and performing measurements on the output? We show that minimal systems can be identified up to a unitary transformation on the modes, and systems satisfying a Hamiltonian connectivity condition called "infecting" are completely identifiable. We propose a frequency domain design based on a Fisher information criterion, for optimizing the estimation precision for coherent input state. As a consequence of the unitarity of the transfer function, we show that the Heisenberg limit with respect to the input energy can be achieved using non-classical input states.

Madalin Guta; Naoki Yamamoto

2014-08-27

388

NASA Systems Engineering Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive. Superseded by: NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev 1 (20080008301).

Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Mcduffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

1995-01-01

389

Open systems storage platforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The building blocks for an open storage system includes a system platform, a selection of storage devices and interfaces, system software, and storage applications CONVEX storage systems are based on the DS Series Data Server systems. These systems are a variant of the C3200 supercomputer with expanded I/O capabilities. These systems support a variety of medium and high speed interfaces to networks and peripherals. System software is provided in the form of ConvexOS, a POSIX compliant derivative of 4.3BSD UNIX. Storage applications include products such as UNITREE and EMASS. With the DS Series of storage systems, Convex has developed a set of products which provide open system solutions for storage management applications. The systems are highly modular, assembled from off the shelf components with industry standard interfaces. The C Series system architecture provides a stable base, with the performance and reliability of a general purpose platform. This combination of a proven system architecture with a variety of choices in peripherals and application software allows wide flexibility in configurations, and delivers the benefits of open systems to the mass storage world.

Collins, Kirby

1992-01-01

390

Metrics for Multiagent Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Multiagent System (MAS) is a software paradigm for building large scale intelligent distributed systems. Increasingly these systems are being deployed on handheld computing devices that rely on non-traditional communications mediums such as mobile ad hoc networks and satellite links. These systems present new challenges for computer scientists in describing system performance and analyzing competing systems. This chapter surveys existing metrics that can be used to describe MASs and related components. A framework for analyzing MASs is provided and an example of how this framework might be employed is given for the domain of distributed constraint reasoning.

Lass, Robert N.; Sultanik, Evan A.; Regli, William C.

391

Space shuttle avionics system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle avionics system, which was conceived in the early 1970's and became operational in the 1980's represents a significant advancement of avionics system technology in the areas of systems and redundacy management, digital data base technology, flight software, flight control integration, digital fly-by-wire technology, crew display interface, and operational concepts. The origins and the evolution of the system are traced; the requirements, the constraints, and other factors which led to the final configuration are outlined; and the functional operation of the system is described. An overall system block diagram is included.

Hanaway, John F.; Moorehead, Robert W.

1989-01-01

392

Precision Pointing System Development  

SciTech Connect

The development of precision pointing systems has been underway in Sandia's Electronic Systems Center for over thirty years. Important areas of emphasis are synthetic aperture radars and optical reconnaissance systems. Most applications are in the aerospace arena, with host vehicles including rockets, satellites, and manned and unmanned aircraft. Systems have been used on defense-related missions throughout the world. Presently in development are pointing systems with accuracy goals in the nanoradian regime. Future activity will include efforts to dramatically reduce system size and weight through measures such as the incorporation of advanced materials and MEMS inertial sensors.

BUGOS, ROBERT M.

2003-03-01

393

MLS: Airplane system modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis, modeling, and simulations were conducted as part of a multiyear investigation of the more important airplane-system-related items of the microwave landing system (MLS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the airplane RF system, including the antenna radiation distribution, the cabling options from the antenna to the receiver, and the overall impact of the airborne system gains and losses upon the direct-path signal structure. In addition, effort was expended toward determining the impact of the MLS upon the airplane flight management system and developing the initial stages of a fast-time MLS automatic control system simulation model. Results ot these studies are presented.

Thompson, A. D.; Stapleton, B. P.; Walen, D. B.; Rieder, P. F.; Moss, D. G.

1981-01-01

394

The Saturn System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about systems and how they apply to Saturn. Learners will apply the concept of a system to learning about the Saturn system. They work with a ready-made scale diagram of the Saturn system, including the planet, rings, and moons. They then complete a Venn diagram that compares and contrasts the Saturn and Earth–Moon systems in terms of the systems’ components and interactions. Includes background information, procedure, and extension. This is lesson 1 of 6 in the Saturn Educators Guide.

395

Flash evaporator systems test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flash evaporator heat rejection system representative of that proposed for the space shuttle orbiter underwent extensive system testing at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to determine its operational suitability and to establish system performance/operational characteristics for use in the shuttle system. During the tests the evaporator system demonstrated its suitability to meet the shuttle requirements by: (1) efficient operation with 90 to 95% water evaporation efficiency, (2) control of outlet temperature to 40 + or - 2 F for partial heat load operation, (3) stability of control system for rapid changes in Freon inlet temperature, and (4) repeated dormant-to-active device operation without any startup procedures.

Dietz, J. B.

1976-01-01

396

Inertial navigation systems analysis.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume offers the avionic systems engineer a fundamental exposition of the mechanization and error analysis of inertial navigation systems. While the material is applicable to spacecraft and undersea navigation, emphasis is placed upon terrestrial applications on or slightly above the earth's surface. As a result, practical considerations are geared toward those aircraft navigation systems of particular current interest. Extensive use is made of perturbation techniques to develop linearized system equations, whose solutions closely approximate those obtained by nonlinear differential equations. A unified error analysis technique is developed that is applicable to virtually all system configurations. The technique provides a greatly simplified method for comparing the performance of competing system configurations.

Britting, K. R.

1971-01-01

397

Electric power system supervisory and control system for the 21 century-CC-2000 system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power system supervisory and control system plays a more and more important role in the security and economic operation of power systems. The power system supervisory and control system includes both energy management systems (EMS) and distribution management systems (DMS), they are employed in transmission system and distributions systems respectively. In this paper the design philosophy of CC-2000 EMS\\/DMD

Wu Yusheng; Wu Xingping; Fan Tao; Fu Shuti; Dong Chunhui; Wang Wen; Sun Chao; Li Lixin

2000-01-01

398

SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES).

T. Wilson; R. Novotny

1999-11-22

399

Observability of complex systems  

PubMed Central

A quantitative description of a complex system is inherently limited by our ability to estimate the system’s internal state from experimentally accessible outputs. Although the simultaneous measurement of all internal variables, like all metabolite concentrations in a cell, offers a complete description of a system’s state, in practice experimental access is limited to only a subset of variables, or sensors. A system is called observable if we can reconstruct the system’s complete internal state from its outputs. Here, we adopt a graphical approach derived from the dynamical laws that govern a system to determine the sensors that are necessary to reconstruct the full internal state of a complex system. We apply this approach to biochemical reaction systems, finding that the identified sensors are not only necessary but also sufficient for observability. The developed approach can also identify the optimal sensors for target or partial observability, helping us reconstruct selected state variables from appropriately chosen outputs, a prerequisite for optimal biomarker design. Given the fundamental role observability plays in complex systems, these results offer avenues to systematically explore the dynamics of a wide range of natural, technological and socioeconomic systems. PMID:23359701

Liu, Yang-Yu; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Barabási, Albert-László

2013-01-01

400

NASA's SPICE System Models the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SPICE is NASA's multimission, multidiscipline information system for assembling, distributing, archiving, and accessing space science geometry and related data used by scientists and engineers for mission design and mission evaluation, detailed observation planning, mission operations, and science data analysis.

Acton, Charles

1996-01-01

401

UNIFORM DATA SYSTEM (UDS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This data collection system collects uniformly-defined information for the major BPHC grant programs. The system yields consistent information on patient characteristics and clinical conditions. The UDS provides data on services, site locations, delivery methods, staffing, client...

402

Information retrieval system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generalized information storage and retrieval system capable of generating and maintaining a file, gathering statistics, sorting output, and generating final reports for output is reviewed. File generation and file maintenance programs written for the system are general purpose routines.

Berg, R. F.; Holcomb, J. E.; Kelroy, E. A.; Levine, D. A.; Mee, C., III

1970-01-01

403

Visual systems developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in visual system technology which fulfill the requirements of field of view (FOV) and resolution are examined. The capabilities of modern visual systems are discussed in terms of an image generator that produces the visual scene and a display system that presents the visual scene to the pilot. The improved training effectiveness achieved with area-of-interest techniques, in particular the modular digital image generator, is evaluated. Consideration is given to image generator requirements for training effectiveness and area-of-interest displays, and display system requirements for training effectiveness. A eye-slaved projected raster inset visual system that provides a high-resolution display area within a wide FOV background of low resolution has been developed. The visual system consists of a helmet-mounted occulometer system, a foveal projection system, peripheral projectors, merge electronics, distortion correction electronics, and a high gain dome screen; the functions of these components are described.

Haswell, M. R.

404

Intensive care alarm system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inductive loop has been added to commercially available call system fitted with earphone receiver. System transmits high frequency signals to nurse's receiver to announce patient's need for help without disturbing others.

Christensen, J. L.; Herbert, A. L.

1973-01-01

405

Test processing system (SEE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SEE data processing system, developed in 1985, manages and process test results. General information is provided on the SEE system: objectives, characteristics, basic principles, general organization, and operation. Full documentation is accessible by computer using the HELP SEE command.

Gaulene, P.

1986-01-01

406

Human Balance System  

MedlinePLUS

... support. 1 A properly functioning balance system allows humans to see clearly while moving, identify orientation with ... Dr. Daniel Merfeld, Massachusettes Eye & Ear Infirmary The human balance system involves a complex set of sensorimotor- ...

407

Absorption heat pump system  

DOEpatents

The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01

408

Earth System History Announcements  

E-print Network

altogether in the snakes. · With the exception of the crocodiles, the Reptile circulatory system still hasEarth System History GEOL 1020 [36] Announcements Enter the Mesozoic Age of the dinosaurs November

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

409

JT-60 Control System  

SciTech Connect

The present status of the JT-60U control system is reported including its original design concept, the progress of the system, and various modifications since the JT-60 upgrade. This control system has features of a functionally distributed and hierarchical structure, using CAMAC interfaces initially, which have been replaced by versatile module Europe (VME)-bus interfaces, and a protective interlock system composed of both software and hard-wired interlock logics. Plant monitoring and control are performed by efficient data communication through CAMAC highways and Ethernet with TCP/IP protocols. Sequential control of plasma discharges is executed by a combination of a remodeled VME-bus system and a timing system. A real-time plasma control system and a human interface system have been continuously modified corresponding to the progress of JT-60U experiments.

Yonekawa, I.; Kawamata, Y.; Totsuka, T.; Akasaka, H.; Sueoka, M.; Kurihara, K.; Kimura, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

2002-09-15

410

Avian respiratory system disorders  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

Olsen, G.H.

1989-01-01

411

STRATEGIC FOCUS: Sustainable Systems  

E-print Network

in solar power generation, controls, and management as well as in alternate and new energy re- sources1010 STRATEGIC FOCUS: Sustainable Systems Biology doctoral student Tanya Lubansky uses quan and quantitative ecologists. Sustainable Systems in NJIT's Educational Programs Educational offerings

412

Agricultural Information Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A listing of 42 operational and experimental online agricultural information systems in the United States is provided, noting system name, sponsoring organization, location, information and services provided, and key contact person and phone number. (EJS)

Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 1983

1983-01-01

413

Biomedical recording system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System collects medical data directly from patients and permanently records and displays several parameters - electrocardiograph, electroencephalograph, heart rate, respiration rate, auscultatory blood pressure, leg circumference changes, body temperature, and time. Components and operation of the system are described.

Vick, H. A.

1970-01-01

414

All Systems Are Go  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your knowledge of the digestive, respiratory, and other human body systems in this interactive game from Kinetic City. Race the clock to put Arnold's organs back into his body one system at a time.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2007-08-09

415

Systems in Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Undergraduate elementary education majors participate in an interdisciplinary course focused on modeling scientific systems. Students' applications of three artificial intelligence concepts used in modeling scientific systems were investigated before and

Charles L. Karr

2003-03-01

416

Pneumonia - weakened immune system  

MedlinePLUS

... fighting off infection because of problems with the immune system. This type of disease is called "pneumonia in ... People whose immune system is not working well are less able to fight off germs. This makes them prone to infections from ...

417

Environmental Management System Plan  

E-print Network

Integrated Environment, Health and Program Elements Environmental ManagementEnvironmental Management System Fiscal Year Improve (EMP classification) IntegratedEnvironmental Management System Plan Executive Summary This Plan is integrated

Fox, Robert

2009-01-01

418

Human Body Systems Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, studens are presented with a body system and a variety of organs. Students drag and drop all the organs that belong in that particular body system to a body who is missing his parts.

ScienceNetLinks.org

2010-06-02

419

Double Degenerate Binary Systems  

SciTech Connect

In this study, angular momentum loss via gravitational radiation in double degenerate binary (DDB)systems (NS + NS, NS + WD, WD + WD, and AM CVn) is studied. Energy loss by gravitational waves has been estimated for each type of systems.

Yakut, K. [University of Ege, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, 35100-Izmir (Turkey)

2011-09-21

420

Semiotic labelled deductive systems  

SciTech Connect

We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

421

System for rapid subtitling  

E-print Network

A system for rapid subtitling of audiovisual sequences was developed, and evaluated. This new system resulted in average time-savings of 50% over the previous work in the field. To subtitle a 27-minute English lecture, ...

Leonard, Sean Joseph

2005-01-01

422

Modular optical detector system  

DOEpatents

A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

Horn, Brent A. (Livermore, CA); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

2006-02-14

423

Fluids Systems Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf contains a syllabus for a course on fluids systems as part of the Aerospace Technology Program. Topics include fluid power standards, hydraulic power, pneumatic power, hypergolic and cryogenic flight systems, and hypergolic loading.

424

School System Empires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most educational systems are resistant to change, there are some features of the community, of the teachers, of government, and of the system that enable one to predict the likelihood of an innovation being accepted and implemented. (AL)

Huberman, Michael

1972-01-01

425

Tharsis Basin Aquifer System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a QuickTime movie animating an enormous ancient drainage basin and aquifer system in the Tharsis region of Mars. The movie shows the geological stages of the aquifer system, as reported in a University of Arizona study.

Arizona, University O.; Spaceref.com

426

Silver recovery system data  

SciTech Connect

In August of 1990 the Savannah River Site Photography Group began testing on a different type of silver recovery system. This paper describes the baseline study and the different phases of installation and testing of the system.

Boulineau, B.

1991-08-26

427

Urban organizational systems  

E-print Network

General systems theory provides a conceptual framework for the integration of knowledge from a wide variety of specialized fields. Systems theory serves to synthesize, reconcile, and integrate knowledge making it possible ...

Morog, Joseph V

1981-01-01

428

User Registration Systems for Distributed Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) systems have evolved over the years, most of the EOSDIS data are now available to users via anonymous on-line access. Although the changes have improved the dissemination efficiency of earth science data, the anonymous access has made it difficult to characterize users, capture metrics on the value of EOSDIS and provide customized services that benefit users. As the number of web-based applications continues to grow, data centers and application providers have implemented their own user registration systems and provided new tools and interfaces for their registered users. This has led to the creation of independent registration systems for accessing data and interacting with online tools and services. The user profile information maintained at each of these registration systems is not consistent and the registration enforcement varies by system as well. This problem is in no way unique to EOSDIS and represents a general challenge to the distributed computing community. In a study done in 2007(http://www2007.org/papers/paper620.pd), the average user has approximately 7 passwords for about 25 accounts and enters a password 8 times a day. These numbers have only increased in the last three years. To try and address this, a number of solutions have been offered including Single Sign-On solutions using a common backend like Microsoft Active Directory or an LDAP server, trust based identity providers like OpenID, and various forms of authorization delegation like OAuth or SAML/XACML. This talk discusses the differences between authentication and authorization, the state of the more popular user registration solutions available for distributed use, and some of the technical and policy drivers that need to be considered when incorporating a user registration system into your application.

Murphy, K. J.; Cechini, M.; Pilone, D.; Mitchell, A.

2010-12-01

429

Enabling Systems Biology Approaches Through Microfabricated Systems  

PubMed Central

With the experimental tools and knowledge that have accrued from a long history of reductionist biology, we can now start to put the pieces together and begin to understand how biological systems function as an integrated whole. Here, we describe how microfabricated tools have demonstrated promise in addressing experimental challenges in throughput, resolution and sensitivity to support systems-based approaches to biological understanding. PMID:23984862

Zhan, Mei; Chingozha, Loice; Lu, Hang

2014-01-01

430

Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. Management implies storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation. ISHM is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this chapter, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an ISHM capability relevant to intelligent systems. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system, emphasizing an advance toward an on-board, autonomous capability. Both ground-based and on-board ISHM capabilities are addressed. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

2011-01-01

431

System and method for creating expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system and method provides for the creation of a highly graphical expert system without the need for programming in code. An expert system is created by initially building a data interface, defining appropriate Mission, User-Defined, Inferred, and externally-generated GenSAA (EGG) data variables whose data values will be updated and input into the expert system. Next, rules of the expert system are created by building appropriate conditions of the rules which must be satisfied and then by building appropriate actions of rules which are to be executed upon corresponding conditions being satisfied. Finally, an appropriate user interface is built which can be highly graphical in nature and which can include appropriate message display and/or modification of display characteristics of a graphical display object, to visually alert a user of the expert system of varying data values, upon conditions of a created rule being satisfied. The data interface building, rule building, and user interface building are done in an efficient manner and can be created without the need for programming in code.

Hughes, Peter M. (Inventor); Luczak, Edward C. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

432

Space power systems technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reported here is a series of studies which examine several potential catalysts and electrodes for some fuel cell systems, some materials for space applications, and mathematical modeling and performance predictions for some solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers. The fuel cell systems have a potential for terrestrial applications in addition to solar energy conversion in space applications. Catalysts and electrodes for phosphoric acid fuel cell systems and for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell and electrolyzer systems were examined.

Coulman, George A.

1994-01-01

433

Space shuttle revitalization system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle air revitalization system is discussed. The sequential steps in loop closure are examined and a schematic outline of the regenerative air revitalization system is presented. Carbon dioxide reduction subsystem concepts are compared. Schemes are drawn for: static feedwater electrolysis cell, solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis cell, air revitalization system, nitrogen generation reactions, nitrogen subsystem staging, vapor compression distillation subsystem, thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation subsystem, catalytic distillation water reclamation subsystem, and space shuttle solid waste management system.

Quattrone, P. D.

1985-01-01

434

Portable Dental System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable dental system provides dental care in isolated communities. System includes a patient's chair and a dentist's stool, an X-ray machine and a power unit, all of which fold into compact packages. A large yellow "pumpkin" is a collapsible compressed air tank. Portable system has been used successfully in South America in out of the way communities with this back-packable system, and in American nursing homes. This product is no longer manufactured.

1980-01-01

435

Microwave Landing System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) program is a joint DOT\\/DOD\\/NASA effort to implement a common civil\\/military precision landing system to replace the current Instrument Landing System (ILS). The MLS will be capable of providing precision landing guidance down to Category III minimum while allowing for complex approach paths in both the horizontal and vertical planes. The system is based

Thomas E. Evans

1986-01-01

436

Propulsion system needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The needs of the designer of a solid core nuclear rocket engine are discussed. Some of the topics covered include: (1) a flight thrust module/feed system module assembly; (2) a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR), expander cycle, dual T/P; (3) turbopump operating conditions; (4) typical system parameters; (5) growth capability composite fuel elements; (6) a NTR radiation cooled nozzle extension; (7) a NFS-3B Feed System; and (8) a NTR Integrated Pneumatic-Fluidics Control System.

Gunn, Stanley

1991-01-01

437

Goddard Ground System Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center's work in providing the Ground System Infrastructure to allow for standard interfaces, and allow for a mix of heritage and new components. This software has been used by NASA and other Government users. Telemetry and command services are also provided as are mission planning and scheduling systems. Other areas that the presentation covers are work on trending systems, and data management system.

Liu, Ben

2009-01-01

438

Systems of Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is to help you practice solving systems of equations! Begin by playing a game of Jeopardy. This is for 2 players. You can select easy or hard problems for different point values. USE SCRATCH PAPER! Systems Jeopardy! Next, play some systems basketball. This is also for 2 players and again, you will need to USE SCRATCH PAPER! Systems Hoop Shoot These next 2 links are ...

hbinggeli

2011-01-06

439

CCD digital radiography system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amorphous silicon flat-panel detector is the mainstream used in digital radiography (DR) system. In latest years, scintillation screen coupled with CCD DR is becoming more popular in hospital. Compared with traditional amorphous silicon DR, CCD-DR has better spatial resolution and has little radiation damage. It is inexpensive and can be operated easily. In this paper, A kind of CCD based DR system is developed. We describe the construction of the system, the system performances and experiment results.

Wang, Yi; Kang, Xi; Li, Yuanjing; Cheng, Jianping; Hou, Yafei; Han, Haiwei

2009-07-01

440

What is Systems Biology?  

PubMed Central

Systems biology is increasingly popular, but to many biologists it remains unclear what this new discipline actually encompasses. This brief personal perspective starts by outlining the asthetic qualities that motivate systems biologists, discusses which activities do not belong to the core of systems biology, and finally explores the crucial link with synthetic biology. It concludes by attempting to define systems biology as the research endeavor that aims at providing the scientific foundation for successful synthetic biology. PMID:21423352

Breitling, Rainer

2010-01-01

441

MPD arcjet system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status and future prospects of the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arcjet system are described. Recent research activities on the chemical rocket and electric propulsion are discussed. The characteristics of various MPD arcjet systems including the Komaba-I system developed by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science of the Tokyo University are analyzed. The applications of the MPD arcjet system to the satellite test, lunar mission, free flyer test, space station test, and heliospheric exploration are discussed.

Kuriki, K.

1987-01-01

442

Earth System Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding climate requires understanding that Earth is a holistic system of dynamic, interacting components. Furthermore, understanding how the Earth system works is essential for making informed decisions about how to manage, protect, and sustain our planet and its natural resources. This EarthLabs module helps students understand their world as an interconnected living system. Students learn to identify the parts of the Earth system and the processes that connect them, starting locally and gradually expanding their view to regional and global scales.

Bardar, Erin; Haddad, Nick

443

Visual Alert System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A visual alert system resulted from circuitry developed by Applied Cybernetics Systems for Langley as part of a space related telemetry system. James Campman, Applied Cybernetics president, left the company and founded Grace Industries, Inc. to manufacture security devices based on the Langley technology. His visual alert system combines visual and audible alerts for hearing impaired people. The company also manufactures an arson detection device called the electronic nose, and is currently researching additional applications of the NASA technology.

1985-01-01

444

Intelligent Temperature Detecting System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent temperature detecting system has been widely used in military and civil fields. A novel intelligent temperature detecting system based on AT89S52 and DS18B20 is designed and implemented in this paper. The system uses AT89S52 to control the whole temperature detecting system, the detected temperature can be not only displayed in LCM1602 liquid crystal module, but also sent to PC

Jie Li; Qiao Jiang; Xi-ning Yu; Ying Du

2010-01-01

445

Digestive and Circulatory System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are key parts in the Circulatory and Digestive System? First, read the Digestive System Text. After reading the text, write the steps of digestion if you were eating a pizza. Write two interesting facts. Next, read the Text about Circulatory System. Describe what you learned. Write two interesting facts. Next, watch and listen to the Circulatory System Song. Tell me what you liked or did not like about the song. Did it help you ...

Kuenzli, Ms.

2010-03-25

446

Implant identification system.  

PubMed

Osseointegrated oral implantology has become a widespread option of dental care. A universal system of implant identification is required to enable dentists, patients and participating third parties to accurately identify a particular implant and historically record and follow its bio-clinical status. A simple system, based on the existing FDI two-digit tooth identification system is presented. PMID:10858743

Colgan, P J

1999-04-01

447

AIR QUALITY MONITORING SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of low concentration of air pollution, like cigarette smoke, cooking fumes, etc. is possible with the combination of an air quality sensor and data acquisition system. In present paper is presented approach for design and implementation of air quality monitoring system based on tin dioxide gas sensor, integrated temperature and humidity sensors, portable modular data acquisition system and graphical

Boyanka Marinova Nikolova; Marin Berov Marinov; Georgi Todorov Nikolov

448

The KLOE trigger system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double-level trigger system has been developed for the KLOE experiment. Custom electronics asserts a trigger in a 2?s decision time. The decision is based on the combined information of the electromagnetic calorimeter and the drift chamber. The entire trigger system is continuously monitored, and data flowing from the trigger system have allowed both an efficient online monitoring of the

M. Adinolfi; A. Aloisio; F. Ambrosino; A. Andryakov; A. Antonelli; M. Antonelli; F. Anulli; C. Bacci; A. Bankamp; G. Barbiellini; F. Bellini; G. Bencivenni; S. Bertolucci; C. Bini; C. Bloise; V. Bocci; F. Bossi; P. Branchini; S. A. Bulychjov; G. Cabibbo; A. Calcaterra; R. Caloi; P. Campana; G. Capon; G. Carboni; A. Cardini; M. Casarsa; G. Cataldi; F. Ceradini; F. Cervelli; F. Cevenini; G. Chiefari; P. Ciambrone; S. Conetti; S. Conticelli; E. De Lucia; G. De Robertis; R. De Sangro; P. De Simone; G. De Zorzi; S. Dell’Agnello; E. Denig; A. Di Domenico; C. Di Donato; S. Di Falco; A. Doria; E. Drago; V. Elia; O. Erriquez; A. Farilla; G. Felici; A. Ferrari; M. L. Ferrer; G. Finocchiaro; C. Forti; A. Franceschi; P. Franzini; M. L. Gao; C. Gatti; P. Gauzzi; S. Giovannella; V. Golovatyuk; E. Gorini; F. Grancagnolo; W. Grandegger; E. Graziani; P. Guarnaccia; U. v. Hagel; H. G. Han; S. W. Han; X. Huang; M. Incagli; L. Ingrosso; Y. Y. Jang; W. Kim; W. Kluge; V. Kulikov; F. Lacava; G. Lanfranchi; J. Lee-Franzini; F. Lomtadze; C. Luisi; C. S. Mao; M. Martemianov; M. Matsyuk; W. Mei; L. Merola; R. Messi; S. Miscetti; A. Moalem; S. Moccia; M. Moulson; S. Mueller; F. Murtas; M. Napolitano; A. Nedosekin; M. Panareo; L. Pacciani; P. Pagès; M. Palutan; L. Paoluzi; E. Pasqualucci; L. Passalacqua; M. Passaseo; A. Passeri; V. Patera; E. Petrolo; G. Petrucci; D. Picca; G. Pirozzi; C. Pistillo; M. Pollack; L. Pontecorvo; M. Primavera; F. Ruggieri; P. Santangelo; E. Santovetti; G. Saracino; R. D. Schamberger; C. Schwick; B. Sciascia; A. Sciubba; F. Scuri; I. Sfiligoi; J. Shan; P. Silano; T. Spadaro; S. Spagnolo; E. Spiriti; C. Stanescu; G. L. Tong; L. Tortora; E. Valente; P. Valente; B. Valeriani; G. Venanzoni; S. Veneziano; Y. Wu; Y. G. Xie; P. P. Zhao; Y. Zhou

2001-01-01

449

PERMIT COMPLIANCE SYSTEM (PCS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Permit Compliance System (PCS) is a computerized management information system which contains data on National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit-holding facilities. PCS keeps extensive records on more than 65,000 active water-discharge permits on sites loc...

450

WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann  

E-print Network

, N. K. (1998). Control of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants using pollutant concentrationMODELLING OF WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann Lyngby 1999 ATV Erhvervsforskerprojekt EF 623 IMM. (1999). Grey-box modelling of pollutant loads from a sewer system. UrbanWater, 1(1), 71­78. Paper D

451

WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann  

E-print Network

., and Poulsen, N. K. (1998). Control of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants using pollutantMODELLING OF WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann Lyngby 1999 ATV Erhvervsforskerprojekt EF 623 IMM., and Poulsen, N. K. (1999). Grey­box modelling of pollutant loads from a sewer system. UrbanWater, 1(1), 71

452

Power System Dynamic Equivalents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for determining a simplified equivalent mathematical representation of portions of a power system for transient stability analysis. The method leads to equations that do not correspond directly to a system composed of normal power system components. Conditions under which it is possible to obtain such an equivalent are given, and the results of applying the

Albert Chang; Mahmood Adibi

1970-01-01

453

Desiccant humidity control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A regenerable sorbent system was investigated for controlling the humidity and carbon dioxide concentration of the space shuttle cabin atmosphere. The sorbents considered for water and carbon dioxide removal were silica gel and molecular sieves. Bed optimization and preliminary system design are discussed along with system optimization studies and weight penalites.

Amazeen, J. (editor)

1973-01-01

454

An Internet accounting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Internet accounting system, where transactions are entered on the spot and business data created by transactions are distributed to appropriate staff of the company, becomes more important for companies operating worldwide. The Internet accounting system described in this paper consists of a three-tier structure: Web, application and database servers. The accounting system provides complete accounting functions including general ledger,

Kenji Ohmori

2003-01-01

455

System integration report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several areas that arise from the system integration issue were examined. Intersystem analysis is discussed as it relates to software development, shared data bases and interfaces between TEMPUS and PLAID, shaded graphics rendering systems, object design (BUILD), the TEMPUS animation system, anthropometric lab integration, ongoing TEMPUS support and maintenance, and the impact of UNIX and local workstations on the OSDS environment.

Badler, N. I.; Korein, J. D.; Meyer, C.; Manoochehri, K.; Rovins, J.; Beale, J.; Barr, B.

1985-01-01

456

Hybrid Mechanical Systems  

E-print Network

We discuss hybrid systems in which a mechanical oscillator is coupled to another (microscopic) quantum system, such as trapped atoms or ions, solid-state spin qubits, or superconducting devices. We summarize and compare different coupling schemes and describe first experimental implementations. Hybrid mechanical systems enable new approaches to quantum control of mechanical objects, precision sensing, and quantum information processing.

Philipp Treutlein; Claudiu Genes; Klemens Hammerer; Martino Poggio; Peter Rabl

2015-01-06

457

Environmental data qualification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integrated Environmental Data Management System (IEDMS) is a PC-based system that can support environmental investigations from their design stage and throughout the duration of the study. The system integrates data originating from the Sampling and Analysis Plan, field data and analytical findings. The IEDMS automated features include sampling guidance forms, barcoded sample labels and tags, field and analytical forms

O. V. Hester; M. R. Groh

1989-01-01

458

Microelectronics bioinstrumentation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microelectronic bioinstrumentation systems to be employed in the Cardiovascular Deconditioning Program were developed. Implantable telemetry systems for long-term monitoring of animals on earth were designed to collect physiological data necessary for the understanding of the mechanisms of cardiovascular deconditioning. In-flight instrumentation systems, microelectronic instruments, and RF powering techniques for other life science experiments in the NASA program were studied.

Ko, W. H.

1977-01-01

459

Information extraction system  

DOEpatents

An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

2014-05-13

460

Astromag data system concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A feasible, top-level data system is defined that could accomplish and support the Astromag Data System functions and interfaces necessary to support the scientific objectives of Astromag. This data system must also be able to function in the environment of the Space Station Freedom Manned Base (SSFMB) and other anticipated NASA elements.

Roos, Darrell; Cheng, Chieh-San; Newsome, Penny; Nath, Nitya

1989-01-01

461

Systems Science and Engineering  

E-print Network

447 Systems Science and Industrial Engineering UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS The bachelor of science with industry. The primary goal is to prepare the industrial and systems engineering bachelor of science in industrial and systems engineering and computer science. For details, students should contact the Watson

Suzuki, Masatsugu

462

biological and health systems  

E-print Network

school of biological and health systems engineering annual report #12;biological and health systems graduate 120 2013 research funding research expenditures $4.41M #12;Dear friends and colleagues, I am happy to share with you news and updates about the School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering at Arizona

Shumway, John

463

IDC System Specification Document.  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

Clifford, David J.

2014-12-01

464

Rural Intelligent Transportation Systems  

E-print Network

Rural Intelligent Transportation Systems In a technical session at the 2011 NACE conference, Dennis Foderberg of SEH Inc. discussed intelligent transportation systems (ITS) developed by SEH in collaboration System--records data on vehicle behavior that can be analyzed and used as a design input. Design

Minnesota, University of

465

Evaluating Recommender Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recommender systems are considered as an answer to the information overload in a Web environment. Such systems recommend items (movies, music, books, news, web pages, etc.) that the user should be interested in. Collaborative filtering recommender systems have a huge success in commercial applications. The sales in these applications follow a power law distribution. However, with the increase of the

Zied Zaier; Robert Godin; Luc Faucher

2008-01-01

466

Research Profile Embedded Systems  

E-print Network

An embedded system is a flexible, reactive electronic data processing sys- tem, including advanced algorithms with these interacting parts, based on system wide modeling. #12;12 5/565/56 Present situation · Excellent local modeling: automotive, mechatronics, multi-media, settop boxes, traffic, ... · No system wide modeling and design

Franssen, Michael

467

Memory Systems Doug Burger  

E-print Network

Memory Systems Doug Burger University of Wisconsin-Madison A computer's memory system and produces. A perfect memory system is one that can supply immediately any datum that the CPU requests. This ideal memory is not practically implementable, however, as the three factors of memory capacity, speed

Burger, Doug

468

Computer vision systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Still today, the majority of publications in computer vision focuses on component technologies. However, computer vision has reached a level of maturity that allows not only to perform research on individual methods and system components but also to build fully integrated computer vision systems of significant complexity. This opens a number of new problems related to system architecture and integration,

Bernt Schiele; Gerhard Sagerer

2003-01-01

469

Solar System Voyage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few decades, the exploration of our solar system has revealed fascinating details about the worlds that lie beyond our Earth. This lavishly illustrated book invites the reader on a journey through the solar system. After locating our planetary system in the Universe, Brunier describes the Sun and its planets, the large satellites, asteroids, and comets. Photographs and

Serge Brunier

2002-01-01

470

IRON file systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commodity file systems trust disks to either work or fail completely, yet modern disks exhibit more complex failure modes. We suggest a new file system, Linux ixt3, showing that techniques such as in-disk checksumming, replication, and parity greatly enhance file system robustness while incurring minimal time and space overheads.

Vijayan Prabhakaran; Lakshmi N. Bairavasundaram; Nitin Agrawal; Haryadi S. Gunawi; Andrea C. Arpaci-Dusseau; Remzi H. Arpaci-Dusseau

2005-01-01

471

Special Education Resource System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide to the Special Education Resource System (SERS) of the Flour Bluff (Texas) school system contains policies and procedures regarding organization, services, and process of the system. Noted is the SERS purpose of providing information and access to appropriate instructional media and materials for special education personnel. Briefly…

Kampert, George J.

472

Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking  

SciTech Connect

INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.

2011-01-01

473

Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking  

ScienceCinema

INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.;

2013-05-28

474

Jupiter System Observer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the scientific philosophy that is guiding the planning behind the Jupiter System Observer (JSO). The JSO would be a long-term platform for studying Jupiter and the complete Jovian system. The goal is to advance the understanding of the fundamental processes of planetary systems, their formation and evolution.

Senske, Dave; Prockter, Louise

2008-01-01

475

Systems Thinking 1: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduction to the concept of a dynamic system. Includes discussion of system and surroundings and system boundaries. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives, Assessment, and Activities.

2012-12-19

476

Lithium battery management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the

Thomas J

2012-01-01

477

Triple 6600 computer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

From VIM computer conference; Montreal, Canada (29 Oct 1973). Design ; and development of a multi-mainframe 6600 based, computer system are presented. ; The system hardware shares a bank of 844 disk packs for data storage and ECS for ; control information. The discussion details the areas of the operating system ; requiring the most extensive modifications. Also, the completely

P. A. Lemke; J. S. Fishburn

1973-01-01

478

Plasma motor generator system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant potential advantages of a plasma motor generator system over conventional systems for the generation of electrical power and propulsion for spacecraft in low Earth orbits warrants its further investigation. The two main components of such a system are a long insulated wire and the plasma generating hollow cathodes needed to maintain electrical contact with the ionosphere. Results of

Gerald E. Hite

1987-01-01

479

Responsive polymeric delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the state of the art in a relatively new approach in the field of controlled drug delivery–responsive polymeric drug delivery systems. Such systems are capable of adjusting drug release rates in response to a physiological need. The fundamental principles of externally and self-regulated delivery systems are examined. Special attention is paid to specific clinical settings such as

Joseph Kost; Robert Langer

2001-01-01

480

Systemic Change in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides new tools for thinking about and designing the education system. Four sections, each with its own introduction, follow Charles M. Reigeluth's introductory chapter, "Introduction: The Imperative for Systemic Change." Section 1 describes some theoretical frameworks for understanding the "big ideas" of system design. It includes:…

Reigeluth, Charles M., Ed.; Garfinkle, Robert J., Ed.

481

Configuring elevator systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To configure an elevator system, one must assemble a collection of components that satisfies both customer demands and safety regulations. Complex interactions among elevator system components complicate the configuration process. Not all components are compatible, and certain combinations will not meet functional or safety requirements. This document describes how a configuration engineer configures elevator systems. It describes what initial information

Gregg R. Yost; Thomas R. Rothenfluh

1996-01-01

482

Photovoltaic solar power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An introduction into photovoltaic device theory and design is given to provide a background for discussing applications for solar power system. The potential for using silicon solar cells to provide large amounts of electrical power is shown and a proposed plan for developing solar power systems for a wide range of applications is described. Solar power systems utilized in remote

E. L. Ralph

1974-01-01

483

Smart vehicular transportation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work builds upon established Sandia intelligent systems technology to develop a unique approach for the integration of intelligent system control into the US Highway and urban transportation systems. The Sandia developed concept of the COPILOT controller integrates a human driver with computer control to increase human performance while reducing reliance on detailed driver attention. This research extends Sandia expertise

C. Q. Little; C. W. Wilson

1997-01-01

484

Geostar's system architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geostar is currently constructing a radiodetermination satellite system to provide position fixes and vehicle surveillance services, and has proposed a digital land mobile satellite service to provide data, facsimile and digitized voice services to low cost mobile users. The different system architectures for these two systems, are reviewed.

Lepkowski, Ronald J.

1989-03-01

485

Geostar's system architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geostar is currently constructing a radiodetermination satellite system to provide position fixes and vehicle surveillance services, and has proposed a digital land mobile satellite service to provide data, facsimile and digitized voice services to low cost mobile users. The different system architectures for these two systems, are reviewed.

Lepkowski, Ronald J.

1989-01-01

486

Neptune Aerocapture Systems Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Neptune Aerocapture Systems Analysis is completed to determine the feasibility, bene- fit and risk of an aeroshell aerocapture system for Neptune and to identify technology gaps and technology performance goals. The high fidelity systems analysis is completed by a five center NASA team and includes the following disciplines and analyses: science; mission de- sign; aeroshell configuration screening and definition;

Mary Kae Lockwood

487

Mass Storage Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of the mass storage market and discusses mass storage systems as part of computer networks. Systems for personal computers, workstations, minicomputers, and mainframe computers are described; file servers are explained; system integration issues are raised; and future possibilities are suggested. (LRW)

Ranade, Sanjay; Schraeder, Jeff

1991-01-01

488

Developing Observation Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first three chapters of this booklet describe the utilization of observation as a measurement technique, the types of observation systems available, and the necessary components of an observation system. The second part focuses on the following four commonly used observation systems: 1) primary reading checklist, 2) student affective behavior…

Roberson, E. Wayne

489

Extrasolar Planetary Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of planetary systems around alien stars is an outstanding achievement of recent years. The idea that the Solar System may be representative of planetary systems in the Galaxy in general develops upon the knowledge, current until the last decade of the 20th century, that it is the only object of its kind. Studies of the known planets gave

L. V. Ksanfomaliti

2000-01-01

490

NEP systems model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various aspects of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems analysis and modeling are discussed. The following specific topics are covered: (1) systems analysis challenges; (2) goals for NEP systems analysis; (3) the Nuclear Propulsion Office approach; and (4) NEP subsystem model development. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

Gilland, Jim; George, Jeffrey A.

491

Personal Food System Mapping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food…

Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

2014-01-01

492

Contracting for Telecommunications Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reasons for changing telephone systems at colleges and universities and the preparation and evaluation of requests for proposals (RFP) are discussed. The negotiation and monitoring of the contract are also addressed. It is noted that contracting for a new telecommunications system is extremely complex. Reasons for changing systems include cost…

Brautigam, Arthur W.

1984-01-01

493

No System? No Software!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the computer software cataloging system at the media center of the Washington (Illinois) Center for Continuing Education is essentially a card catalog in notebook form, this article describes aspects of the development and utilization of the system. Major sections describe: (1) software cataloging system terminology; (2) steps for…

Conley, Donna

1989-01-01

494

Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals i SYSTEMS ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS January 2001;Systems Engineering Fundamentals Introduction ii #12;Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals iii ............................................................................................................................................. iv PART 1. INTRODUCTION Chapter 1. Introduction to Systems Engineering Management

Rhoads, James

495

Superconductor rotor cooling system  

DOEpatents

A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA); Schwall, Robert E. (Northborough, MA); Driscoll, David I. (South Euclid, OH); Shoykhet, Boris A. (Beachwood, OH)

2002-01-01

496

FRIB cryogenic distribution system  

SciTech Connect

The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

Ganni, Venkatarao [JLAB; Dixon, Kelly D. [JLAB; Laverdure, Nathaniel A. [JLAB; Knudsen, Peter N. [JLAB; Arenius, Dana M. [JLAB; Barrios, Matthew N. [Michigan State; Jones, S. [Michigan State; Johnson, M. [Michigan State; Casagrande, Fabio [Michigan State

2014-01-01

497

Advanced communications satellite systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a rapidly growing demand for satellite circuits, particularly for domestic service within the U.S. NASA's current program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced satellite communications technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future satellite communications systems. Attention is given to aspects of traffic distribution and service scenario, problems related to effects of rain attenuation, details regarding system configuration, a 30/20 GHz technology development approach, an experimental flight system, the communications payload for the experimental flight system, a typical experiment flight system coverage, and a typical three axis stabilized flight spacecraft.

Sivo, J. N.

1983-01-01

498

Harvard: Systems Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features Systems Research at Harvard University. Projects described on this website focus on distributed computing, sensor networks, file systems, and systems integration. Researchers from the System Group also develop educational resources, including a platform for teaching an Introduction to Computer Sciences course and an instructional operating system. The researchers provide overviews of their projects and related publications are available to download. Past projects include a project that explored methodologies for application-specific benchmarking and a project that proposed a framework for developing Web applications with client-side storage.

499

Photovoltaic roofing tile systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems in architecture is discussed. A PV-solar roofing tile system with polymer concrete base; PV-roofing tile with elastomer frame profiles and aluminum profile frames; contact technique; and solar cell modules measuring technique are described. Field tests at several places were conducted on the solar generator, electric current behavior, battery station, electric installation, power conditioner, solar measuring system with magnetic bubble memory technique, data transmission via telephone modems, and data processing system. The very favorable response to the PV-compact system proves the commercial possibilities of photovoltaic integration in architecture.

Melchior, B.

500

Space nuclear power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space nuclear power systems are considered for use in those particular spacecraft applications for which nuclear power systems offer unique advantages over solar and/or chemical space power systems. Both isotopic and reactor heated space electrical power units are described in an attempt to illustrate their operating characteristics, spacecraft integration aspects, and factory-to-end of mission operational considerations. The status of technology developments in nuclear power systems is presented. Some projections of those technologies are made to form a basis for the applications of space nuclear power systems to be expected over the next 10-15 years.

Carpenter, R. T.

1972-01-01