These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agroforestry Systems in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agroforestry can raise carbon (C) stocks of agricultural systems, and such increases can potentially be sold as CO2 emission offsets. We assembled information on the biophysical, technical, economic, and practical potential of agroforestry\\u000a to sequester C for the West African Sahel, East Africa, and Southern Africa. Agroforestry systems (AFS) such as parklands,\\u000a live fences, and homegardens had substantial C stocks,

Eike Luedeling; Gudeta Sileshi; Tracy Beedy; Johannes Dietz

2

Fertilizers in agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review encompasses results of fertilization experiments on several agroforestry systems—alley cropping, perennial shade systems, home gardens—in which fertilizer use is a likely management alternative. Fertilizer response was found to be most common in alley cropping, variable in perennial shade systems, and rarely reported in home gardens. Level of nutrient removal in harvested products is probably the overriding factor in

L. T. Szott; D. C. L. Kass

1993-01-01

3

Agroforestry systems for the temperate zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical development of a permanent agriculture system based on the use of agroforestry in the temperate zone is traced. In general, reasons for a renewed interest in agroforestry include the end of cheap, subsidized fossil fuels; increased concern about soil erosion and marginal land use; an international awakening as to the dangers of indiscriminate use of pesticides, herbicides and other

Michael A. Gold; James W. Hanover

1987-01-01

4

Microbiological process in agroforestry systems. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils around the world are degraded due to inappropriate management practices. There is thus the necessity to find more conservationist\\u000a agricultural systems. Agroforestry system is an alternative system that helps prevent land degradation while allowing continuing\\u000a use of land to produce crops and livestock on a sustainable basis. Agroforestry system is a form of sustainable land use that\\u000a combines trees

Ademir Sérgio Ferreira Araujo; Luiz Fernando Carvalho Leite; Bruna de Freitas Iwata; Mario de Andrade Lira; Gustavo Ribeiro Xavier; Márcia do Vale Barreto Figueiredo

5

Biophysical interactions in tropical agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate and extent to which biophysical resources are captured and utilized by the components of an agroforestry system are determined by the nature and intensity of interac- tions between the components. The net effect of these interactions is often determined by the influence of the tree component on the other component(s) and\\/or on the overall system, and is expressed

M. R. RAO; P. K. R. NAIR; C. K. ONG

1998-01-01

6

Indigenous Agroforestry Systems in Amazonia: From Prehistory to Today  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the historical development of indigenous systems will provide valuable information for the design of ecologically\\u000a desirable agroforestry production systems. Such studies have been relatively few, especially in Amazonia. The agroforestry\\u000a systems in Amazonia follow a trail that begins with the arrival of the first hunter-gatherers in prehistoric times, followed\\u000a by the domestication of plants for agriculture, the development of

Robert Pritchard Miller; P. K. R. Nair

2006-01-01

7

Agroforestry systems and environmental quality: introduction.  

PubMed

Investments in agroforestry research during the past three decades-albeit modest-have yielded significant gains in understanding the role of trees on farmlands, and the ecological and economic advantages of integrated farming systems. While early research focused mostly on farm or local levels, broader-level ecosystem services of agroforestry systems (AFS) have raised high expectations in recent years. The nine papers included in this special collection deal with three of such environmental benefits of AFS: water-quality enhancement, carbon sequestration, and soil improvement. These benefits are based on the perceived ability of (i) vegetative buffer strips (VBS) to reduce surface transport of agrochemical pollutants, (ii) large volumes of aboveground and belowground biomass of trees to store high amounts of C deeper in the soil profile, and (iii) trees to enhance soil productivity through biological nitrogen fixation, efficient nutrient cycling, and deep capture of nutrients. The papers included have, in general, substantiated these premises and provided new insights. For example, the riparian VBS are reported to increase the reservoir life, in addition to reducing transport of agrochemicals; the variations in C storage in different soil-fraction sizes suggest that microaggregate (250-53 ?m) dynamics in the soil could be a good indicator of its C-storage potential; and the use of vector analysis technique is recommended in AFS to avoid consequences of inaccurate and overuse of fertilizers. The papers also identified significant knowledge gaps in these areas. A common theme across all three environmental quality issues covered is that more and varied research datasets across a broad spectrum of conditions need to be generated and integrated with powerful statistical tools to ensure wide applicability of the results. Furthermore, appropriate management practices that are acceptable to the targeted land users and agroforestry practitioners need to be designed to exploit these environmental benefits. The relative newness of research in environmental quality of AFS will pose some additional challenges as well. These include the lack of allometric equations for tree-biomass determination, absence of standardized norms on soil sampling depth, and limitations of fixed-effect models arising from issues such as pseudo-replication and repeated measures that are common in studies on preexisting field plots. Overall, this special collection is a timely effort in highlighting the promise of AFS in addressing some of the environmental quality issues, and the challenges in realizing that potential. PMID:21546663

Nair, P K Ramachandran

2011-01-01

8

Tree root characteristics as criteria for species selection and systems design in agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature review presents information about the role of tree root systems for the functioning of agroforestry associations and rotations and attempts to identify root-related criteria for the selection of agroforestry tree species and the design of agroforestry systems. Tree roots are expected to enrich soil with organic matter, feed soil biomass, reduce nutrient leaching, recycle nutrients from the subsoil

G. Schroth

1995-01-01

9

CARBON STORAGE BENEFITS OF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The process of land degradation is a local phenomenon that occurs field by field but also has a global dimension because of the sheer extent at which it is taking place. groforestry represents a link between the local and global scales. rom the farmer's perspective, agroforestry ...

10

Multistoried agroforestry garden system in West Sumatra, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agroforestry garden system in Maninjau in West Sumatra is characterized by an intensive integration of forest species and commercial crops, forming a forest-like system. The intimate association of different species provides both subsistence and commercial products which supplement rice production. This complex agroforest is managed by the combination between cultural practices and respect of natural processes of vegetation production

G. Michon; F. Mary; J. Bompard

1986-01-01

11

Wind protection in a hedged agroforestry system in semiarid Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

In semiarid Laikipia (Kenya) severe crop damage and loss of mulch material may be caused by south to south-easterly winds from June to September. Demonstration agroforestry systems which surround farms with live fences had some success in protecting crops, mulch and soil, but great care must be taken, because air may be channelled through or over them. For demonstration purposes,

S. B. B. Oteng'i; C. J. Stigter; J. K. Ng'ang'a; D. N. Mungai

2001-01-01

12

The POIS (Parkland On-Line Information System) Implementation of the IBM Health Care Support/Patient Care System  

PubMed Central

The installation of major components of a comprehensive Hospital Information System (HIS) called POIS, the Parkland On-line Information System, including identified success factors is described for the Dallas County Hospital District (DCHD) known also as the Parkland Memorial Hospital. Installation of the on-line IBM Health Care Support (HCS) Registration and Admissions Packages occurred in 1976 and implementation of the HCS Patient Care System (PCS) began in 1977 which includes on-line support of health care areas such as nursing stations and ancillary areas. The Duke Hospital Information System (DHIS) is marketed as the IBM HCS/Patient Care System (PCS). DCHD was the validation site. POIS has order entry, result reporting and work management components. While most of the patient care components are currently installed for the inpatient service, the Laboratories are being installed for the outpatient and Emergency areas as well. The Clinic Appointment System developed at the University of Michigan is also installed. The HCS family of programs use DL/1 and CICS and were installed in the OS versions, currently running under MVS on an IBM 370/168 Model 3 with 8 megabytes of main memory. ImagesFigure 1-AFigure 1-B

Mishelevich, David J.; Hudson, Betty G.; Van Slyke, Donald; Mize, Elaine I.; Robinson, Anna L.; Brieden, Helen C.; Atkinson, Jack; Robertson, James

1980-01-01

13

Agroforestry systems conserve species-rich but modified assemblages of tropical birds and bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although an increasing number of studies have shown that diverse, multi-strata agroforestry systems can contribute to the\\u000a conservation of tropical biodiversity, there is still debate about how the biodiversity within agroforestry systems compares\\u000a to that of intact forest and alternative land uses. In order to assess the relative importance of agroforestry systems for\\u000a biodiversity conservation, we characterized bat and bird

Celia A. Harvey; Jorge A. González Villalobos

2007-01-01

14

Parkland Health Care Campus  

E-print Network

Planning for Sustainability at the New Parkland Hospital November 8, 2011 Walter Jones, AIA, LEED, IFMA, CHD - Sr. Vice President, Facilities CATEE 2 0 1 1 Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency ESL-KT-11-11-19 CATEE 2011, Dallas..., Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 Since 1894, Parkland has been Dedicated to the health and well-being of individuals and communities entrusted to our care Parkland Hospital Mission Statement By our actions, we will define the standards of excellence...

Jones, W., Sr.

2011-01-01

15

AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: INTEGRATED LAND USE TO STORE AND CONSERVE CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Agroforestry is a promising land use practice to maintain or increase agricultural productivity while preserving or improving fertility. n extensive literature survey was conducted to evaluate the carbon dynamics of agroforestry practices and to assess their potential to store ca...

16

A knowledge-based expert system for planning and design of agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-based Expert Systems that use knowledge, facts, and reasoning techniques to solve problems, normally requiring the abilities of human experts, are increasingly being used in many activities. The United Nations University (UNU) Agroforestry Expert System (AES) is a first attempt to apply this technique to agroforestry. UNU-AES is a prototype Knowledge-Based Expert System (KBES) designed to support land-use (agricultural, forestry,

Merrill E. Warkentin; P. K. R. Nair; Stephen R. Ruth; Kristopher Sprague

1990-01-01

17

Agroforestry system effects on soil characteristics of tropical soils in the Sarapiqui Region of Costa Rica  

E-print Network

fewer opportunities for exploitation. Most current land-use systems established after deforestation have proven to be unsustainable, as has been shown for cattle ranching in the Amazon (Hecht, 1983; Fearnside, 1989). Agroforestry systems... fewer opportunities for exploitation. Most current land-use systems established after deforestation have proven to be unsustainable, as has been shown for cattle ranching in the Amazon (Hecht, 1983; Fearnside, 1989). Agroforestry systems...

Tornquist, Carlos G.

2012-06-07

18

Carbon sequestration in tropical agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removing atmospheric carbon (C) and storing it in the terrestrial biosphere is one of the options, which have been proposed to compensate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agricultural lands are believed to be a major potential sink and could absorb large quantities of C if trees are reintroduced to these systems and judiciously managed together with crops and\\/or animals. Thus, the

Alain Albrecht; Serigne T Kandji

2003-01-01

19

Diagnosis of nutrient imbalances with vector analysis in agroforestry systems.  

PubMed

Agricultural intensification has had unintended environmental consequences, including increased nutrient leaching and surface runoff and other agrarian-derived pollutants. Improved diagnosis of on-farm nutrient dynamics will have the advantage of increasing yields and will diminish financial and environmental costs. To achieve this, a management support system that allows for site-specific rapid evaluation of nutrient production imbalances and subsequent management prescriptions is needed for agroecological design. Vector diagnosis, a bivariate model to depict changes in yield and nutritional response simultaneously in a single graph, facilitates identification of nutritional status such as growth dilution, deficiency, sufficiency, luxury uptake, and toxicity. Quantitative data from cocoa agroforestry systems and pigeonpea intercropping trials in Ghana and Tanzania, respectively, were re-evaluated with vector analysis. Relative to monoculture, biomass increase in cocoa ( L.) under shade (35-80%) was accompanied by a 17 to 25% decline in P concentration, the most limiting nutrient on this site. Similarly, increasing biomass with declining P concentrations was noted for pigeonpea [ (L). Millsp.] in response to soil moisture availability under intercropping. Although vector analysis depicted nutrient responses, the current vector model does not consider non-nutrient resource effects on growth, such as ameliorated light and soil moisture, which were particularly active in these systems. We revisit and develop vector analysis into a framework for diagnosing nutrient and non-nutrient interactions in agroforestry systems. Such a diagnostic technique advances management decision-making by increasing nutrient precision and reducing environmental issues associated with agrarian-derived soil contamination. PMID:21546672

Isaac, Marney E; Kimaro, Anthony A

2011-01-01

20

The Bioeconomic Potential for Agroforestry in Australia’s Northern Grazing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although agriculture generates 16% of Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions, it also has the potential to sequester large quantities\\u000a of emissions through land use management options such as agroforestry. Whilst there is an extensive amount of agroforestry\\u000a literature, little has been written on the economic consequences of adopting silvopastoral systems in northern Australia.\\u000a This paper reports the financial viability of adopting

Peter Donaghy; Steven Bray; Rebecca Gowen; John Rolfe; Michael Stephens; Madonna Hoffmann; Anne Stunzer

2010-01-01

21

Carbon sequestration: An underexploited environmental benefit of agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry has importance as a carbon sequestration strategy because of carbon storage potential in its multiple plant species\\u000a and soil as well as its applicability in agricultural lands and in reforestation. The potential seems to be substantial; but\\u000a it has not been even adequately recognized, let alone exploited. Proper design and management of agroforestry practices can\\u000a make them effective carbon

F. Montagnini; P. K. R. Nair

2004-01-01

22

Changes of dung beetle communities from rainforests towards agroforestry systems and annual cultures in Sulawesi (Indonesia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about how tropical land-use systems contribute to the conservation of functionally important insect groups, including dung beetles. In a study at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park (a biodiversity hotspot in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia) dung-beetle communities were sampled in natural forest, young secondary forest, agroforestry systems (cacao plantations with shade trees) and annual cultures (maize fields),

Shahabuddin; Christian H. Schulze; Teja Tscharntke

2005-01-01

23

Innovation in input supply systems in smallholder agroforestry: seed sources, supply chains and support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Institutional innovation in providing inputs and services is a central element for smallholder development. Agroforestry is\\u000a an important income generating activity for millions of smallholders in the tropics, yet access to quality planting material—germplasm—of\\u000a valuable tree species remains a major hurdle for improving farm productivity. We discuss requirements and possibilities for\\u000a institutional innovation in developing more efficient delivery systems for

J. B. L. Lillesø; L. Graudal; S. Moestrup; E. D. Kjær; R. Kindt; A. Mbora; I. Dawson; J. Muriuki; A. Ræbild; R. Jamnadass

24

Documentation of Indigenous Pacific Agroforestry Systems: A Review of Methodologies1  

E-print Network

, and yields of major products. Often, related information on farmer and farm family demographics, land use an. This paper outlines various methodologies (including sampling methods, data to be collected of data from indigenous agroforestry systems is further complicated due to the lack of existing data

Standiford, Richard B.

25

Water use efficiency and uptake patterns in a runoff agroforestry system in an arid environment  

E-print Network

Water use efficiency and uptake patterns in a runoff agroforestry system in an arid environment K for correspondence: E-mail: klaus@bgumail.bgu.ac.il) Key words: Acacia saligna, complementarity, cowpea, intercropping, resource capture, sorghum Abstract. Water is the most limiting factor for plant production

Lehmann, Johannes

26

Integrated indicators for performance assessment of traditional agroforestry systems in South West Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farming Systems developed in Humid Tropical Zones are frequently characterized by a combination of perennial and annual plants,\\u000a intermixed in complex tree-crop associations. The productive functioning, the agronomic and economic performances, and the\\u000a sustainability of these crop associations remain poorly understood. To improve the management capacity of these complex agroforestry\\u000a systems, adequate indicators must be developed and integrated in assessment

Geraldo Stachetti Rodrigues; Inacio de Barros; Eugène Ejolle Ehabe; Patrick Sama Lang; Frank Enjalric

2009-01-01

27

The agroforestry potential of combined production systems in north-eastern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the semi-arid to sub-humid north-east of Mexico, no definite agroforestry practices were in use before the Spanish conquest, but present systems and practices offer a good basis for conversion to ecologically sustainable and productive multicrop systems which incorporate trees. In the mountains and on the coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico, sub-humid tropical tree crops are found in

Holger Stienen

1990-01-01

28

Incorporating livelihoods in biodiversity conservation: a case study of cacao agroforestry systems in Talamanca, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, various organizations have promoted cacao agroforestry systems as a tool for biodiversity conservation\\u000a in the Bribri-Cabécar indigenous territories of Talamanca, Costa Rica. Despite these efforts, cacao production is declining\\u000a and is being replaced by less diverse systems that have lower biodiversity value. Understanding the factors that influence\\u000a household land use is essential in order to

R. M. Dahlquist; M. P. Whelan; L. Winowiecki; B. Polidoro; S. Candela; C. A. Harvey; J. D. Wulfhorst; P. A. McDaniel; N. A. Bosque-Pérez

2007-01-01

29

Characterisation of hydrogen isotope profiles in an agroforestry system: implications for tracing water sources of trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracing sources of water utilised by plants is important to understand species interactions in intercropping\\/agroforestry systems, particularly where species vary greatly in life-form. Isotopic techniques are an increasingly common means to trace water sources. The distribution of stable isotopes of water within the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum is indicative of a range of hydrologic processes and plant functions. Before we can infer

Stephen S. O. Burgess; Mark A. Adams; Neil C. Turner; Brett Ward

2000-01-01

30

Carbon and nutrient stocks in the litter layer of agroforestry systems in central Amazonia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both second-growth and agroforestry systems (AFs) have the potential for recovering thousands of abandoned pasturelands in\\u000a Amazon. The AFs may do it faster and, at the same time, produce direct economic benefits for farmers. Improved nutrient recycling\\u000a may be expected due to distinctive litter production in AFs, but lacks experimental data yet. The stocks of carbon and nutrients\\u000a of the

Sandra C. Tapia-Coral; Flávio J. Luizão; Elisa Wandelli; Erick C. M. Fernandes

2005-01-01

31

Ecological interactions, management lessons and design tools in tropical agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1980s, land- and labor-intensive simultaneous agroforestry systems (SAFS) were promoted in the tropics, based on\\u000a the optimism on tree-crop niche differentiation and its potential for designing tree-crop mixtures using high tree-densities.\\u000a In the 1990s it became clearer that although trees would yield crucial products and facilitate simultaneous growing of crops,\\u000a they would also exert strong competitive effects on

L. García-Barrios; C. K. Ong

2004-01-01

32

Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted\\u000a in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical\\u000a agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter pools. The objective of this experiment\\u000a was to assess the affect

Hollie Hall; Yuncong Li; Nicholas Comerford; Enrique Arévalo Gardini; Luis Zuniga Cernades; Virupax Baligar; Hugh Popenoe

2010-01-01

33

Coptis teeta-based agroforestry system and its conservation potential: a case study from northwest Yunnan.  

PubMed

Coptis teeta (Ranunculaceae), is a nontimber forest product (NTFP) that only grows in northwest Yunnan and northeast India. Its tenuous rhizome, known as "Yunnan goldthread" in the traditional Chinese medicine system, has been used as an antibacterial and as an antiinflammatory medicine for a long time. The increasing demand has resulted in commercial harvesting pressure on wild populations that were already dwindling as a result of deforestation, and wild populations are at risk of extinction. Fortunately, there exists at least 2000 hectares of a C. teeta-based agroforestry system initiated by the Lisu people in Nujiang, northwest Yunnan. This cultivation supplies us with a valuable study case for the balance between conservation and sustainable use. This case study investigated the traditional management system and history of C. teeta in Nujiang through ethnobotanical methods and field investigation. We also contrasted initial costs, economic returns, and labor demands for C. teeta cultivation with other major land uses in the region. Compared with swidden agriculture, the major land-use type in the region, C. teeta cultivation offers high economic returns and low labor and initial costs; moreover, C. teeta cultivation does not interfere with subsistence agricultural duties. This agroforestry system reflected that the cultivation of NTFPs is a conservation strategy for maintaining forest diversity, while providing a stable economic return to local forest communities, and indicates how local people manage biodiversity effectively. PMID:17626473

Huang, Ji; Long, Chunlin

2007-06-01

34

Carbon sequestration in tropical and temperate agroforestry systems: a review with examples from Costa Rica and southern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation in the tropics, and fossil fuel burning in temperate regions contribute to the largest flux of CO 2 to the atmosphere. Therefore, land-use systems that increase the soil organic matter (SOM) pool and stabilize soil organic carbon (SOC) need to be implemented. Agroforestry systems have the potential to sequester atmospheric carbon (C) in trees and soil while maintaining sustainable

Maren Oelbermanna; R. Paul Voroney; A. M. Gordon

2004-01-01

35

Carbon sequestration in tropical and temperate agroforestry systems: a review with examples from Costa Rica and southern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation in the tropics, and fossil fuel burning in temperate regions contribute to the largest flux of CO2 to the atmosphere. Therefore, land-use systems that increase the soil organic matter (SOM) pool and stabilize soil organic carbon (SOC) need to be implemented. Agroforestry systems have the potential to sequester atmospheric carbon (C) in trees and soil while maintaining sustainable productivity.

Maren Oelbermann; R. Paul Voroney; A. M. Gordon

2004-01-01

36

Indigenous fruit trees of Madagascar: potential components of agroforestry systems to improve human nutrition and restore biological diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity in Eastern Madagascar is threatened by slash and burn agriculture, which is resulting in species extinction, land and soil degradation and rural impoverishment. An ethnobotanical study was undertaken to determine the domestication potential of indigenous fruit tree species as components of agroforestry systems. Four major selection criteria were used: nutritional and income needs of the population, diversification of the

E. STYGER; R. RABEVOHITRA

1999-01-01

37

REVIEW PAPER Microbiological process in agroforestry systems. A review  

E-print Network

2011 inappropriate management practices. There is thus the necessity to find more conservationist that increase and diversify farm and forest production while also conserving natural resources. This system, Agricultural Science Center, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina, PI, Brazil e-mail: asfaruaj@yahoo.com.br L

Boyer, Edmond

38

Fresh root decomposition pattern of two contrasting tree species from temperate agroforestry systems: effects of root diameter and nitrogen enrichment of soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh tree root decomposition induced by tillage is an important source of soil nutrients in agroforestry systems. Here we\\u000a examined the effects of tree species, root size and soil N enrichment on fresh root decomposition under laboratory conditions.\\u000a Fresh roots with two diameters (Populus euramericana cv. ‘N3016’ (poplar) and Pinus tabulaeformis (pine) collected from agroforestry systems in Northeast China were

Rong Mao; De-Hui Zeng; Lu-Jun Li

39

Agroforestry education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of agroforestry education is following the pattern of evolution of some other areas of study such as plant pathology,\\u000a genetics, and statistics. At universities these three areas began within another department or departments, and after being\\u000a moved into their own departments began to flourish and develop their own identity. However, the main question is what can\\u000a or should be

Howard A. Steppler

1990-01-01

40

Bringing Agroforestry Technology to Farmers in the Philippines: Identifying Constraints to the Success of Extension Activities Using Systems Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a systems modelling approach to evaluating the success of an agroforestry extension program in Leyte,\\u000a the Philippines. During the program, variables which are intrinsic to farmers’ socio-economic and farming systems were found\\u000a to have influenced the uptake and acceptance of extension advice. Evaluation of the program therefore depended on identifying\\u000a the variables and their interdependencies and assessing

Jack Baynes; John Herbohn; Iean Russell; Carl Smith

41

Village agroforestry systems and tree-use practices: A case study in Sri Lanka. Multipurpose tree species network research series  

SciTech Connect

Village agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka have evolved through farmers' efforts to meet their survival needs. The paper examines farmers' land-use systems and their perceptions of the role of trees in the villages of Bambarabedda and Madugalla in central Sri Lanka. The benefits of village agroforestry are diverse food, fuelwood, fodder, timber, and mulch, but food products are of outstanding importance. The ability of Artocarpus heterophyllus (the jackfruit tree) and Cocos nucifera (coconut) to ensure food security during the dry season and provide traditional foods throughout the year, as well as to grow in limited space, make them popular crops in the two study villages. The study recommends that further research precede the formulation of agricultural interventions and that efforts to promote improved tree varieties recognize farmers' practices and expressed needs.

Wickramasinghe, A.

1992-01-01

42

Use of the iterative diagnosis and design approach in the development of suitable agroforestry systems for a target area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of iterative diagnosis and design with the active participation of farmers and extension agents was found effective\\u000a in identifying appropriate agroforestry systems for farmers in the Bugesera and Gisaka-Migongo (BGM) regions of Rwanda. Periodic\\u000a re-evaluation of research assumptions and technology designs was based on feedback from farmers and extentionists through\\u000a regular visits to station trials, early initiation of

E. Pinners; V. Balasubramanian

1991-01-01

43

Indigenous fruit trees of Madagascar: potential components of agroforestry systems to improve human nutrition and restore biological diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity in Eastern Madagascar is threatened by slash and burn agriculture, which is resulting in species extinction,\\u000a land and soil degradation and rural impoverishment. An ethnobotanical study was undertaken to determine the domestication\\u000a potential of indigenous fruit tree species as components of agroforestry systems. Four major selection criteria were used:\\u000a nutritional and income needs of the population, diversification of the

E. Styger; J. E. M. Rakotoarimanana; R. Rabevohitra; E. C. M. Fernandes

1999-01-01

44

Possibilities for agroforestry development in Bulgaria: Outlooks and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current conditions in Bulgaria are favorable for the development of agroforestry due to socio-economic incentives and environmental necessities. As a scientific theory and practice, agroforestry is less familiar than other farming systems in Bulgaria. Hence, to ensure successful agroforestry development in Bulgaria, four necessary movements (or collective national ‘moments’) are described here: (1) wide-scale popularization of agroforesty's fundamental tenets, including

Jordanka Stancheva; Sonja Bencheva; Krasimira Petkova; Vladimir Piralkov

2007-01-01

45

Tree recovery and seed dispersal by birds: Comparing forest, agroforestry and abandoned agroforestry in coastal Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a highly replicated study to examine vegetation characteristics between patches of intervened forest, abandoned agroforestry systems with coffee and actively managed agroforestry systems with coffee in a tropical landscape. In all habitats, plant structural characteristics, individual abundance, species richness and composition were recorded for the three plant size classes: adult trees, saplings and seedlings. Furthermore, bird species richness

Tannya Lozada; G. H. J. de Koning; Raphael Marché; Alexandra-Maria Klein; Teja Tscharntke

2007-01-01

46

Traditional agroforestry practices in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional agroforestry systems in the communal areas of Zimbabwe are described. There are systems centered on main fields, on home gardens, on homesites and on grazing areas. In the main fields, the major tree-related management practice is the conservation of preferred indigenous fruit trees. Fruit trees are also the focus of forestry activities around the gardens and the homesite; but

B. M. Campbell; J. M. Clarke; D. J. Gumbo

1991-01-01

47

Effects of Land-Use Intensity in Tropical Agroforestry Systems on Coffee Flower-Visiting and Trap-Nesting Bees and Wasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical landscapes are dominated by agroecosystems, and most species that survive in forest rem- nants interact with these agroecosystems. The potential value of agroecosystems for aiding species survival is often ignored. Essential ecosystem services may suffer when functional groups such as pollinators and preda- tors are affected by land use. We used agroforestry systems differing in land-use intensity to examine

Alexandra-Maria Klein; Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter; Damayanti Buchori; Teja Tscharntke

2002-01-01

48

Smallholder perceptions of agroforestry projects in Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential effects of agroforestry systems on conservation and development have been well documented. Panama has seen a\\u000a substantial rise in the number of projects with an agroforestry component in the 1990s. There has been insufficient research\\u000a on the actual impacts of these projects on smallholders and of farmers' attitudes towards these systems. This study explores\\u000a the perceived socioeconomic and

A. Fischer; L. Vasseur

2002-01-01

49

Does parkland influence walking? The relationship between area of parkland and walking trips in Melbourne, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Using two different measures of park area, at three buffer distances, we sought to investigate the ways in which park area and proximity to parks, are related to the frequency of walking (for all purposes) in Australian adults. Little previous research has been conducted in this area, and results of existing research have been mixed. Methods Residents of 50 urban areas in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia completed a physical activity survey (n = 2305). Respondents reported how often they walked for ?10 minutes in the previous month. Walking frequency was dichotomised to ‘less than weekly’ (less than 1/week) and ‘at least weekly’ (1/week or more). Using Geographic Information Systems, Euclidean buffers were created around each respondent’s home at three distances: 400metres (m), 800 m and 1200 m. Total area of parkland in each person’s buffer was calculated for the three buffers. Additionally, total area of ‘larger parks’, (park space???park with Australian Rules Football oval (17,862 m2)), was calculated for each set of buffers. Area of park was categorised into tertiles for area of all parks, and area of larger parks (the lowest tertile was used as the reference category). Multilevel logistic regression, with individuals nested within areas, was used to estimate the effect of area of parkland on walking frequency. Results No statistically significant associations were found between walking frequency and park area (total and large parks) within 400 m of respondent’s homes. For total park area within 800 m, the odds of walking at least weekly were lower for those in the mid (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46-0.91) and highest (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.95) tertile of park area compared to those living in areas with the least amount of park area. Similar results were observed for total park area in the 1200 m buffers. When only larger parks were investigated, again more frequent walking was less likely when respondents had access to a greater amount of park area. Conclusions In this study we found that more park area in residential environments reduced the odds of walking more frequently. Other area characteristics such as street connectivity and destinations may underlie these associations by negatively correlating with park area. PMID:22989176

2012-01-01

50

Agroforestry for ecosystem services and environmental benefits: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry systems are believed to provide a number of ecosystem services; however, until recently evidence in the agroforestry\\u000a literature supporting these perceived benefits has been lacking. This special issue brings together a series of papers from\\u000a around the globe to address recent findings on the ecosystem services and environmental benefits provided by agroforestry.\\u000a As prelude to the special issue, this

Shibu Jose

2009-01-01

51

Carbon sequestration through agroforestry in indigenous communities of Chiapas, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of agroforestry systems as carbon sinks has recently been recognized due to the need of climate change mitigation.\\u000a The objective of this study was to compare the carbon content in living biomass, soil (0–10, 10–20, 20–30 cm in depth), dead\\u000a organic matter between a set of non-agroforestry and agroforestry prototypes in Chiapas, Mexico where the carbon sequestration\\u000a programme called

Lorena Soto-Pinto; Manuel Anzueto; Jorge Mendoza; Guillermo Jimenez Ferrer; Ben de Jong

2010-01-01

52

Allelopathic activity and chemical constituents of walnut (Juglans regia) leaf litter in walnut-winter vegetable agroforestry system.  

PubMed

Walnut agroforestry systems have many ecological and economic benefits when intercropped with cool-season species. However, decomposing leaf litter is one of the main sources of allelochemicals in such systems. In this study, lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. angustata) was grown in the soil incorporated with walnut leaf litter to assess its allelopathic activity. Lettuce growth and physiological processes were inhibited by walnut leaf litter, especially during early growth stage (1-2 euphylla period) or with large amount of litter addition. The plants treated by small amount of leaf litter recovered their growth afterwards, while the inhibition for 180 g leaf litter persisted until harvest. Twenty-eight compounds were identified in the leaf litter, and several of them were reported to be phytotoxic, which may be responsible for the stress induced by walnut leaf litter. Thus, for highest economic value of vegetables such as lettuce, excessive incorporation of leaf litter should be discouraged. PMID:24784929

Wang, Qian; Xu, Zheng; Hu, Tingxing; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Chen, Hong; Li, Zhongbin; Ding, Bo; Hu, Hongling

2014-11-01

53

Alternate cycle agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry research and design has heavily favored intergrated production of annuals and perennials, that is production of tree crops on the same parcel of land and at the same time as production of food crop annuals. For areas having high population densities and intensive modes of agricultural production, integral agroforestry may be appropriate, but for areas of sparse population where

Joseph A. Weinstock

1985-01-01

54

Agroforestry in the Western Ghats of peninsular India and the satoyama landscapes of Japan: a comparison of two sustainable land use systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry in the Western Ghats (WG) of peninsular India and satoyama in rural Japan are traditional land-use systems with\\u000a similar evolutionary trajectories. Some of their relevance was lost by the middle of the twentieth century, when modern agricultural\\u000a technologies and urbanisation engineered shifts in emphasis towards maximising crop production. There has been, however, a\\u000a resurgence of interest in traditional land-use

B. Mohan Kumar; K. Takeuchi

2009-01-01

55

Agroforestry diffusion and secondary forest regeneration in the Brazilian Amazon: further findings from the Rondonia Agroforestry Pilot Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 1992 the Rondonia Agroforestry Pilot Project (RAPP) was launched in two agricultural munici- palities (Nova Uniao and Alto Paraiso) in the western Brazilian Amazon State of Rondonia. The purpose of the RAPP was to assess the conditions under which colonist farmers in the western Amazon would integrate agroforestry plantings into their small-scale farming systems and to assess the

John O. Browder; Randolph H. Wynne; Marcos A. Pedlowski

2005-01-01

56

[Temporal and spatial distribution of ants in a light gradient, in a coffee agroforestry system, Turrialba, Costa Rica].  

PubMed

Shade trees are frequently present in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) agroforestry systems of Mesoamerica. These systems can harbor a rich entomofauna, including ants, which could be predators of key pests in these systems. However, the role of shade on the distribution and abundance of these ants is unknown, yet such knowledge could suggest guidelines for manipulating certain environmental conditions of their habitat, thereby achieving their conservation and increase. Therefore, we studied the effect of shade on the spatial and temporal distribution of three ant species (Solenopsis geminata, Pheidole radoszkowskii and Crematogaster curvispinosa) that may prey on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). To do this, abundance was evaluated across a sun-shade gradient in a coffee plantation with four alternate plots (from pure sun to total shade) in Turrialba, Costa Rica. In the community that was studied 28 species of ants were collected, of which S. geminata was the dominant species (79% of the total individuals), followed by P. radoszkowskii (16 %). S. geminata and C. curvispinosa preferred sunny areas, while P. radoszkowskii showed no defined preference. Likewise, with respect to location, S. geminata predominated in the soil, while P. radoszkowskii and C. curvispinosa predominated in coffee bushes. PMID:19086397

Varón, Edgar H; Hanson, Paul; Longino, John T; Borbón, Olger; Carballo, Manuel; Hilje, Luko

2007-01-01

57

Resource capture and tree-crop interaction in Albizia procera-based agroforestry system (Bestandserfassung und Baum-Feldfrucht Wechselwirkungen in einem auf Albizia procera basierenden AgroForestry System)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted in a randomized block design at the National Research Centre for Agroforestry, Jhansi (UP) during two consecutive years (2000 - 01 and 2001 - 02). The experiment comprised eight treatments: T1 - trees allowed to grow normally + crop, T2 - pruning of trees up to 70% plant height + crop, T3 - trees allowed

RAM NEWAJ; M. K. BHARGAVA; A. K. SHANKER; R. S. YADAV; P. RAI

58

Assessing agroforestry adoption potential utilising market segmentation: A case study in Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, agroforestry adoption has lagged behind progress in agroforestry systems research. This study sought\\u000a to facilitate the communication of landowner land management objectives, values, knowledge and perceptions of the barriers\\u000a and benefits to agroforestry through applied social marketing research methods and market segmentation analysis. A mail survey\\u000a instrument was sent to 250 members of the Pennsylvania Association

Nicole A. Strong; Michael G. Jacobson

2005-01-01

59

Investigation on effect of Populus alba stands distance on density of pests and their natural enemies population under poplar/alfalfa agroforestry system.  

PubMed

This study was carried out in order to distinguish the effect of agroforestry system (combination of agriculture and forestry) on pests and natural enemy's population in poplar research station. Wood is one of the first substances that naturally was used for a long period of time. Forage is an important production of natural resources too. Some factors such as proper lands deficit, lack of economy, pest and disease attacks and faced production of these materials with serious challenges. Agroforestry is a method for decrease of the mentioned problems. The stands of poplar had have planted by complete randomized design with 4 treatments (stand distance) of poplar/alfalfa include 3x4, 3x6.7, 3x8, 3x10 m and 2 control treatments, alfalfa and poplar. The results showed that Chaitophorus populeti had the highest density in poplar and 3x10 m treatments. Monosteira unicostata is another insect pest that had most density in 3x10 m treatment. And alfalfa had high density of Chrysoperla carnea. The density of Coccinella septempunctata, were almost equal in all treatments. PMID:19579945

Khabir, Z H; Sadeghi, S E; Hanifeh, S; Eivazi, A

2009-01-15

60

A Review of Traditional Agroforestry in Micronesia1 Harley I. Manner2  

E-print Network

A Review of Traditional Agroforestry in Micronesia1 Harley I. Manner2 Abstract: For the many of the traditional subsistence system which provided the people with many of the necessities of life. Given if not all of the traditional agricultural systems of Micronesia are, indeed, agroforestry systems

Standiford, Richard B.

61

Does ‘jungle rubber’ deserve its name? An analysis of rubber agroforestry systems in southeast Sumatra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jungle rubber is a blanced, diversified system derived from swidden cultivation, in which man-made forests with a high concentration of rubber trees replace fallows. Most of the income comes from rubber, complemented with temporary food and cash crops during the early years. Perennial species that grow spontaneously with rubber provide fruits, fuelwood and timber, mostly for household consumption. Jungle rubber

A. Gouyon; H. DE FORESTA; P. Levang

1993-01-01

62

Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: Pollination in coffee agroforestry systems  

PubMed Central

Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables. PMID:23671073

Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G.; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

2013-01-01

63

Agroforestry for water management in the cropping zone of southern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry has been advocated as a means of managing excess water that has accu- mulated in the agricultural landscape of southern Australia since clearing of native vegetation. This article examines the feasibility and profitability of agroforestry systems designed to manage rising, saline watertables. A framework for Australian conditions is described that considers the interactions between trees, crops and their below

E. C. LEFROY; R. J. STIRZAKER

1999-01-01

64

A GIS-based database management application for agroforestry planning and tree selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry (the deliberate growing of trees or shrubs in rural lands) is being promoted in the United States as an alternative resource management system that can bring landowners economic benefits and provide environmental services such as reduced soil erosion, improved water quality and wildlife habitat. Landowners, farmers and extension agents need to be better informed about different agroforestry opportunities and

E. A. Ellis; P. K. R. Nair; P. E. Linehan; H. W. Beck; C. A. Blanche

2000-01-01

65

Adoption of agroforestry in the hills of Nepal: a logistic regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread deforestation and increasingly intensive use of land to sustain a growing population has increased soil erosion, lowered soil fertility, and reduced agricultural productivity in the hills of Nepal. This has raised concern over sustainability of the hill farming system. There is growing evidence that agroforestry can be a potential solution to above problems. However, the development of agroforestry as

Ramji P. Neupane; Khem R. Sharma; Gopal B. Thapa

2002-01-01

66

Land cover changes and forest landscape evolution (1985-2009) in a typical Mediterranean agroforestry system (High Agri Valley)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (High Agri Valley - Basilicata region) occurred during 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European on-shore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes) and the Forest/Non Forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern: increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.

Simoniello, T.; Coluzzi, R.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.

2014-08-01

67

Effects of climate change and land use on duck abundance in Canadian prairie-parklands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent declines in breeding ducks in the Canadian prairie-parklands may be due to loss of habitat to agriculture. However, prairie-parkland also has experienced wetland loss to drought as well as to agriculture. For sucessful habitat restoration, it is important to separate the effects of anthropogenic changes to the landscape from those caused by changes in climate. The researchers used data

R. W. Bethke; T. D. Nudds

1995-01-01

68

Neighbourhood safety and area deprivation modify the associations between parkland and psychological distress in Sydney, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate how perceived neighbourhood safety and area deprivation influenced the relationship between parklands and mental health. Methods Information about psychological distress, perceptions of safety, demographic and socio-economic background at the individual level was extracted from New South Wales Population Health Survey. The proportion of a postcode that was parkland was used as a proxy measure for access to parklands and was calculated for each individual. Generalized Estimating Equations logistic regression analyses were performed to account for correlation between participants within postcodes, and with controls for socio-demographic characteristics and socio-economic status at the area level. Results In areas where the residents reported perceiving their neighbourhood to be “safe” and controlling for area levels of socio-economic deprivation, there were no statistically significant associations between the proportion of parkland and high or very high psychological distress. In the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods which were perceived as unsafe by residents, those with greater proportions of parkland, over 20%, there was greater psychological distress, this association was statistically significant (20-40% parkland: OR=2.27, 95% CI=1.45-3.55; >40% parkland: OR=2.53, 95% CI=1.53-4.19). Conclusion Our study indicates that perceptions of neighbourhood safety and area deprivation were statistically significant effect modifiers of the association between parkland and psychological distress. PMID:23635303

2013-01-01

69

BURROWING OWL NESTING SUCCESS AT URBAN AND PARKLAND SITES IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1998 to 2004, we recorded nest numbers, success, density, and productivity rates of Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) living in an urban setting at the south end of the San Francisco Bay. We compared these measures for birds nesting in two different land use types, urban and parkland sites. There was no significant difference between urban and parkland sites in

LYNNE A. TRULIO; DEBRA A. CHROMCZAK

70

Agroforestry pathways for the intensification of shifting cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a system of land use which entails the deliberate association of trees with herbaceous field crops in time, shifting cultivation is one of the most ancient, widespread and, until recently, ecologically stable forms of agroforestry. However, under pressure of population and competing uses for land and labour, traditional swidden systems have been observed historically to undergo more or less

J. B. Raintree; K. Warner

1986-01-01

71

Agroforestry diffusion and secondary forest regeneration in the Brazilian Amazon: further findings from the Rondônia Agroforestry Pilot Project (1992–2002)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 1992 the Rondnia Agroforestry Pilot Project (RAPP) was launched in two agricultural municipalities (Nova Unio and\\u000a Alto Paraiso) in the western Brazilian Amazon State of Rondnia. The purpose of the RAPP was to assess the conditions under\\u000a which colonist farmers in the western Amazon would integrate agroforestry plantings into their small-scale farming systems\\u000a and to assess the performance

John O. Browder; Randolph H. Wynne; Marcos A. Pedlowski

2005-01-01

72

Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described.

Wright, L L; Ranney, J W

1991-01-01

73

Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC`s and environmental concerns are described.

Wright, L.L.; Ranney, J.W.

1991-12-31

74

Tillage and N-source influence soil-emitted nitrous oxide in the Alberta Parkland region  

SciTech Connect

Zero tillage systems are receiving attention as possible strategies for sequestering atmospheric carbon. This benefit may be offset by increased N2O emissions, which have been reported for soils under zero tillage (ZT) compared to those under more intensive tillage (IT). Comparisons of N2O emissions from the two systems have been restricted to the growing season, but substantial losses of N2O have been reported during spring thaw events in many regions. Inorganic and organic additions of nitrogen and fallowing have also been shown to increase levels of soil-emitted N2O. The objectives for this study were: (i) to confirm that losses of N2O are higher under ZT than under IT in Alberta Parkland agroecosystems; (ii) to compare the relative influence of urea fertilizer (56 or 100 kg N h--1), field pea residue (dry matter at 5 Mg h--1), sheep manure (dry matter at 40 Mg h--1) additions, and fallow on total N2O losses; and (iii) to investigate possible interactions between fertility and tillage treatments. Gas samples were collected using vented soil covers at three sites near Edmonton, Alberta during 1993, 1994, and 1995. Gas samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a 63Ni electron capture detector. Estimated annual N2O loss ranged from 0.1 to 4.0 kg N ha-1. Emissions during summer were slightly higher, similar, or lower on ZT compared to those under IT, but were consistently lower on ZT plots during spring thaw. Combined estimates (spring plus summer) of N2O loss under ZT were equal to or lower than those under IT. Highest overall losses were observed on fallow plots, followed by fertilizer, pea residue, and then either manure or control plots. We conclude that ZT management systems have potential for reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in the Alberta Parkland region.

Lemke , R L.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E D.

1999-01-01

75

Book (All chapters are peer-reviewed) Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry  

E-print Network

Book (All chapters are peer-reviewed) Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration. K. R., Nair, V. D., Kumar, B. M., and Showalter, J. M. 2010. Carbon sequestration in agroforestry Publications on Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems 2008 ­ 2011 (Contact: pknair@ufl.edu) #12;cacao

Hill, Jeffrey E.

76

Indigenous Agroforestry Initiatives for Protected Area Management: A Study of 'Support Zone' Villages of the Cross River National Park, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study explores the indigenous initiatives in agro-forestry for the purpose of intensifying cultivation, increasing productivity and reducing dependence on forest in settlements around the Cross River National Park, Nigeria. The study identified the most significant indigenous trees and plant species of present value to local farming systems; as well as determining the Agro-forestry skills and capabilities of farmers, through

Francis E. Bisong; Elizabeth E. Andrew-Essien; Adebayo I. Animashaun; Pius B. Utang

77

Agriculture-related injuries in the parkland region of Manitoba.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review a series of farm injuries in the parkland region of Manitoba, compare the collected data to similar studies, and provide a baseline for deriving effective preventive measures for the local community. DESIGN: Retrospective case study involving review of hospital charts. SETTING: The population studied was derived from the catchment area for Dauphin General Hospital, a referral centre servicing an agricultural region of 57,000 people. PATIENTS: Seventy-two patients were admitted to hospital between January 1981 and December 1991 after being injured by agricultural machines, farm animals, herbicides or other chemicals, and fertilizers. Four fatalities were identified through a review of local medical examiner records, for a total of 76 cases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The following data were abstracted for each case: sex, age, time and date of injury, cause, type of injury, and body part involved. RESULTS: Most cases involved men, between the ages of 20 and 69, during the afternoon and early evening with a seasonal peak in late summer. More than 60% of injuries were caused by agricultural machinery, followed by animal-related injuries (25%). Grain augers were the most common type of machine causing injury (35%). All patients younger than 9 years were female, and 75% of their injuries involved farm animals. A decreasing annual frequency of farm injuries was noted over the 11-year period. Fewer accidents involving farm machinery appear most responsible for this trend. CONCLUSIONS: Many agriculture-related injuries occur in the parkland region of Manitoba. The type and pattern of injuries observed resembles those documented in other studies. With effective education and preventive measures, most injuries and fatalities could be prevented. Physicians are obliged to encourage and support educational programs in their communities and to review safety practices with patients. Images p1191-a PMID:7647624

Young, S. K.

1995-01-01

78

Agroforestry for water management in the cropping zone of southern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry has been advocated as a means of managing excess water that has accumulated in the agricultural landscape of\\u000a southern Australia since clearing of native vegetation. This article examines the feasibility and profitability of agroforestry\\u000a systems designed to manage rising, saline watertables. A framework for Australian conditions is described that considers the\\u000a interactions between trees, crops and their below ground

E. C. Lefroy; R. J. Stirzaker

1999-01-01

79

Computer-based tools for decision support in agroforestry: Current state and future needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful design of agroforestry practices hinges on the ability to pull together very diverse and sometimes large sets of\\u000a information (i.e., biophysical, economic and social factors), and then implementing the synthesis of this information across\\u000a several spatial scales from site to landscape. Agroforestry, by its very nature, creates complex systems with impacts ranging\\u000a from the site or practice level up

E. A. Ellis; G. Bentrup; M. M. Schoeneberger

2004-01-01

80

Mandatory dedication of parkland in Texas: a survey of municipal practices  

E-print Network

Of Fees In Lieu Case Law in Texas Berg Development v. Missouri City College Station v. Turtle Rock Summary of Review Of Legal Issues 10 12 13 14 16 III RESEARCH DESIGN 18 Population Studied Data Collection Data Analysis 18 19 20 IV SURVEY... e tion v. Turtle Rock or or , the constitutionality of properly constructed municipal mandatory parkland dedication ordinances was finally affirmed. This effectively opened the door for Texas communities to enact parkland dedication ordinances...

Rockefeller, David Kenneth

2012-06-07

81

Tree domestication in tropical agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We execute tree ‘domestication’ as a farmer-driven and market-led process, which matches the intraspecific diversity of locally\\u000a important trees to the needs of subsistence farmers, product markets, and agricultural environments. We propose that the products\\u000a of such domesticated trees are called Agroforestry Tree Products (AFTPs) to distinguish them from the extractive tree resources\\u000a commonly referred to as non-timber forest products

A. J. Simons; R. R. B. Leakey

2004-01-01

82

Yield-SAFE: A parameter-sparse, process-based dynamic model for predicting resource capture, growth, and production in agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) is the cultivation of trees and arable crops on the same parcel of land. SAF may contribute to modern diversified land use objectives in Europe, such as enhanced biodiversity and productivity, reduced leaching of nitrogen, protection against flooding and erosion, and attractiveness of the landscape. Long-term yield predictions are needed to assess long-term economic profitability of SAF.2.A

Wopke van der Werf; Karel Keesman; Paul Burgess; Anil Graves; David Pilbeam; L. D. Incoll; Klaas Metselaar; Martina Mayus; Roel Stappers; Herman van Keulen; João Palma; Christian Dupraz

2007-01-01

83

Agroforestry performance on small farms in Amazonia: Findings from the Rondonia Agroforestry Pilot Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiences from not only ‘success stories’ but also ‘failed’ agroforestry projects provide potentially useful lessons for\\u000a future agroforestry-project designers. Experimental one-hectare agroforestry plots were established on 50 small-scale farms\\u000a in the western Brazilian Amazon State of Rondonia from 1993 to 1995. Drawing from a menu of 25 different species (10 tropical\\u000a hardwoods and softwoods and 15 fruits and palms), this

J. O. Browder; M. A. Pedlowski

2000-01-01

84

Agroforestry Management Effects on Plant Productivity Vectors within a Humid–Temperate Hardwood Alley-cropping System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic analyses have shown that combining hardwood trees and agricultural crops into alley-cropping systems has the potential\\u000a to increase the profitability of plantation forestry in the humid temperate midwestern USA (Williams and Gordon, 1992; Benjamin\\u000a et al. 2000). Traditionally in this region, trees and agronomic crops are grown separately in monocultural systems. Management\\u000a prescriptions for the combined systems (reviewed by

G. R. von Kiparski; A. R. Gillespie

85

Factors driving land use change: Effects on watershed functions in a coffee agroforestry system in Lampung, Sumatra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest cover in Sumberjaya declined from 60% to 10% over the past three decades; current land uses are a mosaic of smallholder coffee fields on slopes, and rice paddies and vegetables in the valleys. While deforestation was continuing at the forest frontier, farmers were already ‘re-treeing’ the landscape and many monoculture coffee gardens were gradually transformed into mixed systems with

Bruno Verbist; Andree Eka Dinata Putra; Suseno Budidarsono

2005-01-01

86

Smallholder Cacao (Theobroma cacao Linn.) cultivation in agroforestry systems of West and Central Africa: challenges and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultural features, management practice, environmental sustainability, and economic profitability of smallholder cacao\\u000a (Theobroma cacao)production in West and Central Africa are reviewed. The aim is tohighlight factors affecting the cacao production and marketing\\u000a sectorand to propose appropriate strategies to ensure sustainable and profitable cacao production in the region. The cacao\\u000a cultivation system causes minimum damage to soil resources. In terms

B. Duguma; J. Gockowski; J. Bakala

2001-01-01

87

From Imperata cylindrica grasslands to productive agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords:<\\/strong> Ecosystem, Agroforestry, Imperata cylindrica , pioneer, mycorrhizae, inter-cropping, tree architecture, biomass, functional branching analysisConversion of an Imperata cylindrica ecosystem into an agroforestry ecosystem is a complex process. Integrated control of the I . cylindrica grass is needed in combination with planting deep-rooted pioneer tree species, a legume cover crop and annual food crops. I . cylindrica grasslands are generally

Murniati

2002-01-01

88

Biotechnology and Agroforestry in Indian Arid Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agroforestry evolved with agriculture to make the best use of the land and to maintain equilibrium between man, land, livestock\\u000a and plants. In recent years, agroforestry has been developed as an autonomous science that can help farmers to increase profitability\\u000a and land sustainability. Tree growing in combination with agriculture, including individual farms, watersheds and regional\\u000a landscape can be integrated to

Varsha Sharma; Shaily Goyal; K. G. Ramawat

89

Impacts of public policies and farmer preferences on agroforestry practices in Kerala, India.  

PubMed

Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices. PMID:21461959

Guillerme, S; Kumar, B M; Menon, A; Hinnewinkel, C; Maire, E; Santhoshkumar, A V

2011-08-01

90

Adoption of agroforestry innovations in the tropics: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The period since the early 1990s has witnessed an explosion of research on the adoption of agroforestry innovations in the\\u000a tropics. Much of this work was motivated by a perceived gap between advances in agroforestry science and the success of agroforestry-based\\u000a development programs and projects. Achieving the full promise of agroforestry requires a fundamental understanding of how\\u000a and why farmers

D. E. Mercer

2004-01-01

91

Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agroforestry Practices in Temperate North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agroforestry, an ecologically and environmentally sustainable land use, offers great promise to sequester carbon (C). The\\u000a objectives of this chapter are to (1) provide a review of C sequestration opportunities available under various agroforestry\\u000a practices in temperate North America, and (2) estimate C sequestration potential by agroforestry in the US. Since accurate\\u000a land area under agroforestry was not available, the

Ranjith P. Udawatta; Shibu Jose

92

Parkland College Transfer Program Graduate Follow-Up Survey, 2001-2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents findings from the 2001-2002 Transfer Program Follow-Up Survey of Parkland College (Illinois) graduates. A total of 423 students from baccalaureate/transfer programs were contacted approximately 6 weeks after graduation. Of those, 253 returned surveys, for a response rate of 59.8%. More than 58% of respondents were female, 81%…

Parkland Coll., Champaign, IL. Office of Institutional Research and Evaluation.

93

Waterfowl-wetland relationships in the Aspen Parkland of British Columbia: comparison of analytical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the relationships between aquatic bird abundance and various pond features (physical and chemical) using data from 112 ponds located in the Aspen Parkland of British Columbia. As expected, pond size was the most important factor influencing the number of aquatic birds present. Total dissolved nitrogen, conductivity and calcium were positively associated with the abundance of several species whereas

Jean-Pierre L. Savard; W. Sean Boyd; G. E. John Smith

1994-01-01

94

Effects of climate change and land use on duck abundance in Canadian prairie-parklands  

SciTech Connect

Recent declines in breeding ducks in the Canadian prairie-parklands may be due to loss of habitat to agriculture. However, prairie-parkland also has experienced wetland loss to drought as well as to agriculture. For sucessful habitat restoration, it is important to separate the effects of anthropogenic changes to the landscape from those caused by changes in climate. The researchers used data from annual air-ground surveys and from precipitation records to develop relationships between indices of abundance of each of 10 species of ducks and indices of wetland conditions during 1955-1974. Average annual deficits within Canadian prairie-parkland over the period 1975-1989 were estimated at 1.2 x 10{sup 6} birds for both Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Northern Pintail (A. acuta), 480 000 for Blue-winged Teal (A. discors), 190 000 for American Wigeon (A. americana), 175 000 for Northern Shoveler (A. clypeata), 50 000 for Gadwall (A. strepera), 10 000 for Green-winged Teal (A. crecca), 40 000 for Canvasback (Aythya valisineria), 25 000 for Lesser Scaup (A. affinis), and 5000 for Redhead (A. americana). The effect of agricultural expansion in the east on prime waterfowl habitat since 1951 appears to have been negligible. There, as much as 90% had been already lost prior to 1951. In the west, however, where prime waterfowl habitat was still relatively abundant in 1951, agricultural development has encroached substantially. The relationship between the lost area of the best breeding habitats and the size of population deficits for Mallards and Northern Pintails in the entire Canadian prairie-parkland region was significant for both species (P < 0.0027 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Consequently, habitat restoration programs located where the highest quality waterfowl habitat and the lowest quality agricultural lands overlap most should have the greatest potential to affect recovery of breeding duck populations in the Canadian prairie-parklands. 39 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Bethke, R.W.; Nudds, T.D. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

1995-08-01

95

Forest management and agroforestry to sequester and conserve atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Global Change Research Program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), an assessment was initiated in 1990 to evaluate forest establishment and management options to sequester carbon and reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Three specific objectives are to: identify site-suitable technologies and practices that could be utilized to manage forests and agroforestry systems to sequester and conserve carbon; assess available data on site-level costs of promising forest and agroforestry management practices; evaluate estimates of technically suitable land in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets.

Schriwder, P.E.; Dixon, R.K.; Winjum, J.K.

1993-01-01

96

Litter Production and Soil Condition Under Agroforestry Trees in Two Agroecological Zones of Southern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree species in agroforestry systems contribute to soil improvement through the litter produced on the soil surface and below-ground modification of soil structure by tree roots. Therefore, litter production and soil characteristics under 11 tree species were evaluated in the derived savanna (Ibadan) and humid tropical forest (Onne) zones of southern Nigeria between 1998 and 1999 in 7-year old arboreta.

F. K. Salako; G. Tian

2005-01-01

97

Agroforestry - Helping to Achieve Sustainable Forest Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forestry is faced with the challenge of meeting an increasing demand for goods, as well as for an expanding array of services, like clean water, soil conservation, and wildlife habitat, from a fixed or shrinking land base. Solutions that balance forestry with the sustainability of other sectors, like agriculture and communities, are needed. Agroforestry, the deliberate cultivation of trees or

M. M. Schoeneberger; G. A. Ruark

98

Effect of carbofuran on selected macroinvertebrates in a prairie parkland pond: An enclosure approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of enclosures were placed in an alkaline, prairie parkland pond in Alberta, Canada. Seven enclosures served as controls, 7 were treated with a mid-July application of the carbamate insecticide, carbofuran at 5 ?g\\/L, and another 7 received a 25-?g\\/L application, a range of concentrations that could occur in a shallow pond (?1 m deep) following accidental contamination while

Mark Wayland

1991-01-01

99

Guide to monitoring carbon storage in forestry and agroforestry projects  

SciTech Connect

As the international Joint Implementation (JI) program develops a system for trading carbon credits to offset greenhouse gas emissions, project managers need a reliable basis for measuring the carbon storage benefits of carbon offset projects. Monitoring and verifying carbon storage can be expensive, depending on the level of scientific validity needed. This guide describes a system of cost-effective methods for monitoring and verification on a commercial basis, for three types of land use; forest plantations, managed natural forests and agroforestry. Winrock International`s Forest Carbon Monitoring Program developed this system with its partners as a way to provide reliable results using accepted principles and practices of forest inventory, soil science and ecological surveys. Perhaps most important, the system brings field research methods to bear on commercial-scale inventories, at levels of precision specified by funding agencies.

MacDicken, K.G.

1997-10-01

100

Evaluación física de tierras para cuatro sistemas agroforestales en los sectores Piedra Azul y la Ciénaga, estado Trujillo-Venezuela Land physical evaluation for four agroforestry systems in Piedra Azul and the Cienaga sectors, Trujillo State-Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of soil components was carried out in two pilot areas of 1.5 ha each, located in Piedra Azul and La Ciénaga sectors, pertaining to the Motatán River watershed, State of Trujillo, Venezuela. The purpose of the study was to determine the adaptability of some fruit and forestry species, sorted out by agro-forestry land use types (LUT). In order

Edgar Jaimes; José G. Mendoza; Rafael Rangel

2004-01-01

101

Agroforestry Practices, Runoff, and Nutrient Loss: A Paired Watershed Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

but vegetative filter strips have distinct advantages over other erosion control technologies (Robinson et al., A paired watershed study consisting of agroforestry (trees plus 1996). Normally, interest in the use of agroforestry prac- grass buffer strips), contour strips (grass buffer strips), and control treatments with a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max (L.) tices and contour grass strips for various

Ranjith P. Udawatta; J. John Krstansky; Gray S. Henderson; Harold E. Garrett

102

The potential of biotechnology in temperate agroforestry practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technologies in forest molecular biology and tissue culture could play an increasing role in the choice of genotypes for successful establishment of agroforestry practices. Research areas such as micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, genetic engineering, marker-aided selection, and molecular diagnostics are merging with traditional forest biological studies to help identify and produce better-suited trees for agroforestry plantings. A combination of classical and

N. B. Klopfenstein; J. G. Kerl

1995-01-01

103

Parkland and Golf Course Management: Managing Wildlife Habitat on Public Open Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses methods for managing parkland and golf courses in a wildlife-friendly manner. The article contains a number of practical tips for managing parks and golf courses, and covers such topics as lawn size, the use of native plants, and eco-friendly turf-grass management. The piece was authored by Amanda D. Rodewald Ph.D. of the School of Natural Resources at Ohio State University. Anyone in the Turf or Golf Management industry with a desire to improve the environmental consequences will find this article very useful.

Rodewald, Amanda D.

2006-12-04

104

SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction  

E-print Network

SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Roundtable (CAPR) GEO Forest Monitoring SymposiumGEO Forest Monitoring)Amazon Initiative Consortium (IA) #12;Carbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Carbon for Poverty Reduction

105

Application of Constructed Wetlands in Recycling, Agriculture and Agroforestry: Water Management for Changing Flow Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Increasingly, constructed wetland systems are being utilized for treatment and buffering of effluent and runoff water, functioning\\u000a in nutrient removal, disinfection and also as transitional environments in recycling applications. Agriculture and agroforestry\\u000a opportunities are abundant for water treated by wetland systems. Progressively, wetland use as a component in potable recycling\\u000a may be more acceptable in areas as changing flow regimes

Herbert John Bavor

106

Virtual trees and light capture: a method for optimizing agroforestry stand design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In agroforestry systems, the distribution of light transmitted under tree canopies can be a limiting factor for the development\\u000a of intercrops. The light available for intercrops depends on the quantity of light intercepted by tree canopies and, consequently,\\u000a on the architecture of the tree species present. The influence of tree architecture on light transmission was analysed using\\u000a dynamic 3D architectural

Céline Leroy; Sylvie Sabatier; Novi Sari Wahyuni; Jean-François Barczi; Jean Dauzat; Marilyne Laurans; Daniel Auclair

2009-01-01

107

Nature vs. nurture: managing relationships between forests, agroforestry and wild biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many agroforestry systems are found in places that otherwise would be appropriate for natural forests, and often have replaced\\u000a them. Humans have had a profound influence on forests virtually everywhere they both are found. Thus ‘natural’ defined as\\u000a ‘without human influence’ is a hypothetical construct, though one that has assumed mythological value among many conservationists.\\u000a Biodiversity is a forest value

J. A. McNeely

2004-01-01

108

Projecting the bird community response resulting from the adoption of shelterbelt agroforestry practices in Eastern Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolving agricultural policies have influenced management practices within agroecosystems, impacting available habitats for\\u000a many species of wildlife. Enhancing wildlife habitat has become an explicit objective of existing agricultural policy. Thus,\\u000a there is renewed focus on field borders and the use of shelterbelt agroforestry systems to achieve conservation goals in the\\u000a Midwest. Two Representative Farms – a 283-ha dryland and 510-ha

R. A. Pierce II; D. T. Farrand; W. B. Kurtz

2001-01-01

109

Water use by woody plants on contrasting soils in a savanna parkland: assessment with ?2H and ?18O  

Microsoft Academic Search

In savanna parklands of southern Texas, patches of grassland and ‘discrete clusters’ of small trees and shrubs occur on sandy loam surface soils underlain by an argillic horizon (claypan) at 40 cm. Large trees and shrubs in ‘groves’ occur on deep (2 m) sandy loam soils without an argillic horizon. d2H and d18O of rainfall, groundwater, and soil and plant

A. J. Midwood; T. W. Boutton; S. R. Archer; S. E. Watts

1998-01-01

110

The potential of agroforestry to increase primary production in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents a critical evaluation of agroforestry systems as regards their potential to increase primary production in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of West Africa. The suggestion that trees would always and everywhere be profitable for the region will be counterproductive, the basis for disappointments and a waste of money. One has to consider carefully which properties of woody

J. J. Kessler; H. Breman

1991-01-01

111

Directions in tropical agroforestry research: past, present, and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflections on the past two decades of organized research in tropical agroforestry raise several issues. Research efforts\\u000a started with an inductive and experiential approach but have subsequently followed a deductive and experimental approach that\\u000a includes hypothesis testing and the development of predictive capability; agroforestry research is thus being transformed\\u000a into a rigorous scientific activity. The research agenda, so far, has

P. K. R. Nair

1997-01-01

112

Trees of prosperity: Agroforestry, markets and the African smallholder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many developing countries, especially in Africa, farmers have been introduced to agroforestry with little consideration\\u000a for the markets for trees and tree products aside from potential productivity gains to food crops. It is now being recognized\\u000a that expanding market opportunities for smallholders particularly in niche markets and high value products is critical to\\u000a the success of agroforestry innovations. Some

D. Russell; S. Franzel

2004-01-01

113

Soil water content and infiltration in agroforestry buffer strips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry practices are receiving increased attention in temperate zones due to their environmental and economic benefits.\\u000a To test the hypothesis that agroforestry buffers reduce runoff by increased infiltration, water use, and water storage; profile\\u000a water content and soil water infiltration were measured for a Putnam soil (fine, smectitic, mesic Vertic Albaqualf). The watershed\\u000a was under no-till management with a corn

Stephen H. Anderson; Ranjith P. Udawatta; Tshepiso Seobi; Harold E. Garrett

2009-01-01

114

Comparison of three techniques using the Parkland Formula to aid fluid resuscitation in adult burns.  

PubMed

We performed a randomised study to compare the accuracy and speed of three different techniques (pen and paper, electronic calculator and a novel graphic device: 'nomogram') for calculation of resuscitation fluid requirements for adults in the first 24?h of burn injury, based on the Parkland Formula. We also assessed acceptability of each technique using visual analogue scores and qualitative analysis of free text responses. 28 participants performed 252 calculations using a series of computer generated simulated patient data. For nomogram, electronic calculator, pen and paper: Magnitude of error [low (?25%), medium (?50%), high (?75%)]: [6.0%, 1.2%, 0%], [17.9%, 14.3%, 8.3%], [25%, 16.7%, 9.5%]; p<0.002. Calculation time: [sec: mean (SD)]: 94(34), 73(31), 214(103); p<0.001. The mean (SD) of the difficulty scores for each method were 23(17), 17(14) and 70(21) out of 100. Of the 28 participants 15 preferred the calculator, 12 preferred the nomogram and 1 scored the calculator and nomogram equally (table 3). The nomogram was significantly more accurate at all levels, almost as fast as an electronic calculator, and deemed easy to use. It is low cost and robust, and provides a rapid means of detecting and preventing the large errors that we have shown can occur when an electronic device is used as the only method of calculation. We therefore suggest that the Parkland Formula nomogram is a suitable method for calculation of resuscitation fluid requirements in adult burns. Fluid requirement should, however, be reviewed frequently, and adjusted to ensure adequate organ perfusion. PMID:23793946

Theron, Abrie; Bodger, Owen; Williams, David

2014-09-01

115

The role of agroforestry in the farming systems in Rwanda with special reference to the Bugesera-Gisaka-Migongo (BGM) region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rwandan farmers, faced with a perpetual land shortage, have evolved certain intensive systems of organic agriculture. These systems, particularly the homestead (compound) farming, involve the combination of food, fodder and tree crops. to a certain extent these systems can satisfy the multiple needs of the subsistence farmers living under several risks and constraints. However, they cannot cope with the

V. Balasubramanian; A. Egli

1986-01-01

116

Factors Influencing Fish Distributions in Shallow Lakes in Prairie and Prairie-Parkland Regions of Minnesota, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish exert strong influences on shallow lakes, but managers lack empirical models useful for predicting fish distributions\\u000a at landscape scales. We used classification and regression tree analysis (CART), and regression to predict fish presence\\/absence\\u000a (P\\/A), richness, and community composition in 82 shallow lakes distributed among two regions (prairie and prairie-parkland)\\u000a along the eastern margin of the Prairie Pothole Region in

Brian R. Herwig; Kyle D. Zimmer; Mark A. Hanson; Melissa L. Konsti; Jerry A. Younk; Robert W. Wright; Sean R. Vaughn; Mitchell D. Haustein

2010-01-01

117

Seasonal distribution of nitrous oxide emissions from soils in the Parkland region  

SciTech Connect

The temporal variability of soil-derived N{sub 2}O emissions presents a major challenge to the accurate quantification of N{sub 2}O-N losses from agroecosystems. The authors characterized the seasonal distribution of N{sub 2}O emissions from two agricultural sites in the Parkland region of Alberta during 1993 and 1994. Treatments studied were fallow, and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with and without urea fertilizer, under conventional till management. Gas samples were collected from vented static soil chambers and were analyzed for N{sub 2}O with a gas chromatograph equipped with a {sup 63}Ni electron capture detector. Soil water content and concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N, NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N, and water-soluble organic C (WSOC) were measured several times during the season. A brief burst of N{sub 2}O emission was recorded at both sites during and immediately following spring snow melt. A second period of activity occurred between mid-June and mid-July. Between 16 and 60% of estimated annual N{sub 2}O-N loss occurred during spring thaw, while >80% of cumulative annual N{sub 2}O-N loss had occurred by mid-July. Mean soil NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentration explained up to 65% of the temporal variability in geometric mean N{sub 2}O emissions. A multiple regression model that included fall soil concentrations of No{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N, NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N, and WSOC explained 94% of the variability in estimated cumulative N{sub 2}O-N loss during the following spring thaw. Most N{sub 2}O-N losses in the Parkland region appear to occur during spring thaw and early summer; therefore, sampling schedules need to focus on these time periods. Management practices that minimize N availability during spring thaw may be an effective mitigation strategy for this region.

Lemke, R.L. [Agriculture and Agri-Food, Lethbridge, Alberta (Canada). Research Centre; Izaurralde, R.C. [Battelle PNNL, Washington, DC (United States); Nyborg, M. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources

1998-09-01

118

Traditional perennial crop-based agroforestry in West Java: the tradeoff between on-farm biodiversity and income  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry systems have been re-evaluated with a renewed scientific interest as appropriate models for achieving sustainable\\u000a production while maintaining planned and associated biodiversity and agroecosystem functioning. Traditional bamboo-tree gardens\\u000a in West Java are known to play substantial ecological and socioeconomic roles. In this study, we attempted to elucidate the\\u000a relationship between income generation and biodiversity by studying 83 bamboo-tree gardens

Satoru Okubo; Parikesit; Koji Harashina; Dendi Muhamad; Oekan S. Abdoellah; Kazuhiko Takeuchi

2010-01-01

119

Agroforestry training and extension: the experience from Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

An agroforestry project was funded by the US Agency for International Development and implemented by the Pan American Development Foundation in Haiti from 1981 to 1991. This project is considered by many to be one of the most successful projects of its kind in Haiti, and in the tropics as a whole. Over the ten years of its implementation, the

M. E. Bannister; S. J. Josiah

1993-01-01

120

Acacia nilotica and Medicago sativa, suitable plants for agro-forestry in southern coasts of Iran.  

PubMed

Habitats of the multipurpose tree, Acacia nilotica, were identified along the coastline of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, south of Iran. Four sites were randomly chosen and in each one, vegetation as well as climatic and soil characteristics were studied. Likewise, biometry of Acacia trees was conducted and compared in the sites. The fodder values in leaf and fruit of Acacia were determined and compared with those of in foliage of Medicago sativa being managed under an agro-forestry system. By analyzing data it was revealed that the biggest trees were found in Dashteyari region and the smallest in Bamani region (both in the Oman Sea coast). Values in most of nutritional elements were higher in foliage of Medicago than in leaf and fruit of Acacia, respectively. From this investigation it is concluded that in south of Iran where the site is favorable for Acacia plantation, cultivation of Medicago or other adaptable crops together with Acacia can be developed as agroforestry systems (such as undercropping and intercropping) if water is available. PMID:19086523

Emtehani, Mohammad Hassan; Tabari, Masoud

2007-05-15

121

Agroforestry adoption and maintenance: self-efficacy, attitudes and socio-economic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry is a key land use in the development of ecological corridors in tropical rainforests biomes. This research tested\\u000a the social dimensions of agroforestry adoption and maintenance in the Atlantic rainforest of Southern Bahia, Brazil. A quasi-experiment\\u000a research design compared a group of farmers who participated in an agroforestry development program with a group of similar\\u000a farmers who were not

Meghan M. McGinty; Mickie E. Swisher; Janaki Alavalapati

2008-01-01

122

Barriers and Coping Mechanisms Relating to Agroforestry Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe.Design\\/Methodology\\/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations.Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional agroforestry was common in the study area. There were no cases of innovative agroforestry other than dwindling remnants from

Munyaradzi Chitakira; Emmanuel Torquebiau

2010-01-01

123

Climate change: linking adaptation and mitigation through agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is the human enterprise that is most vulnerable to climate change. Tropical agriculture, particularly subsistence\\u000a agriculture is particularly vulnerable, as smallholder farmers do not have adequate resources to adapt to climate change.\\u000a While agroforestry may play a significant role in mitigating the atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG), it also\\u000a has a role to play in helping smallholder farmers

Louis V. Verchot; Meine Van Noordwijk; Serigne Kandji; Tom Tomich; Chin Ong; Alain Albrecht; Jens Mackensen; Cynthia Bantilan; K. V. Anupama; Cheryl Palm

2007-01-01

124

Root length dynamics in agroforestry with Gliricidia sepium as compared to sole cropping in the semi-deciduous rainforest zone of West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree root systems may improve soil fertility through carbon inputs, uptake of leachable nutrients and maintenance of soil\\u000a biomass, but can at the same time reduce crop yields by competition for water and nutrients. Quantitative information about\\u000a the positive and negative effects of tree roots and their changes in space and time are necessary for the optimization of\\u000a agroforestry associations.

Götz Schroth; Wolfgang Zech

1995-01-01

125

Agroforestry on alkali soils: Effect on some management practices on initial growth, biomass accumulation and chemical composition of selected tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

This field study started in July 1982 on a typical alkali soil (Aquic Natrustalf, ESP 99.7) examined the growth responses to some management practices in a unified system planned to establish agroforestry. The planting of 3 salt tolerant tree species with two methods: on flat natural surface (FSPB) without rainwater conservation and on ridges (0.6 m high, 1.5 m at

S. S. Grewal; I. P. Abrol

1986-01-01

126

Erratum to: Elephants Also Like Coffee: Trends and Drivers of Human–Elephant Conflicts in Coffee Agroforestry Landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world’s coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district\\u000a harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are\\u000a the cause of human–elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation

P. Bal; C. D. Nath; K. M. Nanaya; C. G. Kushalappa; C. Garcia

2011-01-01

127

Elephants Also Like Coffee: Trends and Drivers of Human–Elephant Conflicts in Coffee Agroforestry Landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world’s coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district\\u000a harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are\\u000a the cause of human–elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation

P. Bal; C. D. Nath; K. M. Nanaya; C. G. Kushalappa; C. Garcia

2011-01-01

128

Effect of five tree crops and a cover crop in multi-strata agroforestry at two fertilization levels on soil fertility and soil solution chemistry in central Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatio-temporal patterns of soil fertility and soil solution chemistry in a multi-strata agroforestry system with perennial\\u000a crops were analysed as indicators for the effects of crop species and management measures on soil conditions under permanent\\u000a agriculture in central Amazonia. The study was carried out in a plantation with locally important tree crop species and a\\u000a leguminous cover crop at

Götz Schroth; Wenceslau Geraldes Teixeira; Rosangela Seixas; Luciana Ferreira da Silva; Michaela Schaller; Jeferson L. V. Macêdo; Wolfgang Zech

2000-01-01

129

Community assessment of agroforestry opportunities in GaMothiba, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating environmentally sustainable and culturally sensitive approaches to natural resource management issues is a necessary\\u000a step towards improving livelihoods in rural South Africa. This study assessed the applicability of various agroforestry practices\\u000a to natural resource management issues in the village of GaMothiba located in the northwestern region of South Africa. Agroforestry\\u000a assessments were carried out using a community based approach

Anna Kelso; Michael Jacobson

130

Non-operator landowner interest in agroforestry practices in two Missouri watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land tenure has long been considered a critical factor in determining the adoption and long-term maintenance of agroforestry\\u000a practices. Empirical evidence from non-US settings has consistently shown that secure land tenure is positively associated\\u000a with agroforestry adoption. In the US, over 40% of private agricultural land is farmed by someone other than the owner. Given\\u000a the importance of land tenure

J. Gordon Arbuckle; Corinne Valdivia; Andrew Raedeke; John Green; J. Sanford Rikoon

2009-01-01

131

Effects of agroforestry-pasture associations on groundwater level and salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stream and land salinisation brought about by rising groundwater levels due to the clearing of native forest for agricultural\\u000a development is a major environmental and resource problem in Western Australia and several other semi-arid regions of the\\u000a world. One potential approach to reclamation with simultaneous economic benefits is agroforestry. To determine the effects\\u000a of agroforestry on groundwater level and salinity,

M. A. Bari; N. J. Schofield

1991-01-01

132

Program design for agroforestry extension in the south-eastern USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before prioritising regional agroforestry training and extension content, it is necessary to discover which practices are\\u000a common, what benefits are perceived, which barriers prevent use, and how people feel about practices. Agroforestry taps both\\u000a agriculture and forestry agencies to increase the possible set of educators for landowners and managers. Interdisciplinary\\u000a activities also present barriers to professionals unfamiliar with some topics

Sarah W. Workman; Martha C. Monroe; Alan J. Long

2005-01-01

133

Growth of widely spaced trees. A case study from young agroforestry plantations in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pessimistic forecasts often suggest that widely spaced trees enjoying free growth (no competition with other trees) will fail\\u000a to provide high quality timber. This challenges the temperate agroforestry practice of planting widely spaced trees to produce\\u000a high quality timber. We analyse tree growth data from recent temperate agroforestry plantations aged three to eight years,\\u000a featuring low tree plantation densities (50

P. Balandier; C. Dupraz

1998-01-01

134

Dinitrogen-fixation by three neotropical agroforestry tree species under semi-controlled field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivating dinitrogen-fixing legume trees with crops in agroforestry is a relatively common N management practice in the\\u000a Neotropics. The objective of this study was to assess the N2 fixation potential of three important Neotropical agroforestry tree species, Erythrina poeppigiana, Erythrina fusca, and Inga edulis, under semi-controlled field conditions. The study was conducted in the humid tropical climate of the Caribbean

Humberto A. Leblanc; Robert L. McGraw; Pekka Nygren

2007-01-01

135

ECOFARMING AND AGROFORESTRY FOR SELF-RELIANCE: Small-scale, Sustainable Growing Practices in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry concepts are applicable to both small-scale (family farm) and microscale (e.g., home garden) cultivation. However, there is little research on the relevance of gardening practices in temperate zones to agroforestry and vice versa. In Russia, microscale ecofarming is an extremely widespread, time-tested practice. Despite the minuscule size (600 m2) of individual plots and absence of machinery, cultivators have demonstrated

Leonid Sharashkin; Michael Gold; Elizabeth Barham

136

Markets and marketing strategies for agroforestry specialty products in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In agroforestry, marketing is unique for several reasons: many products typically lack established marketing institutions,\\u000a market information, and grade or quality standards. All that is known about the market for many agroforestry specialty products\\u000a is that someone is growing the product and consumers are buying it. What happens to the product as it moves through the value\\u000a chain from producer

M. A. Gold; L. D. Godsey; S. J. Josiah

2004-01-01

137

Trees, agroforestry and multifunctional agriculture in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern agriculture has deprived local communities in the tropics of their natural life-support system—the forest resource and the traditional knowledge about indigenous species—and this has not been replaced by employment opportunities or social services. This project in the west and northwest regions of Cameroon takes an innovative three-step approach to improving the lives of local people by establishing rural resource

Ebenezar K. Asaah; Zacharie Tchoundjeu; Roger R. B. Leakey; Bertin Takousting; James Njong; Innocent Edang

2011-01-01

138

Disentangling herbivore impacts on Populus tremuloides: a comparison of native ungulates and cattle in Canada's Aspen Parkland.  

PubMed

Ungulates impact woody species' growth and abundance but little is understood about the comparative impacts of different ungulate species on forest expansion in savanna environments. Replacement of native herbivore guilds with livestock [i.e., beef cattle (Bos taurus)] has been hypothesized as a factor facilitating trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) encroachment into grasslands of the Northern Great Plains. We used a controlled herbivory study in the Parklands of western Canada to compare the impact of native ungulates and cattle on aspen saplings. Native ungulate treatments included a mixed species guild and sequences of herbivory by different ungulates [bison (Bison bison subsp. bison), elk (Cervus elaphus) then deer (Odocoileus hemionus); or deer, elk, then bison]. Herbivory treatments were replicated in three pastures, within which sets of 40 marked aspen saplings (<1.8 m) were tracked along permanent transects at 2-week intervals, and compared to a non-grazed aspen stand. Stems were assessed for mortality and incremental damage (herbivory, leader breakage, stem abrasion and trampling). Final mortality was greater with exposure to any type of herbivore, but remained similar between ungulate treatments. However, among all treatments, the growth of aspen was highest with exposure only to cattle. Herbivory of aspen was attributed primarily to elk within the native ungulate treatments, with other forms of physical damage, and ultimately sapling mortality, associated with exposure to bison. Overall, these results indicate that native ungulates, specifically elk and bison, have more negative impacts on aspen saplings and provide evidence that native and domestic ungulates can have different functional effects on woody plant dynamics in savanna ecosystems. PMID:23649757

Bork, Edward W; Carlyle, Cameron N; Cahill, James F; Haddow, Rae E; Hudson, Robert J

2013-11-01

139

The Parkland Protocol's Modified Berne-Norwood Criteria Predict Two Tiers of Risk for Traumatic Brain Injury Progression.  

PubMed

Abstract As a basis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after traumatic brain injury (TBI), we have previously published an algorithm known as the Parkland Protocol. Patients are classified by risk for spontaneous progression of hemorrhage with chemoprophylaxis regimens tailored to each tier. We sought to validate this schema. In our algorithm, patients with any of the following are classified "low risk" for spontaneous progression: subdural hemorrhage ?8?mm thick; epidural hemorrhage ?8?mm thick; contusions ?20?mm in diameter; a single contusion per lobe; any amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage; or any amount of intraventricular hemorrhage. Patients with any injury exceeding these are "moderate risk" for progression, and any patient receiving a monitor or craniotomy is "high risk." From February 2010 to November 2012, TBI patients were entered into a dedicated database tracking injury types and sizes, risk category at presentation, and progression on subsequent computed tomgraphies (CTs). The cohort (n=414) was classified as low risk (n=200), moderate risk (n=75), or high risk (n=139) after first CT. After repeat CT scan, radiographic progression was noted in 27% of low-risk, 53% of moderate-risk, and 58% of high-risk subjects. Omnibus analysis of variance test for differences in progression rates was highly significant (p<0.0001). Tukey's post-hoc test showed the low-risk progression rate to be significantly different than both the moderate- and high-risk arms; no difference was noted between the moderate- and high-risk arms themselves. These criteria are a valid tool for classifying TBI patients into two categories of risk for spontaneous progression. This supports tailored chemoprophylaxis regimens for each arm. PMID:24945196

Pastorek, Rachel A; Cripps, Michael W; Bernstein, Ira H; Scott, William W; Madden, Christopher J; Rickert, Kim L; Wolf, Steven E; Phelan, Herb A

2014-10-15

140

The Parkland Protocol's Modified Berne-Norwood Criteria Predict Two Tiers of Risk for Traumatic Brain Injury Progression  

PubMed Central

Abstract As a basis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after traumatic brain injury (TBI), we have previously published an algorithm known as the Parkland Protocol. Patients are classified by risk for spontaneous progression of hemorrhage with chemoprophylaxis regimens tailored to each tier. We sought to validate this schema. In our algorithm, patients with any of the following are classified “low risk” for spontaneous progression: subdural hemorrhage ?8?mm thick; epidural hemorrhage ?8?mm thick; contusions ?20?mm in diameter; a single contusion per lobe; any amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage; or any amount of intraventricular hemorrhage. Patients with any injury exceeding these are “moderate risk” for progression, and any patient receiving a monitor or craniotomy is “high risk.” From February 2010 to November 2012, TBI patients were entered into a dedicated database tracking injury types and sizes, risk category at presentation, and progression on subsequent computed tomgraphies (CTs). The cohort (n=414) was classified as low risk (n=200), moderate risk (n=75), or high risk (n=139) after first CT. After repeat CT scan, radiographic progression was noted in 27% of low-risk, 53% of moderate-risk, and 58% of high-risk subjects. Omnibus analysis of variance test for differences in progression rates was highly significant (p<0.0001). Tukey's post-hoc test showed the low-risk progression rate to be significantly different than both the moderate- and high-risk arms; no difference was noted between the moderate- and high-risk arms themselves. These criteria are a valid tool for classifying TBI patients into two categories of risk for spontaneous progression. This supports tailored chemoprophylaxis regimens for each arm. PMID:24945196

Pastorek, Rachel A.; Cripps, Michael W.; Bernstein, Ira H.; Scott, William W.; Madden, Christopher J.; Rickert, Kim L.; Wolf, Steven E.

2014-01-01

141

Taxonomic diversity of bacteria associated with the roots of field-grown transgenic Brassica napus cv. Quest, compared to the non-transgenic B. napus cv. Excel and B. rapa cv. Parkland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and diversity of the bacterial community associated with plant roots is influenced by a variety of plant factors such as root density and exudation. In turn, these factors are influenced by plant breeding programs. This study assessed the diversity of root-endophytic and rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with three canola cultivars (Parkland, Brassica rapa; Excel, B. napus; and Quest,

S. D Siciliano; J. J Germida

1999-01-01

142

Pattern and potential causes of White-faced Ibis, Plegadis chihi, establishment in the northern prairie and parkland region of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Northern Prairie and Parkland Waterbird Conservation Plan calls for renewed attention to determining the current status of waterbird populations, their distributions, and conservation needs. It highlights the need for baseline information on the White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi). In response, we examined the historical and current distribution of the ibis in North Dakota and summarized first sightings and nest records for the provinces and other states composing the northern prairie and parkland region. The establishment of breeding colonies of White-faced Ibis here may be due to climate and precipitation patterns, invasion and spread of Narrowleaf Cattail (Typha angustifolia), changes in agricultural practices, habitat loss and range expansion in the southern and western portions of the species' range, and increases in ibis populations in the Intermountain West. We placed special emphasis on North Dakota, a state for which there is scant published information concerning the current status of this species. In recent decades, the ibis has become a regular breeding-season resident in North Dakota and in other areas of the northern prairie and parkland region. From 1882 to 2002, there were 145 reports of one or more White-faced Ibis in North Dakota, including 93 reports during the breeding season (15 May to 31 August), 49 during the non-breeding season (1 September to 14 May), and three for which the season of occurrence was not reported. Prior to the 1960s, there were only three records of the species in North Dakota. Observations of White-faced Ibises in North Dakota increased dramatically between the 1960s and the early 21st century, and the species has been observed nearly annually since 1971. The first White-faced Ibis nesting activity in the state was recorded in 1978, and to date, there have been 21 known records of nesting activity in the state. The species nested in large (>300 ha) semipermanent or permanent wetlands within mixed-species colonies ranging in areal extent from small (0.1 ha) to fairly large (27 ha), and colonies were located in patches of emergent vegetation dominated by cattails (Typha) and bulrushes (Scirpus). We classify the White-faced Ibis as a fairly common migrant and a locally uncommon breeder east of the Missouri River and a casual migrant west of the Missouri River.

Shaffer, J.A.; Knutsen, G.A.; Martin, R.E.; Brice, J.S.

2008-01-01

143

Defining competition vectors in a temperate alley cropping system in the midwestern USA: 4. The economic return of ecological knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the economic value of ecological knowledge in a midwestern USA alley-cropping system where row crops are planted in alleys between fine hardwood trees grown for veneer. Economic models were constructed to compare among agroforestry designs as well as to compare agroforestry with traditional forest plantation culture and row crop monoculture and rotational management. The general modeling approach was

T. J. Benjamin; W. L. Hoover; J. R. Seifert; A. R. Gillespie

2000-01-01

144

Factors Affecting Agroforestry Sustainability in Bee Endemic Parts of Southeastern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts, in an exploratory manner, to identify the various ways in which unsustainable beekeeping and honey hunting practices result in the loss of important multi-purpose agroforestry tree species in bee endemic parts of Southeastern Nigeria. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches (Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA), community fora, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and semi-structured interview schedules) were used

Chukwuemeka U. Okoye; Agwu E. Agwu

2008-01-01

145

Agroforestry innovations for soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa: Prospects and challenges ahead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving soil fertility is a key entry point for achieving food security, reducing poverty and preserving the environment for smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the high cost of inorganic fertiliz- ers, an integrated approach that combines promising agroforestry technologies - particularly improved fallows and biomass transfer - with locally available and reactive phosphate rock - such as the Min-

Bashir Jam; Freddie Kwesiga; Amadou Niang

146

UniversityofFloridaSchoolofForestResources&Conservation The SFRC has 54 full-time faculty specializing in areas that include agroforestry, aquaculture, aquatic animal health, biological  

E-print Network

-time faculty specializing in areas that include agroforestry, aquaculture, aquatic animal health, biological from Orlando, Tallahassee, Jacksonville and Tampa. The Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean

Florida, University of

147

Effect of agroforestry woody species on earthworm activity and physicochemical properties of worm casts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of five agroforestry woody species (Dactyladenia barteri, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Senna siamea andTreculia africana) on the surface aasting activity ofHyperiodrilus africanus were studied in an Alfisol (Oxic Paleustalf) in southwestern Nigeria. Casting activity under the woody species decreased in the following order:Dactyladenia sp. (26.4 Mg ha-1 year-1)>Gliricidia sp. (24.4 Mg ha-1 year-1)>Treculia sp. (22.9 Mg ha-1 year-1)>Leucaena

B. T. Kang; F. K. Akinnifesi; J. L. Pleysier

1994-01-01

148

Ice Damage in a Chronosequence of Agroforestry Pine Plantations in Arkansas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute (broken and leaning) and transient (bending) damage to loblolly pine (Pinus taedaL.) were assessed in a case study of experimental agroforestry plantations following a December 2000 ice storm. Stand ages were 7-, 9-, and 17-years-old and tree density ranged from 150 to 3,360 trees ha in rectangular and multi-row configurations. Wider tree spacing or lower stand density of 7-year-old

David M. Burner; Adrian Ares

2003-01-01

149

GHG Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - Relative role for agroforestry  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

2004-01-01

150

Evaluation of 15 indigenous and introduced species for reforestation and agroforestry in northeastern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coast of the Gulf of Mexico is characterized by dry regions with high variation in climatic conditions. This area is rich\\u000a in drought-tolerant or subhumid species. The species that are potentially useful for reforestation, regreening, agroforestry\\u000a activities and the production of timber, fodder, fuelwood and human food have been overexploited, resulting in the gradual\\u000a decrease and degradation of their

F. Foroughbakhch; L. A. Háuad; A. E. Cespedes; E. E. Ponce; N. González

2001-01-01

151

Forage legumes as living mulches for trees in agroforestry practices -- preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful establishment and growth of tree seedlings in an agroforestry practice is dependent on the control of competing\\u000a herbaceous vegetation. Conventional weed control methods (i.e., chemical, mechanical, and physical suppression) are effective\\u000a but can be costly in terms of time, damage to non-target vegetation, or increased soil erosion. Alternatively, some living\\u000a mulches can exclude undesirable vegetation, protect the soil, compete

J. L. Alley; H. E. Garrett; R. L. McGraw; J. P. Dwyer; C. A. Blanche

1998-01-01

152

USE OF HERBICIDE TO REDUCE STUMP-SPROUTING FOLLOWING THINNING OF AN EASTERN BLACK WALNUT AGROFORESTRY PLANTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

When establishing an agroforestry practice, the number of trees planted will often exceed the densities needed to achieve a final spacing or configuration. While tight spacings may facilitate certain growth parameters, such as height development, timely thinnings of plantings are required in order to maintain desirable growth rates. In managed plantations especially, the stump sprouts that often result from thinnings

Larry D. Godsey

153

The role of agroforestry in industrialized nations: the southern hemisphere perspective with special emphasis on Australia and New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry in Australia and New Zealand is dominated by silvopastoralism. Farmers may employ combinations of shelterbelts, shade trees, widely spaced trees over pasture, or more densely planted woodlots. In addition to wood production and shelter, erosion control, amenity and landscape planting, and conservation of natural forest are often important. Many farm forestry people show considerable innovation.In temperate wetter areas of

D. J. Mead

1995-01-01

154

Guide to monitoring carbon storage in forestry and agroforestry projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the international Joint Implementation (JI) program develops a system for trading carbon credits to offset greenhouse gas emissions, project managers need a reliable basis for measuring the carbon storage benefits of carbon offset projects. Monitoring and verifying carbon storage can be expensive, depending on the level of scientific validity needed. This guide describes a system of cost-effective methods for

K. G. MacDicken

1997-01-01

155

Changes in phosphorus concentrations and pH in the rhizosphere of some agroforestry and crop species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to assess whether agroforestry species have the ability to acquire P from pools unavailable to maize. Tithonia diversifolia(Hemsley) A. Gray, Tephrosia vogelii Hook f., Zea mays and Lupinus albusL. were grown in rhizopots and pH change and depletion of inorganic and organic P pools measured in the rhizosphere. Plants were harvested at the same

T. S. George; P. J. Gregory; J. S. Robinson; R. J. Buresh

2002-01-01

156

Elephants also like coffee: trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.  

PubMed

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders. PMID:21359868

Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

2011-05-01

157

Erratum to: Elephants also like coffee: Trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.  

PubMed

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders. PMID:21751010

Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

2011-08-01

158

Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In KhammamDistrict Of India  

SciTech Connect

Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.

Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

2007-06-01

159

Analysis of the carbon sequestration costs of afforestation and reforestation agroforestry practices and the use of cost curves to evaluate their potential for implementation of climate change mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon sequestration in forest sinks is an important strategy to remove greenhouse gases and to mitigate climate change; however its implementation has been limited under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol which has not created the incentives for widespread implementation. The objective of this paper is to analyze the sequestration costs of agroforestry afforestation and reforestation projects (ARPs)

Arturo Balderas Torres; Rob Marchant; Jon C. Lovett; James C. R. Smart; Richard Tipper

2010-01-01

160

Walnut as a farm crop in the Netherlands: an agroforestry project in the east and selection of cultivars for organic cultivation in the north  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign and Dutch walnut cultivars have been evaluated in experiments at the Research Station for Fruit Growing located in the Southwest. The cultivars that performed best in these trials originated from British Columbia (`Broadview¿) and The Netherlands (`Buccaneer¿). In an agroforestry project in the East, 8 farms planted 10 ha of walnut (`Broadview¿, `Buccaneer¿), cherry and sweet chestnut at a

A. Oosterbaan; H. Schepers; E. Kwanten

2006-01-01

161

Modeling Multifunctional Agroforestry Systems with Environmental Values: Dehesa in Spain and Woodland Ranches in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high environmental and amenity values of Mediterranean oak woodlands influence the response of the public and landowners\\u000a to market forces and to public policies for the management of oak woodland areas. In California and in Spain, woodlands with\\u000a a Quercus overstory open enough to allow the development of a significant grassy or shrubby understory harbor exceptional\\u000a levels of biodiversity,

Pablo Campos; Alejandro Caparrós; Emilio Cerdá; Lynn Huntsinger; Richard B. Standiford

162

Inorganic and organic soil phosphorus and sulfur pools in an Amazonian multistrata agroforestry system  

E-print Network

. Kaiser1 1 Institute of Soil Science and Soil Geography, University of Bayreuth, Germany; current address, Hamburg, Germany; 3 Institute of Physical Geography, University of Erlangen, Germany; 4 Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (Embrapa)- Amazônia Ocidental, Manaus, Brazil (*Author for correspondence: E

Lehmann, Johannes

163

An Indigenous Pacific Island Agroforestry System: Pohnpei Bill Raynor James Fownes2  

E-print Network

inter- views, farm family demographic data was also recorded. Seasonality of major crops was observed in transect across 57 randomly-selected farms. Data were collected on species and cultivar presence, size that about 50 farms would be sur

Standiford, Richard B.

164

Davide Pettenella and Enrico Vidale Dept. Landuse and Agro-forestry Systems  

E-print Network

of Padua - Italy Jornadas técnicas internacionales Solsona; 12 February 2010 MARKETING OF WILD EDIBLE FUNGI framework a. WEF regulations b. Truffles regulations #12;18-02-2010 3 Food-safety laws Mushroom laws Forest

Pettenella, Davide

165

Implications of heterogeneity on procedures for estimating plant 15N recovery in hedgerow intercrop system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen flows in agroforestry systems can be quantified by applying excess 15N to one pool or part of the system and subsequently measuring the quantity of 15N in other pools. Accurate quantifications depend on accurate determination of the mass, percentage N, and percentage 15N enrichment of each pool and past studies have mainly used physically isolated subplots to reduce variability.

E. C. Rowe; G. Cadisch

2002-01-01

166

Implications of heterogeneity on procedures for estimating plant 15 N recovery in hedgerow intercrop systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen flows in agroforestry systems can be quantified by applying excess 15N to one pool or part of the system and subsequentlymeasuring the quantity of 15N in other pools. Accurate quantifications depend on accurate determination of the mass, percentage N, and percentage 15N enrichment of each pool and past studies have mainly used physically isolated subplots to reduce variability. We

E. C. Rowe; G. Cadisch

2002-01-01

167

Soil respiration and microbial biomass in a pecan — cotton alley cropping system in Southern USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available on soil respiration and microbial biomass in soils under agroforestry systems. We measured soil respiration rate and microbial biomass under two age classes (young and old) of a pecan (Carya illinoinensis) — cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) alley cropping system, two age classes of pecan orchards, and a cotton monoculture on a well-drained, Redbay sandy loam (a fine-loamy,

K.-H. Lee; S. Jose

2003-01-01

168

Soil water dynamics in cropping systems containing Gliricidia sepium , pigeonpea and maize in southern Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water dynamics of cropping systems containing mixtures of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp trees with maize (Zea mays L.) and\\/or pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) were examined during three consecutive cropping seasons. The trees were pruned before and during each cropping season, but were left unpruned after harvesting the maize; prunings were returned to the cropping area in all agroforestry systems

Paxie W. Chirwa; Chin K. Ong; Jumanne Maghembe; Colin R. Black

2007-01-01

169

Characterization of nutrient transport below the root zone of a willow plantation irrigated with municipal waste water in the Boreal-Parkland transition zone, Alberta, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irrigation of willow and poplar species with municipal waste water offers municipalities a variety of opportunities including reduced energy and waste management costs and preservation of surface water quality. Municipal waste water contains various nutrients that are beneficial to plants such as nitrogen and phosphorus. The woody species reduce treatment costs by further removing many of these nutrients and potentially using the resulting biomass to fuel the facilities. Diversion of municipal waste water from rivers and water bodies improves water quality by reducing the amount of nutrients entering water bodies, decreasing pollution such as eutrophication. As found by many European countries, the bioenergy combined with waste water treatment approach is promising but there are environmental drawbacks including nutrient leaching to groundwater and degradation to soil hydraulic properties. Various nitrogen forms like nitrate are of concern due to impacts on human and environmental health, most notably methemoglobinemia in infants. The overall objective of this research is to assess ecosystem resilience and sustainability with repeated applications of municipal wastewater over the life cycle of a willow plantation. The specific objective of this presentation is to quantify nutrient transport below the root zone of a poplar plantation previously irrigated with municipal waste water under natural climatic conditions using soil solution samplers at 4 depths (50 cm, 90 cm, 120 cm and 150 cm). Meteorological data (precipitation, temperature, evaporimeter) was collected as well. Transport of conservative tracers, bromide and chloride, are compared to the transport of nutrients (nitrogen forms and DOC,). Parameterization of the measured breakthrough curves may be used to predict future nutrient fluxes. The goal of this research is to improve the design of municipal waste water subsurface irrigation systems by minimizing leaching and water losses.

Gainer, A. E.; Dyck, M. F.; Kachanoski, G.

2010-12-01

170

DETERMINACIÓN DE LAS RESERVAS DE CARBONO DE LA BIOMASA AÉREA, EN DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE USO DE LA TIERRA EN SAN MARTÍN, PERU DETERMINATION OF CARBON RESERVES OF THE AERIAL BIOMASS IN DIFFERENT LAND USE SYSTEMS IN SAN MARTIN, PERU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon (C) reserves of the aerial biomass were determined, to evaluate the potential of C captures in different land uses in the region of, San Martin, Perú. The land use systems (LUS) were: Primary forest, secondary forest of different ages, traditional agricultural maize systems (Zea maiz), rice (Oriza Sativa), pastures (Brachiaria) and coffee agroforestry systems (Coffea arabica) under shade and

Tatiana Lapeyre; Julio Alegre; Luis Arévalo

2004-01-01

171

Soil, water and nutrient conservation in mountain farming systems: case-study from the Sikkim Himalaya.  

PubMed

The Khanikhola watershed in Sikkim is agrarian with about 50% area under rain-fed agriculture representing the conditions of the middle mountains all over the Himalaya. The study was conducted to assess overland flow, soil loss and subsequent nutrient losses from different land uses in the watershed, and identify biotechnological inputs for management of mountain farming systems. Overland flow, soil and nutrient losses were very high from open agricultural (cropped) fields compared to other land uses, and more than 72% of nutrient losses were attributable to agriculture land use. Forests and large cardamom agroforestry conserved more soil compared to other land uses. Interventions, like cultivation of broom grass upon terrace risers, N2-fixing Albizia trees for maintenance of soil fertility and plantation of horticulture trees, have reduced the soil loss (by 22%). Soil and water conservation values (> 80%) of both large cardamom and broom grass were higher compared to other crops. Use of N2-fixing Albizia tree in large cardamom agroforestry and croplands contributed to soil fertility, and increased productivity and yield. Bio-composting of farm resources ensured increase in nutrient availability specially phosphorus in cropped areas. Agricultural practices in mountain areas should be strengthened with more agroforestry components, and cash crops like large cardamom and broom grass in agroforestry provide high economic return and are hydroecologically sustainable. PMID:11381770

Sharma, E; Rai, S C; Sharma, R

2001-02-01

172

Part 2, Chapter 2 From shifting agriculture to sustainable rubber agroforestry  

E-print Network

deforestation" , Ed D. Babin, UNESCO/CIRAD. Novembre 2004, p 221-250. CIRAD-TERA ABSTRACT The plains of Sumatra "external technical innovations" such as clones, fertilization and good tapping systems and the use

Boyer, Edmond

173

Impacts of Public Policies and Farmer Preferences on Agroforestry Practices in Kerala, India  

E-print Network

which are critical for a vibrant and diversified agriculture that addresses both ecological systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer

Boyer, Edmond

174

Transaction and abatement costs of carbon-sink projects: An analysis based on Indonesian agroforestry systems1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of global warming, together with the creation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and associated institutions, has sparked intense interest and research in the energy and forestry sectors. Projects in the forestry sector, and land-use change and forestry projects (LUCF) more generally, have the potential to help mitigate global warming by acting as sinks for

OSCAR J. CACHO; GRAHAM R. MARSHALL; MARY MILNE

2002-01-01

175

Phosphorus in agroforestry systems : a contribution to sustainable agriculture in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Zona da Mata is a region situated in the domain of the Atlantic Coastal Rainforest in the southeast of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This domain stretches along the Brazilian coast from north to south and ranks among the top five of the 25 biodiversity hotspots, the richest and the most threatened reservoirs of plant and animal life

I. M. Cardoso

2002-01-01

176

Screening indigenous tree species for suitable tree–crop combinations in the agroforestry system of Mizoram, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted in the northeastern state of Mizoram in India to find out the allelopathic effect of trees on agricultural crops. The study was conducted in a bioassay culture and a pot culture. The following results were received: • In the bioassay culture, the germination and radicle length of all food crops decreased in leaf and bark extracts

Munesh Kumar; S Singshi; B Singh

2008-01-01

177

Environmental Information Systems and Community-Based Resource Management in Ghana: An Investigation of Institutional Policy and Implementation in Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employed a case-study approach and cross-case analysis to investigate the impact of Environmental Information Systems (EIS) and Local Knowledge Systems (LKS) on agro-forestry management and biodiversity conservation. Questionnaire-based interviews with service providers, resource managers and focus group discussions with farmers associated with the United Nations Capacity 21, the Netherlands Tropenbos International (TBI) and the United Nations Project on

Abednego Ayitey Aryee

2007-01-01

178

Nutrient cycling under mixed-species tree systems in southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eucalyptus and Acacia are two tree genera that are commonly used in industrial plantations and as components of agroforestry\\u000a systems in southeast Asia. These fast-growing trees are mostly grown in monocultures. However, questions are now being raised\\u000a about the long-term sustainability of their growth as well as their effects on site quality. Losses of N and P from the site

P. K. Khanna

1997-01-01

179

Effects of tree shading on maize crop within a Poplar-maize compound system in Hexi Corridor oasis, northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of tree shading on crop within agroforestry system in the oasis regions or under irrigation agriculture are poorly\\u000a understood. Objective was to determine maize yield variation and its reasons when tall Poplar trees (Populus gansuensis) were grown in western and eastern margins of the crop field in Hexi Corridor desert oasis in northwestern China. Maize growing\\u000a among the 50 m

Songshuang Ding; Peixi Su

2010-01-01

180

Seasonal dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plants of Theobroma grandiflorum Schum and Paullinia cupana Mart. of aN agroforestry system in Central Amazonia, Amazonas State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonal dynamics of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) was investigated in the rhizosphere of two fruit species in a terra firme (upland) ecosystem in Central Amazonia. Two host species (Theobroma grandiflorum and Paullinia cupana) and nine sampling months (August, September and December\\/1998, February, April, May and December\\/1999, February and May\\/2000) were studied in a completely randomized design, with five replications,

Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira; Luiz Antonio de Oliveira

2005-01-01

181

Recent Transitions in Ethiopian Homegarden Agroforestry: Driving  

E-print Network

of labour and income, gender roles and gender power relations have not been properly addressed. Therefore the land uses change affects the lives of farm women and men, their gender roles and the gender power share and distribution of income, gender role of women and men, and the household gender power

182

Effects of different agricultural systems on soil quality in Northern Limón province, Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Conversion of native rainforest ecosystems in Limón Province of Costa Rica to banana and pineapple monoculture has led to reductions in biodiversity and soil quality. Agroforestry management of cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an alternative system that may maintain the agricultural livelihood of the region while more closely mimicking native ecosystems. This study compared physical, biological and chemical soil quality indicators of a cacao plantation under organic agroforestry management with banana, pineapple, and pasture systems; a native forest nearby served as a control. For bulk density and earthworm analysis, 18 samples were collected between March and April 2012 from each ecosystem paired with 18 samples from the cacao. Cacao had a lower bulk density than banana and pineapple monocultures, but greater than the forest (p < 0.05). Cacao also hosted a greater number and mass of earthworms than banana and pineapple (p < 0.05), but similar to forest and pasture. For soil chemical characteristics, three composite samples were collected in March 2012 from each agroecosystem paired with three samples from the cacao plantation. Forest and pineapple ecosystems had the lowest pH, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable nutrient cations, while cacao had the greatest (p < 0.05). Total nutrient levels of P and N were slightly greater in banana, pineapple and pasture than in cacao; probably related to addition of chemical fertilizer and manure from cattle grazing. Forest and cacao also had greater %C, than other ecosystems, which is directly related to soil organic matter content (p < 0.0001). Overall, cacao had more favorable physical, biological and chemical soil characteristics than banana and pineapple monocultures, while trends were less conclusive compared to the pastureland. While organic cacao was inferior to native forest in some soil characteristics such as bulk density and organic carbon, its soil quality did best mimic that of the native forest. This supports the organic cultivation of cacao as a desirable alternative to banana and pineapple monoculture. PMID:25412521

Cornwell, Emma

2014-09-01

183

Assessing Conservation Values: Biodiversity and Endemicity in Tropical Land Use Systems  

PubMed Central

Despite an increasing amount of data on the effects of tropical land use on continental forest fauna and flora, it is debatable whether the choice of the indicator variables allows for a proper evaluation of the role of modified habitats in mitigating the global biodiversity crisis. While many single-taxon studies have highlighted that species with narrow geographic ranges especially suffer from habitat modification, there is no multi-taxa study available which consistently focuses on geographic range composition of the studied indicator groups. We compiled geographic range data for 180 bird, 119 butterfly, 204 tree and 219 understorey plant species sampled along a gradient of habitat modification ranging from near-primary forest through young secondary forest and agroforestry systems to annual crops in the southwestern lowlands of Cameroon. We found very similar patterns of declining species richness with increasing habitat modification between taxon-specific groups of similar geographic range categories. At the 8 km2 spatial level, estimated richness of endemic species declined in all groups by 21% (birds) to 91% (trees) from forests to annual crops, while estimated richness of widespread species increased by +101% (trees) to +275% (understorey plants), or remained stable (- 2%, butterflies). Even traditional agroforestry systems lost estimated endemic species richness by - 18% (birds) to - 90% (understorey plants). Endemic species richness of one taxon explained between 37% and 57% of others (positive correlations) and taxon-specific richness in widespread species explained up to 76% of variation in richness of endemic species (negative correlations). The key implication of this study is that the range size aspect is fundamental in assessments of conservation value via species inventory data from modified habitats. The study also suggests that even ecologically friendly agricultural matrices may be of much lower value for tropical conservation than indicated by mere biodiversity value. PMID:21298054

Waltert, Matthias; Bobo, Kadiri Serge; Kaupa, Stefanie; Montoya, Marcela Leija; Nsanyi, Moses Sainge; Fermon, Heleen

2011-01-01

184

Leaf dynamics, stemflow and throughfall water and nutrient inputs in a subtropical savanna parkland, Texas  

E-print Network

Deciduous Coriaceous Deciduous/ Goriacecus everrIreen Smooth Tree oz' ~; 1, 3 rounded crown Smooth Shrub or tree 1, 3 Smooth Small tree 1, 3 or large shrub 1, 3 Spiny ha~ (~Mlt' ll'da Il Agarito (Berberis trifoliolata Moric. ) Deciduous... rn 20 n In 2 400 BERBERIS DI 0 8PYR0 8 ZANTHOXYLUM LSD sso[ . : LSD~ 80 m 40 rn r Z 80 rn 40 g 60 E E ~ 40 IL IL 20 HAIL STORM o ~ * 's oo 60 E 40 E I- IL 20 HAIL STORM o t J S N J J S N J 1987 1988 1989 DATE J...

Angerer, Jay Peter

2012-06-07

185

Shift of Conifer Boreal Forest to Lichen–Heath Parkland Caused by Successive Stand Disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the southern boreal forest (Québec, Canada), tree harvesting is a major disturbance affecting the dominant black spruce ( Picea mariana) stands already suffering from naturally recurrent insect and fire disturbances. Although recovery of the spruce forest after an insect infestation or a fire is possible under current site conditions, it is less likely when both types of disturbance occur

Serge Payette; Ann Delwaide

2003-01-01

186

Variation in woody plant ? 13 C along a topoedaphic gradient in a subtropical savanna parkland  

Microsoft Academic Search

?13C values of C3 plants are indicators of plant carbon–water relations that integrate plant responses to environmental conditions. However,\\u000a few studies have quantified spatial variation in plant ?13C at the landscape scale. We determined variation in leaf ?13C, leaf nitrogen per leaf area (Narea), and specific leaf area (SLA) in April and August 2005 for all individuals of three common

Edith Bai; Thomas W. Boutton; Feng Liu; X. Ben Wu; Steven R. Archer

2008-01-01

187

IMPLANTAÇÃO, MANEJO E UTILIZAÇÃO DO SISTEMA AGROFLORESTAL CERCAS VIVAS DE Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud. NA COSTA RICA (Establishment, management and utilization of agroforestry systems (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud.), living fences, in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

O melhor aproveitamento de agroecossiste mas pouco produtivos, para a racionalização no uso da terra e a identificação de espécies para usos múltiplos, que cumpram objetivos sócio-econômicos e ecológicos, são aspectos que justificam esse trabalho. Efetuou-se um levantamento, a nível de Costa Rica, com o intuito de codificar o conhecimento dos agricultores quanto aos fatores que influem na implantação, manejo

Amilton J. Baggio; Jochen Heuveldop

188

Organic matter contribution to soil fertility improvement and maintenance in red Alder ( Alnus rubra ) silvopastoral systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was conducted to quantify fine roots and roots nodules over the four seasons in forestry and agroforestry\\u000a alder (Alnus rubra) stands in North Wales. Soil samples collected in each season were excavated at three sampling points (0.30 m, 0.57 m and\\u000a 1.00 m distance from the base of each tree) from nine trees of the agroforestry and forestry

Ronnie M. Mmolotsi; Zewge Teklehaimanot

2008-01-01

189

Distribución espacio-temporal de hormigas en un gradiente de luz, dentro de un sistema agroforestal de café, en Turrialba, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal and spatial distribution of ants in a light gradient, in a coffee agroforestry system, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Shade trees are frequently present in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) agroforestry systems of Mesoamerica. These systems can harbor a rich entomofauna, including ants, which could be predators of key pests in these systems. However, the role of shade on the distribution and

Edgar H. Varón; Paul Hanson; John T. Longino; Olger Borbón; Manuel Carballo; Luko Hilje

190

Tree planting pattern effects on forage production in a Douglas-fir agroforest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource sharing among agroforestry system components, as expressed by spatial patterns along interfaces between components, is a crucial factor in both understanding present systems and in designing new agroforestry applications. A study of the spatial pattern of forage production surrounding 9–10 year old Douglas-fir trees in a agrosilvopastoral plantation near Corvallis, Oregon, was conducted during 1988 and 1989. Transects of

S. H. Sharrow

1991-01-01

191

This article was downloaded by: [University of Vermont] On: 25 March 2014, At: 10:08  

E-print Network

: Taylor & Francis Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office://www.tandfonline.com/loi/wjsa21 Agroecological Transition of Conilon Coffee (Coffea canephora) Agroforestry Systems in the State Transition of Conilon Coffee (Coffea canephora) Agroforestry Systems in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

Vermont, University of

192

systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical observations often indicate that complexity enhances stability, while most theoretical studies, such as May's (1972) classic paper, point to the opposite. Despite the wide generality of these latter theoretical analyses, our examination of the well-known competitive Lotka-Volterra system reveals that increasing complexity (measured in terms of connectance) can enhance species coexistence and persistence in model communities (measured in terms

Ian D. Rozdilsky; Lewi Stone

193

Evaporation from vegetation in landscapes developing secondary salinity using the ventilated-chamber technique. III. Evaporation from a Pinus radiata tree and the surrounding pasture in an agroforestry plantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 16-m Pinus radiata tree was enclosed in a ventilated chamber, and samples of the underlying pasture were covered with a small horizontal chamber. Vapour flux was measured on one day each month for 14 months. Evaporation from the tree ranged from 301d -1 (0.6 mm d -1) in April, May and June, to 1701d -1 (3.3 mm d -1) in ?eptember. The range of evaporation from the pasture was from zero during the dry season, to 1.4 mm d -1 in October prior to grazing. Total evaporation from the tree, pasture and soil accounted for all the precipitation. The results suggested that over the six-month dry season, soil water was the major factor controlling transpiration. The values of xylem pressure potential in the enclosed tree matched those of its neighbour indicating that bias due to the chamber was small. Evaporation and potential were not consistently related. A description of the root system to 2.8 m depth is given.

Greenwood, E. A. N.; Beresford, J. D.; Bartle, J. R.

194

Soil respiration and microbial biomass in a savanna parkland landscape: spatio-temporal variation and environmental controls  

E-print Network

) in this region. The objective of this study was to quantify variation in soil respiration, soil microbial biomass (SMB), and potential C and N mineralization rates in relation to landscape heterogeneity and woody plant encroachment in this region. In addition...

McCulley, Rebecca Lynne

2012-06-07

195

Association of Parkland Proximity with Neighborhood and Park-based Physical Activity: Variations by Gender and Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how the number and total size of neighborhood parks within 1 kilometer (km) of participants' homes, as well as distance to the closest park, were associated with moderate-to-strenuous physical activity (MSPA) in three contexts: total, neighborhood-based, and park-based. Data were collected from 384 adults in a Canadian city. Each additional hectare of park area within 1 km

Andrew T. Kaczynski; Luke R. Potwarka; Bryan J. A. Smale; Mark E. Havitz

2009-01-01

196

Green Application Projects (GreenApps): Pledging the Use of Ethical Sustainable Behaviors When Visiting Backcountry Parklands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary classroom exercise from GreenApps at Red Rocks Community College is designed for students studying park and outdoor recreation management. In this activity, students will take Leave No Trace training, present on Leave No Trace, and encourage others to sign the Wilderness Sustainability Pledge. This pdf contains a description of the project, expected outcomes, and assessment guidelines. 

Speare, Ellen

2014-07-23

197

Effects of small-bodied fish on invertebrate prey and foraging patterns of waterbirds in Aspen Parkland wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition between large-bodied fish and waterbirds for aquatic invertebrates is well documented in oligotrophic lakes. Recent\\u000a evidence suggests that small-bodied fish that colonize eutrophic, hypoxia-prone wetlands such as prairie potholes can also\\u000a reduce aquatic invertebrates, but the effects of these reductions on breeding waterbirds have so far not been directly documented.\\u000a We added brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) and fathead minnow

Caroline E. McParland; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

2006-01-01

198

Effects of small-bodied fish on invertebrate prey and foraging patterns of waterbirds in Aspen Parkland wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition between large-bodied fish and waterbirds for aquatic invertebrates is well documented in oligotrophic lakes. Recent\\u000a evidence suggests that small-bodied fish that colonize eutrophic, hypoxia-prone wetlands such as prairie potholes can also\\u000a reduce aquatic invertebrates, but the effects of these reductions on breeding waterbirds have so far not been directly documented.\\u000a We added brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) and fathead minnow

Caroline E. McParland; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

199

System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the anionic structures of the molten CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system. The results show that the average first nearest-neighbor distances for Si-O and P-O pairs are 1.61 and 1.53 Å, respectively. As expected, above 98 pct P and 95 pct Si show fourfold coordination and form tetrahedral structures. Due to the high basicity, nonbridging oxygen occupies a predominant position in Si and P tetrahedron. Based on the oxygen number of different types, the structures of both Si and P tetrahedron were classified as Q 0, Q 1, Q 2, Q 3, and Q 4, where the superscript referred to the number of bridging oxygen atoms. With the substitution of P2O5 for SiO2, Q 0 decreased and other type of Q i units increased. For Si tetrahedron, Q 2 and Q 3 show most notable change, for P tetrahedron, Q 1and Q 2 show the most notable change. The change of Q i units for Si tetrahedron is larger than that for P tetrahedron. The concentration of free oxygen decreases remarkably with the increase of P2O5 content. The Si-O-P linkage is energetically more favorable than Si-O-Si and P-O-P linkages. P ion has a tendency to promote the polymerization of phosphosilicate melts.

Diao, Jiang; Fan, Guozheng; Liu, Xuan; Xie, Bing

2014-10-01

200

Sustainable agro-forestry in Myanmar: from intentions to behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental degradation, natural disasters, and urbanization have intensified pressure on Myanmar’s once unparalleled forests.\\u000a This contrastive study of 200 households in two eco-marketing zones in Myanmar (accessible Central Myanmar vs. isolated Rakhine\\u000a State) uses regression analysis to test three hypotheses derived from the previous literature to explain behavioral intentions\\u000a and positive\\/negative environmental behavior. All three hypotheses were rejected, suggesting strong

Peter Calkins; Pyi Pyi Thant

2011-01-01

201

Recreational Multifunctionality and its implications for agroforestry diffusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recreational Multifunctionality refers to those farms providing at least one recreational service to members of the farm household\\u000a or the public. Based on the types of recreational services offered, two types of landowners have been identified: Productivists and Ruralists. They differ on their extent of Recreational Multifunctionality, farm household attributes and farm representation. Both\\u000a types of landowners also have different

Carla Barbieri; Corinne Valdivia

2010-01-01

202

Occurrence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in trap cultures from soils under different land use systems in the Amazon, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species diversity in soil samples from the Amazon region under distinct land use systems (Forest, Old Secondary Forest, Young Secondary Forest, Agroforestry systems, Crops and Pasture) using two distinct trap cultures. Traps established using Sorghum sudanense and Vigna unguiculata (at Universidade Regional de Blumenau -FURB) and Brachiaria decumbens and Neonotonia wightii (at Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA) were grown for 150 days in greenhouse conditions, when spore density and species identification were evaluated. A great variation on species richness was detected in several samples, regardless of the land use systems from where samples were obtained. A total number of 24 AMF species were recovered using both methods of trap cultures, with FURB?s traps yielding higher number of species. Acaulospora delicata, A. foveata, Entrophospora colombiana and two undescribed Glomus species were the most abundant and frequent species recovered from the traps. Number of species decreased in each genus according to this order: Acaulospora, Glomus, Entrophospora, Gigaspora, Archaeospora, Scutellospora and Paraglomus. Spore numbers were higher in Young Secondary Forest and Pastures. Our study demonstrated that AMF have a widespread occurrence in all land use systems in Amazon and they sporulate more abundantly in trap cultures from land uses under interference than in the pristine Forest ecosystem. PMID:24031328

Leal, Patricia Lopes; Sturmer, Sidney Luiz; Siqueira, Jose Oswaldo

2009-01-01

203

The contribution of wild plants to human nutrition in the Ferlo (Northern Senegal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aspect of agroforestry is the integration of indigenous species into appropriate land use systems. Some local trees and shrubs are particularly appreciated because of their value in human nutrition.

Barbara Becker

1983-01-01

204

Creating the Sustainable City: Building a Seminar (and Curriculum) through Interdisciplinary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the wealth of sites available in the Chicago metropolitan area, online learning technologies, and classroom interactions, Roosevelt University's seminar "The Sustainable City" takes a multidisciplinary approach to urban ecology, waste management, green design, climate change, urban planning, parklands, water systems, environmental justice,…

Bryson, Michael A.; Zimring, Carl A.

2010-01-01

205

: Batteryless Endoluminal Sensing Telemeter Professor J.C. Chiao  

E-print Network

Center. Endoscopy, Parkland Memorial Hospital 214-590-1779 shou-jiang.tang@utsouthwestern.edu Dr. Stuart Sensing Telemeter (BESTTM ) system consisting of batteryless wireless sensor implants and a wearable with the implants in their esophagus for a long period of time. The innovative sensor does not require batteries so

Chiao, Jung-Chih

206

Modeling Hydrological Services in Shade Grown Coffee Systems: Case Study of the Pico Duarte Region of the Dominican Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modification of hydrologic systems in coffee-dominated landscapes varies widely according to the degree of shade trees incorporated in coffee farms. Compared to mono-cropping systems, shade coffee can produce both on- and off-farm benefits in the form of soil retention, moderation of sediment transport, and lower hydropower generating costs. The Pico Duarte Coffee Region and surrounding Madres de Las Aguas (Mother of Waters) Conservation Area in the Dominican Republic is emblematic of the challenges and opportunities of ecosystem service management in coffee landscapes. Shade coffee poly-cultures in the region play an essential role in ensuring ecosystem function to conserve water resources, as well as provide habitat for birds, sequester carbon, and provide consumptive resources to households. To model the provision, use, and flow of ecosystem services from coffee farms in the region, an application of the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) model was developed with particular focus on sediment regulation. ARIES incorporates an array of techniques from data mining, image analysis, neural networks, Bayesian statistics, information theory, and expert systems to model the production, delivery, and demand for ecosystem services. Geospatial data on slope, soils, and vegetation cover is combined with on-farm data collection of coffee production, tree diversity, and intercropping of household food. Given hydropower production and river recreation in the region, the management of sedimentation through on-farm practices has substantial, currently uncompensated value that has received recent attention as the foundation for a payment for ecosystem services system. Scenario analysis of the implications of agro-forestry management choices on farmer livelihoods and the multiple beneficiaries of farm-provided hydrological services provide a foundation for ongoing discussions in the region between local, national, and international interests.

Erickson, J. D.; Gross, L.; Agosto Filion, N.; Bagstad, K.; Voigt, B. G.; Johnson, G.

2010-12-01

207

Biodiversity conservation, ecosystem services and livelihoods in tropical landscapes: towards a common agenda.  

PubMed

Trade-offs between ecosystem conservation and agricultural production can more easily be addressed by shifting the view from the plot scale to the scale of the landscape and integrating biodiversity friendly land use systems into development strategies. The provision of ecosystem services such as watershed protection and carbon sequestration by natural and complex agro-ecosystems can play an important role in making such integrated landscape approaches viable. This special issue brings together papers that were presented at a symposium on agroforestry and landscape scale conservation at the Second World Agroforestry Congress in Nairobi in August 2009. It is divided into two sections focusing on: (1) the biological mechanisms and implications of landscape scale conservation strategies as influenced by land use, especially agroforestry; and (2) the economic drivers and public policies that determine to a large extent the success of agroforestry-based landscape conservation strategies. The contributions provide evidence both for the potential and limitations of agroforestry in landscape scale conservation and development strategies and highlight the importance of economic incentives and policies to promote integrated landscape solutions. This introductory paper summarizes and discusses the contributions and concludes with policy recommendations and research needs. PMID:21706379

Schroth, Götz; McNeely, Jeffrey A

2011-08-01

208

Deforestation, agroforestry, and sustainable land management practices among the Classic period Maya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores evidence of deforestation and forest management practices in the Maya lowlands during the pre-Columbian period. In the early twentieth century, scholars first began to examine the role of the environment in the rise and collapse of the great southern Maya polities of the Classic period, proposing that deforestation was an important factor in their political fragmentation and

Cameron L. McNeil

209

A participatory Agroforestry approach for soil and water conservation in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of soil erosion and land degradation in Ethiopia are frighteningly high. Crop production, livestock keeping and energy supply situations are at risk. The highlands are the most affected. Past rehabilitation efforts have been immense. Much labour, capital and trained staff have been mobilized to correct the situation, but the outcome has not been encouraging. There are a number

A. Bekele-Tesemma

1997-01-01

210

Agroforestry in the humid lowlands of West Africa: some reflections on future directions for research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Means have to be found for rural people to supply both their own needs and those of the urban dwellers, without further loss\\u000a of natural resources. Some examples from around the humid tropics suggest that complex agroforests may be able to achieve\\u000a this goal. In West Africa, the concepts of the cocoa (Theobroma cacao) farm and compound garden, coupled with

R. R. B. Leakey

1998-01-01

211

APEX model simulation of runoff and sediment losses for grazed pasture watersheds with agroforestry buffers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffers have been found to reduce non-point source pollution (NPSP) from watersheds. Hydrologic simulation models assist in\\u000a predicting the effects of buffers on runoff and sediment losses from small watersheds. The objective of this study was to\\u000a calibrate, validate and simulate runoff and sediment losses and compare buffer effects on NPSP losses relative to control\\u000a watersheds (no buffer) for seven

Sandeep Kumar; Ranjith P. Udawatta; Stephen H. Anderson; Ashish Mudgal

2011-01-01

212

The potential benefits of agroforestry in the Sahel and other semi-arid regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarises results of three related studies. The first study is a synthesis and analysis of available knowledge on woody plants in semi-arid regions with an emphasis on the Sahel region, investigating the potential `added value' of woody plants to improve nutrient and water availability for agricultural crop and pasture production goals. The other two are field studies aimed

H. Breman; J. J. Kessler

1997-01-01

213

The potential benefits of agroforestry in the Sahel and other semi-arid regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarises results of three related studies. The first study is a synthesis and analysis of available knowledge on woody plants in semi-arid regions with an emphasis on the Sahel region, investigating the potential ‘added value’ of woody plants to improve nutrient and water availability for agricultural crop and pasture production goals. The other two are field studies aimed

H. Breman; J. J. Kessler

1997-01-01

214

Tree seedling establishment in living fences: a low-cost agroforestry management practice for the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishing trees in pastures can have production and conservation benefits, but is complicated by the presence of livestock.\\u000a The need to protect seedlings from livestock increases tree establishment costs, which in turn, can deter landowners from\\u000a planting trees. Living fences are a ubiquitous feature of pasture landscapes in the tropics that could help protect newly\\u000a planted trees by preventing livestock

B. E. Love; E. W. Bork; D. Spaner

2009-01-01

215

The tree tenure factor in agroforestry with particular reference to Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rights over trees are often distinct from rights over land. Tree tenure consists of a bundle of rights over trees and their produce which may be held by different people at different times. These rights include the right to own or inherit trees, the right to plant trees, the right to use trees and tree products, the right to dispose

Louise Fortmann

1985-01-01

216

Agroforestry Programs and Issues in the Northern Marianas Anthony Paul Tudela2  

E-print Network

to protect the forest from abuse of new development, fire hazards, and other disturbances. Hence of imported plants and animals to prevent introduction and/or the spread of epidemics to existing crops

Standiford, Richard B.

217

New Agroforestry Site: Kotumachigi village About 20 Km from the town of Gadag  

E-print Network

and other animals on health issues has not been tracked carefully. We are trying to work with Dr. Gopal of the bore wells has serious fluorosis problem and kids are beginning to have joint pains and the teeth show clear indication of excess fluoride. Veena and her team is leading the water testing and we will drive

Rubloff, Gary W.

218

Application of root bioassays to detect nutrient deficiencies in fast-growing trees and agroforestry crops  

SciTech Connect

A new method for the detection of nutrient deficiencies is outlined and recommended as an alternative to conventional soil and foliar analyses. Bioassays are conducted to measure the uptake and supply of the macronutrients. Examples are quoted of the successful use of this technique with Eucalyptus and Sitka spruce. The bioassays have been shown to give equally good results with a range of tree and ground crops.

Harrison, A.F.; Dighton, J.; Jones, H.E. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology, Grange-over-Sands (United Kingdom)

1992-12-31

219

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report UBC Farm Agroforestry Product Lines  

E-print Network

on the production of medicinal plants on the edges of the forested spaces and hedgerows for a local medicinal plant, and to assess its potential for profit. The group identified three medicinal plants (borage, comfrey, and yarrow the potential to make $2800 profit from this project annually. Medicinal plant production has very low fixed

220

Agroforestry: Conifers. (Latest citations from the Cab Abstracts database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of lands forested with conifers for crop and livestock production. Citations cover the grazing of livestock and the production of crops, including tomatoes, soybeans, lespedeza, wheat, rape, taro, cotton, cabbages, ginger, watermelons, and strawberries. Livestock discussed include cattle, sheep, geese, and horses. Economic analyses and economic models are presented. (Contains a minimum of 147 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

221

LANDOWNER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS FOR FORESTRY/AGROFORESTRY IN COLORADO UPDATED APRIL 2010  

E-print Network

Conservation Reserve Program (CCRP) Cropland and marginal pastureland (adjacent to water course or body Resources Conservation Service local offices http://www.nrcs.usda.gov Protection of habitat for threatened Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Cropland, depending on Environmental Benefits Index As announced Yes

222

Assessment of promising forest-management practices and technologies for enhancing the conservation and sequestration of atmospheric carbon and their costs at the site level  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: (1) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequestering and conserving carbon; (2) Assess available data on costs at the site level for promising forest and agroforestry management practices; and (3) Evaluate estimates of land technically suitable in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets and the proposed Global Forest Agreement goals.

Dixon, R.K.; Schroeder, P.E.; Winjum, J.K.

1991-10-01

223

The impact of policy and institutional environment on costs and benefits of sustainable agricultural land uses: the case of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

As in other mountain regions of Asia, agricultural lands in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh are undergoing degradation due primarily to environmentally incompatible land-use systems such as shifting cultivation (jhum) and annual cash crops. The suitable land-use systems such as agroforestry and timber tree plantation provide benefit to the society at large, but they might not provide attractive economic benefits to farmers, eventually constraining a wide-scale adoption of such land-use systems. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate agricultural land-use systems from both societal and private perspectives in the pursuit of promoting particularly environmentally sustainable systems. This article evaluated five major land-use systems being practiced in CHT, namely jhum, annual cash crops, horticulture, agroforestry, and timber plantation. The results of the financial analysis revealed the annual cash crops as the most attractive land use and jhum as the least attractive of the five land-use systems considered under the study. Horticulture, timber plantation, and agroforestry, considered to be suitable land-use systems particularly for mountainous areas, held the middle ground between these two systems. Annual cash crops provided the highest financial return at the cost of a very high rate of soil erosion. When the societal cost of soil erosion is considered, annual cash crops appear to be the most costly land-use system, followed by jhum and horticulture. Although financially less attractive compared to annual cash crops and horticulture, agroforestry and timber plantation are the socially most beneficial land-use systems. Findings of the alternative policy analyses indicate that there is a good prospect for making environmentally sustainable land-use systems, such as agroforestry and timber plantation, attractive for the farmers by eliminating existing legal and institutional barriers, combined with the provision of necessary support services and facilities. PMID:17562103

Rasul, Golam; Thapa, Gopal B

2007-08-01

224

Library System Library System  

E-print Network

Library System #12;Library System 5150 Anthony Wayne Drive David Adamany Undergraduate Library that for the current fiscal year, we've been given an additional $600,000 for our library materials budget. We're very subscriptions. The Wayne State University Libraries are deeply committed to providing our faculty and students

Cinabro, David

225

Solar system positioning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

2006-01-01

226

SYSTEMS BIOM BIOMEDICAL SYSTEMS,  

E-print Network

exercise studies under normal and diseased conditions. Cellular metabolic changes are quantitatively of heart disease. Therapeutic strategies are developed related to biomechanical, vascular, muscular control systems, human locomotion, and exercise to reduce loss of musculoskeletal function

Rollins, Andrew M.

227

Carbon stocks in coffee agroforests and mixed dry tropical forests in the western highlands of Guatemala  

E-print Network

Carbon stocks in coffee agroforests and mixed dry tropical forests in the western highlands Tree removal in Latin American coffee agroforestry systems has been widespread due to complex sequestration. In facilitation of such incentives, an understanding of the capacity of coffee agroforests

Evans, Tom

228

VIABILIDADE ECONÔMICA DO SISTEMA AGROFLORESTAL GREVÍLEA X CAFÉ NA REGIÃO NORTE DO PARANÁ  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 70´s, Grevillea robusta was introduced as windbreaks into coffee plantations in the Northern region of the State of Parana, Brazil. This paper aimed to analise the economic feasibility of this agroforestry system, by comparing it with the previous situation of single coffee cultivation. A software called SAAC was applied in order to calculate cash flows and profitability parameters,

Anadalvo Juazeiro dos Santos; Alex Carneiro Leal; Luiz Roberto Graça

229

Kebon tatangkalan: a disappearing agroforest in the Upper Citarum Watershed, West Java, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study was carried out on a typical indigenous agroforestry system, called kebon tatangkalan, in the changing agricultural landscape of the Upper Citarum Watershed, West Java, Indonesia. The main objectives of the study are to elucidate the structural patterns, multidimensional functions, and dynamics of this multi-layered agroforest. The study has identified 12 groups of different plant assemblages indicating that

Parikesit; K. Takeuchi; A. Tsunekawa; O. S. Abdoellah

2005-01-01

230

Biological nitrogen fixation in trees in agro-ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of trees, especially nitrogen fixing trees (NFTs), into agroforestry and silvo-pastoral systems can make a major contribution to sustainable agriculture by restoring and maintaining soil fertility, and in combating erosion and desertification as well as providing fuelwood. The particular advantage of NFTs is their biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), their ability to establish in nitrogen-deficient soils and the benefits

S. K. A. Danso; G. D. Bowen; N. Sanginga

1992-01-01

231

Profile and Use of Multi-Species Tree Crops in the Homesteads of Gazipur District, Central Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry combines agriculture and forestry technologies to create more integrated, diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems. This study was conducted in Gazipur district (former greater Dhaka district) of Bangladesh and focused on the species composition of homegardens, species richness, species density, relative prevalence, species diversity index, purpose of growing trees and number of trees in homestead. The study

Mir Farid Uddin Ahmed; S. M. Lutfor Rahman

2004-01-01

232

Conservation of tree seeds from tropical dry-lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tropical trees, Azadirachta indica (neem), Lannea microcarpa, Sclerocarya birrea and Khaya senegalensis, are important multipurpose species. Unfortunately, difficult seed storage behaviour limits the utilization of these species in reforestation programs and agroforestry systems. This thesis presents the results of investigations aimed at a better understanding of the seed biology, particularly focussed on the improvement of seed survival after drying

Oblé Neya

2006-01-01

233

Coffee and Sustainability: The Multiple Values of Traditional Shaded Coffee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee is grown widely throughout the tropics on about 5 million farms from 85 countries. Several studies carried out during the last decade revealed the importance of traditional shaded coffee for biodiversity maintenance and protection. However, there is only biological and no interdisciplinary exploration of the multiple values and benefits of these agroforestry systems. We identify and review four kinds

Víctor M. Toledo; Patricia Moguel

2012-01-01

234

Beneficial Spectral Characteristics of Red and Black Raspberry Plants (Rubus idaeus and Rubus occidentalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raspberry naturally occurs in association with trees as a forest border species, thus is ideally adapted for species-diverse agroforestry systems. In spite of thriving in relatively low solar radiation environments, some red (European) and black (North American) raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. and Rubus occidentalis L.) plant surfaces are highly reflective, both species on leaf abaxial surfaces and black raspberry on

C. M. Feldhake

2002-01-01

235

DOMESTICATION OF DACRYODES EDULIS IN WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA: CHARACTERISATION OF GENETIC VARIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

New initiatives in agroforestry are seeking to integrate trees with marketable products into farming systems. This is being done in order to provide marketable timber and non-timber forest products from farms that will enhance rural livelihoods by generating cash for subsistence farmers. Dacryodes edulis (Safou) is one of the candidate tree species in West and Central Africa for domestication, which

R. R. B. LEAKEY; A. R. ATANGANA; E. KENGNI; A. N. WARUHIU; C. USORO; P. O. ANEGBEH; Z. TCHOUNDJEU

2002-01-01

236

Accounting for single and aggregated forest incomes: Application to public cork oak forests in Jerez (Spain) and Iteimia (Tunisia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an applied improvement in the agroforestry accounting system (AAS) approach to two public cork oak forests in the Mediterranean region: Jerez (Spain) and Iteimia (Tunisia). Both forests have similar environments but differ in land property rights, labour markets and countries (developed and developing economy, respectively).The income analysis considers the differences between forest ownership, and household and landowner

Pablo Campos; Hamed Daly-Hassen; José L. Oviedo; Paola Ovando; Ali Chebil

2008-01-01

237

Systems autonomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on systems autonomy is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on space systems integration, intelligent autonomous systems, automated systems for in-flight mission operations, the Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project on the Space Station Thermal Control System, the architecture of an autonomous intelligent system, artificial intelligence research issues, machine learning, and real-time image processing.

Lum, Henry, Jr.

1988-01-01

238

Systems Analysis Systems Integration  

E-print Network

to H2 not straightforward Exploratory research is essential Extensive R&D needed Issues: Economic any previously undertaken by DOE in civilian energy Systems Analysis essential guidance / perspective include coal liquids, shale oil & biomass. #12;7 OPTIONS FOR FUTURE U.S. ENERGY - MY VIEW Coal

239

Operating Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer operating system spans multiple layers of complexity, from commands entered at a keyboard to the details of electronic switching. In addition, the system is organized as a hierarchy of abstractions. Various parts of such a system and system dynamics (using the Unix operating system as an example) are described. (JN)

Denning, Peter J.; Brown, Robert L.

1984-01-01

240

Mechanical Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation provides an overview of requirement and interpretation letters, mechanical systems safety interpretation letter, design and verification provisions, and mechanical systems verification plan.

Davis, Robert E.

2002-01-01

241

Operating Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 342. Operating Systems (3) Prerequisite: CSC 332. Study of supervisory programs. System services and file systems; CPU scheduling; memory management; virtual memory; disk scheduling. Deadlock characterization, prevention, and avoidance; concurrent processes; semaphores; critical sections; synchronization. Distributed systems and communication protocols.

Ferner, Clayton

2003-04-21

242

Fluid Management System (FMS) fluid systems overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on fluid management system (FMS) fluid systems overview are presented. Topics addressed include: fluid management system description including system requirements (integrated nitrogen system, integrated water system, and integrated waste gas system) and physical description; and fluid management system evolution.

Baird, R. S.

1990-01-01

243

Cardiovascular system  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart and the network of arteries, veins, and capillaries that transport blood throughout the ... carries waste products from the tissues to the systems of the body through which they are eliminated. ...

244

Expert systems and fuzzy systems  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the design of the expert computer system and how fuzzy systems can be used to deal with imprecise information. As the author explores the effects of semantic systems on decision support systems, he asserts that the utilization of fuzzy set theory can help an expert system draw from its knowledge base more efficiently and therefore make more accurate and reliable decisions. The book includes realistic status reports in approximate reasoning and knowledge representation that are supported by a ''theory of categories'' mathematical approach. The differences between symbolic and semantic manipulation are outline, and detailed information is given on the actual theory of knowledge-based systems.

Negoita, C.

1985-01-01

245

System Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk. The risk importance factors show the amount of risk reduction achievable with potential upgrades and the amount of risk reduction actually achieved after upgrades are completed. Applying the risk assessment tool gives support to budget prioritization by showing where budget support levels must be sustained for MC&A functions most important to risk. Results of the risk assessment are also useful in supporting funding justifications for system improvements that significantly reduce system risk.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

246

Factors affecting soil loss at plot scale and sediment yield at catchment scale in a tropical volcanic agroforestry landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical deforestation and land use change is often perceived as the major cause of soil loss by water erosion and of sediment load in rivers that has a negative impact on the functioning of hydropower storage reservoirs. The Sumberjaya area in Sumatra, Indonesia is representative for conflicts and evictions arising from this perception. The purpose of this study as part

Bruno Verbist; Jean Poesen; Meine van Noordwijk; Widianto; Didik Suprayogo; Fahmuddin Agus; Jozef Deckers

2010-01-01

247

The development of short-rotation willow in the northeastern United States for bioenergy and bioproducts, agroforestry and phytoremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on willow (Salix spp.) as a locally produced, renewable feedstock for bioenergy and bioproducts began in New York in the mid-1980s in response to growing concerns about environmental impacts associated with fossil fuels and declining rural economies. Simultaneous and integrated activities—including research, large-scale demonstrations, outreach and education, and market development—were initiated in the mid-1990s to facilitate the commercialization of

T. A. Volk; L. P. Abrahamson; C. A. Nowak; L. B. Smart; P. J. Tharakan; E. H. White

2006-01-01

248

Local solutions to global problems: the potential of agroforestry for climate change adaptation and mitigation in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a global phenomenon that imposes economic, social, and ecological challenges to the global community and, to smallholder farmers particularly in low- income countries. Sustainable land use practices offer opportunities for smallholder farmers to adapt to climate change and related risks, but the challenge is that the adoption of such practices by farmers is low due to policy

Ajayi OC; Akinnifesi FK; Sileshi G; Chakeredza S

249

Tree row spacing affected agronomic and economic performance of Eucalyptus -based agroforestry in Andhra Pradesh, Southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3 × 2 m spacing currently used for eucalyptus plantations in the state of Andhra Pradesh, southern India does not permit\\u000a intercropping from the second year. This discourages small landholders who need regular income from taking up eucalyptus plantations\\u000a and benefiting from the expanding market for pulpwood. Therefore, on-farm experiments were conducted near Bhadrachalam, Khammam\\u000a district (Andhra Pradesh) for over 4 years from

J. V. N. S. Prasad; G. R. Korwar; K. V. Rao; U. K. Mandal; C. A. R. Rao; G. R. Rao; Y. S. Ramakrishna; B. Venkateswarlu; S. N. Rao; H. D. Kulkarni; M. R. Rao

2010-01-01

250

Exploiting the potential of indigenous agroforestry trees: Parkia biglobosa and Vitellaria paradoxa in sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkia biglobosa (néré) and Vitellaria paradoxa (karité) are indigenous tree species that are economically and socially important for local people in sub-Saharan Africa.\\u000a Farmers deliberately maintain these trees on farms mainly for their fruits and nuts. The kernels of karité yield shea butter,\\u000a which is rich in fatty acids; it is used locally for food and internationally in chocolate, pharmaceutical

Z. Teklehaimanot

2004-01-01

251

DEFORESTATION AND AGROFORESTRY ADOPTION IN TROPICAL FORESTS: CAN WE GENERALIZE? SOME RESULTS FROM CAMPECHE, MEXICO AND RONDONIA, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of sustainable agriculture and other sustainable forestry methods that can help to reduce tropical deforestation have received a great deal of attention in the literature (Adesina and Zinnah 1993, Akinola and Young 1985, Feder and Slade 1984, Holden 1993, Kebede et al. 1990). Although results from different studies can be compared in an absolute sense, there are very

James F. Casey; Jill L. Caviglia-Harris

2000-01-01

252

Modeling carbon sequestration in afforestation, agroforestry and forest management projects: the CO2FIX V.2 approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the Version 2 of the CO2FIX (CO2FIX V.2) model, a user-friendly tool for dynamically estimating the carbon sequestration potential of forest management, agroforesty and afforestation projects. CO2FIX V.2 is a multi-cohort ecosystem-level model based on carbon accounting of forest stands, including forest biomass, soils and products. Carbon stored in living biomass is estimated with a forest cohort

Omar R. Maseraa; J. F. Garza-Caligaris; M. Kanninen; T. Karjalainen; J. Liski; G. J. Nabuurs; A. Pussinen; B. H. J. de Jong; G. M. J. Mohren

2003-01-01

253

Microfluidic Systems Integrated Microfluidic Systems**  

E-print Network

Microfluidic Systems Integrated Microfluidic Systems** Rustem F. Ismagilov* Keywords: analytical methods · enzymes · microfluidics · microreactors · protein structures Microfluidic systems use networks of channels thinner than a human hair to manipulate nanoliter volumes of re- agents. The goal of microfluidics

Ismagilov, Rustem F.

254

Forage Production Under and Adjacent to Robinia pseudoacacia in Central Appalachia, West Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species-diverse production systems, such as agroforestry, provide opportunities to increase the value of total production\\u000a through marketing of multiple products from a given unit of land. Designing successful systems requires an understanding of\\u000a how species compete for resources and grow in proximity to other species with distinctly different growth habits and resource\\u000a demands (Sanchez, 1995; Ong and Leakey, 1999). Systems

C. M. Feldhake; D. P. Belesky; E. L. Mathias

255

Operating Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rashid Bin Muhammad at Kent State University presents his page of lectures notes and other instructional materials on operating systems. The site is divided into a number of topics about operating systems: history, structure, process, threads, Solaris-2, CPU / process scheduling, schedule algorithm, interprocess communication, deadlock, important UNIX commands, and references. The site is then followed by links to outside resources to help supplement the material presented here. This is a great resource for computer science instructors teaching students about operating systems.

Bin Muhammad, Rashid

2009-06-24

256

Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the implication that anticipatory behavior can only partially be described in a computer language and, furthermore, it shows that only a restricted class of anticipatory systems can be transferred to computers.

Ekdahl, Bertil

2000-05-01

257

ECONOMIC SYSTEMS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The information you will explore is: List and categorize the four main types of Economic Systems in our world today. Create graphic Illustrations of thoughts and concepts. Express how economic system structures effect the lives of the people living in that system. Write to express an opinion or point of view. Experience a simulation of the marketplace. Research a country of your choice and find important factors about their economic system. Each country structures their economic system after one of the four main types or a combination of these. The assignments on this page will help you to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of the four main types of economic systems. Process: 1. Click on the following link Marketing Calendar Open the Global Economy power point. Use the Chapter 4 listening guide with the power point. chap4 listening guide 2. List the four main economic systems and find the main characterisitics of each. Compare strengths and weaknesses of each. Economic Systems Characteristics 3.Create a ...

Mrs.owen

2006-10-10

258

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system is investigated in this learning activity to help participants learn how food is broken down and prepared for absorption, and list the components of the digestive system as well as their functions. Organs investigated include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Bidlack, Jim

259

Multimedia Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 304. Multimedia Systems (3) Prerequisite: CSC 121. Introduction to technologies of the Internet and networked multimedia systems. Issues in web page design; Internet client/server programming; collaborative computing and group work; network publishing; security and encryption; audio and video compression; ethical issues and privacy; e-commerce; and distributed object computing. Open only to students of junior or senior standing.

Patterson, Ms L.

2003-04-21

260

Power system  

DOEpatents

A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

2008-03-18

261

A Component-Based Framework for Simulating Agricultural Production and Externalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although existing simulation tools can be used to study the impact of agricultural management on production activities in\\u000a specific environments, they suffer from several limitations. They are largely specialized for specific production activities:\\u000a arable crops\\/cropping systems, grassland, orchards, agro-forestry, livestock etc. Also, they often have a restricted ability\\u000a to simulate system externalities which may have a negative environmental impact. Furthermore,

Marcello Donatelli; Graham Russell; Andrea Emilio Rizzoli; Marco Acutis; Myriam Adam; Ioannis N. Athanasiadis; Matteo Balderacchi; Luca Bechini; Hatem Belhouchette; Gianni Bellocchi; Jacques-Eric Bergez; Marco Botta; Erik Braudeau; Simone Bregaglio; Laura Carlini; Eric Casellas; Florian Celette; Enrico Ceotto; Marie Hélène Charron-Moirez; Roberto Confalonieri; Marc Corbeels; Luca Criscuolo; Pablo Cruz; Andrea Guardo; Domenico Ditto; Christian Dupraz; Michel Duru; Diego Fiorani; Antonella Gentile; Frank Ewert; Christian Gary; Ephrem Habyarimana; Claire Jouany; Kamel Kansou; Rob Knapen; Giovanni Lanza Filippi; Peter A. Leffelaar; Luisa Manici; Guillaume Martin; Pierre Martin; Eelco Meuter; Nora Mugueta; Rachmat Mulia; Meine Noordwijk; Roelof Oomen; Alexandra Rosenmund; Vittorio Rossi; Francesca Salinari; Ariel Serrano; Andrea Sorce; Grégoire Vincent; Jean-Pierre Theau; Olivier Thérond; Marco Trevisan; Patrizia Trevisiol; Frits K. Evert; Daniel Wallach; Jacques Wery; Arezki Zerourou

2009-01-01

262

Changes in arboreal ant populations following pruning of coffee shade-treesin Chiapas, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing or eliminating shade cover in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) agroforestry systems affects fungal disease and pest outbreaks, coffee yields, and can result in biodiversity loss of\\u000a important predators, such as ants. Less dramatic changes in shade structure or composition may also affect ants. Shade tree\\u000a pruning, a common management practice in shaded coffee systems, has unknown consequences for ant

Stacy M. Philpott

2005-01-01

263

Successful Experiences of Sustainable Land Use in Hyperarid, Arid and Semiarid Zones from Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three case studies of successful measures of sustainable use of arid coastal and semiarid Andean mountain ecosystems from\\u000a Peru are presented. The first case study is on agroforestry and silvo-herding systems located in the northern arid coast (Piura),\\u000a where El Ni?o events, especially the 97\\/98 (December to May) one, had impacted the productivity of these systems. The second\\u000a case study

Juan Torres Guevara; Dora Velásquez Milla

264

An evaluation of the century model to predict soil organic carbon: examples from Costa Rica and Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater organic matter inputs in agroforestry systems contribute to the long-term storage of carbon (C) in the soil, and the\\u000a use of simulation models provides an opportunity to evaluate the dynamics of the long-term trends of soil organic carbon (SOC)\\u000a stocks in these systems. The objective of this study was to apply the Century model to evaluate the long-term effect

Maren OelbermannR; R. P. Voroney

2011-01-01

265

Adequate design of control treatments in long term agroforeestry experiments with multiple objectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry experiments usually include control plots of either pure crop or pure tree stands. A clear distinction should\\u000a be made between intensively managed biophysical controls and farming system controls with realistic labour input and management\\u000a regimes. Trying to draw biophysical conclusions from farming system controls (or the reverse) is often not justifiable. The\\u000a design and management of these elusive control

C. Dupraz

1998-01-01

266

System Toolbox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

System Toolbox is designed for system administrators who deal with a variety of platforms. The site covers Windows NT, General Unix, Novell, Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, and the Mac OS. The "toolbox" for each platform offers annotated links to Tools (Disk Management, Anti-Virus, Security, etc.), Articles, and other useful Links. While the information here is hardly comprehensive, the site offers useful, if often basic, resources for administrators. System Toolbox's brand new History section looks promising, with two articles currently posted, "Von Braun's Slide Rule" and "The Godfather of Computing - Charles Babbage." The Comments section allows users to post questions or comments.

2001-01-01

267

Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur , Huntsville, Madison County, AL

268

Respiratory System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose, components, and functions of the respiratory system are presented in this learning through disussion and visualizations. Participants learn about the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.

Bidlack, Jim

269

Respiratory system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

1973-01-01

270

Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... of the immune system to a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, and barley ... and even depression when they eat foods with gluten. Symptoms can be managed by following a gluten- ...

271

Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... of the immune system to a protein called gluten, which is found in certain foods. People with ... nutrients from their food because eating things with gluten damages the lining of the intestines over time. ...

272

Systems Vaccinology  

PubMed Central

Vaccination is one of the greatest triumphs of modern medicine, yet we remain largely ignorant of the mechanisms by which successful vaccines stimulate protective immunity. Two recent advances are beginning to illuminate such mechanisms: realization of the pivotal role of the innate immune system in sensing microbes and stimulating adaptive immunity, and advances in systems biology. Recent studies have used systems biology approaches to obtain a global picture of the immune responses to vaccination in humans. This has enabled the identification of early innate signatures that predict the immunogenicity of vaccines, and identification of potentially novel mechanisms of immune regulation. Here we review these advances, and critically examine the potential opportunities and challenges posed by systems biology in vaccine development. PMID:21029962

Pulendran, Bali; Li, Shuzhao; Nakaya, Helder I

2010-01-01

273

Earth Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth systems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

274

Fueling systems  

SciTech Connect

This report deals with concepts of the Tiber II tokamak reactor fueling systems. Contained in this report are the fuel injection requirement data, startup fueling requirements, intermediate range fueling requirements, power range fueling requirements and research and development considerations. (LSR)

Gorker, G.E.

1987-01-01

275

Microelectromechanical Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) is an enabling technology that merges computation and communication with sensing and actuation to change the way people and machines interact with the physical world. MEMS is a manufacturing technology that will impact widespread applications including: miniature inertial measurement measurement units for competent munitions and personal navigation; distributed unattended sensors; mass data storage devices; miniature analytical instruments; embedded pressure sensors; non-invasive biomedical sensors; fiber-optics components and networks; distributed aerodynamic control; and on-demand structural strength. The long term goal of ARPA's MEMS program is to merge information processing with sensing and actuation to realize new systems and strategies for both perceiving and controlling systems, processes, and the environment. The MEMS program has three major thrusts: advanced devices and processes, system design, and infrastructure.

Gabriel, Kaigham J.

1995-01-01

276

Immune System  

MedlinePLUS

... New Scientists Identify Important Genetic Changes in 21 Autoimmune Diseases —Oct. 29, 2014 New Regulator of Autoimmune Cells ... 26, 2014 All Immune System News Releases All Autoimmune Diseases News Releases All Primary Immune Deficiency Disease News ...

277

Systemic Mastocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mastocytosis is a term used for a group of disorders defined by an abnormal accumulation of mast cells (MCs) in one or more\\u000a organ systems. Clinical symptoms result from MC-derived mediators and\\/or from infiltration of MCs in the tissues. Cutaneous\\u000a mastocytosis (CM) is a benign disease of the skin and often regresses spontaneously. Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a persistent\\u000a clonal

Peter Valent

278

Mechanical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, several different control applications for mechanical systems are examined. The first system discussed is\\u000a an autobalancing application. A perfectly balanced rotating object (i.e., the center of geometry and center of mass are coincident)\\u000a will usually not undergo any vibration. However, due to the errors associated with geometric dimensions and the nonhomogeneity\\u000a of the raw material, the construction

Warren E. Dixon; Aman Behal; Darren M. Dawson; Siddharth P. Nagarkatti

279

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system is amazing: it takes the foods we eat and breaks them into smaller components that our bodies can use for energy, cell repair and growth. This lesson introduces students to the main parts of the digestive system and how they interact. In addition, students learn about some of the challenges astronauts face when eating in outer space. Engineers figure out how to deal with such challenges.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

280

Systems Studies  

SciTech Connect

The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

Graham, R.L.

1998-03-17

281

Systemic trauma.  

PubMed

Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering. PMID:24617751

Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

2014-01-01

282

Robotic System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complicated design project, successfully carried out by New York manufacturing consultant with help from NERAC, Inc., resulted in new type robotic system being marketed for industrial use. Consultant Robert Price, operating at E.S.I, Inc. in Albany, NY, sought help from NERAC to develop an automated tool for deburring the inside of 8 inch breech ring assemblies for howitzers produced by Watervliet Arsenal. NERAC conducted a search of the NASA data base and six others. From information supplied, Price designed a system consisting of a standard industrial robot arm, with a specially engineered six-axis deburring tool fitted to it. A microcomputer and computer program direct the tool on its path through the breech ring. E.S.I. markets the system to aerospace and metal cutting industries for deburring, drilling, routing and refining machined parts.

1984-01-01

283

Trees, soils, and food security  

PubMed Central

Trees have a different impact on soil properties than annual crops, because of their longer residence time, larger biomass accumulation, and longer-lasting, more extensive root systems. In natural forests nutrients are efficiently cycled with very small inputs and outputs from the system. In most agricultural systems the opposite happens. Agroforestry encompasses the continuum between these extremes, and emerging hard data is showing that successful agroforestry systems increase nutrient inputs, enhance internal flows, decrease nutrient losses and provide environmental benefits: when the competition for growth resources between the tree and the crop component is well managed. The three main determinants for overcoming rural poverty in Africa are (i) reversing soil fertility depletion, (ii) intensifying and diversifying land use with high-value products, and (iii) providing an enabling policy environment for the smallholder farming sector. Agroforestry practices can improve food production in a sustainable way through their contribution to soil fertility replenishment. The use of organic inputs as a source of biologically-fixed nitrogen, together with deep nitrate that is captured by trees, plays a major role in nitrogen replenishment. The combination of commercial phosphorus fertilizers with available organic resources may be the key to increasing and sustaining phosphorus capital. High-value trees, 'Cinderella' species, can fit in specific niches on farms, thereby making the system ecologically stable and more rewarding economically, in addition to diversifying and increasing rural incomes and improving food security. In the most heavily populated areas of East Africa, where farm size is extremely small, the number of trees on farms is increasing as farmers seek to reduce labour demands, compatible with the drift of some members of the family into the towns to earn off-farm income. Contrary to the concept that population pressure promotes deforestation, there is evidence that demonstrates that there are conditions under which increasing tree planting is occurring on farms in the tropics through successful agroforestry as human population density increases.

Sanchez, P. A.; Buresh, R. J.; Leakey, R. R. B.

1997-01-01

284

Manufacturing Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective 7:05 - Students will develop an awareness of the designed World through : Describing a manufacturing system; listing and describing the basic type of manufacturing; defining production and manufacturing enterprise;defining AGV, CAD, CIM, CAM, CNC, production tooling, automation, and material processes. Day 1: Introduction/Background Objective Preassessment: Use a KWL chart to assess your students prior knowledge. This will also help you deal with any misconceptions regarding manufacturing system. Students will use the curriculum companion PowerPoint and Objective 7.05 Outline to develop an awarness of: Define manufacturing List and describe the basic types of Manufacturing Student ...

Wallace, S.

2010-07-16

285

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of the space page of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), and provides information about the Sun, the planets and their moons, and other bodies in the solar system. It contains a travel guide to the Solar System including such topics as what to see, reason to visit, how to get there, and local history. A similar travel guide is then available for the Sun, each of the planets, asteroids, and comets. In addition, multiple links for more detailed information as well as space games and puzzles are provided.

2007-12-12

286

Neuromodulatory systems  

PubMed Central

We examine the interactions and interdependencies between Neuroglia, the Brain-Cell Microenvironment, and the processes commonly subsumed under Neuromodulation. The interactions of the component processes covering a wide spectrum of frequencies are designated as Neuromodulatory Systems (NMS). This implies NMS's scale-invariance as the capacity of linking actions across many time scales, and self-similarity at any scale. These features endow NMS with the ability to respond adaptively to neural impulse traffic of an unpredictably wide frequency spectrum. In this preliminary perspective, the components of NMS are only outlined based on concepts of Complex Systems Dynamics. However, their interactions must be formally elaborated in further investigations. PMID:23532509

Werner, Gerhard; Mitterauer, Bernhard J.

2013-01-01

287

Systemic mastocytosis.  

PubMed

An unusual disease, mastocytosis challenges the pathologist with a variety of morphologic appearances and heterogeneous clinical presentations ranging from skin manifestations (pruritus, urticaria, dermatographism) to systemic signs and symptoms indicative of mast cell mediator release, including flushing, hypotension, headache, and anaphylaxis among others. In this article, we focus on recognizing the cytology, histopathology, clinical features, and prognostic implications of systemic mastocytosis, a clonal and neoplastic mast cell proliferation infiltrating extracutaneous organ(s) with or without skin involvement. Diagnostic pitfalls are reviewed with ancillary studies to help unmask the mast cell and exclude morphologic mimics. PMID:22054735

George, Tracy I; Horny, Hans-Peter

2011-10-01

288

Branching Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a digraph G = (V, E) with a specified subset R(j) of V, its nodes, a branching B(j) rooted at R(j) is a forest in G such that for each node u in V - R(j) there is exactly one edge of B(j) entering u. A branching system B = [B(j): j ? J] is a collection of edge-disjoint branchings, with specified root-sets, in G. Given costs c(i) on the edges i of G, and given root sets R(j), we survey the use of matroids to find a least cost branching system, B.

Edmonds, Jack

289

Computer systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to the discussions, Ocean Climate Data Workshop hosts gave participants an opportunity to hear about, see, and test for themselves some of the latest computer tools now available for those studying climate change and the oceans. Six speakers described computer systems and their functions. The introductory talks were followed by demonstrations to small groups of participants and some opportunities for participants to get hands-on experience. After this familiarization period, attendees were invited to return during the course of the Workshop and have one-on-one discussions and further hands-on experience with these systems. Brief summaries or abstracts of introductory presentations are addressed.

Olsen, Lola

1992-01-01

290

Complex Systems  

PubMed Central

Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

Goldberger, Ary L.

2006-01-01

291

Nanoelectromechanical Systems  

E-print Network

Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) are nano-to-micrometer scale mechanical resonators coupled to electronic devices of similar dimensions. NEMS show promise for fast, ultrasensitive force microscopy and for deepening our understanding of how classical dynamics arises by approximation to quantum dynamics. This article begins with a survey of NEMS and then describes certain aspects of their classical dynamics. In particular, we show that for weak coupling the action of the electronic device on the mechanical resonator can be effectively that of a thermal bath, this despite the device being a driven, far-from-equilibrium system.

M. P. Blencowe

2005-02-24

292

Mapping elk distribution on the Canadian prairies: Applying local knowledge to support conservation.  

E-print Network

??Once abundant across the Great Plains of North America, prairie-parkland elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis) underwent a catastrophic population collapse and dramatic contraction of their overall… (more)

Patterson, Molly

2014-01-01

293

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a section of an online Biology Textbook - developed by Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College - providing a concise overview of the digestive system. It describes the enzymes, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids involved in digestion and outlines the role that each part of the body plays from the mouth the large intestine.

Gregory, Michael

1969-12-31

294

D System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

D-System is conducting research into program analysis, code generation, and programming tools for data-parallel languages like High Performance Fortran. If this research is successful, computational scientists and engineers will be able to write machine-independent, data-parallel programs for a broad spectrum of scientific applications, and achieve high performance with these programs on a variety of parallel architectures.

295

Embedded Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The April 2003 issue of ACM Queue, the online magazine of the Association for Computing Machinery, is dedicated to embedded systems. Seven articles are included in the issue, dealing with the design and construction process of embedded devices, programming, and the hardware/software interface.

2008-02-08

296

Manufacturing Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced Process Systems designed a portable purge unit for NASA use. The unit is designed to protect flight and ground crews from toxic fumes and to provide a post-landing controlled environment for sensitive electronic equipment. Although the work has future spinoff potential, it has also led to a research and development program in conjunction with several universities.

1986-01-01

297

Ant System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant System, the first Ant Colony Optimization algorithm, sho wed to be a viable method for attacking hard combinatorial optimization problems. Yet, its performance, when com- pared to more fine-tuned algorithms, was rather poor for larg e instances of traditional benchmark problems like the Traveling Salesman Problem. To show that Ant Colony Opti- mization algorithms could be good alternatives to

Libre de Bruxelles; Holger H. Hoos

298

POWER SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low power output of other devices at this time dictates the use of ; nuclear-reactor systems for manned space explorations. Work up to the present is ; briefly reviewed, and progress and utilization of other power supplies are ; discussed. Pros and cons of solar cells, fuel cells, and thermoelectric and ; thermionic devices are included as well as consideration

1962-01-01

299

Irrigation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under contract with Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a Lubrication Handbook intended as a reference source for designers and manufacturers of aerospace hardware and crews responsible for maintenance of such equipment. Engineers of Lindsay Manufacturing Company learned of this handbook through NASA Tech Briefs and used it for supplemental information in redesigning gear boxes for their center pivot agricultural irrigation system.

1984-01-01

300

Systems overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Charts and accompanying text are presented that provide a brief synopsis of the contracted efforts for FY-92 in assessing nuclear thermal propulsion requirements, concepts, and associated issues. The objective of the effort is to provide NASA LeRC with assistance in space nuclear propulsion system requirements management and public acceptance planning.

Corban, Robert

1993-01-01

301

Immune System  

EPA Science Inventory

A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

302

System Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

System dynamics is an approach for thinking about and simulating situations and organisations of all kinds and sizes by visualising how the elements fit together, interact and change over time. This chapter, written by John Morecroft, describes modern system dynamics which retains the fundamentals developed in the 1950s by Jay W. Forrester of the MIT Sloan School of Management. It looks at feedback loops and time delays that affect system behaviour in a non-linear way, and illustrates how dynamic behaviour depends upon feedback loop structures. It also recognises improvements as part of the ongoing process of managing a situation in order to achieve goals. Significantly it recognises the importance of context, and practitioner skills. Feedback systems thinking views problems and solutions as being intertwined. The main concepts and tools: feedback structure and behaviour, causal loop diagrams, dynamics, are practically illustrated in a wide variety of contexts from a hot water shower through to a symphony orchestra and the practical application of the approach is described through several real examples of its use for strategic planning and evaluation.

Morecroft, John

303

Investigating Army systems and Systems of Systems for value robustness  

E-print Network

This thesis proposes a value robustness approach to architect defense systems and Systems of Systems (SoS). A value robust system or SoS has the ability to provide continued value to stakeholders by performing well to meet ...

Koo, Kevin C. K. (Kevin Cheng Keong)

2010-01-01

304

Optimisation of bisphenol A removal from water using chemically modified pine bark and almond shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of pine bark and almond shells to remove bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solutions was evaluated. Samples of these traditional agro-forestry by-products were milled, sieved into different particle size fractions (0.10–0.15 and 1.5–2.0 mm) and submitted to two different types of treatment. Sorption experiments were conducted in a batch system at room temperature and natural pH. Sorption equilibrium was

Maria Cristina G. Antunes; Sandra Pinto; Fernando G. Braga; Joaquim C. G. Esteves Silva

2012-01-01

305

Optimisation of bisphenol A removal from water using chemically modified pine bark and almond shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of pine bark and almond shells to remove bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solutions was evaluated. Samples of these traditional agro-forestry by-products were milled, sieved into different particle size fractions (0.10–0.15 and 1.5–2.0 mm) and submitted to two different types of treatment. Sorption experiments were conducted in a batch system at room temperature and natural pH. Sorption equilibrium was

Maria Cristina G. Antunes; Sandra Pinto; Fernando G. Braga; Joaquim C. G. Esteves Silva

2011-01-01

306

Estimated land area increase of agricultural ecosystems to sequester excess atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimated 3.3 Pg carbon (C) is accumulating in the atmosphere annually, with carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations increasing approximately 1.5 -2.0 ppm per year. The conversion of land to agroforestry, rangeland, and cropping systems has been identified as a possible option to offset rising CO2 levels. The objective of this work was to estimate the increase in land area for

D. G. Wright; R. W. Mullen; W. E. Thomason; W. R. Raun

2001-01-01

307

Characterizing land-use diversity in village landscapes for sustainable mountain development: a case study from Indian Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to analyze the ecological, socio-economic and policy implications of land-use diversity in a traditional\\u000a village landscape (900–1,000 m amsl.) in the Garhwal region of Indian Himalaya. The village landscape was differentiated into three major land-use types viz.,\\u000a forests, settled agriculture and shifting agriculture. Settled agriculture was further differentiated into four agroecosystem\\u000a types viz., homegarden system (HGS), rainfed agroforestry

K. Singh; R. K. Maikhuri; K. S. Rao; K. G. Saxena

2008-01-01

308

The potential for increasing rubber production by matching tapping intensity to leaf area index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding resource capture can help design appropriate species combinations, planting designs and management. Leaf area\\u000a index (LAI) and its longevity are the most important factors defining dry matter production and thus growth and productivity.\\u000a The ecophysiological modifications and yield of rubber (Hevea spp.) in an agroforestry system (AFS) with beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were studied. The experiment was established in

Ciro Abbud Righi; Marcos Silveira Bernardes

2008-01-01

309

From Forest to Farmland: Species Richness Patterns of Trees and Understorey Plants along a Gradient of Forest Conversion in Southwestern Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation surveys were carried out at 24 sampling stations distributed over four land use types, namely near-primary forest,\\u000a secondary forest, agroforestry systems and annual crop lands in the northeastern part of the Korup region, Cameroon, to assess\\u000a the impact of forest conversion on trees and understorey plants. Tree species richness decreased significantly with increasing\\u000a level of habitat modification, being highest

K. Serge Bobo; Matthias Waltert; N. Moses Sainge; John Njokagbor; Heleen Fermon; Michael Mühlenberg

2006-01-01

310

The Functioning, Management and Persistence of Dehesas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dehesas are the most widespread agroforestry systems in Europe, where they cover 3.1 million hectares. They are multipurpose\\u000a open woodlands, mostly created by clearing the natural forests, where livestock rearing, cereal cropping, cork and firewood\\u000a harvesting, and hunting are combined. In dehesas, trees can be seen as “ecosystem engineers”, as they allow the maintenance\\u000a of grass production in poor soils

G. Moreno; F. J. Pulido

311

Root profile in Multi-layered Dehesas: an approach to plant-to-plant Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing plant-to-plant relationship is a key issue in agroforestry systems. Due to the sessile feature of plants most of these interactions take place within a restricted space, so characterizing the zone where the plant alters its environment is important to find overlapping areas where the facilitation or competition could occur. Main part of plan-to-plant interactions in the dehesa are located

V. Rolo; G. Moreno

2009-01-01

312

The effect of seed scarification and soil-media on germination, growth, storage, and survival of seedlings of five species of Prosopis L. (Mimosaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prosopis L. (Mimosaceae) species are important vegetation elements in arid and semi-arid environments where they offer shade, firewood, timber and food for man, wildlife and livestock. Many species, specially South-American ones, have been included in afforestation programmes and agroforestry-silvopastoral systems. Within this scope, there is a need of information on eco-physiological responses related to growth and development. The objective of

A. E. Vilela; D. A. Ravetta

2001-01-01

313

Domestication of Irvingia gabonensis : 3. Phenotypic variation of fruits andkernels in a Nigerian village  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestication of Irvingia gabonensis, a fruit tree grown in agroforestry systems in West and Central Africa, offers considerable scope for enhancing the nutritional\\u000a and economic security of subsistence farmers in the region. Assessments of phenotypic variation in ten fruit, nut and kernel\\u000a traits were made on twenty-four ripe fruits from 100 Irvingia gabonensis trees in Ugwuaji village in southeast Nigeria,

P. O. Anegbeh; C. Usoro; V. Ukafor; Z. Tchoundjeu; R. R. B. Leakey; K. Schreckenberg

2003-01-01

314

Transitioning from wild collection to forest cultivation of indigenous medicinal forest plants in eastern North America is constrained by lack of profitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forest flora of eastern North America includes many herbaceous plant species traded in domestic and international medicinal\\u000a markets. Conservation concerns surrounding wild-collection exist and transitioning to cultivation in agroforestry systems\\u000a has potential economic and ecological benefits. Costs and revenues associated with adopting forest cultivation were modeled\\u000a for eight North American medicinal forest plants. Sensitivity analysis examined profit potential in

Eric P. Burkhart; Michael G. Jacobson

2009-01-01

315

The Nervous System Nervous System Functions  

E-print Network

1 The Nervous System Nervous System Functions The primary functions of the nervous system are...the whole nervous system #12;5 Nervous System Organization Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System Somatic NS--receives/sends messages to muscles Autonomic NS

Brown, Christopher A.

316

System Verification II Systems Engineering  

E-print Network

in safety critical systems to prevent unsafe values, e.g. high doses of radiation. Remember: not just should be able to: Explain the role & practice of debugging in the software process. Describe in detail the purpose, scope of, and activities comprising each of the three main phases of software testing. Conduct

Bryson, Joanna J.

317

Surveying System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sunrise Geodetic Surveys are setting up their equipment for a town survey. Their equipment differs from conventional surveying systems that employ transit rod and chain to measure angles and distances. They are using ISTAC Inc.'s Model 2002 positioning system, which offers fast accurate surveying with exceptional signals from orbiting satellites. The special utility of the ISTAC Model 2002 is that it can provide positioning of the highest accuracy from Navstar PPS signals because it requires no knowledge of secret codes. It operates by comparing the frequency and time phase of a Navstar signal arriving at one ISTAC receiver with the reception of the same set of signals by another receiver. Data is computer processed and translated into three dimensional position data - latitude, longitude and elevation.

1988-01-01

318

Solar Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

1979-01-01

319

Systemic treatment.  

PubMed

In the last years the management of patients with liver cancer has been improved. The BCLC staging/treatment strategy identifies the optimal candidates for each treatment option and sorafenib is the only effective systemic treatment. Others (sunitinib, brivanib, linifanib, everolimus, ramucirumab) have failed in terms of safety/survival benefit. Some patients at intermediate/early stage, may be considered for systemic therapy when options of higher priority may have failed or not be feasible. The 800 mg/day is the recommended starting dose. Close follow-up and easy access for the patients so that they can report any adverse event and implement dose adjustments is the key point in the management of them. Development of early dermatologic adverse events has been correlated with better outcome and the pattern of radiologic progression characterizes better the prognosis/outcome of these patients. Treatment beyond progression may be considered if there is no option for a second line research trial. PMID:25260318

Reig, Maria; Gazzola, Alessia; Di Donato, Roberto; Bruix, Jordi

2014-10-01

320

Neuroendocrine System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological systems of the human body are placed under a great deal of stress during the process of exercise training.\\u000a Within elite athletes this stress can be of enormous levels because of the volume and intensity of work they perform in their\\u000a training regimes . When training stress is of an appropriate level then there is a positive adaptation

A. C. Hackney

321

Clinical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computerization of clinical care is needed for several reasons. Paper records cannot efficiently support new models of care, clinical governance, or clinical decision-making; and they are not always available. The British Government's strategy for computerizing the NHS in England is embodied in the National Programme for Information Technology (NPfIT). Modern, patient-centric, electronic patient record systems that incorporate clinical decision-support

Anthony P Madden

2004-01-01

322

Imaging System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1100C Virtual Window is based on technology developed under NASA Small Business Innovation (SBIR) contracts to Ames Research Center. For example, under one contract Dimension Technologies, Inc. developed a large autostereoscopic display for scientific visualization applications. The Virtual Window employs an innovative illumination system to deliver the depth and color of true 3D imaging. Its applications include surgery and Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans, viewing for teleoperated robots, training, and in aviation cockpit displays.

1995-01-01

323

Adrenergic System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The adrenergic system is an essential regulator of cardiovascular, endocrine, neuronal, vegetative, and metabolic function.\\u000a The biological effects of the endogenous catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine are mediated by nine distinct G protein-coupled\\u000a receptor subtypes. These adrenergic receptors can be divided into three different groups, the a1-receptors (?1A, ?1B, ?1D), ?2-receptors (?2A, ?2B ?2C) ?-receptors (?1, ?2, ?3). In the absence

S. Engelhardt; L. Hein

324

Fruit set of highland coffee increases with the diversity of pollinating bees.  

PubMed Central

The worldwide decline of pollinators may negatively affect the fruit set of wild and cultivated plants. Here, we show that fruit set of the self-fertilizing highland coffee (Coffea arabica) is highly variable and related to bee pollination. In a comparison of 24 agroforestry systems in Indonesia, the fruit set of coffee could be predicted by the number of flower-visiting bee species, and it ranged from ca. 60% (three species) to 90% (20 species). Diversity, not abundance, explained variation in fruit set, so the collective role of a species-rich bee community was important for pollination success. Additional experiments showed that single flower visits from rare solitary species led to higher fruit set than with abundant social species. Pollinator diversity was affected by two habitat parameters indicating guild-specific nesting requirements: the diversity of social bees decreased with forest distance, whereas the diversity of solitary bees increased with light intensity of the agroforestry systems. These results give empirical evidence for a positive relationship between ecosystem functions such as pollination and biodiversity. Conservation of rainforest adjacent to adequately managed agroforestry systems could improve the yields of farmers. PMID:12803911

Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

2003-01-01

325

Sterilization System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

1990-01-01

326

Purification system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for prolonging the life of a granulated activated charcoal (GAC) water treatment device is disclosed in which an ultraviolet light transparent material is used to constrain water to flow over carbon surfaces. It is configured to receive maximum flux from a UV radiation source for the purpose of preventing microbial proliferation on the carbon surfaces; oxidizing organic contaminants adsorbed from the water onto the carbon surfaces and from biodegradation of adsorbed microbial forms; disinfecting water; and oxidizing organic contaminants in the water.

Flanagan, David T. (inventor); Gibbons, Randall E. (inventor)

1992-01-01

327

Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

1994-01-01

328

The Systems Man's Role in Systems Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At present most systems development is completely dominated by systems people. Such domination can lead to long delays in the development of systems, failures of many systems to ever become operational, costly redesigns for those that do, and a poor fit between systems and their users. Management and users, as well as systems programmers, need to…

Barnett, Arnold

329

ESMDIS: Earth System Model Data Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the development of the Earth System Model Data Information System (ESMDIS) are to provide Earth scientists with: 1) an output management system of Earth System Model (ESM) to browse the metadata and retrieve a desired subset of ESM output; 2) an analysis system of ESM output and other related datasets; 3) an automated pipelining system for ESM

Yuechen Chi; Carlos R. Mechoso; Michael Stonebraker; Keith Sklower; Richard Troy; Richard R. Muntz; Edmond Mesrobian

1997-01-01

330

Refrigeration system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a chamber including an expandable refrigerant system associated therewith. The system comprises reservoir containing an expandable refrigerant coolant and lead piping connecting the reservoir to conduits carrying the coolant therein. The chamber comprises top, bottom and side walls, accordingly defining an interior and an exterior to the chamber, one of the walls comprises a door affording access into the chamber, each of the walls being insulated with insulating material. At least one of the walls comprises a first layer of the insulating material extending thereover adjacent the exterior and a second layer of the insulating material extending thereover adjacent the interior. The reservoir, lead piping and conduits are disposed intermediate the first and second layers of insulating material thereby isolating them from both the interior and exterior. Heat transferring through the at least one wall is substantially absorbed by the coolant and the insulating material cooled by the coolant, before it is able to penetrate through the at least one wall, permitting a product placed in the chamber to effectively maintain or substantially maintain a selected even temperature.

Pagani, R.F.; Clarke, K.J.; Avon, E.J.

1986-11-11

331

Gastrointestinal system  

PubMed Central

The functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract include digestion, absorption, excretion, and protection. In this review, we focus on the electrical activity of the stomach and small intestine, which underlies the motility of these organs, and where the most detailed systems descriptions and computational models have been based to date. Much of this discussion is also applicable to the rest of the GI tract. This review covers four major spatial scales: cell, tissue, organ, and torso, and discusses the methods of investigation and the challenges associated with each. We begin by describing the origin of the electrical activity in the interstitial cells of Cajal, and its spread to smooth muscle cells. The spread of electrical activity through the stomach and small intestine is then described, followed by the resultant electrical and magnetic activity that may be recorded on the body surface. A number of common and highly symptomatic GI conditions involve abnormal electrical and/or motor activity, which are often termed functional disorders. In the last section of this review we address approaches being used to characterize and diagnose abnormalities in the electrical activity and how these might be applied in the clinical setting. The understanding of electrophysiology and motility of the GI system remains a challenging field, and the review discusses how biophysically based mathematical models can help to bridge gaps in our current knowledge, through integration of otherwise separate concepts. PMID:20836011

Cheng, Leo K.; O’Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Egbuji, John U.; Windsor, John A.; Pullan, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

332

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA is charting a bold new course into the cosmos, a journey that will take humans back to the Moon, and eventually to Mars and beyond. Exploration of the solar system and beyond will be guided by compelling questions of scientific and societal importance. NASA exploration programs will seek profound answers to questions about the origins of our solar system, whether life exists beyond Earth, and how we could live on other worlds. The NASA Vision for space exploration calls for a combination of human and robotic missions to achieve new exploration goals. Robotic missions to the Moon will be followed by an extended human expedition as early as 2015. Lunar exploration will lay the groundwork for future exploration of Mars and other destinations. A new spacecraft to support these journeys--the Crew Exploration Vehicle--will be tested before the end of this decade. Space exploration holds a special place in the human imagination. Youth are especially drawn to Mars rovers, astronauts, and telescopes. If used effectively and creatively, space can inspire children to seek careers in math, science, and engineering. Exploration and discovery are key agents of growth in society--technologically, economically, socially, internationally, and intellectually. This module is a first step in engaging today's youth in space exploration and serves as an invitation to participate in the excitement of discovery.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

333

Skeletal System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this unit, written for an honors anatomy and physiology class, students become familiar with the human skeletal system and answer the Challenge Question: When you get home from school, your mother grabs you, and you race to the hospital. Your grandmother fell and was rushed to the emergency room. The doctor tells your family your grandmother has a fractured hip, and she is referring her to an orthopedic specialist. The orthopedic doctor decides to perform a DEXA scan. The result show her BMD is -3.3. What would be a probable diagnosis to her condition? What are some possible causes of her condition? Should her daughter and granddaughter be worried about this condition, and if so, what are measures they could take to prevent this from happening to them?

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

334

Tracking system  

SciTech Connect

A system of tracking the sun each day of the year with compensation for changes in time of sunrise and time of sunset as well as sun declination on a day to day basis, declination being under control of a crank that makes one revolution per year. The equation of time is under control of a cam that also revolves once a year and resets the clock to reflect solar rather than mean solar time in order to properly follow the sun. The position of sun acquisition and loss are a function of the declination and the time is a function of the clock corrected via the cam for equation of time. Thus, when the declination is reset each day, it sets the position of acquisition and loss while the clock, now set for the change due to the equation of time, determines the time of acquisition and loss.

Leroy, V. A.; Gaedtke, H. D.

1985-10-15

335

Computer Systems Administrator  

E-print Network

Computer Systems Administrator Fort Collins, CO POSITION A Computer Systems Administrator (Non activities. RESPONSIBILITIES The System Administrator will provide Unix/Linux, Windows computer system or computer science, and three years computer systems administration experience. DURATION The work is planned

336

System of systems modeling and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyzing the performance of a complex System of Systems (SoS) requires a systems engineering approach. Many such SoS exist in the Military domain. Examples include the Army's next generation Future Combat Systems 'Unit of Action' or the Navy's Aircraft Carrier Battle Group. In the case of a Unit of Action, a system of combat vehicles, support vehicles and equipment are

Craig R. Lawton; James E. Campbell; Dennis James Anderson; Bruce Miles Thompson; Dennis E. Longsine; Donald N. Shirah; Robert M. Cranwell

2005-01-01

337

Communication Engineering Systems Introduction to Communication Systems  

E-print Network

Communication Engineering Systems Introduction to Communication Systems (1) Assoc .. 4 #12;Outline Variety of Today's Communication SystemsVariety of Today s Communication Systems Design Challenges Basic of Communication Systems F d t l Li it tiFundamental Limitation Bandwidth

Kovintavewat, Piya

338

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 36 Communication Systems 24th lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg 2009 #12;2 | 36 Communication Systems last to final lecture Extension;3 | 36 Communication Systems GSM interfaces and components #12;4 | 36 Communication Systems GSM

Schindelhauer, Christian

339

Systems Biology and Systems Medicine: Technology,  

E-print Network

Systems Biology and Systems Medicine: Technology, Measurement and Validation Lee Hood Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle How Might One Think About Systems Biology? #12;Radio Waves Sound Waves #12;Immune Response Intra- and inter- cellular networks Development Physiology #12;Contemporary Systems Biology

340

Elec 331 -Nervous System Nervous System  

E-print Network

Elec 331 - Nervous System 1 Nervous System · Central Nervous System ­ Brain ­ Spinal Chord · Peripheral Nervous System ­ "Conductive" network between CNS & organs ­ Neurones · Individual cells · May act Flow of Information neurone #12;Elec 331 - Nervous System 2 Cell States · Resting Potential (Vc = -70m

Pulfrey, David L.

341

Separation system  

DOEpatents

A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. Separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. Inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. Centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized.

Rubin, Leslie S. (Newton, MA)

1986-01-01

342

System safety education focused on system management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System safety is defined and characteristics of the system are outlined. Some of the principle characteristics include role of humans in hazard analysis, clear language for input and output, system interdependence, self containment, and parallel analysis of elements.

Grose, V. L.

1971-01-01

343

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Spray Distribution System  

E-print Network

Spray distribution systems for wastewater are much like lawn sprinkler systems, in that they spray treated wastewater over the surface of a yard. This publication explains how spray distribution systems work, what their design requirements are...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-10-23

344

Examining Survivability of Systems of Systems  

E-print Network

Previous research has identified design principles that enable survivability for systems, but it is unclear if these principles are appropriate and sufficient for systems of systems as well. This paper presents a preliminary ...

Mekdeci, Brian

345

System architecture of offshore oil production systems  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an approach to applying Systems Architecture methods to the development of large, complex, commercial systems, particularly offshore oil and gas productions systems. The aim of this research was to ...

Keller, James (James Thomas)

2008-01-01

346

Systemic Risk in the International System  

E-print Network

The risk of systemic war seems dependant on the level of criticality and sensitivity of the International System, and the system's conditions. The level of criticality and sensitivity is dependant on the developmental stage of the International System. Initially, following a systemic war, the increase of the level of criticality and sensitivity go hand in hand. However, at a certain stage the sensitivity of the International System for larger sized wars decreases; as a consequence of a network effect, we argue. This network effect results in increased local stability of the System. During this phase the criticality of the International System steadily increases, resulting in a release deficit. This release deficit facilitates a necessary build up of energy to push the International System, by means of systemic war, into a new stability domain. Systemic war is functional in the periodic rebalancing of an anarchistic international system.

Ingo Piepers

2009-10-15

347

perovskite system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments using laser-heated diamond anvil cells combined with synchrotron X-ray diffraction and SEM-EDS chemical analyses have confirmed the existence of a complete solid solution in the MgSiO3-MnSiO3 perovskite system at high pressure and high temperature. The (Mg, Mn)SiO3 perovskite produced is orthorhombic, and a linear relationship between the unit cell parameters of this perovskite and the proportion of MnSiO3 components incorporated seems to obey Vegard's rule at about 50 GPa. The orthorhombic distortion, judged from the axial ratios of a/ b and monotonically decreases from MgSiO3 to MnSiO3 perovskite at about 50 GPa. The orthorhombic distortion in (Mg0.5, Mn0.5)SiO3 perovskite is almost unchanged with increasing pressure from 30 to 50 GPa. On the other hand, that distortion in (Mg0.9, Mn0.1)SiO3 perovskite increases with pressure. (Mg, Mn)SiO3 perovskite incorporating less than 10 mol% of MnSiO3 component is quenchable. A value of the bulk modulus of 256(2) GPa with a fixed first pressure derivative of four is obtained for (Mg0.9, Mn0.1)SiO3. MnSiO3 is the first chemical component confirmed to form a complete solid solution with MgSiO3 perovskite at the P- T conditions present in the lower mantle.

Li, Lin; Nagai, Takaya; Ishido, Tomoki; Motai, Satoko; Fujino, Kiyoshi; Itoh, Shoichi

2014-06-01

348

Denitrification system  

SciTech Connect

An improved multi-stage treatment system is described for biological denitrification of and suspended solids removal from water which comprises: a biological reactor, an aeration chamber and an automatic backwash filter, the reactor including a tank having a lower tank portion, a central tank portion and an upper tank portion, influent distribution means positioned in the lower tank portion, rigid media in the central tank portion capable of supporting denitrifying bacterial growths, and a plurality of collectors positioned in the upper tank portion, the collectors each including an outlet pipe, the chamber having a lower chamber portion, a central chamber portion and an upper chamber portion, aeration means positioned in the lower chamber portion, the outlet pipes of the collectors discharging into the lower chamber portion, and chamber outlet means associated with the central chamber portion, and the filter having a lower filter portion, a central filter portion, an upper filter portion and an effluent channel portion, the filter being divided into a plurality of seriate rectangular cells containing filter media, the chamber outlet means being associated with the central filter portion by which liquid contained in the aeration chamber may discharge into the filter to be filtered through the filter media, a separate port in each the cell beneath its the filter media for discharging filtered liquid from and charging backwash liquid to the respective the cell, the effluent channel portion being common to the plurality of the separate ports that all communicate with the effluent channel portion through a longitudinal planar surface in which the separate ports are substantially equally spaced apart a predetermined distance, and back washing means including a pump for forcing back washing liquid through the separate ports, a backwash shoe that slides along the planar surface to access the separate ports and motor.

Kanow, P.E.

1993-08-03

349

Integrated Nanofluidic Systems for Systems Biotechnology  

E-print Network

Integrated Nanofluidic Systems for Systems Biotechnology Wednesday October 28 2009 Burchard 118, 11 in prestigious journals including Science and Nature Biotechnology. Hong's research interests include Bio

Fisher, Frank

350

Expanding Alternative Delivery Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative educational delivery systems that might be useful to community colleges are considered. The following categories of delivery systems are covered: broadcast delivery systems; copy delivery systems, print delivery systems, computer delivery systems, telephone delivery systems, and satellites. Among the applications for broadcast…

Baltzer, Jan A.

351

Ashe juniper seed production and germination, seedling dynamics and response of live oak/juniper  

E-print Network

savannah / parkland plant community (Smeins et al. 1976). The predominant graminoid species are: common curlymesquite (Hilaria belangeri Nash), sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula var. curtipendula Torr. ), Texas cupgrass (Eriochloa sericea (Scheele... savannah / parkland plant community (Smeins et al. 1976). The predominant graminoid species are: common curlymesquite (Hilaria belangeri Nash), sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula var. curtipendula Torr. ), Texas cupgrass (Eriochloa sericea (Scheele...

Reinecke, Rudolph Klaus

2012-06-07

352

Experiential Media Systems EXPERIENTIAL MEDIA SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

-oriented, unified physical- digital experiences. These media systems will give rise to a new set of multimedia working on developing an experiential media system that integrates task dependent physical therapyExperiential Media Systems EXPERIENTIAL MEDIA SYSTEMS Hari Sundaram and Thanassis Rikakis Arts

Rikakis, Thanassis

353

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 47 Communication Systems 11th lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg Winter Term 2008 #12;2 | 47 Communication Systems Organization and Q&A Any by these protocols? #12;3 | 47 Communication Systems open shortest path first (OSPF) Last lecture: OSPF

Schindelhauer, Christian

354

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 47 Communication Systems 13th lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg 2008 #12;2 | 45 Communication Systems Organization and Q&A Any questions;3 | 47 Communication Systems What is DNS? Imagine: Try to remember the telephone numbers of your friends

Schindelhauer, Christian

355

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 29 Communication Systems 3rd lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg Winter Term 2008 #12;2 | 29 Communication Systems Organization and Q&A Any Ethernet adapter is plugged into the old-standard PCI? #12;3 | 29 Communication Systems 10GBit/s Ethernet

Schindelhauer, Christian

356

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 69 Communication Systems 22nd lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg 2009 #12;2 | 69 Communication Systems Q&A How does the codec used in a Vo of security implications does SIP has? #12;3 | 69 Communication Systems plan for this lecture Voice over IP

Schindelhauer, Christian

357

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 27 Communication Systems 21st lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied NATed and proxied HTTP connection of a client? Communication Systems Q&A #12;3 | 27 3rd and last part of the communication systems lecture: digital telephony For a rather long time telephone and data networks were

Schindelhauer, Christian

358

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 24 Communication Systems 20th lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg 2009 #12;2 | 24 Communication Systems Organization We will offer an oral to a bounded constant Communication systems network security ­ firewalls, packet filtering #12;4 | 24 Packet

Schindelhauer, Christian

359

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 28 Communication Systems 15th lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg 2008 #12;2 | 28 Communication Systems Organization Last lecture networking issues Starting into second part of "Communication Systems" ­ I. Data and voice communication

Schindelhauer, Christian

360

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 18 Communication Systems 4th lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg Winter Term 2008 #12;2 | 18 Communication Systems Organization and Q&A Any in Ethernet channel bonding, but why might it a be a good idea nevertheless? #12;3 | 18 Communication Systems

Schindelhauer, Christian

361

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 29 Communication Systems 9th lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg Winter Term 2008 #12;2 | 29 Communication Systems Organization and Q&A Any? ­ Why are the header checksums of TCP and UDP to be recalculated? #12;3 | 29 Communication Systems

Schindelhauer, Christian

362

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 29 Communication Systems 14th lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg 2008 #12;2 | 29 Communication Systems Organization and Q&A Any questions? ­ How is this number is increased nevertheless? #12;3 | 29 Communication Systems Operating the database

Schindelhauer, Christian

363

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 19 Communication Systems 10th lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg Winter Term 2008 #12;2 | 19 Communication Systems Organization and Q&A Any start? ­ Which other protocols use multicast for message exchange? #12;3 | 19 Communication Systems

Schindelhauer, Christian

364

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 27 Communication Systems 12th lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg 2008 #12;2 | 27 Communication Systems Organization and Q&A Any questions addresses was dropped? #12;3 | 27 Communication Systems IP v6 ­ header format Some important changes within

Schindelhauer, Christian

365

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 34 Communication Systems 7th lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg Winter Term 2008 #12;2 | 34 Communication Systems Organization and Q&A Any is not configured at the client yet)? #12;3 | 34 Communication Systems Organization and Q&A Why wouldn

Schindelhauer, Christian

366

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 32 Communication Systems 8th lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg Winter Term 2008 #12;2 | 32 Communication Systems Organization and Q&A Any Communication Systems Organization and Q&A Please specify what kind of an IP address/network this is: ­ 0

Schindelhauer, Christian

367

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 26 Communication Systems 6th lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg Winter Term 2008 #12;2 | 26 Communication Systems Organization and Q&A Any a smaller MTU rather than the standard one introduce? #12;3 | 26 Communication Systems Organization and Q

Schindelhauer, Christian

368

Hybrid System Modeling and Autonomous Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid control systems contain two distinct types of systems, continuous state and discrete-state, that interact with each other. Their study is essential in designing sequential supervisory controllers for continuous-state systems, and it is central in designing control systems with high degree of autonomy.

Panos J. Antsaklis; James A. Stiver; Michael D. Lemmon

1992-01-01

369

Industrial and Systems engineering  

E-print Network

Industrial and Systems engineering COLLEGE of ENGINEERING DepartmentofIndustrialandSystemsEngineering EDGE Engineering Entrepreneur Certificate Program is a great addition to an industrial and systems to expert clinical recommendations. engineering.wayne.edu/isefaculty Industrial and systems engineering

Berdichevsky, Victor

370

metamorphosis superintegrable systems  

E-print Network

Coupling constant metamorphosis and nth order symmetries for superintegrable systems with a survey constant metamorphosis andnth order symmetries for superintegrable systems -- p. 1/51 #12; Superintegrable of superintegrable system. Coupling constant metamorphosis andnth order symmetries for superintegrable systems -- p

Weinberger, Hans

371

Complex System Classification  

E-print Network

The use of terms such as “Engineering Systems”, “System of systems” and others have been coming into greater use over the past decade to denote systems of importance but with implied higher complexity than for the term ...

Magee, Christopher

2004-07-24

372

Multiple System Atrophy  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Multiple System Atrophy Information Page Condensed from Multiple System Atrophy Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multiple System Atrophy? Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive ...

373

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the parts of our solar system? Let's learn about the parts of our Solar System! First, use the Solar System Chart Now read the Introduction to the Solar System and begin filling out the Solar System Chart by listing one fact for each planet. Now watch the Video 1 on the Solar System and fill out one characteristic about each planet in our Solar System. Now read the Facts about the Solar System and find ...

Kathrynbyers

2012-04-05

374

Serverless Network File Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new paradigm for network file system design, serverless network file systems. While traditional network file systems rely on a central server machine, a serverless system utilizes workstations cooperating as peers to provide all file system services. Any machine in the system can store, cache, or control any block of data. Our approach uses this

Thomas E. Anderson; Michael Dahlin; Jeanna M. Neefe; David A. Patterson; Drew S. Roselli; Randolph Y. Wang

1995-01-01

375

KEKB accelerator control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The KEKB accelerator control system including a control computer system, a timing distribution system, and a safety control system are described. KEKB accelerators were installed in the same tunnel where the TRISTAN accelerator was. There were some constraints due to the reused equipment. The control system is based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). In order to reduce

Nobumasa Akasaka; Atsuyoshi Akiyama; Sakae Araki; Kazuro Furukawa; Tadahiko Katoh; Takashi Kawamoto; Ichitaka Komada; Kikuo Kudo; Takashi Naito; Tatsuro Nakamura; Jun-Ichi Odagiri; Yukiyoshi Ohnishi; Masayuki Sato; Masaaki Suetake; Shigeru Takeda; Yasunori Takeuchi; Noboru Yamamoto; Masakazu Yoshioka; Eji Kikutani

2003-01-01

376

Serverless network file systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new paradigm for network file system design: serverless network file systems. While traditional network file systems rely on a central server machine, a serverless system utilizes workstations cooperating as peers to provide all file system services. Any machine in the system can store, cache, or control any block of data. Our approach uses this location independence, in

Thomas E. Anderson; Michael D. Dahlin; Jeanna M. Neefe; David A. Patterson; Drew S. Roselli; Randolph Y. Wang

1996-01-01

377

On Systemic Destruction of Human Locomotor System  

E-print Network

Locomotor system disorders affect a vast majority of people at some time in their life bringing pain, functional limitations, social and economic implications. Modern medicine cannot offer prevention and effective treatment for most chronic musculoskeletal conditions, because their etiology and pathogenesis are unknown. This is due to the lack of systemic understanding of the locomotor system functioning in both healthy and unhealthy states. Here we apply systems sciences to analyze the human locomotor system and develop a general theory that reveals the systemic destructive process in the locomotor system, linking together all its disorders. The systemic destruction involves adaptation and self-organization processes in the locomotor system, whose side effects introduce a positive feedback loop with nervous and vascular disturbances. Most chronic musculoskeletal conditions are just manifestations and consequences of this process. On the basis of our theoretical findings, we developed the world's first techno...

Medjanik, Zoja; Popov, Sergiy

2013-01-01

378

System of systems modeling and analysis.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of an LDRD program entitled 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' that was conducted during FY 2003 and FY 2004. Systems that themselves consist of multiple systems (referred to here as System of Systems or SoS) introduce a level of complexity to systems performance analysis and optimization that is not readily addressable by existing capabilities. The objective of the 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' project was to develop an integrated modeling and simulation environment that addresses the complex SoS modeling and analysis needs. The approach to meeting this objective involved two key efforts. First, a static analysis approach, called state modeling, has been developed that is useful for analyzing the average performance of systems over defined use conditions. The state modeling capability supports analysis and optimization of multiple systems and multiple performance measures or measures of effectiveness. The second effort involves time simulation which represents every system in the simulation using an encapsulated state model (State Model Object or SMO). The time simulation can analyze any number of systems including cross-platform dependencies and a detailed treatment of the logistics required to support the systems in a defined mission.

Campbell, James E.; Anderson, Dennis James; Longsine, Dennis E. (Intera, Inc., Austin, TX); Shirah, Donald N.

2005-01-01

379

System Software Framework for System of Systems Avionics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Project Constellation implements NASA's vision for space exploration to expand human presence in our solar system. The engineering focus of this project is developing a system of systems architecture. This architecture allows for the incremental development of the overall program. Systems can be built and connected in a "Lego style" manner to generate configurations supporting various mission objectives. The development of the avionics or control systems of such a massive project will result in concurrent engineering. Also, each system will have software and the need to communicate with other (possibly heterogeneous) systems. Fortunately, this design problem has already been solved during the creation and evolution of systems such as the Internet and the Department of Defense's successful effort to standardize distributed simulation (now IEEE 1516). The solution relies on the use of a standard layered software framework and a communication protocol. A standard framework and communication protocol is suggested for the development and maintenance of Project Constellation systems. The ARINC 653 standard is a great start for such a common software framework. This paper proposes a common system software framework that uses the Real Time Publish/Subscribe protocol for framework-to-framework communication to extend ARINC 653. It is highly recommended that such a framework be established before development. This is important for the success of concurrent engineering. The framework provides an infrastructure for general system services and is designed for flexibility to support a spiral development effort.

Ferguson, Roscoe C.; Peterson, Benjamin L; Thompson, Hiram C.

2005-01-01

380

Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant advances have occurred during the last decade in intelligent systems technologies (a.k.a. knowledge-based systems, KBS) including research, feasibility demonstrations, and technology implementations in operational environments. Evaluation and simulation data obtained to date in real-time operational environments suggest that cost-effective utilization of intelligent systems technologies can be realized for Automated Rendezvous and Capture applications. The successful implementation of these technologies involve a complex system infrastructure integrating the requirements of transportation, vehicle checkout and health management, and communication systems without compromise to systems reliability and performance. The resources that must be invoked to accomplish these tasks include remote ground operations and control, built-in system fault management and control, and intelligent robotics. To ensure long-term evolution and integration of new validated technologies over the lifetime of the vehicle, system interfaces must also be addressed and integrated into the overall system interface requirements. An approach for defining and evaluating the system infrastructures including the testbed currently being used to support the on-going evaluations for the evolutionary Space Station Freedom Data Management System is presented and discussed. Intelligent system technologies discussed include artificial intelligence (real-time replanning and scheduling), high performance computational elements (parallel processors, photonic processors, and neural networks), real-time fault management and control, and system software development tools for rapid prototyping capabilities.

Lum, Henry, Jr.

1991-01-01

381

[X-33 Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. This portion of the report is comprised of a status report of Allied-Signal Aerospace's contribution to the program. The following is a summary of the work reviewed under their portion of the agreement: (1) Communication Systems; (2) Environmental Control Systems- Active Thermal Control System (ATCS), Purge and Vent System, Hydrogen Detection System (HDS), Avionics Bay Inerting System (ABIS), and Flush Air Data System (FADS); (2) Landing Systems; (3) Power Management and Generation Systems; (4) Flight Control Actuation System (FCAS)- Electric Power Control & Distribution System (EPCDS), and Battery Power System (BPS); and (5) Vehicle Management Systems (VMS)- VMS Hardware, VMS Software Development Activities, and System Integration Laboratory (SIL).

1999-01-01

382

Freedom System Text and Graphics System (TAGS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Text and Graphics System (TAGS) is a high-resolution facsimile system that scans text or graphics material and converts the analog SCAN data into serial digital data. This video shows the TAGS in operation.

1989-01-01

383

Influence strategies for systems of systems  

E-print Network

Distributed decision making has been identified as a source of managerial complexity for leaders of systems of systems (SoS). A new framework, AIR (Anticipation-Influence-Reaction), is proposed to capture the feedback ...

Shah, Nirav Bharat, 1979-

2013-01-01

384

Computer Systems Research (CSR)  

NSF Publications Database

The Computer Systems Research (CSR) program supports innovative research and education projects that will lead to better computer systems by increasing our fundamental understanding of such systems and by producing better systems software. Embedded systems software and composition technology: highly innovative concepts and methods for middleware, virtual machines, and system services; new concepts and methods for high confidence, distributed, real-time operating systems; component technology ...

385

Liberating Systems Theory: Toward Critical Systems Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article contains an exploration of a number of the many interpretations of its title Liberating Systems Theory. It is in fact a point of reflection on the way to realizing Critical Systems Thinking. Particular points of focus are critical theory integrated to practice in systems \\

R. L. Flood

1990-01-01

386

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 45 Communication Systems 2nd lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg Winter Term 2008 #12;2 | 45 Communication Systems Organization and Q&A Everybody should have gotten two emails of the comsysWS08 mailing list ­ Communicating organizational issues

Schindelhauer, Christian

387

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 19 Communication Systems 19th lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg 2009 #12;2 | 19 Communication Systems Organization Last lectures we ensure this way, that nobody can read/alter the packets of a communication during transit We do

Schindelhauer, Christian

388

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

1 | 18 Communication Systems 17th lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg 2009 #12;2 | 18 Communication Systems Organization Exam: Please do in the practical part Concepts of certification and authorities useful in several setups #12;3 | 18 Communication

Schindelhauer, Christian

389

LRRB Pavement Management Systems Pavement Management Systems  

E-print Network

LRRB Pavement Management Systems Pavement Management Systems Presented by: Michael Marti SRF for implementing and monitoring research results (RIC) #12;LRRB Pavement Management Systems LRRB Structure LRRB and counties in implementing Pavement Management and/or using better §Project produced several deliverables

Minnesota, University of

390

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA SYSTEMS: SYSTEMS OVERVIEW MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a systems overview manual and technical reference guide for the Environmental Assessment Data Systems (EADS), a group of related computerized data bases which describe multimedia discharges from energy systems and industrial processes. The EADS have been designed to...

391

User Registration Systems for Distributed Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) systems have evolved over the years, most of the EOSDIS data are now available to users via anonymous on-line access. Although the changes have improved the dissemination efficiency of earth science data, the anonymous access has made it difficult to characterize users, capture metrics on the value of EOSDIS and

K. J. Murphy; M. Cechini; D. Pilone; A. Mitchell

2010-01-01

392

General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)

Salisbury, David F.

1990-01-01

393

Biometric System Security Systems and Computer Engineering  

E-print Network

on their behavioral and biolog- ical characteristics", a vulnerability in biometric security results in incorrectBiometric System Security Andy Adler Systems and Computer Engineering Carleton University, Ottawa to confidentiality and integrity". Defining biometrics system security is difficult, because of the ways biometric

Adler, Andy

394

Intelligent tutoring systems for systems engineering methodologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general goal is to provide the technology required to build systems that can provide intelligent tutoring in IDEF (Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing Definition Method) modeling. The following subject areas are covered: intelligent tutoring systems for systems analysis methodologies; IDEF tutor architecture and components; developing cognitive skills for IDEF modeling; experimental software; and PC based prototype.

Meyer, Richard J.; Toland, Joel; Decker, Louis

1991-01-01

395

Naval shipboard power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different naval shipboard power system architectures and their basic characteristics have been discussed in the paper. In addition the paper discusses about incorporation of platform management systems into the ship automation system that would enable monitoring and control of the shipboard power system, assessing and diagnosing system failures\\/damages and reconfiguring and restoring power to service loads with reduced manpower and

R. Jayabalan; B. Fahimi

2005-01-01

396

Semantic file systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semantic file system is an information storage system that provides flexible associative access to the system's contents by automatically extracting attributes from files with file type specific transducers. Associative access is provided by a conservative extension to existing tree-structured file system protocols, and by protocols that are designed specifically for content based access. Compatiblity with existing file system protocols

David K. Gifford; Pierre Jouvelot; Mark A. Sheldon; James W. O'Toole Jr.

1991-01-01

397

Operating systems transactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications must be able to synchronize accesses to operating system resources in order to ensure correctness in the face of concurrency and system failures. System transactions allow the programmer to specify updates to heterogeneous system resources with the OS guaranteeing atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability (ACID). System transactions efficiently and cleanly solve persistent concurrency problems that are difficult to address

Donald E. Porter; Owen S. Hofmann; Christopher J. Rossbach; Alexander Benn; Emmett Witchel

2009-01-01

398

Operating System Transactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications must be able to synchronize accesses to oper- ating system resources in order to ensure correctness in the face of concurrency and system failures. System transac- tions allow the programmer to specify updates to heteroge- neous system resources with the OS guaranteeing atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability (ACID). System trans- actions efficiently and cleanly solve persistent concurrency problems that

Donald E. Porter; Owen S. Hofmann; Christopher J. Rossbach; Alexander Benn; Emmett Witchel

399

Heliospheric coordinate systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview and reference to the most common coordinate systems currently used in space science. While coordinate systems used in near-Earth space physics have been described in previous work we extend that description to systems used for physical observations of the Sun and the planets and to systems based on spacecraft location. For all systems, we define

M. Fränz; D. Harper

2002-01-01

400

Collaborative Systems Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative systems are widely used today in various activity fields. Their complexity is high and the development involves numerous resources and costs. Testing collaborative systems has a very important role for the systems' success. In this paper we present taxonomy of collaborative systems. The collaborative systems are classified in many…

Pocatilu, Paul; Ciurea, Cristian

2009-01-01

401

Stabilization of LFT systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of parametrizing all stabilizing controllers for general linear fractional transformation (LFT) systems is studied. The LFT systems can be variously interpreted as multidimensional systems or uncertain systems, and the controller is allowed to have the same dependence on the frequency\\/uncertainty structure as the plant. For multidimensional systems, this means that the controller is allowed dynamic feedback, while the

K. Zhou; John C. Doyle

1991-01-01

402

Energy Systems Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PRESTO, a COSMIC program, handles energy system specifications and predicts design efficiency of cogeneration systems. These systems allow a company to use excess energy produced to generate electricity. PRESTO is utilized by the Energy Systems Division of Thermo Electron Corporation in the custom design of cogeneration systems.

1986-01-01

403

Microwave landing system autoland system analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was to investigate the ability of present day aircraft equipped with automatic flight control systems to fly advanced Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) approaches. The tactical approach used to achieve this objective included reviewing the design and autoland operation of the MD-80 aircraft, simulating the MLS approaches using a batch computer program, and assessing the performance of the autoland system from computer generated data. The results showed changes were required to present Instrument Landing System (ILS) procedures to accommodate the new MLS curved paths. It was also shown that in some cases, changes to the digital flight guidance systems would be required so that an autoland could be performed.

Feather, J. B.; Craven, B. K.

1991-01-01

404

DDL system: Design systhesis of digital systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital Systems Design Language was integrated into the CADAT system environment of NASA-MSFC. The major technical aspects of this integration are summarized. Automatic hardware synthesis is now possible starting with a high level description of the system to be synthesized. The DDL system provides a high level design verification capability, thereby minimizing design changes in the later stages of the design cycle. An overview of the DDL system covering the translation, simulation and synthesis capabilities is provided. Two companion documents (the user's and programmer's manuals) are to be consulted for detailed discussions.

Shiva, S. G.

1983-01-01

405

Maglev systems development status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status and future potential of Maglev systems is reviewed. Modes of noncontact suspension and propulsion are described, and prototype systems and design concepts are indicated. A number of existing systems are described in more detail

A. R. Eastham; W. F. Hayes

1988-01-01

406

Systems Science Harder House  

E-print Network

curriculum includes courses in artificial life, computer simulation, discrete multivariate modeling, dynamical systems, game theory, information theory, neural networks, systems approach, system dynamics in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, the Maseeh College of Engineering and Computer Science

407

Steam System Optimization  

E-print Network

Most plant steam systems are complex systems. Usually the fuel required to produce the steam represents a major expense for manufacturing facilities. By properly operating and maintaining the steam system and making minor improvements, significant...

Aegerter, R. A.

408

Unlocking the Endocrine System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how the endocrine system works and compare it to the mail delivery system. Students discuss the importance of communication in human body systems and relate that to engineering and astronauts.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

409

Fireproof Brake Hydraulic System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of a fireproof two-fluid brake hydraulic system which utilizes nonflammable chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) fluid in a dead ended brake hydraulic system mechanically isolated from the primary MIL-H-5606 hydraulic system was studied. Experim...

S. M. Warren, J. R. Kilner

1981-01-01

410

Female Reproductive System  

MedlinePLUS

... and female reproductive systems. Continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male ... some reason other than pregnancy. Infections of the Female Reproductive System Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) . Also called ...

411

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify basic components of our solar system, including the sun, planets, and Earth's moon. We have just learned about the Solar System. Click here to watch an informational overview of the Solar System: Overview of the Solar System.. The planets in our Solar System are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto. Every planet in our Solar System revolves around the sun. The sun provides the energy ...

Smithson, Ms.

2009-07-07

412

System status display information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the flight crew with enhanced capabilities for monitoring and managing aircraft systems. Guidelines for the design of the electronic system displays were established. The technical approach involved the application of a system engineering approach to the design of candidate displays and the evaluation of a Hernative concepts by part-task simulation. The system engineering and selection of candidate displays are covered.

Summers, L. G.; Erickson, J. B.

1984-01-01

413

Computer Systems Research  

NSF Publications Database

Embedded systems software composition: algorithms, middleware, virtual machines, and system services; new concepts for distributed real-time and light-weight operating systems; component technology for functional and non-functional aspects of systems; and, programming methods for integration of embedded system services. The AES topical area supports research and education projects that create systems software to facilitate the development and runtime support of complex applications. One way ...

414

Intelligent transportation systems.  

E-print Network

??Many transportation systems used today are costly, slow, fragmented, and dangerous. This paper explores the inefficiencies and negative impacts associated with our current transportation systems.… (more)

Locke, Danielle Marie

2011-01-01

415

Automated surface observing systems  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Automated surface observing systems Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : August 19 ... Action Memorandum (Installation of Automated Surface Observing Systems [ASOS}) To: Director, Office ...

416

Lightside Atmospheric Revitalization System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system was studied as a replacement to the present baseline LiOH system for extended duration shuttle missions. The system consists of three subsystems: a solid amine water desorbed regenerable carbon dioxide removal system, a water vapor electrolysis oxygen generating system, and a Sabatier reactor carbon dioxide reduction system. The system is designed for use on a solar powered shuttle vehicle. The majority of the system's power requirements are utilized on the Sun side of each orbit, when solar power is available.

Colling, A. K.; Cushman, R. J.; Hultman, M. M.; Nason, J. R.

1980-01-01

417

Control system design method  

DOEpatents

A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

Wilson, David G. (Tijeras, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM)

2012-02-21

418

Umbra's system representation.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Umbra System representation. Umbra System representation, initially developed in the spring of 2003, is implemented in Incr/Tcl using concepts borrowed from Carnegie Mellon University's Architecture Description Language (ADL) called Acme. In the spring of 2004 through January 2005, System was converted to Umbra 4, extended slightly, and adopted as the underlying software system for a variety of Umbra applications that support Complex Systems Engineering (CSE) and Complex Adaptive Systems Engineering (CASE). System is now a standard part Of Umbra 4. While Umbra 4 also includes an XML parser for System, the XML parser and Schema are not described in this document.

McDonald, Michael James

2005-07-01

419

Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

2011-01-01

420

Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

421

Modeling gross primary production of agro-forestry ecosystems by assimilation of satellite-derived information in a process-based model.  

PubMed

In this paper we present results obtained in the framework of a regional-scale analysis of the carbon budget of poplar plantations in Northern Italy. We explored the ability of the process-based model BIOME-BGC to estimate the gross primary production (GPP) using an inverse modeling approach exploiting eddy covariance and satellite data. We firstly present a version of BIOME-BGC coupled with the radiative transfer models PROSPECT and SAILH (named PROSAILH-BGC) with the aims of i) improving the BIOME-BGC description of the radiative transfer regime within the canopy and ii) allowing the assimilation of remotely-sensed vegetation index time series, such as MODIS NDVI, into the model. Secondly, we present a two-step model inversion for optimization of model parameters. In the first step, some key ecophysiological parameters were optimized against data collected by an eddy covariance flux tower. In the second step, important information about phenological dates and about standing biomass were optimized against MODIS NDVI. Results obtained showed that the PROSAILH-BGC allowed simulation of MODIS NDVI with good accuracy and that we described better the canopy radiation regime. The inverse modeling approach was demonstrated to be useful for the optimization of ecophysiological model parameters, phenological dates and parameters related to the standing biomass, allowing good accuracy of daily and annual GPP predictions. In summary, this study showed that assimilation of eddy covariance and remote sensing data in a process model may provide important information for modeling gross primary production at regional scale. PMID:22399948

Migliavacca, Mirco; Meroni, Michele; Busetto, Lorenzo; Colombo, Roberto; Zenone, Terenzio; Matteucci, Giorgio; Manca, Giovanni; Seufert, Guenther

2009-01-01

422

Modeling Gross Primary Production of Agro-Forestry Ecosystems by Assimilation of Satellite-Derived Information in a Process-Based Model  

PubMed Central

In this paper we present results obtained in the framework of a regional-scale analysis of the carbon budget of poplar plantations in Northern Italy. We explored the ability of the process-based model BIOME-BGC to estimate the gross primary production (GPP) using an inverse modeling approach exploiting eddy covariance and satellite data. We firstly present a version of BIOME-BGC coupled with the radiative transfer models PROSPECT and SAILH (named PROSAILH-BGC) with the aims of i) improving the BIOME-BGC description of the radiative transfer regime within the canopy and ii) allowing the assimilation of remotely-sensed vegetation index time series, such as MODIS NDVI, into the model. Secondly, we present a two-step model inversion for optimization of model parameters. In the first step, some key ecophysiological parameters were optimized against data collected by an eddy covariance flux tower. In the second step, important information about phenological dates and about standing biomass were optimized against MODIS NDVI. Results obtained showed that the PROSAILH-BGC allowed simulation of MODIS NDVI with good accuracy and that we described better the canopy radiation regime. The inverse modeling approach was demonstrated to be useful for the optimization of ecophysiological model parameters, phenological dates and parameters related to the standing biomass, allowing good accuracy of daily and annual GPP predictions. In summary, this study showed that assimilation of eddy covariance and remote sensing data in a process model may provide important information for modeling gross primary production at regional scale. PMID:22399948

Migliavacca, Mirco; Meroni, Michele; Busetto, Lorenzo; Colombo, Roberto; Zenone, Terenzio; Matteucci, Giorgio; Manca, Giovanni; Seufert, Guenther

2009-01-01

423

Space Launch and Temperature System: Avionics System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper outlines the approach needed to develop the avionics system for a Space Launch and Transportation System. Avionics systems development, power, range safety, and simulations considerations are covered. Each of these topics includes the project design inputs that must be considered on the outset. Process steps are then provided to obtain the desired outputs. This paper discusses the importance of starting and staying with an overall systems plan that ensures that all avionics internal and external requirements are fulfilled. Key design, development, testing and implementations considerations are provided.

Gillis, Amelia; Luna, Steve; Schrock, Ken; Howard, Ricky; Kilpatrick, John (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

424

Aircraft systems cyber security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a collection of slides from the author's conference presentation. Topics covered include: The Transition of Aircraft Systems; The Difference Between Cyber Security in Aircraft Systems and Information Technology (IT); Potential Cyber Security Threats to Aircraft Systems; and FAA Aircraft Systems Cyber Security Activities.

Raymond De Cerchio; Chris Riley

2012-01-01

425

Precision Battery Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new battery management system for a lithium ion battery pack for more efficient operation and sturdy. The new system contains an embedded microcontroller to track the energy content of cell battery, optimize the output current, and to provide extensive feedback of all the measurements taken. This system sends all data to a telemetry system so that

J. A. Asumadu; Mohammed Haque; Helio Vogel; Charles Willards

2005-01-01

426

Battery management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery management system is described, comprising: a main battery; main battery charging system means coupled to the main battery for charging the main battery during operation of the main battery charging system means; at least one auxiliary battery; primary switching means for coupling the auxiliary battery to a parallel configuration with the main battery charging system means and with

Albright

1993-01-01

427

Linear Systems: Using Algebra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn to solve a system of linear equations (2 equations with 2 variables) by substitution and elimination methods. They also review the definitions of consistent (independent and dependent) and inconsistent systems, and associate the number of solutions of a system with them. Detailed instructions guide students in using their graphing calculators to solve the systems of equations.

2009-06-14

428

Program (systems) engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program Systems Engineering applies the principles of Systems Engineering at the program level. Space programs are composed of interrelated elements which can include collections of projects, advanced technologies, information systems, etc. Some program elements are outside traditional engineering's physical systems, such as education and public outreach, public relations, resource flow, and interactions within the political environments.

Baroff, Lynn E.; Easter, Robert W.; Pomphrey, Richard B.

2004-01-01

429

Noncooperative rendezvous radar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.

1974-01-01

430

Coaches as System Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of school leadership--of principals and coaches--must be played out on a systems level to get widespread and sustainable improvement. Successful, whole-system education reform relies on capacity building, teamwork, pedagogy, and systemic reform. The strategies of good coaches and the right drivers for whole-system reform go hand in hand.…

Fullan, Michael; Knight, Jim

2011-01-01

431

The IRIDIUM communications system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the IRIDIUM communication system, so-called because the system design originally consisted of 77 networked satellites, and the element iridium has the atomic number 77. The goal is to make instant global communications a reality. The system design now consists of 60 satellites, a system control facility, gateways, and subscriber units. Each of these components is

R. J. Leopold; A. Miller

1993-01-01

432

Universal Index System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Universal Index System (UIS) is an index management system that uses a uniform interface to solve the heterogeneity problem among database management systems. UIS provides an easy-to-use common interface to access all underlying data, but also allows different underlying database management systems, storage representations, and access methods.

Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos; Wallace, Sarah

1993-01-01

433

Remote hybrid power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the emerging technology of remote, stand-alone electrical power systems featuring a renewable source (wind or photovoltaics [PV]) as well as a diesel generator, with or without an energy storage device. Other stand-alone power systems are discussed briefly, mainly to emphasize the domain of hybrid systems. The history of hybrid systems is reviewed, beginning with

C. D. Barley; C. B. Winn

1997-01-01

434

Electronic Document Supply Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…

Cawkell, A. E.

1991-01-01

435

Next generation information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Information Systems Analysis and Development (ISAD) Team of the Safeguards Systems Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been developing web based information and knowledge management systems for sixteen years. Our vision is to rapidly and cost effectively provide knowledge management solutions in the form of interactive information systems that help customers organize, archive, post and retrieve nonproliferation

Nathan P Limback; Melanie A Medina; Michelle E Silva

2010-01-01

436

Communication Systems last lecture  

E-print Network

1 | 70 Communication Systems last lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg 2009 #12;2 | 70 Communication Systems final lecture Start with last part, power control and hand-over ­ Authentication and security #12;3 | 70 Communication Systems GSM

Schindelhauer, Christian

437

Computer Center: CIBE Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differentiates between computer systems and Computers in Biological Education (CIBE) systems (computer system intended for use in biological education). Describes several CIBE stand alone systems: single-user microcomputer; single-user microcomputer/video-disc; multiuser microcomputers; multiuser maxicomputer; and local and long distance computer…

Crovello, Theodore J.

1982-01-01

438

Solar power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various control methods and means are disclosed for varying the temperature of vaporization of a solar-powered system so that the instantaneous power delivered by the heat engine of this system, or by a device driven by this engine, is a maximum for given conditions external to the power system, or to the power system and the driven device, respectively, while

Molivadas

1982-01-01

439

Dynamical Systems in Cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamical systems theory is especially well-suited for determining the possible asymptotic states (at both early and late times) of cosmological models, particularly when the governing equations are a finite system of autonomous ordinary differential equations. We begin with a brief review of dynamical systems theory. We then discuss cosmological models as dynamical systems and point out the important role of

Alan A. Coley

1999-01-01

440

Nevada System Higher Education  

E-print Network

Nevada System of Higher Education State Operating Budget Budget to Actual Comparison of 260 #12;NEVADA SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION BOARD OF REGENTS Dr. Jason Geddes, Chair Mr. Kevin J. Page of Regents OFFICERS OF THE NEVADA SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION Mr. Daniel J. Klaich, Chancellor Nevada System

Hemmers, Oliver

441

Nevada System Higher Education  

E-print Network

Nevada System of Higher Education State Operating Budget Budget to Actual Comparison #12;NEVADA SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION BOARD OF REGENTS Mr. Kevin J. Page, Chair Mr. Rick Trachok, Vice OFFICERS OF THE NEVADA SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION Mr. Daniel J. Klaich, Chancellor Nevada System of Higher

Hemmers, Oliver

442

Microsoft Analytics Platform System  

E-print Network

nodes, and the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) storage. By integrating HDInsight with APS, you canBase Integrated Hadoop performance through HDInsight (optional) Introduction Microsoft Analytics Platform SystemMicrosoft Analytics Platform System Solution Brief #12;Microsoft Analytics Platform System

Chaudhuri, Surajit

443

Introduction to VLSI systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book is written to introduce all Electrical Engineering and Computer Science students to integrated system architecture and design. Combined with individual study in related research areas and participation in large system design projects, this text provides the basis for a graduate course-sequence in integrated systems. MOS devices and circuits are considered along with integrated system fabrication, data and control

Carver Mead; Lynn Conway

1980-01-01

444

Identification of propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a tutorial on the use of model identification techniques for the identification of propulsion system models. These models are important for control design, simulation, parameter estimation, and fault detection. Propulsion system identification is defined in the context of the classical description of identification as a four step process that is unique because of special considerations of data and error sources. Propulsion system models are described along with the dependence of system operation on the environment. Propulsion system simulation approaches are discussed as well as approaches to propulsion system identification with examples for both air breathing and rocket systems.

Merrill, Walter; Guo, Ten-Huei; Duyar, Ahmet

1991-01-01

445

214 SYSTEMS BIOTECHNOLOGY  

E-print Network

Systems biology has been changing the way biological and biotechnological research is performed. Now, systems biological approaches can be taken to develop bioprocesses for the production of valuable drugs, commodity and fine chemicals, fuels, and polymers and other materials; this is termed systems biotechnology. Here I present the general strategies for systems biotechnology and several examples of applying systems biotechnological strategies for the development of bioprocesses for the efficient production of chemicals and materials. This also includes a strategy of systems metabolic engineering for the development of microbial strains. It is expected that systems biotechnology will be at the heart of successful industrial biotechnology towards low carbon green growth of the world

unknown authors

446

Lightning mapping system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) System is being implemented at KSC in Florida. The first operational use is expected in the late summer of 1991. The system is designed to map the location of in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning based on the time of arrival (TOA) of electromagnetic radiation. The system detects very high frequency (VHF) radiation and designed to map the volumetric extent of lightning. The system implements two independent antenna arrays to provide a fast data quality check, as necessary for a real-time warning system. The system performance goals and a comparison with a similar system implemented in the mid-1970's is made.

Lennon, C.; Maier, L.

1991-01-01

447

T-systems and Y-systems in integrable systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

T- and Y-systems are ubiquitous structures in classical and quantum integrable systems. They are difference equations having a variety of aspects related to commuting transfer matrices in solvable lattice models, q-characters of Kirillov-Reshetikhin modules of quantum affine algebras, cluster algebras with coefficients, periodicity conjectures of Zamolodchikov and others, dilogarithm identities in conformal field theory, difference analog of L-operators in KP

Atsuo Kuniba; Tomoki Nakanishi; Junji Suzuki

2011-01-01

448

Selforganizing Systems Case Study: peertopeer systems ?  

E-print Network

Self­organizing Systems Case Study: peer­to­peer systems ? Emmanuelle Anceaume, Maria Gradinariu. This paper aims at providing a definition of self­organization for dynamic and open sys­ tems such as peer­to­peer networks. We propose a definition of self­organization based on the locality principle --- a node maintains

Roy, Matthieu

449

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

(standard CRC) ­ Flag 0111 1110 Communication Systems point-to-point protocol #12;9 | 29 PPP byte stuffing Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) or Telco standards such as Link Access Protocol Balanced (LAPB) part configuration ­ Looped link detection via magic numbers in control protocol Communication Systems point

Schindelhauer, Christian

450

Systems Analysis of the UAE Education System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This purpose of this paper is to examine the organization of the UAE educational system, its components, their goals, and finally their effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach: Three elements of the UAE education system were examined: the development; delivery; and evaluation and feedback. Findings: On analysis, it was found that there…

Gaad, Eman; Arif, Mohammed; Scott, Fentey

2006-01-01

451

Energy recovery system for refrigeration systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses an energy recovery system for heating water with by-product heat from a refrigeration system wherein a heat exchanger within a refrigerant compressor hot gas conduit may selectively heat water within a storage tank. The flow of water through the storage tank and heat exchanger is controlled by a pump operating during operation of the compressor, preferably, only

Ritchie

1979-01-01

452

System Development Planning via System Maturity Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many U.S. government agencies and their contractors have subscribed to using the prescriptive metric of technology readiness level (TRL) as a measure of maturity of an individual technology, with a view toward operational use in a system context. A comprehensive set of concerns becomes relevant when this metric is abstracted from an individual technology to a system context, which may

Jose Emmanuel Ramirez-Marquez; Brian J. Sauser

2009-01-01

453

APS control system operating system choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to set down the reasons and decisions regarding what is an important choice for the APS Control System design staff, namely the choice of an operating system for its principle computer resources. Since the choice also may affect cost estimates and the design handbook, there is a further need to document the process. The

M. Knott; M. Kraimer; F. Lenkszus

1990-01-01

454

Regular Descriptor Linear Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We have pointed out in Sect. 1.3 that regularity is a very important property for descriptor linear systems. It guarantees\\u000a the existence and uniqueness of solutions to descriptor linear systems. This chapter studies regular descriptor linear systems\\u000a and starts in Sect. 3.1 with the definition of regularity of descriptor linear systems and its relation with solutions of\\u000a descriptor linear systems.

Guang-Ren Duan

455

Automated Pilot Advisory System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Automated Pilot Advisory System (APAS) was developed and operationally tested to demonstrate the concept that low cost automated systems can provide air traffic and aviation weather advisory information at high density uncontrolled airports. The system was designed to enhance the see and be seen rule of flight, and pilots who used the system preferred it over the self announcement system presently used at uncontrolled airports.

Parks, J. L., Jr.; Haidt, J. G.

1981-01-01

456

Fluid infusion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance testing carried out in the development of the prototype zero-g fluid infusion system is described and summarized. Engineering tests were performed in the course of development, both on the original breadboard device and on the prototype system. This testing was aimed at establishing baseline system performance parameters and facilitating improvements. Acceptance testing was then performed on the prototype system to verify functional performance. Acceptance testing included a demonstration of the fluid infusion system on a laboratory animal.

1974-01-01

457

Evolvable synthetic neural system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

458

Photovoltaic systems and applications  

SciTech Connect

Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

Not Available

1982-01-01

459

Intelligent vision systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's pursuit of reducing the size, weight, and cost of satellite systems, for advanced space systems, is providing a vital thrust to the development of systems-on-a-chip. Novel smart vision systems that incorporate active pixel photo-detectors, MEMs tunable etalons, electro-optical information processors, and applications of the novel smart vision system, including remote sensing, hyperspectral imaging, biomedical imaging and adaptive optics are discussed.

Clark, Natalie; Singh, Upendra N.

2002-09-01

460

Information and Intelligent Systems  

NSF Publications Database

Information and Intelligent Systems: Advancing Collaborative and Intelligent Systems and their Societal Implications. Research activities supported will result in discoveries in the field of Information and Intelligent Systems and the preparation of future generations of IT professionals with expertise in Information and Intelligent Systems. Digital Library and Archive projects must draw upon research in Collaborative Systems (e.g., information retrieval or human-computer interaction) or ...

461

System identification for passive linear quantum systems  

E-print Network

System identification is a key enabling component for the implementation of quantum technologies, including quantum control. In this paper, we consider the class of passive linear input-output systems, and investigate several basic questions: (1) which parameters can be identified? (2) Given sufficient input-output data, how do we reconstruct system parameters? (3) How can we optimize the estimation precision by preparing appropriate input states and performing measurements on the output? We show that minimal systems can be identified up to a unitary transformation on the modes, and systems satisfying a Hamiltonian connectivity condition called "infecting" are completely identifiable. We propose a frequency domain design based on a Fisher information criterion, for optimizing the estimation precision for coherent input state. As a consequence of the unitarity of the transfer function, we show that the Heisenberg limit with respect to the input energy can be achieved using non-classical input states.

Madalin Guta; Naoki Yamamoto

2013-03-15

462

Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems  

SciTech Connect

Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

2004-12-30

463

Embedded system based driver drowsiness detection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a System-on-Chip (SoC) visual-based driver drowsiness detection system. The system is able to promptly detect the onset of driver drowsiness by monitoring in real-time the accumulated driver's PERCLOS, i.e. proportion of time driver's eyes are closed in a 1-minute interval through non-intrusive camera(s). FPGA hardware is used as its processing platform along with Viola-Jones object detection algorithm. Viola-Jones algorithm uses Haar-like features along with AdaBoost algorithm to achieve good detection performance.

Islam, Syed Zahidul; Mohd Ali, Mohd Alauddin; bin Jidin, Razali; Islam, Syed Zahurul

2010-02-01

464

Education Systemic Change Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National School Boards Association provides this website as a guide to systemic change for those in the field of education. This site is broken up into three sections that explain what systemic change is, outline the process for systemic change, offer advice for difficulties along the way, and list resources for implementing systemic change in any educational organization âÂÂfrom the classroom to the federal level," including the section "Leading Systemic Change" for those who would like to take charge and put systemic change in their own hands.

2008-07-29

465

Verification of Adaptive Systems  

SciTech Connect

Adaptive systems are critical for future space and other unmanned and intelligent systems. Verification of these systems is also critical for their use in systems with potential harm to human life or with large financial investments. Due to their nondeterministic nature and extremely large state space, current methods for verification of software systems are not adequate to provide a high level of assurance for them. The combination of stabilization science, high performance computing simulations, compositional verification and traditional verification techniques, plus operational monitors, provides a complete approach to verification and deployment of adaptive systems that has not been used before. This paper gives an overview of this approach.

Pullum, Laura L [ORNL] [ORNL; Cui, Xiaohui [New York Institute of Technology (NYIT)] [New York Institute of Technology (NYIT); Vassev, Emil [Lero – The Irish Software Engineering Research Centre] [Lero – The Irish Software Engineering Research Centre; Hinchey, Mike [Lero – The Irish Software Engineering Research Centre] [Lero – The Irish Software Engineering Research Centre; Rouff, Christopher [Lockheed Martin Corporation] [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Buskens, Richard [Lockheed Martin Corporation] [Lockheed Martin Corporation

2012-01-01

466

Digital wireless control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Digital Wireless Control System (DWCS) is designed to initiate high explosives safely while using a wireless remote control system. Numerous safety features have been designed into the fire control system to mitigate the hazards associated with remote initiation of high explosives. These safety features range from a telemetry (TM) fire control status system to mechanical timers and keyed power lockout switches. The environment, safety, and health (ES&H) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) SP471970 is intended as a guide when working with the DWCS. This report describes the Digital Wireless Control System and outlines each component's theory of operation and its relationship to the system.

Smith, R.

1993-08-01

467

Space shuttle avionics system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle avionics system, which was conceived in the early 1970's and became operational in the 1980's represents a significant advancement of avionics system technology in the areas of systems and redundacy management, digital data base technology, flight software, flight control integration, digital fly-by-wire technology, crew display interface, and operational concepts. The origins and the evolution of the system are traced; the requirements, the constraints, and other factors which led to the final configuration are outlined; and the functional operation of the system is described. An overall system block diagram is included.

Hanaway, John F.; Moorehead, Robert W.

1989-01-01

468

Cooperating systems: Layered MAS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distributed intelligent systems can be distinguished by the models that they use. The model developed focuses on layered multiagent system conceived of as a bureaucracy in which a distributed data base serves as a central means of communication. The various generic bureaus of such a system is described and a basic vocabulary for such systems is presented. In presenting the bureaus and vocabularies, special attention is given to the sorts of reasonings that are appropriate. A bureaucratic model has a hierarchy of master system and work group that organizes E agents and B agents. The master system provides the administrative services and support facilities for the work groups.

Rochowiak, Daniel

1990-01-01

469

Inertial navigation systems analysis.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume offers the avionic systems engineer a fundamental exposition of the mechanization and error analysis of inertial navigation systems. While the material is applicable to spacecraft and undersea navigation, emphasis is placed upon terrestrial applications on or slightly above the earth's surface. As a result, practical considerations are geared toward those aircraft navigation systems of particular current interest. Extensive use is made of perturbation techniques to develop linearized system equations, whose solutions closely approximate those obtained by nonlinear differential equations. A unified error analysis technique is developed that is applicable to virtually all system configurations. The technique provides a greatly simplified method for comparing the performance of competing system configurations.

Britting, K. R.

1971-01-01

470

Continuous system modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive and systematic introduction is presented for the concepts associated with 'modeling', involving the transition from a physical system down to an abstract description of that system in the form of a set of differential and/or difference equations, and basing its treatment of modeling on the mathematics of dynamical systems. Attention is given to the principles of passive electrical circuit modeling, planar mechanical systems modeling, hierarchical modular modeling of continuous systems, and bond-graph modeling. Also discussed are modeling in equilibrium thermodynamics, population dynamics, and system dynamics, inductive reasoning, artificial neural networks, and automated model synthesis.

Cellier, Francois E.

1991-01-01

471

Precision Pointing System Development  

SciTech Connect

The development of precision pointing systems has been underway in Sandia's Electronic Systems Center for over thirty years. Important areas of emphasis are synthetic aperture radars and optical reconnaissance systems. Most applications are in the aerospace arena, with host vehicles including rockets, satellites, and manned and unmanned aircraft. Systems have been used on defense-related missions throughout the world. Presently in development are pointing systems with accuracy goals in the nanoradian regime. Future activity will include efforts to dramatically reduce system size and weight through measures such as the incorporation of advanced materials and MEMS inertial sensors.

BUGOS, ROBERT M.

2003-03-01

472

Business System Planning Project System Requirements Specification  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Business Systems Planning Project System Requirements Specification (SRS) is to provide the outline and contents of the requirements for the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) integrated business and technical information systems. The SRS will translate proposed objectives into the statement of the functions that are to be performed and data and information flows that they require. The requirements gathering methodology will use (1) facilitated group requirement sessions; (2) individual interviews; (3) surveys; and (4) document reviews. The requirements will be verified and validated through coordination of the technical requirement team and CHG Managers. The SRS document used the content and format specified in Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. Organization Standard Software Practices in conjunction with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 8340-1984 for Systems Requirements Documents.

NELSON, R.E.

2000-09-08

473

Power system interface and umbilical system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System requirements and basic design criteria were defined for berthing or docking a payload to the 25 kW power module which will provide electrical power and attitude control, cooling, data transfer, and communication services to free-flying and Orbiter sortie payloads. The selected umbilical system concept consists of four assemblies and command and display equipment to be installed at the Orbiter payload specialist station: (1) a movable platen assembly which is attached to the power system with EVA operable devices; (2) a slave platen assembly which is attached to the payload with EVA operable devices; (3) a fixed secondary platen permanently installed in the power system; and (4) a fixed secondary platen permanently installed on the payload. Operating modes and sequences are described.

1980-01-01

474

Enabling Systems Biology Approaches Through Microfabricated Systems  

PubMed Central

With the experimental tools and knowledge that have accrued from a long history of reductionist biology, we can now start to put the pieces together and begin to understand how biological systems function as an integrated whole. Here, we describe how microfabricated tools have demonstrated promise in addressing experimental challenges in throughput, resolution and sensitivity to support systems-based approaches to biological understanding. PMID:23984862

Zhan, Mei; Chingozha, Loice; Lu, Hang

2014-01-01

475

User Registration Systems for Distributed Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) systems have evolved over the years, most of the EOSDIS data are now available to users via anonymous on-line access. Although the changes have improved the dissemination efficiency of earth science data, the anonymous access has made it difficult to characterize users, capture metrics on the value of EOSDIS and provide customized services that benefit users. As the number of web-based applications continues to grow, data centers and application providers have implemented their own user registration systems and provided new tools and interfaces for their registered users. This has led to the creation of independent registration systems for accessing data and interacting with online tools and services. The user profile information maintained at each of these registration systems is not consistent and the registration enforcement varies by system as well. This problem is in no way unique to EOSDIS and represents a general challenge to the distributed computing community. In a study done in 2007(http://www2007.org/papers/paper620.pd), the average user has approximately 7 passwords for about 25 accounts and enters a password 8 times a day. These numbers have only increased in the last three years. To try and address this, a number of solutions have been offered including Single Sign-On solutions using a common backend like Microsoft Active Directory or an LDAP server, trust based identity providers like OpenID, and various forms of authorization delegation like OAuth or SAML/XACML. This talk discusses the differences between authentication and authorization, the state of the more popular user registration solutions available for distributed use, and some of the technical and policy drivers that need to be considered when incorporating a user registration system into your application.

Murphy, K. J.; Cechini, M.; Pilone, D.; Mitchell, A.

2010-12-01

476

Computer Based Systems Engineering Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern computer based systems are complex multi-systems consisting of many connected individual subsystems; each one of them is typically also a multicomputer system. The subsystems in a multi-system can be either geographically distributed or locally connected systems. Typical examples of computer based systems are medical systems, process control systems, communications systems, weapon systems and large information systems.\\u000a The development of

Jonah Z. Lavi; Ashok K. Agrawala; Raymond J. A. Buhr; Ken Jackson; Michael Jackson; Bernard Lang

1991-01-01

477

Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. Management implies storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation. ISHM is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this chapter, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an ISHM capability relevant to intelligent systems. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system, emphasizing an advance toward an on-board, autonomous capability. Both ground-based and on-board ISHM capabilities are addressed. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

2011-01-01

478

System and method for creating expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system and method provides for the creation of a highly graphical expert system without the need for programming in code. An expert system is created by initially building a data interface, defining appropriate Mission, User-Defined, Inferred, and externally-generated GenSAA (EGG) data variables whose data values will be updated and input into the expert system. Next, rules of the expert system are created by building appropriate conditions of the rules which must be satisfied and then by building appropriate actions of rules which are to be executed upon corresponding conditions being satisfied. Finally, an appropriate user interface is built which can be highly graphical in nature and which can include appropriate message display and/or modification of display characteristics of a graphical display object, to visually alert a user of the expert system of varying data values, upon conditions of a created rule being satisfied. The data interface building, rule building, and user interface building are done in an efficient manner and can be created without the need for programming in code.

Hughes, Peter M. (Inventor); Luczak, Edward C. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

479

JT-60 Control System  

SciTech Connect

The present status of the JT-60U control system is reported including its original design concept, the progress of the system, and various modifications since the JT-60 upgrade. This control system has features of a functionally distributed and hierarchical structure, using CAMAC interfaces initially, which have been replaced by versatile module Europe (VME)-bus interfaces, and a protective interlock system composed of both software and hard-wired interlock logics. Plant monitoring and control are performed by efficient data communication through CAMAC highways and Ethernet with TCP/IP protocols. Sequential control of plasma discharges is executed by a combination of a remodeled VME-bus system and a timing system. A real-time plasma control system and a human interface system have been continuously modified corresponding to the progress of JT-60U experiments.

Yonekawa, I.; Kawamata, Y.; Totsuka, T.; Akasaka, H.; Sueoka, M.; Kurihara, K.; Kimura, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

2002-09-15

480

Media Programmed Learning Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The science department of a Japanese technical high school developed a programmed learning system for first and second year science courses. Utilized are various machines and audiovisual equipment in a total media system. (Author/TS)

Butler, Lucius; Inoue, Kazuo

1972-01-01

481

Information retrieval system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generalized information storage and retrieval system capable of generating and maintaining a file, gathering statistics, sorting output, and generating final reports for output is reviewed. File generation and file maintenance programs written for the system are general purpose routines.

Berg, R. F.; Holcomb, J. E.; Kelroy, E. A.; Levine, D. A.; Mee, C., III

1970-01-01

482

System for rapid subtitling  

E-print Network

A system for rapid subtitling of audiovisual sequences was developed, and evaluated. This new system resulted in average time-savings of 50% over the previous work in the field. To subtitle a 27-minute English lecture, ...

Leonard, Sean Joseph

2005-01-01

483

Multiplex television transmission system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time-multiplexing system enables several cameras to share a single commercial television transmission channel. This system is useful in industries for visually monitoring several operating areas or instrument panels from a remote location.

Reed, W. R.

1967-01-01

484

Digestive System Movie  

MedlinePLUS

... People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Q&A Movies & More Quizzes Games Kids' Medical Dictionary En Español ... Pink Locker Society Movie: Digestive System KidsHealth > Kids > Movies & More > Movies > Movie: Digestive System Print A A ...

485

Instructional Systems: Which One?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the mystical aura attached to the notion of a systems approach to instruction, briefly reviews some of the instructional systems which have been advanced, and suggests a method for successful implementation of the process. (LS)

Lee, A. Maughan

1970-01-01

486

Central Nervous System Vasculitis  

MedlinePLUS

... headaches that last a long time strokes or transient ischemic attacks (“mini-strokes”) forgetfulness or confusion weakness ... cyclophosphamide (a medication that decreases the immune system’s response to autoimmune diseases), are generally used. In some ...

487

Absorption heat pump system  

DOEpatents

The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

Grossman, G.

1982-06-16

488

Human Body Systems Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, studens are presented with a body system and a variety of organs. Students drag and drop all the organs that belong in that particular body system to a body who is missing his parts.

Sciencenetlinks.org

2010-06-02

489

Urban organizational systems  

E-print Network

General systems theory provides a conceptual framework for the integration of knowledge from a wide variety of specialized fields. Systems theory serves to synthesize, reconcile, and integrate knowledge making it possible ...

Morog, Joseph V

1981-01-01

490

Silver recovery system data  

SciTech Connect

In August of 1990 the Savannah River Site Photography Group began testing on a different type of silver recovery system. This paper describes the baseline study and the different phases of installation and testing of the system.

Boulineau, B.

1991-08-26

491

Male Reproductive System  

MedlinePLUS

The male reproductive system, like that of the female, consists of those organs whose function is to produce a new individual, i.e., to accomplish reproduction. This system consists of a pair of testes ...

492

Crowd-powered systems  

E-print Network

Crowd-powered systems combine computation with human intelligence, drawn from large groups of people connecting and coordinating online. These hybrid systems enable applications and experiences that neither crowds nor ...

Bernstein, Michael Scott

2012-01-01

493

Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.

1998-01-01

494

Systemic Amyloidosis Complicating Dermatoses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Certain dermatoses may be complicated by systemic amyloidosis. The underlying disorders in eight of 100 patients with secondary systemic amyloidosis studied at autopsy were: hidradenitis suppurativa, stasis ulcers, psoriatic arthritis, basal cell carcinom...

M. H. Brownstein, E. B. Helwig

1970-01-01

495

System status display evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The System Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the crew with an enhanced capability for monitoring and managing the aircraft systems. A flight simulation in a fixed base cockpit simulator was used to evaluate alternative design concepts for this display system. The alternative concepts included pictorial versus alphanumeric text formats, multifunction versus dedicated controls, and integration of the procedures with the system status information versus paper checklists. Twelve pilots manually flew approach patterns with the different concepts. System malfunctions occurred which required the pilots to respond to the alert by reconfiguring the system. The pictorial display, the multifunction control interfaces collocated with the system display, and the procedures integrated with the status information all had shorter event processing times and lower subjective workloads.

Summers, Leland G.

1988-01-01

496

Acquisitions and Cataloguing Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Automated systems for acquisitions and catalogue production for the Wessex Medical Library are outlined in this interim report, with some account of why particular decisions were made. Section A describes the acquisitions system and Section B describes th...

R. G. Woods

1971-01-01

497

STRATEGIC FOCUS: Sustainable Systems  

E-print Network

to apply sustain- ability principles to building and design, transportation and other fields, to green1010 STRATEGIC FOCUS: Sustainable Systems Biology doctoral student Tanya Lubansky uses quan and quantitative ecologists. Sustainable Systems in NJIT's Educational Programs Educational offerings

498

Whole Body Measurement System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A biomedical system for quantitatively determining the volume and volume change of a human body under weightlessness conditions, over a period of time, is described. The system consists of an enclosed chamber having a defined volume and arranged for recei...

J. S. Ogle

1971-01-01

499

Transport in granular systems  

E-print Network

There are many situations in which a continuum view of granular systems does not fully capture the relevant mechanics. In order for engineers to be able to design systems for transporting granular materials, there needs ...

Wendell, Dawn M. (Dawn Marie), 1983-

2011-01-01

500

Intensive care alarm system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inductive loop has been added to commercially available call system fitted with earphone receiver. System transmits high frequency signals to nurse's receiver to announce patient's need for help without disturbing others.

Christensen, J. L.; Herbert, A. L.

1973-01-01