Sample records for parkland agroforestry systems

  1. Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agroforestry Systems in Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eike Luedeling; Gudeta Sileshi; Tracy Beedy; Johannes Dietz

    \\u000a Agroforestry can raise carbon (C) stocks of agricultural systems, and such increases can potentially be sold as CO2 emission offsets. We assembled information on the biophysical, technical, economic, and practical potential of agroforestry\\u000a to sequester C for the West African Sahel, East Africa, and Southern Africa. Agroforestry systems (AFS) such as parklands,\\u000a live fences, and homegardens had substantial C stocks,

  2. Millet production under pruned tree crowns in a parkland system in Burkina Faso

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bayala; Z. Teklehaimanot; S. J. Ouedraogo

    2002-01-01

    As a tree management tool, three treatments of crown pruning (total-pruning, half-pruning and no-pruning) were applied to\\u000a Vitellaria paradoxa (karit) and Parkia biglobosa (nr) in agroforestry parkland systems in Burkina Faso. The area under each tree was divided into four concentric tree influence\\u000a zones (Zones A: up to 2 m from the tree trunk, B: up to half of the

  3. Hydraulic redistribution study in two native tree species of agroforestry parklands of West African dry savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayala, Jules; Heng, Lee Kheng; van Noordwijk, Meine; Ouedraogo, Sibiri Jean

    2008-11-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) in karité ( Vitellaria paradoxa) and néré ( Parkia biglobosa) tree species was studied by monitoring the soil water potential ( ?s) using thermocouple psychrometers at four compass directions, various distances from trees and at different soil depths (max depth 80 cm) during the dry seasons of 2004 and 2005. A modified WaNuLCAS model was then used to infer the amount of water redistribued based on ?s values. Tree transpiration rate was also estimated from sap velocity using thermal dissipative probes (TDP) and sapwood area, and the contribution of hydraulically redistributed water in tree transpiration was determined. The results revealed on average that 46% of the psychrometer readings under karité and 33% under néré showed the occurrence of HR for the two years. Soil under néré displayed significantly lower fluctuations of ?s (0.16 MPa) compared to soil under karité (0.21 MPa). The results of this study indicated that the existence of HR leads to a higher ?s in the plant rhizosphere and hence is important for soil water dynamics and plant nutrition by making more accessible the soluble elements. The simulation showed that the amount of water redistributed would be approximately 73.0 L and 247.1 L per tree per day in 2005 for karité and néré, and would represent respectively 60% and 53% of the amount transpired a day. Even though the model has certainly overestimated the volume of water hydraulically redistributed by the two species, this water may play a key role in maintaining fine root viability and ensuring the well adaptation of these species to the dry areas. Therefore, knowledge of the extent of such transfers and of the seasonal patterns is required and is of paramount importance in parkland systems both for trees and associated crops.

  4. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bargués Tobella, A; Reese, H; Almaw, A; Bayala, J; Malmer, A; Laudon, H; Ilstedt, U

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands. Key Points Trees in dryland landscapes increase soil infiltrability and preferential flow Termite mounds in association with trees further enhance preferential flow PMID:25641996

  5. Forecasting the Performance of Agroforestry Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedeling, E.; Shepherd, K.

    2014-12-01

    Agroforestry has received considerable attention from scientists and development practitioners in recent years. It is recognized as a cornerstone of many traditional agricultural systems, as well as a new option for sustainable land management in currently treeless agricultural landscapes. Agroforestry systems are diverse, but most manifestations supply substantial ecosystem services, including marketable tree products, soil fertility, water cycle regulation, wildlife habitat and carbon sequestration. While these benefits have been well documented for many existing systems, projecting the outcomes of introducing new agroforestry systems, or forecasting system performance under changing environmental or climatic conditions, remains a substantial challenge. Due to the various interactions between system components, the multiple benefits produced by trees and crops, and the host of environmental, socioeconomic and cultural factors that shape agroforestry systems, mechanistic models of such systems quickly become very complex. They then require a lot of data for site-specific calibration, which presents a challenge for their use in new environmental and climatic domains, especially in data-scarce environments. For supporting decisions on the scaling up of agroforestry technologies, new projection methods are needed that can capture system complexity to an adequate degree, while taking full account of the fact that data on many system variables will virtually always be highly uncertain. This paper explores what projection methods are needed for supplying decision-makers with useful information on the performance of agroforestry in new places or new climates. Existing methods are discussed in light of these methodological needs. Finally, a participatory approach to performance projection is proposed that captures system dynamics in a holistic manner and makes probabilistic projections about expected system performance. This approach avoids the temptation to take spuriously precise model results at face value, and it is able to make predictions even where data is scarce. It thus provides a rapid and honest assessment option that can quickly supply decision-makers with system performance estimates, offering an opportunity to improve the targeting of agroforestry interventions.

  6. Impact of tree coppicing on tree-crop competition in parkland and alley farming systems in semiarid Burkina Faso

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Tilander; G. Ouedraogo; F. Yougma

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tree coppicing on tree-crop competition in farmed parkland and in alley farming, both in semiarid Burkina Faso.Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) was studied in the parklands, while neem,Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (albizia) andLeucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (leucaena) were investigated in the alley farming system. The crop was sorghum

  7. Environmental services from multistrata agroforestry systems in Chiapas, México 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorena Soto-Pinto; Carlos M. Aguirre; Guillermo Jiménez-Ferrer; Manuel Anzueto-Martínez; Marcela Delgadillo

    Agroforestry systems (AFS) play an important role as carbon sinks. This study was undertaken in agricultural plots which form part of the Scolel' te carbon capture project established in 1994, in Chiapas, Mexico. The aim was to measure the carbon reservoirs corresponding to different components of agroforestry systems. The study was carried out in 10 localities along an altitudinal gradient

  8. Agroforestry Systems in Zimbabwe: Promoting Trees in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasin, Helen L., Ed.

    Agroforestry has been defined as a sustainable crop management system which combines the production of forest crops with field crops. In June, 1987, an agroforestry workshop took place in Nyanga, Manicaland, Zimbabwe. This document was prepared to share the information presented at this workshop with other non-government organizations around the…

  9. Amazonian agroforestry: a market-oriented system in Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Padoch; J. Chota Inuma; W. DE JONG; J. Unruh

    1985-01-01

    Most reports on indigenous agroforestry systems of the Amazon region have described patterns employed by tribal groups almost exclusively for their own subsistence. This article discusses a market-oriented cyclic agroforestry system practiced by non-tribal ‘Mestizo’ farmers in Tamshiyacu, Peru. The system produces charcoal, as well as annual, semi-perennial, and perennial crops for local consumption, and for a regional market. The

  10. Agroforestry systems and environmental quality: introduction.

    PubMed

    Nair, P K Ramachandran

    2011-01-01

    Investments in agroforestry research during the past three decades-albeit modest-have yielded significant gains in understanding the role of trees on farmlands, and the ecological and economic advantages of integrated farming systems. While early research focused mostly on farm or local levels, broader-level ecosystem services of agroforestry systems (AFS) have raised high expectations in recent years. The nine papers included in this special collection deal with three of such environmental benefits of AFS: water-quality enhancement, carbon sequestration, and soil improvement. These benefits are based on the perceived ability of (i) vegetative buffer strips (VBS) to reduce surface transport of agrochemical pollutants, (ii) large volumes of aboveground and belowground biomass of trees to store high amounts of C deeper in the soil profile, and (iii) trees to enhance soil productivity through biological nitrogen fixation, efficient nutrient cycling, and deep capture of nutrients. The papers included have, in general, substantiated these premises and provided new insights. For example, the riparian VBS are reported to increase the reservoir life, in addition to reducing transport of agrochemicals; the variations in C storage in different soil-fraction sizes suggest that microaggregate (250-53 ?m) dynamics in the soil could be a good indicator of its C-storage potential; and the use of vector analysis technique is recommended in AFS to avoid consequences of inaccurate and overuse of fertilizers. The papers also identified significant knowledge gaps in these areas. A common theme across all three environmental quality issues covered is that more and varied research datasets across a broad spectrum of conditions need to be generated and integrated with powerful statistical tools to ensure wide applicability of the results. Furthermore, appropriate management practices that are acceptable to the targeted land users and agroforestry practitioners need to be designed to exploit these environmental benefits. The relative newness of research in environmental quality of AFS will pose some additional challenges as well. These include the lack of allometric equations for tree-biomass determination, absence of standardized norms on soil sampling depth, and limitations of fixed-effect models arising from issues such as pseudo-replication and repeated measures that are common in studies on preexisting field plots. Overall, this special collection is a timely effort in highlighting the promise of AFS in addressing some of the environmental quality issues, and the challenges in realizing that potential. PMID:21546663

  11. A common framework for greenhouse gas assessment protocols in temperate agroforestry systems: Connecting via GRACEnet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems offer many ecosystem benefits, but such systems have previously been marginalized in temperate environments due to overriding economic goals and perceived management complexity. In view of adaptation to a changing climate, agroforestry systems offer advantages that require quan...

  12. CARBON STORAGE BENEFITS OF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The process of land degradation is a local phenomenon that occurs field by field but also has a global dimension because of the sheer extent at which it is taking place. groforestry represents a link between the local and global scales. rom the farmer's perspective, agroforestry ...

  13. Belowground interactions for water between trees and grasses in a temperate semiarid agroforestry system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Elena Fernández; Javier Gyenge; Julian Licata; Tomás Schlichter; Barbara J. Bond

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental hypothesis of agroforestry is the complementary use of soil resources. However, productivity of many agroforestry\\u000a systems has been lower than expected due to net competition for water, highlighting the need for a mechanistic understanding\\u000a of belowground interactions. The goal of this study was to examine root–root interactions for water in a temperate semiarid\\u000a agroforestry system, based on ponderosa

  14. Soil enzyme activities under agroforestry systems in northern Jiangsu Province

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuxu Wan; Ping Chen

    2004-01-01

    The authors presented the enzyme characteristics of catalase, sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase under agroforestry\\u000a systems in northern Jiangsu Province. The results show that soil enzyme activities reduce gradually from top to bottom layer\\u000a of the soil profile, and the fluctuations of catalase and urease are smaller than those of sucrase and alkaline phosphatase.\\u000a Soil enzyme activities differe significantly in

  15. [Research progress on carbon sink function of agroforestry system under climate change].

    PubMed

    Xie, Ting-Ting; Su, Pei-Xi; Zhou, Zi-Juan; Shan, Li-Shan

    2014-10-01

    As a land comprehensive utilization system, agroforestry system can absorb and fix CO2 effectively to increase carbon storage, and also reduces greenhouse effect convincingly while reaching the aim of harvest. The regulatory role in CO2 makes humans realize that agroforestry systems have significant superiority compared with single cropping systems, therefore, understanding the carbon sinks of different components in an agroforestry system and its influencing factors play an important role in studying global carbon cycle and accurate evaluation of carbon budget. This paper reviewed the concept and classification of agroforestry system, and then the carbon sequestration potentials of different components in agroforestry systems and influencing factors. It was concluded that the carbon sequestration rate of plants from different agroforestry systems in different regions are highly variable, ranging from 0.59 to 11.08 t C · hm(-2) · a(-1), and it is mainly influenced by climatic factors and the characteristics of agroforestry systems (species composition, tree density and stand age). The soil C sequestration of any agroforestry system is influenced by the amount and quality of biomass input provided by tree and nontree components of the system and the soil properties such as soil texture and soil structure. Overall the amount of carbon storage in any agroforestry system depends on the structure and function of its each component. The future studies should focus on the carbon sink functions of structurally optimized agroforestry systems, the temporal variation and spatial distribution pattern of carbon storage in agroforestry system and its carbon sequestration mechanism in a long time. PMID:25796917

  16. Sugarcane and agroforestry farming in western Kenya A comparative study of different farming systems in the Nyando district

    E-print Network

    Sugarcane and agroforestry farming in western Kenya A comparative study of different farming of Agricultural Sciences #12;2 Sugarcane and agroforestry farming in western Kenya - A comparative study: agroforestry, carbon, farming systems, Kenya, manure, nitrogen, sugarcane #12;3 #12;4 Preface This Bachelor

  17. Relative contribution of trees and crops to soil carbon content in a parkland system in Burkina Faso using variations in natural 13 C abundance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bayala; J. Balesdent; C. Marol; F. Zapata; Z. Teklehaimanot; S. J. Ouedraogo

    2006-01-01

    The origin of organic matter was studied in the soils of a parkland of karité (Vitallaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn) and néré (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.), which is extensively cultivated without the use of fertilisers. In such systems, fertility (physical, chemical\\u000a and biological) gradients around trees have been attributed by some authors to a priori differences in fertility, allowing\\u000a for better

  18. Relative contribution of trees and crops to soil carbon content in a parkland system in Burkina Faso using variations in natural 13C abundance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bayala; J. Balesdent; C. Marol; F. Zapata; Z. Teklehaimanot; S. J. Ouedraogo

    The origin of organic matter was studied in the soils of a parkland of karite’ (Vitallaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn) and ne’ re’\\u000a (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.), which is extensively cultivated without the use of fertilisers. In such systems, fertility\\u000a (physical, chemical and biological) gradients around trees have been attributed by some authors to a priori differences in\\u000a fertility, allowing for

  19. Carbon sequestration in tropical agroforestry systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Albrecht; Serigne T Kandji

    2003-01-01

    Removing atmospheric carbon (C) and storing it in the terrestrial biosphere is one of the options, which have been proposed to compensate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agricultural lands are believed to be a major potential sink and could absorb large quantities of C if trees are reintroduced to these systems and judiciously managed together with crops and\\/or animals. Thus, the

  20. Contribution of trees to soil carbon sequestration under agroforestry systems in the West African Sahel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asako Takimoto; Vimala D. Nair; P. K. Ramachandran Nair

    2009-01-01

    Consequent to recent recognition of agricultural soils as carbon (C) sinks, agroforestry practices in the West African Sahel\\u000a (WAS) region have received attention for their C sequestration potential. This study was undertaken in the Ségou region of\\u000a Mali that represents the WAS, to examine the extent of C sequestration, especially in soils, in agroforestry systems. Five\\u000a land-use systems were selected

  1. Parkland Health Care Campus 

    E-print Network

    Jones, W., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    ? provider. ?Primary teaching hospital for UT Southwestern Medical School. ?Major regional resource in the event of a disaster. ?level III neonatal intensive care beds. ?A Level I trauma service. ?A regional burn unit. ?A network of community... Staff Trauma Tower ESL-KT-11-11-19 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 Design Vision Statement The New Parkland Hospital Campus will be a safe, welcoming, patient-centered, healing environment that serves as a sustainable resource...

  2. Carbon sequestration: An underexploited environmental benefit of agroforestry systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Montagnini; P. K. R. Nair

    2004-01-01

    Agroforestry has importance as a carbon sequestration strategy because of carbon storage potential in its multiple plant species\\u000a and soil as well as its applicability in agricultural lands and in reforestation. The potential seems to be substantial; but\\u000a it has not been even adequately recognized, let alone exploited. Proper design and management of agroforestry practices can\\u000a make them effective carbon

  3. Coffee Agroforestry Systems for Conservation and Economic Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christie M. Young

    2003-01-01

    The agroforestry program of the AMISCONDE Initiative was implemented in 13 buffer zone communities of La Amistad Biosphere Reserve. This program introduced citrus (Citrus spp.) and promoted the widespread inclusion of poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) shade trees, ground story vegetation, and soil conservation techniques to the local cultivation of coffee (Coffea arabica var caturra). This program sought long-term socioeconomic and ecological

  4. Soils organic C sequestration under poplar and willow agroforestry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Tariq, Azeem; Lamersdorf, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRC) as monocultures or as agroforestry (AF) applications (e.g. alley cropping) are two techniques to implement forest into agricultural practices. Despite afforestation promotes soil carbon (C) accumulation, age and type of the tree stand can affect the C accumulation in different degrees. Here, we studied the impact of afforestation on C accumulation for: i) pure SCR of willow (Salix viminalis x Salix schwerinii) and poplar (Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii) and ii) AF cropping system with willow. Forest systems have been established within the BEST agroforestry project in Germany. Adjacent agricultural field have been used as a control. Soil samples were collected in 2014, three years after plantation establishment, from three soil depths: 0-3, 3-20, and 20-30 cm. Total organic C, labile C (incubation of 20 g soil during 100 days with measuring of CO2) and aggregate structure were analysed. Additionally, density fractionation of the samples from 0-3 cm was applied to separate particulate organic matter (POM) and mineral fractions. Aggregates and density fractions were analyzed for C content. High input of plant litter as well as root exudates have led to increases of organic C in AF and SRC plots compare to cropland, mainly in the top 0-3 cm. The highest C content was found for willow SRC (18.2 g kg-1 soil), followed by willow-AF (15.6 g kg-1 soil), and poplar SRC (13.7 g kg-1 soil). Carbon content of cropland was 12.5 g kg-1 soil. Absence of ploughing caused increase portion of macroaggregates (>2000 ?m) under SRC and AF in all soil layers as well as the highest percentage of C in that aggregate size class (70-80%). In contrast, C in cropland soil was mainly accumulated in small macroaggregates (250-2000 ?m). Intensive mineralisation of fresh litter and old POM, taking place during first years of trees development, resulted to similar portions of free POM for willow AF, willow SRC and cropland (8%), and even lower ones for poplar SCR (4.5%). C content in the mineral fraction increased for SRC and AF 1.3-1.5 times compare to cropland, showing that the early stage of trees development lead to C accumulation in stable fractions. CO2 efflux from the surface 0-3 cm was in 2-3 times higher than from 3-20 cm. CO2 efflux did not follow soil C contents and was the highest for poplar SRC plot (1.8 mg C g-1 soil), followed by willow AF (1.6 mg C g-1 soil), willow SRC (1.4 mg C g-1 soil) and cropland (0.8 mg C g-1 soil). Estimated size of labile C pool for forest soils was two times higher and decomposition rates were 1.3 times faster than for the arable site. We conclude that afforestation in the first years mainly affects C accumulation in the top soil. Due to changing in soil structure most of the C was associated with large macroaggregates. Afforestation measures promoted C accumulation in the mineral fractions, whereas C associated with free POM even decreased in case of poplar SRC, compare to cropland soil.

  5. Agro-Economic Performance of Jackfruit-Pineapple Agroforestry System in Madhupur Tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. HASAN; M. M. AHMED; M. G. MIAH

    2008-01-01

    A survey was carried out in two villages of Durgapur union under Kapasia upazila of Gazipur district during January to March, 2005 to investigate profitability, problems and management system of practicing jackfruit-pineapple agroforestry practice. Result revealed that the existing jackfruit-pineapple agroforesty system is profitable and has a great contribution to the meet up of nutritional demand. There is a scope

  6. Changes of dung beetle communities from rainforests towards agroforestry systems and annual cultures in Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahabuddin; Christian H. Schulze; Teja Tscharntke

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about how tropical land-use systems contribute to the conservation of functionally important insect groups, including dung beetles. In a study at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park (a biodiversity hotspot in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia) dung-beetle communities were sampled in natural forest, young secondary forest, agroforestry systems (cacao plantations with shade trees) and annual cultures (maize fields),

  7. Coffee Yield and Microenvironmental Factors in a Native Tree Agroforestry System in Southeast Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Santos; Luisa Rodrigues; Carlos Lima; Catalina Jaramillo-Botero

    2012-01-01

    In Minas Gerais State, Brazil, some shade coffee production systems presented extremely low yield and have become economically unsustainable for family coffee farmers. In this study, coffee yield and microenvironmental factors in the agroforestry system were associated with tree species and the number of trees at different distances from the coffee shrubs. Forty coffee shrubs were marked, and concentric circles

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in neem-based agroforestry systems in Rajasthan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manish Pande; J. C Tarafdar

    2004-01-01

    A field study of traditional agroforestry systems in six districts of the arid and semiarid zones of Rajasthan was undertaken where annual rainfall varied from 140 to 1000mm and soil types ranged from coarse fine sand in Jaisalmer to clay loams in Kota. The field investigation showed that Glomus, Gigaspora and Sclerocystis were the genera of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi present

  9. Water use efficiency and uptake patterns in a runoff agroforestry system in an arid environment

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Water use efficiency and uptake patterns in a runoff agroforestry system in an arid environment K for correspondence: E-mail: klaus@bgumail.bgu.ac.il) Key words: Acacia saligna, complementarity, cowpea, intercropping, resource capture, sorghum Abstract. Water is the most limiting factor for plant production

  10. Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nu...

  11. KURA CLOVER INTERCROPPED IN A PECAN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM IMPROVES SOIL QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intercropping the alleys of agroforestry systems is desirable to provide income from the field until the tree crop begins to yield. However, cultivation of annual crops in the alleys may decrease soil organic matter and increase soil erosion, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintai...

  12. Distribution of oxidizable organic c fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic materials to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measureme...

  13. Soil and litter fauna of cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems deposit great amounts of plant residues on soil; and eventually, this leads to high levels of soil organic matter content and has increased soil biodiversity and improved its conservation. This study compares the distribution of meso and macrofaunal communities in soil and litte...

  14. Protective shade, tree diversity and soil properties in coffee agroforestry systems in the Atlantic Rainforest biome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Souza de H. N; Goede de R. G. M; L. Brussaard; I. M. Cardoso; E. M. G. Duarte; R. B. A. Fernandes; L. C. Gomes; M. M. Pulleman

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable production and biodiversity conservation can be mutually supportive in providing multiple ecosystem services to farmers and society. This study aimed to determine the contribution of agroforestry systems, as tested by family farmers in the Brazilian Rainforest region since 1993, to tree biodiversity and evaluated farmers’ criteria for tree species selection. In addition, long-term effects on microclimatic temperature conditions for

  15. Carbon storage in soil-size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shaded-perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively higher quantities of soil carbon (C) because of continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the amount of C sequestered in the soil will vary depending on the turnover time and the extent of physical protection of different soil organic ...

  16. Dung Beetle and Terrestrial Mammal Diversity in Forests, Indigenous Agroforestry Systems and Plantain Monocultures in Talamanca, Costa Rica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celia A. Harvey; Jorge Gonzalez; Eduardo Somarriba

    2006-01-01

    In order to explore the importance of indigenous agroforestry systems for biodiversity conservation, we compared the abundance,\\u000a species richness and diversity of dung beetles and terrestrial mammals across a gradient of different land use types from\\u000a agricultural monocultures (plantains) to agroforestry systems (cocoa and banana) and forests in the BriBri and Cabcar indigenous\\u000a reserves in Talamanca, Costa Rica. A total

  17. Ecological interactions, management lessons and design tools in tropical agroforestry systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. García-Barrios; C. K. Ong

    2004-01-01

    During the 1980s, land- and labor-intensive simultaneous agroforestry systems (SAFS) were promoted in the tropics, based on\\u000a the optimism on tree-crop niche differentiation and its potential for designing tree-crop mixtures using high tree-densities.\\u000a In the 1990s it became clearer that although trees would yield crucial products and facilitate simultaneous growing of crops,\\u000a they would also exert strong competitive effects on

  18. Soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience in agroforestry systems: effects on wheat growth under controlled drought and flooding conditions.

    PubMed

    Rivest, David; Lorente, Miren; Olivier, Alain; Messier, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Agroforestry is increasingly viewed as an effective means of maintaining or even increasing crop and tree productivity under climate change while promoting other ecosystem functions and services. This study focused on soil biochemical properties and resilience following disturbance within agroforestry and conventional agricultural systems and aimed to determine whether soil differences in terms of these biochemical properties and resilience would subsequently affect crop productivity under extreme soil water conditions. Two research sites that had been established on agricultural land were selected for this study. The first site included an 18-year-old windbreak, while the second site consisted in an 8-year-old tree-based intercropping system. In each site, soil samples were used for the determination of soil nutrient availability, microbial dynamics and microbial resilience to different wetting-drying perturbations and for a greenhouse pot experiment with wheat. Drying and flooding were selected as water stress treatments and compared to a control. These treatments were initiated at the beginning of the wheat anthesis period and maintained over 10 days. Trees contributed to increase soil nutrient pools, as evidenced by the higher extractable-P (both sites), and the higher total N and mineralizable N (tree-based intercropping site) found in the agroforestry compared to the conventional agricultural system. Metabolic quotient (qCO2) was lower in the agroforestry than in the conventional agricultural system, suggesting higher microbial substrate use efficiency in agroforestry systems. Microbial resilience was higher in the agroforestry soils compared to soils from the conventional agricultural system (windbreak site only). At the windbreak site, wheat growing in soils from agroforestry system exhibited higher aboveground biomass and number of grains per spike than in conventional agricultural system soils in the three water stress treatments. At the tree-based intercropping site, higher wheat biomass, grain yield and number of grains per spike were observed in agroforestry than in conventional agricultural system soils, but in the drought treatment only. Drought (windbreak site) and flooding (both sites) treatments significantly reduced wheat yield and 1000-grain weight in both types of system. Relationships between soil biochemical properties and soil microbial resilience or wheat productivity were strongly dependent on site. This study suggests that agroforestry systems may have a positive effect on soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience, which could operate positively on crop productivity and tolerance to severe water stress. PMID:23792247

  19. Managing biological and genetic diversity in tropical agroforestry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Atta-Krah; R. Kindt; J. N. Skilton; W. Amaral

    2004-01-01

    The issues of biological and genetic diversity management in agroforestry are extremely complex. This paper focuses on genetic\\u000a diversity management and its implications for sustainable agroforestry systems in the tropics, and presents an analysis of\\u000a the role and importance of inter- and intra-specific diversity in agroforestry. Diversity within and between tree species\\u000a in traditional agroforestry systems and modern agroforestry technologies

  20. Ethnopedology and soil quality of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Arun Jyoti, Nath; Lal, Rattan; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2015-07-15

    It is widely recognized that farmers' hold important knowledge of folk soil classification for agricultural land for its uses, yet little has been studied for traditional agroforestry systems. This article explores the ethnopedology of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system in North East India, and establishes the relationship of soil quality index (SQI) with bamboo productivity. The study revealed four basic folk soil (mati) types: kalo (black soil), lal (red soil), pathal (stony soil) and balu (sandy soil). Of these, lal mati soil was the most predominant soil type (~ 40%) in bamboo-based agroforestry system. Soil physio-chemical parameters were studied to validate the farmers' soil hierarchal classification and also to correlate with productivity of the bamboo stand. Farmers' hierarchal folk soil classification was consistent with the laboratory scientific analysis. Culm production (i.e. measure of productivity of bamboo) was the highest (27culmsclump(-1)) in kalo mati (black soil) and the lowest (19culmsclump(-1)) in balu mati (sandy soil). Linear correlation of individual soil quality parameter with bamboo productivity explained 16 to 49% of the variability. A multiple correlation of the best fitted linear soil quality parameter (soil organic carbon or SOC, water holding capacity or WHC, total nitrogen) with productivity improved explanatory power to 53%. Development of SQI from ten relevant soil quality parameters and its correlation with bamboo productivity explained the 64% of the variation and therefore, suggest SQI as the best determinant of bamboo yield. Data presented indicate that the kalo mati (black soil) is sustainable or sustainable with high input. However, the other three folk soil types (red, stony and sandy soil) are also sustainable but for other land uses. Therefore, ethnopedological studies may move beyond routine laboratory analysis and incorporate SQI for assessing the sustainability of land uses managed by the farmers'. Additional research is required to incorporate principal component analysis for improving the SQI and site potential assessment. It is also important to evaluate the minimum data set (MDS) required for SQI and productivity assessment in agroforestry systems. PMID:25863315

  1. Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems. PMID:23936246

  2. Comparative studies of the associated soil moisture regimes and their productivity in an agroforestry system

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaskar, V.; Rao, N.S.; Reddy, B.G.; Vedavyasa, K.; Ravishankar, H.M.; Venkatesh, R. [Univ. of Agricultural Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Farm Forestry

    1992-12-31

    Results are presented on the effects of Eucalyptus hybrid, Casuarina equisetifolia, Dalbergia sissoo and Acacia nilotica on certain field crops (finger millet, redgram, horsegram and castor) under dryland conditions. Eucalyptus hybrid showed the maximum border effect on field crops, followed by D. sissoo. C. equisetifolia and A. nilotica. The adverse effect of Eucalyptus was chiefly due to depletion of moisture in the upper surface layers of the soil, whereas shade and allelopathic effects were negligible. The reduction in the crop yield due to competition by trees has been compared with wood yield from trees. Over a period of three years it was found that with the exception of Acacia, there was distinct economic gain under an agroforestry system as the loss in agricultural crops due to the effect of trees was compensated for by wood yield. However, this gain varied considerably depending upon the tree species, crop combination and the prevailing market price of the wood and crop. Eucalyptus hybrid produced the highest wood yield at the expense of field crops than any other tree species. Hence it is recommended that, where food production is the main objective, preference should be given to species like Castuarina, D. Sissoo and Acacia, which have minimum border effect on agricultural crops for dryland agroforestry systems.

  3. Socio-economic comparison between traditional and improved cultivation methods in agroforestry systems, East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Teija; Quiroz, Roberto; Msikula, Shija

    2005-11-01

    The East Usambara Mountains, recognized as one of the 25 most important biodiversity hot spots in the world, have a high degree of species diversity and endemism that is threatened by increasing human pressure on resources. Traditional slash and burn cultivation in the area is no longer sustainable. However, it is possible to maintain land productivity, decrease land degradation, and improve rural people's livelihood by ameliorating cultivation methods. Improved agroforestry seems to be a very convincing and suitable method for buffer zones of conservation areas. Farmers could receive a reasonable net income from their farm with little investment in terms of time, capital, and labor. By increasing the diversity and production of already existing cultivations, the pressure on natural forests can be diminished. The present study shows a significant gap between traditional cultivation methods and improved agroforestry systems in socio-economic terms. Improved agroforestry systems provide approximately double income per capita in comparison to traditional methods. More intensified cash crop cultivation in the highlands of the East Usambara also results in double income compared to that in the lowlands. However, people are sensitive to risks of changing farming practices. Encouraging farmers to apply better land management and practice sustainable cultivation of cash crops in combination with multipurpose trees would be relevant in improving their economic situation in the relatively short term. The markets of most cash crops are already available. Improved agroforestry methods could ameliorate the living conditions of the local population and protect the natural reserves from human disturbance. PMID:16261277

  4. Agroforestry Systems and Podocarpus National Park, Ecuador: Current Status and Recommendations for Future Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim M. Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    The goal of enhancing human well-being and dignity for the communities surrounding Podocarpus National Park (PNP) is inexorably connected to the goal of protecting ecosystem health and integrity in the southern Andes. While these goals are often viewed as conflicting, one area where they clearly overlap is in agroforestry practices. Agroforestry has the potential to improve food security and economic

  5. Soil quality indicators of a mature alley-cropping agroforestry system in temperate North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although agroforestry practices are believed to improve soil quality, reports on long-term effects of alley cropping on soils within agroforestry in the temperate zone are limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth of an established agrofores...

  6. Tropical floodplain agroforestry systems in mid-Orinoco River basin, Venezuela

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Barrios; R. Herrera; J. L. Valles

    1994-01-01

    Agricultural studies in seasonally flooded areas in the tropics have been limited. Orinoco alluvial soils are more fertile than adjacent non-flooded soils, and have been considered as potential areas for further agricultural development. Traditional agroforestry practices offer some possibilities to overcome the most limiting factors of floodplain cultivation. Indigenous knowledge of these traditional agroforestry practices was assessed and some indicators

  7. Distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores in soils of smallholder agroforestry and monocultural coffee systems in southwestern Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diriba Muleta; Fassil Assefa; Sileshi Nemomissa; Ulf Granhall

    2008-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are associated with the root system of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plants, but their distribution in smallholder agroforestry and monocultural coffee systems is not well known. This study\\u000a investigates the spatial distribution of AMF spores in a field study in southwestern Ethiopia. Soil samples from different\\u000a depths (0–50 cm) were collected under the tree canopies of Acacia

  8. Village agroforestry systems and tree-use practices: A case study in Sri Lanka. Multipurpose tree species network research series

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramasinghe, A.

    1992-01-01

    Village agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka have evolved through farmers' efforts to meet their survival needs. The paper examines farmers' land-use systems and their perceptions of the role of trees in the villages of Bambarabedda and Madugalla in central Sri Lanka. The benefits of village agroforestry are diverse food, fuelwood, fodder, timber, and mulch, but food products are of outstanding importance. The ability of Artocarpus heterophyllus (the jackfruit tree) and Cocos nucifera (coconut) to ensure food security during the dry season and provide traditional foods throughout the year, as well as to grow in limited space, make them popular crops in the two study villages. The study recommends that further research precede the formulation of agricultural interventions and that efforts to promote improved tree varieties recognize farmers' practices and expressed needs.

  9. The role of habitat patches on mammalian diversity in cork oak agroforestry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosalino, Luis M.; Rosário, João do; Santos-Reis, Margarida

    2009-07-01

    Habitat patches, depending on the degree of differentiation from the matrix, can add few or many elements to the species pool of a particular landscape. Their importance to biodiversity is particularly relevant in areas with complex landscapes, where natural, naturalized, or managed habitats are interspersed by small patches of habitat types with very different biophysical characteristics; e.g., fruit orchards and riparian areas. This is the case of the montado landscape, a cork oak agroforestry system that largely covers south-western Portugal. We evaluated whether the high mammalian biodiversity found in this system is, in part, the cumulative result of the species found in the non-matrix habitats. Our results indicate that in areas where there are inclusions of orchards/olive yards and riparian vegetation in the cork oak woodland, a significantly higher number of mammalian species are present. We further detected a positive effect of low human disturbance on mammal diversity. Ultimately, our results can be used by managers to augment their management options, since we show that the inclusion and maintenance of non-matrix habitat patches in cork oak agro-silvo-forestry systems can help to maximize mammal biodiversity without compromising services associated with agriculture and forestry.

  10. [Canopy conductance characteristics of poplar in agroforestry system in west Liaoning Province of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Niu, Li-Hua; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Guan, De-Xin; Wang, An-Zhi; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2012-11-01

    By using Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of poplar in a poplar-maize agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and as well, the environmental factors such as air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, wind speed, soil temperature, and soil moisture content were synchronically measured. Based on the sap flow data, the canopy conductance of poplar was calculated with simplified Penman-Monteith equation. In the study area, the diurnal variation of poplar' s canopy conductance showed a "single peak" curve, whereas the seasonal variation showed a decreasing trend. There was a negative logarithm relationship between the canopy conductance and vapor pressure deficit, with the sensitivity of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit change decreased gradually from May to September. The canopy conductance had a positive relationship with solar radiation. In different months, the correlation degree of canopy conductance with environmental factors differed. The vapor pressure deficit in the whole growth period of poplar was the most significant environmental factor correlated with the canopy conductance. PMID:23431778

  11. Comparative study on growth performance of two shade trees in tea agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Rinku Moni; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Nath, Arun Jyoti

    2014-07-01

    An attempt was made to study the stem growth of two native dominant shade tree species in terms of annual girth increment in three dominant girth size categories for two years in tea agroforestry system of Barak Valley, Assam. Fifty two sampling plots of 0.1 ha size were established and all trees exceeding 10 cm girth over bark at breast height (1.37 m) were uniquely identified, tagged, and annually measured for girth increment, using metal tape during December 2010-12. Albizia lebbeck and A. odoratissima were dominant shade tree species registering 82% of appearance of the individuals studied. The girth class was categorized into six different categories where 30-50 cm, 50-70 cm and 70-90 cm were dominating girth classes and selected for increment study. Mean annual girth increment ranged from 1.41 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 2.97 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the first year and 1.70 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 3.09 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the second year. Albizia lebbeck exhibited better growth in all prominent girth classes as compared to Albizia odoratissima during the observation period. The two shade tree species showed similar trend of growth in both the years of observation and significant difference in girth increment. PMID:25004755

  12. Tree recovery and seed dispersal by birds: Comparing forest, agroforestry and abandoned agroforestry in coastal Ecuador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tannya Lozada; G. H. J. de Koning; Raphael Marché; Alexandra-Maria Klein; Teja Tscharntke

    2007-01-01

    We used a highly replicated study to examine vegetation characteristics between patches of intervened forest, abandoned agroforestry systems with coffee and actively managed agroforestry systems with coffee in a tropical landscape. In all habitats, plant structural characteristics, individual abundance, species richness and composition were recorded for the three plant size classes: adult trees, saplings and seedlings. Furthermore, bird species richness

  13. Soil Modification by Native Shrubs Boosts Crop Productivity in Sudano-Sahelian Agroforestry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogie, N. A.; Bayala, R.; Diedhiou, I.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Dick, R.

    2014-12-01

    A changing climate along with human and animal population pressure can have a devastating effect on crop yields and food security in the Sudano-Sahel. Agricultural solutions to address soil degradation and crop water stress are needed to combat this increasingly difficult situation. Significant differences in crop success have been observed in peanut and millet grown in association with two native evergreen shrubs Piliostigma reticulatum, and Guiera senegalensis at the sites of Nioro du Rip and Keur Matar, respectively.We investigate how farmers can increase crop productivity by capitalizing on the evolutionary adaptation of native shrubs to the harsh Sudano-Sahelian environment as well as the physical mechanisms at work in the system that can lead to more robust yields. Soil moisture and water potential data were collected during a dry season millet irrigation experiment where stress was imposed in the intercropped system. Despite lower soil moisture content, crops grown in association with shrubs have increased biomass production and a faster development cycle. Hydraulic redistribution is thought to exist in this system and we found diurnal fluctuations in water potential within the intercropped system that increased in magnitude of to 0.4 Mpa per day as the soil dried below 1.0 Mpa during the stress treatment. An isotopic tracer study investigating hydraulic redistribution was carried out by injecting labeled water into shrub roots and sampling shrubs and nearby crops for isotopic analysis of plant water. These findings build on work that was completed in 2004 at the site, but point to lower overall magnitude of diurnal soil water potential fluctuations in dry soils. Using even the limited resources that farmers possess, this agroforestry technique can be expanded over wide swaths of the Sahel.

  14. Does parkland influence walking? The relationship between area of parkland and walking trips in Melbourne, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Using two different measures of park area, at three buffer distances, we sought to investigate the ways in which park area and proximity to parks, are related to the frequency of walking (for all purposes) in Australian adults. Little previous research has been conducted in this area, and results of existing research have been mixed. Methods Residents of 50 urban areas in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia completed a physical activity survey (n = 2305). Respondents reported how often they walked for ?10 minutes in the previous month. Walking frequency was dichotomised to ‘less than weekly’ (less than 1/week) and ‘at least weekly’ (1/week or more). Using Geographic Information Systems, Euclidean buffers were created around each respondent’s home at three distances: 400metres (m), 800 m and 1200 m. Total area of parkland in each person’s buffer was calculated for the three buffers. Additionally, total area of ‘larger parks’, (park space???park with Australian Rules Football oval (17,862 m2)), was calculated for each set of buffers. Area of park was categorised into tertiles for area of all parks, and area of larger parks (the lowest tertile was used as the reference category). Multilevel logistic regression, with individuals nested within areas, was used to estimate the effect of area of parkland on walking frequency. Results No statistically significant associations were found between walking frequency and park area (total and large parks) within 400 m of respondent’s homes. For total park area within 800 m, the odds of walking at least weekly were lower for those in the mid (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46-0.91) and highest (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.95) tertile of park area compared to those living in areas with the least amount of park area. Similar results were observed for total park area in the 1200 m buffers. When only larger parks were investigated, again more frequent walking was less likely when respondents had access to a greater amount of park area. Conclusions In this study we found that more park area in residential environments reduced the odds of walking more frequently. Other area characteristics such as street connectivity and destinations may underlie these associations by negatively correlating with park area. PMID:22989176

  15. Improved fodder tree management in the agroforestry systems of central and western Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Karki, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    Ten, three year old, fodder tree species were evaluated at four on-station and three on-farm sites in Nepal. Ficus semicordata (Buchattam. ex Sm.) growth was found to be significantly higher than the rest in diameter and dry foliage weight values. Species were significantly different in height, diameter, and foliage and wood growth. Sites were significantly different in total height growth only. On-farm species evaluation indicated that A. lakoocha and F. semicordata had significantly higher growth. Allometric regression equations were developed to predict foliage, total wood, and total biomass yield of F. semicordata, and B. variegata. Individual-tree models were developed. For B. variegata, diameter at 50 cm. and for F. semicordata, crown diameter and height gave the best fitted equations. Regression equations for three sites did not differ significantly. Therefore, data were pooled and a common model was estimated for each species. In on-farm regression models, height and crown diameter were the best predictors for F. semicordata and dbh gave the best fit for B. variegata. The models for the two species were used to construct regional fodder and fuelwood biomass tables. An improved crop-livestock-fodder agroforestry system was designed for a village in Nepal. Linear programming was used to demonstrate the use of a tool to optimize land allocation maximizing net returns while satisfying the supply of minimum needs of food, fodder, and fuelwood. The optimal solution indicated that, by improving the returns to labor and by applying more compost, the village should be able to increase the annual net farm returns from NRs. 2.94 million to NRs. 3.85 million. The food, fodder and fuelwood production levels were shown to increase by 17%, 130%, and 537% respectively. The labor and compost requirements were up by 138% and 59% respectively, over the five year period. The soil loss through run-off was estimated to decrease by about 15% over the same period.

  16. Changes in Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Long Lerm Improved Natural and Traditional Agroforestry Management Systems of Cacao Genotypes in Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems. PMID:26181053

  17. Effect of selective logging on genetic diversity and gene flow in Cariniana legalis sampled from a cacao agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Leal, J B; Santos, R P; Gaiotto, F A

    2014-01-01

    The fragments of the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia have a long history of intense logging and selective cutting. Some tree species, such as jequitibá rosa (Cariniana legalis), have experienced a reduction in their populations with respect to both area and density. To evaluate the possible effects of selective logging on genetic diversity, gene flow, and spatial genetic structure, 51 C. legalis individuals were sampled, representing the total remaining population from the cacao agroforestry system. A total of 120 alleles were observed from the 11 microsatellite loci analyzed. The average observed heterozygosity (0.486) was less than the expected heterozygosity (0.721), indicating a loss of genetic diversity in this population. A high fixation index (FIS = 0.325) was found, which is possibly due to a reduction in population size, resulting in increased mating among relatives. The maximum (1055 m) and minimum (0.095 m) distances traveled by pollen or seeds were inferred based on paternity tests. We found 36.84% of unique parents among all sampled seedlings. The progenitors of the remaining seedlings (63.16%) were most likely out of the sampled area. Positive and significant spatial genetic structure was identified in this population among classes 10 to 30 m away with an average coancestry coefficient between pairs of individuals of 0.12. These results suggest that the agroforestry system of cacao cultivation is contributing to maintaining levels of diversity and gene flow in the studied population, thus minimizing the effects of selective logging. PMID:24615028

  18. Agroforestry for ecosystem services and environmental benefits: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shibu Jose

    2009-01-01

    Agroforestry systems are believed to provide a number of ecosystem services; however, until recently evidence in the agroforestry\\u000a literature supporting these perceived benefits has been lacking. This special issue brings together a series of papers from\\u000a around the globe to address recent findings on the ecosystem services and environmental benefits provided by agroforestry.\\u000a As prelude to the special issue, this

  19. Allelopathic activity and chemical constituents of walnut (Juglans regia) leaf litter in walnut-winter vegetable agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Xu, Zheng; Hu, Tingxing; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Chen, Hong; Li, Zhongbin; Ding, Bo; Hu, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    Walnut agroforestry systems have many ecological and economic benefits when intercropped with cool-season species. However, decomposing leaf litter is one of the main sources of allelochemicals in such systems. In this study, lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. angustata) was grown in the soil incorporated with walnut leaf litter to assess its allelopathic activity. Lettuce growth and physiological processes were inhibited by walnut leaf litter, especially during early growth stage (1-2 euphylla period) or with large amount of litter addition. The plants treated by small amount of leaf litter recovered their growth afterwards, while the inhibition for 180 g leaf litter persisted until harvest. Twenty-eight compounds were identified in the leaf litter, and several of them were reported to be phytotoxic, which may be responsible for the stress induced by walnut leaf litter. Thus, for highest economic value of vegetables such as lettuce, excessive incorporation of leaf litter should be discouraged. PMID:24784929

  20. Modes of Communication and Effectiveness of Agroforestry Extension in Eastern India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Glendinning; Ajay Mahapatra; C. Paul Mitchell

    2001-01-01

    Development of extension in agroforestry draws on the application of the innovation-diffusion process in agriculture. To be effective, agroforestry extension needs to fit the dynamics of the target farming system, the local socioeconomic and technological systems, and land use constraints. Failure of agroforestry extension has been blamed on inadequate and inappropriate methods, but there have been few studies to identify

  1. Tree crown mapping in managed woodlands (parklands) of semi-arid West Africa using WorldView-2 imagery and geographic object based image analysis.

    PubMed

    Karlson, Martin; Reese, Heather; Ostwald, Madelene

    2014-01-01

    Detailed information on tree cover structure is critical for research and monitoring programs targeting African woodlands, including agroforestry parklands. High spatial resolution satellite imagery represents a potentially effective alternative to field-based surveys, but requires the development of accurate methods to automate information extraction. This study presents a method for tree crown mapping based on Geographic Object Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) that use spectral and geometric information to detect and delineate individual tree crowns and crown clusters. The method was implemented on a WorldView-2 image acquired over the parklands of Saponé, Burkina Faso, and rigorously evaluated against field reference data. The overall detection rate was 85.4% for individual tree crowns and crown clusters, with lower accuracies in areas with high tree density and dense understory vegetation. The overall delineation error (expressed as the difference between area of delineated object and crown area measured in the field) was 45.6% for individual tree crowns and 61.5% for crown clusters. Delineation accuracies were higher for medium (35-100 m(2)) and large (?100 m(2)) trees compared to small (<35 m(2)) trees. The results indicate potential of GEOBIA and WorldView-2 imagery for tree crown mapping in parkland landscapes and similar woodland areas. PMID:25460815

  2. Agroforestry in the Western Ghats of peninsular India and the satoyama landscapes of Japan: a comparison of two sustainable land use systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mohan Kumar; K. Takeuchi

    2009-01-01

    Agroforestry in the Western Ghats (WG) of peninsular India and satoyama in rural Japan are traditional land-use systems with\\u000a similar evolutionary trajectories. Some of their relevance was lost by the middle of the twentieth century, when modern agricultural\\u000a technologies and urbanisation engineered shifts in emphasis towards maximising crop production. There has been, however, a\\u000a resurgence of interest in traditional land-use

  3. [Temporal and spatial distribution of ants in a light gradient, in a coffee agroforestry system, Turrialba, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Varón, Edgar H; Hanson, Paul; Longino, John T; Borbón, Olger; Carballo, Manuel; Hilje, Luko

    2007-01-01

    Shade trees are frequently present in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) agroforestry systems of Mesoamerica. These systems can harbor a rich entomofauna, including ants, which could be predators of key pests in these systems. However, the role of shade on the distribution and abundance of these ants is unknown, yet such knowledge could suggest guidelines for manipulating certain environmental conditions of their habitat, thereby achieving their conservation and increase. Therefore, we studied the effect of shade on the spatial and temporal distribution of three ant species (Solenopsis geminata, Pheidole radoszkowskii and Crematogaster curvispinosa) that may prey on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). To do this, abundance was evaluated across a sun-shade gradient in a coffee plantation with four alternate plots (from pure sun to total shade) in Turrialba, Costa Rica. In the community that was studied 28 species of ants were collected, of which S. geminata was the dominant species (79% of the total individuals), followed by P. radoszkowskii (16 %). S. geminata and C. curvispinosa preferred sunny areas, while P. radoszkowskii showed no defined preference. Likewise, with respect to location, S. geminata predominated in the soil, while P. radoszkowskii and C. curvispinosa predominated in coffee bushes. PMID:19086397

  4. [Time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors in agroforestry system in West Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Di, Sun; Guan, De-xin; Yuan, Feng-hui; Wang, An-zhi; Wu, Jia-bing

    2010-11-01

    By using Granier's thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow velocity of the poplars in agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and the microclimate factors were measured synchronously. Dislocation contrast method was applied to analyze the sap flow velocity and corresponding air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, and vapor pressure deficit to discuss the time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors on sunny days. It was found that the poplar's sap flow velocity advanced of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure deficit, and lagged behind net radiation. The sap flow velocity in June, July, August, and September was advanced of 70, 30, 50, and 90 min to air temperature, of 80, 30, 40, and 90 min to air humidity, and of 90, 50, 70, and 120 min to vapor pressure deficit, but lagged behind 10, 10, 40, and 40 min to net radiation, respectively. The time lag time of net radiation was shorter than that of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure. The regression analysis showed that in the cases the time lag effect was contained and not, the determination coefficients between comprehensive microclimate factor and poplar's sap flow velocity were 0.903 and 0.855, respectively, indicating that when the time lag effect was contained, the determination coefficient was ascended by 2.04%, and thus, the simulation accuracy of poplar's sap flow velocity was improved. PMID:21360994

  5. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Coupled Socioecological Systems in East Africa: The Case of the Chagga Agroforestry and Maasai Agropastoralism across the Greater Environments of Mount Kilimanjaro Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    The various types of rainfall-dependent coupled socioecological systems that conspicuously characterize mountain-environments across Africa, such as the Chagga homegardens, an intensive agroforestry system, constitute a major economic backbone to the local inhabitants. Similarly, agropastoralism that characterizes the adjoining rangelands of such mountain-environments, such as that practiced by the Maasai people of Kenya, in the northern plains that adjoins Mount Kilimanjaro, is major contributor to local food security. Both Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism also contribute greatly to broader-scale economic sectors and respectively to sustainable utilization of rangeland and mountain-environment resources. Like similar coupled socioecological systems across Africa, the Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism are being, and will continue to be affected by the changing climate. This study uses an integrated approach to explore the sustainability of Chagga homegardens, an intensive agroforestry system, in the southern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. Concurrently, the sustainability of the Maasai agropastoralism (a livelihood-diversification type) in the northern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro and the adjoining plains in Kenya is explored. This explication is followed by conceptualization of the potential future of Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism systems under diverse scenarios of climate change—and alongside simultaneous effects of cross-scale social and biophysical factors, processes, and their interactions—in an integrated model. The premise of this study is that coupled socioecological systems, such as Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism, linked to and/or dependent on mountain environments and microclimates, are natural-laboratories. Apropos this last point, the two systems offer timely insight into how similar systems in different geographical locations are likely to be influenced by the continuously changing climate amidst simultaneously heightened permeation of global socioeconomic and sociopolitical change. This insight become important as climate-influenced agriculture and pastoralism and their various derivatives continues to dominant livelihood systems across Africa.

  6. The farming system and traditional agroforestry systems in the Maya community of San Jose, Belize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. LEVASSEUR; A. OLIVIER

    2000-01-01

    Shifting slash-and-burn agriculture is likely one of the main causes of forest degra- dation in southern Belize. Although many development projects have attempted to reduce the impacts of agriculture on the tropical rainforest, the situation is still a cause for concern. A study of the farming system of the San Jose Maya community was therefore carried out to examine agricultural

  7. Nutrient cycling and Above- and Below-ground Interactions in a Runoff Agroforestry System Applied with Composted Tree Trimmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilani, Talli; Ephrath, Jhonathan; Silberbush, Moshe; Berliner, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    The primary production in arid zones is limited due to shortage of water and nutrients. Conveying flood water and storing it in plots surrounded by embankments allows their cropping. The efficient exploitation of the stored water can be achieved through an agroforestry system, in which two crops are grown simultaneously: annual crops with a shallow root system and trees with a deeper root system. We posit that the long-term productivity of this system can be maintained by intercropping symbiotic N fixing shrubs with annual crops, and applying the pruned and composted shrub leaves to the soil, thus ensuring an adequate nitrogen level (a limiting factor in drylands) in the soil. To test our hypothesis we carried a two year trial in which fast-growing acacia (A. saligna) trees were the woody component and maize (Zea mays L.) the intercrop. Ten treatments were applied over two maize growth seasons to examine the below- and above-ground effects of tree pruning, compost application and interactions. The addition of compost in the first growth season led to an increase of the soil organic matter reservoir, which was the main N source for the maize during the following growth season. In the second growth season the maize yield was significantly higher in the plots to which compost was applied. Pruning the tree's canopies changed the trees spatial and temporal root development, allowing the annual crop to develop between the trees. The roots of pruned trees intercropped with maize penetrated deeper in the soil. The intercropping of maize within pruned trees and implementing compost resulted in a higher water use efficiency of the water stored in the soil when compared to the not composted and monoculture treatments. The results presented suggest that the approach used in this study can be the basis for achieving sustainable agricultural production under arid conditions.

  8. Soil enzyme activities and physical properties in a watershed managed under agroforestry and row-crop systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranjith P. Udawatta; Robert J. Kremer; Harold E. Garrett; Stephen H. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    The proportion of water-stable aggregates (WSA) and a diverse microbial activity influence soil quality, crop growth, nutrient retention, water infiltration, and surface runoff. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that permanent vegetative buffers increase WSA and contribute to increased soil enzyme activity. Soil samples (5cm diameter and 10cm long) from agroforestry (AG), grass buffer (GB), grass

  9. A review of belowground interactions in agroforestry, focussing on mechanisms and management options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Schroth

    1998-01-01

    This review summarises current knowledge on root interactions in agroforestry systems, discussing cases from temperate and\\u000a tropical ecosystems and drawing on experiences from natural plant communities where data from agroforestry systems are lacking.\\u000a There is an inherent conflict in agroforestry between expected favourable effects of tree root systems, e.g. on soil fertility\\u000a and nutrient cycling, and competition between tree and

  10. Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.

    2003-01-01

    Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

  11. Agroforestry and forestry-related practices in the Midwestern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Rule; J. P. Colletti; T. P. Liu; S. E. Jungst; C. W. Mize; R. C. Schultz

    1994-01-01

    A survey, conducted in 1990–1991 on agroforestry and forestry-related systems in eight Midwestern states, showed that three traditional and three nontraditional agroforestry systems are practiced in the region. Of 46 traditional systems reported, most common was agrisilviculture (28), then silvipasture (12) and agrisilvipasture (6). These systems often involved corn, soybeans, and hay planted with tree species for nut, timber, or

  12. Soil infiltration characteristics in agroforestry systems and their relationships with the temporal distribution of rainfall on the loess plateau in china.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai; Zhong, Chonggao; Gao, Pengxiang; Xi, Weimin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia) monoculture system (JRMS), a wheat (Triticum aestivum) monoculture system (TAMS), and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS) over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world. PMID:25893832

  13. General Considerations in Testing and Evaluating Crop Varieties for Agroforestry Systems1

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    subsistence crops include breadfruit, banana and root crops such as taro and yam. This system is very common or forest trees usually form the top canopy layer. Breadfruit, banana, and root crops such as taro and yam

  14. Productivity of Theobroma cacao agroforestry systems with timber or legume service shade trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Somarriba; John Beer

    2011-01-01

    Timber production and cocoa yields were studied (initial 10–11 years) in two experimental plantations: a Cocoa-Legume system\\u000a (CL, Erythrina\\u000a poeppigiana, Gliricidia\\u000a sepium or Inga\\u000a edulis), and a Cocoa-Timber system (CT, Cordia alliodora, Tabebuia\\u000a rosea or Terminalia\\u000a ivorensis, plus I. edulis for inter-site comparisons). These trials had two major goals: (1) to evaluate the use of mono-specific timber shade canopies\\u000a as an

  15. Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry alley cropping system receiving poultry litter or nitrogen fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal utilization of animal manures as a plant nutrient source should also prevent adverse impacts on water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term poultry litter and N fertilizer application on nutrient cycling following establishment of an alley cropping system with easter...

  16. Agroforestry development: An environmental economic perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. R. Alavalapati; R. K. Shrestha; G. A. Stainback; J. R. Matta

    2004-01-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFS) provide a mix of market goods and nonmarket goods and services. We postulate that if nonmarket\\u000a goods and services can be internalized to the benefit of landowners, the adoption of AFS will increase. Using the theory of\\u000a externality as a conceptual framework, this paper provides an environmental economic logic for developing incentive policies\\u000a to internalize environmental services

  17. Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: Pollination in coffee agroforestry systems

    PubMed Central

    Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G.; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2013-01-01

    Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables. PMID:23671073

  18. Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: pollination in coffee agroforestry systems.

    PubMed

    Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2013-05-21

    Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables. PMID:23671073

  19. Adoption of agroforestry in the hills of Nepal: a logistic regression analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramji P. Neupane; Khem R. Sharma; Gopal B. Thapa

    2002-01-01

    Widespread deforestation and increasingly intensive use of land to sustain a growing population has increased soil erosion, lowered soil fertility, and reduced agricultural productivity in the hills of Nepal. This has raised concern over sustainability of the hill farming system. There is growing evidence that agroforestry can be a potential solution to above problems. However, the development of agroforestry as

  20. Improving the issuing, absorption and use of climate forecast information in agroforestry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry includes a range of practices that combine partial canopies of perennial woody vegetation (trees, shrubs, or hedges) with below-canopy production of forages, arable crops, fruits, berries, and nuts, herbs, or medicinal plants. Agroforestry systems can be broadly grouped into windbreaks ...

  1. Assessment of the Adoption of Agroforestry Technologies by Limited-Resource Farmers in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Paula E.; Owooh, Bismark; Idassi, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Agroforestry is a natural resource management system that integrates trees, forages, and livestock. The study reported here was conducted to determine farmers' knowledge about and willingness to adopt agroforestry technologies in North Carolina. The study reported participants were primarily older, male farmers, suggesting the need to attract…

  2. The effects of rainfall partitioning and evapotranspiration on the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content in a Mediterranean agroforestry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, C.; Molina, A.; Aranda, X.; Llorens, P.; Savé, R.

    2012-04-01

    Tree plantation for wood production has been proposed to mitigate CO2-related climate change. Although these agroforestry systems can contribute to maintain the agriculture in some areas placed between rainfed crops and secondary forests, water scarcity in Mediterranean climate could restrict its growth, and their presence will affect the water balance. Tree plantations management (species, plant density, irrigation, etc), hence, can be used to affect the water balance, resulting in water availability improvement and buffering of the water cycle. Soil water content and meteorological data are widely used in agroforestry systems as indicators of vegetation water use, and consequently to define water management. However, the available information of ecohydrological processes in this kind of ecosystem is scarce. The present work studies how the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content is affected by transpiration and interception loss fluxes in a Mediterranean rainfed plantation of cherry tree (Prunus avium) located in Caldes de Montbui (Northeast of Spain). From May till December 2011, rainfall partitioning, canopy transpiration, soil water content and meteorological parameters were continuously recorded. Rainfall partitioning was measured in 6 trees, with 6 automatic rain recorders for throughfall and 1 automatic rain recorder for stemflow per tree. Transpiration was monitored in 12 nearby trees by means of heat pulse sap flow sensors. Soil water content was also measured at three different depths under selected trees and at two depths between rows without tree cover influence. This work presents the relationships between rainfall partitioning, transpiration and soil water content evolution under the tree canopy. The effect of tree cover on the soil water content dynamics is also analyzed.

  3. Recent Transitions in Ethiopian Homegarden Agroforestry: Driving

    E-print Network

    development efforts towards a stable and sustainable land use and gender equity in rural development. ItsRecent Transitions in Ethiopian Homegarden Agroforestry: Driving Forces and Changing Gender Transitions in Ethiopian Homegarden Agroforestry: Driving Forces and Changing Gender Relations Abstract

  4. Land cover changes and forest landscape evolution (1985-2009) in a typical Mediterranean agroforestry system (high Agri Valley)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, T.; Coluzzi, R.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.

    2015-06-01

    The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (high Agri Valley - Basilicata region) that occurred over 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European onshore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes) and the forest/non-forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, and expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.

  5. Land cover changes and forest landscape evolution (1985-2009) in a typical Mediterranean agroforestry system (High Agri Valley)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, T.; Coluzzi, R.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.

    2014-08-01

    The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (High Agri Valley - Basilicata region) occurred during 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European on-shore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes) and the Forest/Non Forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern: increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.

  6. Rainfall partitioning into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss in a coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) monoculture compared to an agroforestry system with Inga densiflora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siles, Pablo; Vaast, Philippe; Dreyer, Erwin; Harmand, Jean-Michel

    2010-12-01

    SummaryPartitioning of gross rainfall into throughfall, stemflow and rainfall interception was assessed in Costa Rica during two rainy seasons (mean annual rainfall of 2900 mm) in two coffee systems: (1) a monoculture (MC) and (2) an agroforestry system (AFS) including Inga densiflora as the associated shade tree species. Coffee architecture, not LAI, appeared to be the main driver of stemflow as stemflow was higher for shaded coffee plants (10.6% of incident rainfall) than for coffee plants in MC (7.2%), despite the fact that these shaded plants had lower LAI. The presence of Inga trees modified coffee architecture with shaded coffee plants presenting larger stems and branches resulting in higher coffee funneling ratio under shade. In AFS, coffee plants and trees accounted respectively for 88% and 12% of total stemflow which represented 11.8% of incident rainfall. AFS displayed larger cumulative stemflow and smaller total throughfall compared to MC. Cumulative throughfall expressed in % of the gross rainfall, differed between systems and monitoring periods and the trend showed a decrease with increasing LAI. Nevertheless, as stemflow measurement and interception loss estimation were done only during the second year of the study, the shade tree showed a low influence in increasing interception loss, as the combined LAI of coffee plants and shade trees was rather similar in AFS as that of coffee in MC. Furthermore, coffee plants accounted for the largest fraction of the interception loss in AFS as the coffee LAI was more than 3-fold that of shade trees.

  7. Mandatory dedication of parkland in Texas: a survey of municipal practices 

    E-print Network

    Rockefeller, David Kenneth

    1990-01-01

    , any such limitation must appear with "unmistakable clarity. " The Supreme Court further chastised the Appeals Court in holding it had erred in determining that parkland dedication did not bear a substantial relationship to the health, safety... of parkland in residential developments was predicated upon similar judicially approved exactions of land for streets, sewers, and other utilities, it was not tested in court until 1984. With the definitive 1984 Texas Supreme Court decision in 't of Colle...

  8. Impacts of coffee agroforestry management on tropical bee communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jha; J. H. Vandermeer

    2010-01-01

    Though it is undoubted that tropical bees are influenced by habitat composition, few studies have investigated the relative importance of both local and landscape-level habitat parameters in supporting large and diverse bee communities. The conservation of native bee communities within agroforestry landscapes is particularly urgent given the importance of pollination services within these systems. In this study, we examined tropical

  9. Book (All chapters are peer-reviewed) Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Book (All chapters are peer-reviewed) Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration. K. R., Nair, V. D., Kumar, B. M., and Showalter, J. M. 2010. Carbon sequestration in agroforestry Publications on Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems 2008 ­ 2011 (Contact: pknair@ufl.edu) #12;cacao

  10. Nutritional values and indigenous preferences for Shea Fruits (vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn. F.) in African Agroforestry Parklands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Maranz; Walter Kpikpi; Zeev Wiesman; Armelle De Saint Sauveur; Bishnu Chapagain

    2004-01-01

    Samples of dried shea fruit pulp were collected from tree populations in Mali, Burkina Faso, northern Cameroon, and Uganda.\\u000a A variety of analytical methods was used to measure total soluble solids (TSS), crude protein, and mineral contents. The results\\u000a demonstrate that shea fruits are a rich source of sugars, protein, calcium, and potassium during the “hungry season”, when\\u000a food stores

  11. Seasonal contrasts in the response of coffee ants to agroforestry shade-tree management.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, A V; Sousa-Souto, L; Klein, A-M; Tscharntke, T

    2010-12-01

    In many tropical landscapes, agroforestry systems are the last forested ecosystems, providing shade, having higher humidity, mitigating potential droughts, and possessing more species than any other crop system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of shade and associated humidity in agroforestry enhance coffee ant richness more during the dry than rainy season, comparing ant richness in 22 plots of three coffee agroforestry types in coastal Ecuador: simple-shade agroforests (intensively managed with low tree species diversity), complex-shade agroforests (extensively managed with intermediate tree species diversity) and abandoned coffee agroforests (abandoned for 10-15 yr and resembling secondary forests). Seasonality affected responses of ant richness but not composition to agroforestry management, in that most species were observed in abandoned coffee agroforests in the dry season. In the rainy season, however, most species were found in simple-shade agroforests, and complex agroforestry being intermediate. Foraging coffee ants species composition did not change differently according to agroforestry type and season. Results show that shade appears to be most important in the dry seasons, while a mosaic of different land-use types may provide adequate environmental conditions to ant species, maximizing landscape-wide richness throughout the year. PMID:22182538

  12. Taking stock of agroforestry adoption studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhrendu K. Pattanayak; D. Evan Mercer; Erin Sills; Jui-Chen Yang

    2003-01-01

    In light of the large number of empirical studies of agroforestry adoption published during the last decade, we believe it is time to take stock and identify general determinants of agroforestry adoption. In reviewing 120 articles on adoption of agricultural and forestry technology by small holders, we find five categories of factors that explain technology adoption within an economic framework:

  13. Process studies in a Pinus radiata -pasture agroforestry system in a subhumid temperature environment. I. Water use and light interception in the third year

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. M. Yunusa; D. J. Mead; K. M. Pollock; R. J. Lucas

    1995-01-01

    In this study we determined soil moisture storage, evapotranspiration (ET) and light interception in an agroforestry trial consisting of pine trees grown over (1) control (bare ground), (2) ryegrass\\/clovers (Lolium perene\\/Trifolium spp.), (3) lucerne (Medicago sativa), and (4) ryegrass only during the third growing season between 1992 and 1993. The results show that:1. \\u000aIn the period when rainfall was frequent

  14. Ecosystem Services from Smallholder Forestry and Agroforestry in the Tropics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Travis Idol; Jeremy Haggar; Linda Cox

    \\u000a Smallholder forestry and agroforestry systems in the tropics provide essential products and services for millions of producers,\\u000a their surrounding communities, national and international consumers, and global society. The diversity of products provided\\u000a by these systems meet the needs of smallholder producers for fuelwood, food, animal fodder, and other household and farm needs;\\u000a they provide additional income to supplement major commodity

  15. The impact of agroforestry combined with water harvesting on soil carbon and nitrogen stocks in central Chile evaluated using the ICBM\\/N model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osvaldo Salazar; Manuel Casanova; Thomas Kätterer

    2011-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (N) stocks in an agroforestry system with water harvesting were analysed in a field experiment and the results compared with those of other crop management systems in the Mediterranean zone of central Chile. Agroforestry with water harvesting showed higher positive effects on N stocks, mainly in the upper soil layer, than the other

  16. Agroforestry Management Effects on Plant Productivity Vectors within a Humid–Temperate Hardwood Alley-cropping System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. von Kiparski; A. R. Gillespie

    Economic analyses have shown that combining hardwood trees and agricultural crops into alley-cropping systems has the potential\\u000a to increase the profitability of plantation forestry in the humid temperate midwestern USA (Williams and Gordon, 1992; Benjamin\\u000a et al. 2000). Traditionally in this region, trees and agronomic crops are grown separately in monocultural systems. Management\\u000a prescriptions for the combined systems (reviewed by

  17. IMPROVED TOOLS FOR MANAGING AGROFORESTRY LANDSCAPES IN NORTHERN THAILAND: PILOT APPLICATION OF SPATIAL ANALYSIS AND NEGOTIATION SUPPORT SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Thomas; Horst Weyerhaeuser

    Current landscape mosaic patterns of land cover in Northern Thailand can be seen as resulting from adaptation of traditional agricultural systems over time. During the 1950s, little influence from the lowlands had yet imposed itself on traditional systems in higher elevation zones. Subsequent outside influences, such as markets for new crops associated with both opium crop replacement programs and expansion

  18. Evaluating the effectiveness of participatory agroforestry extension programmes in a pastoral system, based on existing traditional values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. C. Barrow

    1991-01-01

    The Turkana silvo-pastoral system is a traditional natural resource management strategy for dry lands that forms a sensible basis for improvement. Involvement of the local people is vital in adapting and improving the system, to bring out the potentials that exist in terms of broad land management strategies and more specifically in terms of individual tree species. The participatory extension

  19. Prepared in cooperation with the National Park Service, Western Arctic National Parklands, Kotzebue, Alaska

    E-print Network

    Fleskes, Joe

    Prepared in cooperation with the National Park Service, Western Arctic National Parklands, Kotzebue Road, Red Dog Mine, and Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2005­06 Scientific Investigations Report 2008­5040 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey #12;Cover Photograph. Red Dog

  20. Waterfowl-wetland relationships in the Aspen Parkland of British Columbia: comparison of analytical methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre L. Savard; W. Sean Boyd; G. E. John Smith

    1994-01-01

    We explored the relationships between aquatic bird abundance and various pond features (physical and chemical) using data from 112 ponds located in the Aspen Parkland of British Columbia. As expected, pond size was the most important factor influencing the number of aquatic birds present. Total dissolved nitrogen, conductivity and calcium were positively associated with the abundance of several species whereas

  1. Smallholder Cacao (Theobroma cacao Linn.) cultivation in agroforestry systems of West and Central Africa: challenges and opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Duguma; J. Gockowski; J. Bakala

    2001-01-01

    The cultural features, management practice, environmental sustainability, and economic profitability of smallholder cacao\\u000a (Theobroma cacao)production in West and Central Africa are reviewed. The aim is tohighlight factors affecting the cacao production and marketing\\u000a sectorand to propose appropriate strategies to ensure sustainable and profitable cacao production in the region. The cacao\\u000a cultivation system causes minimum damage to soil resources. In terms

  2. Impacts of Public Policies and Farmer Preferences on Agroforestry Practices in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillerme, S.; Kumar, B. M.; Menon, A.; Hinnewinkel, C.; Maire, E.; Santhoshkumar, A. V.

    2011-08-01

    Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.

  3. Adoption of agroforestry innovations in the tropics: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Mercer

    2004-01-01

    The period since the early 1990s has witnessed an explosion of research on the adoption of agroforestry innovations in the\\u000a tropics. Much of this work was motivated by a perceived gap between advances in agroforestry science and the success of agroforestry-based\\u000a development programs and projects. Achieving the full promise of agroforestry requires a fundamental understanding of how\\u000a and why farmers

  4. Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zschocke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize controlled…

  5. Contextual Analysis of Agroforestry Adoption in the Buffer Zone of Podocarpus National Park, Ecuador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice C. Bond

    2009-01-01

    Promoting sustainable agriculture and community development is an important strategy both to alleviate resource pressures on Ecuador's Podocarpus National Park (PNP) and surrounding forested areas in its buffer zone, and to aid local communities. However, the development and adaptation of agroforestry systems must take into account the wide array of contextual factors that influence land use. Included in this analysis

  6. Agroforestry and the Maintenance of Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peter Bichier (Migratory Bird Center of the Smithsonian National Zoological Park; )

    2006-05-01

    Agroforestry is a land-use method that allows trees to grow in crop and livestock areas. Studies have shown that it is one way to conserve biodiversity, attracts species beneficial to farming, such as pollinators, improves farms by, for example, reducing soil erosion and is economically beneficial to farmers.

  7. Agroforestry planting design affects loblolly pine growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of plantation design on resource utilization has not been adequately investigated in agroforestry plantations. An experiment was conducted near Booneville, AR on a silt loam soil with a fragipan. Loblolly pine trees were planted in 1994 in an east-west row orientation in three designs: ...

  8. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

  9. Parkland and Golf Course Management: Managing Wildlife Habitat on Public Open Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rodewald, Amanda D.

    This article discusses methods for managing parkland and golf courses in a wildlife-friendly manner. The article contains a number of practical tips for managing parks and golf courses, and covers such topics as lawn size, the use of native plants, and eco-friendly turf-grass management. The piece was authored by Amanda D. Rodewald Ph.D. of the School of Natural Resources at Ohio State University. Anyone in the Turf or Golf Management industry with a desire to improve the environmental consequences will find this article very useful.

  10. Engaging in School-Led Multisectoral Collaboration: Implications to Agroforestry Promotion in the Philippine Uplands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landicho, Leila D.; Cabahug, Rowena D.; De Luna, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    The Agroforestry Support Program for Empowering Communities Towards Self-Reliance (ASPECTS) was conceived to develop a model of two-stage approach in agroforestry promotion by capacitating the upland communities to establish community-managed agroforestry extension services, while strengthening the agroforestry education programs of the three…

  11. Agroforestry research for development in India: 25 years of experiences of a national program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Puri; P. K. R. Nair

    2004-01-01

    India has been in the forefront of agroforestry research ever since organized research in agroforestry started worldwide about\\u000a 25 years ago. Considering the country's unique land-use, demographic, political, and sociocultural characteristics as well\\u000a as its strong record in agricultural and forestry research, India's experience in agroforestry research is important to agroforestry\\u000a development, especially in developing nations. Agroforestry has received much

  12. Projecting the bird community response resulting from the adoption of shelterbelt agroforestry practices in Eastern Nebraska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Pierce II; D. T. Farrand; W. B. Kurtz

    2001-01-01

    Evolving agricultural policies have influenced management practices within agroecosystems, impacting available habitats for\\u000a many species of wildlife. Enhancing wildlife habitat has become an explicit objective of existing agricultural policy. Thus,\\u000a there is renewed focus on field borders and the use of shelterbelt agroforestry systems to achieve conservation goals in the\\u000a Midwest. Two Representative Farms – a 283-ha dryland and 510-ha

  13. Agroforestry as a sustainable landuse option in degraded tropical forests: a study from Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahbubul Alam; Yasushi Furukawa; Kazuhiro Harada

    2010-01-01

    The tropical deciduous forest in Bangladesh provides a substantial part of country’s forest and where the government has introduced\\u000a participatory agroforestry landuse. This study examined management issues, financial viability, and environmental as well\\u000a as social sustainability of this landuse system. The forest department allocated a plot of size 1.0 ha among the selected\\u000a participants where they were allowed to practice agriculture

  14. The problem of experimental design in temperate agroforestry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. T. Stamps; M. J. Linit

    1998-01-01

    The design and execution of temperate agroforestry experiments has many problems. Difficulties include the selection of measurement\\u000a criteria, proper randomization of treatments, and issues of timing and scale of experiments. A major problem facing most experimenters\\u000a is the proper randomization of treatments to insure independence: few properly designed temperate agroforestry plots currently\\u000a exist, and it will be many years before

  15. Agro-ecosystem and socio-economic role of homegarden agroforestry in Jabithenan District, North-Western Ethiopia: implication for climate change adaptation.

    PubMed

    Linger, Ewuketu

    2014-01-01

    Homegarden agroforestry is believed to be more diverse and provide multiple services for household than other monocropping system and this is due to the combination of crops, trees and livestock. The aim of this study was to assess socio-economic and agro-ecological role of homegardens in Jabithenan district, North-western Ethiopia. Two sites purposively and two villages randomly from each site were selected. Totally 96 households; in which 48 from homegarden agroforestry user and 48 from non-tree based garden user were selected for this study. Socio-economic data and potential economic and agro-ecosystem role of homegarden agroforestry over non-tree based garden were collected by using semi-structured and structured questionnaires to the households. Homegarden agroforestry significantly (P?agroforestry practice provides good socio-economical and agro-ecological service for farmers which have a higher implication for climate change adaptation than non-tree based garden. PMID:24790810

  16. Long-term impact of a gliricidia-maize intercropping system on carbon sequestration in southern Malawi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilkson Makumba; Festus K. Akinnifesi; Bert Janssen; Oene Oenema

    2007-01-01

    Tree\\/crop systems under agroforestry practice are capable of sequestering carbon (C) in the standing biomass and soil. Although studies have been conducted to understand soil organic C increases in some agroforestry technologies, little is known about C sequestered in simultaneous tree\\/crop intercropping systems. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of agroforestry practice on C sequestration

  17. Decomposition and nutrient release from pruning residues of two indigenous agroforestry species during the wet and dry seasons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tesfay Teklay

    2007-01-01

    The decomposition of leaves from Cordia africana Lam. and Albizia gummifera G. F.Gmel was investigated during the wet and dry seasons at Wondo Genet (Ethiopia). Litterbags of leaves were buried in\\u000a soils under farmland and shaded-coffee agroforestry systems. Residual matter was recovered after 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks and\\u000a analysed for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), cellulose, lignin, soluble

  18. Agroforestry Development Posters in Spanish Based on SUCO's Machete Verde

    E-print Network

    Agroforestry Development Posters in Spanish Based on SUCO's Machete Verde These posters were) to work in Honduras. The posters are composed of images from the outstanding set of booklets titled. The posters were developed by Ben Hasse, an FNR student now with the Peace Corps in Nicaragua, and Dr. Tamara

  19. Variation in Soil Enzyme Activities in a Temperate Agroforestry Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of agroforestry and grass buffers into row crop watersheds improves overall environmental quality, including soil quality. The objective of this study was to examine management and landscape effects on soil carbon, soil nitrogen, microbial diversity, enzyme activity, and DNA concentrati...

  20. Climate change: linking adaptation and mitigation through agroforestry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis V. Verchot; Meine Van Noordwijk; Serigne Kandji; Tom Tomich; Chin Ong; Alain Albrecht; Jens Mackensen; Cynthia Bantilan; K. V. Anupama; Cheryl Palm

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture is the human enterprise that is most vulnerable to climate change. Tropical agriculture, particularly subsistence\\u000a agriculture is particularly vulnerable, as smallholder farmers do not have adequate resources to adapt to climate change.\\u000a While agroforestry may play a significant role in mitigating the atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG), it also\\u000a has a role to play in helping smallholder farmers

  1. Tree Roots in Agroforestry: Evaluating Biomass and Distribution with Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borden, Kira Alia

    The root systems of five tree species (Populus deltoides x nigra clone DN-177, Juglans nigra, Quercus rubra, Picea abies, and Thuja occidentalis) are described following non-intrusive imaging using ground penetrating radar (GPR). This research aimed to 1) assess the utility of GPR for in situ root studies and 2) employ GPR to estimate tree root biomass and distribution in an agroforestry system in southern Ontario, Canada. The mean coarse root biomass estimated from GPR analysis was 54.1 +/- 8.7 kg tree-1 (+/- S.E.; n=12), within 1 % of the mean coarse root biomass measured from matched excavations. The vertical distribution of detected roots varied among species, with T. occidentalis and P. abies roots concentrated in the top 20 cm and J. nigra and Q. rubra roots distinctly deeper. I evaluate these root systems based on their C storage potential and complementary root stratification with adjacent crops.

  2. Economic factors in farmer adoption of agroforestry: Patterns observed in Western Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara J. Scherr

    1995-01-01

    A study of agroforestry adoption by 3,000 project participants in Siaya and South Nyanza Districts in Kenya supports three hypotheses. 1.(1) Historical increases in tree domestication and management intensity are responses to declining supply of uncultivated tree resources, increased subsistence and commercial demand for tree products, and perceived risks of ecological degradation. Adoption of agroforestry is most likely where consistent

  3. Field Note: Standard Web Application for Information Exchange on Agroforestry in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajit; Nighat Jabeen; Handa, A. K.; Uma

    2008-01-01

    Agroforestry (AF)/forestry is no longer an isolated field, with so many developmental activities having links with this sector, and thus the information required to be handled by the researchers all over the world has increased exponentially. This article discusses a website that was developed by the National Research Centre for Agroforestry

  4. A Paired watershed Evaluation of Agroforestry effects on Water Quality on a Corn/Soybean Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udawatta, Ranjith; Jose, Shibu; Garrett, Harold

    2015-04-01

    Rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited and thus limit the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world. The objective of the study was to examine non point source pollution (NPSP) reduction by agroforestry buffers in row-crop watersheds. The study consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Knox County, Missouri, USA. Watersheds were established in 1991 and treatments of agroforestry (trees+grass) and grass buffers were established on two watersheds in 1997 after a 7-year calibration period. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2009 to 2010 period. Results indicated that agroforestry and grass buffers on row crop watersheds significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with row crop management reduced runoff by 26% during the study period as compared to the control treatments. Average sediment loss for row crop management and buffer watersheds was 14.8 and 9.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared to the control treatments. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in management, soils, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be implemented to reduce NPSP to water bodies while improving land value and environmental quality.

  5. Reducing pollution in agriculture land, agroforestry and Common Agrarian Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa Mosquera Losada, Maria; Santiago-Freijanes, José Javier; Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rois, Mercedes; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Reducing non-point source pollution in Europe is a key activity for the European institutions and citizens. Ensuring high quality food supply while environment is sustainable managed is a highly relevant in the European agriculture. New CAP tries to promote sustainability with the greening measures in Pillar I (EU payments) and Pillar II (EU-Country cofinanced payments). The star component of the Pillar I is the greening. The greening includes three types of activities related to crop rotation, maintenance of permanent pasture and the promotion of Ecological Focus Areas (EFA). Greening practices are compulsory in arable lands when they are placed in regions with low proportion of forests and when the owner has large farms. Among the EFA, there are several options that include agroforestry practices like landscape features, buffer strips, agroforestry, strips of eligible hectares along forest edges, areas with short rotation coppice. These practices promote biodiversity and the inclusion of woody vegetation that is able to increase the uptake of the excess of nutrients like N or P. USA Agriculture Department has also recognize the importance of woody vegetation around the arable lands to reduce nutrient pollution and promote biodiversity.

  6. Impacts of Public Policies and Farmer Preferences on Agroforestry Practices in Kerala, India

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    practices. Keywords Agrobiodiversity Á Farmers' perception Á Farming practices Á Trees outside forest Á of agroforestry, such as its role in biodiversity conservation, regulation of physical and chemical fluxes

  7. Disentangling herbivore impacts on Populus tremuloides: a comparison of native ungulates and cattle in Canada's Aspen Parkland.

    PubMed

    Bork, Edward W; Carlyle, Cameron N; Cahill, James F; Haddow, Rae E; Hudson, Robert J

    2013-11-01

    Ungulates impact woody species' growth and abundance but little is understood about the comparative impacts of different ungulate species on forest expansion in savanna environments. Replacement of native herbivore guilds with livestock [i.e., beef cattle (Bos taurus)] has been hypothesized as a factor facilitating trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) encroachment into grasslands of the Northern Great Plains. We used a controlled herbivory study in the Parklands of western Canada to compare the impact of native ungulates and cattle on aspen saplings. Native ungulate treatments included a mixed species guild and sequences of herbivory by different ungulates [bison (Bison bison subsp. bison), elk (Cervus elaphus) then deer (Odocoileus hemionus); or deer, elk, then bison]. Herbivory treatments were replicated in three pastures, within which sets of 40 marked aspen saplings (<1.8 m) were tracked along permanent transects at 2-week intervals, and compared to a non-grazed aspen stand. Stems were assessed for mortality and incremental damage (herbivory, leader breakage, stem abrasion and trampling). Final mortality was greater with exposure to any type of herbivore, but remained similar between ungulate treatments. However, among all treatments, the growth of aspen was highest with exposure only to cattle. Herbivory of aspen was attributed primarily to elk within the native ungulate treatments, with other forms of physical damage, and ultimately sapling mortality, associated with exposure to bison. Overall, these results indicate that native ungulates, specifically elk and bison, have more negative impacts on aspen saplings and provide evidence that native and domestic ungulates can have different functional effects on woody plant dynamics in savanna ecosystems. PMID:23649757

  8. The Parkland Protocol's Modified Berne-Norwood Criteria Predict Two Tiers of Risk for Traumatic Brain Injury Progression

    PubMed Central

    Pastorek, Rachel A.; Cripps, Michael W.; Bernstein, Ira H.; Scott, William W.; Madden, Christopher J.; Rickert, Kim L.; Wolf, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract As a basis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after traumatic brain injury (TBI), we have previously published an algorithm known as the Parkland Protocol. Patients are classified by risk for spontaneous progression of hemorrhage with chemoprophylaxis regimens tailored to each tier. We sought to validate this schema. In our algorithm, patients with any of the following are classified “low risk” for spontaneous progression: subdural hemorrhage ?8?mm thick; epidural hemorrhage ?8?mm thick; contusions ?20?mm in diameter; a single contusion per lobe; any amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage; or any amount of intraventricular hemorrhage. Patients with any injury exceeding these are “moderate risk” for progression, and any patient receiving a monitor or craniotomy is “high risk.” From February 2010 to November 2012, TBI patients were entered into a dedicated database tracking injury types and sizes, risk category at presentation, and progression on subsequent computed tomgraphies (CTs). The cohort (n=414) was classified as low risk (n=200), moderate risk (n=75), or high risk (n=139) after first CT. After repeat CT scan, radiographic progression was noted in 27% of low-risk, 53% of moderate-risk, and 58% of high-risk subjects. Omnibus analysis of variance test for differences in progression rates was highly significant (p<0.0001). Tukey's post-hoc test showed the low-risk progression rate to be significantly different than both the moderate- and high-risk arms; no difference was noted between the moderate- and high-risk arms themselves. These criteria are a valid tool for classifying TBI patients into two categories of risk for spontaneous progression. This supports tailored chemoprophylaxis regimens for each arm. PMID:24945196

  9. The Parkland Protocol's modified Berne-Norwood criteria predict two tiers of risk for traumatic brain injury progression.

    PubMed

    Pastorek, Rachel A; Cripps, Michael W; Bernstein, Ira H; Scott, William W; Madden, Christopher J; Rickert, Kim L; Wolf, Steven E; Phelan, Herb A

    2014-10-15

    As a basis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after traumatic brain injury (TBI), we have previously published an algorithm known as the Parkland Protocol. Patients are classified by risk for spontaneous progression of hemorrhage with chemoprophylaxis regimens tailored to each tier. We sought to validate this schema. In our algorithm, patients with any of the following are classified "low risk" for spontaneous progression: subdural hemorrhage ?8?mm thick; epidural hemorrhage ?8?mm thick; contusions ?20?mm in diameter; a single contusion per lobe; any amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage; or any amount of intraventricular hemorrhage. Patients with any injury exceeding these are "moderate risk" for progression, and any patient receiving a monitor or craniotomy is "high risk." From February 2010 to November 2012, TBI patients were entered into a dedicated database tracking injury types and sizes, risk category at presentation, and progression on subsequent computed tomgraphies (CTs). The cohort (n=414) was classified as low risk (n=200), moderate risk (n=75), or high risk (n=139) after first CT. After repeat CT scan, radiographic progression was noted in 27% of low-risk, 53% of moderate-risk, and 58% of high-risk subjects. Omnibus analysis of variance test for differences in progression rates was highly significant (p<0.0001). Tukey's post-hoc test showed the low-risk progression rate to be significantly different than both the moderate- and high-risk arms; no difference was noted between the moderate- and high-risk arms themselves. These criteria are a valid tool for classifying TBI patients into two categories of risk for spontaneous progression. This supports tailored chemoprophylaxis regimens for each arm. PMID:24945196

  10. Community assessment of agroforestry opportunities in GaMothiba, South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Kelso; Michael Jacobson

    Evaluating environmentally sustainable and culturally sensitive approaches to natural resource management issues is a necessary\\u000a step towards improving livelihoods in rural South Africa. This study assessed the applicability of various agroforestry practices\\u000a to natural resource management issues in the village of GaMothiba located in the northwestern region of South Africa. Agroforestry\\u000a assessments were carried out using a community based approach

  11. Hydrologic Activity of Deciduous Agroforestry Tree : Observed through Monitoring of Stable Isotopes in Stem Water, Solar Radiation Attenuation, and Sapflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Parlange, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    The net benefit of agroforestry trees for small scale farmers in dryland agricultural systems is debatable because while they provide significant direct and indirect services, they also consume considerable amounts of scare water resources. In this study we monitor the stable isotopes of water to improve a water budget of a Sclerocarya birrea tree in a millet field in South Eastern Burkina Faso. Data obtained from air temperature and humidity, surface temperature, solar radiation, and soil moisture sensors attached to a wireless sensor network uniquely configured around the agroforestry tree provided the initial calculation of the local water balance. Isotopic ratios were determined from water extracted from stems and sub canopy soil, and from nearby ground water, precipitation, and surface water that was sampled weekly. A linear mixing model is used to predict when the tree switched between water sources. The results from the linear mixing model coupled with a tree water balance demonstrate the extreme seasonality of the annual cycle of water use by this deciduous species.

  12. Knowledge and valuation of Andean agroforestry species: the role of sex, age, and migration among members of a rural community in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Agroforestry is a sustainable land use method with a long tradition in the Bolivian Andes. A better understanding of people’s knowledge and valuation of woody species can help to adjust actor-oriented agroforestry systems. In this case study, carried out in a peasant community of the Bolivian Andes, we aimed at calculating the cultural importance of selected agroforestry species, and at analysing the intracultural variation in the cultural importance and knowledge of plants according to peasants’ sex, age, and migration. Methods Data collection was based on semi-structured interviews and freelisting exercises. Two ethnobotanical indices (Composite Salience, Cultural Importance) were used for calculating the cultural importance of plants. Intracultural variation in the cultural importance and knowledge of plants was detected by using linear and generalised linear (mixed) models. Results and discussion The culturally most important woody species were mainly trees and exotic species (e.g. Schinus molle, Prosopis laevigata, Eucalyptus globulus). We found that knowledge and valuation of plants increased with age but that they were lower for migrants; sex, by contrast, played a minor role. The age effects possibly result from decreasing ecological apparency of valuable native species, and their substitution by exotic marketable trees, loss of traditional plant uses or the use of other materials (e.g. plastic) instead of wood. Decreasing dedication to traditional farming may have led to successive abandonment of traditional tool uses, and the overall transformation of woody plant use is possibly related to diminishing medicinal knowledge. Conclusions Age and migration affect how people value woody species and what they know about their uses. For this reason, we recommend paying particular attention to the potential of native species, which could open promising perspectives especially for the young migrating peasant generation and draw their interest in agroforestry. These native species should be ecologically sound and selected on their potential to provide subsistence and promising commercial uses. In addition to offering socio-economic and environmental services, agroforestry initiatives using native trees and shrubs can play a crucial role in recovering elements of the lost ancient landscape that still forms part of local people’s collective identity. PMID:24359597

  13. Taxonomic diversity of bacteria associated with the roots of field-grown transgenic Brassica napus cv. Quest, compared to the non-transgenic B. napus cv. Excel and B. rapa cv. Parkland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D Siciliano; J. J Germida

    1999-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the bacterial community associated with plant roots is influenced by a variety of plant factors such as root density and exudation. In turn, these factors are influenced by plant breeding programs. This study assessed the diversity of root-endophytic and rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with three canola cultivars (Parkland, Brassica rapa; Excel, B. napus; and Quest,

  14. DEM modelling, vegetation characterization and mapping of aspen parkland rangeland using LIDAR data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangquan Su

    2004-01-01

    Detailed geographic information system (GIS) studies on plant ecology, animal behavior and soil hydrologic characteristics across spatially complex landscapes require an accurate digital elevation model (DEM). Following interpolation of last return LIDAR data and creation of a LIDAR-derived DEM, a series of 260 points, stratified by vegetation type, slope gradient and off-nadir distance, were ground-truthed using a total laser station,

  15. Farmers, the Practice of Farming and the Future of Agroforestry: An Application of Bourdieu's Concepts of Field and Habitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raedeke, Andrew H.; Green, John J.; Hodge, Sandra S.; Valdivia, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    Agroforestry, the practice of raising crops and trees together in ways that are mutually beneficial, provides farmers with an alternative to more conventional farming practices. In this paper, we apply Bourdieu's concepts of "field" and "habitus" in an attempt to better understand the practice of farming and the role that agroforestry may have in…

  16. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Moussa, R.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Voltz, M.; Imbach, P.; Harmand, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment of Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a NS coefficient equal to 0.80, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2=0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2=0.49) and water table level (R2=0.90). An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow, 25% as evapotranspiration and the remaining 11% was attributed to deep percolation. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 5% and an infiltration component of 91%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 63% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 29% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 8% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

  17. DEM modelling, vegetation characterization and mapping of aspen parkland rangeland using LIDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Guangquan

    Detailed geographic information system (GIS) studies on plant ecology, animal behavior and soil hydrologic characteristics across spatially complex landscapes require an accurate digital elevation model (DEM). Following interpolation of last return LIDAR data and creation of a LIDAR-derived DEM, a series of 260 points, stratified by vegetation type, slope gradient and off-nadir distance, were ground-truthed using a total laser station, GPS, and 27 interconnected benchmarks. Despite an overall mean accuracy of +2 cm across 8 vegetation types, it created a RMSE (square root of the mean square error) of 1.21 m. DEM elevations were over-estimated within forested areas by an average of 20 cm with a RMSE of 1.05 m, under-estimated (-12 cm, RMSE = 1.36 m) within grasslands. Vegetation type had the greatest influence on DEM accuracy, while off-nadir distance (P = 0.48) and slope gradient (P = 0.49) did not influence DEM accuracy; however, the latter factors did interact (P < 0.10) to effect accuracy. Vegetation spatial structure (i.e., physiognomy) including plant height, cover, and vertical or horizontal heterogeneity, are important factors influencing biodiversity. Vegetation over and understory were sampled for height, canopy cover, and tree or shrub density within 120 field plots, evenly stratified by vegetation formation (grassland, shrubland, and aspen forest). Results indicated that LIDAR data could be used for estimating the maximum height, cover, and density, of both closed and semi-open stands of aspen (P < 0.001). However, LIDAR data could not be used to assess understory (<1.5 m) height within aspen stands, nor grass height and cover. Recognition and mapping of vegetation types are important for rangelands as they provide a basis for the development and evaluation of management policies and actions. In this study, LIDAR data were found to be superior to digital classification schedules for their mapping accuracy in aspen forest and grassland, but not shrubland. No single classification schedule created a high classification accuracy map for all types; however, the integration of LIDAR data and digital images achieved maps with corresponding overall accuracies of 91% and 83.9% with 3 and 8 classes of vegetation.

  18. Parkland Health Care Campus

    E-print Network

    Jones, W., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    Leader in the Community ? Stewardship Resources. ? Connectivity, function, nature and community ? DART connections and Alternative transportation ? Healing connection ? Breaking the myth that going green costs more Sustainability...

  19. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth

    PubMed Central

    Kotowska, Martyna M.; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922

  20. Relationship between land-use in the agro-forestry system of les Landes, nitrogen loading to and risk of macro-algal blooming in the Bassin d'Arcachon coastal lagoon (SW France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wit, R.; Leibreich, J.; Vernier, F.; Delmas, F.; Beuffe, H.; Maison, Ph.; Chossat, J.-C.; Laplace-Treyture, C.; Laplana, R.; Clavé, V.; Torre, M.; Auby, I.; Trut, G.; Maurer, D.; Capdeville, P.

    2005-02-01

    Nitrogen loading to the Bassin d'Arcachon coastal lagoon (SW France) was evaluated by studying land-use and nitrogen output in its 3001 km 2 catchment. At present, the catchment is dominated by forestry (79%), while intensive agriculture occupies 9% of the surface. The N-output of two hydrological subunits, i.e. the Tagon subunit dominated by pine forestry and the Arriou II subunit comprising both forestry and intensive agriculture, were monitored for a seven year period (1996-2002). From these observations it was calculated that forestry contributes on average 1.6 kg total N ha -1 yr -1, which is dominated by organic nitrogen (DON + PON are 70% of N). On an areal basis, intensive agriculture contributes 26 times more than forestry, i.e. 41.6 kg total N ha -1 yr -1, which is mainly in the form of nitrate (65% of N). These data were upscaled to the catchment and the upscaling was validated by comparison to gauged nitrogen throughputs for the catchment of the Leyre river that is the major tributary to the system. Taking into account the other known N sources and the interannual variability in the catchment it was estimated that nitrogen loading to the lagoon was on average 90 kg ha -1 yr -1 (range from 54 to 126 kg ha -1 yr -1). The sandy soils of the catchment have a clear potential for denitrification, but anoxic conditions (waterlogged) and input of organic matter to fuel this process are required. Currently, agricultural practices and spatial planning do not make use of this potential. Nitrogen loading in the Bassin d'Arcachon is reflected by 10-40 ?M nitrate concentrations in winter, which became depleted during spring as a result of uptake by vegetation. Short-term uptake experiments showed that the macroalga Monostroma obscurum is well adapted to temperatures between 10 to 20 °C and competitive with respect to the seagrass Zostera noltii when the nitrate concentrations are above 10 ?M. Spring conditions with high nitrate and high insolation are therefore favourable for M. obscurum and this species presents a high risk for algal blooming. In contrast, the macroalga Enteromorpha clathrata well adapted to summertime temperatures around 25 °C, forms occasionally blooms in the lagoon. This phenomenon is limited due to the low DIN concentrations in summer.

  1. Agroforestry Programs and Issues in the Northern Marianas Anthony Paul Tudela2

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    throughout the islands making up the CNMI through the coop- eration and involvement of locally and federally is also working on integrating agriculture and forestry in its re- search and extension programs. Land Methodologies and Applications for Pacific Island Agroforestry, July 16-20, 1990, Kolonia, Pohnpei, Federated

  2. AGROFORESTRY IN THE SOUTHEASTERN U.S. An online course delivered via Sakai

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    1 FOR 6934 AGROFORESTRY IN THE SOUTHEASTERN U.S. 3 credits Fall, 2013 An online course delivered anytime. The preferred email method is by using the Sakai mail tool on the course web site because this allows all course emails to be kept together as a record. I will try to respond within a day. Course

  3. Barriers and Coping Mechanisms Relating to Agroforestry Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitakira, Munyaradzi; Torquebiau, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe. Design/Methodology/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations. Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional…

  4. Adoption of Improved Agroforestry Technologies among Contact Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orisakwe Lambert; Agomuo Florence Ozioma

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the adoption of improved agroforestry technologies among farmers in Imo State. To achieve the study objectives, structured questionnaire were designed and administered to ninety farmers who were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics regression analysis and Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC). Findings shows that the farmers were mainly small

  5. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Harmand, J. M.; Voltz, M.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Imbach, P.; Moussa, R.

    2011-01-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment for Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficient equal to 0.89 for the year 2009, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2 = 0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2 = 0.35) and water table level (R2 = 0.84). Eight months of data from 2010 were used to validate modelled streamflow, resulting in a NS = 0.75. An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow and 25% as evapotranspiration, while the remaining 11% is probably explained by deep percolation, measurement errors and/or inter-annual changes in soil and aquifer water stocks. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 4% and an infiltration component of 92%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 87% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 7% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 6% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

  6. The Influence of Farmers’ Mental Models on an Agroforestry Extension Program in the Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Baynes; John Herbohn; Iean Russell

    The influence of farmers’ mental models on the success of an agroforestry extension program on Leyte Island in the Philippines\\u000a was investigated. Knowledge of farmers’ mental models and hence the likely acceptance of technology was used to inform the\\u000a design of a hypothetically expanded program. To gain an insight into the reasons behind differing acceptance of extension\\u000a assistance, data were

  7. Farmers’ local knowledge and topsoil properties of agroforestry practices in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zebene Asfaw; Göran I. Ågren

    2007-01-01

    Based on farmers’ knowledge and laboratory studies, the nutrient accumulation in the topsoil (0–20 cm) under Cordia africana Lam (Cordia), Millettia ferruginea Hochst (Millettia) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnhardt (Red gum) managed under two agroforestry practices on different farms at three sites was evaluated. The number\\u000a of these trees on individual farms has increased during the last two decades. The number of

  8. GHG Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - Relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  9. Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  10. Effect of tree species and crown pruning on root length and soil water content in semi-arid agroforestry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jones; F. L. Sinclair; V. L. Grime

    1998-01-01

    Soil cores were taken to estimate root length prior to transplanting and after 60 days growth of a dry season sorghum crop in an agroforestry experiment in a semi-arid region of north-east Nigeria. The experiment compared sorghum grown alone and with two tree species (Acacia nilotica subsp adstringens and Prosopis juliflora) and one management treatment (pruning of tree crowns). Data

  11. Plant-soil interactions in multistrata agroforestry in the humid tropics G. Schroth1, *, J. Lehmann2

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Plant-soil interactions in multistrata agroforestry in the humid tropics G. Schroth1, *, J. Lehmann Project, National Institute for Research in the Amazon (INPA), C.P. 478, 69011-970 Manaus-AM, Brazil; 2 College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, 909

  12. Changes in soil nitrogen storage and ?15N with woody plant encroachment in a subtropical savanna parkland landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutton, T. W.; Liao, J. D.

    2010-09-01

    Subtropical woodlands dominated by N-fixing tree legumes have largely replaced grasslands in the Rio Grande Plains, southwestern United States, during the past century. To evaluate the impact of this vegetation change on the N cycle, we measured the mass and isotopic composition (?15N) of N in the soil system of remnant grasslands and woody plant stands ranging in age from 10 to 130 years. Nitrogen accumulated at linear rates following woody encroachment in the litter (0.10-0.14 g N m-2 yr-1), roots (0.63-0.98 g N m-2 yr-1), and soils (0.75-3.50 g N m-2 yr-1), resulting in a 50%-150% increase in N storage in the soil system (0-30 cm) in woody stands older than 60 years. Simultaneous decreases in soil ?15N of up to 2‰ in the upper 30 cm of the profile are consistent with a scenario in which N inputs have exceeded losses following woody encroachment and suggest N accrual was derived from symbiotic N fixation by tree legumes and/or differential atmospheric N deposition to wooded areas. Vertical uplift and lateral transfer of N by the more deeply and intensively rooted woody plants may have contributed to N accumulation in wooded areas, but soil ?15N values are inconsistent with this explanation. N accumulation following woody encroachment may alter soil N availability, species interactions and successional dynamics, flux rates of key trace gases such as NOX and N2O and ecosystem C sequestration. Given the geographic dimensions of woody encroachment, these results may have implications for atmospheric composition and the climate system.

  13. Oakland Ravine Stormwater Treatment System Project, Borough of Queens, NYC

    SciTech Connect

    Dinkle, R.E.; Moutal, H.P.; Evans, T.M.; Kloman, L.

    1999-07-01

    Compared to other cities, New York City (NYC) is abundantly endowed with parklands and open spaces, many of which can be utilized to treat and dissipate stormwater runoff flows, in conjunction with the preservation, restoration and creation of ecological systems. Such use of available parklands and open spaces has the benefit of decreasing cost for stormwater treatment and conveyance, while at the same time enhancing the natural biological systems. Through the combined efforts of the NYC Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP), which is responsible for stormwater control, and the NYC Department of Parks and Recreation (NYCDPR), which is responsible for preserving and restoring the ecological systems of parklands and open spaces, URS Greiner Woodward Clyde (URSGWC) developed a project to provide for the treatment of stormwater and the attenuation of peak stormwater flows through restoration and creation of wetlands within Oakland Ravine (located in the densely populated northeastern section of the Borough of Queens, NYC). The proposed Oakland Ravine Stormwater Treatment System Project was developed in conjunction with the East River Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) Abatement Project, which is part of the NYC comprehensive program to reduce CSO discharges into receiving waters. Discharges into Alley Creek through Outfall TI-7, an outfall located about one-half mile northeast of the ravine which has been designated for CSO abatement, will be reduced as a result of the project.

  14. Guide to monitoring carbon storage in forestry and agroforestry projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. G. MacDicken

    1997-01-01

    As the international Joint Implementation (JI) program develops a system for trading carbon credits to offset greenhouse gas emissions, project managers need a reliable basis for measuring the carbon storage benefits of carbon offset projects. Monitoring and verifying carbon storage can be expensive, depending on the level of scientific validity needed. This guide describes a system of cost-effective methods for

  15. Short-rotation woody crops and phytoremediation: Opportunities for agroforestry?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Rockwood; C. V. Naidu; D. R. Carter; M. Rahmani; T. A. Spriggs; C. Lin; G. R. Alker; J. G. Isebrands; S. A. Segrest

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide, fuelwood demands, soil and groundwater contamination, and agriculture's impact on nature are growing concerns.\\u000a Fast growing trees in short rotation woody crop (SRWC) systems may increasingly meet societal needs ranging from renewable\\u000a energy to environmental mitigation and remediation. Phytoremediation, the use of plants for environmental cleanup, systems\\u000a utilizing SRWCs have potential to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater. Non-hyperaccumulating, i.e.,

  16. Below-ground interactions in dryland agroforestry Johannes Lehmanna,*

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    distribution and soil water depletion in an alley cropping system with Acacia saligna and Sorghum bicolor distribution; Soil water depletion; Sorghum bicolor Forest Ecology and Management 111 (1998) 157 density was found when the pruned trees were intercropped with Sorghum. If the trees were not pruned

  17. Tropical Forest Ecosystem and Agroforestry Management (Forest TEAM)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Forest TEAM project seeks to reverse the decline of native forests and plants in Hawaii due to the introduction of alien plant species and other encroachments. They hope to reverse this trend by educating technicians in the management and regeneration of native ecosystems on the Hawaiian Islands. In order to accomplish this goal, Forest TEAM developed an associate of science degree program with 14 new courses. The curriculum includes the most current geographic information system and geographic positioning system technologies. Internships and service learning projects give students hands-on experience with potential employers, who serve on the project's advisory board. The college students also interact with high school students who take summer courses, participate in junior Forest TEAM club activities, and participate in field trips to help with reforestation projects. The site includes course requirements, a nice set of conservation links, an excellent set of web resources related to ecology (especially tropical and Hawaiian), information about program sponsors and the advisory board, as well as information on upcoming events and the Forest TEAM Club.

  18. The Australian Master TreeGrower Program 1996-2004. Development, delivery and impact of a national agroforestry education program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rowan Reid

    The Australian Master TreeGrower Porgram is a comprehensive outreach and extension package that aims to ensure that the development of agroforestry is driven by the aspirations and opportunities of farmers and supported by the interests of industry, governments and community groups. By the end of 2004, sixty-three regional Master TreeGrower landholder education programs had been conducted involving over 1240 participants

  19. Extrapolating soil redistribution rates estimated from 137Cs to catchment scale in a complex agroforestry landscape using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar, Leticia; López-Vicente, Manuel; Palazón, Leticia; Quijano, Laura; Navas, Ana

    2015-04-01

    The use of fallout radionuclides, particularly 137Cs, in soil erosion investigations has been successfully used over a range of different landscapes. This technique provides mean annual values of spatially distributed soil erosion and deposition rates for the last 40-50 years. However, upscaling the data provided by fallout radionuclides to catchment level is required to understand soil redistribution processes, to support catchment management strategies, and to assess the main soil erosion factors like vegetation cover or topography. In recent years, extrapolating field scale soil erosion rates estimated from 137Cs data to catchment scale has been addressed using geostatistical interpolation and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). This study aims to assess soil redistribution in an agroforestry catchment characterized by abrupt topography and an intricate mosaic of land uses using 137Cs data and GIS. A new methodological approach using GIS is presented as an alternative of interpolation tools to extrapolating soil redistribution rates in complex landscapes. This approach divides the catchment into Homogeneous Physiographic Units (HPUs) based on unique land use, hydrological network and slope value. A total of 54 HPUs presenting specific land use, strahler order and slope combinations, were identified within the study area (2.5 km2) located in the north of Spain. Using 58 soil erosion and deposition rates estimated from 137Cs data, we were able to characterize the predominant redistribution processes in 16 HPUs, which represent the 78% of the study area surface. Erosion processes predominated in 6 HPUs (23%) which correspond with cultivated units in which slope and strahler order is moderate or high, and with scrubland units with high slope. Deposition was predominant in 3 HPUs (6%), mainly in riparian areas, and to a lesser extent in forest and scrubland units with low slope and low and moderate strahler order. Redistribution processes, both erosion and deposition processes, were recorded in 7 HPUs (49%). The units of forest with high slope but low strahler order showed low redistribution rates because the soil surface was well protected by vegetation, while cultivated units with moderate slope and low strahler order showed high erosion and deposition rates due to the tillage practices. This new approach provides the basis for extrapolating field-scale soil redistribution rates at catchment scale in complex landscapes. Additional 137Cs data in strategic locations would improve the results with a better characterization of some of the HPU's.

  20. Elephants also like coffee: trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

    2011-05-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders. PMID:21359868

  1. Erratum to: Elephants also like coffee: Trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

    2011-08-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders. PMID:21751010

  2. Depletion of Stem Water of Sclerocarya birrea Agroforestry Tree Precedes Start of Rainy Season in West African Sudanian Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, Natalie; Mande, Theophile; Parlange, Marc B.

    2013-04-01

    Understanding water use by agroforestry trees in dry-land ecosystems is essential for improving water management. Agroforestry trees are valued and promoted for many of their ecologic and economic benefits but are often criticized as competing for valuable water resources. In order to understand the seasonal patterns of source water used by agroforestry trees, samples from rain, ground, and surface water were collected weekly in the subcatchment of the Singou watershed that is part of the Volta Basin. Soil and vegetation samples were collected from and under a Sclerocarya birrea agroforstry trees located in this catchment in sealed vials, extracted, and analyzed with a Picarro L2130-i CRDS to obtain both ?O18 and ?DH fractions. Meteorological measurements were taken with a network of wireless, autonomous stations that communicate through the GSM network (Sensorscope) and two complete eddy-covariance energy balance stations, in addition to intense monitoring of sub-canopy solar radiation, throughfall, stemflow, and soil moisture. Examination of the time series of ?O18 concentrations confirm that values in soil and xylem water are coupled, both becoming enriched during the dry season and depleted during the rainy season. Xylem water ?O18 levels drops to groundwater ?O18 levels in early March when trees access groundwater for leafing out, however soil water does not reach this level until soil moisture increases in mid-June. The relationship between the ?DH and ?O18 concentrations of water extracted from soil and tree samples do not fall along the global meteoric water line. In order to explore whether this was a seasonally driven, we grouped samples into an "evaporated" group or a "meteoric" group based on the smaller residual to the respective lines. Although more soil samples were found along the m-line during the rainy season than tree samples or dry season soil samples, there was no significant difference in days since rain for any group This suggests that xylem water is always under stress from evapotranspiration and soil water underwent evaporation soon after a rain event. Visual observation of tree confirms conclusion that trees access deep ground water in March and April, before rain begins and before soil is connected to groundwater. Results from the research are being integrated into a local outreach project to improve use of agroforestry.

  3. Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

  4. SOIL AGGREGATE STABILITY AND ENZYME ACTIVITY IN AGROFORESTRY AND ROW-CROP SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The proportion of water-stable aggregates (WSA) influences soil quality, crop growth, nutrient retention, water infiltration, and surface runoff. Roots, fungi, and bacteria as well as numerous chemical substances secreted by these agents play important roles in soil aggregate formation, persistence...

  5. Assessment of Soil Quality for Grazed Pastures with Agroforestry Buffers and Row Crop Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are believed to enhance soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates have been identified as good indices for assessing soil quality to evaluate early responses to changes in soil management. However, studies comparing these p...

  6. Spatial variability in the soil water content of a Mediterranean agroforestry system with high soil heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Antonio Jaime; Llorens, Pilar; Aranda, Xavier; Savé, Robert; Biel, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    Variability of soil water content is known to increase with the size of spatial domain in which measurements are taken. At field scale, heterogeneity in soil, vegetation, topography, water input volume and management affects, among other factors, hydrologic plot behaviour under different mean soil water contents. The present work studies how the spatial variability of soil water content (SWC) is affected by soil type (texture, percentage of stones and the combination of them) in a timber-orientated plantation of cherry tree (Prunus avium) under Mediterranean climatic conditions. The experimental design is a randomized block one with 3 blocks * 4 treatments, based on two factors: irrigation (6 plots irrigated versus 6 plots not irrigated) and soil management (6 plots tillaged versus 6 plots not tillaged). SWC is continuously measured at 25, 50 and 100 cm depth with FDR sensors, located at two positions in each treatment: under tree influence and 2.5 m apart. This study presents the results of the monitoring during 2012 of the 24 sensors located at the 25 cm depth. In each of the measurement point, texture and percentage of stones were measured. Sandy-loam, sandy-clay-loam and loam textures were found together with a percentage of stones ranging from 20 to 70 %. The results indicated that the relationship between the daily mean SWC and its standard deviation, a common procedure used to study spatial variability, changed with texture, percentage of stones and the estimation of field capacity from the combination of both. Temporal stability analysis of SWC showed a clear pattern related to field capacity, with the measurement points of the sandy-loam texture and the high percentage of stones showing the maximun negative diference with the global mean. The high range in the mean relative difference observed (± 75 %), could indicate that the studied plot may be considered as a good field-laboratory to extrapolate results at higher spatial scales. Furthermore, the pattern in the temporal stability of tree growth was clearly related to that one in SWC. Nevertheless, the treatments that represent the mean conditions in growth were not exactly the same than those in SWC, which could be attributable to other characteristics than soil.

  7. Intercropping Competition between Apple Trees and Crops in Agroforestry Systems on the Loess Plateau of

    E-print Network

    Xi, Weimin

    Bi1 , Yifang Chang1 1 College of Water and Soil Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, P.R. China, 2 Key Laboratory of Soil and Water Conservation, Ministry of Education, Beijing, P.R. China, 3 Department of Biological and Health Sciences, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, Kingsville, Texas, United

  8. Soil respiration and microbial biomass in a pecan — cotton alley cropping system in Southern USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-H. Lee; S. Jose

    2003-01-01

    Little information is available on soil respiration and microbial biomass in soils under agroforestry systems. We measured soil respiration rate and microbial biomass under two age classes (young and old) of a pecan (Carya illinoinensis) — cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) alley cropping system, two age classes of pecan orchards, and a cotton monoculture on a well-drained, Redbay sandy loam (a fine-loamy,

  9. Phosphorus monthly losses at the outlet of an agroforestry catchment under Atlantic climate (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sande-Fouz, Patricia; Miras-Avalos, Jose Manuel; Mestas-Valero, Roger Manuel; Vidal-Vázquez, Eva

    2010-05-01

    Phosphorus levels in runoff waters help to estimate the possible contamination associated with them and to know the existence of eutrophication conditions. The amounts of P transported from catchments depended on the hydrology, on soil P contents, and on the amount of P added as fertilizer and manure. The aim of this study was to monthly losses of total P (TP), sedimentary P (TSP), and dissolved P (TDP) at the outlet of an agroforestry catchment under Atlantic climate. This research was conducted at Valiñas River catchment in Coruña (NW Spain), a periurban area of 36.3 km2. Land use is as follows: 35% arable land, 20% grassland or pastures and 45% forest. This study reported data from January 1999 to September 2006. The total sample number was 872, varying from 53 in 1999 and 193 in 2003. Sampling time variability was related to rainfall distribution. The different P forms, TP and TDP, were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The TSP was calculated from the difference between TP and TDP. To calculate the mass balance of these P forms, discharge data at the catchment outlet were estimated. Suspended solids were assessed by filtration. Relations between the three P forms and suspended solids were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The concentrations of the three studied P forms varied widely during the whole study period. Total P yearly losses ranged from 0.350 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2004 to 1.199 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2000. From January to September 2006 they were 0.259 kg ha-1 month-1. TSP losses varied between 0.201 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2004 and 0.7315 kg ha-1 month-1 in 1999. Finally, TDP losses oscillated between 0.140 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2005 and 0.508 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2000. The main causes for these variations were rainfall and flow regimes, soil management, and wastewater discharges. Considering the different seasons, flow regime was low from July to September during the studied years, whereas the highest flows were registered in the period from January to March or from October to December, depending on the year. This fact is coincident with the highest rainfall records. Consequently, TP losses were higher during January to March and October to December than during the rest of the year. The period from July to September presented the lowest losses. TSP levels were always greater than those of TDP except in the period from July to September. Significant correlations between suspended solids and TP and TSP were observed throughout the whole study period. This fact indicates the erosive origin of the P exported to this catchment. A significant correlation between TDP and suspended solids was observed only in 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2005. These correlations would indicate that TDP concentrations in this catchment have different origins, not only erosion but wastewater discharges and manure applications. Rainfall was significantly correlated to TP and TSP along the studied period, whereas rainfall and TDP were significantly correlated only in some years, as the relation between flow and the different phosphorus forms. These results may indicate the influence on the season on the phosphorus concentrations although, due to the characteristics of the studied catchment, several origins are possible. For instance, runoff and erosion would increase TSP losses and manure application may increase TDP.

  10. Climate change and tree genetic resource management: maintaining and enhancing the productivity and value of smallholder tropical agroforestry landscapes. A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian K. Dawson; Barbara Vinceti; John C. Weber; Henry Neufeldt; Joanne Russell; Ard G. Lengkeek; Antoine Kalinganire; Roeland Kindt; Jens-Peter B. Lillesø; Jim Roshetko; Ramni Jamnadass

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has significant consequences for the sustainability and productivity of agroforestry ecosystems\\u000a upon which millions of smallholders in the tropics depend and that provide valuable global services. We here consider the\\u000a current state of knowledge of the impacts of climate change on tree genetic resources and implications for action in a smallholder\\u000a setting. Required measures to respond to

  11. Relationships of stable carbon isotopes, plant water potential and growth: an approach to asses water use efficiency and growth strategies of dry land agroforestry species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aster Gebrekirstos; Meine van Noordwijk; Henry Neufeldt; Ralph Mitlöhner

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between annual wood stable carbon isotope composition (?13C), dry season midday plant water potential, and annual growth rate were investigated to asses the ability of agroforestry\\u000a species to adapt to climate changes. 6–8 stem disks from four co-occurring species (Acacia senegal, A. seyal, A. tortilis and Balanites aegyptiaca) were collected for radial growth measurements using tree-ring analysis spanning

  12. Is soil degradation unrelated to deforestation? Examining soil parameters of land use systems in upland Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Dechert; Edzo Veldkamp; Iswandi Anas

    2004-01-01

    It is generally assumed that declining soil fertility during cultivation forces farmers to clear forest. We wanted to test this for a rainforest margin area in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. We compared soil characteristics in different land-use systems and after different length of cultivation. 66 sites with four major land-use systems (maize, agroforestry, forest fallow and natural forest) were sampled. Soils

  13. Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

    The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

  14. Eco-environment contribution of agroforestry to agriculture development in the plain area of China--Huai' an Prefecture, Jiangsu Province as the case study area.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-chang; Lu, Yong-long; Liu, Can; Meng, Qing-hua; Shi, Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    For improving the environmental quality and ensuring supply of wood and non-timber forest products, many forests have been planted in plain areas of China. Scientists have studied their benefits, almost all of the approaches were based on fixed-point data, and few was considered on the non-efficient factors and temporal scale effects. This paper studies the positive and negative benefits at a large temporal scale, and the effects of plain afforestation on stockbreeding and rural economy. The benefits of plain afforestation, correlation coefficiency of agroforestry and production factors are analyzed via stochastic frontier modeling in Huanghuaihai Plain Area of China; elastic coefficient of agroforestry, husbandry, farming, and total output of agricultural sector are calculated through adopting partial differential equation. Some conclusions can be drawn that, plain forests have an important effect on the development of plain agriculture. But shelterbelts and small-scale forests have different effect on the development of agricultural economy. Shelterbelts have negative effect on the industries, but small-scale forest has positive effect. On the whole, contribution of forest resource to value of animal husbandry and gross production value of agriculture is positive, and to the value of farming is negative. PMID:16295915

  15. Opportunity for conserving and utilizing agrobiodiversity through agroforestry in Southern Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paxie W. Chirwa; Festus K. Akinnifesi; Gudeta Sileshi; Stephen Syampungani; Felix K. Kalaba; Oluyede C. Ajayi

    2008-01-01

    Traditional approaches to biodiversity conservation focused on protection of natural habitats in parks and reserves while neglecting the potential to conserve agrobiodiversity in farming systems that could provide other direct and indirect benefits necessary for livelihoods and ecosystem functioning. Quantitative assessments of tree biodiversity have mostly focused on traditional production systems such as shifting cultivation in the miombo ecozone, home

  16. FOREST MANAGEMENT AND AGROFORESTRY TO SEQUESTER AND CONSERVE ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overall, the biological opportunity to conserve and sequester carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, especially in forest systems, appears significant. ith careful planning and implementation, management practices useful for this carbon benefit would appear to have potential to pro...

  17. Mixed Crop Livestock Farming Incorporating Agroforestry Orchards Facing the New Cap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Ducros; Charilaos Kephaliacos; Aude Ridier

    2005-01-01

    In the context of the new CAP, decoupling subsidies from production should incite farmers to reorganize their production systems, particularly through diversification opportunities. In this paper we focus our analysis on the conditions that could permit the development of extensive orchards by modelling mixed crop livestock farms, which incorporate orchards. A mathematical programming model is built to simulate various intensification

  18. Biodiversity conservation, ecosystem functioning, and economic incentives under cocoa agroforestry intensification.

    PubMed

    Bisseleua, D H B; Missoup, A D; Vidal, S

    2009-10-01

    World chocolate demand is expected to more than double by 2050. Decisions about how to meet this challenge will have profound effects on tropical rainforests and wild species in cocoa-producing countries. Cocoa, "the chocolate tree," is traditionally produced under a diverse and dense canopy of shade trees that provide habitat for a high diversity of organisms. The current trend to reduce or eliminate shade cover raises concerns about the potential loss of biodiversity. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed the ecological consequences and economic trade-offs under different management options in cocoa plantations. Here we describe the relationships between ant ecology (species richness, community composition, and abundance) and vegetation structure, ecosystem functions, and economic profitability under different land-use management systems in 17 traditional cocoa forest gardens in southern Cameroon. We calculated an index of profitability, based on the net annual income per hectare. We found significant differences associated with the different land-use management systems for species richness and abundance of ants and species richness and density of trees. Ant species richness was significantly higher in floristically and structurally diverse, low-intensity, old cocoa systems than in intensive young systems. Ant species richness was significantly related to tree species richness and density. We found no clear relationship between profitability and biodiversity. Nevertheless, we suggest that improving the income and livelihood of smallholder cocoa farmers will require economic incentives to discourage further intensification and ecologically detrimental loss of shade cover. Certification programs for shade-grown cocoa may provide socioeconomic incentives to slow intensification. PMID:19765036

  19. Modeling cotton production response to shading in a pecan alleycropping system using CROPGRO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diomides S. Zamora; Shibu Jose; James W. Jones; Wendell P. Cropper Jr

    2009-01-01

    Light optimization assessment in alleycropping systems through model application is becoming an integral part of agroforestry\\u000a research. The objective of this study was to use CROPGRO-cotton, a process-based model, to simulate cotton (Gossypium\\u000a hirsutum L.) production under different levels of light in a pecan (Carya\\u000a illinoensis K. Koch) alleycropping system in Jay, Florida, USA. Soil classification in the area was

  20. Competition for light between hedgerows and maize in an alley cropping system in Hawaii, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Friday; J. H. Fownes

    2002-01-01

    Successful agroforestry systems depend on minimizing tree-cropcompetition. In this study, field experiments and a simulation\\u000a model were usedto distinguish between tree-crop competition for light and belowgroundcompetition in an alley cropping system.\\u000a Maize (Zea maysL.) was harvested periodically in three treatments: between vertical barriers ofshade cloth, hedgerows of Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.)Merr., and sole maize. Radiation intercepted by the maize was calculated

  1. Allelopathy in agroforestry systems: the effects of leaf extracts of Cupressus lusitanica and three Eucalyptus spp. on four Ethiopian crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Lisanework; A. Michelsen

    1993-01-01

    The potential allelopathic effect ofCupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus globulus, E. camaldulensis andE. saligna on seed germination, radicle and seedling growth was investigated with four crops:Cicer arietinum (chickpea),Zea mays (maize),Pisum sativum (pea) andEragrostis tef (teff). Aqueous leaf extracts of all the tree species significantly reduced both germination and radicle growth of the majority of the crops mostly starting from concentrations of 1%

  2. Tree and crop productivity in Grevillea, Alnus and Paulownia-based agroforestry systems in semi-arid Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Muthuri; C. K. Ong; C. R. Black; V. W. Ngumi; B. M. Mati

    2005-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that deciduous (Paulownia fortunei) (Hemsl.) and semi-deciduous (Alnus acuminata (HBK)) trees are less competitive with crops than evergreen species (Grevillea robusta (A. Cunn.)) due to their differing leafing phenology. Tree growth, seasonal patterns of leaf flushing and fall and effects on associated maize crops were examined. P. fortunei and A. acuminata established well at two

  3. Competition for water in a pecan ( Carya illinoensis K. Koch) – cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) alley cropping system in the southern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Wanvestraut; Shibu Jose; P. K. Ramachandran Nair; Barry J. Brecke

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the belowground interactions between trees and crops is critical to successful management of agroforestry systems.\\u000a In a study of competition for water in an alley cropping system consisting of pecan (Carya illinoensis) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) in a sandy loam soil (Rhodic Paleudult) in Jay, Florida, root systems of the two species were separated by trenching to\\u000a 120 cm

  4. Comparative water use by dryland trees in Parklands in Senegal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Deans; R. C. Munro

    2004-01-01

    Despite the clear evidence of competition for water between trees and crops, there have been very few studies comparing simultaneous water use by differing tree species in drylands. Comparative water use by dryland trees was measured in Senegal using heat balance gauges at the end of the wet season and in the dry season. Significant differences between tree species were

  5. Tree Biodiversity, Land Dynamics and Farmers’ Strategies on the Agricultural Frontier of Southwestern Burkina Faso

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Augusseau; Paul Nikiéma; Emmanuel Torquebiau

    2006-01-01

    In the sub-humid part of Burkina Faso, population growth, migrations and new marketing opportunities have induced rapid land-use\\u000a changes and social reorganization, leading to new approaches to natural resource management. The objective of this study was\\u000a to evaluate tree biodiversity parameters in agroforestry parklands (scattered trees in crop land) as population increases\\u000a and fallows become shorter. Out of about 100

  6. Technical and Institutional Innovation in Agroforestry for Protected Areas Management in the Brazilian Amazon: Opportunities and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S.

    2013-08-01

    Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them.

  7. Technical and institutional innovation in agroforestry for protected areas management in the Brazilian Amazon: opportunities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S

    2013-08-01

    Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them. PMID:23636205

  8. Alchornea cordifolia , a promising indigenous browse species adapted to acid soils in southeastern Nigeria for integrated crop-livestock agroforestry production systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Larbi; M. A. Jabbar; E. J. Orok; N. B. Idiong; J. Cobbina

    1993-01-01

    Dry matter (DM) production, crude protein, phosphorus fibre contents and goat preference for eight indigenous browse species,Alchornea cordifolia, Diallum guineense, Ficus capensis, Baphia nitida, Manniophytum fulvum, Homalium aylmeri, Glyphaea brevis andRauwolfia vomitoria, and for two exotics,Leucaena leucocephala andGliricidia sepium, in cultivated plots were compared on acid soil in southeastern Nigeria. Total DM production was higher (PAlchornea cordifolia than for the

  9. The maintenance of soil fertility in Amazonian managed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luizão, Flávio J.; Fearnside, Philip M.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Lehmann, Johannes

    Most of Brazilian Amazonia faces important limitations for conventional agriculture and pastures due to a generally poor chemical fertility as well as the region's environmental conditions, especially high temperature and moisture. Without proper management, degradation of the soil and resulting unsustainability of agricultural and ranching production occur within a few years, leading to land abandonment. Use of perennial crops, especially those based on native tree species, would be instrumental in order to achieve best management such as that which assure recycling processes similar to those in the primary forest. Recommended alternative land uses are those producing high soil organic matter, recycling of nutrients, substantial agricultural production, and economic viability. These include agroforestry systems, enrichment of second growth with valuable native timber or fruit species, accelerated fallow regrowth via enrichment plantings, sequential agroforestry with slash-and-mulch, and diversified forest plantations. Improvement of agricultural soils can be based on lessons learned from the study of processes involved in the formation and maintenance of the rich "dark earths" (terra preta), which owe their high carbon content and fertility in part to high content of charcoal. Adding powdered charcoal combined with selected nutrients can increase soil carbon in modern agriculture. Considering that limitations to expansion of intensified land uses in Amazonia are serious, regional development should emphasize the natural forest, which can maintain itself without external inputs of nutrients. Instead of creating conditions to further expand deforestation, these forests may be used as they stand to provide a variety of valuable environmental services that could offer a sustainable basis for development of Amazonia.

  10. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 29 (2009) 4362 c INRA, EDP Sciences, 2008

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2009-01-01

    quality and on biodiversity conservation. Alternatively, cropping systems based on carefully designed. species mixture / plant mixture / cropping system / agroforestry system / agrobiodiversity / resource

  11. Sources of water used by trees and millet in Sahelian windbreak systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. Mark; Jarvis, Paul G.; Odongo, Julius C. W.

    1997-11-01

    The extent to which water use by trees and crops is complementary in agroforestry systems may be affected by the proximity of groundwater to the soil surface. This may have important implications for the planning and management of agroforestry in semi-arid regions such as the Sahel of West Africa. A method of distinguishing uptake of water by plants from different sources was used, therefore, at locations with contrasting water table levels, to determine whether Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) trees in windbreaks utilised water from the same depths as adjacent crops of pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). Comparisons of ratios of the stable isotopes of oxygen ( 18O/ 16O) in plant sap, groundwater and water in the unsaturated zone of the soil profile were made in the Majjia Valley, in south-central Niger, where groundwater was found at depths of 6-8 m, and at Sadoré in south-western Niger, where the water table was at a depth of 35 m. In the Majjia Valley, the trees obtained large portions of their water from surface layers of the soil only after rain, when water there was abundant. During dry periods, roots of the trees extracted groundwater or deep reserves of soil water, while the millet crop extracted water from closer to the top of the soil profile. In contrast, at Sadoré, both the trees and crop fulfilled their water requirements from the top 2-3 m of the soil throughout the year. Thus, utilisation of water by windbreak trees and crops is more complementary where groundwater is accessible to tree roots. Competition for water is likely reduced at such locations as a consequence, but may affect the productivity of windbreak systems where groundwater is inaccessible. To maximise the benefits of establishing windbreaks, therefore, it is important that planners recommend strategies for reducing competition for water between trees and crops at sites where groundwater cannot be reached by tree roots.

  12. Sulfamethazine transport in agroforestry and cropland soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of veterinary antibiotic transport and persistence is critical to understanding environmental risks associated with these potential contaminants. To understand mobility of sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sorption processes involved during SMZ transport in soil, column leaching experiments were p...

  13. Agroforestry in Palau1 Ebals Sadang2

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    , and compost has been and is still common in cassava gardens and taro patches. The agroforest in Palau seems the vegetable farms, cash crop farms of cassava, Colocasia taro, and a limited amount of sweet potato

  14. Leaf dynamics, stemflow and throughfall water and nutrient inputs in a subtropical savanna parkland, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Angerer, Jay Peter

    1991-01-01

    March March Nay/June Canopy Development July Jan. /Feb. July Jan. /Feb. July Jan. /Feb. July Jan. July/Aug. March/June Facultative Evergreen Facultative Facultative Deciduous Evergreen Evergreen Initiation of: Inflorescence Fruit May...

  15. Variation in woody plant ? 13 C along a topoedaphic gradient in a subtropical savanna parkland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edith Bai; Thomas W. Boutton; Feng Liu; X. Ben Wu; Steven R. Archer

    2008-01-01

    ?13C values of C3 plants are indicators of plant carbon–water relations that integrate plant responses to environmental conditions. However,\\u000a few studies have quantified spatial variation in plant ?13C at the landscape scale. We determined variation in leaf ?13C, leaf nitrogen per leaf area (Narea), and specific leaf area (SLA) in April and August 2005 for all individuals of three common

  16. Relationship between C:N/C:O Stoichiometry and Ecosystem Services in Managed Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ghaley, Bhim B.; Sandhu, Harpinder S.; Porter, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Land use and management intensity can influence provision of ecosystem services (ES). We argue that forest/agroforestry production systems are characterized by relatively higher C:O/C:N and ES value compared to arable production systems. Field investigations on C:N/C:O and 15 ES were determined in three diverse production systems: wheat monoculture (Cwheat), a combined food and energy system (CFE) and a beech forest in Denmark. The C:N/C:O ratios were 194.1/1.68, 94.1/1.57 and 59.5/1.45 for beech forest, CFE and Cwheat, respectively. The economic value of the non-marketed ES was also highest in beech forest (US$ 1089 ha-1 yr-1) followed by CFE (US$ 800 ha-1 yr-1) and Cwheat (US$ 339 ha-1 yr-1). The combined economic value was highest in the CFE (US$ 3143 ha-1 yr-1) as compared to the Cwheat (US$ 2767 ha-1 yr-1) and beech forest (US$ 2365 ha-1 yr-1). We argue that C:N/C:O can be used as a proxy of ES, particularly for the non-marketed ES, such as regulating, supporting and cultural services. These ES play a vital role in the sustainable production of food and energy. Therefore, they should be considered in decision making and developing appropriate policy responses for land use management. PMID:25894553

  17. Relationship between C:N/C:O stoichiometry and ecosystem services in managed production systems.

    PubMed

    Ghaley, Bhim B; Sandhu, Harpinder S; Porter, John R

    2015-01-01

    Land use and management intensity can influence provision of ecosystem services (ES). We argue that forest/agroforestry production systems are characterized by relatively higher C:O/C:N and ES value compared to arable production systems. Field investigations on C:N/C:O and 15 ES were determined in three diverse production systems: wheat monoculture (Cwheat), a combined food and energy system (CFE) and a beech forest in Denmark. The C:N/C:O ratios were 194.1/1.68, 94.1/1.57 and 59.5/1.45 for beech forest, CFE and Cwheat, respectively. The economic value of the non-marketed ES was also highest in beech forest (US$ 1089 ha(-1) yr(-1)) followed by CFE (US$ 800 ha(-1) yr(-1)) and Cwheat (US$ 339 ha(-1) yr(-1)). The combined economic value was highest in the CFE (US$ 3143 ha(-1) yr(-1)) as compared to the Cwheat (US$ 2767 ha(-1) yr(-1)) and beech forest (US$ 2365 ha(-1) yr(-1)). We argue that C:N/C:O can be used as a proxy of ES, particularly for the non-marketed ES, such as regulating, supporting and cultural services. These ES play a vital role in the sustainable production of food and energy. Therefore, they should be considered in decision making and developing appropriate policy responses for land use management. PMID:25894553

  18. Pruning effects on root distribution and nutrient dynamics in an acacia hedgerow planting in northern Kenya

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    of simultaneous agroforestry systems is the competition between annual and perennial crops (Sanchez, 1995.lehmann@uni-bayreuth.de) Key words: below-ground competition, carbohydrates, nitrogen, nutrient leaching, resin cores Abstract. Tree pruning is a common management practice in agroforestry for mulching and reducing competition

  19. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    PubMed

    Schüepp, Christof; Rittiner, Sarah; Entling, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity), as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity) of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity) increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems. PMID:23300598

  20. High Bee and Wasp Diversity in a Heterogeneous Tropical Farming System Compared to Protected Forest

    PubMed Central

    Schüepp, Christof; Rittiner, Sarah; Entling, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity), as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity) of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity) increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems. PMID:23300598

  1. Framework for studying the hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallema, Dennis W.; Rousseau, Alain N.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Périard, Yann; Hiemstra, Paul H.; Bouttier, Léa; Fossey, Maxime; Paquette, Alain; Cogliastro, Alain; Olivier, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Alley cropping is an agroforestry practice whereby crops are grown between hedgerows of trees planted at wide spacings. The local climate and the physiological adaptation mechanisms of the trees are key factors in the growth and survival of the trees and intercrops, because they directly affect the soil moisture distribution. In order to evaluate the long-term hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system in eastern Canada, we developed a framework that combines local soil moisture data with local projections of climate change and a model of soil water movement, root uptake and evapotranspiration. Forty-five frequency domain reflectometers (FDR) along a transect perpendicular to the tree rows generated a two-year dataset that we used for the parameterization and evaluation of the model. An impact study with simulations based on local projections of three global and one regional climate simulation suggest that the soil becomes drier overall in the period between 2041 and 2070, while the number of critically wet periods with a length of one day increases slightly with respect to the reference period between 1967 and 1996. Hydrological simulations based on a fourth climate scenario however point toward wetter conditions. In all cases the changes are minor. Although our simulations indicate that the experimental alley cropping system will possibly suffer drier conditions in response to higher temperatures and increased evaporative demand, these conditions are not necessarily critical for vegetation during the snow-free season.

  2. Soil respiration and microbial biomass in a savanna parkland landscape: spatio-temporal variation and environmental controls 

    E-print Network

    McCulley, Rebecca Lynne

    1998-01-01

    ) in this region. The objective of this study was to quantify variation in soil respiration, soil microbial biomass (SMB), and potential C and N mineralization rates in relation to landscape heterogeneity and woody plant encroachment in this region. In addition...

  3. Association of Parkland Proximity with Neighborhood and Park-based Physical Activity: Variations by Gender and Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew T. Kaczynski; Luke R. Potwarka; Bryan J. A. Smale; Mark E. Havitz

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how the number and total size of neighborhood parks within 1 kilometer (km) of participants' homes, as well as distance to the closest park, were associated with moderate-to-strenuous physical activity (MSPA) in three contexts: total, neighborhood-based, and park-based. Data were collected from 384 adults in a Canadian city. Each additional hectare of park area within 1 km

  4. Optimizing yield and quality of canola seed with balanced fertilization in the parkland zone of Western Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A number of field experiments were conducted from 1998 to 2001 (or are underway) in northeastern Saskatchewan to determine the effects of various rates (0 to 30 kg S ha-1), sources (sulphate S-potassium sulphate, ammonium sulphate, potassium thiosulphate and ammonium thiosulphate; and elemental S-ES 90 and ES 95), times (autumn, sowing, bolting and flowering) and methods (incorporation, sideband, seedrow, topdress

  5. ESTIMATION OF THE AGE OF LIME-TREES (TILIA SPP.) IN PARKLANDS FROM STEM DIAMETER AND RING COUNTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Pigott

    1989-01-01

    Common lime (Tilia × vulgaris) and more rarely large-leaved lime (T. platyphyllos) have been widely planted in England since the sixteenth century. Measurements of the diameter of the trunks of limes in avenues, which have been dated either from documentary sources or from counts of annual rings, have been used to establish the relation between diameter in cm (D) and

  6. Effects of small-bodied fish on invertebrate prey and foraging patterns of waterbirds in Aspen Parkland wetlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline E. McParland; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

    Competition between large-bodied fish and waterbirds for aquatic invertebrates is well documented in oligotrophic lakes. Recent\\u000a evidence suggests that small-bodied fish that colonize eutrophic, hypoxia-prone wetlands such as prairie potholes can also\\u000a reduce aquatic invertebrates, but the effects of these reductions on breeding waterbirds have so far not been directly documented.\\u000a We added brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) and fathead minnow

  7. Effects of small-bodied fish on invertebrate prey and foraging patterns of waterbirds in Aspen Parkland wetlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline E. McParland; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

    2006-01-01

    Competition between large-bodied fish and waterbirds for aquatic invertebrates is well documented in oligotrophic lakes. Recent\\u000a evidence suggests that small-bodied fish that colonize eutrophic, hypoxia-prone wetlands such as prairie potholes can also\\u000a reduce aquatic invertebrates, but the effects of these reductions on breeding waterbirds have so far not been directly documented.\\u000a We added brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) and fathead minnow

  8. System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Jiang; Fan, Guozheng; Liu, Xuan; Xie, Bing

    2014-10-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the anionic structures of the molten CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system. The results show that the average first nearest-neighbor distances for Si-O and P-O pairs are 1.61 and 1.53 Å, respectively. As expected, above 98 pct P and 95 pct Si show fourfold coordination and form tetrahedral structures. Due to the high basicity, nonbridging oxygen occupies a predominant position in Si and P tetrahedron. Based on the oxygen number of different types, the structures of both Si and P tetrahedron were classified as Q 0, Q 1, Q 2, Q 3, and Q 4, where the superscript referred to the number of bridging oxygen atoms. With the substitution of P2O5 for SiO2, Q 0 decreased and other type of Q i units increased. For Si tetrahedron, Q 2 and Q 3 show most notable change, for P tetrahedron, Q 1and Q 2 show the most notable change. The change of Q i units for Si tetrahedron is larger than that for P tetrahedron. The concentration of free oxygen decreases remarkably with the increase of P2O5 content. The Si-O-P linkage is energetically more favorable than Si-O-Si and P-O-P linkages. P ion has a tendency to promote the polymerization of phosphosilicate melts.

  9. Creating the Sustainable City: Building a Seminar (and Curriculum) through Interdisciplinary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Michael A.; Zimring, Carl A.

    2010-01-01

    Using the wealth of sites available in the Chicago metropolitan area, online learning technologies, and classroom interactions, Roosevelt University's seminar "The Sustainable City" takes a multidisciplinary approach to urban ecology, waste management, green design, climate change, urban planning, parklands, water systems, environmental justice,…

  10. Occurrence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in trap cultures from soils under different land use systems in the Amazon, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Patrícia Lopes; Stürmer, Sidney Luiz; Siqueira, José Oswaldo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species diversity in soil samples from the Amazon region under distinct land use systems (Forest, Old Secondary Forest, Young Secondary Forest, Agroforestry systems, Crops and Pasture) using two distinct trap cultures. Traps established using Sorghum sudanense and Vigna unguiculata (at Universidade Regional de Blumenau -FURB) and Brachiaria decumbens and Neonotonia wightii (at Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA) were grown for 150 days in greenhouse conditions, when spore density and species identification were evaluated. A great variation on species richness was detected in several samples, regardless of the land use systems from where samples were obtained. A total number of 24 AMF species were recovered using both methods of trap cultures, with FURB?s traps yielding higher number of species. Acaulospora delicata, A. foveata, Entrophospora colombiana and two undescribed Glomus species were the most abundant and frequent species recovered from the traps. Number of species decreased in each genus according to this order: Acaulospora, Glomus, Entrophospora, Gigaspora, Archaeospora, Scutellospora and Paraglomus. Spore numbers were higher in Young Secondary Forest and Pastures. Our study demonstrated that AMF have a widespread occurrence in all land use systems in Amazon and they sporulate more abundantly in trap cultures from land uses under interference than in the pristine Forest ecosystem. PMID:24031328

  11. Microbial community diversity in agroforestry and grass vegetative filter strips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many additional environmental benefits. Most previous studies have focused primarily on the role of vegetation and/or soil physical properties in these ecosystem services. Few studies have investigated...

  12. Assessing Farmer Innovations in Agroforestry in Eastern Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katanga, R.; Kabwe, G.; Kuntashula, E.; Mafongoya, P. L.; Phiri, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes farmer innovations on improved fallows developed by researchers to replenish soil fertility. The reasons for the innovations and how these innovations are facilitating wide adoption of improved fallows are discussed. Research designed trial results to evaluate the ecological robustness of these innovations are also analyzed in…

  13. Effect of liming and organic and inorganic fertilization on soil carbon sequestered in macro-and microaggregates in a 17-year old Pinus radiata silvopastoral system.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N

    2015-03-01

    Agroforestry systems have been recognized as a potential greenhouse gas mitigation strategy under the Kyoto Protocol because of their ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store carbon mainly in the soil. Soil particle size and land management practices are known to have a considerable influence on carbon storage in soils. This study evaluated changes in soil chemical and physical properties, and quantified and compared the amount of C stored in the bulk soil and in three different soil fractions (250-2000, 53-250 and <53 ?m) at each of four soil depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm) in a silvopastoral system located on an acidic forest soil under Pinus radiata D. Don. Areas of this system were subjected ten years ago to one of nine fertilization treatments: three different doses of sewage sludge or no fertilization, all with or without the addition of lime, and mineral fertilizer with no liming. Seventeen years after reforestation and seven years after canopy closure, strong gradients with soil depth were found regarding soil bulk density, pH and carbon storage. Intense soil management (high doses of sewage sludge and liming) generally reduced soil carbon storage, mainly in coarse aggregates, but this could be compensated by the increase in tree and pasture development observed in soils subject to intermediate sewage sludge doses. PMID:25460421

  14. SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction

    E-print Network

    Founding Institutions (2004) 6 NARIs (INIAs) Inia (Brasil) (Colombia) (Peru) (Bolivia) (Ecuador) (Venezuela #12;Sustainable smallholderSustainable smallholder production on deforested /production on deforested

  15. Measuring and modelling interception loss by an isolated olive tree in a traditional olive grove - pasture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nóbrega, Cristina; Pereira, Fernando L.; Valente, Fernanda

    2015-04-01

    Water losses associated to the rainfall interception process by trees can be an important component of the local hydrologic balance and must be accounted for when implementing any sustainable water management programme. In many dry areas of the Mediterranean region where agro-forestry systems are common, those programmes are crucial to foster adequate water conservation measures. Recent studies have shown that the evaluation of interception loss in sparse forests or tree plantations should be made for individual trees, being the total value determined as the sum of the individual contributions. Following this approach, rainfall interception was measured and modelled over two years, in an isolated Olea europeaea L. tree, in a traditional low-density olive grove in Castelo Branco, central Portugal. Total interception loss over the experimental period was 243.5 mm, on a tree crown projected area basis, corresponding to 18.0% of gross rainfall (Pg). Modelling made for each rainfall event using the sparse version of the Gash model, slightly underestimated interception loss with a value of 240.5 mm, i.e., 17.8 % ofPg. Modelling quality, evaluated according to a number of criteria, was good, allowing the conclusion that the methodology used was adequate. Modelling was also made on a daily basis, i.e., assuming a single storm per rainday. In this case, interception loss was overestimated by 12%, mostly because 72% of all rainfall events lasted for more than a day.

  16. The contribution of wild plants to human nutrition in the Ferlo (Northern Senegal)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Becker

    1983-01-01

    One aspect of agroforestry is the integration of indigenous species into appropriate land use systems. Some local trees and shrubs are particularly appreciated because of their value in human nutrition.

  17. Specialty Coffee in Costa Rica: Effect of Environmental Factors and Management Options on Soil Chemistry and Microbial Composition 

    E-print Network

    Sturm-Flores, Linda

    2012-07-16

    In the Central Valley of Costa Rica in the Department of Heredia, I investigated the soil chemical properties and microbial communities under four native shade tree species in a coffee agroforestry system. In the second ...

  18. Soil quality differences in a mature alley cropping system in temperate North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alley cropping in agroforestry practices has been shown to improve soil quality, however information on long-term effects (>10 years) of alley cropping on soils in the temperate zone is very limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth on soil...

  19. DETERMINACIÓN DE LAS RESERVAS DE CARBONO EN LA BIOMASA AÉREA DE SISTEMAS AGROFORESTALES DE Theobroma cacao L. EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE SAN MARTÌN, PERU DETERMINATION OF CARBON RESERVATIONS IN THE AERIAL BIOMASS OF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS OF Theobroma cacao L. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF SAN MARTÌN, PERU

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juanita Y. Concha; Julio C. Alegre; Vicente Pocomucha

    Resumen En este estudio se evaluó la biomasa aérea en seis diferentes sistemas agroforestales de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) asociado con especies forestales maderables y frutales; con el propósito de conocer el potencial de captura de carbono por cada sistema. El estudio se realizó en dos diferentes sitios ubicados en la región San Martín (provincias de San Martín y Mariscal

  20. Impact of tree planting configuration on canopy interception and soil hydrological properties: Implications for flood mitigation in silvopastoral systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunka, Peter; Patil, Sopan

    2015-04-01

    Compaction of upper soil layers by intensive sheep grazing has been connected with increased local flood risk in silvopastoral systems. A 12 week field study was conducted at the Henfaes Research Station near Bangor, Wales to compare two silvopastoral configurations, trees planted in fenced off clumps and trees planted evenly spaced, in terms of canopy throughfall, soil water infiltration and soil bulk density. The study's aim was to characterize the potential of these tree planting configurations to reduce local flood risk. The study site (Henfaes) was established in 1992 on 14 ha of agricultural land and is part of the Silvopastoral National Network Experiment sites that have been set up across the UK to examine the potential of silvopasture and agroforestry on UK farms. Automated throughfall gauges were installed in each silvopastoral treatment along with a similarly designed control gauge located in the grazed control pasture. Soil water infiltration and bulk density were measured 20 times in a stratified random design for each treatment and the control. Soil infiltration capacity in the clumped configuration was significantly higher than in the even spaced configuration and control pasture. The clumped configuration had mean infiltration capacity 504% greater than the control pasture and 454% greater than the even spaced configuration. Canopy interception was higher in the clumped trees than in the evenly spaced trees. Average canopy interception was 34% in the clumped treatment and 28% in the evenly spaced treatment. Soil bulk density was lower in the clumped configuration than in the control pasture and evenly spaced configuration. Results suggest that in silvopastoral systems the clumped tree configuration is more likely to reduce local flood risk than the evenly spaced tree configuration due to enhanced infiltration and increased canopy interception.

  1. Soil carbon sequestration in rainfed production systems in the semiarid tropics of India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasarao, Ch; Lal, Rattan; Kundu, Sumanta; Babu, M B B Prasad; Venkateswarlu, B; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-07-15

    Severe soil organic carbon (SOC) depletion is a major constraint in rainfed agroecosystems in India because it directly influences soil quality, crop productivity and sustainability. The magnitude of soil organic, inorganic and total carbon stocks in the semi-arid bioclimate is estimated at 2.9, 1.9 and 4.8 Pg respectively. Sorghum, finger millet, pearl millet, maize, rice, groundnut, soybean, cotton, food legumes etc. are predominant crop production systems with a little, if any, recycling of organic matter. Data from the long term experiments on major rainfed production systems in India show that higher amount of crop residue C input (Mg/ha/y) return back to soil in soybean-safflower (3.37) system practiced in Vertisol region of central India. Long term addition of chemical fertilizer and organic amendments improved the SOC stock. For every Mg/ha increase in SOC stock in the root zone, there occurs an increase in grain yield (kg/ha) of 13, 101, 90, 170, 145, 18 and 160 for groundnut, finger millet, sorghum, pearl millet, soybean and rice, respectively. Long-term cropping without using any organic amendment and/or mineral fertilizers can severely deplete the SOC stock which is the highest in groundnut-finger millet system (0.92 Mg C/ha/y) in Alfisols. Some agroforestry systems also have a huge potential of C sequestration to the extent of 10Mg/ha/y in short rotation eucalyptus and Leucaena plantations. The critical level of C input requirements for maintaining SOC at the antecedent level ranges from 1.1 to 3.5 Mg C/ha/y and differs among soil type and production systems. National level policy interventions needed to promote sustainable use of soil and water resources include prohibiting residue burning, reducing deforestation, promoting integrated farming systems and facilitating payments for ecosystem services. A wide spread adoption of these measures can improve soil quality through increase in SOC sequestration and improvement in agronomic productivity of rainfed agroecosystems. PMID:24210647

  2. Species accumulation within land use and tree diameter categories in Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and Senegal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roeland Kindt; Antoine Kalinganire; Mahamane Larwanou; Mamounata Belem; Joseph Marie Dakouo; Jules Bayala; Maguette Kairé

    2008-01-01

    Although farmers have managed west African parkland savanna systems for 1,000 of years, concerns have been raised about the\\u000a sustainability of these agro-ecosystems due to human population growth, shortening of fallow periods, droughts, desertification\\u000a and new orientations towards cash generation away from subsistence farming. We conducted a tree diversity survey in 16 villages\\u000a from Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and Senegal,

  3. Diversity and Communities of Foliar Endophytic Fungi from Different Agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in Two Regions of Veracruz, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Saucedo-García, Aurora; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Espinosa-García, Francisco J.; González, María C.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some endophytic fungi and their communities as potential management tools against coffee plant pests and pathogens. PMID:24887512

  4. Characterization of nutrient transport below the root zone of a willow plantation irrigated with municipal waste water in the Boreal-Parkland transition zone, Alberta, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Gainer; M. F. Dyck; G. Kachanoski

    2010-01-01

    Irrigation of willow and poplar species with municipal waste water offers municipalities a variety of opportunities including reduced energy and waste management costs and preservation of surface water quality. Municipal waste water contains various nutrients that are beneficial to plants such as nitrogen and phosphorus. The woody species reduce treatment costs by further removing many of these nutrients and potentially

  5. Winter wheat and summer shade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artru, S.; Garre, S.; Lassois, L.; Dupraz, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agroforestry research is in full expansion, but uncertainty remains on the performance of combinations of species with regard to the broad range of possible species associations. In addition, the variability of environmental conditions under which agroforestry stands can be successfully developed is unknown. Under Belgian pedoclimatic conditions, tree-crop competition for light might be the principal limiting factor in the agroforestry context. Most studies show that shade stress induces a systematic reduction of final crop yield. However, the response of a specific crop to shade is highly dependent on environmental conditions. In agroforestry systems, the tree canopy reduces the incident radiation for the crop following a dynamic spatio-temporal pattern. In this study, we will report on the efficiency of wheat under artificial dynamic shade in the experimental farm of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Belgium in order to evaluate it's potential for agroforestry purposes in the same region. Wheat productivity and development under artificial shade conditions have been monitored during 1 year and the observations will be continued for 2 more years. We constructed an artificial shade structure, which mimics the light environment observed under hybrid walnut agroforestry trees: periodic fluctuation in radiation transmittance and discontinuous light quantity. We collected information on biomass development, soil state and radiation patterns in the field. Using this data, we evaluated the influence of dynamic shade, light availability and the efficiency with which energy is converted in wheat dry matter under the artificial shade treatment. This, in combination with modeling, will allow a thorough study of the potential of wheat-walnut agroforestry systems in the Hesbaye region in Belgium.

  6. Dry matter partitions and specific leaf weight of soybean change with tree competition in an intercropping system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ameur M. Manceur; Greg J. Boland; Naresh V. Thevathasan; Andrew M. Gordon

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005, the yield, leaf area, dry weight and dry weight partitions of soybeans were determined at the Agroforestry\\u000a Research Site (ARS) (est. 1987, Ontario, Canada). Soybean was intercropped with poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra DN-177 L., 556 m3crown tree?1), silver maple (Acer saccharinum L., 308 m3), black walnut (Juglans nigra L., 148 m3) and pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh., 114 m3), or grown

  7. Soil and pasture P concentration in a Fraxinus excelsior L. silvopastoral system fertilised with different types of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Nair, Vimala; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Rosa Mosquera-Losada, María

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using as fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process that is used, sewage sludge has different characteristics, nutrient contents and soil nutrient incorporation rates. Sewage sludge is usually applied on a plant-available N or total metal concentration basic, and therefore, P concentrations can be well above crop needs. Leaching of excess P can threaten surface and ground waters with eutrophication. In this context, recent studies have demonstrated that the implementation of agroforestry systems could reduce the P leaching risk compared with conventional agricultural systems due to the different localisation of tree and crop roots which enhance nutrient uptake. The aim of this study was to evaluate during three consecutive years the effect of municipal sewage sludge stabilised by anaerobic digestion, composting, and pelletisation on concentration of P in soil and pasture compared to control treatments (mineral and no fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system established under Fraxinus excelsior L. in Galicia (Spain). The results showed that at the beginning of the study, the fertilisation with mineral increased more the total and available P in soil than the fertilisation with sewage sludge probably because the sludge nutrient release rate is slower than those from mineral fertilisers. The increment of soil available P caused by the mineral fertiliser implied an improvement of the P concentration in the pasture. However, in the last year of the experiment it was observed a positive effect of the fertilisation with pelletised sludge on the concentration of P in pasture compared with the composted sludge and the mineral fertiliser probably due to the annual application of this type of sludge. Therefore, the establishment of silvopastoral systems and their fertilisation with pelletized sludge should be recommended because the pelletized sludge increases the concentration of P in the pasture and reduces the application and storage costs due to its lower proportion of water than the other types of sludge tested. At the same time, the integration of trees in agricultural areas decreases the problem of environmental impact resulting from addition of organic and inorganic fertilisers on soils.

  8. High Contribution of Gallery Forests to Local Evaporation in Semi-Arid Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Tyler, S. W.; Van De Giesen, N.; Rinaldo, A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Management of the hydrologic cycle is critical to the primary livelihood of a large part of semi-arid West Africa's primary livelihood, rain-fed farming. We use flux measurements from an eddy-covariance station coupled with a dense network of small wireless meteorological stations to examine the relationship between land surface properties (albedo, soil moisture, and roughness) and evapotranspiration in a small (3.5 km2) catchment in Burkina Faso, West Africa. The catchment is a matrix of savanna and agricultural land maintained under various regimes, providing a comparison of multiple land use types of Sudanian Wooded Savanna including a canyon gallery forest, agroforestry parklands, occasionally grazed semi-open savanna, a semi-closed wooded slope, fallow fields, rice paddies, and ephemeral wetlands. By filtering out times when dry air was entrained, we demonstrate the small control of soil moisture and vegetation on the evaporative fraction, which was not initially visible. Additionally we document the high contribution of the gallery forest to the the catchment evaporation, despite its small size. These small meteorological stations could be paired with currently available satellite data to calculate evaporation over a much larger area, even when eddy-covariance equipment is not available. These findings reinforce local cultural beliefs of the importance of gallery forests for climate regulation and may provide tools to key local decision makers, rural farmers.

  9. System requirements. [Space systems

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, R.E.

    1982-06-01

    Requirements of future space systems, including large space systems, that operate beyond the space shuttle are discussed. Typical functions required of propulsion systems in this operational regime include payload placement, retrieval, observation, servicing, space debris control and support to large space systems. These functional requirements are discussed in conjunction with two classes of propulsion systems: (1) primary or orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) and (2) secondary or systems that generally operate within or relatively near an operational base orbit. Three propulsion system types are described in relation to these requirements: cryogenic OTV, teleoperator maneuvering system and a solar electric OTV.

  10. Biodiversity Conservation, Ecosystem Services and Livelihoods in Tropical Landscapes: Towards a Common Agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroth, Götz; McNeely, Jeffrey A.

    2011-08-01

    Trade-offs between ecosystem conservation and agricultural production can more easily be addressed by shifting the view from the plot scale to the scale of the landscape and integrating biodiversity friendly land use systems into development strategies. The provision of ecosystem services such as watershed protection and carbon sequestration by natural and complex agro-ecosystems can play an important role in making such integrated landscape approaches viable. This special issue brings together papers that were presented at a symposium on agroforestry and landscape scale conservation at the Second World Agroforestry Congress in Nairobi in August 2009. It is divided into two sections focusing on: (1) the biological mechanisms and implications of landscape scale conservation strategies as influenced by land use, especially agroforestry; and (2) the economic drivers and public policies that determine to a large extent the success of agroforestry-based landscape conservation strategies. The contributions provide evidence both for the potential and limitations of agroforestry in landscape scale conservation and development strategies and highlight the importance of economic incentives and policies to promote integrated landscape solutions. This introductory paper summarizes and discusses the contributions and concludes with policy recommendations and research needs.

  11. Development of an agroforestry carbon sequestration project in Khammam district, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sudha; V. Ramprasad; M. D. V. Nagendra; H. D. Kulkarni; N. H. Ravindranath

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses methodological issues in estimating carbon (C) sequestration potential, baseline determination, additionality\\u000a and leakage in Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential for afforestation on cultivable\\u000a wastelands, fallow, and marginal croplands was considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations. Field studies for aboveground and belowground biomass, woody litter, and soil organic carbon for baseline\\u000a and project scenarios

  12. Recreation and Agroforestry: Examining New Dimensions of Multifunctionality in Family Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Carla; Valdivia, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    Multifunctionality serves as an analytical framework to recognize many services that farms provide to their surrounding communities and society. This study explores an often overlooked dimension of multifunctionality by examining different recreational services provided by landowners in Missouri and analyzing the relationship between recreational…

  13. Agroforestry: Conifers. (Latest citations from the Cab Abstracts database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of lands forested with conifers for crop and livestock production. Citations cover the grazing of livestock and the production of crops, including tomatoes, soybeans, lespedeza, wheat, rape, taro, cotton, cabbages, ginger, watermelons, and strawberries. Livestock discussed include cattle, sheep, geese, and horses. Economic analyses and economic models are presented. (Contains a minimum of 147 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Veterinary antibiotic sorption and transport through agroforestry buffer, grass buffer and cropland soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs), such as sulfamethazine (SMZ) are released into the environment by application of manure to agricultural fields. Understanding the fate and transport of VAs is important for assessing and mitigating possible environmental hazards. To study the effects of dissolved organi...

  15. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report UBC Farm Agroforestry Product Lines

    E-print Network

    on the production of medicinal plants on the edges of the forested spaces and hedgerows for a local medicinal plant, and to assess its potential for profit. The group identified three medicinal plants (borage, comfrey, and yarrow the potential to make $2800 profit from this project annually. Medicinal plant production has very low fixed

  16. POTENTIAL OF FORESTRY AND AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES TO STORE CARBON IN THE TROPICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terrestrial vegetation plays a pivotal role in the global carbon cycle. ot only are tremendous amounts of. carbon stored in terrestrial egetation, but large amounts are also actively exchanged,between vegetation and the atmosphere. his suggests that vegetation, and specifically f...

  17. New Agroforestry Site: Kotumachigi village About 20 Km from the town of Gadag

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    . Raingages have been purchased to get village students to start taking measurements everyday. Weather Stati and cities. Need to install weather stations to generate interest in the environment. Water harvesting of the bore wells has serious fluorosis problem and kids are beginning to have joint pains and the teeth show

  18. Calibration of a water content reflectometer and soil water dynamics for an agroforestry practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranjith P. UdawattaStephen; Stephen H. Anderson; Peter P. Motavalli; Harold E. Garrett

    2011-01-01

    Water content reflectometers allow temporal and continuous assessment of spatial differences in soil water dynamics. We hypothesized\\u000a that volumetric soil water content estimated by the water content reflectometers (CS616 Campbell Sci. Inc., Logan, UT) is\\u000a influenced by clay content and temperature and therefore site- and or soil-specific equations are required for accurate estimations\\u000a of soil water. Objectives of the study

  19. Soil quality indicator responses to row crop, grazed pasture, and agroforestry buffer management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of grass buffers within agroecosystems are management practices shown to enhance soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates (WSA) have been identified as sensitive soil quality indicators to evaluate early responses to soil management. ...

  20. APEX model simulation of runoff and sediment losses for grazed pasture watersheds with agroforestry buffers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandeep Kumar; Ranjith P. Udawatta; Stephen H. Anderson; Ashish Mudgal

    2011-01-01

    Buffers have been found to reduce non-point source pollution (NPSP) from watersheds. Hydrologic simulation models assist in\\u000a predicting the effects of buffers on runoff and sediment losses from small watersheds. The objective of this study was to\\u000a calibrate, validate and simulate runoff and sediment losses and compare buffer effects on NPSP losses relative to control\\u000a watersheds (no buffer) for seven

  1. INNOVATIVE, DIVERSIFIED AGROFORESTRY PLANTINGS IN SUPPORT OF ENERGY SECURITY, ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY,

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    ) Characteristics A fast growing shrub type willow Propagates very easily from cuttings, has a quick growth cycle P. nigra) and willow clone 9882-42 "Fish Creek" (Salix purpurea x S. purpurea). Above average materials Short rotation woody crops Willow clone 9882-42 "Fish Creek" (Salix purpurea x S. purpurea

  2. Branching out: Agroforestry as a climate change mitigation and adaptation tool for agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States and Canadian agricultural lands are being targeted to provide more environmental and economic services while at the same time their capacity to provide these services under potential climate change (CC) is being questioned. Predictions of future climate conditions include longer gr...

  3. Apex simulation: environmental benefits of agroforestry and grass buffers for corn-soybean watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX) model is used to simulate the effects of vegetative filter strips on runoff and pollutant loadings from agricultural watersheds. A long-term paired watershed study under corn (Zea mays L-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation with agroforestr...

  4. A participatory Agroforestry approach for soil and water conservation in Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bekele-Tesemma

    1997-01-01

    The rates of soil erosion and land degradation in Ethiopia are frighteningly high. Crop production, livestock keeping and energy supply situations are at risk. The highlands are the most affected. Past rehabilitation efforts have been immense. Much labour, capital and trained staff have been mobilized to correct the situation, but the outcome has not been encouraging. There are a number

  5. Body Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-11-02

    What are the parts and functions of the different systems in the body? Circulatory System Watch the Circulatory System and the Heart video. Complete one of the Circulatory System quizzes. Excretory System Label the parts of the excretory system. Respiratory System Quiz Complete respiratory system quiz to review parts. Skeletal System Label each part of the skeletal system. Vocabulary Review Change the settings to only include body system terms and play Hangman to review new vocabulary. ...

  6. RESULTS ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF NAMED VARIETIES OF EASTERN BLACK WALNUTS ON UPLAND SITE IN THE OUACHITA REGION OF ARKANSAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems that include eastern black walnut trees grown for nut production are a viable option for landowners in western Arkansas, and the use of named varieties selected for high nut quality will be an important component of viable systems. Currently, there is little information regardi...

  7. Cabruca its agrobiodiversity potential on small farmers in Southern region of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cacao Cabruca Agroforestry system of production was developed by farmers in Bahia over 200 years ago. This system consists of planting cacao under the shade of trees in the Atlantic rain forest and has on an average 693 cacao plants and 93 trees per hectare. Even though the local community utili...

  8. HERBAGE NITROGEN RECOVERY IN A MEADOW AND LOBLOLLY PINE ALLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbage in conventional pasture and agroforestry systems is managed for microclimate and spatial differences inherent to these systems, but managers have scarce data on which to base their decisions. Our objective was to measure herbage N fertilizer recovery at two sites, an unshaded meadow and a s...

  9. Library System Library System

    E-print Network

    Cinabro, David

    Library System #12;Library System 5150 Anthony Wayne Drive David Adamany Undergraduate Library that for the current fiscal year, we've been given an additional $600,000 for our library materials budget. We're very subscriptions. The Wayne State University Libraries are deeply committed to providing our faculty and students

  10. The Impact of Policy and Institutional Environment on Costs and Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Land Uses: The Case of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasul, Golam; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2007-08-01

    As in other mountain regions of Asia, agricultural lands in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh are undergoing degradation due primarily to environmentally incompatible land-use systems such as shifting cultivation ( jhum) and annual cash crops. The suitable land-use systems such as agroforestry and timber tree plantation provide benefit to the society at large, but they might not provide attractive economic benefits to farmers, eventually constraining a wide-scale adoption of such land-use systems. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate agricultural land-use systems from both societal and private perspectives in the pursuit of promoting particularly environmentally sustainable systems. This article evaluated five major land-use systems being practiced in CHT, namely jhum, annual cash crops, horticulture, agroforestry, and timber plantation. The results of the financial analysis revealed the annual cash crops as the most attractive land use and jhum as the least attractive of the five land-use systems considered under the study. Horticulture, timber plantation, and agroforestry, considered to be suitable land-use systems particularly for mountainous areas, held the middle ground between these two systems. Annual cash crops provided the highest financial return at the cost of a very high rate of soil erosion. When the societal cost of soil erosion is considered, annual cash crops appear to be the most costly land-use system, followed by jhum and horticulture. Although financially less attractive compared to annual cash crops and horticulture, agroforestry and timber plantation are the socially most beneficial land-use systems. Findings of the alternative policy analyses indicate that there is a good prospect for making environmentally sustainable land-use systems, such as agroforestry and timber plantation, attractive for the farmers by eliminating existing legal and institutional barriers, combined with the provision of necessary support services and facilities.

  11. Immune System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... could put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih- myoon ) system, which ... Continue Things That Can Go Wrong With the Immune System Disorders of the immune system can be broken ...

  12. Endocrine System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is called the endocrine system . What Is the Endocrine System? Although we rarely think about the endocrine system, ... stores of energy. Back Continue What Does the Endocrine System Do? Once a hormone is secreted, it travels ...

  13. Conservation of tree seeds from tropical dry-lands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oblé Neya

    2006-01-01

    The tropical trees, Azadirachta indica (neem), Lannea microcarpa, Sclerocarya birrea and Khaya senegalensis, are important multipurpose species. Unfortunately, difficult seed storage behaviour limits the utilization of these species in reforestation programs and agroforestry systems. This thesis presents the results of investigations aimed at a better understanding of the seed biology, particularly focussed on the improvement of seed survival after drying

  14. Modeling of afforestation possibilities on one part of Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozsik, Éva; Riczu, Péter; Tamás, János; Burriel, Charles; Helilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    Agroforestry systems are part of the history of the European Union rural landscapes, but the regional increase of size of agricultural parcels had a significant effect on European land use in the 20th century, thereby it has radically reduced the coverage of natural forest. However, this cause conflicts between interest of agricultural and forestry sectors. The agroforestry land uses could be a solution of this conflict management. One real - ecological - problem with the remnant forests and new forest plantation is the partly missing of network function without connecting ecological green corridors, the other problem is verifiability for the agroforestry payment system, monitoring the arable lands and plantations. Remote sensing methods are currently used to supervise European Union payments. Nowadays, next to use satellite imagery the airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) remote sensing technologies are becoming more widespread use for nature, environmental, forest, agriculture protection, conservation and monitoring and it is an effective tool for monitoring biomass production. In this Hungarian case study we made a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to create agroforestry site selection model. The aim of model building was to ensure the continuity of ecological green corridors, maintain the appropriate land use of regional endowments. The investigation tool was the more widely used hyperspectral and airborne LiDAR remote sensing technologies which can provide appropriate data acquisition and data processing tools to build a decision support system

  15. ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENHANCING THE CONSERVATION AND SEQUESTRATION OF ATMOSPHERIC CARBON AND THEIR COSTS AT SITE LEVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: ) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequesteri...

  16. Sustainable development and use of ecosystems with non-forest trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-forest trees are components of managed ecosystems including orchards and agroforestry systems and natural ecosystems such as savannas and riparian corridors. Each of these ecosystems includes trees but does not have a complete tree canopy or spatial extent necessary to create a true forest ecosy...

  17. WATER CONSUMPTION AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF SOME FOREST TREE SPECIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. CHATURVEDI; S. C. SHARMA; RAMJI SRIVASTAVA

    1988-01-01

    Rates of water consumption and biomass production are important considerations in the choice of tree species for agroforestry systems, particularly in dry areas. This paper reports lysimeter measurements of such rates for A zadirachta indica, Prosopis juliflora, Ingadulsis and Acacia nilotica and compares them with rates previously reported for Albizia lebbek, Acacia auriculiformis, Dalbergia sisso, Pongamia pinnata, Eucalyptus hybrid and

  18. Napier grass strips and livestock: a bioeconomic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Magcale-Macandog; C. D. Predo; K. M. Menz; A. D. Predo

    1998-01-01

    Napier grass strips are gaining some acceptance in Southeast Asia as a vegetative means of soil erosion control, due to the relative ease of establishment and management. In addition, the napier grass strips aid productivity of agroforestry systems by providing mulch or by being fed to livestock. In this paper, a bioeconomic comparison of different ways of utilising the napier

  19. Tree–crop interactions and their environmental and economic implications in the presence of carbon-sequestration payments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell Wise; Oscar Cacho

    2005-01-01

    The growing emphasis on market-based solutions to environmental problems, both under and outside of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, means that carbon sequestered in the biomass and soils of agroforestry systems is likely to acquire a direct market value. If the incentive provided by carbon markets is large enough, this may alter the economics of growing trees,

  20. Modelling surface energy fluxes over a Dehesa ecosystem using a two-source energy balance model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dehesa is the most widespread agroforestry land-use system in Europe, covering more than 3 million hectares in the Iberian Peninsula and Greece (Grove and Rackham, 2001; Papanastasis, 2004). It is an agro-silvo-pastural ecosystem consisting of widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus ilex L.), co...

  1. Decomposition and nitrogen-mineralization patterns of Leucaena leucocephala and Cassia siamea mulch under tropical semiarid conditions in Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Jama; P. K. R. Nair

    1996-01-01

    In agroforestry systems, loppings from trees and shrubs are commonly used, often as mulch, as sources of nutrients for interplanted crops. Therefore, it is important to understand the rates of mulch decomposition. This paper reports the results of a study on the decomposition and nitrogen (N)-mineralization patterns of the leaves, small twigs, and mulch (leaves plus twigs) of Leucaena leucocephala

  2. Diversidad Vegetal Asociada A Cacaotales De Dos Zonas Agroecologicas En La Regiòn Litoral Del Ecuador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald León Maridueña; Giniva Guiracocha Freire

    2006-01-01

    Farmer's perceptions were evaluated about the tree diversity in cacao farms of Yaguachi- Milagro and Molleturo. Floristic compositions of these cacao agroforestry systems were also studied. To know farmer's perceptions 36 personal and semistructured interviews were made. Both, tree species and palm tree (dap > 5 cm) associates to cacao were identified and counted in temporary plots of 1000 m

  3. DOMESTICATION OF DACRYODES EDULIS IN WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA: CHARACTERISATION OF GENETIC VARIATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. B. LEAKEY; A. R. ATANGANA; E. KENGNI; A. N. WARUHIU; C. USORO; P. O. ANEGBEH; Z. TCHOUNDJEU

    2002-01-01

    New initiatives in agroforestry are seeking to integrate trees with marketable products into farming systems. This is being done in order to provide marketable timber and non-timber forest products from farms that will enhance rural livelihoods by generating cash for subsistence farmers. Dacryodes edulis (Safou) is one of the candidate tree species in West and Central Africa for domestication, which

  4. Efficacy of Aqueous Extracts of Five Arable Trees on The Seed Germination of Pisum sativum L. Var-VRP-6 and KPM522

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sazada Siddiqui; Mukesh K. Meghvansi; Ruchi Yadav; Feroze Ahmad Wani; Ajaz Ahmad

    3 Abstract: Allelopathy can simply be understood as the ability of plants to inhibit or stimulate growth of other plants in the environment by exuding chemicals. Decline in crop yield in cropping and agroforestry system in recent years has been attributed to allelopathic effects. Plants may favorably or adversely affect other plants through allelochemicals, which may be released directly or

  5. CONSÓRCIO DAS CULTURAS DE FEIJÃO (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) E EUCALIPTO (Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden) NO SUDESTE DO BRASIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrique Geraldo Schreiner; Edson Antonio Balloni

    The profitability of an agroforestry system, with beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, with three different densities of beans (167, 200 and 233 thousand plants\\/ha, planted into four, five and six rows, respectively, inside the rows of eucalypts at 2m x 3m spacing) was studied in Itararé, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Both crops were

  6. Réponse physiologique et productivité des cultures dans un système agroforestier traditionnel : cas du maïs (Zea mays L.) associé au karité (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn.) dans la zone est du Burkina Faso

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Zomboudré; Makido Ouedraogo; Sita Guinko; Harold Roy

    Physiological answer and productivity of the cultures in a traditional agroforestry system: the case of maize (Zea mays L.) associated with the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn.) in the east zone of Burkina Faso. This study was focused on the behaviour of maize cultivated in a forest park of shea butter tree. The surfaces under the influence of shading of

  7. A geologic guide to Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; a tectonic collage of northbound terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; with contributions by MacKevett, E. M., Jr.; Plafker, George; Richter, D.H.; Rosenkrans, D.S.; Schmoll, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, the largest unit in the U.S. National Park System, encompasses near 13.2 million acres of geological wonderments. This geologic guide presents history of exploration and Earth-science investigation; describes the complex geologic makeup; characterizes the vast college of accretion geologic terranes in this area of Alaska's continental margin; recapitulates the effects of earthquakes, volcanoes, and glaciers; characterizes the copper and gold resources of the parklands; and describes outstanding locales within the park and preserve area. A glossary of geologic terms and a categorized list of additional sources of information complete this report.

  8. Mapping of invasive Acacia species in Brazilian Mussununga ecosystems using high- resolution IR remote sensing data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Jan Rudolf Karl; Zvara, Ondrej; Prinz, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The biological invasion of Australian Acacia species in natural ecosystems outside Australia has often a negative impact on native and endemic plant species and the related biodiversity. In Brazil, the Atlantic rainforest of Bahia and Espirito Santo forms an associated type of ecosystem, the Mussununga. In our days this biologically diverse ecosystem is negatively affected by the invasion of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis, both introduced to Brazil by the agroforestry to increase the production of pulp and high grade woods. In order to detect the distribution of Acacia species and to monitor the expansion of this invasion the use of high-resolution imagery data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) proved to be a very promising approach. In this study, two types of datasets - CIR and RGB - were collected since both types provide different information. In case of CIR imagery attention was paid on spectral signatures related to plants, whereas in case of RGB imagery the focus was on surface characteristics. Orthophoto-mosaics and DSM/DTM for both dataset were extracted. RGB/IHS transformations of the imagery's colour space were utilized, as well as NDVIblue index in case of CIR imagery to discriminate plant associations. Next, two test areas were defined in order validate OBIA rule sets using eCognition software. In case of RGB dataset, a rule set based on elevation distinction between high vegetation (including Acacia) and low vegetation (including soils) was developed. High vegetation was classified using Nearest Neighbour algorithm while working with the CIR dataset. The IHS information was used to mask shadows, soils and low vegetation. Further Nearest Neighbour classification was used for distinction between Acacia and other high vegetation types. Finally an accuracy assessment was performed using a confusion matrix. One can state that the IHS information appeared to be helpful in Acacia detection while the surface elevation information in case of RGB dataset was helpful to distinguish between low and high vegetation types. The successful use of a fixed-wing UAS proved to be a reliable and flexible technique to acquire ecologically sensitive data over wide areas and by extended UAS flight missions.

  9. Distributed Systems Multiagent Systems

    E-print Network

    Polani, Daniel

    ; no \\big brother" #15; distributedness 5 #12; Why RoboCup? \\Conventional" Scienti#12;c Approach: #15 { solution of problems in a team { against adversarial conditions { planning, learning and adaptation #15; no \\Big Brother"! #15; prototype for multiagent systems 11 #12; Scenario server agent team 2 agent team 1

  10. Operating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Brown, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer operating system spans multiple layers of complexity, from commands entered at a keyboard to the details of electronic switching. In addition, the system is organized as a hierarchy of abstractions. Various parts of such a system and system dynamics (using the Unix operating system as an example) are described. (JN)

  11. Aerospace Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This pdf contains a syllabus for a course on aerospace systems as part of the Aerospace Technology Program. This course covers an introduction to expendable and reusable Space Launch Vehicle (SLV) systems including hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, propulsion, mechanical, HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), and ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support Systems). How systems interact with computer and data acquisition systems is also covered.

  12. Immune System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Immune System Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share ... and growth to maintain optimal health. Understanding the Immune System Overview of the Immune System Features of an ...

  13. Systems Thinking (and Systems Doing).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brethower, Dale M.; Dams, Peter-Cornelius

    1999-01-01

    Introduces human performance technology (HPT) by answering the following questions related to: what systems does; practical issues and questions to which systems thinking is relevant; research questions and answers with respect to systems thinking; how HPT practitioners can do systems thinking; systems thinking tools; what is and is not known…

  14. Microfluidic Systems Integrated Microfluidic Systems**

    E-print Network

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Microfluidic Systems Integrated Microfluidic Systems** Rustem F. Ismagilov* Keywords: analytical methods · enzymes · microfluidics · microreactors · protein structures Microfluidic systems use networks of channels thinner than a human hair to manipulate nanoliter volumes of re- agents. The goal of microfluidics

  15. Fluid Management System (FMS) fluid systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fluid management system (FMS) fluid systems overview are presented. Topics addressed include: fluid management system description including system requirements (integrated nitrogen system, integrated water system, and integrated waste gas system) and physical description; and fluid management system evolution.

  16. Clinical and radiographic outcomes following traumatic Grade 1 and 2 carotid artery injuries: a 10-year retrospective analysis from a Level I trauma center. The Parkland Carotid and Vertebral Artery Injury Survey.

    PubMed

    Scott, William W; Sharp, Steven; Figueroa, Stephen A; Eastman, Alexander L; Hatchette, Charles V; Madden, Christopher J; Rickert, Kim L

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT Proper screening, management, and follow-up of Grade 1 and 2 blunt carotid artery injuries (BCIs) remains controversial. These low-grade BCIs were analyzed to define their natural history and establish a rational management plan based on lesion progression and cerebral infarction. METHODS A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all blunt traumatic carotid and vertebral artery injuries treated between August 2003 and April 2013 was performed and Grade 1 and 2 BCIs were identified. Grade 1 injuries are defined as a vessel lumen stenosis of less than 25%, and Grade 2 injuries are defined as a stenosis of the vessel lumen between 25% and 50%. Demographic information, radiographic imaging, number of imaging sessions performed per individual, length of radiographic follow-up, radiographic outcome at end of follow-up, treatment(s) provided, and documentation of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were recorded. RESULTS One hundred seventeen Grade 1 and 2 BCIs in 100 patients were identified and available for follow-up. The mean follow-up duration was 60 days. Final imaging of Grade 1 and 2 BCIs demonstrated that 64% of cases had resolved, 13% of cases were radiographically stable, and 9% were improved, whereas 14% radiographically worsened. Of the treatments received, 54% of cases were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 31% received no treatment, and 15% received various medications and treatments, including endovascular stenting. There was 1 cerebral infarction that was thought to be related to bilateral Grade 2 BCI, which developed soon after hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS The majority of Grade 1 and 2 BCIs remained stable or improved at final follow-up. Despite a 14% rate of radiographic worsening in the Grade 1 and 2 BCIs cohort, there were no adverse clinical outcomes associated with these radiographic changes. The stroke rate was 1% in this low-grade BCIs cohort, which may be an overestimate. The use of ASA or other antiplatelet or anticoagulant medications in these low-grade BCIs did not appear to correlate with radiographic injury stability, nor with a decreased rate of cerebral infarction. Although these data suggest that these Grade 1 and 2 BCIs may require less intensive radiographic follow-up, future prospective studies are needed to make conclusive changes related to treatment and management. PMID:25794340

  17. Clinical and radiological outcomes following traumatic Grade 3 and 4 vertebral artery injuries: a 10-year retrospective analysis from a Level I trauma center. The Parkland Carotid and Vertebral Artery Injury Survey.

    PubMed

    Scott, William W; Sharp, Steven; Figueroa, Stephen A; Eastman, Alexander L; Hatchette, Charles V; Madden, Christopher J; Rickert, Kim L

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT Grade 3 and 4 blunt vertebral artery (VA) injuries may carry a different natural course from that of lower-grade blunt VA injuries. Proper screening, management, and follow-up of these injuries remain controversial. Grade 3 and 4 blunt VA injuries were analyzed to define their natural history and establish a rational management plan based on lesion progression and cerebral infarction. METHODS A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all blunt traumatic carotid and vertebral artery injuries from August 2003 to April 2013 was performed, and Grade 3 and 4 blunt VA injuries were identified. Grade 3 injuries were defined as stenosis of the vessel greater than 50% or the development of a pseudoaneurysm, and Grade 4 injuries were defined as complete vessel occlusion. Demographic information, radiographic imaging findings, number of imaging sessions performed per individual, length of radiographic follow-up, radiographic outcome at end of follow-up, treatment(s) provided, and documentation of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were recorded. RESULTS A total of 79 high-grade (Grade 3 and 4) blunt VA injuries in 67 patients were identified. Fifty-nine patients with 66 high-grade blunt VA injuries were available for follow-up. There were 17 patients with 23 Grade 3 injuries and 42 patients with 43 Grade 4 injuries. The mean follow-up duration was 58 days for Grade 3 and 67 days for Grade 4 blunt VA injuries. Repeat imaging of Grade 3 blunt VA injuries showed that 39% of injuries were radiographically stable, 43% resolved, and 13% improved, while 1 injury radiographically worsened. Repeat imaging of the Grade 4 blunt VA injuries showed that 65% of injuries were radiographically stable (persistent occlusion), 30% improved (recanalization of the vessel), and in 2 cases (5%) the injury resolved. All Grade 3 injuries that were treated were managed with aspirin or clopidogrel alone, as were the majority of Grade 4 injuries. There were 3 cerebral infarctions thought to be related to Grade 4 blunt VA injuries, which were likely present on admission. All 3 of these patients died at a mean of 13.7 days after hospital admission. No cerebral infarctions directly related to Grade 3 blunt VA injuries were identified. CONCLUSIONS The majority of high-grade blunt VA injuries remain stable or are improved at final follow-up. Despite a 4% rate of radiographic worsening in the Grade 3 blunt VA injury group and a 35% recanalization rate in the Grade 4 blunt VA injury group, there were no adverse clinical outcomes associated with these radiographic changes. No cerebral infarctions were noted in the Grade 3 group. A 7% stroke rate was identified in the Grade 4 blunt VA injury group; however, this was confined to the immediate postinjury period and was associated with 100% mortality. While these data suggest that these high-grade vertebral artery injuries may require less intensive radiographic follow-up, future prospective studies are needed to make conclusive changes related to treatment and management. PMID:25343180

  18. A decision support system for water supply in watersheds with recurrent wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Regina; Fernandes, Luís; Pereira, Mário; Cortes, Rui; Pacheco, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    The Beça River basin (North of Portugal) is barely affected by anthropogenic pressures, namely by the harmful effects of industrialization, urbanization or intensive agriculture. However, this basin is subject to recurrent wildfires, which plays a major role on soil erosion and water quality deterioration. Wildfires are responsible for increasing the concentration of soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) that ultimately arise in the rivers and water reservoirs as a result of transport by rainfall. In this sense, the main aims of this study are threefold: (i) to assess the relationship between fire occurrence and P concentration in river water, (ii) to model the P and N concentrations in stream water at the basin and sub-basin scales, and (iii) to propose management guidelines for the protection of drinking water resources taking into account the local history on forest fires. This study includes morphological, hydrological and climatological characterization of the study area as well as the spatial-temporal distribution of the fire incidence in the basin. The rainfall-runoff and nutrient transport processes were performed respectively with Mike Hydro Basin and the ECO Lab. The data requirements for these analysis/tools includes: a digital elevation model, Corine Land Cover maps (for 1990, 2000 and 2006), cartography of burned areas (covering the period 1990 - 2013) and wildfire risk (assessed in 2011), daily records of temperature, precipitation and stream flow, measured at monitoring stations (during the 1990 - 2006 period). Obtained results reveals a maximum fire recurrence of 5 times during the study period (1990 - 2013) and robust exponential regression observed between burned area and wildfire risk (R2 > 0.9). The biophysical parameters contributes to 86% of the fire risk which suggest that burnt area in the Beça River basin is essentially triggered by natural causes. A total of 16,396 ha was burned between 1990 and 2013, corresponding to 47% of the basin area which was covered by scrubs (69%), forests (22%) and heterogeneous agricultural areas (9%). A close relationship was found between the concentration of phosphorus in river water and the occurrence of forest fires. The annual and monthly phosphorus concentrations are influenced by the burned area and the river flow discharge. However, the hydrologic conditions prevail in the sense that, for similar values of burnt area, the maximum phosphorous concentration is higher in dry than in wet years. In addition, the phosphorus concentrations in the water bodies exceeded the limits imposed by the National and European legislation for good ecological status, human consumption and multiple uses mostly in last years of the study period. The fire frequency is a key variable in the planning and management of water bodies within a fire-prone watershed. The impacts of wildfires on water quality may become periodical instead of occasional as a consequence of the reduced precipitation and increased fire frequency and intensity projected for the near future climate. This work was supported by national funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project PEst-OE/AGR/UI4033/2014 and by the project SUSTAINSYS: Environmental Sustainable Agro-Forestry Systems (NORTE-07-0124-FEDER-000044), financed by the North Portugal Regional Operational Programme (ON.2 - O Novo Norte), under the National Strategic Reference Framework (QREN), through the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER), as well as by National Funds (PIDDAC) through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT/MEC).

  19. Systems thinking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Cabrera; Laura Colosi; Claire Lobdell

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation is one of many fields where “systems thinking” is popular and is said to hold great promise. However, there is disagreement about what constitutes systems thinking. Its meaning is ambiguous, and systems scholars have made diverse and divergent attempts to describe it. Alternative origins include: von Bertalanffy, Aristotle, Lao Tsu or multiple aperiodic “waves.” Some scholars describe it as

  20. Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Wright

    2009-10-09

    An introduction to to the solar system. How to distinguish between the different planets. Activities to play while getting to know the solar system. Cosmic Cookies Solar System Scavenger Hunt Edible Earth Strawkets and Control Strawkets and Thrust Strawkets and Weight ...

  1. Linked Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC.

    Three papers are compiled here for research library directors: (1) "Background: Open Systems Interconnection," in which David F. Bishop provides fundamental background information to explain the concept of the emerging technology of linked systems and open systems interconnection--i.e., an agreed upon standard set of conventions or rules that,…

  2. Energy Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Office of Educational Partnerships,

    Posters are provided for several different energy conversion systems. Students are provided with cards that give the name and a description of each of the components in an energy system. They match these with the figures on the diagram. Since the groups look at different systems, they also describe their results to the class to share their knowledge.

  3. To Our Alumni and Friends from Your LSUSD family

    E-print Network

    .00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Laboratory Technician $115.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dental Assistant/Other For more information of Texas Southwestern Medical Center/Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas. His clinical interests also

  4. Systems Thinking 2: Thermodynamic Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Linda Vanasupa

    This video explains thermodynamic systems, open and closed systems, and the four key properties of a system. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives, Assessment, and Activities.

  5. Antenna Systems Advanced Antenna Systems

    E-print Network

    Fang, Yuguang "Michael"

    EEL4461 EEL5462 Fall 2014 Antenna Systems Advanced Antenna Systems Instructor Dr. Jenshan Lin://lss.at.ufl.edu/) Textbooks Required: Balanis, Antenna Theory - Analysis and Design, 3rd ed. 2005 Prerequisite EEL3472 principles of antenna and to apply them to the design and analysis of antenna systems. Students will learn

  6. Operating Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bin Muhammad, Rashid

    Rashid Bin Muhammad at Kent State University presents his page of lectures notes and other instructional materials on operating systems. The site is divided into a number of topics about operating systems: history, structure, process, threads, Solaris-2, CPU / process scheduling, schedule algorithm, interprocess communication, deadlock, important UNIX commands, and references. The site is then followed by links to outside resources to help supplement the material presented here. This is a great resource for computer science instructors teaching students about operating systems.

  7. [Information systems].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Maniega, José Antonio; Trío Maseda, Reyes

    2005-03-01

    The arrival of victims of the terrorist attacks of 11 March at the hospital put the efficiency of its information systems to the test. To be most efficient, these systems should be simple and directed, above all, to the follow-up of victims and to providing the necessary information to patients and families. A specific and easy to use system is advisable. PMID:15771852

  8. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  9. Systemic Darwinism

    PubMed Central

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-01-01

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a “compositional paradigm” according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality. PMID:18697926

  10. Forage Production Under and Adjacent to Robinia pseudoacacia in Central Appalachia, West Virginia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Feldhake; D. P. Belesky; E. L. Mathias

    Species-diverse production systems, such as agroforestry, provide opportunities to increase the value of total production\\u000a through marketing of multiple products from a given unit of land. Designing successful systems requires an understanding of\\u000a how species compete for resources and grow in proximity to other species with distinctly different growth habits and resource\\u000a demands (Sanchez, 1995; Ong and Leakey, 1999). Systems

  11. Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2000-05-01

    The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the implication that anticipatory behavior can only partially be described in a computer language and, furthermore, it shows that only a restricted class of anticipatory systems can be transferred to computers.

  12. Disperse Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Takeo

    1999-01-01

    Interesting applications for disperse systems exist in many areas of modern technology. Weight and cost savings achieved in engineered foams for complex designs and computer-modeled optical pigments for creating astounding effects in coating are but two examples of such diverse applications. In addition to the cost and material reductions already achieved in existing applications, future applications of disperse systems are

  13. Blackboard systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. Craig

    1988-01-01

    The blackboard architecture is becoming an increasingly popular basis for the construction of problem-solving systems which operate in domains requiring qualitatively different kinds of knowledge to be applied in order to arrive at a solution to a problem. This paper presents the metaphor on which blackboard systems are based. The metaphor is then given an interpretation which constitutes the blackboard

  14. Multimedia Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms Laurie Patterson

    CSC 304. Multimedia Systems (3) Prerequisite: CSC 121. Introduction to technologies of the Internet and networked multimedia systems. Issues in web page design; Internet client/server programming; collaborative computing and group work; network publishing; security and encryption; audio and video compression; ethical issues and privacy; e-commerce; and distributed object computing. Open only to students of junior or senior standing.

  15. Organ Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    W. R. Klemm

    2001-01-01

    This "Organ Systems" module has five units of instruction that focus on the main classes of functions that a body must perform. Rather than just naming organs of the body and what they do, they present a perspective on the body as a coordinated group of systems that must do certain things correctly in order to survive and thrive.

  16. Power system

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  17. Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. Modeling carbon sequestration in afforestation, agroforestry and forest management projects: the CO2FIX V.2 approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar R. Maseraa; J. F. Garza-Caligaris; M. Kanninen; T. Karjalainen; J. Liski; G. J. Nabuurs; A. Pussinen; B. H. J. de Jong; G. M. J. Mohren

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the Version 2 of the CO2FIX (CO2FIX V.2) model, a user-friendly tool for dynamically estimating the carbon sequestration potential of forest management, agroforesty and afforestation projects. CO2FIX V.2 is a multi-cohort ecosystem-level model based on carbon accounting of forest stands, including forest biomass, soils and products. Carbon stored in living biomass is estimated with a forest cohort

  19. The development of short-rotation willow in the northeastern United States for bioenergy and bioproducts, agroforestry and phytoremediation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Volk; L. P. Abrahamson; C. A. Nowak; L. B. Smart; P. J. Tharakan; E. H. White

    2006-01-01

    Research on willow (Salix spp.) as a locally produced, renewable feedstock for bioenergy and bioproducts began in New York in the mid-1980s in response to growing concerns about environmental impacts associated with fossil fuels and declining rural economies. Simultaneous and integrated activities—including research, large-scale demonstrations, outreach and education, and market development—were initiated in the mid-1990s to facilitate the commercialization of

  20. Walking a New Path of Life: Learning Tours, "Agroforestry" and the Transformation of the Village of Bann Na Isarn, Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thacheen, Piyaporn; Lauzon, Allan C.

    2006-01-01

    Rural areas in both developed and developing countries are being increasingly marginalized through structural changes. Furthermore, the disinvestment in state-provided supports and services means that rural people are left to their own devices to cope with these changes. Numerous authors argue that the most effective way of dealing with these…

  1. Exploiting the potential of indigenous agroforestry trees: Parkia biglobosa and Vitellaria paradoxa in sub-Saharan Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Teklehaimanot

    2004-01-01

    Parkia biglobosa (néré) and Vitellaria paradoxa (karité) are indigenous tree species that are economically and socially important for local people in sub-Saharan Africa.\\u000a Farmers deliberately maintain these trees on farms mainly for their fruits and nuts. The kernels of karité yield shea butter,\\u000a which is rich in fatty acids; it is used locally for food and internationally in chocolate, pharmaceutical

  2. File Systems File System Overview

    E-print Network

    Hamey, Len

    Pig Cat Cow Dog Goat Owl Ox Hen Ibis Lion Tree After T fig 5.2 Abstract view - properties System file (reposition) Open Close #12;File Creation Find space in the file system Make a new entry in appropriate storage space used by the file Truncate: Empty file Rename: Modify/move directory entry #12;Other

  3. Processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilland, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    To implement the analysis techniques and to provide end-to-end processing, a system was designed with the following capabilities: receive and catalog data from many sources; organize the data on mass storage for rapid access; edit for reasonableness; create new data sets by sorting on parameter, averaging and merging; provide statistical analysis and display tools; and distribute data on demand. Consideration was given to developing a flexible system that could meet immediate workshop needs and respond to future requirements. System architecture and data set details implemented are discussed.

  4. System Toolbox

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    System Toolbox is designed for system administrators who deal with a variety of platforms. The site covers Windows NT, General Unix, Novell, Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, and the Mac OS. The "toolbox" for each platform offers annotated links to Tools (Disk Management, Anti-Virus, Security, etc.), Articles, and other useful Links. While the information here is hardly comprehensive, the site offers useful, if often basic, resources for administrators. System Toolbox's brand new History section looks promising, with two articles currently posted, "Von Braun's Slide Rule" and "The Godfather of Computing - Charles Babbage." The Comments section allows users to post questions or comments.

  5. The Systems Integration Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Danker, W.J.; Williams, J.R. [USDOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the systems integration modeling system (SIMS), an analysis tool for the detailed evaluation of the structure and related performance of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) and its interface with waste generators. It`s use for evaluations in support of system-level decisions as to FWMS configurations, the allocation, sizing, balancing and integration of functions among elements, and the establishment of system-preferred waste selection and sequencing methods and other operating strategies is presented. SIMS includes major analysis submodels which quantify the detailed characteristics of individual waste items, loaded casks and waste packages, simulate the detailed logistics of handling and processing discrete waste items and packages, and perform detailed cost evaluations.

  6. Nitrous oxide emissions following incorporation of improved-fallow residues in the humid tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, N.; Ndufa, J. K.; Cadisch, G.; Baggs, E. M.

    2004-03-01

    The rotation of crops with fast-growing tree, shrub, and herbaceous N2-fixing legume species (improved fallows) is a central agroforestry technology for soil fertility management in the humid tropics. Maize yields are increased following improved fallows compared with continuous maize cropping or traditional natural-fallow systems consisting of broadleaved weeds and grasses. However, the effect of these improved-fallow systems on N availability and N2O emissions following residue application has yet to be determined. Emissions from these systems not only have a detrimental effect on the environment, but are of additional concern in that they represent a potentially significant loss of N and a reduction in N-use efficiency. Emissions of N2O were measured from improved-fallow agroforestry systems in western Kenya, being characteristic of agroforestry systems in the humid tropics. Emissions were increased after incorporation of fallow residues and were higher after incorporation of improved-fallow legume residues (Sesbania sesban, Crotalaria grahamiana, Macroptilium atropurpureum) than natural-fallow residues (mainly consisting of Digitaria abyssibica, Habiscus cannabinus, Bidens pilosa, Guizotia scabra, Leonotis nepetifolia, Commelina benghalensis). Following incorporation of Sesbania and Macroptilium residues (7.4 t dry matter ha-1; 2.9% N) in a mixed fallow system, 4.1 kg N2O-N ha-1 was emitted over 84 days. The percentages of N applied emitted as N2O following residue incorporation in these tropical agroforestry systems were of the same magnitude as in temperate agricultural systems. N2O (loge) emissions were positively correlated with residue N content (r = 0.93; P < 0.05), and thus the residue composition, particularly its N content, is an important consideration when proposing management practices to mitigate N2O emissions from these systems.

  7. Tear System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or tear drainage. Increased Tear Production and Dry Eyes The eye has two sets of structures that ... and cosmetic surgeon who specializes in the eyelids, orbit, and tear drain system. It’s also important that ...

  8. Earth Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on Earth systems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  9. Recommender systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linyuan; Medo, Matúš; Yeung, Chi Ho; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2012-10-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article, we review recent developments in recommender systems and discuss the major challenges. We compare and evaluate available algorithms and examine their roles in the future developments. In addition to algorithms, physical aspects are described to illustrate macroscopic behavior of recommender systems. Potential impacts and future directions are discussed. We emphasize that recommendation has great scientific depth and combines diverse research fields which makes it interesting for physicists as well as interdisciplinary researchers.

  10. Respiratory System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jim Bidlack

    The purpose, components, and functions of the respiratory system are presented in this learning through disussion and visualizations. Participants learn about the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.

  11. Root systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (U.S. Government; )

    2004-10-30

    One purpose that roots serve is that of anchoring the plant in the ground. Roots also take up water and nutrients for the plant. Plants all have different root system types to fit their individual needs and locations.

  12. Embedded Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leske, Cavin.

    Embedded systems are dedicated computers designed to perform a specific task. They are usually fairly simple devices that are used in areas where powerful, customizable computers are unnecessary; however, they can also be quite complex on occasion. Embedded systems can be found almost anywhere, including automobiles and cellular phones, and their importance is reflected in their near omnipresence.An excellent introduction to embedded systems can be found in the first three pages of this online course material (1). The educational module gives a thorough definition of embedded systems, several examples of where they are used, and a discussion of their common components. For a more detailed explanation of how these devices are used to control various appliances, motors, and other real world products, this site (2) is worth a visit. Sixteen sections comprise the site, and each includes background information and an example experiment. Although certain equipment is required for the experiments, much can be learned simply from reading the introductions. This enlightening essay (3) documents the history and development of embedded systems. Despite being somewhat specific to the author's life, it effectively illustrates the evolution of embedded systems and their incorporation into many facets of everyday life. A paper presented at the 2003 International Cryptology Conference (4) considers the vulnerability of embedded cryptosystems to side channel attacks, which are different from normal security violations because they involve monitoring parts of the hardware system instead of the software. The authors propose the design of private circuits that are resistant to such attacks. The Center for Robotics and Embedded Systems at the University of Southern California is the source of this paper (5) about networked robots. Although it is somewhat dated, the paper provides some valuable insights into how robots can be used in human environments and how they can be controlled and coordinated with wireless communications. An article from Dedicated Systems Magazine (6) highlights the role of embedded systems in NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, which were launched in June and July 2003. The technologies that enabled the rovers to have powerful, reliable operation are described. The April 2003 issue of ACM Queue (7), the online magazine of the Association for Computing Machinery, is dedicated to embedded systems. Seven articles are included in the issue, dealing with the design and construction process of embedded devices and the hardware/software interface. Lastly, a short paper that was presented at a computer architecture symposium in January 2003 looks ahead to the realization of ubiquitous computing (8). This technology revolution, which has been predicted for many years, promises to make tiny computers embedded in virtually everything, even clothing and walls. The author focuses on the area of intelligent vehicles and wheeled mobile robots.

  13. Disperse Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeo, Makoto

    1999-03-01

    Interesting applications for disperse systems exist in many areas of modern technology. Weight and cost savings achieved in engineered foams for complex designs and computer-modeled optical pigments for creating astounding effects in coating are but two examples of such diverse applications. In addition to the cost and material reductions already achieved in existing applications, future applications of disperse systems are ripe with many heretofore-undeveloped products possessing unprecedented properties. A thorough understanding of the relationship between microscopic composition and the measurable macroscopic behaviour of disperse systems is necessary for technologists to exploit the unique properties of these systems. With such an understanding, the reader will be equipped to develop new products efficiently and to effectively achieve required material properties. Professor Makoto Takeo, the renowned expert from Portland State University, addresses this need for an understanding of disperse systems in a remarkable new text. The current knowledge base is presented and the underlying principles of these systems are revealed in a straightforward and easily accessible manner. It is an indispensable work for those who want to competently enter this fascinating field, and an absolute must for tomorrow's physicists and materials scientists.

  14. Synergies between Agricultural Intensification and Climate Change Could Create Surprising Vulnerabilities for Crops

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brenda B. Lin (University of Michigan; )

    2008-10-01

    An inevitable consequence of global climate change is that altered patterns of temperature and precipitation threaten agriculture in many tropical regions, requiring strategies of human adaptation. Moreover, the process of management intensification in agriculture has increased and may exacerbate vulnerability to climate extremes. Although many solutions have been presented, the role of simple agro-ecological and agroforestry management has been largely ignored. Some recent literature has shown how sustainable management may improve resistance to extreme climate events. We comment specifically on a prevalent form of agriculture throughout Latin America, the coffee agroforestry system. Results from the coffee literature have shown that shade management in coffee systems may mitigate the effects of extreme temperature and precipitation, thereby reducing the ecological and economic vulnerability of many rural farmers. We conclude that more traditional forms of agriculture can offer greater potential for adapting to changing conditions than do current intensive systems.

  15. Systems Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  16. Systemic trauma.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering. PMID:24617751

  17. Investigating Army systems and Systems of Systems for value robustness

    E-print Network

    Koo, Kevin C. K. (Kevin Cheng Keong)

    2010-01-01

    This thesis proposes a value robustness approach to architect defense systems and Systems of Systems (SoS). A value robust system or SoS has the ability to provide continued value to stakeholders by performing well to meet ...

  18. Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This site is part of the space page of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), and provides information about the Sun, the planets and their moons, and other bodies in the solar system. It contains a travel guide to the Solar System including such topics as what to see, reason to visit, how to get there, and local history. A similar travel guide is then available for the Sun, each of the planets, asteroids, and comets. In addition, multiple links for more detailed information as well as space games and puzzles are provided.

  19. Manufacturing Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    S Wallace

    2010-07-16

    Objective 7:05 - Students will develop an awareness of the designed World through : Describing a manufacturing system; listing and describing the basic type of manufacturing; defining production and manufacturing enterprise;defining AGV, CAD, CIM, CAM, CNC, production tooling, automation, and material processes. Day 1: Introduction/Background Objective Preassessment: Use a KWL chart to assess your students prior knowledge. This will also help you deal with any misconceptions regarding manufacturing system. Students will use the curriculum companion PowerPoint and Objective 7.05 Outline to develop an awarness of: Define manufacturing List and describe the basic types of Manufacturing Student ...

  20. System Overview

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Technicians face the challenge of building and maintaining knowledge and skills that are applicable to microcomputer architecture. These challenges include keeping up to date on improvements in PC components, changes in PC hardware configurations, integration of new devices within PC systems, and the ability to readily apply their knowledge within the microcomputer manufacturing industry. This module provides an introduction and overview to the major system features that define the architecture of an Intel-based PC. A unique multimedia self-tutorial is included.

  1. The Nervous System Nervous System Functions

    E-print Network

    Brown, Christopher A.

    1 The Nervous System Nervous System Functions The primary functions of the nervous system are...the whole nervous system #12;5 Nervous System Organization Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System Somatic NS--receives/sends messages to muscles Autonomic NS

  2. Immune System 1 Running Head: IMMUNE SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Meagher, Mary

    Immune System 1 Running Head: IMMUNE SYSTEM Immune System Structure and Function Mary W. Meagher: 979-845-4727 CITATION: Meagher, M. W. (2004). Immune system structure and function. In A. Christensen System 2 Immune System Structure and Function The immune system is engaged in a constant surveillance

  3. Systems Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

  4. Immune System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  5. Support Systems

    E-print Network

    Wood, Jody

    2009-04-28

    thesis: SUPORT SYSTEMS Commite: __________________________ Chairperson __________________________ __________________________ Date approved: March 24, 2009 iii Abstract Support... has a double-edged consequence. On one hand it offers anonymity. But the resulting privacy comes at a cost ? it requires emotional distance; that distance is what can make someone fel lonely in a crowded room. A study published in 2006 by American...

  6. Tychonic System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Murdin

    2000-01-01

    The world system proposed in 1583 by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601). Unable to accept the Copernican doctrine that the Earth moves around the Sun, he put forward the view, later disproved by Kepler (1571-1630), that the planets move around the Sun, but the Sun and Moon move around the Earth. The theory explained the observed variations of the

  7. Memory systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry R. Squire; Donald Chai

    1998-01-01

    Two recent findings are summarized here that bear on the organization of memory and brain systems. First, the capacity for simple recognition of familiarity (a form of declarative memory) depends on the hippocampal region in both humans and nonhuman primates. Second, probabilistic classification learning (a form of nondeclarative memory akin to habit learning) depends on the caudate nucleus and putamen.

  8. Lithography system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kruit

    1998-01-01

    Lithography system comprising a light source producing a light beam directed to a mask (3) located in a mask level and an optical demagnifier (4-6) for demagnifying by a factor and focusing the beam. The light beam is focused on a converter element (8) for converting said beam in a further beam having a smaller wavelength than UV light. The

  9. POWER SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1962-01-01

    Low power output of other devices at this time dictates the use of ; nuclear-reactor systems for manned space explorations. Work up to the present is ; briefly reviewed, and progress and utilization of other power supplies are ; discussed. Pros and cons of solar cells, fuel cells, and thermoelectric and ; thermionic devices are included as well as consideration

  10. Circulatory system

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (CSUF; )

    2007-01-22

    The circulatory system includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood. Arteries take blood with oxygen to our organs; veins bring deoxygenated blood to the heart (to be pumped to the lungs to get oxygen). Arteries and veins bring essential nutrients from digestion (such as glucose) to our tissues as well.

  11. Laser system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Karning; F. Prein; K. H. Vierling

    1985-01-01

    A laser system with a folded beam path is disclosed. The beam path is formed by a plurality of mirrors. Mirrors reflect light in a closed loop from one mirror to the other. Electrodes are disposed on opposite sides of the path between the mirrors and form channels through which the path extends. In addition to serving to direct the

  12. D System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    D-System is conducting research into program analysis, code generation, and programming tools for data-parallel languages like High Performance Fortran. If this research is successful, computational scientists and engineers will be able to write machine-independent, data-parallel programs for a broad spectrum of scientific applications, and achieve high performance with these programs on a variety of parallel architectures.

  13. Manufacturing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Advanced Process Systems designed a portable purge unit for NASA use. The unit is designed to protect flight and ground crews from toxic fumes and to provide a post-landing controlled environment for sensitive electronic equipment. Although the work has future spinoff potential, it has also led to a research and development program in conjunction with several universities.

  14. Soil Carbon Sequestration in Pastureland and Rotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Moulin; P. McCaughey; D. McCartney; M. Entz; S. Bittman; W. F. Nuttall

    Degraded land with less than 1.5% organic carbon (class 4 and 5 land) in the Parkland of Western Canada has significant potential, from 5 to 15 Mg C ha-1 depending on management, for carbon storage with forages in the Parkland. The potential ranges from 5 to 15 Mg C ha-1, over a period from 15 to 20 years, depending on

  15. Ventilation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, L.

    Two different types of ventilation systems and their components are addressed: general ventilation and local or process ventilation. Calculation of the flow rates used in the different systems is addressed. The many different types of flow calculations, how they are used, and some of the computer programs that could be used for these calculations are described. Some calculations start with assumptions regarding air flow rates in rooms and locals. The flow rates can be chosen from rule of thumb or regulations or standards. Thereafter the designer calculates necessary heat and cooling loads, pressure drops, fan effect, etc. The other type of calculation is not very common. By using demands on concentrations, temperatures or air velocities the flow rates are calculated. These calculations include contaminant source generation rates, use of models (physical and theoretical), and computational fluid dynamics. The latter are focused upon.

  16. Systemic treatment.

    PubMed

    Reig, Maria; Gazzola, Alessia; Di Donato, Roberto; Bruix, Jordi

    2014-10-01

    In the last years the management of patients with liver cancer has been improved. The BCLC staging/treatment strategy identifies the optimal candidates for each treatment option and sorafenib is the only effective systemic treatment. Others (sunitinib, brivanib, linifanib, everolimus, ramucirumab) have failed in terms of safety/survival benefit. Some patients at intermediate/early stage, may be considered for systemic therapy when options of higher priority may have failed or not be feasible. The 800 mg/day is the recommended starting dose. Close follow-up and easy access for the patients so that they can report any adverse event and implement dose adjustments is the key point in the management of them. Development of early dermatologic adverse events has been correlated with better outcome and the pattern of radiologic progression characterizes better the prognosis/outcome of these patients. Treatment beyond progression may be considered if there is no option for a second line research trial. PMID:25260318

  17. Burner systems

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, Brian J. (Marblehead, MA)

    1984-07-10

    A burner system particularly useful for downhole deployment includes a tubular combustion chamber unit housed within a tubular coolant jacket assembly. The combustion chamber unit includes a monolithic tube of refractory material whose inner surface defines the combustion zone. A metal reinforcing sleeve surrounds and extends the length of the refractory tube. The inner surface of the coolant jacket assembly and outer surface of the combustion chamber unit are dimensioned so that those surfaces are close to one another in standby condition so that the combustion chamber unit has limited freedom to expand with that expansion being stabilized by the coolant jacket assembly so that compression forces in the refractory tube do not exceed about one-half the safe compressive stress of the material; and the materials of the combustion chamber unit are selected to establish thermal gradient parameters across the combustion chamber unit to maintain the refractory tube in compression during combustion system start up and cool down sequences.

  18. Surveying System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sunrise Geodetic Surveys are setting up their equipment for a town survey. Their equipment differs from conventional surveying systems that employ transit rod and chain to measure angles and distances. They are using ISTAC Inc.'s Model 2002 positioning system, which offers fast accurate surveying with exceptional signals from orbiting satellites. The special utility of the ISTAC Model 2002 is that it can provide positioning of the highest accuracy from Navstar PPS signals because it requires no knowledge of secret codes. It operates by comparing the frequency and time phase of a Navstar signal arriving at one ISTAC receiver with the reception of the same set of signals by another receiver. Data is computer processed and translated into three dimensional position data - latitude, longitude and elevation.

  19. Tychonic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The world system proposed in 1583 by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601). Unable to accept the Copernican doctrine that the Earth moves around the Sun, he put forward the view, later disproved by Kepler (1571-1630), that the planets move around the Sun, but the Sun and Moon move around the Earth. The theory explained the observed variations of the phases of Venus, for which the Ptolemai...

  20. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  1. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  2. Injection System

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.E.

    1998-06-15

    Felton Medical identified a market need for a handheld portable single shot needleless injection system. This market need was being driven by a global need to eliminate the hazards of medical needle disposal by providing an alternative injection method. Felton Medical brought to this partnership individuals experienced in the research, development, design, assembly, marketing, and servicing of precision animal health medical devices. AlliedSignal provided manufacturing understanding and a facility proficient in product development for small precision mechanical parts and assemblies.

  3. Nanoelectromechanical Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Roukes

    2000-01-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems, or NEMS, are MEMS scaled to submicron\\u000adimensions. In this size regime, it is possible to attain extremely high\\u000afundamental frequencies while simultaneously preserving very high mechanical\\u000aresponsivity (small force constants). This powerful combination of attributes\\u000atranslates directly into high force sensitivity, operability at ultralow power,\\u000aand the ability to induce usable nonlinearity with quite modest control forces.

  4. Systemic illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Bondanelli; Maria Chiara Zatelli; Maria Rosaria Ambrosio; Ettore C. degli Uberti

    2008-01-01

    Systemic illnesses are associated with alterations in the hypothalamic–pituitary–peripheral hormone axes, which represent\\u000a part of the adaptive response to stressful events and may be influenced by type and severity of illness and\\/or pharmacological\\u000a therapy. The pituitary gland responds to an acute stressful event with two secretory patterns: adrenocorticotropin (ACTH),\\u000a prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) levels increase, while luteinizing hormone

  5. Copernican System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The heliocentric (i.e. `Sun-centered') theory proposed by the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), and published by him in 1543 in his book, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium. In this system Copernicus placed the Sun at the center of the universe and regarded the Earth and the planets as moving around it in circular orbits. Because of his retention of the notion of circular motion...

  6. Braking system

    DOEpatents

    Norgren, D.U.

    1982-09-23

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  7. Multiprocessor system

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, J.A.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bixler, R.M.; Davidow, W.H.; Despotakis, J.A.; Graziano, P.J.; Green, M.D.; Greig, D.A.; Hayashi, S.J.; Mackie, D.R.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes an input/output system for a multiprocessor system of the kind in which a plurality of separate processor modules are interconnected for processing, each of the processor modules having a central processing unit and an associated main memory, at least pair of the processor modules each having an input/output channel with each such channel being independent of other such channels, the input/output system comprising: device controller for controlling the transfer of data between the pair of processor modules and a peripheral device, the device controller having multiple ports, with each such port being failure-independent of the other such ports and connected to a respective one of the input/output channels, each port including an enable latch operable in response to a disable command communicated to the port by the associated processor module to disable the port from any further data communication; the device controller including interface logic means responsive to signaling from a one of the processor modules for selecting one of the ports to the exclusion of the other of the ports for data transfers between the peripheral device and the one processor module connected to the selected port through its associated input/output channel; and interprocessor bus means communicating the pair of processor modules to one another for data transfer therebetween; each of processors modules being operable to provide a data communication path to the peripheral device for itself and for the other of the pair of processor modules.

  8. Acclimation to sun and shade of three accessions of the Chilean native berry-crop murta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolás Franck; Sylvia Winkler; Claudio Pastenes; Rodrigo Infante

    2007-01-01

    Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) is an evergreen shrub of the native forest understorey of southern Chile that produces berries which are consumed\\u000a in the local markets. Because of the natural adaptation of murta to growing under the shade of trees, we propose that an adequate\\u000a way of domesticating this species would be its cultivation in agroforestry systems. In order to

  9. Chapter 17 Slash-and-Burn Agriculture in a Japanese Cedar ( Cryptomeria japonica D. Don.) Plantation: Effects of Fire on Nutrients and Soil Emissions of Carbon Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyuki Ohtsuka; Wenhong Mo; Masaki Uchida; Hironori Sako; Hiroshi Koizumi

    2007-01-01

    On the temperate coast of central Japan, a unique agroforestry system exists, wherein red turnips (Brassica rapa L. var. glabra Kitam.) are grown on slash-and-burn sites following the harvesting of mature Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don.) plantations. We studied the effect of fire on nutrient dynamics, soil CO2 efflux, and microbial biomass at two slash-and-burned sites. Burning, besides raising

  10. The Functioning, Management and Persistence of Dehesas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Moreno; F. J. Pulido

    Dehesas are the most widespread agroforestry systems in Europe, where they cover 3.1 million hectares. They are multipurpose\\u000a open woodlands, mostly created by clearing the natural forests, where livestock rearing, cereal cropping, cork and firewood\\u000a harvesting, and hunting are combined. In dehesas, trees can be seen as “ecosystem engineers”, as they allow the maintenance\\u000a of grass production in poor soils

  11. ESMDIS: Earth System Model Data Information System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuechen Chi; Carlos R. Mechoso; Michael Stonebraker; Keith Sklower; Richard Troy; Richard R. Muntz; Edmond Mesrobian

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the development of the Earth System Model Data Information System (ESMDIS) are to provide Earth scientists with: 1) an output management system of Earth System Model (ESM) to browse the metadata and retrieve a desired subset of ESM output; 2) an analysis system of ESM output and other related datasets; 3) an automated pipelining system for ESM

  12. Artificial immune system based intrusion detection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vadim D. Kotov; Vladimir I. Vasilyev

    2009-01-01

    In this work the intrusion detection system (IDS) based on artificial immune systems is presented. This IDS traces sequences of applications system calls and then uses the negative selection algorithm to detect changes in the normal system behavior. It works on MS Windows operation system. This IDS also shows a high performance on local area networks when artificial immune systems

  13. Purification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T. (inventor); Gibbons, Randall E. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A system for prolonging the life of a granulated activated charcoal (GAC) water treatment device is disclosed in which an ultraviolet light transparent material is used to constrain water to flow over carbon surfaces. It is configured to receive maximum flux from a UV radiation source for the purpose of preventing microbial proliferation on the carbon surfaces; oxidizing organic contaminants adsorbed from the water onto the carbon surfaces and from biodegradation of adsorbed microbial forms; disinfecting water; and oxidizing organic contaminants in the water.

  14. Sterilization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  15. Relaxation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  16. Bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Kapich, Davorin D. (Carlsbad, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  17. Fruit set of highland coffee increases with the diversity of pollinating bees.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

    2003-01-01

    The worldwide decline of pollinators may negatively affect the fruit set of wild and cultivated plants. Here, we show that fruit set of the self-fertilizing highland coffee (Coffea arabica) is highly variable and related to bee pollination. In a comparison of 24 agroforestry systems in Indonesia, the fruit set of coffee could be predicted by the number of flower-visiting bee species, and it ranged from ca. 60% (three species) to 90% (20 species). Diversity, not abundance, explained variation in fruit set, so the collective role of a species-rich bee community was important for pollination success. Additional experiments showed that single flower visits from rare solitary species led to higher fruit set than with abundant social species. Pollinator diversity was affected by two habitat parameters indicating guild-specific nesting requirements: the diversity of social bees decreased with forest distance, whereas the diversity of solitary bees increased with light intensity of the agroforestry systems. These results give empirical evidence for a positive relationship between ecosystem functions such as pollination and biodiversity. Conservation of rainforest adjacent to adequately managed agroforestry systems could improve the yields of farmers. PMID:12803911

  18. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Spray Distribution System

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23

    Disinfectant storage Pump tank Spray heads Wastewater treatment system Onsite wastewater treatment systems Spray distribution system L-5303 9-08 Figure 1: A spray distribution system with treatment and disinfection devices. S pray distribution... to install of all wastewa- ter distribution systems. However, they require the most wastewater treatment, which increases the cost of a com- plete treatment and final treatment and dispersal system. Spray systems also help conserve Texas? freshwater...

  19. Gastrointestinal system

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Leo K.; O’Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Egbuji, John U.; Windsor, John A.; Pullan, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract include digestion, absorption, excretion, and protection. In this review, we focus on the electrical activity of the stomach and small intestine, which underlies the motility of these organs, and where the most detailed systems descriptions and computational models have been based to date. Much of this discussion is also applicable to the rest of the GI tract. This review covers four major spatial scales: cell, tissue, organ, and torso, and discusses the methods of investigation and the challenges associated with each. We begin by describing the origin of the electrical activity in the interstitial cells of Cajal, and its spread to smooth muscle cells. The spread of electrical activity through the stomach and small intestine is then described, followed by the resultant electrical and magnetic activity that may be recorded on the body surface. A number of common and highly symptomatic GI conditions involve abnormal electrical and/or motor activity, which are often termed functional disorders. In the last section of this review we address approaches being used to characterize and diagnose abnormalities in the electrical activity and how these might be applied in the clinical setting. The understanding of electrophysiology and motility of the GI system remains a challenging field, and the review discusses how biophysically based mathematical models can help to bridge gaps in our current knowledge, through integration of otherwise separate concepts. PMID:20836011

  20. Systemic illness.

    PubMed

    Bondanelli, Marta; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; degli Uberti, Ettore C

    2008-01-01

    Systemic illnesses are associated with alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-peripheral hormone axes, which represent part of the adaptive response to stressful events and may be influenced by type and severity of illness and/or pharmacological therapy. The pituitary gland responds to an acute stressful event with two secretory patterns: adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) levels increase, while luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels may either decrease or remain unchanged, associated with a decreased activity of their target organ. In protracted critical illness, there is a uniformly reduced pulsatile secretion of ACTH, TSH, LH, PRL and GH, causing a reduction in serum levels of the respective target-hormones. These adaptations are initially protective; however, if inadequate or excessive they may be dangerous and may contribute to the high morbidity and mortality risk of these patients. There is no consensus regarding the type of approach, as well as the criteria to use to define pituitary axis function in critically ill patients. We here provide a critical approach to pituitary axis evaluation during systemic illness. PMID:18404385

  1. Solar System!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    An introduction to our solar system—the planets, our Sun and Moon. To begin, students learn about the history and engineering of space travel. They make simple rockets to acquire a basic understanding Newton's third law of motion. They explore energy transfer concepts and use renewable solar energy for cooking. They see how engineers design tools, equipment and spacecraft to go where it is too far and too dangerous for humans. They explore the Earth's water cycle, and gravity as applied to orbiting bodies. They learn the steps of the design process as they create their own models of planetary rovers made of edible parts. Students conduct experiments to examine soil for signs of life, and explore orbit transfers. While studying about the International Space Station, they investigate the realities of living in space. Activities explore low gravity on human muscles, eating in microgravity, and satellite tracking. Finally, students learn about the context of our solar system—the universe—as they learn about the Hubble Space Telescope, celestial navigation and spectroscopy.

  2. Computer Systems Administrator

    E-print Network

    Computer Systems Administrator Fort Collins, CO POSITION A Computer Systems Administrator (Non activities. RESPONSIBILITIES The System Administrator will provide Unix/Linux, Windows computer system or computer science, and three years computer systems administration experience. DURATION The work is planned

  3. Prosthetic Knee Systems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of fluid control systems — pneumatic (using air) and hydraulic (using fluid). Pneumatic control. These systems: compress air ... control than friction systems are less effective than hydraulic systems. Hydraulic control. These systems: use liquid (usually ...

  4. Systems Science Harder House

    E-print Network

    of managing complex social and technical systems. In mathematics, engineering, business administration, and the natural and social sciences, systems theorists continue to make important contributions to the growth, dynamical systems, game theory, information theory, neural networks, systems approach, system dynamics

  5. Elec 331 -Nervous System Nervous System

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    Elec 331 - Nervous System 1 Nervous System · Central Nervous System ­ Brain ­ Spinal Chord · Peripheral Nervous System ­ "Conductive" network between CNS & organs ­ Neurones · Individual cells · May act Flow of Information neurone #12;Elec 331 - Nervous System 2 Cell States · Resting Potential (Vc = -70m

  6. Systems Biology and Systems Medicine: Technology,

    E-print Network

    Systems Biology and Systems Medicine: Technology, Measurement and Validation Lee Hood Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle How Might One Think About Systems Biology? #12;Radio Waves Sound Waves #12;Immune Response Intra- and inter- cellular networks Development Physiology #12;Contemporary Systems Biology

  7. Artificial Immune Systems 209 Artificial Immune Systems

    E-print Network

    Timmis, Jon

    Artificial Immune Systems 209 Chapter XI Artificial Immune Systems: Using the Immune System, Idea Group Publishing. The immune system is highly distributed, highly adaptive, self encounters. From a computational view- point, the immune system has much to offer by way of inspiration

  8. Systems approach to space plasma systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Boynton; Simon Walker

    2010-01-01

    The application of nonlinear system identification methodology was used to review complex space plasma systems. It is shown how the nonlinear system identification approach can lead to a comprehensive description of dynamical processes in developed space plasma turbulences. It is also explained how nonlinear system identification can access the analytical approach to complex dynamical systems such as the magnetosphere.

  9. Skeletal System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program,

    Through this unit, written for an honors anatomy and physiology class, students become familiar with the human skeletal system and answer the Challenge Question: When you get home from school, your mother grabs you, and you race to the hospital. Your grandmother fell and was rushed to the emergency room. The doctor tells your family your grandmother has a fractured hip, and she is referring her to an orthopedic specialist. The orthopedic doctor decides to perform a DEXA scan. The result show her BMD is -3.3. What would be a probable diagnosis to her condition? What are some possible causes of her condition? Should her daughter and granddaughter be worried about this condition, and if so, what are measures they could take to prevent this from happening to them?

  10. Bionanomechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jacob J.; Montemagno, Carlo D.

    2004-08-01

    Over the past two decades, advances in biophysical instrumentation have enabled the study of molecular motors at the single molecule level. These studies have inspired the creation of biological/inorganic systems powered by such motors in an attempt to exploit their unique sizes, speeds, functions, and energy utilization capabilities. We give a brief overview of the state-of-the-art of biological and synthetic molecular motors and discuss some initial efforts to exploit their function in engineered structures. We also briefly discuss the construction of devices powered by organized and coordinated arrays of millions of motors in which the growth of cardiac muscle tissue over a microfabricated silicon "skeleton" is directed and controlled.

  11. Systemic contact dermatitis Systemic contact dermatitis Systemic contact dermatitis Systemic contact dermatitis Systemic contact dermatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Bajaj; A. Saraswat

    Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD), better termed systemically reactivated allergic contact dermatitis, is a type of contact hypersensitivity reaction in which ingestion or other systemic exposure to a contact allergen occurs in an already sensitized person. Although the initial sensitizing exposure is usually by topical application, re-exposure by the oral, intravenous or inhalation routes can cause SCD. Even percutaneous exposure through

  12. Systemic Risk in the International System

    E-print Network

    Ingo Piepers

    2009-10-15

    The risk of systemic war seems dependant on the level of criticality and sensitivity of the International System, and the system's conditions. The level of criticality and sensitivity is dependant on the developmental stage of the International System. Initially, following a systemic war, the increase of the level of criticality and sensitivity go hand in hand. However, at a certain stage the sensitivity of the International System for larger sized wars decreases; as a consequence of a network effect, we argue. This network effect results in increased local stability of the System. During this phase the criticality of the International System steadily increases, resulting in a release deficit. This release deficit facilitates a necessary build up of energy to push the International System, by means of systemic war, into a new stability domain. Systemic war is functional in the periodic rebalancing of an anarchistic international system.

  13. 4. System Definition 16 4. System Definition

    E-print Network

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    4. System Definition 16 _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. System Definition Based on our knowledge that we can "join" the dynamic characteristics-up, complete system. A general and simple example of substructuring is the source-transmission element

  14. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Spray Distribution System 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23

    Spray distribution systems for wastewater are much like lawn sprinkler systems, in that they spray treated wastewater over the surface of a yard. This publication explains how spray distribution systems work, what their design requirements are...

  15. System safety education focused on system management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grose, V. L.

    1971-01-01

    System safety is defined and characteristics of the system are outlined. Some of the principle characteristics include role of humans in hazard analysis, clear language for input and output, system interdependence, self containment, and parallel analysis of elements.

  16. Expanding Alternative Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzer, Jan A.

    Alternative educational delivery systems that might be useful to community colleges are considered. The following categories of delivery systems are covered: broadcast delivery systems; copy delivery systems, print delivery systems, computer delivery systems, telephone delivery systems, and satellites. Among the applications for broadcast…

  17. Integrated Nanofluidic Systems for Systems Biotechnology

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Frank

    Integrated Nanofluidic Systems for Systems Biotechnology Wednesday October 28 2009 Burchard 118, 11 in prestigious journals including Science and Nature Biotechnology. Hong's research interests include Bio

  18. Incinerator system

    SciTech Connect

    Rathmell, R.K.

    1986-10-07

    An incineration system is described which consists of: combustion chamber structure having an inlet, an outlet, and burner structure in the combustion chamber, heat exchanger structure defining a chamber, divider structure between the heat exchanger chamber and the combustion chamber, an array of tubes extending through the heat exchanger chamber to the inlet of the combustion chamber at the divider structure. The heat exchanger chamber has an inlet coupled to the outlet of the combustion chamber for flow of the combustion products discharged from the combustion chamber through the heat exchanger chamber over the tubes in heat exchange relation, and an outlet for discharge of products from the heat exchanger chamber, aspirator sleeve structure secured to the divider structure between the heat exchanger chamber and the combustion chamber. Each aspirator sleeve receives the outlet end of a heat exchanger tube in slip fit relation so that the heat exchanger tubes are free to thermally expand longitudinally within the aspirator sleeves, and means for flowing vapor through the heat exchanger tubes into the combustion chamber at sufficiently high velocity to produce a reduced pressure effect in the aspirator sleeves in the heat exchanger chamber to draw a minor fraction of combustion products through the aspirator sleeves into the combustion chamber for reincineration.

  19. Separation system

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Leslie S. (Newton, MA)

    1986-01-01

    A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. Separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. Inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. Centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized.

  20. Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    Schindelhauer, Christian

    1 | 27 Communication Systems 21st lecture Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied NATed and proxied HTTP connection of a client? Communication Systems Q&A #12;3 | 27 3rd and last part of the communication systems lecture: digital telephony For a rather long time telephone and data networks were

  1. System design description cone penetrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Seda, R.Y., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The system design description documents in detail the design of the cone penetrometer system. The systems includes the cone penetrometer physical package, raman spectroscopy package and moisture sensor package. Information pertinent to the system design, development, fabrication and testing is provided.

  2. System Dynamics, Systems Thinking, and Soft OR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay W. Forrester

    1992-01-01

    System dynamics, systems thinking, and soft operations research (soft OR) all aspire to understanding and improvement of systems. In all, the first step interprets the real world into a description used in following stages. In system dynamics, description leads to equations of a model, simulation to understand dynamic behavior, evaluation of alternative policies, education and choice of a better policy,

  3. Biometric System Security Systems and Computer Engineering

    E-print Network

    Adler, Andy

    Biometric System Security Andy Adler Systems and Computer Engineering Carleton University, Ottawa to confidentiality and integrity". Defining biometrics system security is difficult, because of the ways biometric systems differ from tradi- tional computer and cryptographic security [40]. Implicit in all definitions

  4. Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    Schindelhauer, Christian

    ;3 | 36 Communication Systems GSM interfaces and components #12;4 | 36 Communication Systems GSM (HLR) #12;5 | 36 Communication Systems GSM interfaces and components The several MSC (Operation and Maintenance Center) ­ Network Administration #12;6 | 36 Communication Systems GSM interfaces

  5. Logical Systems Incorporated The Help Systems

    E-print Network

    Mann, Tim

    Logical Systems Incorporated The Help Systems T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Introduction ..................................... page 2 HELP/CMD ..................................... page 3 HELPRESx ................................... page 17 #12;LDOS Help System Page 1 The LDOS HELP Systems Introduction This documentation covers all

  6. System on Chip or System on Package?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rao R. Tummala; Vijay K. Madisetti

    1999-01-01

    The authors propose a new system design paradigm, the system on package, which uses electronic product reengineering to meet time-to-market and performance requirements. The system on package promises a higher return on investment than the system on chip

  7. A model of greenhouse gas emissions from the management of turf on two golf courses.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Mark D; James, Iain T

    2011-03-15

    An estimated 32,000 golf courses worldwide (approximately 25,600 km(2)), provide ecosystem goods and services and support an industry contributing over $ 124 billion globally. Golf courses can impact positively on local biodiversity however their role in the global carbon cycle is not clearly understood. To explore this relationship, the balance between plant-soil system sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management on golf courses was modelled. Input data were derived from published studies of emissions from agriculture and turfgrass management. Two UK case studies of golf course type were used, a Links course (coastal, medium intensity management, within coastal dune grasses) and a Parkland course (inland, high intensity management, within woodland). Playing surfaces of both golf courses were marginal net sources of greenhouse gas emissions due to maintenance (Links 0.4 ± 0.1Mg CO(2)e ha(-1)y(-1); Parkland 0.7 ± 0.2Mg CO(2)e ha(-1)y(-1)). A significant proportion of emissions were from the use of nitrogen fertiliser, especially on tees and greens such that 3% of the golf course area contributed 16% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The area of trees on a golf course was important in determining whole-course emission balance. On the Parkland course, emissions from maintenance were offset by sequestration from trees which comprised 48% of total area, resulting in a net balance of -4.3 ± 0.9 Mg CO(2e) ha(-1)y(-1). On the Links course, the proportion of trees was much lower (2%) and sequestration from links grassland resulted in a net balance of 0.0 ± 0.2Mg CO(2e) ha(-1)y(-1). Recommendations for golf course management and design include the reduction of nitrogen fertiliser, improved operational efficiency when mowing, the inclusion of appropriate tree-planting and the scaling of component areas to maximise golf course sequestration capacity. The findings are transferrable to the management and design of urban parks and gardens, which range between fairways and greens in intensity of management. PMID:21288561

  8. A model of greenhouse gas emissions from the management of turf on two golf courses.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Mark D; James, Iain T

    2011-11-01

    An estimated 32,000 golf courses worldwide (approximately 25,600 km2), provide ecosystem goods and services and support an industry contributing over $124 billion globally. Golf courses can impact positively on local biodiversity however their role in the global carbon cycle is not clearly understood. To explore this relationship, the balance between plant–soil system sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management on golf courses was modelled. Input data were derived from published studies of emissions from agriculture and turfgrass management. Two UK case studies of golf course type were used, a Links course (coastal, medium intensity management, within coastal dune grasses) and a Parkland course (inland, high intensity management, within woodland).Playing surfaces of both golf courses were marginal net sources of greenhouse gas emissions due to maintenance (Links ?2.2 ± 0.4 Mg CO2e ha(?1) y(?1); Parkland ? 2.0 ± 0.4 Mg CO2e ha(?1) y(?1)). A significant proportion of emissions were from the use of nitrogen fertiliser, especially on tees and greens such that 3% of the golf course area contributed 16% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The area of trees on a golf course was important in determining whole-course emission balance. On the Parkland course, emissions from maintenance were offset by sequestration from turfgrass, and trees which comprised 48% of total area, resulting in a net balance of ?5.4 ± 0.9 Mg CO2e ha(?1) y(?1). On the Links course, the proportion of trees was much lower (2%) and sequestration from links grassland resulted in a net balance of ?1.6 ± 0.3 Mg CO2e ha(?1) y(?1). Recommendations for golf course management and design include the reduction of nitrogen fertiliser, improved operational efficiency when mowing, the inclusion of appropriate tree-planting and the scaling of component areas to maximise golf course sequestration capacity. The findings are transferrable to the management and design of urban parks and gardens, which range between fairways and greens in intensity of management. PMID:22066130

  9. Complex System Classification

    E-print Network

    Magee, Christopher

    2004-07-24

    The use of terms such as “Engineering Systems”, “System of systems” and others have been coming into greater use over the past decade to denote systems of importance but with implied higher complexity than for the term ...

  10. Mechanical systems: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation of several mechanized systems is presented. The articles are contained in three sections: robotics, industrial mechanical systems, including several on linear and rotary systems and lastly mechanical control systems, such as brakes and clutches.

  11. Immune System (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can lead to illness and infection. About the Immune System The immune system is the body's defense against ... that cause colds. Back Continue Problems of the Immune System Disorders of the immune system fall into four ...

  12. Immune System Involvement

    MedlinePLUS

    ... With Health Plans For Your Patients Donate The Immune System and Psoriasis In 1979, researchers coincidentally found that ... immune system is called immunology. How does the immune system affect psoriasis? A normal immune system protects the ...

  13. The V distributed system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Cheriton

    1988-01-01

    The V distributed System was developed at Stanford University as part of a research project to explore issues in distributed systems. Aspects of the design suggest important directions for the design of future operating systems and communication systems.

  14. Cooling water system design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Kuk Kim; Robin Smith

    2001-01-01

    Research on cooling systems to date has focussed on the individual components of cooling systems, not the system as a whole. Cooling water systems should be designed and operated with consideration of all the cooling system components because of the interactions between cooling water networks and the cooling tower performance. In re-circulating cooling water systems, cooling water from the cooling

  15. Ocean observing systems demystified

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Bermudez; Eric Delory; T. O'Reilly; Joaquin del Rio Fernandez

    2009-01-01

    An ocean observing system could be defined as a set of independent elements that interact to form a whole for the purpose of observing ocean data. But, what is a system? Is a sensor a system? Is a buoy a system? Is a collection of stations a system? This paper defines the components of an ocean observing system and how

  16. Visual inspection management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Huang; L. Y. Lee; C. C. Lou; K. R. Ling

    2000-01-01

    Using information technology to create the procedures for the in-line inspection training, quality control testing, audit and control etc, in order to improve the defect inspection process and enhance the fab yield. This system contains several sub-systems including the checking card system, the image exam system, the defect library & training system, the image record system records. The checking card

  17. Number Systems Introduction & Objectives

    E-print Network

    Bouhraoua, Abdelhafid

    number system that was in common use is the decimal number system ( ) which has a total of 10 digits (0 to the more familiar decimal system · In this lesson, you will learn: What is meant by a weighted number system. Basic features of weighted number systems. Commonly used number systems, e.g. decimal, binary

  18. System Software Framework for System of Systems Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Roscoe C.; Peterson, Benjamin L; Thompson, Hiram C.

    2005-01-01

    Project Constellation implements NASA's vision for space exploration to expand human presence in our solar system. The engineering focus of this project is developing a system of systems architecture. This architecture allows for the incremental development of the overall program. Systems can be built and connected in a "Lego style" manner to generate configurations supporting various mission objectives. The development of the avionics or control systems of such a massive project will result in concurrent engineering. Also, each system will have software and the need to communicate with other (possibly heterogeneous) systems. Fortunately, this design problem has already been solved during the creation and evolution of systems such as the Internet and the Department of Defense's successful effort to standardize distributed simulation (now IEEE 1516). The solution relies on the use of a standard layered software framework and a communication protocol. A standard framework and communication protocol is suggested for the development and maintenance of Project Constellation systems. The ARINC 653 standard is a great start for such a common software framework. This paper proposes a common system software framework that uses the Real Time Publish/Subscribe protocol for framework-to-framework communication to extend ARINC 653. It is highly recommended that such a framework be established before development. This is important for the success of concurrent engineering. The framework provides an infrastructure for general system services and is designed for flexibility to support a spiral development effort.

  19. [X-33 Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. This portion of the report is comprised of a status report of Allied-Signal Aerospace's contribution to the program. The following is a summary of the work reviewed under their portion of the agreement: (1) Communication Systems; (2) Environmental Control Systems- Active Thermal Control System (ATCS), Purge and Vent System, Hydrogen Detection System (HDS), Avionics Bay Inerting System (ABIS), and Flush Air Data System (FADS); (2) Landing Systems; (3) Power Management and Generation Systems; (4) Flight Control Actuation System (FCAS)- Electric Power Control & Distribution System (EPCDS), and Battery Power System (BPS); and (5) Vehicle Management Systems (VMS)- VMS Hardware, VMS Software Development Activities, and System Integration Laboratory (SIL).

  20. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred during the last decade in intelligent systems technologies (a.k.a. knowledge-based systems, KBS) including research, feasibility demonstrations, and technology implementations in operational environments. Evaluation and simulation data obtained to date in real-time operational environments suggest that cost-effective utilization of intelligent systems technologies can be realized for Automated Rendezvous and Capture applications. The successful implementation of these technologies involve a complex system infrastructure integrating the requirements of transportation, vehicle checkout and health management, and communication systems without compromise to systems reliability and performance. The resources that must be invoked to accomplish these tasks include remote ground operations and control, built-in system fault management and control, and intelligent robotics. To ensure long-term evolution and integration of new validated technologies over the lifetime of the vehicle, system interfaces must also be addressed and integrated into the overall system interface requirements. An approach for defining and evaluating the system infrastructures including the testbed currently being used to support the on-going evaluations for the evolutionary Space Station Freedom Data Management System is presented and discussed. Intelligent system technologies discussed include artificial intelligence (real-time replanning and scheduling), high performance computational elements (parallel processors, photonic processors, and neural networks), real-time fault management and control, and system software development tools for rapid prototyping capabilities.

  1. Freedom System Text and Graphics System (TAGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Text and Graphics System (TAGS) is a high-resolution facsimile system that scans text or graphics material and converts the analog SCAN data into serial digital data. This video shows the TAGS in operation.

  2. Language as a System of Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, J. W. F.; Hervey, S. G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Based on Mulder's previous classification of all semiotic systems designed to describe the system of discrete features in human languages, this article explores a further subclassification of the genus language into species. (CLK)

  3. LCLS XTOD Attenuator System System Concept Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kishiyama, K; Roeben, M; Trent, J; Ryutov, D; Shen, S

    2006-04-12

    The attenuator system for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics (XTOD) system has been configured and analyzed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The system layout, performance analyses and selection of the vacuum components are presented in this System Conceptual Review (SCR) report. Also included are the plans for prototype, procurement, mechanical integration, and the cost estimates.

  4. Stellar systems as dissipative dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gurzadyan, V.G.; Kocharyan, A.A.

    1987-09-01

    The evolution of a stellar system containing a massive central body is investigated by the methods of the theory of dynamical systems and catastrophe theory. The problem is reduced to the study of a two-dimensional dissipative system - a simple attractor. The presence of stable and unstable singular points (nodes and focuses) and cycles is shown. In the system there may be subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcations with a separatrix corresponding to a symmetric butterfly catastrophe of type A..mu..- 5.

  5. Informal Systems Thinking Or Systems Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matjaz Mulej; Majda Bastic; Janko Belak; Jozica Knez-riedl; Marjan Pivka; Vojko Potocan; Miroslav Rebernik; DUSKO UR?I?; Zdenka Zenko; Nastja Mulej

    2003-01-01

    Systems thinking is the practice of holistic thinking, which can be informal or based on systems theory. Success has always depended on holistic rather than one-sided thinking. Empirical findings about the innovative society can exemplify this statement, though there seems to be no universal agreement as to what the basic attributes of systems thinking are, and we offer a summary

  6. IEEE Systems Conference Panel Systems Engineering of

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    anticipatory thinking, analysis, and decision making in design of systems 3. Model-based environment to enable Competencies Four Examples 1. Ability to think deeply about systems in their context 2. Situational Leadership trade ­ Understanding context in which decisions are made 3. Enhanced ability to think about `systems

  7. General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, David F.

    1990-01-01

    Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)

  8. On System Design On System Design

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yiling

    On System Design Jim Waldo #12;On System Design Jim Waldo Perspectives 2006-6 In an Essay Series and Ivan Sutherland have had on my thinking in this area. The subject of the essay, System Design, is one, and seems somehow "unscientific." There are clearly some designs that are good and others that are not

  9. Is Family Systems Theory Really Systemic?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harriet Goldhor Lerner

    1988-01-01

    Despite the fact that many systems theorists strive to pay primary attention to the rules of an individual's context, the family literature tends to examine family dysfunction as if it unfolds in isolation from the broader patriarchal system in which the family is embedded. Viewed from this perspective, the author argues that Family Systems Theory is not contextual enough, and

  10. Immune System Based Intrusion Detection System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Ehret; Ulrich Ultes-nitsche

    2008-01-01

    The threats and intrusions in IT systems can basically be compared to human diseases with the difference that the human body has an effective way to deal with them, what still need to be designed for IT systems. The human immune system (HIS) can detect and defend against yet unseen intruders, is distributed, adaptive and multilayered to name only a

  11. Requirements engineering for systems of systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grace A. Lewis; Edwin Morris; S. Simanta; D. B. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Traditional requirements engineering for single systems, while remaining a large challenge for engineers, has been extensively researched and many techniques have been proposed and used with varying degree of success. However, many modern systems of systems are being developed to support interaction across multiple controlling authorities and existing techniques are proving to be inadequate for meeting the challenges of requirements

  12. Landscape Management Systems The Visual Management System

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Landscape Management Systems The Visual Management System of the Forest Service, USDA1 Warren R presentation on how the Visual Management System (VMS) functions. 1/ Presented at the National Conference Manual 2380, Landscape Management, USDA. INTRODUCTION The American people are concerned about the quality

  13. Immune System 101

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Body : Immune System 101 Translate Text Size Print Immune System 101 How does your immune system work? Your immune system works because your body ... tactics to destroy it. Major Players of the Immune System Lymph nodes (also called "lymph glands"): These small, ...

  14. Electronics in weapon systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Hagenbucher

    1983-01-01

    The use of electronics in weapon systems is described. The electronics policy of the US Ministry of Defense is explained. The computer generated images and digital radar landmass simulation system for cost efficient training is presented. Flight simulation systems are compared. Military computers used as flight aids are presented. A digital photogrammetry system is described. Air control information systems are

  15. Power system commonality study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franklin D. Littman

    1992-01-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system\\/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this

  16. Heliospheric coordinate systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fränz; D. Harper

    2002-01-01

    This article gives an overview and reference to the most common coordinate systems currently used in space science. While coordinate systems used in near-Earth space physics have been described in previous work we extend that description to systems used for physical observations of the Sun and the planets and to systems based on spacecraft location. For all systems, we define

  17. Collaborative Systems Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pocatilu, Paul; Ciurea, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    Collaborative systems are widely used today in various activity fields. Their complexity is high and the development involves numerous resources and costs. Testing collaborative systems has a very important role for the systems' success. In this paper we present taxonomy of collaborative systems. The collaborative systems are classified in many…

  18. Purge water management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Cardoso-Neto; D. W. Williams

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at

  19. Purge water management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Cardoso-Neto; D. W. Williams

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at

  20. Purge water management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joao E. Cardoso-Neto; Daniel W. Williams

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well

  1. integration division Human Systems

    E-print Network

    future air traffic management (ATM) systems and associated human-system interactions. One of the mainintegration division Human Systems Exploration of Human Systems Integration Issues in Next to understand potential human performance and human- system interactions issues related to NextGen concepts

  2. Complexly Organised Dynamical Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Collier; C. A. Hooker

    1999-01-01

    Both natural and engineered systems are fundamentally dynamical in nature: their defining properties are ca usal, and their f unctional capacities are ca usally grounded. Among dynamical systems, an interesting and important sub-class are those that are a utonomous, anticipative a nd adaptive (AAA). Living systems, intelligent systems, sophisticated robots and social systems belong to this class, and the use

  3. DDL system: Design systhesis of digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language was integrated into the CADAT system environment of NASA-MSFC. The major technical aspects of this integration are summarized. Automatic hardware synthesis is now possible starting with a high level description of the system to be synthesized. The DDL system provides a high level design verification capability, thereby minimizing design changes in the later stages of the design cycle. An overview of the DDL system covering the translation, simulation and synthesis capabilities is provided. Two companion documents (the user's and programmer's manuals) are to be consulted for detailed discussions.

  4. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  5. Steam System Optimization 

    E-print Network

    Aegerter, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    Most plant steam systems are complex systems. Usually the fuel required to produce the steam represents a major expense for manufacturing facilities. By properly operating and maintaining the steam system and making minor improvements, significant...

  6. Modelling Distributed Systems

    E-print Network

    Yonezawa, Akinori

    1977-06-01

    Distributed systems are multi-processor information processing systems which do not rely on the central shared memory for communication. This paper presents ideas and techniques in modelling distributed systems and ...

  7. Reuse in Systems Engineering

    E-print Network

    Wang, Gan

    Reuse in systems engineering is a frequent but poorly understood phenomenon. Nevertheless, it has a significant impact on system development and on estimating the appropriate amount of systems engineering effort with models ...

  8. Observability of complex systems

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yang-Yu

    A quantitative description of a complex system is inherently limited by our ability to estimate the system’s internal state from experimentally accessible outputs. Although the simultaneous measurement of all internal ...

  9. Steam System Optimization

    E-print Network

    Aegerter, R. A.

    Most plant steam systems are complex systems. Usually the fuel required to produce the steam represents a major expense for manufacturing facilities. By properly operating and maintaining the steam system and making minor improvements, significant...

  10. Integrated Agricultural Systems Workgroup

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Integrated Agricultural Systems Workgroup is conducting research to developing principles of sustainable integrated agricultural systems. The Integrated Agriculture Systems (IAS) workgroup hosts producer focused workshops to examine crop and animal production practices. At each workshop, several...

  11. systems of linear equations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ExploreMath.com

    2001-01-01

    Solve a system of linear equations by graphing and finding the intersection of the lines of the equations. Create a system of equations, examine its graph, matrix, and table of values, and determine the solution of the system.

  12. Electric flight systems, overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Materials illustrating a presentation on electric flight systems are presented. Fuel consumption, the power plant assembly, flight control technology, electromechanical actuator systems and components of possible power systems are surveyed.

  13. Unlocking the Endocrine System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students learn how the endocrine system works and compare it to the mail delivery system. Students discuss the importance of communication in human body systems and relate that to engineering and astronauts.

  14. Endocrine System (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to help the body function properly. About the Endocrine System The foundations of the endocrine system are the ... parts of the body. Continue Parts of the Endocrine System The major glands that make up the human ...

  15. The Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Smithson

    2009-07-07

    Identify basic components of our solar system, including the sun, planets, and Earth's moon. We have just learned about the Solar System. Click here to watch an informational overview of the Solar System: Overview of the Solar System.. The planets in our Solar System are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto. Every planet in our Solar System revolves around the sun. The sun provides the energy ...

  16. Umbra's system representation.

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael James

    2005-07-01

    This document describes the Umbra System representation. Umbra System representation, initially developed in the spring of 2003, is implemented in Incr/Tcl using concepts borrowed from Carnegie Mellon University's Architecture Description Language (ADL) called Acme. In the spring of 2004 through January 2005, System was converted to Umbra 4, extended slightly, and adopted as the underlying software system for a variety of Umbra applications that support Complex Systems Engineering (CSE) and Complex Adaptive Systems Engineering (CASE). System is now a standard part Of Umbra 4. While Umbra 4 also includes an XML parser for System, the XML parser and Schema are not described in this document.

  17. Comparison of Holocene fire-history records from temperate latitudes of western North and South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P. J.; Markgraf, V.; Bianchi, M. M.; Marlon, J.

    2004-12-01

    During the last 20 kyr, fire-history records from the western U.S. and Patagonia display similar patterns and timing despite differences in the large-scale controls of climate between the two hemispheres. In summer-dry areas of northwestern North America, charcoal levels rise after 12 ka and the distribution of charcoal peaks indicates higher-than-present fire frequency until ca. 5-7 ka. High fire occurrence is attributed to environmental changes arising from the amplification of the seasonal cycle of insolation in the early Holocene, including the enhancement of the subtropical high-pressure system and increased summer drought. In Patagonia, charcoal records from lat 40-46S, and south of lat 50S also registered high fire activity between 12 and 6-8 ka, a time when summer insolation was less than at present but winter insolation was greater than at present. High fire occurrence may be explained by the location of winter and summer storm tracks between lat 46 and 50S, an earlier fire season due to warmer winters, and a pattern of interannual variability that favored recurring drought in the early Holocene. Comparable to the Rio Rubens record at lat 52S (Huber et al. 2004), L. Pollux, Chile (45.6917S, 71.6917W) records high fire frequency associated with parkland vegetation. L. Trebol (Lat. 41.07125S, Long. 79.4161W) farther north also features frequent fires during a parkland period and later with the expansion of Nothofagus-Austrocedrus woodland. In all three sites, the fire frequency declined with the development of closed Nothofagus forest in the late Holocene. The synchroneity in fire activity patterns in the two hemispheres is consistent with that observed in other terrestrial paleoclimate records from the mid- and high latitudes. It suggests that the proximal controls of fire occurrence on millennial time scales are ultimately driven by insolation and concomitant changes in Pacific Ocean- mediated interannual variability.

  18. A nationwide production analysis of state park attendance in the United States.

    PubMed

    Siderelis, Christos; Moore, Roger L; Leung, Yu-Fai; Smith, Jordan W

    2012-05-30

    This study examined the production of U.S. states' park visits from 1984 to 2010 by state. In specifying the production equation in terms of the influences of the states' parklands, labor, and capital investments on the annual attendances, we found that state governments will experience an ongoing need for more labor to maintain their parklands if attendance is to increase in the future. Results also indicated that more capital expenditures are not likely to increase park utilization rates. Post-estimation procedures involved the application of the response residuals to identify the capacity utilization rates of the states' park systems over the past 27 years. Past utilization rates revealed operators met or exceeded capacity utilization expectations from 1984 through 1990. However, beginning in 1991, the annual mean utilization rate for the nation's supply of states' parks signaled a trend toward excess capacity. Our forecast revealed the mean utilizations over the next three years will vary between 90% and 95%. Post-estimation procedures also examined the relationship between state park management orientations (towards either public-lands preservation or recreational development) and projected annual capacity utilization rates. Results indicate that the quantity of added facilities to broaden their appeal to the public (i.e., a recreation orientation) was not important in explaining utilization capacities. However, an orientation toward public-lands preservation related significantly to greater utilization rates. In our view, the public will continue to accept current cost structures for continued operations of the states' parks on the compelling need for access to outdoor recreation to contribute to the visitor well-being. PMID:22306082

  19. Systems engineering for very large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewkowicz, Paul E.

    1993-01-01

    Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

  20. System Optimization for Holographic Data Storage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burr, G. W.; Artajona, M. P. Bernal

    A properly-designed holographic data storage system should preserve the data entrusted to it by a user, and return that same data at some later time. System optimization is the process of maximizing the desirable features of the system (how much data can be stored, how fast can it be returned) while maintaining the mandated fidelity (the output data is really the same as the input data).

  1. System of systems modeling and simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Anderson, Dennis James; Thompson, Bruce Miles; Longsine, Dennis E. (Intera, Inc., Austin, TX.); Shirah, Donald N.; Cranwell, Robert M.

    2005-02-01

    Analyzing the performance of a complex System of Systems (SoS) requires a systems engineering approach. Many such SoS exist in the Military domain. Examples include the Army's next generation Future Combat Systems 'Unit of Action' or the Navy's Aircraft Carrier Battle Group. In the case of a Unit of Action, a system of combat vehicles, support vehicles and equipment are organized in an efficient configuration that minimizes logistics footprint while still maintaining the required performance characteristics (e.g., operational availability). In this context, systems engineering means developing a global model of the entire SoS and all component systems and interrelationships. This global model supports analyses that result in an understanding of the interdependencies and emergent behaviors of the SoS. Sandia National Laboratories will present a robust toolset that includes methodologies for developing a SoS model, defining state models and simulating a system of state models over time. This toolset is currently used to perform logistics supportability and performance assessments of the set of Future Combat Systems (FCS) for the U.S. Army's Program Manager Unit of Action.

  2. Linear Systems: Using Algebra

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-06-14

    Students learn to solve a system of linear equations (2 equations with 2 variables) by substitution and elimination methods. They also review the definitions of consistent (independent and dependent) and inconsistent systems, and associate the number of solutions of a system with them. Detailed instructions guide students in using their graphing calculators to solve the systems of equations.

  3. Battery management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albright

    1993-01-01

    A battery management system is described, comprising: a main battery; main battery charging system means coupled to the main battery for charging the main battery during operation of the main battery charging system means; at least one auxiliary battery; primary switching means for coupling the auxiliary battery to a parallel configuration with the main battery charging system means and with

  4. Introduction to VLSI systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carver Mead; Lynn Conway

    1980-01-01

    The book is written to introduce all Electrical Engineering and Computer Science students to integrated system architecture and design. Combined with individual study in related research areas and participation in large system design projects, this text provides the basis for a graduate course-sequence in integrated systems. MOS devices and circuits are considered along with integrated system fabrication, data and control

  5. Wind driven energy system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Currah; G. W. Harper

    1980-01-01

    A system for conversion of wind power to electrical energy is described. The system provides for use during a wide range of wind velocities by use of the following: an external deflection system consisting of baffles and peripheral turbulence creating walls designed to increase the wind velocity and to divert the wind stream to the aperture of the system; a

  6. Traceability in Manufacturing Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Cheng; J. E. L. Simmons

    1994-01-01

    Proposes that the role of traceability in manufacturing systems is to enable the history of events to be followed and compared with scheduled plans and predefined goals. Tracing techniques can be used to detect system status (status tracing), analyse system performance (performance tracing) and support decision making (goal tracing). Manufacturing systems are conceptualized as having the levels of strategy, planning

  7. Computer Center: CIBE Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crovello, Theodore J.

    1982-01-01

    Differentiates between computer systems and Computers in Biological Education (CIBE) systems (computer system intended for use in biological education). Describes several CIBE stand alone systems: single-user microcomputer; single-user microcomputer/video-disc; multiuser microcomputers; multiuser maxicomputer; and local and long distance computer…

  8. Modular Integrated Energy Systems

    E-print Network

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Honeywell Modular Integrated Energy Systems Task 6 Field Monitoring Interim Report Period Covered 55418 Fax: (612) 951-7438 #12;Modular Integrated Energy Systems Task 6 Field Monitoring Interim Report modular system designs, · Develop a supervisory control system having on-line optimization, · Develop

  9. Modular Integrated Energy Systems

    E-print Network

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Modular Integrated Energy Systems Prepared for: Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008­December 2004 Honeywell #12;Modular Integrated Energy Systems Task 6 Field Monitoring Interim Report Period: · Develop a set of "reference" CAD-based IES modular system designs, · Develop a supervisory control system

  10. Vehicle Systems Panel deliberations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Bales; Tom Modlin; Jack Suddreth; Tom Wheeler; Darrel R. Tenney; Ernest O. Bayless; W. Barry Lisagor; Donald A. Bolstad; Harold Croop; J. Dyer

    1993-01-01

    The Vehicle Systems Panel addressed materials and structures technology issues related to launch and space vehicle systems not directly associated with the propulsion or entry systems. The Vehicle Systems Panel was comprised of two subpanels - Expendable Launch Vehicles & Cryotanks (ELVC) and Reusable Vehicles (RV). Tom Bales, LaRC, and Tom Modlin, JSC, chaired the expendable and reusable vehicles subpanels,

  11. Microsphere insulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Mark S. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A new insulation system is provided that contains microspheres. This insulation system can be used to provide insulated panels and clamshells, and to insulate annular spaces around objects used to transfer, store, or transport cryogens and other temperature-sensitive materials. This insulation system provides better performance with reduced maintenance than current insulation systems.

  12. Noncooperative rendezvous radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.

  13. Coaches as System Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael; Knight, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The role of school leadership--of principals and coaches--must be played out on a systems level to get widespread and sustainable improvement. Successful, whole-system education reform relies on capacity building, teamwork, pedagogy, and systemic reform. The strategies of good coaches and the right drivers for whole-system reform go hand in hand.…

  14. Broad Bandwidth Telecommunications Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodolski, John

    Broad bandwidth transmission systems have been around for years. They include microwave, assorted cable systems, and recently, satellites. With the exception of some privately owned systems, broadband services have been furnished by the common carriers. Recently, a new element has been added--Cable Antenna Television (CATV) distribution systems.…

  15. Theory of reliable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to refine the current notion of system reliability by identifying and investigating attributes of a system which are important to reliability considerations. Techniques which facilitate analysis of system reliability are included. Special attention was given to fault tolerance, diagnosability, and reconfigurability characteristics of systems.

  16. Unmanned systems and Ada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Cicalese; Joel Sherrill; Ricky E. Sward; Richard Weatherly

    2009-01-01

    This tutorial provides an introduction to the growing field of Unmanned Systems and the role that Ada plays in solving the challenges presented when designing, building, and operating Unmanned Systems. The tutorial begins with an introduction to the fundamentals of ground, air, and maritime Unmanned Systems and the specific challenges of these systems. The authors will demonstrate how they are

  17. The IRIDIUM communications system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Leopold; A. Miller

    1993-01-01

    A description is given of the IRIDIUM communication system, so-called because the system design originally consisted of 77 networked satellites, and the element iridium has the atomic number 77. The goal is to make instant global communications a reality. The system design now consists of 60 satellites, a system control facility, gateways, and subscriber units. Each of these components is

  18. Flexible Satellite Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Lin; Thomas J. Kostas

    2007-01-01

    In today's unpredictable and dynamic environment, flexibility is an important aspect in system design. Flexibility increases system capability and effectiveness, reduces long term cost, encourages innovation, and protects against uncertainty. It is often at odds with optimization. High cost and harsh environment lead to specialized high performance satellite systems with stringent size, weight, and power constraints. These inflexible systems are

  19. Electronic Document Supply Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…

  20. Medical imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  1. Reuse in Systems Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gan Wang; Ricardo Valerdi; Jared Fortune

    2010-01-01

    Reuse in systems engineering is a frequent but poorly understood phenomenon. Nevertheless, it has a significant impact on system development and on estimating the appropriate amount of systems engineering effort with models like the Constructive Systems Engineering Cost Model (COSYSMO). Practical experience showed that the initial version of COSYSMO, based on a “build from the scratch” philosophy, needed to be

  2. Your Endocrine System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... System How the Body Works Main Page Your Endocrine System KidsHealth > Kids > How the Body Works > Your Endocrine System Print A A A Text Size You might ... a pea, is the "master gland" of the endocrine system. It makes and releases a bunch of hormones ...

  3. DATAOVERWRITESECURITY SYSTEM (DOSS)

    E-print Network

    McLaughlin, Richard M.

    results in a latent image on the system's internal hard disk drive. Ricoh's DataOverwriteSecurity SystemRICOH ® DATAOVERWRITESECURITY SYSTEM (DOSS) Hard Disk Data Overwrite Security Solution #12;RICOH DATAOVERWRITESECURITY SYSTEM (DOSS) The Hard Disk Image Overwrite Solution... A Simple, Reliable, Low-cost Option

  4. What is systems engineering?

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T. [comp.] [Arizona Univ. (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering

    1995-08-01

    Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary process that ensures that the customers` needs are satisfied throughout a system`s entire life cycle. This process includes: understanding customer needs; stating the problem; specifying requirements; defining performance and cost measures, prescribing tests, validating requirements, conducting design reviews, exploring alternative concepts, sensitivity analyses, functional decomposition, system design, designing and managing interfaces, system integration, total system test, configuration management, risk management, reliability analysis; total quality management; project management; and documentation. Material for this paper was gathered from senior Systems Engineers at Sandia National Laboratories.

  5. Perspectives on Systems Biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Kitano

    2000-01-01

    Systems biology is a new field in biology that aims at system-level understanding of biological systems, such as cells and\\u000a organisms. Molecular biology has already made remarkable contribution to our understanding of biological systems, and its\\u000a current focus is on the identification of genes and the functions of their products; that is, on the components of systems.\\u000a There is no

  6. Solar photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy's photovoltaic program is outlined. The main objective of the program is the development of low cost reliable terrestrial photovoltaic systems. A second objective is to foster widespread use of the system in residential, industrial and commercial application. The system is reviewed by examining each component; silicon solar cell, silicon solar cell modules, advanced development modules and power systems. Cost and applications of the system are discussed.

  7. Photovoltaic systems and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

  8. Robotics and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at ROBEXS' 86, the Second Annual Workshop on Robotics and Expert Systems. Many diverse perspectives on automation problems, and on the merging of robotics and expert systems technology with conventional systems, are contained in this book. The contents include: Integrated Expert Systems Applications; Expert Systems Theory and Applications, Robotics, Intelligent Control, CAD/CAE/CAM, AI Tools, Human Factors, and intelligent Interfaces.

  9. Earth System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöckel, Patrick

    Earth system models are important research tools for improving understanding of the climate system and for simulating climate projections. This chapter is devoted to the basic construction principles and challenges of such models, whereas application examples are provided in companion chapters. Since they still do not incorporate the full complexity of the real climate system (and maybe never will), Earth system models nowadays typically focus on specific aspects, for instance on the role of chemically active substances in the climate system.

  10. FNAL system patching design

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Romero, Andy; Dawson, Troy; Sieh, Connie; /Fermilab

    2004-01-01

    FNAL has over 5000 PCs running either Linux or Windows software. Protecting these systems efficiently against the latest vulnerabilities that arise has prompted FNAL to take a more central approach to patching systems. Due to different levels of existing support infrastructures, the patching solution for linux systems differs from that of windows systems. In either case, systems are checked for vulnerabilities by Computer Security using the Nessus tool.

  11. Introduction to Embedded Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Qian; David Haring; Li Cao

    We can easily find embedded systems everywhere in our daily lives. The numbers of embedded systems are rapidly growing especially\\u000a in wireless and web applications. The embedded systems market is one of the fastest growing areas in the world. By name, an\\u000a embedded system is a special-purpose computing device designed to perform dedicated functions. Some of the embedded systems\\u000a with

  12. Intrusion detection system elements

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, M.J.; Mangan, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    This report highlights elements required for an intrusion detection system and discusses problems which can be encountered in attempting to make the elements effective. Topics discussed include: sensors, both for exterior detection and interior detection; alarm assessment systems, with the discussion focused on video assessment; and alarm reporting systems, including alarm communication systems and dislay/console considerations. Guidance on careful planning and design of a new or to-be-improved system is presented.

  13. Brain Slice Chamber System

    E-print Network

    Kleinfeld, David

    Brain Slice Chamber System User's Manual BSC-BU Brain Slice Chamber System Base Unit MA1 65-0073 BSC-ZT Brain Slice Chamber System Zbicz Top MA1 65-0074 BSC-HT Brain Slice Chamber System Haas Top MA1 65-0075 BSC-PC Brain Slice Chamber System Prechamber MA1 65-0076 BSC-BUW Brain Slice Chamber Base

  14. System Design Conceptual Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kari Tiensyrjä; Jean Mermet

    This chapter presents the foundations of the System Design Conceptual Model (SDCM). The SDCM is a meta-model that serves as\\u000a a reference model of, and gives a global view and perspective on system design. The SDCM is used to describe system design\\u000a from the viewpoints of the System Design Process (SDP) and the System Under Design (SUD). The SDP and

  15. On evolutionary systems.

    PubMed

    Alvarez de Lorenzana, J M; Ward, L M

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops a metatheoretical framework for understanding evolutionary systems (systems that develop in ways that increase their own variety). The framework addresses shortcomings seen in other popular systems theories. It concerns both living and nonliving systems, and proposes a metahierarchy of hierarchical systems. Thus, it potentially addresses systems at all descriptive levels. We restrict our definition of system to that of a core system whose parts have a different ontological status than the system, and characterize the core system in terms of five global properties: minimal length interval, minimal time interval, system cycle, total receptive capacity, and system potential. We propose two principles through the interaction of which evolutionary systems develop. The Principle of Combinatorial Expansion describes how a core system realizes its developmental potential through a process of progressive differentiation of the single primal state up to a limit stage. The Principle of Generative Condensation describes how the components of the last stage of combinatorial expansion condense and become the environment for and components of new, enriched systems. The early evolution of the Universe after the "big bang" is discussed in light of these ideas as an example of the application of the framework. PMID:3689299

  16. Selforganizing Systems Case Study: peertopeer systems ?

    E-print Network

    Roy, Matthieu

    variants as self­configuration, self­healing or reconfiguration was studied in [19] or [18]. The former work proposes the concepts of self­healing and self­configuration in wireless networks, whileSelf­organizing Systems Case Study: peer­to­peer systems ? Emmanuelle Anceaume, Maria Gradinariu

  17. Advanced information processing system: Local system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Alger, Linda; Whittredge, Roy; Stasiowski, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a multi-computer architecture composed of hardware and software building blocks that can be configured to meet a broad range of application requirements. The hardware building blocks are fault-tolerant, general-purpose computers, fault-and damage-tolerant networks (both computer and input/output), and interfaces between the networks and the computers. The software building blocks are the major software functions: local system services, input/output, system services, inter-computer system services, and the system manager. The foundation of the local system services is an operating system with the functions required for a traditional real-time multi-tasking computer, such as task scheduling, inter-task communication, memory management, interrupt handling, and time maintenance. Resting on this foundation are the redundancy management functions necessary in a redundant computer and the status reporting functions required for an operator interface. The functional requirements, functional design and detailed specifications for all the local system services are documented.

  18. Collaborative Design Supporting System for Manufacturing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Masaru; Sato, Shuichi; Arai, Eiji

    Global competition forces industrial companies to reduce cost and time to develop new manufacturing systems. To achieve this goal, collaborative design projects will be more popular among different companies or divisions. The design knowledge, however, is usually not well organized or archived in a digital form. This paper proposes a design agent system to navigate engineers in the design process of manufacturing systems. The design agents digitally model design processes itself, parameters for each design activity, engineering tools and rational logic rules. The design agents communicate with each other to help manufacturing system designers on distributed sites in the collaborative design processes online. In this paper, the structure, roles, and functions of the design agents are discussed. The proposed design agent system is implemented using JAVA programming language.

  19. System identification for passive linear quantum systems

    E-print Network

    Madalin Guta; Naoki Yamamoto

    2014-08-27

    System identification is a key enabling component for the implementation of quantum technologies, including quantum control. In this paper, we consider the class of passive linear input-output systems, and investigate several basic questions: (1) which parameters can be identified? (2) Given sufficient input-output data, how do we reconstruct system parameters? (3) How can we optimize the estimation precision by preparing appropriate input states and performing measurements on the output? We show that minimal systems can be identified up to a unitary transformation on the modes, and systems satisfying a Hamiltonian connectivity condition called "infecting" are completely identifiable. We propose a frequency domain design based on a Fisher information criterion, for optimizing the estimation precision for coherent input state. As a consequence of the unitarity of the transfer function, we show that the Heisenberg limit with respect to the input energy can be achieved using non-classical input states.

  20. NASA systems engineering handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; McDuffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-06-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive.

  1. Rover waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Mcduffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-01-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive. Superseded by: NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev 1 (20080008301).

  3. March 23, 2008 Databases: Information Systems 1 Information Systems

    E-print Network

    Adam, Salah

    systems, planning new systems, and planning integration of existing systems Classification of IS can.g. Manufacturing IS, accounting IS Support provided by the system: E.g. Transaction Processing system, decision: Decision support systems. 1980s: Executive information systems. Expert Systems. 1990s: Integration

  4. Computer Based Systems Engineering Workshop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonah Z. Lavi; Ashok K. Agrawala; Raymond J. A. Buhr; Ken Jackson; Michael Jackson; Bernard Lang

    1991-01-01

    Modern computer based systems are complex multi-systems consisting of many connected individual subsystems; each one of them is typically also a multicomputer system. The subsystems in a multi-system can be either geographically distributed or locally connected systems. Typical examples of computer based systems are medical systems, process control systems, communications systems, weapon systems and large information systems.\\u000a The development of

  5. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  6. Education Systemic Change Tools

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National School Boards Association provides this website as a guide to systemic change for those in the field of education. This site is broken up into three sections that explain what systemic change is, outline the process for systemic change, offer advice for difficulties along the way, and list resources for implementing systemic change in any educational organization â??from the classroom to the federal level," including the section "Leading Systemic Change" for those who would like to take charge and put systemic change in their own hands.

  7. Verification of Adaptive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pullum, Laura L [ORNL] [ORNL; Cui, Xiaohui [New York Institute of Technology (NYIT)] [New York Institute of Technology (NYIT); Vassev, Emil [Lero – The Irish Software Engineering Research Centre] [Lero – The Irish Software Engineering Research Centre; Hinchey, Mike [Lero – The Irish Software Engineering Research Centre] [Lero – The Irish Software Engineering Research Centre; Rouff, Christopher [Lockheed Martin Corporation] [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Buskens, Richard [Lockheed Martin Corporation] [Lockheed Martin Corporation

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive systems are critical for future space and other unmanned and intelligent systems. Verification of these systems is also critical for their use in systems with potential harm to human life or with large financial investments. Due to their nondeterministic nature and extremely large state space, current methods for verification of software systems are not adequate to provide a high level of assurance for them. The combination of stabilization science, high performance computing simulations, compositional verification and traditional verification techniques, plus operational monitors, provides a complete approach to verification and deployment of adaptive systems that has not been used before. This paper gives an overview of this approach.

  8. The BELLE DAQ system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Soh Yamagata; Yamauchi, Masanori; Nakao, Mikihiko; Itoh, Ryosuke; Fujii, Hirofumi

    2000-10-01

    We built a data acquisition system for the BELLE experiment. The system was designed to cope with the average trigger rate up to 500 Hz at the typical event size of 30 kB. This system has five components: (1) the readout sequence controller, (2) the FASTBUS-TDC readout systems using charge-to-time conversion, (3) the barrel shifter event builder, (4) the parallel online computing farm, and (5) the data transfer system to the mass storage. This system has been in operation for physics data taking since June 1999 without serious problems.

  9. Continuous system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cellier, Francois E.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive and systematic introduction is presented for the concepts associated with 'modeling', involving the transition from a physical system down to an abstract description of that system in the form of a set of differential and/or difference equations, and basing its treatment of modeling on the mathematics of dynamical systems. Attention is given to the principles of passive electrical circuit modeling, planar mechanical systems modeling, hierarchical modular modeling of continuous systems, and bond-graph modeling. Also discussed are modeling in equilibrium thermodynamics, population dynamics, and system dynamics, inductive reasoning, artificial neural networks, and automated model synthesis.

  10. MLS: Airplane system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. D.; Stapleton, B. P.; Walen, D. B.; Rieder, P. F.; Moss, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis, modeling, and simulations were conducted as part of a multiyear investigation of the more important airplane-system-related items of the microwave landing system (MLS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the airplane RF system, including the antenna radiation distribution, the cabling options from the antenna to the receiver, and the overall impact of the airborne system gains and losses upon the direct-path signal structure. In addition, effort was expended toward determining the impact of the MLS upon the airplane flight management system and developing the initial stages of a fast-time MLS automatic control system simulation model. Results ot these studies are presented.

  11. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  12. THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA SYSTEM (USF SYSTEM)

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA SYSTEM (USF SYSTEM) STRATEGIC PLAN of South Florida System is a young and emerging system that currently includes and their own detailed strategic plans. The USF System was formed to bring

  13. Central nervous system

    MedlinePLUS

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for the entire nervous system, and control all the workings of your body.

  14. Liquid Phase Heating Systems 

    E-print Network

    Mordt, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    Temperature Water (HTW) central district heating systems are far superior to steam systems in large, spread out installations such as airports, universities and office complexes. Water, pressurized to keep it in the liquid state, is distributed at 400o...

  15. Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems 

    E-print Network

    Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    -load conditions pose greater challenges: systems that cycle on and off allow unconditioned air into the building during compressor off-cycles. The Electric Power Research Institute has teamed with manufacturers to develop dual path HVAC systems, with one path...

  16. JT-60 Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Yonekawa, I.; Kawamata, Y.; Totsuka, T.; Akasaka, H.; Sueoka, M.; Kurihara, K.; Kimura, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

    2002-09-15

    The present status of the JT-60U control system is reported including its original design concept, the progress of the system, and various modifications since the JT-60 upgrade. This control system has features of a functionally distributed and hierarchical structure, using CAMAC interfaces initially, which have been replaced by versatile module Europe (VME)-bus interfaces, and a protective interlock system composed of both software and hard-wired interlock logics. Plant monitoring and control are performed by efficient data communication through CAMAC highways and Ethernet with TCP/IP protocols. Sequential control of plasma discharges is executed by a combination of a remodeled VME-bus system and a timing system. A real-time plasma control system and a human interface system have been continuously modified corresponding to the progress of JT-60U experiments.

  17. Pneumonia - weakened immune system

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fighting off infection because of problems with the immune system. This type of disease is called "pneumonia in ... People whose immune system is not working well are less able to fight off germs. This makes them prone to infections from ...

  18. Immune System and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  19. Our Immune System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... story for children with primary immunodeficiency diseases Our Immune System Our Immune IMMUNE DEFICIENCY FOUNDATION A note from ... who are immune deficient to better understand their immune system. What is a “B-cell,” a “T-cell,” ...

  20. Leasing Residential PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rutberg, Michael; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The article discusses the adoption, consequences and current market status of the leasing of residential photovoltaic systems. It addresses attributed energy savings and market potential of residential system leasing.