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1

Hydraulic redistribution study in two native tree species of agroforestry parklands of West African dry savanna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic redistribution (HR) in karité ( Vitellaria paradoxa) and néré ( Parkia biglobosa) tree species was studied by monitoring the soil water potential ( ?s) using thermocouple psychrometers at four compass directions, various distances from trees and at different soil depths (max depth 80 cm) during the dry seasons of 2004 and 2005. A modified WaNuLCAS model was then used to infer the amount of water redistribued based on ?s values. Tree transpiration rate was also estimated from sap velocity using thermal dissipative probes (TDP) and sapwood area, and the contribution of hydraulically redistributed water in tree transpiration was determined. The results revealed on average that 46% of the psychrometer readings under karité and 33% under néré showed the occurrence of HR for the two years. Soil under néré displayed significantly lower fluctuations of ?s (0.16 MPa) compared to soil under karité (0.21 MPa). The results of this study indicated that the existence of HR leads to a higher ?s in the plant rhizosphere and hence is important for soil water dynamics and plant nutrition by making more accessible the soluble elements. The simulation showed that the amount of water redistributed would be approximately 73.0 L and 247.1 L per tree per day in 2005 for karité and néré, and would represent respectively 60% and 53% of the amount transpired a day. Even though the model has certainly overestimated the volume of water hydraulically redistributed by the two species, this water may play a key role in maintaining fine root viability and ensuring the well adaptation of these species to the dry areas. Therefore, knowledge of the extent of such transfers and of the seasonal patterns is required and is of paramount importance in parkland systems both for trees and associated crops.

Bayala, Jules; Heng, Lee Kheng; van Noordwijk, Meine; Ouedraogo, Sibiri Jean

2008-11-01

2

The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands.

Bargués Tobella, A.; Reese, H.; Almaw, A.; Bayala, J.; Malmer, A.; Laudon, H.; Ilstedt, U.

2014-04-01

3

The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands. Key Points Trees in dryland landscapes increase soil infiltrability and preferential flow Termite mounds in association with trees further enhance preferential flow PMID:25641996

Bargués Tobella, A; Reese, H; Almaw, A; Bayala, J; Malmer, A; Laudon, H; Ilstedt, U

2014-01-01

4

Agroforestry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impacts of agroforestry systems (AFS) on soil management in temperate, subtropical, and tropical biomes support the beneficial, holistic role of tree components in agricultural land-use systems. Compared to annual monocultures, AFS can enhance several soil physical properties improving soil resi...

5

Soil cover by natural trees in agroforestry systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dehesa is common agroforestry system in the Iberian Peninsula. These open oak parklands with silvo-pastoral use cover about two million hectares. Traditionally annual pastures have been grazed by cows, sheep and also goats while acorns feed Iberian pig diet. Evergreen oak (Quercus ilex L.) has other uses as fuelwood collection and folder after tree pruning. The hypothesis of this work is that tree density and canopy depend on soil types. We using the spanish GIS called SIGPAC to download the images of dehesa in areas with different soil types. True colour images were restoring to a binary code, previously canopy colour range was selected. Soil cover by tree canopy was calculated and number of trees. Processing result was comparable to real data. With these data we have applied a dynamic simulation model Dehesa to determine evergreen oak acorn and annual pasture production. The model Dehesa is divided into five submodels: Climate, Soil, Evergreen oak, Pasture and Grazing. The first three require the inputs: (i) daily weather data (maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and solar radiation); (ii) the soil input parameters for three horizons (thickness, field capacity, permanent wilting point, and bulk density); and (iii) the tree characterization of the dehesa (tree density, canopy diameter and height, and diameter of the trunk). The influence of tree on pasture potential production is inversely proportional to the canopy cover. Acorn production increase with tree canopy cover until stabilizing itself, and will decrease if density becomes too high (more than 80% soil tree cover) at that point there is competition between the trees. Main driving force for dehesa productivity is soil type for pasture, and tree cover for acorn production. Highest pasture productivity was obtained on soil Dystric Planosol (Alfisol), Dystric Cambisol and Chromo-calcic-luvisol, these soils only cover 22.4% of southwest of the Iberian peninssula. Lowest productivity was obtained on Dystric Lithosol.

Diaz-Ambrona, C. G. H.; Almoguera Millán, C.; Tarquis Alfonso, A.

2009-04-01

6

Agroforestry Systems in Zimbabwe: Promoting Trees in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agroforestry has been defined as a sustainable crop management system which combines the production of forest crops with field crops. In June, 1987, an agroforestry workshop took place in Nyanga, Manicaland, Zimbabwe. This document was prepared to share the information presented at this workshop with other non-government organizations around the…

Vukasin, Helen L., Ed.

7

Indigenous Agroforestry Systems in Amazonia: From Prehistory to Today  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the historical development of indigenous systems will provide valuable information for the design of ecologically\\u000a desirable agroforestry production systems. Such studies have been relatively few, especially in Amazonia. The agroforestry\\u000a systems in Amazonia follow a trail that begins with the arrival of the first hunter-gatherers in prehistoric times, followed\\u000a by the domestication of plants for agriculture, the development of

Robert Pritchard Miller; P. K. R. Nair

2006-01-01

8

A common framework for greenhouse gas assessment protocols in temperate agroforestry systems: Connecting via GRACEnet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems offer many ecosystem benefits, but such systems have previously been marginalized in temperate environments due to overriding economic goals and perceived management complexity. In view of adaptation to a changing climate, agroforestry systems offer advantages that require quan...

9

Insect pest problems in tropical agroforestry systems: Contributory factors and strategies for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry trees are attacked by a wide spectrum of insects at all stages of their growth just like other annual and perennial crops. Pest management in agroforestry has not received much attention so far, but recent emphasis on producing high value tree products in agroforestry and using improved germplasm in traditional systems, and emergence of serious pest problems in some

M. R. Rao; M. P. Singh; R. Day

2000-01-01

10

CARBON STORAGE BENEFITS OF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The process of land degradation is a local phenomenon that occurs field by field but also has a global dimension because of the sheer extent at which it is taking place. groforestry represents a link between the local and global scales. rom the farmer's perspective, agroforestry ...

11

Cacau Cabruca Agroforestry System of Production in Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Cacao Cabruca Agroforestry system of production was developed by farmers in Southern Bahia probably in the beginning of the 19th century. To establish such system, farmers in the Atlantic rain forest region selectively maintained around 75 adult individual native trees per hectare, removed the o...

12

REVIEW PAPER Microbiological process in agroforestry systems. A review  

E-print Network

REVIEW PAPER Microbiological process in agroforestry systems. A review Ademir Sérgio Ferreira a result of BNF. The successful use of legumes is dependent upon appropriate attention to the formation, Brazil M. V. B. Figueiredo Agronomical Institute of Pernambuco IPA/CARHP, 1371, Gen. San Martin Avenue

Boyer, Edmond

13

[Research progress on carbon sink function of agroforestry system under climate change].  

PubMed

As a land comprehensive utilization system, agroforestry system can absorb and fix CO2 effectively to increase carbon storage, and also reduces greenhouse effect convincingly while reaching the aim of harvest. The regulatory role in CO2 makes humans realize that agroforestry systems have significant superiority compared with single cropping systems, therefore, understanding the carbon sinks of different components in an agroforestry system and its influencing factors play an important role in studying global carbon cycle and accurate evaluation of carbon budget. This paper reviewed the concept and classification of agroforestry system, and then the carbon sequestration potentials of different components in agroforestry systems and influencing factors. It was concluded that the carbon sequestration rate of plants from different agroforestry systems in different regions are highly variable, ranging from 0.59 to 11.08 t C · hm(-2) · a(-1), and it is mainly influenced by climatic factors and the characteristics of agroforestry systems (species composition, tree density and stand age). The soil C sequestration of any agroforestry system is influenced by the amount and quality of biomass input provided by tree and nontree components of the system and the soil properties such as soil texture and soil structure. Overall the amount of carbon storage in any agroforestry system depends on the structure and function of its each component. The future studies should focus on the carbon sink functions of structurally optimized agroforestry systems, the temporal variation and spatial distribution pattern of carbon storage in agroforestry system and its carbon sequestration mechanism in a long time. PMID:25796917

Xie, Ting-Ting; Su, Pei-Xi; Zhou, Zi-Juan; Shan, Li-Shan

2014-10-01

14

AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: INTEGRATED LAND USE TO STORE AND CONSERVE CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Agroforestry is a promising land use practice to maintain or increase agricultural productivity while preserving or improving fertility. n extensive literature survey was conducted to evaluate the carbon dynamics of agroforestry practices and to assess their potential to store ca...

15

Growth and yield of coffee plants in agroforestry and monoculture systems in Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research compared coffee plants (Coffea arabica L.) grown in an agroforestry and monoculture systems. Data were collected during two years, on vegetative growth, reproductive development, nutritional status and yield of coffee, besides monitoring air temperature and the tree growth. All trees in agroforestry system increased in growth, resulting in a reduction in the magnitude of the diurnal temperature variation

Mônica Matoso Campanha; Ricardo Henrique Silva Santos; Gilberto Bernardo de Freitas; Hermínia Emília Prieto Martinez; Silvana Lages Ribeiro Garcia; Fernando Luiz Finger

2004-01-01

16

Survival, growth, timber productivity and site index of Cordia alliodora in forestry and agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matching tree species to appropriate site conditions and stand management is crucial for sound agroforestry production. In this study, survival, growth and site index for laurel (Cordia alliodora (Ruiz and Pavón) Oken.) were measured between 1987–1999 in two forestry (line plantings and pure plantations) and four agroforestry systems (taungya and three laurel – cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) systems) in the

E. Somarriba; R. Valdivieso; W. Vásquez; G. Galloway

2001-01-01

17

Greenhouse gas emissions in an agroforestry system in the southeastern U.S.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems can provide diverse ecosystem services and economic benefits that conventional farming practices cannot. Importantly, these systems have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by reducing the need for external inputs, enhancing nutrient cycling and promoting C seques...

18

Comparing common methods for assessing understory light availability in shaded-perennial agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulating the shade provided by overstory trees is important in the management of shaded-perennial agroforestry systems. In order to compare the merits of commonly used light-assessment techniques that could potentially be useful to farmers and extensionists and to quantify the extent of shading in multistrata agroforestry systems, understory photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was measured beneath 28 single-species and four mixed-species

J. G Bellow; P. K. R Nair

2003-01-01

19

Soil and litter fauna of cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry systems deposit great amounts of plant residues on soil and this leads to high levels of soil organic matter\\u000a content and has increased soil biodiversity and improved its conservation. This study compares the distribution of meso and\\u000a macrofaunal communities in soil and litter under cacao agroforestry systems and in a natural forest in the southern Bahia\\u000a state of Brazil.

M. K. da Silva Moço; E. F. da Gama-Rodrigues; A. C. da Gama-Rodrigues; R. C. R. Machado; V. C. Baligar

2009-01-01

20

Paper presented at IRRDB, 2006, Vietnam. Rubber based Agroforestry Systems (RAS) as Alternatives for Rubber Monoculture  

E-print Network

Paper presented at IRRDB, 2006, Vietnam. Rubber based Agroforestry Systems (RAS) as Alternatives for Rubber Monoculture System. Gede Wibawa Lembaga Riset Perkebunan Indonesia Jalan Salak 1A, Bogor Eric Penot CIRAD BP 5035, 34032 Montpellier, Cedex 1, France ABSTRACT Smallholder rubber plantations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

21

Changing human-ecological relationships and drivers using the Quesungual agroforestry system in western Honduras  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of sustainable agricultural production systems in the tropics is challenging in part because the local and external conditions that affect sustainability are constantly in flux. The Quesungual Agroforestry System (QSMAS) was developed in response to these changing conditions. The his...

22

Coffee Yield and Microenvironmental Factors in a Native Tree Agroforestry System in Southeast Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Minas Gerais State, Brazil, some shade coffee production systems presented extremely low yield and have become economically unsustainable for family coffee farmers. In this study, coffee yield and microenvironmental factors in the agroforestry system were associated with tree species and the number of trees at different distances from the coffee shrubs. Forty coffee shrubs were marked, and concentric circles

Ricardo Santos; Luisa Rodrigues; Carlos Lima; Catalina Jaramillo-Botero

2012-01-01

23

Carbon storage in soil-size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shaded-perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively higher quantities of soil carbon (C) because of continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the amount of C sequestered in the soil will vary depending on the turnover time and the extent of physical protection of different soil organic ...

24

Agroforestry systems for the production of woody biomass for energy transformation purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the temperate zone, agroforestry systems come increasingly into focus as they offer an approach for the production of fuelwood, thus matching the increasing demand for a self-supply with bioenergy in rural decentralized areas. Because of the large area potential of marginal land, research activities aimed at a reliable estimation of the minimum productivity of fast–growing tree species under most

Holger Gruenewald; Barbara K. V. Brandt; B. Uwe Schneider; Oliver Bens; Gerald Kendzia; Reinhard F. Hüttl

2007-01-01

25

Water use efficiency and uptake patterns in a runoff agroforestry system in an arid environment  

E-print Network

Water use efficiency and uptake patterns in a runoff agroforestry system in an arid environment K for correspondence: E-mail: klaus@bgumail.bgu.ac.il) Key words: Acacia saligna, complementarity, cowpea, intercropping, resource capture, sorghum Abstract. Water is the most limiting factor for plant production

Lehmann, Johannes

26

Soil and litter fauna of cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems deposit great amounts of plant residues on soil; and eventually, this leads to high levels of soil organic matter content and has increased soil biodiversity and improved its conservation. This study compares the distribution of meso and macrofaunal communities in soil and litte...

27

Soil Quality in a Pecan Agroforestry System is Improved with Intercropped Kura Clover  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intercropping alleys of agroforestry systems provides an income source until the tree crop produces harvestable yields. However, cultivation of annual crops decreases soil organic matter and increases soil erosion, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintain a continuous soil cover, m...

28

Distribution of oxidizable organic c fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Southern Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic materials to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measureme...

29

Distribution of organic C oxidizable fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in southern Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic material to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measuremen...

30

MODELING MULTIFUNCTIONAL AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES: DEHESA IN SPAIN AND WOODLAND  

E-print Network

Chapter MODELING MULTIFUNCTIONAL AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES: DEHESA IN SPAIN Research (CSIC) Pinar 25, 28006, Madrid, Spain. e-mail: pcampos@ieg.csic.es; acaparros@ieg.csic.es 2 University Complutense, Madrid, Spain. E-mail: ecerdate@ccee.ucm.es 3 College of Natural Resources

Standiford, Richard B.

31

Dung Beetle and Terrestrial Mammal Diversity in Forests, Indigenous Agroforestry Systems and Plantain Monocultures in Talamanca, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore the importance of indigenous agroforestry systems for biodiversity conservation, we compared the abundance,\\u000a species richness and diversity of dung beetles and terrestrial mammals across a gradient of different land use types from\\u000a agricultural monocultures (plantains) to agroforestry systems (cocoa and banana) and forests in the BriBri and Cabcar indigenous\\u000a reserves in Talamanca, Costa Rica. A total

Celia A. Harvey; Jorge Gonzalez; Eduardo Somarriba

2006-01-01

32

Incorporating livelihoods in biodiversity conservation: a case study of cacao agroforestry systems in Talamanca, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, various organizations have promoted cacao agroforestry systems as a tool for biodiversity conservation\\u000a in the Bribri-Cabécar indigenous territories of Talamanca, Costa Rica. Despite these efforts, cacao production is declining\\u000a and is being replaced by less diverse systems that have lower biodiversity value. Understanding the factors that influence\\u000a household land use is essential in order to

R. M. Dahlquist; M. P. Whelan; L. Winowiecki; B. Polidoro; S. Candela; C. A. Harvey; J. D. Wulfhorst; P. A. McDaniel; N. A. Bosque-Pérez

2007-01-01

33

Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted\\u000a in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical\\u000a agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter pools. The objective of this experiment\\u000a was to assess the affect

Hollie Hall; Yuncong Li; Nicholas Comerford; Enrique Arévalo Gardini; Luis Zuniga Cernades; Virupax Baligar; Hugh Popenoe

2010-01-01

34

Initial impacts of forest tree based agroforestry system on soil properties of a degraded watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial impacts of Forest Tree Based Agroforestry System (FTAS) on the characteristics of soils of a degraded pasture land were studied using a two factor factorial experiment in Randomized Complete Block Design. Factor A was combination of tree species (Gmelina arborea and Swietenia macrophylla) and spacing (2×2, 2×3, and 2×4 m) while Factor B consisted of three sampling periods

Loretto U. de la Cruz; Marco A. Galang

2006-01-01

35

Parkland College Enrollment Management Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enrollment management (EM) at Parkland College, in Illinois, is a comprehensive process designed to achieve and maintain optimum enrollment, focusing on recruitment, retention, and graduation rates. The primary goals of EM are to stabilize enrollment and finances, link academic programs and student services, improve services and access to…

Seidman, Alan

36

Parklands Partnership: Education through Reforestation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes New York City's Parklands Partnership Program, in which elementary and secondary students visit natural woodlands areas in their neighborhood, learn about forest ecology, and engage in restoration and reforestation activities that foster a connection between themselves and their local environment. (SV)

Scalia, Josephine A.

1992-01-01

37

Prevalence of antibody to Trypanosoma cruzi in Hispanic-surnamed patients seen at Parkland Health & Hospital System, Dallas, Texas  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease constitutes an important public health threat in terms of morbidity and mortality in the areas in the United States where immigrant populations from Latin America are conspicuous. We conducted a survey to assess the prevalence of anti-T. cruzi antibody in Hispanic-surnamed patients seen at Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, Texas. Findings Five hundred serum specimens from Hispanic-surnamed patients were tested by a preliminary ELISA method. On a subset of 50 sera confirmatory testing was also performed using an alternative ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence, and TESA immunoblot. For 274 of 500 Hispanic-surnamed patients, we were able to ascertain immigration status upon medical chart review. Of the 274 sera analyzed, one sample tested as positive for anti-T. cruzi antibody by the preliminary ELISA, and by the three confirmatory methods. Conclusions The goal of this study is to increase the awareness of T. cruzi infection and Chagas disease in areas where the Latin American immigrant communities are growing. Our study highlights the importance of testing for Chagas disease in the populations most at risk, and the need for current data on the actual seroprevalence in areas where such immigrant populations are conspicuous. Larger-scale epidemiologic surveys on Chagas disease in the immigrant communities from Latin America are warranted. PMID:21529355

2011-01-01

38

Assessment and Comparison of Soil carbon pool under Silvo-pastoral Agroforestry system  

E-print Network

Abstract- As result of increased emission of green house gases, especially increased emission of Co2, Climate change is the main global challenges that many countries are facing. Increasing carbon sequestration through a forestation, reforestation and appropriate land use practices are considered as means to sink the atmospheric Co2 in terrestrial ecosystem. Agroforestry is recognized as a strategy for soil carbon sequestration (SCS) under the afforestation/reforestation activities in different parts of the world.However, little information is available on soil carbon dynamics under agroforestry systems. This study was aimed to determine the soil organic carbon pool under silvopastoral agroforestry system. The study was conducted at Henfeas research center in the north Wales, UK where Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and Red alder (Alnus rubra) were planted in 1992 in integration with the grasslands. The soil samples were collected to the depth of 30cm at different depth intervals (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30cm) under five treatments: under and outside the canopy of both Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and Red alder (Alnus rubra) and under the control grassland. The concentration of soil organic carbon (SOC %) under each treatment were analyzed using LOI (loss on ignition method) where soil samples were burned at 450 oc. The regression formula (Y = 0.458X-0.4 Where, Y = SOC (%) and X = SOM (%)) developed by Ball, 1964, was used to convert soil organic matter to SOC. It was identified that SOC concentration were significantly different at (P<0.05) between the treatments and along the soil profile.

In The North Wales; Kasahun Kitila H

39

Carbon sequestration in tropical and temperate agroforestry systems: a review with examples from Costa Rica and southern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation in the tropics, and fossil fuel burning in temperate regions contribute to the largest flux of CO2 to the atmosphere. Therefore, land-use systems that increase the soil organic matter (SOM) pool and stabilize soil organic carbon (SOC) need to be implemented. Agroforestry systems have the potential to sequester atmospheric carbon (C) in trees and soil while maintaining sustainable productivity.

Maren Oelbermann; R. Paul Voroney; A. M. Gordon

2004-01-01

40

Carbon sequestration in tropical and temperate agroforestry systems: a review with examples from Costa Rica and southern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation in the tropics, and fossil fuel burning in temperate regions contribute to the largest flux of CO 2 to the atmosphere. Therefore, land-use systems that increase the soil organic matter (SOM) pool and stabilize soil organic carbon (SOC) need to be implemented. Agroforestry systems have the potential to sequester atmospheric carbon (C) in trees and soil while maintaining sustainable

Maren Oelbermanna; R. Paul Voroney; A. M. Gordon

2004-01-01

41

Intercropping Competition between Apple Trees and Crops in Agroforestry Systems on the Loess Plateau of China  

PubMed Central

Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems. PMID:23936246

Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

2013-01-01

42

Comparative studies of the associated soil moisture regimes and their productivity in an agroforestry system  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented on the effects of Eucalyptus hybrid, Casuarina equisetifolia, Dalbergia sissoo and Acacia nilotica on certain field crops (finger millet, redgram, horsegram and castor) under dryland conditions. Eucalyptus hybrid showed the maximum border effect on field crops, followed by D. sissoo. C. equisetifolia and A. nilotica. The adverse effect of Eucalyptus was chiefly due to depletion of moisture in the upper surface layers of the soil, whereas shade and allelopathic effects were negligible. The reduction in the crop yield due to competition by trees has been compared with wood yield from trees. Over a period of three years it was found that with the exception of Acacia, there was distinct economic gain under an agroforestry system as the loss in agricultural crops due to the effect of trees was compensated for by wood yield. However, this gain varied considerably depending upon the tree species, crop combination and the prevailing market price of the wood and crop. Eucalyptus hybrid produced the highest wood yield at the expense of field crops than any other tree species. Hence it is recommended that, where food production is the main objective, preference should be given to species like Castuarina, D. Sissoo and Acacia, which have minimum border effect on agricultural crops for dryland agroforestry systems.

Bhaskar, V.; Rao, N.S.; Reddy, B.G.; Vedavyasa, K.; Ravishankar, H.M.; Venkatesh, R. [Univ. of Agricultural Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Farm Forestry

1992-12-31

43

[Transpiration of Choerospondias axillaris in agro-forestrial system and its affecting factors].  

PubMed

Measurement of transpiration is essential to assess plant water use efficiency. Applying Grainer method, this paper measured the sap flow of Choerospondias axillaries in an agro-forestrial system, aimed to evaluate the effects of intercropping and pruning on the diurnal variation of transpiration, and to relate the transpiration rate with climatic factors. The results showed that the diurnal variation of Choerospondias arillaries transpiration rate appeared in parabola, low in the morning and evening, and high at noon. The transpiration rate was closely related to leaf stomatal conductivity and soil water potential, especially the water potential in 100 cm soil depth (R = 0.737). The transpiration rate of Choerospondias axillaries was increased by about 40% approximately 160% in agro-forestrial system through the changes in regional environment and in the deep soil water use by tree. Correlation analysis and multi-factor successive regression analysis indicated that the transpiration was controlled by ray radiation intensity, air temperature and ground temperature, followed by the difference between saturated and actual vapor pressure and the wind speed. A statistical model for calculating the sap flow rate by micrometeorological factors was also provided. PMID:16471335

Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Huachun; Wang, Mingzhu

2005-11-01

44

Sugarcane and agroforestry farming in western Kenya A comparative study of different farming systems in the Nyando district  

E-print Network

.) intercropped with food crops in an agroforestry system, Kopere, Kenya. Photo: Ida Lindell Keywords for food, fuel, timber, fibre and fresh water has increased in East Africa. Because of this, the high information about the situation on the farm during the previous year (2009). In addition, soil pits were dug

45

Agroforestry Systems and Podocarpus National Park, Ecuador: Current Status and Recommendations for Future Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of enhancing human well-being and dignity for the communities surrounding Podocarpus National Park (PNP) is inexorably connected to the goal of protecting ecosystem health and integrity in the southern Andes. While these goals are often viewed as conflicting, one area where they clearly overlap is in agroforestry practices. Agroforestry has the potential to improve food security and economic

Kim M. Wilkinson

2009-01-01

46

Microbial Community Diversity in Agroforestry and Grass Buffer Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforesty and grass buffer systems have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many environmental benefits. Previous research has described the ability of buffer systems to retain nutrients, slow water flow and soil erosion, or mitigate the potentially harmful effects of e...

47

Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 ?m, 250-53 ?m, and <53 ?m)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

2010-02-01

48

Coffee agroforestry systems in Central America: II. Development of a simple process-based model and preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on coffee agroforestry systems in Central America has identified various environmental factors, management strategies\\u000a and plant characteristics that affect growth, yield and the impact of the systems on the environment. Much of this literature\\u000a is not quantitative, and it remains difficult to optimise growing area selection, shade tree use and management. To assist\\u000a in this optimisation we developed a

Marcel van Oijen; Jean Dauzat; Jean-Michel Harmand; Gerry Lawson; Philippe Vaast

2010-01-01

49

Sediment, nutrient and water losses by water erosion under agroforestry systems in the semi-arid region in northeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadequate soil management practices adopted in the Brazilian semi-arid region contribute to erosive processes. Agroforestry\\u000a systems (AFs) have been considered an alternative to reduce water erosion. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of two\\u000a alternatives AFs, a traditional and an intensive cropping system on the losses of sediments, water, organic carbon and nutrients\\u000a caused by water erosion in comparison

Maria Ivanilda de Aguiar; Stoécio Malta Ferreira Maia; Francisco Alisson da Silva Xavier; Eduardo de Sá Mendonça; João Ambrósio Araújo Filho; Teógenes Senna de Oliveira

2010-01-01

50

Geomorphological impact on agroforestry systems in the interior highlands of Nicaragua, Central America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerro el Castillo is located in the NW of Nicaragua, Central America, close to the border of Honduras (Provincia Central de las Cordilleras) at 1000-1200m above sea level. In this region, small and medium-sized farms are agroforestry systems with mangos, avocados, coffee, papayas, bananas, strawberries, maize, pumpkins, beans and other vegetables. The production systems are strongly linked to facilities for raising small domestic animals and cows. Main regional agricultural production problems are steep slopes, soil erosion, varying precipitation and distribution, water management and the unstable family income. An investigation of topsoil properties with comparable management systems showed on small scales significant differences in key values of soil chemistry and mineralogy. The outline of the analytical parameters included determination of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) in soil solution, and plant available nutrients (P and K). The soil's mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The area is a highly weathered karst landscape within a tropical limestone region displaying different amounts of volcanic pyroclastic parent material. The dominant Nitisoils and Andosols show degraded argic and andic horizons along the upper half of the mountainside. The pH values in the topsoil are moderate from pH 5.0 to 5.6. The upland topsoil is decalcified and the amount of plant available phosphorous is very low with significant low Ca concentration at the sorption complex. The mineralogical composition points to the high weathering intensity of this area (high content of kaolinite and a lower concentration of potassium and plagioclase feldspars and andesite). Along the upper half of the mountain, the soil profiles show wider C:N ratios and lower amounts of organic matter. Topsoil at lower altitude and with a lower slope is influenced by accumulation of pyroclastic material. Theses soils can be characterized through a closer C:N ratio, higher pH (5.7-6.2) values, and plant available phosphorus reach values of 23 mg/kg. The mineralogical analyses illustrated less weathered volcanic material here and in the investigated samples zeolithe, smectite and a higher amount of plagioclase could be found. Cristobalite und pyroxene could be detected in all samples and indicate the influence of volcanic activity. Smectite und zeolithe are reason for the higher CEC values of these soils. Erosion and intensive tropical weathering processes including solutional weathering of limestones decline production potential at higher altitudes. Agroforestry systems are the most adapted systems for sustainable plant production systems in this area. Phosphorus release of soil is strongly influenced by the geomorphology of this landscape. Limiting parameters of this production system is the amount and the distribution of precipitation. The impact of global change to this specific area of Nicaragua will lead to extreme values of local precipitation events and an increase in temperature. If these events continue important production areas for optimum coffee production in agroforestry systems in Central America will be lost. Acknowledgement: This project was financed through the Austrian APPEAR program (OEAD).

Mentler, Axel; Wriessnig, Karin; Ottner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Benavides González, Álvaro; Cisne Contreras, José Dolores; Querol Lipcovich, Daniel

2013-04-01

51

Agroforestry in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early farming activity migrated originally from forests. A high rate of cultivation led to almost complete degradation of\\u000a Dutch forests. To conserve them it was necessary to prohibit grazing of forests. Since a few decades, grazing has been used\\u000a as a measure to improve the natural values of forests. An agroforestry system, which existed for a long period in the

A. Oosterbaan; A. T. Kuiters

2008-01-01

52

The role of habitat patches on mammalian diversity in cork oak agroforestry systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat patches, depending on the degree of differentiation from the matrix, can add few or many elements to the species pool of a particular landscape. Their importance to biodiversity is particularly relevant in areas with complex landscapes, where natural, naturalized, or managed habitats are interspersed by small patches of habitat types with very different biophysical characteristics; e.g., fruit orchards and riparian areas. This is the case of the montado landscape, a cork oak agroforestry system that largely covers south-western Portugal. We evaluated whether the high mammalian biodiversity found in this system is, in part, the cumulative result of the species found in the non-matrix habitats. Our results indicate that in areas where there are inclusions of orchards/olive yards and riparian vegetation in the cork oak woodland, a significantly higher number of mammalian species are present. We further detected a positive effect of low human disturbance on mammal diversity. Ultimately, our results can be used by managers to augment their management options, since we show that the inclusion and maintenance of non-matrix habitat patches in cork oak agro-silvo-forestry systems can help to maximize mammal biodiversity without compromising services associated with agriculture and forestry.

Rosalino, Luis M.; Rosário, João do; Santos-Reis, Margarida

2009-07-01

53

[Canopy conductance characteristics of poplar in agroforestry system in west Liaoning Province of Northeast China].  

PubMed

By using Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of poplar in a poplar-maize agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and as well, the environmental factors such as air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, wind speed, soil temperature, and soil moisture content were synchronically measured. Based on the sap flow data, the canopy conductance of poplar was calculated with simplified Penman-Monteith equation. In the study area, the diurnal variation of poplar' s canopy conductance showed a "single peak" curve, whereas the seasonal variation showed a decreasing trend. There was a negative logarithm relationship between the canopy conductance and vapor pressure deficit, with the sensitivity of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit change decreased gradually from May to September. The canopy conductance had a positive relationship with solar radiation. In different months, the correlation degree of canopy conductance with environmental factors differed. The vapor pressure deficit in the whole growth period of poplar was the most significant environmental factor correlated with the canopy conductance. PMID:23431778

Li, Zheng; Niu, Li-Hua; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Guan, De-Xin; Wang, An-Zhi; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

2012-11-01

54

Comparative study on growth performance of two shade trees in tea agroforestry system.  

PubMed

An attempt was made to study the stem growth of two native dominant shade tree species in terms of annual girth increment in three dominant girth size categories for two years in tea agroforestry system of Barak Valley, Assam. Fifty two sampling plots of 0.1 ha size were established and all trees exceeding 10 cm girth over bark at breast height (1.37 m) were uniquely identified, tagged, and annually measured for girth increment, using metal tape during December 2010-12. Albizia lebbeck and A. odoratissima were dominant shade tree species registering 82% of appearance of the individuals studied. The girth class was categorized into six different categories where 30-50 cm, 50-70 cm and 70-90 cm were dominating girth classes and selected for increment study. Mean annual girth increment ranged from 1.41 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 2.97 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the first year and 1.70 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 3.09 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the second year. Albizia lebbeck exhibited better growth in all prominent girth classes as compared to Albizia odoratissima during the observation period. The two shade tree species showed similar trend of growth in both the years of observation and significant difference in girth increment. PMID:25004755

Kalita, Rinku Moni; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Nath, Arun Jyoti

2014-07-01

55

Spatial genetic structuring of baobab (Adansonia digitata, Malvaceae) in the traditional agroforestry systems of West Africa.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the spatial genetic structure of baobab (Adansonia digitata) populations from West African agroforestry systems at different geographical scales using AFLP fingerprints. Eleven populations from four countries (Benin, Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Senegal) had comparable levels of genetic diversity, although the two populations in the extreme west (Senegal) had less diversity. Pairwise F(ST) ranged from 0.02 to 0.28 and increased with geographic distance, even at a regional scale. Gene pools detected by Bayesian clustering seem to be a byproduct of the isolation-by-distance pattern rather than representing actual discrete entities. The organization of genetic diversity appears to result essentially from spatially restricted gene flow, with some influences of human seed exchange. Despite the potential for relatively long-distance pollen and seed dispersal by bats within populations, statistically significant spatial genetic structuring within populations (SGS) was detected and gave a mean indirect estimate of neighborhood size of ca. 45. This study demonstrated that relatively high levels of genetic structuring are present in baobab at both large and within-population level, which was unexpected in regard to its dispersal by bats and the influence of human exchange of seeds. Implications of these results for the conservation of baobab populations are discussed. PMID:21628247

Kyndt, Tina; Assogbadjo, Achille E; Hardy, Olivier J; Glele Kakaï, Romain; Sinsin, Brice; Van Damme, Patrick; Gheysen, Godelieve

2009-05-01

56

A common framework for GHG assessment protocols in temperate agroforestry systems: connecting via GRACEnet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are technical and financial advantages for pursuing agroforestry-derived mitigation and adaptation services simultaneously, with a recognition that carbon (C) payments could assist in supporting the deployment of adaptation strategies (Motocha et al. (2012). However, we lack the repeated/repea...

57

Inorganic and organic soil phosphorus and sulfur pools in an Amazonian multistrata agroforestry system  

E-print Network

long-term nutrient availability. Therefore, tree species with rapid above-ground nutrient cyclingInorganic and organic soil phosphorus and sulfur pools in an Amazonian multistrata agroforestry. Fertilizer applications increased the less accessible nutrient pools more than the plant available pools

Lehmann, Johannes

58

Biodiversity in Dublin City Urban Parklands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity was measured for five regional and fifteen neighbourhood urban parklands in the south-west Dublin city area, including a recently developed municipal golf course. Plant species were inventoried by habitat type in the spring, summer and autumn. Birds, mammals and fish were also recorded for each park with substantial input from environmental groups and members of the local community. The

D. E. Lynn; N. E. Kingston; J. R. Martin; S. Waldren

59

Effect of selective logging on genetic diversity and gene flow in Cariniana legalis sampled from a cacao agroforestry system.  

PubMed

The fragments of the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia have a long history of intense logging and selective cutting. Some tree species, such as jequitibá rosa (Cariniana legalis), have experienced a reduction in their populations with respect to both area and density. To evaluate the possible effects of selective logging on genetic diversity, gene flow, and spatial genetic structure, 51 C. legalis individuals were sampled, representing the total remaining population from the cacao agroforestry system. A total of 120 alleles were observed from the 11 microsatellite loci analyzed. The average observed heterozygosity (0.486) was less than the expected heterozygosity (0.721), indicating a loss of genetic diversity in this population. A high fixation index (FIS = 0.325) was found, which is possibly due to a reduction in population size, resulting in increased mating among relatives. The maximum (1055 m) and minimum (0.095 m) distances traveled by pollen or seeds were inferred based on paternity tests. We found 36.84% of unique parents among all sampled seedlings. The progenitors of the remaining seedlings (63.16%) were most likely out of the sampled area. Positive and significant spatial genetic structure was identified in this population among classes 10 to 30 m away with an average coancestry coefficient between pairs of individuals of 0.12. These results suggest that the agroforestry system of cacao cultivation is contributing to maintaining levels of diversity and gene flow in the studied population, thus minimizing the effects of selective logging. PMID:24615028

Leal, J B; Santos, R P; Gaiotto, F A

2014-01-01

60

Effects of Land-Use Intensity in Tropical Agroforestry Systems on Coffee Flower-Visiting and Trap-Nesting Bees and Wasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical landscapes are dominated by agroecosystems, and most species that survive in forest rem- nants interact with these agroecosystems. The potential value of agroecosystems for aiding species survival is often ignored. Essential ecosystem services may suffer when functional groups such as pollinators and preda- tors are affected by land use. We used agroforestry systems differing in land-use intensity to examine

Alexandra-Maria Klein; Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter; Damayanti Buchori; Teja Tscharntke

2002-01-01

61

Allelopathic activity and chemical constituents of walnut (Juglans regia) leaf litter in walnut-winter vegetable agroforestry system.  

PubMed

Walnut agroforestry systems have many ecological and economic benefits when intercropped with cool-season species. However, decomposing leaf litter is one of the main sources of allelochemicals in such systems. In this study, lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. angustata) was grown in the soil incorporated with walnut leaf litter to assess its allelopathic activity. Lettuce growth and physiological processes were inhibited by walnut leaf litter, especially during early growth stage (1-2 euphylla period) or with large amount of litter addition. The plants treated by small amount of leaf litter recovered their growth afterwards, while the inhibition for 180 g leaf litter persisted until harvest. Twenty-eight compounds were identified in the leaf litter, and several of them were reported to be phytotoxic, which may be responsible for the stress induced by walnut leaf litter. Thus, for highest economic value of vegetables such as lettuce, excessive incorporation of leaf litter should be discouraged. PMID:24784929

Wang, Qian; Xu, Zheng; Hu, Tingxing; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Chen, Hong; Li, Zhongbin; Ding, Bo; Hu, Hongling

2014-01-01

62

Tree gardening and taungya on Java: examples of agroforestry techniques in the humid tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry is a general concept for a land management system combining trees and agricultural crops. For application, various specific techniques can be chosen. Each of these techniques is adjusted to a specific set of environmental as well as socio-economic factors. Agroforestry cultivators or managers belonging to varying social strata and institutional groupings may practice different forms of agroforestry, even within

K. F. Weersum

1982-01-01

63

[Temporal and spatial distribution of ants in a light gradient, in a coffee agroforestry system, Turrialba, Costa Rica].  

PubMed

Shade trees are frequently present in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) agroforestry systems of Mesoamerica. These systems can harbor a rich entomofauna, including ants, which could be predators of key pests in these systems. However, the role of shade on the distribution and abundance of these ants is unknown, yet such knowledge could suggest guidelines for manipulating certain environmental conditions of their habitat, thereby achieving their conservation and increase. Therefore, we studied the effect of shade on the spatial and temporal distribution of three ant species (Solenopsis geminata, Pheidole radoszkowskii and Crematogaster curvispinosa) that may prey on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). To do this, abundance was evaluated across a sun-shade gradient in a coffee plantation with four alternate plots (from pure sun to total shade) in Turrialba, Costa Rica. In the community that was studied 28 species of ants were collected, of which S. geminata was the dominant species (79% of the total individuals), followed by P. radoszkowskii (16 %). S. geminata and C. curvispinosa preferred sunny areas, while P. radoszkowskii showed no defined preference. Likewise, with respect to location, S. geminata predominated in the soil, while P. radoszkowskii and C. curvispinosa predominated in coffee bushes. PMID:19086397

Varón, Edgar H; Hanson, Paul; Longino, John T; Borbón, Olger; Carballo, Manuel; Hilje, Luko

2007-01-01

64

Tree crown mapping in managed woodlands (parklands) of semi-arid West Africa using WorldView-2 imagery and geographic object based image analysis.  

PubMed

Detailed information on tree cover structure is critical for research and monitoring programs targeting African woodlands, including agroforestry parklands. High spatial resolution satellite imagery represents a potentially effective alternative to field-based surveys, but requires the development of accurate methods to automate information extraction. This study presents a method for tree crown mapping based on Geographic Object Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) that use spectral and geometric information to detect and delineate individual tree crowns and crown clusters. The method was implemented on a WorldView-2 image acquired over the parklands of Saponé, Burkina Faso, and rigorously evaluated against field reference data. The overall detection rate was 85.4% for individual tree crowns and crown clusters, with lower accuracies in areas with high tree density and dense understory vegetation. The overall delineation error (expressed as the difference between area of delineated object and crown area measured in the field) was 45.6% for individual tree crowns and 61.5% for crown clusters. Delineation accuracies were higher for medium (35-100 m(2)) and large (?100 m(2)) trees compared to small (<35 m(2)) trees. The results indicate potential of GEOBIA and WorldView-2 imagery for tree crown mapping in parkland landscapes and similar woodland areas. PMID:25460815

Karlson, Martin; Reese, Heather; Ostwald, Madelene

2014-01-01

65

Tree Crown Mapping in Managed Woodlands (Parklands) of Semi-Arid West Africa Using WorldView-2 Imagery and Geographic Object Based Image Analysis  

PubMed Central

Detailed information on tree cover structure is critical for research and monitoring programs targeting African woodlands, including agroforestry parklands. High spatial resolution satellite imagery represents a potentially effective alternative to field-based surveys, but requires the development of accurate methods to automate information extraction. This study presents a method for tree crown mapping based on Geographic Object Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) that use spectral and geometric information to detect and delineate individual tree crowns and crown clusters. The method was implemented on a WorldView-2 image acquired over the parklands of Saponé, Burkina Faso, and rigorously evaluated against field reference data. The overall detection rate was 85.4% for individual tree crowns and crown clusters, with lower accuracies in areas with high tree density and dense understory vegetation. The overall delineation error (expressed as the difference between area of delineated object and crown area measured in the field) was 45.6% for individual tree crowns and 61.5% for crown clusters. Delineation accuracies were higher for medium (35–100 m2) and large (?100 m2) trees compared to small (<35 m2) trees. The results indicate potential of GEOBIA and WorldView-2 imagery for tree crown mapping in parkland landscapes and similar woodland areas. PMID:25460815

Karlson, Martin; Reese, Heather; Ostwald, Madelene

2014-01-01

66

Effect of shade on Arabica coffee berry disease development: Toward an agroforestry system to reduce disease impact.  

PubMed

Coffee berry disease (CBD), caused by Colletotrichum kahawae, is a major constraint for Arabica coffee cultivation in Africa. The disease is specific to green berries and can lead to 60% harvest losses. In Cameroon, mixed cropping systems of coffee with other crops, such as fruit trees, are very widespread agricultural practices. Fruit trees are commonly planted at random on coffee farms, providing a heterogeneous shading pattern for coffee trees growing underneath. Based on a recent study of CBD, it is known that those plants can reduce disease incidence. To assess the specific effect of shade, in situ and in vitro disease development was compared between coffee trees shaded artificially by a net and trees located in full sunlight. In the field, assessments confirmed a reduction in CBD on trees grown under shade compared with those grown in full sunlight. Artificial inoculations in the laboratory showed that shade did not have any effect on the intrinsic susceptibility of coffee berries to CBD. Coffee shading mainly acts on environmental parameters in limiting disease incidence. In addition to reducing yield losses, agroforestry system may also be helpful in reducing chemical control of the disease and in diversifying coffee growers' incomes. PMID:19000007

Mouen Bedimo, J A; Njiayouom, I; Bieysse, D; Ndoumbè Nkeng, M; Cilas, C; Nottéghem, J L

2008-12-01

67

Nutrient cycling and Above- and Below-ground Interactions in a Runoff Agroforestry System Applied with Composted Tree Trimmings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary production in arid zones is limited due to shortage of water and nutrients. Conveying flood water and storing it in plots surrounded by embankments allows their cropping. The efficient exploitation of the stored water can be achieved through an agroforestry system, in which two crops are grown simultaneously: annual crops with a shallow root system and trees with a deeper root system. We posit that the long-term productivity of this system can be maintained by intercropping symbiotic N fixing shrubs with annual crops, and applying the pruned and composted shrub leaves to the soil, thus ensuring an adequate nitrogen level (a limiting factor in drylands) in the soil. To test our hypothesis we carried a two year trial in which fast-growing acacia (A. saligna) trees were the woody component and maize (Zea mays L.) the intercrop. Ten treatments were applied over two maize growth seasons to examine the below- and above-ground effects of tree pruning, compost application and interactions. The addition of compost in the first growth season led to an increase of the soil organic matter reservoir, which was the main N source for the maize during the following growth season. In the second growth season the maize yield was significantly higher in the plots to which compost was applied. Pruning the tree's canopies changed the trees spatial and temporal root development, allowing the annual crop to develop between the trees. The roots of pruned trees intercropped with maize penetrated deeper in the soil. The intercropping of maize within pruned trees and implementing compost resulted in a higher water use efficiency of the water stored in the soil when compared to the not composted and monoculture treatments. The results presented suggest that the approach used in this study can be the basis for achieving sustainable agricultural production under arid conditions.

Ilani, Talli; Ephrath, Jhonathan; Silberbush, Moshe; Berliner, Pedro

2014-05-01

68

Fuelwood, agro-forestry, and natural resource management: the development significance of land tenure and other resource management/utilization systems  

SciTech Connect

Using a systems approach and focusing on the social context, the study examines natural resource management in relation to fuelwood production and agroforestry. An initial section describing the use and interlinkage of the concepts of ecozone and ecosystem is followed by a discussion of problem ecozones, human use of ecozones, agricultural ecosystems, resource competition, uses of trees and forest products, and tree planting. Rural resource management strategies at the household, community, local, and state levels are discussed in the context of political economy, land tenure and rights, tenancy and sharecropping, group or public landholding, and acquisition and transfer of land.

Brokensha, D.; Castro, A.P.; Kundu, M.; Hewlett, B.

1984-04-01

69

Ensemble Composition and Activity Levels of Insectivorous Bats in Response to Management Intensification in Coffee Agroforestry Systems  

PubMed Central

Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats – nearly half the Neotropical bat species – change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices) across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures. PMID:21298059

Williams-Guillén, Kimberly; Perfecto, Ivette

2011-01-01

70

Ensemble composition and activity levels of insectivorous bats in response to management intensification in coffee agroforestry systems.  

PubMed

Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats--nearly half the Neotropical bat species--change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices) across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures. PMID:21298059

Williams-Guillén, Kimberly; Perfecto, Ivette

2011-01-01

71

Hydraulic redistribution study in two native tree species of agroforestry parklands of West African dry savanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic redistribution (HR) in karité (Vitellaria paradoxa) and néré (Parkia biglobosa) tree species was studied by monitoring the soil water potential (?s) using thermocouple psychrometers at four compass directions, various distances from trees and at different soil depths (max depth 80cm) during the dry seasons of 2004 and 2005. A modified WaNuLCAS model was then used to infer the amount

Jules Bayala; Lee Kheng Heng; Meine van Noordwijk; Sibiri Jean Ouedraogo

2008-01-01

72

Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.

2003-01-01

73

Investigation on effect of Populus alba stands distance on density of pests and their natural enemies population under poplar/alfalfa agroforestry system.  

PubMed

This study was carried out in order to distinguish the effect of agroforestry system (combination of agriculture and forestry) on pests and natural enemy's population in poplar research station. Wood is one of the first substances that naturally was used for a long period of time. Forage is an important production of natural resources too. Some factors such as proper lands deficit, lack of economy, pest and disease attacks and faced production of these materials with serious challenges. Agroforestry is a method for decrease of the mentioned problems. The stands of poplar had have planted by complete randomized design with 4 treatments (stand distance) of poplar/alfalfa include 3x4, 3x6.7, 3x8, 3x10 m and 2 control treatments, alfalfa and poplar. The results showed that Chaitophorus populeti had the highest density in poplar and 3x10 m treatments. Monosteira unicostata is another insect pest that had most density in 3x10 m treatment. And alfalfa had high density of Chrysoperla carnea. The density of Coccinella septempunctata, were almost equal in all treatments. PMID:19579945

Khabir, Z H; Sadeghi, S E; Hanifeh, S; Eivazi, A

2009-01-15

74

Soil infiltration characteristics in agroforestry systems and their relationships with the temporal distribution of rainfall on the loess plateau in china.  

PubMed

Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia) monoculture system (JRMS), a wheat (Triticum aestivum) monoculture system (TAMS), and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS) over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world. PMID:25893832

Wang, Lai; Zhong, Chonggao; Gao, Pengxiang; Xi, Weimin; Zhang, Shuoxin

2015-01-01

75

Nitrogen balance for an agroforestry system irrigated with a saline, high nitrogen effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land disposal is commonly used for urban and industrial wastewater, largely due to the high costs involved in alternative treatments or disposal systems. However, the viability of such systems depends on many factors, including the composition of the effluent water, soil type, the plant species grown, growth rate, and planting density. The objective of this study is to establish whether

C. A. MacDonald; Neal W. Menzies; P. Dart; Ross C. Bigwood

2004-01-01

76

Determining options for agroforestry systems for the rehabilitation of degraded watersheds in Alemaya Basin, Hararghe Highlands, Ethiopia  

SciTech Connect

Deforestation, accelerated soil erosion, and land degradation are serious problems in Ethiopia. The uncontrolled removal of natural forests, demographic pressures and cyclical drought has aggravated the situation, resulting in massive environmental degradation and a serious threat to sustainable agriculture and forestry. To overcome these problems efforts have been made to launch an afforestation and conservation program; however, success to data has been limited. Thus, the main objective of this study is to find the reasons for lack of success in tree planting in the Alemaya Basin both from biophysical and socio-economic perspectives. And, based on this analysis, to propose an alternative strategy for agroforestry for the Basin. The study has identified and characterized major land uses, socio-economic constraints and agricultural and forestry practices which have limited forestry development in the Alemaya Basin. To gather the necessary information for the study, existing information sources were reviewed. Two state sampling was used for a land-use survey, and stratified random sampling for the socio-economic study. Decrease in farm size due to population increases, soil erosion, shortage of fuelwood and fodder for livestock and lack of appropriate extension service were found to be the major problems that affect sustainable production in the Alemaya Basin. Agroforestry is one of the appropriate technologies to overcome some of the problem faced by the farmers in the Alemaya Basin. The study proposed a desired state of sustainable agriculture and forestry for the Basin based on population projections, agriculture and forest products needs, and stable or improved living standards for a 20 year planning period. Alley cropping with and without fertilizers was identified as a promising agroforestry technology. Its economic feasibility was assessed by estimating costs and returns both for traditional farming and alley cropping.

Bishaw, B.

1993-01-01

77

Does ‘jungle rubber’ deserve its name? An analysis of rubber agroforestry systems in southeast Sumatra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jungle rubber is a blanced, diversified system derived from swidden cultivation, in which man-made forests with a high concentration of rubber trees replace fallows. Most of the income comes from rubber, complemented with temporary food and cash crops during the early years. Perennial species that grow spontaneously with rubber provide fruits, fuelwood and timber, mostly for household consumption. Jungle rubber

A. Gouyon; H. DE FORESTA; P. Levang

1993-01-01

78

Title : Olympe, a multiscale tool to explore management options in Agroforestry Systems.  

E-print Network

. As sustainable development is on the way to becoming the new "priority objective", the rehabilitation : Olivier Deheuvels, Eric Penot, CIRAD Summary : Olympe is a software developed by INRA, IAMM and CIRAD to model and simulate cropping and farming systems functioning. As it is based on economic analysis

Boyer, Edmond

79

Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry alley cropping system receiving poultry litter or nitrogen fertilizer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Optimal utilization of animal manures as a plant nutrient source should also prevent adverse impacts on water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term poultry litter and N fertilizer application on nutrient cycling following establishment of an alley cropping system with easter...

80

The espinal: agroforestry systems of the mediterranean — type climate region of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Valley of Chile is largely occupied by a pseudo-savanna called espinal consisting of a single dominant tree species, Acacia caven (Mol.) Mol. (Leguminosae), and some 215 annuals, most of which were inadvertently introduced from the Mediterranean Basin. The probable origin and current distribution of the espino (Acacia caven) and the espinales in Chile are described. Predominant production systems

Carlos Ovalle; James Aronson; Alejandro Del Pozo; Julia Avendano

1990-01-01

81

Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: Pollination in coffee agroforestry systems  

PubMed Central

Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables. PMID:23671073

Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G.; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

2013-01-01

82

Adoption of agroforestry in the hills of Nepal: a logistic regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread deforestation and increasingly intensive use of land to sustain a growing population has increased soil erosion, lowered soil fertility, and reduced agricultural productivity in the hills of Nepal. This has raised concern over sustainability of the hill farming system. There is growing evidence that agroforestry can be a potential solution to above problems. However, the development of agroforestry as

Ramji P. Neupane; Khem R. Sharma; Gopal B. Thapa

2002-01-01

83

Assessment of the Adoption of Agroforestry Technologies by Limited-Resource Farmers in North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agroforestry is a natural resource management system that integrates trees, forages, and livestock. The study reported here was conducted to determine farmers' knowledge about and willingness to adopt agroforestry technologies in North Carolina. The study reported participants were primarily older, male farmers, suggesting the need to attract…

Faulkner, Paula E.; Owooh, Bismark; Idassi, Joshua

2014-01-01

84

Improving the issuing, absorption and use of climate forecast information in agroforestry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry includes a range of practices that combine partial canopies of perennial woody vegetation (trees, shrubs, or hedges) with below-canopy production of forages, arable crops, fruits, berries, and nuts, herbs, or medicinal plants. Agroforestry systems can be broadly grouped into windbreaks ...

85

The effects of rainfall partitioning and evapotranspiration on the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content in a Mediterranean agroforestry system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree plantation for wood production has been proposed to mitigate CO2-related climate change. Although these agroforestry systems can contribute to maintain the agriculture in some areas placed between rainfed crops and secondary forests, water scarcity in Mediterranean climate could restrict its growth, and their presence will affect the water balance. Tree plantations management (species, plant density, irrigation, etc), hence, can be used to affect the water balance, resulting in water availability improvement and buffering of the water cycle. Soil water content and meteorological data are widely used in agroforestry systems as indicators of vegetation water use, and consequently to define water management. However, the available information of ecohydrological processes in this kind of ecosystem is scarce. The present work studies how the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content is affected by transpiration and interception loss fluxes in a Mediterranean rainfed plantation of cherry tree (Prunus avium) located in Caldes de Montbui (Northeast of Spain). From May till December 2011, rainfall partitioning, canopy transpiration, soil water content and meteorological parameters were continuously recorded. Rainfall partitioning was measured in 6 trees, with 6 automatic rain recorders for throughfall and 1 automatic rain recorder for stemflow per tree. Transpiration was monitored in 12 nearby trees by means of heat pulse sap flow sensors. Soil water content was also measured at three different depths under selected trees and at two depths between rows without tree cover influence. This work presents the relationships between rainfall partitioning, transpiration and soil water content evolution under the tree canopy. The effect of tree cover on the soil water content dynamics is also analyzed.

Biel, C.; Molina, A.; Aranda, X.; Llorens, P.; Savé, R.

2012-04-01

86

Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots). The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive) to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all (non-responsive) (n=7). A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

2010-04-01

87

C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 ?m, 1000-2000 ?m, 250-1000 ?m, 53-250 ?m, and <53 ?m). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 ?m) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 ?m size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby minimizing the impact of conversion of forest to cacao AFS.

Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

2011-07-01

88

C and N content in density fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction under cacao agroforestry systems and natural forest in Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO(2). Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 ?m, 1000-2000 ?m, 250-1000 ?m, 53-250 ?m, and <53 ?m). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 ?m) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 ?m size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby minimizing the impact of conversion of forest to cacao AFS. PMID:21387100

Rita, Joice Cleide O; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R; Baligar, Virupax C

2011-07-01

89

Effects of climate change and land use on duck abundance in Canadian prairie-parklands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent declines in breeding ducks in the Canadian prairie-parklands may be due to loss of habitat to agriculture. However, prairie-parkland also has experienced wetland loss to drought as well as to agriculture. For sucessful habitat restoration, it is important to separate the effects of anthropogenic changes to the landscape from those caused by changes in climate. The researchers used data

R. W. Bethke; T. D. Nudds

1995-01-01

90

Land cover changes and forest landscape evolution (1985-2009) in a typical Mediterranean agroforestry system (High Agri Valley)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (High Agri Valley - Basilicata region) occurred during 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European on-shore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes) and the Forest/Non Forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern: increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.

Simoniello, T.; Coluzzi, R.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.

2014-08-01

91

Agroforestry pathways for the intensification of shifting cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a system of land use which entails the deliberate association of trees with herbaceous field crops in time, shifting cultivation is one of the most ancient, widespread and, until recently, ecologically stable forms of agroforestry. However, under pressure of population and competing uses for land and labour, traditional swidden systems have been observed historically to undergo more or less

J. B. Raintree; K. Warner

1986-01-01

92

Rainfall partitioning into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss in a coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) monoculture compared to an agroforestry system with Inga densiflora  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryPartitioning of gross rainfall into throughfall, stemflow and rainfall interception was assessed in Costa Rica during two rainy seasons (mean annual rainfall of 2900 mm) in two coffee systems: (1) a monoculture (MC) and (2) an agroforestry system (AFS) including Inga densiflora as the associated shade tree species. Coffee architecture, not LAI, appeared to be the main driver of stemflow as stemflow was higher for shaded coffee plants (10.6% of incident rainfall) than for coffee plants in MC (7.2%), despite the fact that these shaded plants had lower LAI. The presence of Inga trees modified coffee architecture with shaded coffee plants presenting larger stems and branches resulting in higher coffee funneling ratio under shade. In AFS, coffee plants and trees accounted respectively for 88% and 12% of total stemflow which represented 11.8% of incident rainfall. AFS displayed larger cumulative stemflow and smaller total throughfall compared to MC. Cumulative throughfall expressed in % of the gross rainfall, differed between systems and monitoring periods and the trend showed a decrease with increasing LAI. Nevertheless, as stemflow measurement and interception loss estimation were done only during the second year of the study, the shade tree showed a low influence in increasing interception loss, as the combined LAI of coffee plants and shade trees was rather similar in AFS as that of coffee in MC. Furthermore, coffee plants accounted for the largest fraction of the interception loss in AFS as the coffee LAI was more than 3-fold that of shade trees.

Siles, Pablo; Vaast, Philippe; Dreyer, Erwin; Harmand, Jean-Michel

2010-12-01

93

Drought effects on soil COagroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month replicated experiment, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) in three simulated drought plots compared with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), but also decreased when soils became water saturated, as evidenced in control plots. The simulated drought plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly ("responsive") to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all ("non-responsive") (n=7). The degree of soil CO2 respiration drought response was highest around cacao tree stems and decreased with distance from the stem (R2=0.22). A significant correlation was measured between "responsive" soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. During dry periods the litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux and up to 40% during wet periods. A CO2 flush was recorded during the rewetting phase that lasted for approximately two weeks, during which time accumulated labile carbon stocks mineralized. The net effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was neutral, control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1.

van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

2009-12-01

94

Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described.

Wright, L L; Ranney, J W

1991-01-01

95

Book (All chapters are peer-reviewed) Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry  

E-print Network

Book (All chapters are peer-reviewed) Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration. K. R., Nair, V. D., Kumar, B. M., and Showalter, J. M. 2010. Carbon sequestration in agroforestry Publications on Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems 2008 ­ 2011 (Contact: pknair@ufl.edu) #12;cacao

Hill, Jeffrey E.

96

Tillage and N-source influence soil-emitted nitrous oxide in the Alberta Parkland region  

SciTech Connect

Zero tillage systems are receiving attention as possible strategies for sequestering atmospheric carbon. This benefit may be offset by increased N2O emissions, which have been reported for soils under zero tillage (ZT) compared to those under more intensive tillage (IT). Comparisons of N2O emissions from the two systems have been restricted to the growing season, but substantial losses of N2O have been reported during spring thaw events in many regions. Inorganic and organic additions of nitrogen and fallowing have also been shown to increase levels of soil-emitted N2O. The objectives for this study were: (i) to confirm that losses of N2O are higher under ZT than under IT in Alberta Parkland agroecosystems; (ii) to compare the relative influence of urea fertilizer (56 or 100 kg N h--1), field pea residue (dry matter at 5 Mg h--1), sheep manure (dry matter at 40 Mg h--1) additions, and fallow on total N2O losses; and (iii) to investigate possible interactions between fertility and tillage treatments. Gas samples were collected using vented soil covers at three sites near Edmonton, Alberta during 1993, 1994, and 1995. Gas samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a 63Ni electron capture detector. Estimated annual N2O loss ranged from 0.1 to 4.0 kg N ha-1. Emissions during summer were slightly higher, similar, or lower on ZT compared to those under IT, but were consistently lower on ZT plots during spring thaw. Combined estimates (spring plus summer) of N2O loss under ZT were equal to or lower than those under IT. Highest overall losses were observed on fallow plots, followed by fertilizer, pea residue, and then either manure or control plots. We conclude that ZT management systems have potential for reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in the Alberta Parkland region.

Lemke , R L.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E D.

1999-01-01

97

The domestication and commercialization of indigenous trees in agroforestry for the alleviation of poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

New initiatives in agroforestry are seeking to integrate into tropical farming systems indigenous trees whose products have\\u000a traditionally been gathered from natural forests. This is being done in order to provide marketable products from farms that\\u000a will generate cash for resource-poor rural and peri-urban households. This poverty-alleviating agroforestry strategy is at\\u000a the same time linked to one in which perennial,

R. R. B. Leakey; A. J. Simons

1997-01-01

98

Yield-SAFE: A parameter-sparse, process-based dynamic model for predicting resource capture, growth, and production in agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) is the cultivation of trees and arable crops on the same parcel of land. SAF may contribute to modern diversified land use objectives in Europe, such as enhanced biodiversity and productivity, reduced leaching of nitrogen, protection against flooding and erosion, and attractiveness of the landscape. Long-term yield predictions are needed to assess long-term economic profitability of SAF.2.A

Wopke van der Werf; Karel Keesman; Paul Burgess; Anil Graves; David Pilbeam; L. D. Incoll; Klaas Metselaar; Martina Mayus; Roel Stappers; Herman van Keulen; João Palma; Christian Dupraz

2007-01-01

99

Carbon, nitrogen, organic phosphorus, microbial biomass and N mineralization in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the soil organic P cycle is important to improve the P fertilization management in low-input tropical agricultural systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate organic P (Po) content by Bowman extraction method and labile P fractions by NaHCO3 extraction in soil profiles under cacao ...

100

Consequences of Landscape Heterogeneity on Grassland Diversity and Productivity in the Espinal Agroforestry System of Central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current land use system in the anthropogenic savannas (Espinales) of the Mediterranean climate region of Chile, has resulted in considerable heterogeneity at the landscape level which is\\u000a associated with different covers of the legume tree, Acacia caven. The effects of landscape heterogeneity on the diversity and productivity of herbaceous plant communities were studied in\\u000a 29 plots of 1000 m2, with

Carlos Ovalle; Alejandro Del Pozo; Miguel A. Casado; Belén Acosta; José M. de Miguel

2006-01-01

101

Dinitrogen fixation by legume shade trees and direct transfer of fixed N to associated cacao in a tropical agroforestry system.  

PubMed

Natural abundance of (15)N (??(15)N) was determined in bulk soil, rhizospheric soil and vegetation in an organically managed cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plantation with Inga edulis Mart. legume trees (inga) as the principal shade for studying the nitrogen (N) cycle in the system. Cacao without contact with legumes in an adjacent plantation was used as the reference for N2 fixation and direct N transfer calculations. Bulk and rhizospheric soils contained 72 and 20%, respectively, of whole- system N. No vegetation effect on ??(15)N in rhizospheric soil was detected, probably due to the high native soil N pool. Fine roots of the cacaos associated with inga contained ?35% of N fixed from the atmosphere (Nf) out of the total N. Leaves of all species had significantly higher ??(15)N than fine roots. Twenty percent of system Nf was found in cacao suggesting direct N transfer from inga via a common mycelial network of mycorrhizal fungi or recycling of N-rich root exudates of inga. Inga had accumulated 98?kg [Nf] ha(-1) during the 14-year history of the plantation. The conservative estimate of current N2 fixation rate was 41?kg [Nf] ha(-1)?year(-1) based on inga biomass only and 50?kg [Nf] ha(-1)?year(-1) based on inga and associated trees. PMID:25618898

Nygren, Pekka; Leblanc, Humberto A

2015-02-01

102

Biotechnology and Agroforestry in Indian Arid Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agroforestry evolved with agriculture to make the best use of the land and to maintain equilibrium between man, land, livestock\\u000a and plants. In recent years, agroforestry has been developed as an autonomous science that can help farmers to increase profitability\\u000a and land sustainability. Tree growing in combination with agriculture, including individual farms, watersheds and regional\\u000a landscape can be integrated to

Varsha Sharma; Shaily Goyal; K. G. Ramawat

103

Technology impact evaluation in agroforestry projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify appropriate methods for evaluating the impact of new agroforestry technologies, ICRAF in 1988–89 contacted 166\\u000a projects worldwide about their activities in agroforestry technology monitoring and evaluation. Of the 108 which responded,\\u000a 45% were involved in some type of impact evaluation.\\u000a \\u000a This review revealed common difficulties in selecting impact indicators and methods of evaluation. Emphasis to date has been

S. J. Scherr; E. U. Müller

1991-01-01

104

Impacts of Public Policies and Farmer Preferences on Agroforestry Practices in Kerala, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.

Guillerme, S.; Kumar, B. M.; Menon, A.; Hinnewinkel, C.; Maire, E.; Santhoshkumar, A. V.

2011-08-01

105

Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agroforestry Practices in Temperate North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agroforestry, an ecologically and environmentally sustainable land use, offers great promise to sequester carbon (C). The\\u000a objectives of this chapter are to (1) provide a review of C sequestration opportunities available under various agroforestry\\u000a practices in temperate North America, and (2) estimate C sequestration potential by agroforestry in the US. Since accurate\\u000a land area under agroforestry was not available, the

Ranjith P. Udawatta; Shibu Jose

106

School as Parkland: Re-Storying the Story of Cochrane School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The narrative inquiry reported in this study offers a partial view of Cochrane Academy's nuanced landscape. This article elaborates a theoretical frame, then uses different story perspectives to survey Cochrane's professional knowledge landscape over time. It relates what currently is Cochrane Academy to parkland landscape, and it discusses the…

Craig, Cheryl J.

2007-01-01

107

Effects of climate change and land use on duck abundance in Canadian prairie-parklands  

SciTech Connect

Recent declines in breeding ducks in the Canadian prairie-parklands may be due to loss of habitat to agriculture. However, prairie-parkland also has experienced wetland loss to drought as well as to agriculture. For sucessful habitat restoration, it is important to separate the effects of anthropogenic changes to the landscape from those caused by changes in climate. The researchers used data from annual air-ground surveys and from precipitation records to develop relationships between indices of abundance of each of 10 species of ducks and indices of wetland conditions during 1955-1974. Average annual deficits within Canadian prairie-parkland over the period 1975-1989 were estimated at 1.2 x 10{sup 6} birds for both Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Northern Pintail (A. acuta), 480 000 for Blue-winged Teal (A. discors), 190 000 for American Wigeon (A. americana), 175 000 for Northern Shoveler (A. clypeata), 50 000 for Gadwall (A. strepera), 10 000 for Green-winged Teal (A. crecca), 40 000 for Canvasback (Aythya valisineria), 25 000 for Lesser Scaup (A. affinis), and 5000 for Redhead (A. americana). The effect of agricultural expansion in the east on prime waterfowl habitat since 1951 appears to have been negligible. There, as much as 90% had been already lost prior to 1951. In the west, however, where prime waterfowl habitat was still relatively abundant in 1951, agricultural development has encroached substantially. The relationship between the lost area of the best breeding habitats and the size of population deficits for Mallards and Northern Pintails in the entire Canadian prairie-parkland region was significant for both species (P < 0.0027 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Consequently, habitat restoration programs located where the highest quality waterfowl habitat and the lowest quality agricultural lands overlap most should have the greatest potential to affect recovery of breeding duck populations in the Canadian prairie-parklands. 39 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Bethke, R.W.; Nudds, T.D. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

1995-08-01

108

Forest management and agroforestry to sequester and conserve atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Global Change Research Program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), an assessment was initiated in 1990 to evaluate forest establishment and management options to sequester carbon and reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Three specific objectives are to: identify site-suitable technologies and practices that could be utilized to manage forests and agroforestry systems to sequester and conserve carbon; assess available data on site-level costs of promising forest and agroforestry management practices; evaluate estimates of technically suitable land in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets.

Schriwder, P.E.; Dixon, R.K.; Winjum, J.K.

1993-01-01

109

Incorporating agroforestry approaches into commodity value chains.  

PubMed

The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach. PMID:21556936

Millard, Edward

2011-08-01

110

Incorporating Agroforestry Approaches into Commodity Value Chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

Millard, Edward

2011-08-01

111

An evaluation of the Acacia albida -based agroforestry practices in the Hararghe highlands of Eastern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing Acacia albida as a permanent tree crop, on farmlands with cereals, vegetables and coffee underneath or in between, is an indigenous agroforestry system in the Hararghe highlands of Eastern Ethiopia. However, there is practically no systematic record or data on the merits and benefits of this practice.

Peter Poschen

1986-01-01

112

AGROFORESTRY: FNR 5335 (Section 7638)/ FOR 4854 (Section 6303); 3 Credits  

E-print Network

Instructor: P.K. Nair (Ph.D., Dr.Sc., and four honorary Doctor of Science degrees) 330 N-Z, 846-0880; pknair:20 AM); 222 N-Z Hall Purpose of Course: To familiarize the students with: 1. The concepts and principles of agricultural and forestry production systems. Emphasis will be on the use of agroforestry as an option

Watson, Craig A.

113

Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize controlled…

Zschocke, Thomas

2012-01-01

114

Part 2, Chapter 2 From shifting agriculture to sustainable rubber agroforestry  

E-print Network

Part 2, Chapter 2 From shifting agriculture to sustainable rubber agroforestry systems (jungle rubber) in Indonesia: a history of innovations processes. Penot E (2004). From shifting agriculture production, other farmers became aware of the possibility of growing rubber in a very extensive way

Boyer, Edmond

115

Assessing Local Knowledge Use in Agroforestry Management with Cognitive Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 ± 3 variables and 19 ± 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

Isaac, Marney E.; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

2009-06-01

116

Agroforestry and the Maintenance of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Agroforestry is a land-use method that allows trees to grow in crop and livestock areas. Studies have shown that it is one way to conserve biodiversity, attracts species beneficial to farming, such as pollinators, improves farms by, for example, reducing soil erosion and is economically beneficial to farmers.

Peter Bichier (Migratory Bird Center of the Smithsonian National Zoological Park; )

2006-05-01

117

Agroforestry planting design affects loblolly pine growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of plantation design on resource utilization has not been adequately investigated in agroforestry plantations. An experiment was conducted near Booneville, AR on a silt loam soil with a fragipan. Loblolly pine trees were planted in 1994 in an east-west row orientation in three designs: ...

118

Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America  

PubMed Central

Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

2015-01-01

119

Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.  

PubMed

Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

2015-01-01

120

Can Joint Carbon and Biodiversity Management in Tropical Agroforestry Landscapes Be Optimized?  

PubMed Central

Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential ‘win-win’ scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi, Indonesia, ranging from natural rainforest to cacao agroforests that have replaced former natural forest. The conversion of natural forests with carbon stocks of 227–362 Mg C ha?1 to agroforests with 82–211 Mg C ha?1 showed no relationships to overall biodiversity but led to a significant loss of forest-related species richness. We conclude that the conservation of the forest-related biodiversity, and to a lesser degree of carbon stocks, mainly depends on the preservation of natural forest habitats. In the three most carbon-rich agroforestry systems, carbon stocks were about 60% of those of natural forest, suggesting that 1.6 ha of optimally managed agroforest can contribute to the conservation of carbon stocks as much as 1 ha of natural forest. However, agroforestry systems had comparatively low biodiversity, and we found no evidence for a tight link between carbon storage and biodiversity. Yet, potential win-win agroforestry management solutions include combining high shade-tree quality which favours biodiversity with cacao-yield adapted shade levels. PMID:23077569

Kessler, Michael; Hertel, Dietrich; Jungkunst, Hermann F.; Kluge, Jürgen; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Bos, Merijn; Buchori, Damayanti; Gerold, Gerhard; Gradstein, S. Robbert; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Moser, Gerald; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Saleh, Shahabuddin; Schulze, Christian H.; Sporn, Simone G.; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S.; Tscharntke, Teja

2012-01-01

121

Effect of carbofuran on selected macroinvertebrates in a prairie parkland pond: An enclosure approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of enclosures were placed in an alkaline, prairie parkland pond in Alberta, Canada. Seven enclosures served as controls, 7 were treated with a mid-July application of the carbamate insecticide, carbofuran at 5 ?g\\/L, and another 7 received a 25-?g\\/L application, a range of concentrations that could occur in a shallow pond (?1 m deep) following accidental contamination while

Mark Wayland

1991-01-01

122

Mandatory dedication of parkland in Texas: a survey of municipal practices  

E-print Network

MANDATORY DEDICATION OF PARKLAND IN TEXAS; A SURVEY OF MUNICIPAL PRACTICES A Professional Paper by David Kenneth Rockefeller Submitted to the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... by David Kenneth Rockefeller Approved as to style and content by: Dr. Ronald A. Kaiser (Chair, Advisory Committee) Dr. Edward H. Heath (Member) Dr. Robert B. D tton (Member) August 1990 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S Many friends and colleagues supported me...

Rockefeller, David Kenneth

1990-01-01

123

Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification  

PubMed Central

Losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning due to rainforest destruction and agricultural intensification are prime concerns for science and society alike. Potentially, ecosystems show nonlinear responses to land-use intensification that would open management options with limited ecological losses but satisfying economic gains. However, multidisciplinary studies to quantify ecological losses and socioeconomic tradeoffs under different management options are rare. Here, we evaluate opposing land use strategies in cacao agroforestry in Sulawesi, Indonesia, by using data on species richness of nine plant and animal taxa, six related ecosystem functions, and on socioeconomic drivers of agroforestry expansion. Expansion of cacao cultivation by 230% in the last two decades was triggered not only by economic market mechanisms, but also by rarely considered cultural factors. Transformation from near-primary forest to agroforestry had little effect on overall species richness, but reduced plant biomass and carbon storage by ?75% and species richness of forest-using species by ?60%. In contrast, increased land use intensity in cacao agroforestry, coupled with a reduction in shade tree cover from 80% to 40%, caused only minor quantitative changes in biodiversity and maintained high levels of ecosystem functioning while doubling farmers' net income. However, unshaded systems further increased income by ?40%, implying that current economic incentives and cultural preferences for new intensification practices put shaded systems at risk. We conclude that low-shade agroforestry provides the best available compromise between economic forces and ecological needs. Certification schemes for shade-grown crops may provide a market-based mechanism to slow down current intensification trends. PMID:17360392

Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kessler, Michael; Barkmann, Jan; Bos, Merijn M.; Buchori, Damayanti; Erasmi, Stefan; Faust, Heiko; Gerold, Gerhard; Glenk, Klaus; Gradstein, S. Robbert; Guhardja, Edi; Harteveld, Marieke; Hertel, Dietrich; Höhn, Patrick; Kappas, Martin; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Maertens, Miet; Marggraf, Rainer; Migge-Kleian, Sonja; Mogea, Johanis; Pitopang, Ramadhaniel; Schaefer, Matthias; Schwarze, Stefan; Sporn, Simone G.; Steingrebe, Andrea; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S.; Tjitrosoemito, Soekisman; Twele, André; Weber, Robert; Woltmann, Lars; Zeller, Manfred; Tscharntke, Teja

2007-01-01

124

Guide to monitoring carbon storage in forestry and agroforestry projects  

SciTech Connect

As the international Joint Implementation (JI) program develops a system for trading carbon credits to offset greenhouse gas emissions, project managers need a reliable basis for measuring the carbon storage benefits of carbon offset projects. Monitoring and verifying carbon storage can be expensive, depending on the level of scientific validity needed. This guide describes a system of cost-effective methods for monitoring and verification on a commercial basis, for three types of land use; forest plantations, managed natural forests and agroforestry. Winrock International`s Forest Carbon Monitoring Program developed this system with its partners as a way to provide reliable results using accepted principles and practices of forest inventory, soil science and ecological surveys. Perhaps most important, the system brings field research methods to bear on commercial-scale inventories, at levels of precision specified by funding agencies.

MacDicken, K.G.

1997-10-01

125

Engaging in School-Led Multisectoral Collaboration: Implications to Agroforestry Promotion in the Philippine Uplands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Agroforestry Support Program for Empowering Communities Towards Self-Reliance (ASPECTS) was conceived to develop a model of two-stage approach in agroforestry promotion by capacitating the upland communities to establish community-managed agroforestry extension services, while strengthening the agroforestry education programs of the three…

Landicho, Leila D.; Cabahug, Rowena D.; De Luna, Catherine C.

2009-01-01

126

The potential of biotechnology in temperate agroforestry practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technologies in forest molecular biology and tissue culture could play an increasing role in the choice of genotypes for successful establishment of agroforestry practices. Research areas such as micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, genetic engineering, marker-aided selection, and molecular diagnostics are merging with traditional forest biological studies to help identify and produce better-suited trees for agroforestry plantings. A combination of classical and

N. B. Klopfenstein; J. G. Kerl

1995-01-01

127

Parkland and Golf Course Management: Managing Wildlife Habitat on Public Open Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses methods for managing parkland and golf courses in a wildlife-friendly manner. The article contains a number of practical tips for managing parks and golf courses, and covers such topics as lawn size, the use of native plants, and eco-friendly turf-grass management. The piece was authored by Amanda D. Rodewald Ph.D. of the School of Natural Resources at Ohio State University. Anyone in the Turf or Golf Management industry with a desire to improve the environmental consequences will find this article very useful.

Rodewald, Amanda D.

128

Using agroforestry to improve soil fertility: effects of intercropping on Ilex paraguariensis (yerba mate) plantations with Araucaria angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the use of agroforestry to improve soil nutrient properties in plantations containing Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire (yerba mate). Intercropping within tree plantation systems is widely practiced by farmers around the World, but\\u000a the influence of different species combinations on system performance still requires further investigation. I. paraguariensis is a major South American crop commonly cultivated in intensive

Tal IlanyMark; Mark S. Ashton; Florencia Montagnini; Constanza Martinez

2010-01-01

129

Agroforests: an original agro-forestry model from smallholder farmers for environmental conservation and sustainable development pp. 52-58 in Traditional Technology for Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development in the Asian-Pacific Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforests are defined as complex agroforestry systems which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems, but are integrated into agricultural management systems. Their conception, their management and their economic and environmental qualities, clearly differentiate them from better known \\

G. Michon; H. de Foresta

130

Nature vs. nurture: managing relationships between forests, agroforestry and wild biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many agroforestry systems are found in places that otherwise would be appropriate for natural forests, and often have replaced\\u000a them. Humans have had a profound influence on forests virtually everywhere they both are found. Thus ‘natural’ defined as\\u000a ‘without human influence’ is a hypothetical construct, though one that has assumed mythological value among many conservationists.\\u000a Biodiversity is a forest value

J. A. McNeely

2004-01-01

131

The potential of agroforestry to increase primary production in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents a critical evaluation of agroforestry systems as regards their potential to increase primary production in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of West Africa. The suggestion that trees would always and everywhere be profitable for the region will be counterproductive, the basis for disappointments and a waste of money. One has to consider carefully which properties of woody

J. J. Kessler; H. Breman

1991-01-01

132

Soil water content and infiltration in agroforestry buffer strips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry practices are receiving increased attention in temperate zones due to their environmental and economic benefits.\\u000a To test the hypothesis that agroforestry buffers reduce runoff by increased infiltration, water use, and water storage; profile\\u000a water content and soil water infiltration were measured for a Putnam soil (fine, smectitic, mesic Vertic Albaqualf). The watershed\\u000a was under no-till management with a corn

Stephen H. Anderson; Ranjith P. Udawatta; Tshepiso Seobi; Harold E. Garrett

2009-01-01

133

Farmer perspectives on agroforestry opportunities and constraints in cape verde  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ?gua de Gato Watershed on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde Islands, 51 farmers were surveyed regarding their attitudes\\u000a and knowledge of agroforestry. The farmers identified eight constraints to agroforestry implementation, with virtually all\\u000a indicating that a source of loan funds was the major concern. Space or land constraints and availability of tree seedlings\\u000a were identified as constraints

James E. Johnson; Orlando J. Delgado

2003-01-01

134

Agro-ecosystem and socio-economic role of homegarden agroforestry in Jabithenan District, North-Western Ethiopia: implication for climate change adaptation.  

PubMed

Homegarden agroforestry is believed to be more diverse and provide multiple services for household than other monocropping system and this is due to the combination of crops, trees and livestock. The aim of this study was to assess socio-economic and agro-ecological role of homegardens in Jabithenan district, North-western Ethiopia. Two sites purposively and two villages randomly from each site were selected. Totally 96 households; in which 48 from homegarden agroforestry user and 48 from non-tree based garden user were selected for this study. Socio-economic data and potential economic and agro-ecosystem role of homegarden agroforestry over non-tree based garden were collected by using semi-structured and structured questionnaires to the households. Homegarden agroforestry significantly (P?agroforestry practice provides good socio-economical and agro-ecological service for farmers which have a higher implication for climate change adaptation than non-tree based garden. PMID:24790810

Linger, Ewuketu

2014-01-01

135

The contribution of agroforestry systems to reducing farmers' dependence on the resources of adjacent national parks: a case study from Sumatra, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much debate about the way conservation and development are best integrated to reduce the encroachment pressures of poor rural communities on the biodiversity resources of protected areas in the tropics. One frequently recommended instrument is to intensify farming systems in the adjacent areas, so as to decrease the need to harvest resources from national parks. This study examined

Murniati; D. P. Garrity; A. Ng. Gintings

2001-01-01

136

Food-Web Relations of the Horned Grebe ( Podiceps auritus ) on Constructed Ponds in the Peace Parkland, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borrow-pit constructed ponds, formed during road building, are common along highways that run through the Peace Parkland,\\u000a Alberta, Canada, providing habitat for a variety of aquatic birds. The horned grebe (Podiceps auritus) is a migratory diving bird that is in decline, likely due to native habitat destruction; however, it readily nests on roadside\\u000a borrow pits. We conducted stable isotope analysis

Eva C. Kuczynski; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

2010-01-01

137

Factors Influencing Fish Distributions in Shallow Lakes in Prairie and Prairie-Parkland Regions of Minnesota, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish exert strong influences on shallow lakes, but managers lack empirical models useful for predicting fish distributions\\u000a at landscape scales. We used classification and regression tree analysis (CART), and regression to predict fish presence\\/absence\\u000a (P\\/A), richness, and community composition in 82 shallow lakes distributed among two regions (prairie and prairie-parkland)\\u000a along the eastern margin of the Prairie Pothole Region in

Brian R. Herwig; Kyle D. Zimmer; Mark A. Hanson; Melissa L. Konsti; Jerry A. Younk; Robert W. Wright; Sean R. Vaughn; Mitchell D. Haustein

2010-01-01

138

Seasonal distribution of nitrous oxide emissions from soils in the Parkland region  

SciTech Connect

The temporal variability of soil-derived N{sub 2}O emissions presents a major challenge to the accurate quantification of N{sub 2}O-N losses from agroecosystems. The authors characterized the seasonal distribution of N{sub 2}O emissions from two agricultural sites in the Parkland region of Alberta during 1993 and 1994. Treatments studied were fallow, and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with and without urea fertilizer, under conventional till management. Gas samples were collected from vented static soil chambers and were analyzed for N{sub 2}O with a gas chromatograph equipped with a {sup 63}Ni electron capture detector. Soil water content and concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N, NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N, and water-soluble organic C (WSOC) were measured several times during the season. A brief burst of N{sub 2}O emission was recorded at both sites during and immediately following spring snow melt. A second period of activity occurred between mid-June and mid-July. Between 16 and 60% of estimated annual N{sub 2}O-N loss occurred during spring thaw, while >80% of cumulative annual N{sub 2}O-N loss had occurred by mid-July. Mean soil NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentration explained up to 65% of the temporal variability in geometric mean N{sub 2}O emissions. A multiple regression model that included fall soil concentrations of No{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N, NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N, and WSOC explained 94% of the variability in estimated cumulative N{sub 2}O-N loss during the following spring thaw. Most N{sub 2}O-N losses in the Parkland region appear to occur during spring thaw and early summer; therefore, sampling schedules need to focus on these time periods. Management practices that minimize N availability during spring thaw may be an effective mitigation strategy for this region.

Lemke, R.L. [Agriculture and Agri-Food, Lethbridge, Alberta (Canada). Research Centre; Izaurralde, R.C. [Battelle PNNL, Washington, DC (United States); Nyborg, M. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources

1998-09-01

139

Eutrophication indices of an atlantic agroforestry catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main elements causing eutrophication in waters are nitrogen and phosphorus. It is admitted that surface waters productivity is limited by either phosphorus, in lakes, or nitrogen, in rivers. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the seasonal fluctuation of N and P concentrations and to assess the N/P ratio at the outlet of an agroforestry catchment under atlantic climatic conditions in order to assess its eutrophication status. The studied catchment is located in A Coruña province (NW Spain). Water samples were collected at the catchment outlet from 2003 to 2007, amounting to a total of 555 samples. Total phosphorus contents were measured using ICP-MS whereas those of nitrogen were assessed by capilar electrophoresis. Maximum average values were registered in 2006 for nitrogen and 2005 for phosphorus. Nitrogen minimum average values were measured in 2003 and those of phosphorus in 2007. Coefficients of variation were higher for phosphorus than for nitrogen. The highest N/P ratios were observed in 2007 and the lowest ones in 2003. Usually, higher N/P values were related to base flow periods whereas lower values of this ratio occurred during floods. N/P values higher than 7 indicate eutrophication conditions caused by phosphorus and if the ratio is lower than this threshold, nitrogen is the limitant element. Our results indicated that, in this catchment, phosphorus was the limitant element for eutrophication. Moreover, eutrophication risk is higher during flood events with phosphorus supplies by runoff.

Sande-Fouz, P.; Miras-Avalos, J. M.

2009-04-01

140

Agroforestry tree selection in central Chile: biological nitrogen fixation and early plant growth in six dryland species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth rate, resource partitioning, and several biological traits related to biological N2 fixation for six native or non-native tree species were compared using 15N isotope dilution techniques. The trees were field grown for six years in a semiarid mediterranean-climate region with five to six months a year of absolute drought. Trees were tested as candidates for new agroforestry systems being

James Aronson; C. Ovalle; J. Avendaño; L. Longeri; A. Del Pozo

2002-01-01

141

Nutritional and anti-nutritional characters and rumen degradability of dry matter and nitrogen for some multipurpose tree species with potential for agroforestry in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a preliminary study on the nutritional value of seven multipurpose trees (MPTs), currently showing potential use in agroforestry systems in Zimbabwe, crude protein values ranged from 189 g kg?1 DM in Flemingia macrophylla to 292 g kg?1 DM in Acacia angustissima. Acid detergent fibre (ADF) content was low especially in Sesbania sesban (99 g kg?1 DM), while ADF contents

B. H. Dzowela; L. Hove; J. H. Topps; P. L. Mafongoya

1995-01-01

142

Variation in Soil Enzyme Activities in a Temperate Agroforestry Watershed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integration of agroforestry and grass buffers into row crop watersheds improves overall environmental quality, including soil quality. The objective of this study was to examine management and landscape effects on soil carbon, soil nitrogen, microbial diversity, enzyme activity, and DNA concentrati...

143

Economic principles to appraise agro-forestry projects  

SciTech Connect

Basic economic principles and the classical project evaluation technique can be satisfactorily used to solve investment decisions for agroforestry projects. Recommendations made for this type of appraisal are to: concentrate on the small farm participants; study the forestry component and risk diversification; detail the externalities; and consider the cultural environment. 15 references.

Harou, P.A.

1983-01-01

144

Propagation of trembling aspen and hybrid poplar for agroforestry: potential benefits of elevated CO2 in the greenhouse  

E-print Network

of Populus tremuloides Michaux aspen and hybrid poplars for agroforestry, afforestation, or rec- lamation to be considered in the context of using aspen and hybrid poplar for large- scale agroforestry, afforestation objectives relevant to the desired end use e.g. afforestation, agroforestry, reclamation . Physiological

Macdonald, Ellen

145

Tree Roots in Agroforestry: Evaluating Biomass and Distribution with Ground Penetrating Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The root systems of five tree species (Populus deltoides x nigra clone DN-177, Juglans nigra, Quercus rubra, Picea abies, and Thuja occidentalis) are described following non-intrusive imaging using ground penetrating radar (GPR). This research aimed to 1) assess the utility of GPR for in situ root studies and 2) employ GPR to estimate tree root biomass and distribution in an agroforestry system in southern Ontario, Canada. The mean coarse root biomass estimated from GPR analysis was 54.1 +/- 8.7 kg tree-1 (+/- S.E.; n=12), within 1 % of the mean coarse root biomass measured from matched excavations. The vertical distribution of detected roots varied among species, with T. occidentalis and P. abies roots concentrated in the top 20 cm and J. nigra and Q. rubra roots distinctly deeper. I evaluate these root systems based on their C storage potential and complementary root stratification with adjacent crops.

Borden, Kira Alia

146

Variations in soil aggregate stability and enzyme activities in a temperate agroforestry practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry and grass buffers have been shown to improve soil properties and overall environmental quality. The objective of this study was to examine management and landscape effects on water stable soil aggregates (WSA), soil carbon, soil nitrogen, enzyme activity, and microbial community DNA content. Treatments were row crop (RC), grass buffer (GB), agroforestry buffer (AG), and grass waterways (GWW). A

Ranjith P. Udawatta; Robert J. Kremer; Brandon W. Adamson; Stephen H. Anderson

2008-01-01

147

Field Note: Standard Web Application for Information Exchange on Agroforestry in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agroforestry (AF)/forestry is no longer an isolated field, with so many developmental activities having links with this sector, and thus the information required to be handled by the researchers all over the world has increased exponentially. This article discusses a website that was developed by the National Research Centre for Agroforestry

Ajit; Nighat Jabeen; Handa, A. K.; Uma

2008-01-01

148

Assessing the adoption potential of agroforestry practices in sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the application of various types of on-farm trials and methods for collecting and analysing data needed to assess the adoption potential of agroforestry practices. The review is based on farmers' and researchers' experiences in seven case studies in three countries of sub-Saharan Africa assessing the biophysical performance, profitability and acceptability of agroforestry practices. Assessments of adoption potential

S. Franzel; R. Coe; P. Cooper; S. J. Scherr

2001-01-01

149

Effect of five tree crops and a cover crop in multi-strata agroforestry at two fertilization levels on soil fertility and soil solution chemistry in central Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatio-temporal patterns of soil fertility and soil solution chemistry in a multi-strata agroforestry system with perennial\\u000a crops were analysed as indicators for the effects of crop species and management measures on soil conditions under permanent\\u000a agriculture in central Amazonia. The study was carried out in a plantation with locally important tree crop species and a\\u000a leguminous cover crop at

Götz Schroth; Wenceslau Geraldes Teixeira; Rosangela Seixas; Luciana Ferreira da Silva; Michaela Schaller; Jeferson L. V. Macêdo; Wolfgang Zech

2000-01-01

150

Quantification and simulation of nitrous oxide emissions from agroecosystems in the Boreal and Parkland regions of Alberta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentration of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) is increasing rapidly. Nitrous oxide, a 'greenhouse gas', contributes to global warming. It is also involved in the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. Best estimates indicate that the increase is almost exclusively attributable to agricultural activities. These contributions need to be accurately quantified to reduce uncertainties in global N2O budgets and facilitate the development of mitigation strategies. The objectives of this study were to: (1) quantify the seasonal and annual N2O emissions from selected field plots in the Boreal and Parkland regions of Alberta; (2) identify the principle controls regulating N2O emissions; (3) compare total N2O emissions from plots under zero and conventional till managements; (4) evaluate the extent to which urea fertilizer, pea residue, manure and fallow promote N2O emissions and; (5) test the ability of the DNDC model to simulate N2O emissions under conditions prevailing in the Boreal and Parkland regions. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured from spring thaw to fall freeze-up at six sites over a three year period. Vented soil covers were placed on the soil surface for one hour. A gas sample was drawn from the headspace and transferred to pre-evacuated vacutainers. Gas samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a 63Ni electron capture detector. Measurements of soil temperature, soil water content, mineral N and water-soluble organic C were taken periodically at some of the sites. Estimates of annual N2O-N losses ranged from 0.5 to 4.0 kg N ha-1. Up to 70% of this loss occurred during and just following spring thaw. There were significant differences in the magnitude of estimated annual N2O-N losses among the sites. More than 90% of this variation could be explained by differences in soil clay content. When the spring thaw event was considered individually, variability was better explained by differences in the concentration of soil mineral N. Summer fallowing and additions of urea fertilizer and pea residue increased N2O-N losses compared to control plots. Losses of N2O-N were significantly lower from zero compared to conventional till plots during spring thaw, but differences were not significant on an annual basis.

Lemke, Reynald L.

151

Markets and marketing strategies for agroforestry specialty products in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In agroforestry, marketing is unique for several reasons: many products typically lack established marketing institutions,\\u000a market information, and grade or quality standards. All that is known about the market for many agroforestry specialty products\\u000a is that someone is growing the product and consumers are buying it. What happens to the product as it moves through the value\\u000a chain from producer

M. A. Gold; L. D. Godsey; S. J. Josiah

2004-01-01

152

Agroforestry potential in the southeastern United States: perceptions of landowners and extension professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first steps in developing an agroforestry extension and training program involve compilation, synthesis, and analysis\\u000a of current knowledge on existing practices. Equally important is to understand the perceptions of landowners and professionals\\u000a of agroforestry as a land use option. No systematic effort has been made to assess these critical issues in the southeastern\\u000a United States. Therefore, needs assessment surveys

Sarah W. Workman; Michael E. Bannister; P. K. R. Nair

2003-01-01

153

Hydrologic Activity of Deciduous Agroforestry Tree : Observed through Monitoring of Stable Isotopes in Stem Water, Solar Radiation Attenuation, and Sapflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The net benefit of agroforestry trees for small scale farmers in dryland agricultural systems is debatable because while they provide significant direct and indirect services, they also consume considerable amounts of scare water resources. In this study we monitor the stable isotopes of water to improve a water budget of a Sclerocarya birrea tree in a millet field in South Eastern Burkina Faso. Data obtained from air temperature and humidity, surface temperature, solar radiation, and soil moisture sensors attached to a wireless sensor network uniquely configured around the agroforestry tree provided the initial calculation of the local water balance. Isotopic ratios were determined from water extracted from stems and sub canopy soil, and from nearby ground water, precipitation, and surface water that was sampled weekly. A linear mixing model is used to predict when the tree switched between water sources. The results from the linear mixing model coupled with a tree water balance demonstrate the extreme seasonality of the annual cycle of water use by this deciduous species.

Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Parlange, M. B.

2012-12-01

154

Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.  

PubMed

Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management. PMID:24131776

Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

2013-12-01

155

Agricultural extension in agroforestry and... Cardoso-Leite, E.; Pin-Rodrigues, F.C.M.; Costa Jr, E.A. ; Gonalves, P.K. ; Podadera,  

E-print Network

Agricultural extension in agroforestry and... Cardoso-Leite, E.; Pinã-Rodrigues, F.C.M.; Costa Jr AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN AGROFORESTRY ANDEMPOWERMENT OF RURAL COMMUNITIES, INSOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL. Eliana : France (2010)" #12;Agricultural extension in agroforestry and... Cardoso-Leite, E.; Pinã-Rodrigues, F

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

156

Disentangling herbivore impacts on Populus tremuloides: a comparison of native ungulates and cattle in Canada's Aspen Parkland.  

PubMed

Ungulates impact woody species' growth and abundance but little is understood about the comparative impacts of different ungulate species on forest expansion in savanna environments. Replacement of native herbivore guilds with livestock [i.e., beef cattle (Bos taurus)] has been hypothesized as a factor facilitating trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) encroachment into grasslands of the Northern Great Plains. We used a controlled herbivory study in the Parklands of western Canada to compare the impact of native ungulates and cattle on aspen saplings. Native ungulate treatments included a mixed species guild and sequences of herbivory by different ungulates [bison (Bison bison subsp. bison), elk (Cervus elaphus) then deer (Odocoileus hemionus); or deer, elk, then bison]. Herbivory treatments were replicated in three pastures, within which sets of 40 marked aspen saplings (<1.8 m) were tracked along permanent transects at 2-week intervals, and compared to a non-grazed aspen stand. Stems were assessed for mortality and incremental damage (herbivory, leader breakage, stem abrasion and trampling). Final mortality was greater with exposure to any type of herbivore, but remained similar between ungulate treatments. However, among all treatments, the growth of aspen was highest with exposure only to cattle. Herbivory of aspen was attributed primarily to elk within the native ungulate treatments, with other forms of physical damage, and ultimately sapling mortality, associated with exposure to bison. Overall, these results indicate that native ungulates, specifically elk and bison, have more negative impacts on aspen saplings and provide evidence that native and domestic ungulates can have different functional effects on woody plant dynamics in savanna ecosystems. PMID:23649757

Bork, Edward W; Carlyle, Cameron N; Cahill, James F; Haddow, Rae E; Hudson, Robert J

2013-11-01

157

The Parkland Protocol's Modified Berne-Norwood Criteria Predict Two Tiers of Risk for Traumatic Brain Injury Progression  

PubMed Central

Abstract As a basis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after traumatic brain injury (TBI), we have previously published an algorithm known as the Parkland Protocol. Patients are classified by risk for spontaneous progression of hemorrhage with chemoprophylaxis regimens tailored to each tier. We sought to validate this schema. In our algorithm, patients with any of the following are classified “low risk” for spontaneous progression: subdural hemorrhage ?8?mm thick; epidural hemorrhage ?8?mm thick; contusions ?20?mm in diameter; a single contusion per lobe; any amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage; or any amount of intraventricular hemorrhage. Patients with any injury exceeding these are “moderate risk” for progression, and any patient receiving a monitor or craniotomy is “high risk.” From February 2010 to November 2012, TBI patients were entered into a dedicated database tracking injury types and sizes, risk category at presentation, and progression on subsequent computed tomgraphies (CTs). The cohort (n=414) was classified as low risk (n=200), moderate risk (n=75), or high risk (n=139) after first CT. After repeat CT scan, radiographic progression was noted in 27% of low-risk, 53% of moderate-risk, and 58% of high-risk subjects. Omnibus analysis of variance test for differences in progression rates was highly significant (p<0.0001). Tukey's post-hoc test showed the low-risk progression rate to be significantly different than both the moderate- and high-risk arms; no difference was noted between the moderate- and high-risk arms themselves. These criteria are a valid tool for classifying TBI patients into two categories of risk for spontaneous progression. This supports tailored chemoprophylaxis regimens for each arm. PMID:24945196

Pastorek, Rachel A.; Cripps, Michael W.; Bernstein, Ira H.; Scott, William W.; Madden, Christopher J.; Rickert, Kim L.; Wolf, Steven E.

2014-01-01

158

Farmers, the Practice of Farming and the Future of Agroforestry: An Application of Bourdieu's Concepts of Field and Habitus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agroforestry, the practice of raising crops and trees together in ways that are mutually beneficial, provides farmers with an alternative to more conventional farming practices. In this paper, we apply Bourdieu's concepts of "field" and "habitus" in an attempt to better understand the practice of farming and the role that agroforestry may have in…

Raedeke, Andrew H.; Green, John J.; Hodge, Sandra S.; Valdivia, Corinne

2003-01-01

159

Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment of Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a NS coefficient equal to 0.80, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2=0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2=0.49) and water table level (R2=0.90). An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow, 25% as evapotranspiration and the remaining 11% was attributed to deep percolation. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 5% and an infiltration component of 91%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 63% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 29% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 8% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Moussa, R.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Voltz, M.; Imbach, P.; Harmand, J. M.

2010-05-01

160

Modelling agro-forestry scenarios for ammonia abatement in the landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia emissions from livestock production can have negative impacts on nearby protected sites and ecosystems that are sensitive to eutrophication and acidification. Trees are effective scavengers of both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere making tree belts potentially effective landscape features to support strategies aiming to reduce ammonia impacts. This research used the MODDAS-THETIS a coupled turbulence and deposition turbulence model, to examine the relationships between tree canopy structure and ammonia capture for three source types—animal housing, slurry lagoon, and livestock under a tree canopy. By altering the canopy length, leaf area index, leaf area density, and height of the canopy in the model the capture efficiencies varied substantially. A maximum of 27% of the emitted ammonia was captured by tree canopy for the animal housing source, for the slurry lagoon the maximum was 19%, while the livestock under trees attained a maximum of 60% recapture. Using agro-forestry systems of differing tree structures near ‘hot spots’ of ammonia in the landscape could provide an effective abatement option for the livestock industry that complements existing source reduction measures.

Bealey, W. J.; Loubet, B.; Braban, C. F.; Famulari, D.; Theobald, M. R.; Reis, S.; Reay, D. S.; Sutton, M. A.

2014-12-01

161

PARKLAND COLLEGE CATALOG YEAR: 2013-2014 NIU CATALOG: 2013-2014 DATE: JULY 2013  

E-print Network

295 SERVICE SHOP OPERATIONS TECH ELECTIVE AUTOMOTIVE FORD ASSET PROGRAM (AFM) NO CREDIT AIR FORCE COLLISION REPAIR (ACR) NO CREDIT AUTOMOTIVE (AFD) 112 INTRO TO POWER TRAINS TECH ELECTIVE 114 SMALL ENGINE THEORY MAINTENANCE TECH ELECTIVE AND OVERHAUL 115 BASIC CHASSIS ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS TECH ELECTIVE 119

Karonis, Nicholas T.

162

Taxonomic diversity of bacteria associated with the roots of field-grown transgenic Brassica napus cv. Quest, compared to the non-transgenic B. napus cv. Excel and B. rapa cv. Parkland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and diversity of the bacterial community associated with plant roots is influenced by a variety of plant factors such as root density and exudation. In turn, these factors are influenced by plant breeding programs. This study assessed the diversity of root-endophytic and rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with three canola cultivars (Parkland, Brassica rapa; Excel, B. napus; and Quest,

S. D Siciliano; J. J Germida

1999-01-01

163

Enhanced selective metal adsorption on optimised agroforestry waste mixtures.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to ascertain the potentials of different agroforestry wastes to be used as biosorbents in the removal of a mixture of heavy metals. Fern (FE), rice husk (RI) and oak leaves (OA) presented the best removal percentages for Cu(II) and Ni(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) and Cr(VI), respectively. The performance of a mixture of these three biosorbents was evaluated, and an improvement of 10% in the overall removal was obtained (19.25mg/g). The optimum mixture proportions were determined using simplex-centroid mixture design method (FE:OA:RI=50:13.7:36.3). The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the optimised mixture were fit by the pseudo-first order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption mechanism was studied, and the effects of the carboxylic, hydroxyl and phenolic groups on metal-biomass binding were demonstrated. Finally, the recoveries of the metals using biomass were investigated, and cationic metal recoveries of 100% were achieved when acidic solutions were used. PMID:25681794

Rosales, Emilio; Ferreira, Laura; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Tavares, Teresa; Pazos, Marta

2015-04-01

164

Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth  

PubMed Central

For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922

Kotowska, Martyna M.; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

2015-01-01

165

Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth.  

PubMed

For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922

Kotowska, Martyna M; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

2015-01-01

166

Immature mosquitoes associated with urban parklands: implications for water and mosquito management.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to compare 2 urban habitat types: pools artificially filled with water from damaged or leaking water pipes (AF) and pools naturally filled by rainwater (NF), with regard to their favorability as breeding sites for mosquitoes. Two study areas were analyzed, 1 for 5 months and the other for 9 months, covering the whole period when AF pools contained water. The AF pools held water during the entire study, and showed lower fluctuations in surface area than NF pools. The AF pools showed higher levels of total mosquitoes and of stagnant-water mosquitoes. The floodwater mosquitoes were numerically (but not significantly) more abundant in NF pools. Nine mosquito species were identified. Habitat type, temperature, and season were significant in explaining the variability in species composition according to the canonical correspondence analysis. The most abundant species were Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (= Aedes albifasciatus, predominantly in NF pools), Culex dolosus, and Cx. pipiens (mainly in AF pools). The latter 2 species differed in their temporal dynamics, with Cx. dolosus associated with lower temperatures and Cx. pipiens with higher temperatures. Overall, the results indicate that although both habitat types harbored immature mosquitoes, the AF pools were more favorable than co-occurring rain pools. Easy-to-implement management actions such as the design of adequate drainage systems and the fast repair of broken pipes will be helpful to reduce the risk of human illness associated with mosquitoes in urban green areas. PMID:23687852

Quiroga, Laura; Fischer, Sylvia; Schweigmann, Nicolás

2013-03-01

167

Pattern and potential causes of White-faced Ibis, Plegadis chihi, establishment in the northern prairie and parkland region of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Northern Prairie and Parkland Waterbird Conservation Plan calls for renewed attention to determining the current status of waterbird populations, their distributions, and conservation needs. It highlights the need for baseline information on the White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi). In response, we examined the historical and current distribution of the ibis in North Dakota and summarized first sightings and nest records for the provinces and other states composing the northern prairie and parkland region. The establishment of breeding colonies of White-faced Ibis here may be due to climate and precipitation patterns, invasion and spread of Narrowleaf Cattail (Typha angustifolia), changes in agricultural practices, habitat loss and range expansion in the southern and western portions of the species' range, and increases in ibis populations in the Intermountain West. We placed special emphasis on North Dakota, a state for which there is scant published information concerning the current status of this species. In recent decades, the ibis has become a regular breeding-season resident in North Dakota and in other areas of the northern prairie and parkland region. From 1882 to 2002, there were 145 reports of one or more White-faced Ibis in North Dakota, including 93 reports during the breeding season (15 May to 31 August), 49 during the non-breeding season (1 September to 14 May), and three for which the season of occurrence was not reported. Prior to the 1960s, there were only three records of the species in North Dakota. Observations of White-faced Ibises in North Dakota increased dramatically between the 1960s and the early 21st century, and the species has been observed nearly annually since 1971. The first White-faced Ibis nesting activity in the state was recorded in 1978, and to date, there have been 21 known records of nesting activity in the state. The species nested in large (>300 ha) semipermanent or permanent wetlands within mixed-species colonies ranging in areal extent from small (0.1 ha) to fairly large (27 ha), and colonies were located in patches of emergent vegetation dominated by cattails (Typha) and bulrushes (Scirpus). We classify the White-faced Ibis as a fairly common migrant and a locally uncommon breeder east of the Missouri River and a casual migrant west of the Missouri River.

Shaffer, J.A.; Knutsen, G.A.; Martin, R.E.; Brice, J.S.

2008-01-01

168

DEM modelling, vegetation characterization and mapping of aspen parkland rangeland using LIDAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed geographic information system (GIS) studies on plant ecology, animal behavior and soil hydrologic characteristics across spatially complex landscapes require an accurate digital elevation model (DEM). Following interpolation of last return LIDAR data and creation of a LIDAR-derived DEM, a series of 260 points, stratified by vegetation type, slope gradient and off-nadir distance, were ground-truthed using a total laser station, GPS, and 27 interconnected benchmarks. Despite an overall mean accuracy of +2 cm across 8 vegetation types, it created a RMSE (square root of the mean square error) of 1.21 m. DEM elevations were over-estimated within forested areas by an average of 20 cm with a RMSE of 1.05 m, under-estimated (-12 cm, RMSE = 1.36 m) within grasslands. Vegetation type had the greatest influence on DEM accuracy, while off-nadir distance (P = 0.48) and slope gradient (P = 0.49) did not influence DEM accuracy; however, the latter factors did interact (P < 0.10) to effect accuracy. Vegetation spatial structure (i.e., physiognomy) including plant height, cover, and vertical or horizontal heterogeneity, are important factors influencing biodiversity. Vegetation over and understory were sampled for height, canopy cover, and tree or shrub density within 120 field plots, evenly stratified by vegetation formation (grassland, shrubland, and aspen forest). Results indicated that LIDAR data could be used for estimating the maximum height, cover, and density, of both closed and semi-open stands of aspen (P < 0.001). However, LIDAR data could not be used to assess understory (<1.5 m) height within aspen stands, nor grass height and cover. Recognition and mapping of vegetation types are important for rangelands as they provide a basis for the development and evaluation of management policies and actions. In this study, LIDAR data were found to be superior to digital classification schedules for their mapping accuracy in aspen forest and grassland, but not shrubland. No single classification schedule created a high classification accuracy map for all types; however, the integration of LIDAR data and digital images achieved maps with corresponding overall accuracies of 91% and 83.9% with 3 and 8 classes of vegetation.

Su, Guangquan

169

Agroforestry Programs and Issues in the Northern Marianas Anthony Paul Tudela2  

E-print Network

wood products, shelter, medicines, recreation and seasonal hunting, and food. Agroforestry also adds (Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands) plays a key role in the lives of the island people. It provides the government and some environ- mentally-oriented private groups are working to conserve the forests, soil

Standiford, Richard B.

170

Barriers and Coping Mechanisms Relating to Agroforestry Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe. Design/Methodology/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations. Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional…

Chitakira, Munyaradzi; Torquebiau, Emmanuel

2010-01-01

171

Bats Limit Insects in a Neotropical Agroforestry System  

E-print Network

the importance of avian predators in arthropod control (2). Although insectivorous bats are ex- pected to have of insectivorous overwintering migrants from North America (4). We have no data on the ab- solute density of bats

172

Drought resilience of maize-legume agroforestry systems in Malawi  

E-print Network

climate change 18   2.1.2.1   Gathering empirical evidencewas no evidence that future climate change – regardless ofevidence that subsistence agriculture in Malawi may be particularly vulnerable to climate change

Kerr, Amber Catherine

2012-01-01

173

Parkland Health Care Campus  

E-print Network

Total qty. Platinum level: 3 These are projects that have been certified via LEED for New Construction (LEED-NC) or LEED for Healthcare. Source USGBC Kiowa County Memorial Hospital OHSU Ctr for Health nd Healing Dell Children?s Hospital ESL...% reduction (in Hospital) Increase energy efficiency 17.5 ? 21% On track to exceed LEED for Healthcare (LEED-HC) Not pursuing ESL-KT-11-11-19 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 ESL-KT-11-11-19 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 A...

Jones, W., Sr.

2011-01-01

174

Farmers’ perceptions of tree mortality, pests and pest management practices in agroforestry in Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest management research within the context of agroforestry is in its infancy, and it is often difficult to say when a particular\\u000a pest justifies investment in research to establish facts. Understanding the potentials and drawbacks of farmers’ indigenous\\u000a ecological knowledge (ethnoecology) may form the basis for constructive collaboration between farmers, agroforestry scientists\\u000a and extension staff. Therefore, the objectives of the

Gudeta Weldesemayat Sileshi; Elias Kuntashula; Patrick Matakala; Philip O. Nkunika

2008-01-01

175

Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment for Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficient equal to 0.89 for the year 2009, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2 = 0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2 = 0.35) and water table level (R2 = 0.84). Eight months of data from 2010 were used to validate modelled streamflow, resulting in a NS = 0.75. An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow and 25% as evapotranspiration, while the remaining 11% is probably explained by deep percolation, measurement errors and/or inter-annual changes in soil and aquifer water stocks. The model indicated an interception loss equal to 4% of R, a surface runoff of 4% and an infiltration component of 92%. The modelled streamflow was constituted by 87% of baseflow originating from the aquifer, 7% of subsurface non-saturated runoff and 6% of surface runoff. Given the low surface runoff observed under the current physical conditions (andisol) and management practices (no tillage, planted trees, bare soil kept by weeding), this agroforestry system on a volcanic soil demonstrated potential to provide valuable HES, such as a reduced superficial displacement-capacity for fertilizers, pesticides and sediments, as well as a streamflow regulation function provided by the highly efficient mechanisms of aquifer recharge and discharge. The proposed combination of experimentation and modelling across ecophysiological and hydrological approaches proved to be useful to account for the behaviour of a given basin, so that it can be applied to compare HES provision for different regions or management alternatives.

Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Harmand, J. M.; Voltz, M.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Imbach, P.; Moussa, R.

2011-01-01

176

Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

2004-01-01

177

Agroforestry as an approach to minimizing nutrient loss from heavily fertilized soils: The Florida experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient buildup in the soil caused by increased animal manure and fertilizer use in agricultural and forestry practices may\\u000a increase the potential for their loss from the soil, leading to groundwater contamination and nonpoint source pollution. Studies\\u000a in the tropics have suggested that agroforestry practices can reduce such nutrient (especially nitrogen) losses because of\\u000a enhanced nutrient uptake by tree and

V. D. Nair; D. A. Graetz

2004-01-01

178

Plant-soil interactions in multistrata agroforestry in the humid tropics G. Schroth1, *, J. Lehmann2  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, 909 Bradfield Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA; 3 Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental, C.P. 319, 69011-970 Manaus-AM, Brazil cycling, spatial and temporal patterns, sustainability, tree crops Abstract Multistrata agroforestry

Lehmann, Johannes

179

Short-rotation woody crops and phytoremediation: Opportunities for agroforestry?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, fuelwood demands, soil and groundwater contamination, and agriculture's impact on nature are growing concerns.\\u000a Fast growing trees in short rotation woody crop (SRWC) systems may increasingly meet societal needs ranging from renewable\\u000a energy to environmental mitigation and remediation. Phytoremediation, the use of plants for environmental cleanup, systems\\u000a utilizing SRWCs have potential to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater. Non-hyperaccumulating, i.e.,

D. L. Rockwood; C. V. Naidu; D. R. Carter; M. Rahmani; T. A. Spriggs; C. Lin; G. R. Alker; J. G. Isebrands; S. A. Segrest

2004-01-01

180

Changes in soil nitrogen storage and ?15N with woody plant encroachment in a subtropical savanna parkland landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subtropical woodlands dominated by N-fixing tree legumes have largely replaced grasslands in the Rio Grande Plains, southwestern United States, during the past century. To evaluate the impact of this vegetation change on the N cycle, we measured the mass and isotopic composition (?15N) of N in the soil system of remnant grasslands and woody plant stands ranging in age from 10 to 130 years. Nitrogen accumulated at linear rates following woody encroachment in the litter (0.10-0.14 g N m-2 yr-1), roots (0.63-0.98 g N m-2 yr-1), and soils (0.75-3.50 g N m-2 yr-1), resulting in a 50%-150% increase in N storage in the soil system (0-30 cm) in woody stands older than 60 years. Simultaneous decreases in soil ?15N of up to 2‰ in the upper 30 cm of the profile are consistent with a scenario in which N inputs have exceeded losses following woody encroachment and suggest N accrual was derived from symbiotic N fixation by tree legumes and/or differential atmospheric N deposition to wooded areas. Vertical uplift and lateral transfer of N by the more deeply and intensively rooted woody plants may have contributed to N accumulation in wooded areas, but soil ?15N values are inconsistent with this explanation. N accumulation following woody encroachment may alter soil N availability, species interactions and successional dynamics, flux rates of key trace gases such as NOX and N2O and ecosystem C sequestration. Given the geographic dimensions of woody encroachment, these results may have implications for atmospheric composition and the climate system.

Boutton, T. W.; Liao, J. D.

2010-09-01

181

Tropical Forest Ecosystem and Agroforestry Management (Forest TEAM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Forest TEAM project seeks to reverse the decline of native forests and plants in Hawaii due to the introduction of alien plant species and other encroachments. They hope to reverse this trend by educating technicians in the management and regeneration of native ecosystems on the Hawaiian Islands. In order to accomplish this goal, Forest TEAM developed an associate of science degree program with 14 new courses. The curriculum includes the most current geographic information system and geographic positioning system technologies. Internships and service learning projects give students hands-on experience with potential employers, who serve on the project's advisory board. The college students also interact with high school students who take summer courses, participate in junior Forest TEAM club activities, and participate in field trips to help with reforestation projects. The site includes course requirements, a nice set of conservation links, an excellent set of web resources related to ecology (especially tropical and Hawaiian), information about program sponsors and the advisory board, as well as information on upcoming events and the Forest TEAM Club.

182

Distribution of throughfall and stemflow in multi-strata agroforestry, perennial monoculture, fallow and primary forest in central Amazonia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partitioning of rain water into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss when passing through plant canopies depends on properties of the respective plant species, such as leaf area and branch angles. In heterogeneous vegetation, such as tropical forest or polycultural systems, the presence of different plant species may consequently result in a mosaic of situations with respect to quantity and quality of water inputs into the soil. As these processes influence not only the water availability for the plants, but also water infiltration and nutrient leaching, the understanding of plant effects on the repartitioning of rain water may help in the optimization of land use systems and management practices. We measured throughfall and stemflow in a perennial polyculture (multi-strata agroforestry), monocultures of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) for fruit and for palmito, a monoculture of cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), spontaneous fallow and primary forest during one year in central Amazonia, Brazil. The effect on rain water partitioning was measured separately for four useful tree species in the polyculture and for two tree species in the primary forest. Throughfall at two stem distances, and stemflow, differed significantly between tree species, resulting in pronounced spatial patterns of water input into the soil in the polyculture system. For two tree species, peach palm for fruit (Bactris gasipaes) and Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa), the water input into the soil near the stem was significantly higher than the open-area rainfall. This could lead to increased nutrient leaching when fertilizer is applied close to the stem of these trees. In the primary forest, such spatial patterns could also be detected, with significantly higher water input near a palm (Oenocarpus bacaba) than near a dicotyledonous tree species (Eschweilera sp.). Interception losses were 6·4% in the polyculture, 13·9 and 12·3% in the peach palm monocultures for fruit and for palmito, respectively, 0·5% in the cupuaçu monoculture and 3·1% in the fallow. With more than 20% of the open-area rainfall, the highest stemflow contributions to the water input into the soil were measured in the palm monocultures and in the fallow.

Schroth, Götz; Ferreira da Silva, Luciana; Wolf, Marc-Andree; Geraldes Teixeira, Wenceslau; Zech, Wolfgang

1999-07-01

183

Erratum to: Elephants also like coffee: Trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.  

PubMed

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders. PMID:21751010

Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

2011-08-01

184

Elephants also like coffee: trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.  

PubMed

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders. PMID:21359868

Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

2011-05-01

185

Elephants Also Like Coffee: Trends and Drivers of Human-Elephant Conflicts in Coffee Agroforestry Landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

Bal, P.; Nath, C. D.; Nanaya, K. M.; Kushalappa, C. G.; Garcia, C.

2011-05-01

186

Erratum: Erratum to: Elephants Also Like Coffee: Trends and Drivers of Human-Elephant Conflicts in Coffee Agroforestry Landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

Bal, P.; Nath, C. D.; Nanaya, K. M.; Kushalappa, C. G.; Garcia, C.

2011-08-01

187

Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In KhammamDistrict Of India  

SciTech Connect

Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.

Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

2007-06-01

188

Depletion of Stem Water of Sclerocarya birrea Agroforestry Tree Precedes Start of Rainy Season in West African Sudanian Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding water use by agroforestry trees in dry-land ecosystems is essential for improving water management. Agroforestry trees are valued and promoted for many of their ecologic and economic benefits but are often criticized as competing for valuable water resources. In order to understand the seasonal patterns of source water used by agroforestry trees, samples from rain, ground, and surface water were collected weekly in the subcatchment of the Singou watershed that is part of the Volta Basin. Soil and vegetation samples were collected from and under a Sclerocarya birrea agroforstry trees located in this catchment in sealed vials, extracted, and analyzed with a Picarro L2130-i CRDS to obtain both ?O18 and ?DH fractions. Meteorological measurements were taken with a network of wireless, autonomous stations that communicate through the GSM network (Sensorscope) and two complete eddy-covariance energy balance stations, in addition to intense monitoring of sub-canopy solar radiation, throughfall, stemflow, and soil moisture. Examination of the time series of ?O18 concentrations confirm that values in soil and xylem water are coupled, both becoming enriched during the dry season and depleted during the rainy season. Xylem water ?O18 levels drops to groundwater ?O18 levels in early March when trees access groundwater for leafing out, however soil water does not reach this level until soil moisture increases in mid-June. The relationship between the ?DH and ?O18 concentrations of water extracted from soil and tree samples do not fall along the global meteoric water line. In order to explore whether this was a seasonally driven, we grouped samples into an "evaporated" group or a "meteoric" group based on the smaller residual to the respective lines. Although more soil samples were found along the m-line during the rainy season than tree samples or dry season soil samples, there was no significant difference in days since rain for any group This suggests that xylem water is always under stress from evapotranspiration and soil water underwent evaporation soon after a rain event. Visual observation of tree confirms conclusion that trees access deep ground water in March and April, before rain begins and before soil is connected to groundwater. Results from the research are being integrated into a local outreach project to improve use of agroforestry.

Ceperley, Natalie; Mande, Theophile; Parlange, Marc B.

2013-04-01

189

Conversion of secondary forest into agroforestry and monoculture plantations in Amazonia: consequences for biomass, litter and soil carbon stocks after 7 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large areas of primary forest in Amazonia have been cleared for cropping or pasture, thereby releasing carbon into the atmosphere. Part of this carbon is re-assimilated by secondary forest after the land has been abandoned. Agroforestry and tree crop plantations are options for the economic valorization of previously cleared land in the humid tropics; however, for evaluating the consequences of

Götz Schroth; Sammya Agra D’Angelo; Wenceslau Geraldes Teixeira; Daniel Haag; Reinhard Lieberei

2002-01-01

190

Analysis of the carbon sequestration costs of afforestation and reforestation agroforestry practices and the use of cost curves to evaluate their potential for implementation of climate change mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon sequestration in forest sinks is an important strategy to remove greenhouse gases and to mitigate climate change; however its implementation has been limited under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol which has not created the incentives for widespread implementation. The objective of this paper is to analyze the sequestration costs of agroforestry afforestation and reforestation projects (ARPs)

Arturo Balderas Torres; Rob Marchant; Jon C. Lovett; James C. R. Smart; Richard Tipper

2010-01-01

191

The Influence of Agroforestry and Other Land-Use Types on the Persistence of a Sumatran Tiger ( Panthera tigris sumatrae) Population: An Individual-Based Model Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of preserving both protected areas and their surrounding landscapes as one of the major conservation strategies for tigers has received attention over recent decades. However, the mechanism of how land-use surrounding protected areas affects the dynamics of tiger populations is poorly understood. We developed Panthera Population Persistence (PPP)—an individual-based model—to investigate the potential mechanism of the Sumatran tiger population dynamics in a protected area and under different land-use scenarios surrounding the reserve. We tested three main landscape compositions (single, combined and real land-uses of Tesso-Nilo National Park and its surrounding area) on the probability of and time to extinction of the Sumatran tiger over 20 years in Central Sumatra. The model successfully explains the mechanisms behind the population response of tigers under different habitat landscape compositions. Feeding and mating behaviours of tigers are key factors, which determined population persistence in a heterogeneous landscape. All single land-use scenarios resulted in tiger extinction but had a different probability of extinction within 20 years. If tropical forest was combined with other land-use types, the probability of extinction was smaller. The presence of agroforesty and logging concessions adjacent to protected areas encouraged the survival of tiger populations. However, with the real land-use scenario of Tesso-Nilo National Park, tigers could not survive for more than 10 years. Promoting the practice of agroforestry systems surrounding the park is probably the most reasonable way to steer land-use surrounding the Tesso-Nilo National Park to support tiger conservation.

Imron, Muhammad Ali; Herzog, Sven; Berger, Uta

2011-08-01

192

Determining vegetation coverage and changes in land use under the Quesungual slash and mulch agroforestry system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Land use throughout history has changed to suit the needs of the people, but just as the needs of the people have changed so should the methods employed to cultivate the land. As of 1985 producers in the municipality of Candelaria in the Department of Lempira in Honduras have been applying a locally...

193

Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

194

Agroforestry system effects on soil characteristics of tropical soils in the Sarapiqui Region of Costa Rica  

E-print Network

devoted to cattleranching had a relative increase of over 150'/0 in some districts of the Sarapiqui region from 1973 to 1983. As the beef market declined in the 1980s, plantation agriculture for export, especially bananas (Musa sp. ), attained a crucial..., 1983; Fearnside, 1989) and in the Atlantic lowlands of Costa Rica (Montagnini, 1994). The sustainability of the high-input banana plantations in the region has also been questioned (Vandermeer and Perfecto, 1995). As in neighboring regions...

Tornquist, Carlos G.

1997-01-01

195

Assessment of Soil Quality for Grazed Pastures with Agroforestry Buffers and Row Crop Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are believed to enhance soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates have been identified as good indices for assessing soil quality to evaluate early responses to changes in soil management. However, studies comparing these p...

196

Spatial variability in the soil water content of a Mediterranean agroforestry system with high soil heterogeneity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variability of soil water content is known to increase with the size of spatial domain in which measurements are taken. At field scale, heterogeneity in soil, vegetation, topography, water input volume and management affects, among other factors, hydrologic plot behaviour under different mean soil water contents. The present work studies how the spatial variability of soil water content (SWC) is affected by soil type (texture, percentage of stones and the combination of them) in a timber-orientated plantation of cherry tree (Prunus avium) under Mediterranean climatic conditions. The experimental design is a randomized block one with 3 blocks * 4 treatments, based on two factors: irrigation (6 plots irrigated versus 6 plots not irrigated) and soil management (6 plots tillaged versus 6 plots not tillaged). SWC is continuously measured at 25, 50 and 100 cm depth with FDR sensors, located at two positions in each treatment: under tree influence and 2.5 m apart. This study presents the results of the monitoring during 2012 of the 24 sensors located at the 25 cm depth. In each of the measurement point, texture and percentage of stones were measured. Sandy-loam, sandy-clay-loam and loam textures were found together with a percentage of stones ranging from 20 to 70 %. The results indicated that the relationship between the daily mean SWC and its standard deviation, a common procedure used to study spatial variability, changed with texture, percentage of stones and the estimation of field capacity from the combination of both. Temporal stability analysis of SWC showed a clear pattern related to field capacity, with the measurement points of the sandy-loam texture and the high percentage of stones showing the maximun negative diference with the global mean. The high range in the mean relative difference observed (± 75 %), could indicate that the studied plot may be considered as a good field-laboratory to extrapolate results at higher spatial scales. Furthermore, the pattern in the temporal stability of tree growth was clearly related to that one in SWC. Nevertheless, the treatments that represent the mean conditions in growth were not exactly the same than those in SWC, which could be attributable to other characteristics than soil.

Molina, Antonio Jaime; Llorens, Pilar; Aranda, Xavier; Savé, Robert; Biel, Carmen

2013-04-01

197

COMPETENCE PLATFORM ON ENERGY CROPS AND AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS IN AFRICA - OBJECTIVES AND RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As global fossil energy resources become constrained, bioenergy is emerging as a major potential resource to supply the energy services currently provided by these fossil fuels. Africa and Latin America have, in theory, very large areas of land resources 'available' for bioenergy production. However, the production of biomass for energy on the scales necessary to supply significant shares of national

Rainer Janssen; Dominik Rutz; Peter Helm; Jeremy Woods

198

The homegarden agroforestry system of Bukoba district, North-Western Tanzania. 2. Constrainsts to farm productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire survey was conducted among 72 randomly selected households in Bukoba district, Tanzania from August to November 1991. The objective of the study was to identify the major constraints to increased productivity in homegardens and farmers response to these constraints. Declining of homegarden productivity seems to have been influenced by the gradual decline of soil fertility mainly as a

G. H. Rugalema; F. H. Johnsen; J. Rugambisa

1994-01-01

199

General Considerations in Testing and Evaluating Crop Varieties for Agroforestry Systems1  

E-print Network

of production, processing, distribution and con- sumption of produce is well pronounced, particularly in Hawaii. Added values for produce are made through processing, which also lessens the problem of post, maize Cassava Sweet potato, swamp cabbage, pechay, let- tuce, garlic, squash, peanut Taro Sweet potato

Standiford, Richard B.

200

Climate change and tree genetic resource management: maintaining and enhancing the productivity and value of smallholder tropical agroforestry landscapes. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic climate change has significant consequences for the sustainability and productivity of agroforestry ecosystems\\u000a upon which millions of smallholders in the tropics depend and that provide valuable global services. We here consider the\\u000a current state of knowledge of the impacts of climate change on tree genetic resources and implications for action in a smallholder\\u000a setting. Required measures to respond to

Ian K. Dawson; Barbara Vinceti; John C. Weber; Henry Neufeldt; Joanne Russell; Ard G. Lengkeek; Antoine Kalinganire; Roeland Kindt; Jens-Peter B. Lillesø; Jim Roshetko; Ramni Jamnadass

2011-01-01

201

Phosphorus monthly losses at the outlet of an agroforestry catchment under Atlantic climate (NW Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus levels in runoff waters help to estimate the possible contamination associated with them and to know the existence of eutrophication conditions. The amounts of P transported from catchments depended on the hydrology, on soil P contents, and on the amount of P added as fertilizer and manure. The aim of this study was to monthly losses of total P (TP), sedimentary P (TSP), and dissolved P (TDP) at the outlet of an agroforestry catchment under Atlantic climate. This research was conducted at Valiñas River catchment in Coruña (NW Spain), a periurban area of 36.3 km2. Land use is as follows: 35% arable land, 20% grassland or pastures and 45% forest. This study reported data from January 1999 to September 2006. The total sample number was 872, varying from 53 in 1999 and 193 in 2003. Sampling time variability was related to rainfall distribution. The different P forms, TP and TDP, were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The TSP was calculated from the difference between TP and TDP. To calculate the mass balance of these P forms, discharge data at the catchment outlet were estimated. Suspended solids were assessed by filtration. Relations between the three P forms and suspended solids were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The concentrations of the three studied P forms varied widely during the whole study period. Total P yearly losses ranged from 0.350 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2004 to 1.199 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2000. From January to September 2006 they were 0.259 kg ha-1 month-1. TSP losses varied between 0.201 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2004 and 0.7315 kg ha-1 month-1 in 1999. Finally, TDP losses oscillated between 0.140 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2005 and 0.508 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2000. The main causes for these variations were rainfall and flow regimes, soil management, and wastewater discharges. Considering the different seasons, flow regime was low from July to September during the studied years, whereas the highest flows were registered in the period from January to March or from October to December, depending on the year. This fact is coincident with the highest rainfall records. Consequently, TP losses were higher during January to March and October to December than during the rest of the year. The period from July to September presented the lowest losses. TSP levels were always greater than those of TDP except in the period from July to September. Significant correlations between suspended solids and TP and TSP were observed throughout the whole study period. This fact indicates the erosive origin of the P exported to this catchment. A significant correlation between TDP and suspended solids was observed only in 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2005. These correlations would indicate that TDP concentrations in this catchment have different origins, not only erosion but wastewater discharges and manure applications. Rainfall was significantly correlated to TP and TSP along the studied period, whereas rainfall and TDP were significantly correlated only in some years, as the relation between flow and the different phosphorus forms. These results may indicate the influence on the season on the phosphorus concentrations although, due to the characteristics of the studied catchment, several origins are possible. For instance, runoff and erosion would increase TSP losses and manure application may increase TDP.

Sande-Fouz, Patricia; Miras-Avalos, Jose Manuel; Mestas-Valero, Roger Manuel; Vidal-Vázquez, Eva

2010-05-01

202

Innovations within upland rice-based systems in northern Vietnam with Tephrosia candida as fallow species, hedgerow, or mulch: net returns and farmers’ response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land degradation and crop yield decreases in tropical uplands in general and in southeast Asia have been recognised as the main problems arising from intensification of upland cultivation. With the purpose to search for solutions to these problems, agroforestry systems with a leguminous shrub Tephrosia candida (Roxb.) D.C. were experimentally tested on-farm in an upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) system

M. H. Hoang Fagerström; M. van Noordwijk; Thai Phien; Nguyen Cong Vinh

2001-01-01

203

Characterization of nutrient transport below the root zone of a willow plantation irrigated with municipal waste water in the Boreal-Parkland transition zone, Alberta, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irrigation of willow and poplar species with municipal waste water offers municipalities a variety of opportunities including reduced energy and waste management costs and preservation of surface water quality. Municipal waste water contains various nutrients that are beneficial to plants such as nitrogen and phosphorus. The woody species reduce treatment costs by further removing many of these nutrients and potentially using the resulting biomass to fuel the facilities. Diversion of municipal waste water from rivers and water bodies improves water quality by reducing the amount of nutrients entering water bodies, decreasing pollution such as eutrophication. As found by many European countries, the bioenergy combined with waste water treatment approach is promising but there are environmental drawbacks including nutrient leaching to groundwater and degradation to soil hydraulic properties. Various nitrogen forms like nitrate are of concern due to impacts on human and environmental health, most notably methemoglobinemia in infants. The overall objective of this research is to assess ecosystem resilience and sustainability with repeated applications of municipal wastewater over the life cycle of a willow plantation. The specific objective of this presentation is to quantify nutrient transport below the root zone of a poplar plantation previously irrigated with municipal waste water under natural climatic conditions using soil solution samplers at 4 depths (50 cm, 90 cm, 120 cm and 150 cm). Meteorological data (precipitation, temperature, evaporimeter) was collected as well. Transport of conservative tracers, bromide and chloride, are compared to the transport of nutrients (nitrogen forms and DOC,). Parameterization of the measured breakthrough curves may be used to predict future nutrient fluxes. The goal of this research is to improve the design of municipal waste water subsurface irrigation systems by minimizing leaching and water losses.

Gainer, A. E.; Dyck, M. F.; Kachanoski, G.

2010-12-01

204

Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

205

Slow death of Atlantic forest trees in cocoa agroforestry in southeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is cultivated in the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo in eastern Brazil under the so-called ‘cabruca system’, where the understorey of native Atlantic forest is cleared and the canopy is thinned out to provide adequate shading for the cocoa trees. Apart from its economic and social role, the cabruca system is said to be important for

Samir G. Rolim; Adriano G. Chiarello

2004-01-01

206

FOREST MANAGEMENT AND AGROFORESTRY TO SEQUESTER AND CONSERVE ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Overall, the biological opportunity to conserve and sequester carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, especially in forest systems, appears significant. ith careful planning and implementation, management practices useful for this carbon benefit would appear to have potential to pro...

207

Impacts of climate change on soil erosion in Portuguese watersheds with contrasting Mediterranean climates and agroforestry practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change in Mediterranean regions could lead to higher winter rainfall intensity and, due to higher climatic aridity, lower vegetation cover. This could lead to increasing soil erosion rates, accelerating ongoing soil degradation and desertification processes. Adaptation to these scenarios would have costs and benefits associated with soil protection but also agroforestry production and water usage. This presentation will cover project ERLAND, which is studying these impacts for two headwater catchments (<1000 ha) in Portugal, located in distinct climatic conditions within the Mediterranean climate area, and their land-use practices are adapted to these conditions. The Macieira de Alcoba catchment in northern Portugal has a wet Mediterranean climate (1800 mm/yr, but with a dry summer season). The high rainfall allows the plantation of fast growing tree species (pine and eucalypt) in the higher slopes, and the irrigation of corn in the lower slopes. Forest fires are a recurring problem, linked with the high biomass growth and the occurrence of a dry season. Potential impacts of climate change include less favorable conditions for eucalypt growth, higher incidence of wildfires, and less available water for summer irrigation, all of which could lead to lower vegetation cover. The Guadalupe catchment in southern Portugal has a dry Mediterranean climate (700 mm/yr, falling mostly in winter). The land-use is montado, an association between sclerophyllous oaks (cork and holm oaks) and annual herbaceous plans (winter wheat or pasture). The region suffers occasional severe droughts; climate change has the potential to increase the frequency and severity of these droughts, leading to lower vegetation cover and, potentially, limiting the conditions for cork and holm oak growth. Each catchment has been instrumented with erosion measurement plots and flow and turbidity measurements at the outlet, together with surveys of vegetation and soil properties; measurements in Macieira began in 2010 and in Guadalupe they began in 2011. These datasets will be used to parameterize, calibrate and validate the SWAT ecohydrological model, in order to ensure the appropriate simulation of the most important hydrological, vegetation growth and erosion processes which could be impacted upon by climate change. The model will, in turn, be the main tool to study future climate and land-use scenarios. The presentation will focus on the data collected so far, the modeling structure, and preliminary results coming for the work.

Nunes, J. P.; Lima, J. C.; Bernard-Jannin, L.; Veiga, S.; Rodríguez-Blanco, M. L.; Sampaio, E.; Batista, D. P.; Zhang, R.; Rial-Rivas, M. E.; Moreira, M.; Santos, J. M.; Keizer, J. J.; Corte-Real, J.

2012-04-01

208

Two-dimensional finite elements model for boron management in agroforestry sites.  

PubMed

Agroforesty systems, which are recommended as a management option to lower the shallow groundwater level and to reuse saline subsurface drainage waters from the tile-drained croplands in the drainage-impacted areas of Jan Joaquin Valley of California, have resulted in excessive boron buildup in the soil root zone. To assess the efficacy of the long-term impacts of soil boron buildup in agroforesty systems, a mathematical model was developed to simulate non-conservative boron transport. The developed dynamic two-dimensional finite element model simulates water flow and boron transport in saturated-unsaturated soil system, including boron sorption and boron uptake by root-water extraction processes. The simulation of two different observed field data sets by the developed model is satisfactory, with mean absolute error of 1.5 mg/L and relative error of 6.5%. Application of the model to three different soils shows that boron adsorption is higher in silt loam soil than that in sandy loam and clay loam soils. This result agrees with the laboratory experimental observations. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that boron uptake by root-water extraction process influences the boron concentration distribution along the root zone. Also, absorption coefficient and maximum adsorptive capacity of a soil for boron are found to be sensitive parameters. PMID:19184495

Tayfur, Gokmen; Tanji, Kenneth K; Baba, Alper

2010-01-01

209

The influence of shade trees on coffee quality in small holder coffee agroforestry systems in Southern Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of coffee, especially by small holders, is often associated with various forms of shade management. To analyse the effects of shade on physical coffee quality and on sensorial cup quality of Coffea arabica L. cv. Caturra KMC, a study was carried out with 94 plots on 16 farms in two municipalities, Timaná and Oporapa, located at elevations from 1272

Aske Skovmand Bosselmann; Klaus Dons; Thomas Oberthur; Carsten Smith Olsen; Anders Ræbild; Herman Usma

2009-01-01

210

Relationships between invertebrate communities, litter quality and soil attributes under different cacao agroforestry systems in the south of Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to understand how soil and litter attributes interact with the faunal community, this study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between soil and litter attributes to soil and litter fauna, and further to determine which of these attributes would be most significant in explaining ...

211

Environmental Information Systems and Community-Based Resource Management in Ghana: An Investigation of Institutional Policy and Implementation in Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employed a case-study approach and cross-case analysis to investigate the impact of Environmental Information Systems (EIS) and Local Knowledge Systems (LKS) on agro-forestry management and biodiversity conservation. Questionnaire-based interviews with service providers, resource managers and focus group discussions with farmers associated with the United Nations Capacity 21, the Netherlands Tropenbos International (TBI) and the United Nations Project on

Abednego Ayitey Aryee

2007-01-01

212

Technical and Institutional Innovation in Agroforestry for Protected Areas Management in the Brazilian Amazon: Opportunities and Limitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them.

Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S.

2013-08-01

213

Technical and institutional innovation in agroforestry for protected areas management in the Brazilian Amazon: opportunities and limitations.  

PubMed

Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them. PMID:23636205

Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S

2013-08-01

214

Senna siamea trees recycle Ca from a Ca-rich subsoil and increase the topsoil pH in agroforestry systems in the West African derived savanna zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functioning of trees as a safety-net for capturing nutrients leached beyond the reach of crop roots was evaluated by investigating\\u000a changes in exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, and K) and pH in a wide range of medium to long term alley cropping trials in the\\u000a derived savanna of West Africa, compared to no-tree control plots. Topsoil Ca content, effective cation

B. Vanlauwe; K. Aihou; B. K. Tossah; J. Diels; N. Sanginga; R. Merckx

2005-01-01

215

The Integration of Medicinal Plants and Culinary Herbs in Agroforestry Systems for the Caribbean: A Study in the U.S. Virgin Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants and culinary herbs are horticultural crops with socio- economic significance in the Caribbean. People of the Caribbean maintain the tradition of making 'bush (herb) tea' as part of their daily activity. 'Bush tea' is made with a variety of herbs that are combined for their culinary and medicinal properties. A project was initiated to study the role of

M. C. Palada; J. M. Mitchell; B. N. Becker; P. K. R. Nair

216

The maintenance of soil fertility in Amazonian managed systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of Brazilian Amazonia faces important limitations for conventional agriculture and pastures due to a generally poor chemical fertility as well as the region's environmental conditions, especially high temperature and moisture. Without proper management, degradation of the soil and resulting unsustainability of agricultural and ranching production occur within a few years, leading to land abandonment. Use of perennial crops, especially those based on native tree species, would be instrumental in order to achieve best management such as that which assure recycling processes similar to those in the primary forest. Recommended alternative land uses are those producing high soil organic matter, recycling of nutrients, substantial agricultural production, and economic viability. These include agroforestry systems, enrichment of second growth with valuable native timber or fruit species, accelerated fallow regrowth via enrichment plantings, sequential agroforestry with slash-and-mulch, and diversified forest plantations. Improvement of agricultural soils can be based on lessons learned from the study of processes involved in the formation and maintenance of the rich "dark earths" (terra preta), which owe their high carbon content and fertility in part to high content of charcoal. Adding powdered charcoal combined with selected nutrients can increase soil carbon in modern agriculture. Considering that limitations to expansion of intensified land uses in Amazonia are serious, regional development should emphasize the natural forest, which can maintain itself without external inputs of nutrients. Instead of creating conditions to further expand deforestation, these forests may be used as they stand to provide a variety of valuable environmental services that could offer a sustainable basis for development of Amazonia.

Luizão, Flávio J.; Fearnside, Philip M.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Lehmann, Johannes

217

Effects of different agricultural systems on soil quality in Northern Limón province, Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Conversion of native rainforest ecosystems in Limón Province of Costa Rica to banana and pineapple monoculture has led to reductions in biodiversity and soil quality. Agroforestry management of cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an alternative system that may maintain the agricultural livelihood of the region while more closely mimicking native ecosystems. This study compared physical, biological and chemical soil quality indicators of a cacao plantation under organic agroforestry management with banana, pineapple, and pasture systems; a native forest nearby served as a control. For bulk density and earthworm analysis, 18 samples were collected between March and April 2012 from each ecosystem paired with 18 samples from the cacao. Cacao had a lower bulk density than banana and pineapple monocultures, but greater than the forest (p < 0.05). Cacao also hosted a greater number and mass of earthworms than banana and pineapple (p < 0.05), but similar to forest and pasture. For soil chemical characteristics, three composite samples were collected in March 2012 from each agroecosystem paired with three samples from the cacao plantation. Forest and pineapple ecosystems had the lowest pH, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable nutrient cations, while cacao had the greatest (p < 0.05). Total nutrient levels of P and N were slightly greater in banana, pineapple and pasture than in cacao; probably related to addition of chemical fertilizer and manure from cattle grazing. Forest and cacao also had greater %C, than other ecosystems, which is directly related to soil organic matter content (p < 0.0001). Overall, cacao had more favorable physical, biological and chemical soil characteristics than banana and pineapple monocultures, while trends were less conclusive compared to the pastureland. While organic cacao was inferior to native forest in some soil characteristics such as bulk density and organic carbon, its soil quality did best mimic that of the native forest. This supports the organic cultivation of cacao as a desirable alternative to banana and pineapple monoculture. PMID:25412521

Cornwell, Emma

2014-09-01

218

Sources of water used by trees and millet in Sahelian windbreak systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent to which water use by trees and crops is complementary in agroforestry systems may be affected by the proximity of groundwater to the soil surface. This may have important implications for the planning and management of agroforestry in semi-arid regions such as the Sahel of West Africa. A method of distinguishing uptake of water by plants from different sources was used, therefore, at locations with contrasting water table levels, to determine whether Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) trees in windbreaks utilised water from the same depths as adjacent crops of pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). Comparisons of ratios of the stable isotopes of oxygen ( 18O/ 16O) in plant sap, groundwater and water in the unsaturated zone of the soil profile were made in the Majjia Valley, in south-central Niger, where groundwater was found at depths of 6-8 m, and at Sadoré in south-western Niger, where the water table was at a depth of 35 m. In the Majjia Valley, the trees obtained large portions of their water from surface layers of the soil only after rain, when water there was abundant. During dry periods, roots of the trees extracted groundwater or deep reserves of soil water, while the millet crop extracted water from closer to the top of the soil profile. In contrast, at Sadoré, both the trees and crop fulfilled their water requirements from the top 2-3 m of the soil throughout the year. Thus, utilisation of water by windbreak trees and crops is more complementary where groundwater is accessible to tree roots. Competition for water is likely reduced at such locations as a consequence, but may affect the productivity of windbreak systems where groundwater is inaccessible. To maximise the benefits of establishing windbreaks, therefore, it is important that planners recommend strategies for reducing competition for water between trees and crops at sites where groundwater cannot be reached by tree roots.

Smith, D. Mark; Jarvis, Paul G.; Odongo, Julius C. W.

1997-11-01

219

Sulfamethazine transport in agroforestry and cropland soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of veterinary antibiotic transport and persistence is critical to understanding environmental risks associated with these potential contaminants. To understand mobility of sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sorption processes involved during SMZ transport in soil, column leaching experiments were p...

220

Recent Transitions in Ethiopian Homegarden Agroforestry: Driving  

E-print Network

of labour and income, gender roles and gender power relations have not been properly addressed. Therefore the land uses change affects the lives of farm women and men, their gender roles and the gender power share and distribution of income, gender role of women and men, and the household gender power

221

Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in German Alley Cropping Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alley cropping systems (ACS) are agroforestry practices in which perennial trees or shrubs are grown in wide rows and arable crops are cultivated in the alleys between the tree rows. Recently, ACS which integrate stripes of short rotation coppices into conventional agricultural sites have gained interest in Germany. These systems can be used for simultaneous production of crops and woody biomass which enables farmers to diversify the provision of market goods. Adding trees into the agricultural landscape creates additional benefits for the farmer and society also known as ecosystem services. An ecosystem service provided by land use systems is carbon sequestration. The literature indicates that ACS are able to store more carbon compared to agriculture and their implementation may lead to greater benefits for the environment and society. Moreover, carbon sequestration in ACS could be included in carbon trading schemes and farmers rewarded additionally for the provision of this ecosystem service. However, methods are required which are easy to use and provide reliable information regarding change in carbon sequestration with change of the land use practice. In this context, our aim was to develop a methodology to assess carbon sequestration benefit provided by ACS in Germany. Therefore, the change of carbon in both soil and biomass had to be considered. To predict the change in soil carbon our methodology combined the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and the soil organic carbon balance recommended by the Association of German Agricultural Investigation and Research Centers (VDLUFA). To reflect the change in biomass carbon average annual yields were adopted. The results showed that ACS established on agricultural sites can increase the carbon stored because in the new soil-plant system carbon content is higher compared to agriculture. ACS have been recommended as suitable land use systems for marginal sites, such as post-mining areas. In such areas soil carbon usually increases at a faster initial rate compared to agricultural land which means that these areas could provide high level of carbon sequestration service in the short term. The approach will be broadened to include assessment of other ecosystem services provided by ACS in Germany which would increase the possibility to adequately compensate farmers for the supply of environmental benefits. Keywords: agroforestry, biomass production, carbon sequestration, ecosystem services, marginal sites

Tsonkova, P. B.; Quinkenstein, A.; Böhm, C.; Freese, D.

2012-04-01

222

Variation in woody plant ? 13 C along a topoedaphic gradient in a subtropical savanna parkland  

Microsoft Academic Search

?13C values of C3 plants are indicators of plant carbon–water relations that integrate plant responses to environmental conditions. However,\\u000a few studies have quantified spatial variation in plant ?13C at the landscape scale. We determined variation in leaf ?13C, leaf nitrogen per leaf area (Narea), and specific leaf area (SLA) in April and August 2005 for all individuals of three common

Edith Bai; Thomas W. Boutton; Feng Liu; X. Ben Wu; Steven R. Archer

2008-01-01

223

The plight of the parklands. [Exploration, development and pollution of National Parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Congress continues its debate on the Clean air Act, concern over air pollution, aesthetic deterioration, and encroaching development in national parks is being expressed by many factions. Park superintendants themselves cite increasing threats of irreversible damage. A case study is presented of the Golden Circle of southwestern national parks, current attempts to regulate oil, gas and uranium exploration there,

G. Rudzitis; J. Schwartz

1982-01-01

224

Economic benefits of preserving visibility in the national parklands of the Southwest  

SciTech Connect

A household survey to determine public support for preserving good visibility in Southwestern parks gave power plant air pollution control an estimated $6.2 billion per year, which is twice the current cost of sulfur dioxide controls. An examination of the institutional basis for assigning a cost-benefit study to scenic beauty and for valuing public goods in general found that existence and preservation value rate much higher than user and tourist benefits. The same results applied outside of the Grand Canyon region. It is important, however, to recognize that national public support for preserving visibility at the Grand Canyon may not extend to all scenic areas. 8 tables. (DCK)

Schulze, W.D.; Brookshire, D.S.; Walther, E.G.; MacFarland, K.K.; Thayer, M.A.; Whitworth, R.L.; Ben-David, S.; Malm, W.; Molenar, J.

1983-01-01

225

Leaf dynamics, stemflow and throughfall water and nutrient inputs in a subtropical savanna parkland, Texas  

E-print Network

Deciduous Coriaceous Deciduous/ Goriacecus everrIreen Smooth Tree oz' ~; 1, 3 rounded crown Smooth Shrub or tree 1, 3 Smooth Small tree 1, 3 or large shrub 1, 3 Spiny ha~ (~Mlt' ll'da Il Agarito (Berberis trifoliolata Moric. ) Deciduous... rn 20 n In 2 400 BERBERIS DI 0 8PYR0 8 ZANTHOXYLUM LSD sso[ . : LSD~ 80 m 40 rn r Z 80 rn 40 g 60 E E ~ 40 IL IL 20 HAIL STORM o ~ * 's oo 60 E 40 E I- IL 20 HAIL STORM o t J S N J J S N J 1987 1988 1989 DATE J...

Angerer, Jay Peter

1991-01-01

226

Soil quality in a pecan – Kura clover alley cropping system in the midwestern USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intercropping alleys in agroforestry provides an income source until the tree crop produces harvestable yields. However, cultivation of annual crops decreases soil organic matter and increases soil erosion potential, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial crops maintain a continuous soil cover,...

227

Organic matter contribution to soil fertility improvement and maintenance in red Alder ( Alnus rubra ) silvopastoral systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was conducted to quantify fine roots and roots nodules over the four seasons in forestry and agroforestry\\u000a alder (Alnus rubra) stands in North Wales. Soil samples collected in each season were excavated at three sampling points (0.30 m, 0.57 m and\\u000a 1.00 m distance from the base of each tree) from nine trees of the agroforestry and forestry

Ronnie M. Mmolotsi; Zewge Teklehaimanot

2008-01-01

228

Re-marriage of crops and trees  

SciTech Connect

Agroforestry is defined and its role in the productive use and conservation of marginal or forested lands explained. Examples are given of existing agroforestry and silvo-pastural systems involving plantation crops (coffee, tea, cacao, rubber) and multipurpose species (Leucaena leucocephale, Casuarina, Almis, Parasponia, Acacia, Prosopis). The origin and activities of ICRAF are outlined.

Nair, P.K.R.

1983-01-01

229

High Bee and Wasp Diversity in a Heterogeneous Tropical Farming System Compared to Protected Forest  

PubMed Central

It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity), as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity) of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity) increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems. PMID:23300598

Schüepp, Christof; Rittiner, Sarah; Entling, Martin H.

2012-01-01

230

Framework for studying the hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alley cropping is an agroforestry practice whereby crops are grown between hedgerows of trees planted at wide spacings. The local climate and the physiological adaptation mechanisms of the trees are key factors in the growth and survival of the trees and intercrops, because they directly affect the soil moisture distribution. In order to evaluate the long-term hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system in eastern Canada, we developed a framework that combines local soil moisture data with local projections of climate change and a model of soil water movement, root uptake and evapotranspiration. Forty-five frequency domain reflectometers (FDR) along a transect perpendicular to the tree rows generated a two-year dataset that we used for the parameterization and evaluation of the model. An impact study with simulations based on local projections of three global and one regional climate simulation suggest that the soil becomes drier overall in the period between 2041 and 2070, while the number of critically wet periods with a length of one day increases slightly with respect to the reference period between 1967 and 1996. Hydrological simulations based on a fourth climate scenario however point toward wetter conditions. In all cases the changes are minor. Although our simulations indicate that the experimental alley cropping system will possibly suffer drier conditions in response to higher temperatures and increased evaporative demand, these conditions are not necessarily critical for vegetation during the snow-free season.

Hallema, Dennis W.; Rousseau, Alain N.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Périard, Yann; Hiemstra, Paul H.; Bouttier, Léa; Fossey, Maxime; Paquette, Alain; Cogliastro, Alain; Olivier, Alain

2014-09-01

231

Occurrence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in trap cultures from soils under different land use systems in the Amazon, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species diversity in soil samples from the Amazon region under distinct land use systems (Forest, Old Secondary Forest, Young Secondary Forest, Agroforestry systems, Crops and Pasture) using two distinct trap cultures. Traps established using Sorghum sudanense and Vigna unguiculata (at Universidade Regional de Blumenau -FURB) and Brachiaria decumbens and Neonotonia wightii (at Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA) were grown for 150 days in greenhouse conditions, when spore density and species identification were evaluated. A great variation on species richness was detected in several samples, regardless of the land use systems from where samples were obtained. A total number of 24 AMF species were recovered using both methods of trap cultures, with FURB?s traps yielding higher number of species. Acaulospora delicata, A. foveata, Entrophospora colombiana and two undescribed Glomus species were the most abundant and frequent species recovered from the traps. Number of species decreased in each genus according to this order: Acaulospora, Glomus, Entrophospora, Gigaspora, Archaeospora, Scutellospora and Paraglomus. Spore numbers were higher in Young Secondary Forest and Pastures. Our study demonstrated that AMF have a widespread occurrence in all land use systems in Amazon and they sporulate more abundantly in trap cultures from land uses under interference than in the pristine Forest ecosystem. PMID:24031328

Leal, Patrícia Lopes; Stürmer, Sidney Luiz; Siqueira, José Oswaldo

2009-01-01

232

Soil respiration and microbial biomass in a savanna parkland landscape: spatio-temporal variation and environmental controls  

E-print Network

microbial biomass nitrogen . . . . . . . 10 Spatio-temporal variation in potential carbon mineralization rates . 30 33 34 11 Spatio-temporal variation in potential N-mineralization and nitrification rates... concentration) are known to influence rates of microbial activity (Schimel et al. 1994, Zak et al. 1994, Scott er al. 1996) as well as the diffusivity of trace gases through the soil column (Buyanovsky and Wagner 1995, Zepp et al. 1996). In addition...

McCulley, Rebecca Lynne

1998-01-01

233

Effects of small-bodied fish on invertebrate prey and foraging patterns of waterbirds in Aspen Parkland wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition between large-bodied fish and waterbirds for aquatic invertebrates is well documented in oligotrophic lakes. Recent\\u000a evidence suggests that small-bodied fish that colonize eutrophic, hypoxia-prone wetlands such as prairie potholes can also\\u000a reduce aquatic invertebrates, but the effects of these reductions on breeding waterbirds have so far not been directly documented.\\u000a We added brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) and fathead minnow

Caroline E. McParland; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

2006-01-01

234

Effects of small-bodied fish on invertebrate prey and foraging patterns of waterbirds in Aspen Parkland wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition between large-bodied fish and waterbirds for aquatic invertebrates is well documented in oligotrophic lakes. Recent\\u000a evidence suggests that small-bodied fish that colonize eutrophic, hypoxia-prone wetlands such as prairie potholes can also\\u000a reduce aquatic invertebrates, but the effects of these reductions on breeding waterbirds have so far not been directly documented.\\u000a We added brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) and fathead minnow

Caroline E. McParland; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

235

Green Application Projects (GreenApps): Pledging the Use of Ethical Sustainable Behaviors When Visiting Backcountry Parklands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary classroom exercise from GreenApps at Red Rocks Community College is designed for students studying park and outdoor recreation management. In this activity, students will take Leave No Trace training, present on Leave No Trace, and encourage others to sign the Wilderness Sustainability Pledge. This pdf contains a description of the project, expected outcomes, and assessment guidelines. 

Speare, Ellen

236

Microbial community diversity in agroforestry and grass vegetative filter strips  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetative filter strips (VFS) have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many additional environmental benefits. Most previous studies have focused primarily on the role of vegetation and/or soil physical properties in these ecosystem services. Few studies have investigated...

237

Assessing Farmer Innovations in Agroforestry in Eastern Zambia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes farmer innovations on improved fallows developed by researchers to replenish soil fertility. The reasons for the innovations and how these innovations are facilitating wide adoption of improved fallows are discussed. Research designed trial results to evaluate the ecological robustness of these innovations are also analyzed in…

Katanga, R.; Kabwe, G.; Kuntashula, E.; Mafongoya, P. L.; Phiri, S.

2007-01-01

238

Agroforestry and Conservation Agriculture: Complementary practices for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of many current agricultural practices is having a deplorable effect on the world's soils, water resources and rural environments. Natural levels of annual soil loss are very small (Morgan, 2005) in the region of 0.0045 t ha -1 for areas of moderate relief and only rising to 0.45 tha -1 on steep slopes. This can be compared with

Brian Sims; Theodor Friedrich; Amir Kassam; Josef Kienzle

239

Plant diversity and arthropod communities: Implications for temperate agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyculture in crop agroecosystems has been examined in numerous studies with the aim of reducing pest populations by increasing\\u000a diversity among insect populations over those found in traditional monoculture. Resource concentration and enemies hypotheses\\u000a predict decreased pest populations in more diverse plant communities. Although results have been mixed, insect diversity has\\u000a been generally increased in polyculture over traditional monoculture. Maintaining

W. T. Stamps; M. J. Linit

1997-01-01

240

Effect of liming and organic and inorganic fertilization on soil carbon sequestered in macro-and microaggregates in a 17-year old Pinus radiata silvopastoral system.  

PubMed

Agroforestry systems have been recognized as a potential greenhouse gas mitigation strategy under the Kyoto Protocol because of their ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store carbon mainly in the soil. Soil particle size and land management practices are known to have a considerable influence on carbon storage in soils. This study evaluated changes in soil chemical and physical properties, and quantified and compared the amount of C stored in the bulk soil and in three different soil fractions (250-2000, 53-250 and <53 ?m) at each of four soil depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm) in a silvopastoral system located on an acidic forest soil under Pinus radiata D. Don. Areas of this system were subjected ten years ago to one of nine fertilization treatments: three different doses of sewage sludge or no fertilization, all with or without the addition of lime, and mineral fertilizer with no liming. Seventeen years after reforestation and seven years after canopy closure, strong gradients with soil depth were found regarding soil bulk density, pH and carbon storage. Intense soil management (high doses of sewage sludge and liming) generally reduced soil carbon storage, mainly in coarse aggregates, but this could be compensated by the increase in tree and pasture development observed in soils subject to intermediate sewage sludge doses. PMID:25460421

Mosquera-Losada, M R; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N

2015-03-01

241

Soil phosphorus dynamics in a humid tropical silvopastoral system  

SciTech Connect

In developing countries of the humid tropics, timber exploitation and agricultural expansion frequently result in deforestation. Extensive land management, coupled with inherently low soil fertility invariably produce declines in agricultural/livestock productivity which eventually lead to land abandonment and further deforestation. Phosphorus is often the major nutrient limiting plant growth in tropical soils. Agroforestry systems have been considered as viable alternatives to current land use practices. Several hypotheses suggest that combining trees with crops or pasture, especially leguminous species will improve soil nutrient cycling, soil structure and soil organic matter. In this experiment Erythrina berteroana (an arboreous legume) was grown in native grass pastures in Costa Rica to determine the effects of tree pruning and cattle grazing on soil P availability. I measured soil P fluxes as well as changes in pasture biomass over an 18-month period. In a separate field experiment, I determined decomposition rates and P release characteristics of Erythrina leaves, pasture grass clippings and cattle dung. Erythrina leaves decomposed faster than both pasture grass and cattle dung. Erythrina and pasture residues released 4-5 times less P than dung. Phosphorus fluxes after tree pruning and grazing were highly dynamic for all treatments. Tree pruning increased labile soil P over time when coupled with grazing. Pasture biomass production was greatest in the grazed tree treatment. Pasture biomass P production and concentration was greatest in the non-grazed treatment. Trees and grazing together tended to increase nutrient (P) turnover which stimulated biomass production. In contrast, trees without grazing promoted nutrient (P) accumulation in pasture biomass.

Cooperband, L.R.

1992-01-01

242

Creating the Sustainable City: Building a Seminar (and Curriculum) through Interdisciplinary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the wealth of sites available in the Chicago metropolitan area, online learning technologies, and classroom interactions, Roosevelt University's seminar "The Sustainable City" takes a multidisciplinary approach to urban ecology, waste management, green design, climate change, urban planning, parklands, water systems, environmental justice,…

Bryson, Michael A.; Zimring, Carl A.

2010-01-01

243

Carbon storage of different soil-size fractions in Florida silvopastoral systems.  

PubMed

Compared with open (treeless) pasture systems, silvopastoral agroforestry systems that integrate trees into pasture production systems are likely to enhance soil carbon (C) sequestration in deeper soil layers. To test this hypothesis, total soil C contents at six soil depths (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50, 50-75, and 75-125 cm) were determined in silvopastoral systems with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) + bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) and an adjacent open pasture (OP) with bahiagrass at four sites, representing Spodosols and Ultisols, in Florida. Soil samples from each layer were fractionated into three classes (250-2000, 53-250, and <53 microm), and the C contents in each were determined. Averaged across four sites and all depths, the total soil organic carbon (SOC) content was higher by 33% in silvopastures near trees (SP-T) and by 28% in the alleys between tree rows (SP-A) than in adjacent open pastures. It was higher by 39% in SP-A and 20% in SP-T than in open pastures in the largest fraction size (250-2000 microm) and by 12.3 and 18.8%, respectively, in the intermediate size fraction (53-250 microm). The highest SOC increase (up to 45 kg m(-2)) in whole soil of silvopasture compared with OP was at the 75- to 125-cm depth at the Spodosol sites. The results support the hypothesis that, compared with open pastures, silvopastures contain more C in deeper soil layers under similar ecological settings, possibly as a consequence of a major input to soil organic matter from decomposition of dead tree-roots. PMID:18689740

Haile, Solomon G; Nair, P K Ramachandran; Nair, Vimala D

2008-01-01

244

The contribution of wild plants to human nutrition in the Ferlo (Northern Senegal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aspect of agroforestry is the integration of indigenous species into appropriate land use systems. Some local trees and shrubs are particularly appreciated because of their value in human nutrition.

Barbara Becker

1983-01-01

245

Soil quality differences in a mature alley cropping system in temperate North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alley cropping in agroforestry practices has been shown to improve soil quality, however information on long-term effects (>10 years) of alley cropping on soils in the temperate zone is very limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth on soil...

246

Modeling Hydrological Services in Shade Grown Coffee Systems: Case Study of the Pico Duarte Region of the Dominican Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modification of hydrologic systems in coffee-dominated landscapes varies widely according to the degree of shade trees incorporated in coffee farms. Compared to mono-cropping systems, shade coffee can produce both on- and off-farm benefits in the form of soil retention, moderation of sediment transport, and lower hydropower generating costs. The Pico Duarte Coffee Region and surrounding Madres de Las Aguas (Mother of Waters) Conservation Area in the Dominican Republic is emblematic of the challenges and opportunities of ecosystem service management in coffee landscapes. Shade coffee poly-cultures in the region play an essential role in ensuring ecosystem function to conserve water resources, as well as provide habitat for birds, sequester carbon, and provide consumptive resources to households. To model the provision, use, and flow of ecosystem services from coffee farms in the region, an application of the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) model was developed with particular focus on sediment regulation. ARIES incorporates an array of techniques from data mining, image analysis, neural networks, Bayesian statistics, information theory, and expert systems to model the production, delivery, and demand for ecosystem services. Geospatial data on slope, soils, and vegetation cover is combined with on-farm data collection of coffee production, tree diversity, and intercropping of household food. Given hydropower production and river recreation in the region, the management of sedimentation through on-farm practices has substantial, currently uncompensated value that has received recent attention as the foundation for a payment for ecosystem services system. Scenario analysis of the implications of agro-forestry management choices on farmer livelihoods and the multiple beneficiaries of farm-provided hydrological services provide a foundation for ongoing discussions in the region between local, national, and international interests.

Erickson, J. D.; Gross, L.; Agosto Filion, N.; Bagstad, K.; Voigt, B. G.; Johnson, G.

2010-12-01

247

Soil moisture mapping in an alley cropping system in Quebec, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alley cropping is an agroforestry practice whereby trees are planted in rows, thus creating alleyways within which companion crops are grown. The alley cropping systems as we call them may not only influence the local thermal energy balance by changes in airflow and solar irradiance, but also affect water uptake in plant roots and evapotranspiration. However, our understanding of the soil water balance and regulating mechanisms in alley cropping systems is very limited compared to what we know about the more common monoculture farming. Root systems of the trees are known to interact with soil water dynamics, in that they tend to grow in the direction of soil layers with a water content corresponding to a pF between 2-2.4, and conversely, water flows in the direction of decreasing hydraulic head, which, close to the root system, is in the direction of the roots when the trees absorb water by applying a suction gradient. As such, the trees in alley cropping systems either improve the resilience to drought by retaining more water in the upper soil layers, or they compete with the crops for water. With the eye on the future environmental conditions that may result from a shift in the local climate in southern Quebec, Canada, our objective is to characterize and evaluate the influence of alley cropping systems on soil water dynamics under various climate conditions. In order to evaluate the interaction between root system and soil water dynamics, we adopt an approach divided into three steps: (i) a field campaign where we monitor soil water patterns on an alley cropping site during the growing season; (ii) simulation of these soil water patterns with the HYDRUS model for two-dimensional movement of water; and (iii) the evolution of these patterns for a given scenario of climate change. Our submission focuses on the field campaign in which we used forty-five frequency domain reflectometers (FDR) along a 25-m transect perpendicular to the tree rows in order to monitor moisture patterns within the first 100 cm of the soil. Analysis showed that the presence of trees has a pronounced influence on the water distribution within the soil. (This submission is part of Climate Change Action Plan 26 funded by Ouranos-ICAR.)

Hallema, D. W.; Rousseau, A. N.; Gumiere, S. J.

2012-12-01

248

Soil carbon sequestration in rainfed production systems in the semiarid tropics of India.  

PubMed

Severe soil organic carbon (SOC) depletion is a major constraint in rainfed agroecosystems in India because it directly influences soil quality, crop productivity and sustainability. The magnitude of soil organic, inorganic and total carbon stocks in the semi-arid bioclimate is estimated at 2.9, 1.9 and 4.8 Pg respectively. Sorghum, finger millet, pearl millet, maize, rice, groundnut, soybean, cotton, food legumes etc. are predominant crop production systems with a little, if any, recycling of organic matter. Data from the long term experiments on major rainfed production systems in India show that higher amount of crop residue C input (Mg/ha/y) return back to soil in soybean-safflower (3.37) system practiced in Vertisol region of central India. Long term addition of chemical fertilizer and organic amendments improved the SOC stock. For every Mg/ha increase in SOC stock in the root zone, there occurs an increase in grain yield (kg/ha) of 13, 101, 90, 170, 145, 18 and 160 for groundnut, finger millet, sorghum, pearl millet, soybean and rice, respectively. Long-term cropping without using any organic amendment and/or mineral fertilizers can severely deplete the SOC stock which is the highest in groundnut-finger millet system (0.92 Mg C/ha/y) in Alfisols. Some agroforestry systems also have a huge potential of C sequestration to the extent of 10Mg/ha/y in short rotation eucalyptus and Leucaena plantations. The critical level of C input requirements for maintaining SOC at the antecedent level ranges from 1.1 to 3.5 Mg C/ha/y and differs among soil type and production systems. National level policy interventions needed to promote sustainable use of soil and water resources include prohibiting residue burning, reducing deforestation, promoting integrated farming systems and facilitating payments for ecosystem services. A wide spread adoption of these measures can improve soil quality through increase in SOC sequestration and improvement in agronomic productivity of rainfed agroecosystems. PMID:24210647

Srinivasarao, Ch; Lal, Rattan; Kundu, Sumanta; Babu, M B B Prasad; Venkateswarlu, B; Singh, Anil Kumar

2014-07-15

249

Diversity and Communities of Foliar Endophytic Fungi from Different Agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in Two Regions of Veracruz, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some endophytic fungi and their communities as potential management tools against coffee plant pests and pathogens. PMID:24887512

Saucedo-García, Aurora; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Espinosa-García, Francisco J.; González, María C.

2014-01-01

250

Diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi from different agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in two regions of Veracruz, Mexico.  

PubMed

Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some endophytic fungi and their communities as potential management tools against coffee plant pests and pathogens. PMID:24887512

Saucedo-García, Aurora; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Espinosa-García, Francisco J; González, María C

2014-01-01

251

Soil quality in a pecan–kura clover alley cropping system in the Midwestern USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intercropping alleys in agroforestry provides an income source until the tree crop produces harvestable yields. However, cultivation\\u000a of annual crops decreases soil organic matter and increases soil erosion potential, especially on sloping landscapes. Perennial\\u000a crops maintain a continuous soil cover, increase water infiltration, reduce soil erosion, and improve overall soil quality.\\u000a The objective of this on-farm study was to assess

Robert J. KremerRobert; Robert D. Kussman

252

Un sistema de cuentas para la valoración de los efectos comerciales y ambientales del gasto público en la mitigación del fuego en el bosque mediterráneo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system of accounts for valuing commercial and environmental public spending effects on mitigation forest fires in Mediterranean areas This paper proposes an economic accounting system for measuring the commercial and environmental effects of public spending in mitigation of forest f ires in Mediterranean areas. It describes the application of this system (Agroforestry Accounts System) in the Alcornocales Natural Park.

P. Campos Palacín; J. L. Oviedo Pro; A. Caparrós Gass

253

Biodiversity Conservation, Ecosystem Services and Livelihoods in Tropical Landscapes: Towards a Common Agenda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trade-offs between ecosystem conservation and agricultural production can more easily be addressed by shifting the view from the plot scale to the scale of the landscape and integrating biodiversity friendly land use systems into development strategies. The provision of ecosystem services such as watershed protection and carbon sequestration by natural and complex agro-ecosystems can play an important role in making such integrated landscape approaches viable. This special issue brings together papers that were presented at a symposium on agroforestry and landscape scale conservation at the Second World Agroforestry Congress in Nairobi in August 2009. It is divided into two sections focusing on: (1) the biological mechanisms and implications of landscape scale conservation strategies as influenced by land use, especially agroforestry; and (2) the economic drivers and public policies that determine to a large extent the success of agroforestry-based landscape conservation strategies. The contributions provide evidence both for the potential and limitations of agroforestry in landscape scale conservation and development strategies and highlight the importance of economic incentives and policies to promote integrated landscape solutions. This introductory paper summarizes and discusses the contributions and concludes with policy recommendations and research needs.

Schroth, Götz; McNeely, Jeffrey A.

2011-08-01

254

Evaluation and selection of multipurpose tree for improving soil hydro-physical behaviour under hilly eco-system of north east India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil hydro-physical behaviour was studied under a 20-year old agroforestry plantation consisting of five multipurpose tree\\u000a species (Pinus kesiya Royle ex-Gordon, Alnus nepalensis D.Don, Parkia roxburghii G.Don, Michelia oblonga Wall. and Gmelina arboria Roxb.) maintained under normal recommended practices at Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) Complex, Umiam, Meghalaya,\\u000a India. The aim was to select tree species, which could act

R. Saha; J. M. S. Tomar; P. K. Ghosh

2007-01-01

255

Apex simulation: environmental benefits of agroforestry and grass buffers for corn-soybean watersheds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX) model is used to simulate the effects of vegetative filter strips on runoff and pollutant loadings from agricultural watersheds. A long-term paired watershed study under corn (Zea mays L-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation with agroforestr...

256

An educational program for training beginning farmers in sustainable poultry, livestock and agroforestry production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a pressing need to rejuvenate rural populations in this country with new and innovative ventures. Investing resources in beginning farmers is one way to make rural populations more vibrant. However, beginning farmers lack adequate farm skills and background to initiate and maintain viable a...

257

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report UBC Farm Agroforestry Product Lines  

E-print Network

on the production of medicinal plants on the edges of the forested spaces and hedgerows for a local medicinal plant, and to assess its potential for profit. The group identified three medicinal plants (borage, comfrey, and yarrow the potential to make $2800 profit from this project annually. Medicinal plant production has very low fixed

258

Response and potential of agroforestry crops under global change C. Calfapietra a,*, B. Gielen b  

E-print Network

for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration through fossil fuel substitution. In particular of the species commonly used. These hydrocarbons are known to play a crucial role in tropospheric ozone formation

259

APEX simulation: environmental benefits of agroforestry and grass buffers on corn-soybean watersheds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX) model has the ability to simulate the effects of vegetative filter strips on runoff and pollutant loadings from agricultural watersheds. The objectives of this study were to calibrate and validate the APEX model for three adjacent watersheds and...

260

Strategy for Markets of AgroForestry products of Vietnam in the next Decade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade Vietnam's agriculture has developed at a high growth rate, averaging 4.5% annually. The GDP in agriculture increased 5.3 times from 1990 to 2000 , while the share of the extended agricultural sector (including agriculture, forestry and fisheries) in total GDP decreased from 38.7% in 1990 to 24.1% in 2003. Grain output has increased over 1 million

Nguyen Vo Linh; Nguyen Chi Trung

261

LANDOWNER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS FOR FORESTRY/AGROFORESTRY IN COLORADO UPDATED NOVEMBER 2010  

E-print Network

/shrub establishment, windbreak/shelterbelt establishment, forest stand improvement, riparian forest buffer, prescribed://www.fsa.usda.gov Windbreak/shelterbelt establishment, riparian forest buffer, living snow fence Conservation Stewardship Conservation Service local offices http://www.nrcs.usda.gov Develop and implement a forest management plan

262

LANDOWNER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS FOR FORESTRY/AGROFORESTRY IN COLORADO UPDATED APRIL 2010  

E-print Network

/shrub establishment, windbreak/shelterbelt establishment, forest stand improvement, riparian forest buffer, prescribed://www.fsa.usda.gov Windbreak/shelterbelt establishment, riparian forest buffer, living snow fence Conservation Stewardship Conservation Service local offices http://www.nrcs.usda.gov Develop and implement a forest management plan

263

Recreation and Agroforestry: Examining New Dimensions of Multifunctionality in Family Farms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multifunctionality serves as an analytical framework to recognize many services that farms provide to their surrounding communities and society. This study explores an often overlooked dimension of multifunctionality by examining different recreational services provided by landowners in Missouri and analyzing the relationship between recreational…

Barbieri, Carla; Valdivia, Corinne

2010-01-01

264

POTENTIAL OF FORESTRY AND AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES TO STORE CARBON IN THE TROPICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Terrestrial vegetation plays a pivotal role in the global carbon cycle. ot only are tremendous amounts of. carbon stored in terrestrial egetation, but large amounts are also actively exchanged,between vegetation and the atmosphere. his suggests that vegetation, and specifically f...

265

Indigenous Agroforestry in American Samoa1 Malala (Mike) Misa Agnes M. Vargo2  

E-print Network

, bananas, breadfruit, yams, and coconuts. Other crops commonly grown are cassava, giant taro, papaya of land, usually a mountainous slope. Most agroforests are taro-based (Colocasia esculenta). While of the family or for use as gifts. Most families grow at least some of their staple foods which include taro

Standiford, Richard B.

266

New Agroforestry Site: Kotumachigi village About 20 Km from the town of Gadag  

E-print Network

,000 · Number of Houses 1400 · Population below poverty line ~25% · Drinking water: Only one well with two the patterns and the devastating Pakistan floods! The raingage really helped to see that it rained pretty much

Rubloff, Gary W.

267

Soil quality indicator responses to row crop, grazed pasture, and agroforestry buffer management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation of trees and establishment of grass buffers within agroecosystems are management practices shown to enhance soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates (WSA) have been identified as sensitive soil quality indicators to evaluate early responses to soil management. ...

268

Environmentally mediated coffee pest densities in relation to agroforestry management, using hierarchical partitioning analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding pest density patterns in the field is important to account for distinct environmental variables potentially influencing populations across different habitat types. Here, we assessed the relative importance of single environmental abiotic and biotic variables on densities of three major coffee pests, i.e., spider mites, leaf miners and berry borers, in simple, complex and abandoned agroforests of coastal Ecuador, using

Adenir Teodoro; Alexandra-Maria Klein; Teja Tscharntke

2008-01-01

269

APEX Model Simulation for Row Crop Watersheds with Agroforestry and Grass Buffers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Watershed model simulation has become an important tool in studying ways and means to reduce transport of agricultural pollutants. Conducting field experiments to assess buffer influences on water quality are constrained by the large-scale nature of watersheds, high experimental costs, private owner...

270

Agroforestry: Conifers. (Latest citations from the Cab Abstracts database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of lands forested with conifers for crop and livestock production. Citations cover the grazing of livestock and the production of crops, including tomatoes, soybeans, lespedeza, wheat, rape, taro, cotton, cabbages, ginger, watermelons, and strawberries. Livestock discussed include cattle, sheep, geese, and horses. Economic analyses and economic models are presented. (Contains a minimum of 147 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

271

An agroforestry practice for the development of salt lands using Prosopis juliflora and Leptochloa fusca  

Microsoft Academic Search

High salt concentration in the soil is a serious problem in vast areas of otherwise productive agricultural lands in India. Establishment of salt tolerant vegetation could be an effective way of ameliorating this problem. In an 8-year field trial on an alkali soil, growth and biomass production ofProsopis juliflora was greater in sole stand than when interplanted with the grassLeptochloa

G. Singh

1995-01-01

272

Agroforestry, Trees, and the Cultural Landscape of the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique  

E-print Network

_mariposa@yahoo.com with Divy Mavasa Research Assistant Student with the Endangered Wildlife Trust Johannesburg (South Africa the Witswatersrand Native Labor Association and the Employment Bureau of Africa3 . In addition to distinguished, Wits Rural Facility. · Daniel McCormick. TPARI, University of Witswater

273

Deforestation, agroforestry, and sustainable land management practices among the Classic period Maya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores evidence of deforestation and forest management practices in the Maya lowlands during the pre-Columbian period. In the early twentieth century, scholars first began to examine the role of the environment in the rise and collapse of the great southern Maya polities of the Classic period, proposing that deforestation was an important factor in their political fragmentation and

Cameron L. McNeil

274

Assessment of promising forest-management practices and technologies for enhancing the conservation and sequestration of atmospheric carbon and their costs at the site level  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: (1) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequestering and conserving carbon; (2) Assess available data on costs at the site level for promising forest and agroforestry management practices; and (3) Evaluate estimates of land technically suitable in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets and the proposed Global Forest Agreement goals.

Dixon, R.K.; Schroeder, P.E.; Winjum, J.K.

1991-10-01

275

Acacia albida and other multipurpose trees on the fur farmlands in the Jebel Marra highlands, Western Darfur, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the traditional agroforestry systems based on Acacia albida and other multipurpose trees as practised by the sedentary Fur people on the lower slopes and highlands of the Jebel Marra massif, Sudan. The basic agrosilvopastoral system consists of terraced village fields, where semipermanent rainfed cropping of staple millet and other subsistence crops takes place under stands of multipurpose

S. Miehe

1986-01-01

276

Cabruca its agrobiodiversity potential on small farmers in Southern region of Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Cacao Cabruca Agroforestry system of production was developed by farmers in Bahia over 200 years ago. This system consists of planting cacao under the shade of trees in the Atlantic rain forest and has on an average 693 cacao plants and 93 trees per hectare. Even though the local community utili...

277

HERBAGE NITROGEN RECOVERY IN A MEADOW AND LOBLOLLY PINE ALLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Herbage in conventional pasture and agroforestry systems is managed for microclimate and spatial differences inherent to these systems, but managers have scarce data on which to base their decisions. Our objective was to measure herbage N fertilizer recovery at two sites, an unshaded meadow and a s...

278

RESULTS ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF NAMED VARIETIES OF EASTERN BLACK WALNUTS ON UPLAND SITE IN THE OUACHITA REGION OF ARKANSAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agroforestry systems that include eastern black walnut trees grown for nut production are a viable option for landowners in western Arkansas, and the use of named varieties selected for high nut quality will be an important component of viable systems. Currently, there is little information regardi...

279

Body Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the parts and functions of the different systems in the body? Circulatory System Watch the Circulatory System and the Heart video. Complete one of the Circulatory System quizzes. Excretory System Label the parts of the excretory system. Respiratory System Quiz Complete respiratory system quiz to review parts. Skeletal System Label each part of the skeletal system. Vocabulary Review Change the settings to only include body system terms and play Hangman to review new vocabulary. ...

2011-11-02

280

The Impact of Policy and Institutional Environment on Costs and Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Land Uses: The Case of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As in other mountain regions of Asia, agricultural lands in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh are undergoing degradation due primarily to environmentally incompatible land-use systems such as shifting cultivation ( jhum) and annual cash crops. The suitable land-use systems such as agroforestry and timber tree plantation provide benefit to the society at large, but they might not provide attractive economic benefits to farmers, eventually constraining a wide-scale adoption of such land-use systems. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate agricultural land-use systems from both societal and private perspectives in the pursuit of promoting particularly environmentally sustainable systems. This article evaluated five major land-use systems being practiced in CHT, namely jhum, annual cash crops, horticulture, agroforestry, and timber plantation. The results of the financial analysis revealed the annual cash crops as the most attractive land use and jhum as the least attractive of the five land-use systems considered under the study. Horticulture, timber plantation, and agroforestry, considered to be suitable land-use systems particularly for mountainous areas, held the middle ground between these two systems. Annual cash crops provided the highest financial return at the cost of a very high rate of soil erosion. When the societal cost of soil erosion is considered, annual cash crops appear to be the most costly land-use system, followed by jhum and horticulture. Although financially less attractive compared to annual cash crops and horticulture, agroforestry and timber plantation are the socially most beneficial land-use systems. Findings of the alternative policy analyses indicate that there is a good prospect for making environmentally sustainable land-use systems, such as agroforestry and timber plantation, attractive for the farmers by eliminating existing legal and institutional barriers, combined with the provision of necessary support services and facilities.

Rasul, Golam; Thapa, Gopal B.

2007-08-01

281

Library System Library System  

E-print Network

Library System #12;Library System 5150 Anthony Wayne Drive David Adamany Undergraduate Library that for the current fiscal year, we've been given an additional $600,000 for our library materials budget. We're very subscriptions. The Wayne State University Libraries are deeply committed to providing our faculty and students

Cinabro, David

282

Solar system positioning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

2006-01-01

283

Systems autonomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on systems autonomy is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on space systems integration, intelligent autonomous systems, automated systems for in-flight mission operations, the Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project on the Space Station Thermal Control System, the architecture of an autonomous intelligent system, artificial intelligence research issues, machine learning, and real-time image processing.

Lum, Henry, Jr.

1988-01-01

284

Characterisation of biodiversity in improved rubber agroforests in West-Kalimantan,  

E-print Network

Characterisation of biodiversity in improved rubber agroforests in West-Kalimantan, Indonesia. Real of jungle rubber. Since the introduction of rubber at the turn of the 20th century smallholders have developed an original complex agroforestry system called jungle rubber in which non selected young rubber

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

Conceptual approaches for incorporating climatic change into the development of forest management options for sequestering carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for significant enviromental change over the next 100 years has resulted in efforts to develop mitigation options for reducing the rate of increase of carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. One of the more promising options is management of forest and agroforestry systems. However, most of the assessments of the potential of forest management options to sequester carbon

GA King

1993-01-01

286

White-tailed Deer Browsing and Rubbing Preferences for Trees and Shrubs That Produce Nontimber Forest Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nontimber forest products (food, herbal medicinals, and woody floral and handicraft products) produced in forest, agroforestry, and horticultural systems can be important sources of income to landowners. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can reduce the quality, quantity, and profitability of forest products by browsing twigs and rubbing stems, resulting in direct and indirect losses to production enterprises. We evaluated deer damage

Scott E. Hygnstrom; Peter D. Skelton; Scott J. Josiah; Jason M. Gilsdorf; Dallas R. Virchow; James A. Brandle; Anil K. Jayaprakash; Kent M. Eskridge; Kurt C. VerCauteren

2009-01-01

287

Cacao genomics and the development of a marker-assisted-selection program for cacao  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Theobroma cacao L. is an understory tree from the Amazon basin that can be cultivated in a sustainable agro-forestry system. Four main genetic groups of cacao are traditionally described: Criollo, Trinitario, and lower and upper Amazon Forastero. Production of cacao in tropical America has been seve...

288

CURRENT CHALLENGES OF TROPICAL TREE CROP IMPROVEMENT: INTEGRATING GENOMICS INTO AN APPLIED CACAO BREEDING PROGRAM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Theobroma cacao L. is an understory tree from the Amazon basin that can be cultivated in a sustainable agro-forestry system, providing income to small farmers while maintaining biodiversity. Four main genetic groups of cacao are traditionally described: Criollo, Trinitario, and lower and upper Amazo...

289

Estimating surface energy fluxes over an Andalusian Dehesa ecosystem using a thermal-based two-source energy balance model and validation with flux tower measurements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Dehesa, the most widespread agroforestry land-use system in Europe (˜ 3 million ha), is recognized as an example of sustainable land use and for its importance in the rural economy (Diaz et al., 1997; Plieninger and Wilbrand, 2001). It consists of widely-spaced oak forest (mostly Quercus Ilex L....

290

Kebon tatangkalan: a disappearing agroforest in the Upper Citarum Watershed, West Java, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study was carried out on a typical indigenous agroforestry system, called kebon tatangkalan, in the changing agricultural landscape of the Upper Citarum Watershed, West Java, Indonesia. The main objectives of the study are to elucidate the structural patterns, multidimensional functions, and dynamics of this multi-layered agroforest. The study has identified 12 groups of different plant assemblages indicating that

Parikesit; K. Takeuchi; A. Tsunekawa; O. S. Abdoellah

2005-01-01

291

Napier grass strips and livestock: a bioeconomic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Napier grass strips are gaining some acceptance in Southeast Asia as a vegetative means of soil erosion control, due to the relative ease of establishment and management. In addition, the napier grass strips aid productivity of agroforestry systems by providing mulch or by being fed to livestock. In this paper, a bioeconomic comparison of different ways of utilising the napier

D. B. Magcale-Macandog; C. D. Predo; K. M. Menz; A. D. Predo

1998-01-01

292

Evaluation of soil quality in areas of cocoa cabruca, forest and multicropping in southern Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Atlantic Rain Forest is one of the most complex natural environments of the earth and, linked with this ecosystem, the cacao-cabruca system is agroforestry cultivation with an arrangement including a range of environmental, social and economical benefits and can protect many features of the biod...

293

Decomposition and nitrogen-mineralization patterns of Leucaena leucocephala and Cassia siamea mulch under tropical semiarid conditions in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

In agroforestry systems, loppings from trees and shrubs are commonly used, often as mulch, as sources of nutrients for interplanted crops. Therefore, it is important to understand the rates of mulch decomposition. This paper reports the results of a study on the decomposition and nitrogen (N)-mineralization patterns of the leaves, small twigs, and mulch (leaves plus twigs) of Leucaena leucocephala

B. A. Jama; P. K. R. Nair

1996-01-01

294

Modelling surface energy fluxes over a Dehesa ecosystem using a two-source energy balance model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Dehesa is the most widespread agroforestry land-use system in Europe, covering more than 3 million hectares in the Iberian Peninsula and Greece (Grove and Rackham, 2001; Papanastasis, 2004). It is an agro-silvo-pastural ecosystem consisting of widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus ilex L.), co...

295

Carbon stocks in coffee agroforests and mixed dry tropical forests in the western highlands of Guatemala  

E-print Network

Carbon stocks in coffee agroforests and mixed dry tropical forests in the western highlands Tree removal in Latin American coffee agroforestry systems has been widespread due to complex sequestration. In facilitation of such incentives, an understanding of the capacity of coffee agroforests

Evans, Tom

296

Beneficial Spectral Characteristics of Red and Black Raspberry Plants (Rubus idaeus and Rubus occidentalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raspberry naturally occurs in association with trees as a forest border species, thus is ideally adapted for species-diverse agroforestry systems. In spite of thriving in relatively low solar radiation environments, some red (European) and black (North American) raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. and Rubus occidentalis L.) plant surfaces are highly reflective, both species on leaf abaxial surfaces and black raspberry on

C. M. Feldhake

2002-01-01

297

HERBAGE NITROGEN RECOVERY IN A MEADOW AND LOBLOLLY PINE ALLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fertilizer management practices in agroforestry systems could be improved if the complex interaction of economic efficiency, herbage and livestock production, and tree growth were better understood. Our objective was to determine effects of N on herbage N use and nutritive value at two sites, a mea...

298

ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENHANCING THE CONSERVATION AND SEQUESTRATION OF ATMOSPHERIC CARBON AND THEIR COSTS AT SITE LEVEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this report are to assess and synthesize current knowledge on three policy-science topics: ) Identify promising technologies and practices that could be utilized at technically suitable sites in the world to manage forests and agroforestry systems for sequesteri...

299

Sustainable development and use of ecosystems with non-forest trees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Non-forest trees are components of managed ecosystems including orchards and agroforestry systems and natural ecosystems such as savannas and riparian corridors. Each of these ecosystems includes trees but does not have a complete tree canopy or spatial extent necessary to create a true forest ecosy...

300

Intercropping of two Leucaena spp. with sweet potato: yield, growth rate and biomass  

SciTech Connect

Results of trials with Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena diversifolia at Wau, Papua New Guinea, showed potential benefits of the agroforestry cropping system. The total biomass yield (sweet potato plus firewood and green manure) was considerably greater than the yield per unit area of sweet potato alone. 3 references.

Swift, J.F.

1982-01-01

301

The role of fertilizers in sustaining agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

African farmers have relied traditionally on fallowing for up to 15 years to restore soil fertility. Leaving land unproductive for such periods is a luxury many regions cannot afford, given the contemporary decline in per capita food production (1%\\/year). Thus, alternative soil fertility maintenance measures such as agroforestry, novel intercropping systems, residue conservation, the use of manure, soil amendments, and

P. L. G. Vlek

1990-01-01

302

Utilization of Australian acacias for improving food security and environmental sustainability in the Sahel, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sahelian region of West Africa is among the poorest and least food secure regions of the world. Certain Australian Acacia species have been shown to have useful potential as multi-purpose tree species in Sahelian agro-forestry farming systems. These Acacia species produce nutritious seed for human and animal food. They thrive in adverse conditions, coppice after pruning, produce large volumes

P. J. Cunningham; C. Nicholson; S. Yaou; T. Rinaudo; C. Harwood

303

Professional electives for chemistry BS (version 3-11) This a list of potential courses that could fulfill the Professional Electives requirement.  

E-print Network

WILDLIFE HABITAT&POP EFB496 TOPICS/ENVRN&FOREST BIO EFB502 ECOLOGY & MGT/INVASIVE SPECIES EFB518 SYSTEMS ECOLOGY EFB524 LIMNOLOGY EFB525 LIMNOLOGY LABORATORY EFB535 SYSTEMATIC BOTANY EFB554 AQUATIC ENTOMOLOGY GIS FOR360 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT FOR373 FOREST OPERATIONS FOR430 AGROFORESTRY Cross Listed with FOR

Chatterjee, Avik P.

304

The University of Arizona College of Agriculture and Life Sciences12 They hide inside leaves, living silently and invisibly,  

E-print Network

over--from tiny plants in the tundra to chocolate trees in tropical agroforestry systems." Over fungi are among the world's least understood plant- associated fungi, living within leaves and stems without causing disease. These tiny fungi are found in trees, grasses, crop plants and shrubs all the way

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

305

Land use, land management and environment in a subsistence mountain economy in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the growing concern about the effects of human activities on the mountain environment of Nepal, this study examined the land use and management systems and their environmental effects with reference to a small watershed. It was shown that farmers had used cropping diversification, mixed cropping, cropping intensification and agroforestry to cope with the problem of food shortage

Gopal B. Thapa

1996-01-01

306

Biological nitrogen fixation in trees in agro-ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of trees, especially nitrogen fixing trees (NFTs), into agroforestry and silvo-pastoral systems can make a major contribution to sustainable agriculture by restoring and maintaining soil fertility, and in combating erosion and desertification as well as providing fuelwood. The particular advantage of NFTs is their biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), their ability to establish in nitrogen-deficient soils and the benefits

S. K. A. Danso; G. D. Bowen; N. Sanginga

1992-01-01

307

Conservation of tree seeds from tropical dry-lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tropical trees, Azadirachta indica (neem), Lannea microcarpa, Sclerocarya birrea and Khaya senegalensis, are important multipurpose species. Unfortunately, difficult seed storage behaviour limits the utilization of these species in reforestation programs and agroforestry systems. This thesis presents the results of investigations aimed at a better understanding of the seed biology, particularly focussed on the improvement of seed survival after drying

Oblé Neya

2006-01-01

308

Trees outside forests: agro-, community, and urban forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planted forests are often considered to consist of tree plantings at a scale large enough to satisfy such objectives as commercial production of timber and fiber, protection of watersheds, and preservation of natural habitats. However, trees are planted also at greatly reduced scales in agroforestry systems or as community woodlots to provide a mixture of products and services to resident

ALAN J. LONG; P. K. RAMACHANDRAN NAIR

1999-01-01

309

36 CFR 230.40 - Eligible practices for cost-share assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...special forest products, and carbon sequestration. (4) Agroforestry Implementation —Establishment, maintenance, and renovation...forest buffers, silvopasture, alley cropping, or other agroforestry practices, including purposes for energy conservation...

2010-07-01

310

Aerospace Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf contains a syllabus for a course on aerospace systems as part of the Aerospace Technology Program. This course covers an introduction to expendable and reusable Space Launch Vehicle (SLV) systems including hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, propulsion, mechanical, HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), and ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support Systems). How systems interact with computer and data acquisition systems is also covered.

311

Operating Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer operating system spans multiple layers of complexity, from commands entered at a keyboard to the details of electronic switching. In addition, the system is organized as a hierarchy of abstractions. Various parts of such a system and system dynamics (using the Unix operating system as an example) are described. (JN)

Denning, Peter J.; Brown, Robert L.

1984-01-01

312

Operating Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 342. Operating Systems (3) Prerequisite: CSC 332. Study of supervisory programs. System services and file systems; CPU scheduling; memory management; virtual memory; disk scheduling. Deadlock characterization, prevention, and avoidance; concurrent processes; semaphores; critical sections; synchronization. Distributed systems and communication protocols.

Dr Clayton Ferner

313

A geologic guide to Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; a tectonic collage of northbound terranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, the largest unit in the U.S. National Park System, encompasses near 13.2 million acres of geological wonderments. This geologic guide presents history of exploration and Earth-science investigation; describes the complex geologic makeup; characterizes the vast college of accretion geologic terranes in this area of Alaska's continental margin; recapitulates the effects of earthquakes, volcanoes, and glaciers; characterizes the copper and gold resources of the parklands; and describes outstanding locales within the park and preserve area. A glossary of geologic terms and a categorized list of additional sources of information complete this report.

Winkler, Gary R.; with contributions by MacKevett, E. M., Jr.; Plafker, George; Richter, D.H.; Rosenkrans, D.S.; Schmoll, H.R.

2000-01-01

314

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the end of this project, you will be able to explain the components of the Solar System and know the order of the planets starting from the Sun. Objective Question: What is the Solar System? First, listen and read about the Solar System 1. How many planets make up our Solar System? 2. What is at the center of the Solar System? Next,listen and read about the Planets. 1. Can you name all of the planets? Finally, listen and watch The Solar System Movie. 1. Can you list the ...

Ms.West

2009-07-07

315

Systems thinking.  

PubMed

Evaluation is one of many fields where "systems thinking" is popular and is said to hold great promise. However, there is disagreement about what constitutes systems thinking. Its meaning is ambiguous, and systems scholars have made diverse and divergent attempts to describe it. Alternative origins include: von Bertalanffy, Aristotle, Lao Tsu or multiple aperiodic "waves." Some scholars describe it as synonymous with systems sciences (i.e., nonlinear dynamics, complexity, chaos). Others view it as taxonomy-a laundry list of systems approaches. Within so much noise, it is often difficult for evaluators to find the systems thinking signal. Recent work in systems thinking describes it as an emergent property of four simple conceptual patterns (rules). For an evaluator to become a "systems thinker", he or she need not spend years learning many methods or nonlinear sciences. Instead, with some practice, one can learn to apply these four simple rules to existing evaluation knowledge with transformative results. PMID:18272224

Cabrera, Derek; Colosi, Laura; Lobdell, Claire

2008-08-01

316

Digestive System  

MedlinePLUS

... the body can absorb and use. About the Digestive System Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive ... the anus as a bowel movement. Back Continue Digestive System Problems Nearly everyone has a digestive problem at ...

317

Cardiovascular system  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart and the network of arteries, veins, and capillaries that transport blood throughout the ... carries waste products from the tissues to the systems of the body through which they are eliminated. ...

318

Linked Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three papers are compiled here for research library directors: (1) "Background: Open Systems Interconnection," in which David F. Bishop provides fundamental background information to explain the concept of the emerging technology of linked systems and open systems interconnection--i.e., an agreed upon standard set of conventions or rules that,…

Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC.

319

Systems thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation is one of many fields where “systems thinking” is popular and is said to hold great promise. However, there is disagreement about what constitutes systems thinking. Its meaning is ambiguous, and systems scholars have made diverse and divergent attempts to describe it. Alternative origins include: von Bertalanffy, Aristotle, Lao Tsu or multiple aperiodic “waves.” Some scholars describe it as

Derek Cabrera; Laura Colosi; Claire Lobdell

2008-01-01

320

Energy Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posters are provided for several different energy conversion systems. Students are provided with cards that give the name and a description of each of the components in an energy system. They match these with the figures on the diagram. Since the groups look at different systems, they also describe their results to the class to share their knowledge.

Office of Educational Partnerships,

321

Clinical and radiographic outcomes following traumatic Grade 3 and 4 carotid artery injuries: a 10-year retrospective analysis from a Level 1 trauma center. The Parkland Carotid and Vertebral Artery Injury Survey.  

PubMed

OBJECT Screening, management, and follow-up of Grade 3 and 4 blunt carotid artery injuries (BCAIs) remain controversial. These high-grade BCAIs were analyzed to define their natural history and establish a rational management plan based on lesion progression and cerebral infarction. METHODS A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all blunt traumatic carotid and vertebral artery injuries from August 2003 to April 2013 was performed, and Grade 3 and 4 BCAIs were identified. The authors define Grade 3 injuries as stenosis of the vessel greater than 50%, or the development of a pseudoaneurysm, and Grade 4 injuries as complete vessel occlusion. Demographic information, imaging findings, number of images obtained per individual, length of radiographic follow-up examination, radiographic outcome at end of follow-up period, treatment(s), and documentation of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were recorded. RESULTS Fifty-three Grade 3 BCAIs in 44 patients and 5 Grade 4 BCAIs in 5 patients were identified and had available follow-up information. The mean follow-up duration for Grade 3 BCAIs was 113 days, and the mean follow-up for Grade 4 BCAIs was 78 days. Final imaging of Grade 3 BCAIs showed that 53% of cases were radiographically stable, 11% had resolved, and 11% were improved, whereas 25% had radiographically worsened. In terms of treatment, 75% of patients received aspirin (ASA) alone, 5% received various medications, and 2% received no treatment. Eighteen percent of the patients in the Grade 3 BCAI group underwent endovascular intervention, and in all of these cases, treatment with ASA was continued after the procedure. Final imaging of the Grade 4 BCAIs showed that 60% remained stable (with persistent occlusion), whereas the remaining arteries improved (with recanalization of the vessel). All patients in the Grade 4 BCAI follow-up group were treated with ASA, although in 1 patient treatment was transitioned to Coumadin. There were 3 cases of cerebral infarction that appeared to be related to Grade 3 BCAIs (7% of 44 patients in the Grade 3 group), and 1 case of stroke that appeared to be related to a Grade 4 BCAI. All identified cases of stroke developed soon after hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS Although the posttraumatic cerebral infarction rate may be overestimated, the results of this study suggest that the Grade 3 and 4 BCAIs carry the highest stroke risk of the blunt cerebrovascular injuries, and those infarctions were identified on or shortly after hospital admission. Despite a 40% recanalization rate in the Grade 4 BCAI group and an 89% rate of persistent pseudoaneurysm in the Grade 3 BCAI group, follow-up imaging showed progressive worsening without radiographic improvement in only a small number of patients, and these findings alone did not correlate with adverse clinical outcome. Follow-up protocols may require amending; however, further prospective studies are needed to make conclusive changes as they relate to management. PMID:25526279

Scott, William W; Sharp, Steven; Figueroa, Stephen A; Eastman, Alexander L; Hatchette, Charles V; Madden, Christopher J; Rickert, Kim L

2015-03-01

322

System Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk. The risk importance factors show the amount of risk reduction achievable with potential upgrades and the amount of risk reduction actually achieved after upgrades are completed. Applying the risk assessment tool gives support to budget prioritization by showing where budget support levels must be sustained for MC&A functions most important to risk. Results of the risk assessment are also useful in supporting funding justifications for system improvements that significantly reduce system risk.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

323

Telescope) Systems  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT. The PHOT (Portable High-Speed Occultation Telescope) systems were developed for the specific purpose of observing stellar occultations by solar system objects. Stellar occultations have unique observing constraints: they may only be observable from certain parts of the globe; they often require a rapid observing cadence; and they require accurate time-stamp information for each exposure. The PHOT systems consist of 14 inch telescopes, CCD cameras, camera mounting plates, GPS-based time standards, and data acquisition computers. The PHOT systems are similar in principle to the POETS systems (Portable Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit Systems), with the main differences being (1) different CCD cameras with slightly different specifications and (2) a standalone custom-built time standard used by PHOT, whereas POETS uses a commercial time standard that is controlled from a computer. Since 2005, PHOT systems have been deployed on over two-dozen occasions to sites in the US,

E. F. Young; L. A. Young; C. B. Olkin; M. W. Buie; K. Shoemaker; R. G. French; J. Regester

324

Antenna Systems Advanced Antenna Systems  

E-print Network

EEL4461 EEL5462 Fall 2014 Antenna Systems Advanced Antenna Systems Instructor Dr. Jenshan Lin://lss.at.ufl.edu/) Textbooks Required: Balanis, Antenna Theory - Analysis and Design, 3rd ed. 2005 Prerequisite EEL3472 principles of antenna and to apply them to the design and analysis of antenna systems. Students will learn

Fang, Yuguang "Michael"

325

Microfluidic Systems Integrated Microfluidic Systems**  

E-print Network

Microfluidic Systems Integrated Microfluidic Systems** Rustem F. Ismagilov* Keywords: analytical methods · enzymes · microfluidics · microreactors · protein structures Microfluidic systems use networks of channels thinner than a human hair to manipulate nanoliter volumes of re- agents. The goal of microfluidics

Ismagilov, Rustem F.

326

Networked Software Systems Distributed System  

E-print Network

networking APIs. Using the system will allow the developer to run his tasks producer over one computer. The system is platform independent; means it can run over every platform since it is written in Java to a concrete usage: Distributed Search Engine. This concrete system will search pages in the web, download them

Segall, Adrian

327

Systems Thinking 2: Thermodynamic Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains thermodynamic systems, open and closed systems, and the four key properties of a system. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives, Assessment, and Activities.

2012-12-19

328

Geothermal systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

Mohl, C.

1978-01-01

329

Operating Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rashid Bin Muhammad at Kent State University presents his page of lectures notes and other instructional materials on operating systems. The site is divided into a number of topics about operating systems: history, structure, process, threads, Solaris-2, CPU / process scheduling, schedule algorithm, interprocess communication, deadlock, important UNIX commands, and references. The site is then followed by links to outside resources to help supplement the material presented here. This is a great resource for computer science instructors teaching students about operating systems.

Bin Muhammad, Rashid

330

SCALPEL system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed an approach to projection electron beam lithography, termed the SCALPEL system, which we believe offers solutions to previous problems associated with projection electron beam lithography.

Steven D. Berger; Chris Biddick; Myrtle Blakey; Kevin J. Bolan; Stephen W. Bowler; Kevin Brady; Ron Camarda; Wayne Connelly; Reginald C. Farrow; Joseph A. Felker; Linus A. Fetter; Lloyd R. Harriott; Harold A. Huggins; Joe Kraus; J. A. Liddle; Masis M. Mkrtchyan; Anthony E. Novembre; Milton Peabody; Tom Russell; Wayne M. Simpson; Regine G. Tarascon; H. H. Wade; Warren K. Waskiewicz; Pat Watson

1994-01-01

331

Systemic Darwinism  

PubMed Central

Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a “compositional paradigm” according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality. PMID:18697926

Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

2008-01-01

332

Mining system  

SciTech Connect

This system develops an ore body in two lifts, driven from opposite ends (at different times) and utilizes the concept of lane pillars rather than square block pillars. These conditions generate a new ventilation system that is flexible and well suited for the varying air requirements in oil shale mining. The ore handling system is load-haul-dump (LHD) to portable crushers to belts to surface. The layout of this method introduces unique functions for this system by creating two directional ore flow from the workings, which optimize logistics and material handling methods.

Gilbert, C. J.; Hassialis, M. D.; Scrymgeour, A. H.; Vera, S. I.

1985-04-23

333

Operating Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stanford's Computer Science department presents this course on operating systems taught by David Mazières in Winter of 2009. The course covers concurrency, synchronization, scheduling, linking, virtual memory, memory allocations, file systems, networking, protection, security, and virtual machines. On the site, visitors will find the course syllabus, lecture notes, reference materials, and old exams from past iterations of the course. There are also four programming projects on the following topics: threads, user programs, virtual memory, and file systems. It's an excellent resource for educators in computer science and technician training courses to help supplement operating systems education.

2009-07-23

334

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Take a tour of our Solar System Browse the various tours of the solar system, then choose the one, or combination of tours, that will help you make comparisons between the planets. Items to take note of: Number of known satellites Orbital period around the sun Rotational period on its axis Atmospheric gases Presence of water, and in what ...

Sill - Earth Systems Science

2010-10-07

335

Turbocompound system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A turbocompound system is described for improving the performance of an internal combustion engine without substantially increasing an end viewed profile of the engine to which it is mounted in use. The system consists of: (a) an exhaust driven turbocharger means having an exhaust manifold means extending in an axial direction for collecting exhaust gases from engine cylinders and delivering

Fox

1986-01-01

336

Systems Librarianship  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The SYSLIB-L list serves as a vehicle for the discussion of topics related to systems librarianship and for the collection of information related to systems librarianship. Postings may include, but are not limited to, job postings, technical questions, philosophical discussions, and education.

337

Multimedia Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 304. Multimedia Systems (3) Prerequisite: CSC 121. Introduction to technologies of the Internet and networked multimedia systems. Issues in web page design; Internet client/server programming; collaborative computing and group work; network publishing; security and encryption; audio and video compression; ethical issues and privacy; e-commerce; and distributed object computing. Open only to students of junior or senior standing.

Ms Laurie Patterson

338

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system is investigated in this learning activity to help participants learn how food is broken down and prepared for absorption, and list the components of the digestive system as well as their functions. Organs investigated include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Jim Bidlack

339

Organ Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Organ Systems" module has five units of instruction that focus on the main classes of functions that a body must perform. Rather than just naming organs of the body and what they do, they present a perspective on the body as a coordinated group of systems that must do certain things correctly in order to survive and thrive.

W. R. Klemm

2001-01-01

340

Systems Thinking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center explains the General Systems Model and how consider the entire system when performing aerospace work. This three and a half minute video is one of the aerospace certification readiness courses.

341

Decimal system  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Early scientific efforts by the Chinese yielded the decimal system. The Chinese were mostly known for their physical inventions during this time, so it was unusual to see something like the decimal system come from China at this point in history.

N/A N/A (None; )

2007-10-24

342

Power system  

DOEpatents

A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

2008-03-18

343

Energy farming in Brazil: the role of agroforestry on the production of food and energy from biomass in southeast Bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the problem of fuel production from plants, on the basis of information drawn from the literature and from case studies conducted in Brazil. Special reference is made to the production of charcoal and the production of alcohol and vegetable oils to replace gasoline and diesel fuel. The potential and socioeconomic implications of energy farming are discussed. Diversified

Alvim

1983-01-01

344

Modeling carbon sequestration in afforestation, agroforestry and forest management projects: the CO2FIX V.2 approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the Version 2 of the CO2FIX (CO2FIX V.2) model, a user-friendly tool for dynamically estimating the carbon sequestration potential of forest management, agroforesty and afforestation projects. CO2FIX V.2 is a multi-cohort ecosystem-level model based on carbon accounting of forest stands, including forest biomass, soils and products. Carbon stored in living biomass is estimated with a forest cohort

Omar R. Maseraa; J. F. Garza-Caligaris; M. Kanninen; T. Karjalainen; J. Liski; G. J. Nabuurs; A. Pussinen; B. H. J. de Jong; G. M. J. Mohren

2003-01-01

345

Processes responsible for the nitrous oxide emission from a Costa Rican Andosol under a coffee agroforestry plantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the inhibitor acetylene (C2H2) at partial pressures of 10 Pa and 10 kPa to inhibit autotrophic nitrification and the reduction of nitrous oxide (N2O) to N2, respectively. Soils (Andosol) from a Coffea arabica plantation shaded by Inga densiflora in Costa Rica were adjusted to 39, 58, 76 and 87% water-filled pore space (WFPS) and incubated for 6 days in the absence

K. Hergoualc’h; U. Skiba; J.-M. Harmand; R. Oliver

2007-01-01

346

Canadian/US update: The emerging visibility and role of agroforestry in national and international climate change strategies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

U.S. and Canadian agricultural lands are being targeted to provide more environmental and economic services while at the same time their continued capability to provide these services under potential climate change (CC) is being questioned. Addressing both concerns requires a broader approach of des...

347

Walking a New Path of Life: Learning Tours, "Agroforestry" and the Transformation of the Village of Bann Na Isarn, Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural areas in both developed and developing countries are being increasingly marginalized through structural changes. Furthermore, the disinvestment in state-provided supports and services means that rural people are left to their own devices to cope with these changes. Numerous authors argue that the most effective way of dealing with these…

Thacheen, Piyaporn; Lauzon, Allan C.

2006-01-01

348

Exploiting the potential of indigenous agroforestry trees: Parkia biglobosa and Vitellaria paradoxa in sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkia biglobosa (néré) and Vitellaria paradoxa (karité) are indigenous tree species that are economically and socially important for local people in sub-Saharan Africa.\\u000a Farmers deliberately maintain these trees on farms mainly for their fruits and nuts. The kernels of karité yield shea butter,\\u000a which is rich in fatty acids; it is used locally for food and internationally in chocolate, pharmaceutical

Z. Teklehaimanot

2004-01-01

349

The development of short-rotation willow in the northeastern United States for bioenergy and bioproducts, agroforestry and phytoremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on willow (Salix spp.) as a locally produced, renewable feedstock for bioenergy and bioproducts began in New York in the mid-1980s in response to growing concerns about environmental impacts associated with fossil fuels and declining rural economies. Simultaneous and integrated activities—including research, large-scale demonstrations, outreach and education, and market development—were initiated in the mid-1990s to facilitate the commercialization of

T. A. Volk; L. P. Abrahamson; C. A. Nowak; L. B. Smart; P. J. Tharakan; E. H. White

2006-01-01

350

Local solutions to global problems: the potential of agroforestry for climate change adaptation and mitigation in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a global phenomenon that imposes economic, social, and ecological challenges to the global community and, to smallholder farmers particularly in low- income countries. Sustainable land use practices offer opportunities for smallholder farmers to adapt to climate change and related risks, but the challenge is that the adoption of such practices by farmers is low due to policy

Ajayi OC; Akinnifesi FK; Sileshi G; Chakeredza S

351

Nitrous oxide emissions following incorporation of improved-fallow residues in the humid tropics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotation of crops with fast-growing tree, shrub, and herbaceous N2-fixing legume species (improved fallows) is a central agroforestry technology for soil fertility management in the humid tropics. Maize yields are increased following improved fallows compared with continuous maize cropping or traditional natural-fallow systems consisting of broadleaved weeds and grasses. However, the effect of these improved-fallow systems on N availability and N2O emissions following residue application has yet to be determined. Emissions from these systems not only have a detrimental effect on the environment, but are of additional concern in that they represent a potentially significant loss of N and a reduction in N-use efficiency. Emissions of N2O were measured from improved-fallow agroforestry systems in western Kenya, being characteristic of agroforestry systems in the humid tropics. Emissions were increased after incorporation of fallow residues and were higher after incorporation of improved-fallow legume residues (Sesbania sesban, Crotalaria grahamiana, Macroptilium atropurpureum) than natural-fallow residues (mainly consisting of Digitaria abyssibica, Habiscus cannabinus, Bidens pilosa, Guizotia scabra, Leonotis nepetifolia, Commelina benghalensis). Following incorporation of Sesbania and Macroptilium residues (7.4 t dry matter ha-1; 2.9% N) in a mixed fallow system, 4.1 kg N2O-N ha-1 was emitted over 84 days. The percentages of N applied emitted as N2O following residue incorporation in these tropical agroforestry systems were of the same magnitude as in temperate agricultural systems. N2O (loge) emissions were positively correlated with residue N content (r = 0.93; P < 0.05), and thus the residue composition, particularly its N content, is an important consideration when proposing management practices to mitigate N2O emissions from these systems.

Millar, N.; Ndufa, J. K.; Cadisch, G.; Baggs, E. M.

2004-03-01

352

Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

353

System Toolbox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

System Toolbox is designed for system administrators who deal with a variety of platforms. The site covers Windows NT, General Unix, Novell, Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, and the Mac OS. The "toolbox" for each platform offers annotated links to Tools (Disk Management, Anti-Virus, Security, etc.), Articles, and other useful Links. While the information here is hardly comprehensive, the site offers useful, if often basic, resources for administrators. System Toolbox's brand new History section looks promising, with two articles currently posted, "Von Braun's Slide Rule" and "The Godfather of Computing - Charles Babbage." The Comments section allows users to post questions or comments.

354

A Component-Based Framework for Simulating Agricultural Production and Externalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although existing simulation tools can be used to study the impact of agricultural management on production activities in\\u000a specific environments, they suffer from several limitations. They are largely specialized for specific production activities:\\u000a arable crops\\/cropping systems, grassland, orchards, agro-forestry, livestock etc. Also, they often have a restricted ability\\u000a to simulate system externalities which may have a negative environmental impact. Furthermore,

Marcello Donatelli; Graham Russell; Andrea Emilio Rizzoli; Marco Acutis; Myriam Adam; Ioannis N. Athanasiadis; Matteo Balderacchi; Luca Bechini; Hatem Belhouchette; Gianni Bellocchi; Jacques-Eric Bergez; Marco Botta; Erik Braudeau; Simone Bregaglio; Laura Carlini; Eric Casellas; Florian Celette; Enrico Ceotto; Marie Hélène Charron-Moirez; Roberto Confalonieri; Marc Corbeels; Luca Criscuolo; Pablo Cruz; Andrea Guardo; Domenico Ditto; Christian Dupraz; Michel Duru; Diego Fiorani; Antonella Gentile; Frank Ewert; Christian Gary; Ephrem Habyarimana; Claire Jouany; Kamel Kansou; Rob Knapen; Giovanni Lanza Filippi; Peter A. Leffelaar; Luisa Manici; Guillaume Martin; Pierre Martin; Eelco Meuter; Nora Mugueta; Rachmat Mulia; Meine Noordwijk; Roelof Oomen; Alexandra Rosenmund; Vittorio Rossi; Francesca Salinari; Ariel Serrano; Andrea Sorce; Grégoire Vincent; Jean-Pierre Theau; Olivier Thérond; Marco Trevisan; Patrizia Trevisiol; Frits K. Evert; Daniel Wallach; Jacques Wery; Arezki Zerourou

2009-01-01

355

Changes in arboreal ant populations following pruning of coffee shade-treesin Chiapas, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing or eliminating shade cover in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) agroforestry systems affects fungal disease and pest outbreaks, coffee yields, and can result in biodiversity loss of\\u000a important predators, such as ants. Less dramatic changes in shade structure or composition may also affect ants. Shade tree\\u000a pruning, a common management practice in shaded coffee systems, has unknown consequences for ant

Stacy M. Philpott

2005-01-01

356

An evaluation of the century model to predict soil organic carbon: examples from Costa Rica and Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater organic matter inputs in agroforestry systems contribute to the long-term storage of carbon (C) in the soil, and the\\u000a use of simulation models provides an opportunity to evaluate the dynamics of the long-term trends of soil organic carbon (SOC)\\u000a stocks in these systems. The objective of this study was to apply the Century model to evaluate the long-term effect

Maren OelbermannR; R. P. Voroney

2011-01-01

357

Atributos químicos e físicos de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo em sistema integrado de produção agroecológica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of agroecological management systems on physical and chemical attributes of an Udult soil. The following areas were selected: conventional tillage (corn\\/beans); no tillage (eggplant\\/corn); consortium of passion fruit\\/Desmodium sp.; fig cultivation; and an agroforestry system (AFS). The undisturbed soil samples were taken from two layers (0-5 and 5-10 cm) and

Maria Ribeiro da Silva

2009-01-01

358

Synergies between Agricultural Intensification and Climate Change Could Create Surprising Vulnerabilities for Crops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An inevitable consequence of global climate change is that altered patterns of temperature and precipitation threaten agriculture in many tropical regions, requiring strategies of human adaptation. Moreover, the process of management intensification in agriculture has increased and may exacerbate vulnerability to climate extremes. Although many solutions have been presented, the role of simple agro-ecological and agroforestry management has been largely ignored. Some recent literature has shown how sustainable management may improve resistance to extreme climate events. We comment specifically on a prevalent form of agriculture throughout Latin America, the coffee agroforestry system. Results from the coffee literature have shown that shade management in coffee systems may mitigate the effects of extreme temperature and precipitation, thereby reducing the ecological and economic vulnerability of many rural farmers. We conclude that more traditional forms of agriculture can offer greater potential for adapting to changing conditions than do current intensive systems.

Brenda B. Lin (University of Michigan; )

2008-10-01

359

Respiratory system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

1973-01-01

360

Root systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One purpose that roots serve is that of anchoring the plant in the ground. Roots also take up water and nutrients for the plant. Plants all have different root system types to fit their individual needs and locations.

N/A N/A (U.S. Government; )

2004-10-30

361

Respiratory System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose, components, and functions of the respiratory system are presented in this learning through disussion and visualizations. Participants learn about the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.

Jim Bidlack

362

Earth Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on Earth systems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

363

Immune System  

MedlinePLUS

... scientists can use this information to develop new strategies for the prevention and treatment of infectious and immune-mediated diseases. Read more about Research Frontiers . What's New Media Availability: NIH Researchers Develop Database on Healthy Immune System — ...

364

Embedded Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Embedded systems are dedicated computers designed to perform a specific task. They are usually fairly simple devices that are used in areas where powerful, customizable computers are unnecessary; however, they can also be quite complex on occasion. Embedded systems can be found almost anywhere, including automobiles and cellular phones, and their importance is reflected in their near omnipresence.An excellent introduction to embedded systems can be found in the first three pages of this online course material (1). The educational module gives a thorough definition of embedded systems, several examples of where they are used, and a discussion of their common components. For a more detailed explanation of how these devices are used to control various appliances, motors, and other real world products, this site (2) is worth a visit. Sixteen sections comprise the site, and each includes background information and an example experiment. Although certain equipment is required for the experiments, much can be learned simply from reading the introductions. This enlightening essay (3) documents the history and development of embedded systems. Despite being somewhat specific to the author's life, it effectively illustrates the evolution of embedded systems and their incorporation into many facets of everyday life. A paper presented at the 2003 International Cryptology Conference (4) considers the vulnerability of embedded cryptosystems to side channel attacks, which are different from normal security violations because they involve monitoring parts of the hardware system instead of the software. The authors propose the design of private circuits that are resistant to such attacks. The Center for Robotics and Embedded Systems at the University of Southern California is the source of this paper (5) about networked robots. Although it is somewhat dated, the paper provides some valuable insights into how robots can be used in human environments and how they can be controlled and coordinated with wireless communications. An article from Dedicated Systems Magazine (6) highlights the role of embedded systems in NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, which were launched in June and July 2003. The technologies that enabled the rovers to have powerful, reliable operation are described. The April 2003 issue of ACM Queue (7), the online magazine of the Association for Computing Machinery, is dedicated to embedded systems. Seven articles are included in the issue, dealing with the design and construction process of embedded devices and the hardware/software interface. Lastly, a short paper that was presented at a computer architecture symposium in January 2003 looks ahead to the realization of ubiquitous computing (8). This technology revolution, which has been predicted for many years, promises to make tiny computers embedded in virtually everything, even clothing and walls. The author focuses on the area of intelligent vehicles and wheeled mobile robots.

Leske, Cavin.

365

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system is amazing: it takes the foods we eat and breaks them into smaller components that our bodies can use for energy, cell repair and growth. This lesson introduces students to the main parts of the digestive system and how they interact. In addition, students learn about some of the challenges astronauts face when eating in outer space. Engineers figure out how to deal with such challenges.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

366

Systemic trauma.  

PubMed

Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering. PMID:24617751

Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

2014-01-01

367

Systemic fluoride.  

PubMed

There is substantial evidence that fluoride, through different applications and formulas, works to control caries development. The first observations of fluoride's effects on dental caries were linked to fluoride naturally present in the drinking water, and then from controlled water fluoridation programs. Other systemic methods to deliver fluoride were later suggested, including dietary fluoride supplements such as salt and milk. These systemic methods are now being questioned due to the fact that many studies have indicated that fluoride's action relies mainly on its post-eruptive effect from topical contact with the tooth structure. It is known that even the methods of delivering fluoride known as 'systemic' act mainly through a topical effect when they are in contact with the teeth. The effectiveness of water fluoridation in many geographic areas is lower than in previous eras due to the widespread use of other fluoride modalities. Nevertheless, this evidence should not be interpreted as an indication that systemic methods are no longer relevant ways to deliver fluoride on an individual basis or for collective health programs. Caution must be taken to avoid excess ingestion of fluoride when prescribing dietary fluoride supplements for children in order to minimize the risk of dental fluorosis, particularly if there are other relevant sources of fluoride intake - such as drinking water, salt or milk and/or dentifrice. Safe and effective doses of fluoride can be achieved when combining topical and systemic methods. PMID:21701196

Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Levy, Steven Marc

2011-01-01

368

System Demonstration  

E-print Network

The MLWFA (Multilingual Weather Forecasts Assistant) system will be demonstrated. It is developed to generate the multilingual text of the weather forecasts automatically. The raw data from the weather observation can be used to generate the weather element chart. According to the weather change trend, the forecasters can directly modify the value Of the element on the chart, such as the center .point value, the isoline and the isocircle. After 'that, the modified data are stored as the input for the system. The system can select a schema depending on the input or the requirement from the users. The schema library can be conveniently maintained, such as the schema modification 'or extension. Through optimizing and mapping the schema .tree, the microplanner constructs the brief and coherent internal text structure for the surface generator. After the processing Of the generator, the multilingual 'weather forecasts used for the broadcast program are generated.

Multilingual Weather Forecast; Tianfang Yao; Dongmo Zhang; Qian Wang

369

Robotic System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complicated design project, successfully carried out by New York manufacturing consultant with help from NERAC, Inc., resulted in new type robotic system being marketed for industrial use. Consultant Robert Price, operating at E.S.I, Inc. in Albany, NY, sought help from NERAC to develop an automated tool for deburring the inside of 8 inch breech ring assemblies for howitzers produced by Watervliet Arsenal. NERAC conducted a search of the NASA data base and six others. From information supplied, Price designed a system consisting of a standard industrial robot arm, with a specially engineered six-axis deburring tool fitted to it. A microcomputer and computer program direct the tool on its path through the breech ring. E.S.I. markets the system to aerospace and metal cutting industries for deburring, drilling, routing and refining machined parts.

1984-01-01

370

Manufacturing Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective 7:05 - Students will develop an awareness of the designed World through : Describing a manufacturing system; listing and describing the basic type of manufacturing; defining production and manufacturing enterprise;defining AGV, CAD, CIM, CAM, CNC, production tooling, automation, and material processes. Day 1: Introduction/Background Objective Preassessment: Use a KWL chart to assess your students prior knowledge. This will also help you deal with any misconceptions regarding manufacturing system. Students will use the curriculum companion PowerPoint and Objective 7.05 Outline to develop an awarness of: Define manufacturing List and describe the basic types of Manufacturing Student ...

S Wallace

2010-07-16

371

Neuromodulatory systems  

PubMed Central

We examine the interactions and interdependencies between Neuroglia, the Brain-Cell Microenvironment, and the processes commonly subsumed under Neuromodulation. The interactions of the component processes covering a wide spectrum of frequencies are designated as Neuromodulatory Systems (NMS). This implies NMS's scale-invariance as the capacity of linking actions across many time scales, and self-similarity at any scale. These features endow NMS with the ability to respond adaptively to neural impulse traffic of an unpredictably wide frequency spectrum. In this preliminary perspective, the components of NMS are only outlined based on concepts of Complex Systems Dynamics. However, their interactions must be formally elaborated in further investigations. PMID:23532509

Werner, Gerhard; Mitterauer, Bernhard J.

2013-01-01

372

Systemic mastocytosis.  

PubMed

An unusual disease, mastocytosis challenges the pathologist with a variety of morphologic appearances and heterogeneous clinical presentations ranging from skin manifestations (pruritus, urticaria, dermatographism) to systemic signs and symptoms indicative of mast cell mediator release, including flushing, hypotension, headache, and anaphylaxis among others. In this article, we focus on recognizing the cytology, histopathology, clinical features, and prognostic implications of systemic mastocytosis, a clonal and neoplastic mast cell proliferation infiltrating extracutaneous organ(s) with or without skin involvement. Diagnostic pitfalls are reviewed with ancillary studies to help unmask the mast cell and exclude morphologic mimics. PMID:22054735

George, Tracy I; Horny, Hans-Peter

2011-10-01

373

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of the space page of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), and provides information about the Sun, the planets and their moons, and other bodies in the solar system. It contains a travel guide to the Solar System including such topics as what to see, reason to visit, how to get there, and local history. A similar travel guide is then available for the Sun, each of the planets, asteroids, and comets. In addition, multiple links for more detailed information as well as space games and puzzles are provided.

2007-12-12

374

Microbiology System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

1992-01-01

375

System Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Technicians face the challenge of building and maintaining knowledge and skills that are applicable to microcomputer architecture. These challenges include keeping up to date on improvements in PC components, changes in PC hardware configurations, integration of new devices within PC systems, and the ability to readily apply their knowledge within the microcomputer manufacturing industry. This module provides an introduction and overview to the major system features that define the architecture of an Intel-based PC. A unique multimedia self-tutorial is included.

376

Investigating Army systems and Systems of Systems for value robustness  

E-print Network

This thesis proposes a value robustness approach to architect defense systems and Systems of Systems (SoS). A value robust system or SoS has the ability to provide continued value to stakeholders by performing well to meet ...

Koo, Kevin C. K. (Kevin Cheng Keong)

2010-01-01

377

Trees, soils, and food security  

PubMed Central

Trees have a different impact on soil properties than annual crops, because of their longer residence time, larger biomass accumulation, and longer-lasting, more extensive root systems. In natural forests nutrients are efficiently cycled with very small inputs and outputs from the system. In most agricultural systems the opposite happens. Agroforestry encompasses the continuum between these extremes, and emerging hard data is showing that successful agroforestry systems increase nutrient inputs, enhance internal flows, decrease nutrient losses and provide environmental benefits: when the competition for growth resources between the tree and the crop component is well managed. The three main determinants for overcoming rural poverty in Africa are (i) reversing soil fertility depletion, (ii) intensifying and diversifying land use with high-value products, and (iii) providing an enabling policy environment for the smallholder farming sector. Agroforestry practices can improve food production in a sustainable way through their contribution to soil fertility replenishment. The use of organic inputs as a source of biologically-fixed nitrogen, together with deep nitrate that is captured by trees, plays a major role in nitrogen replenishment. The combination of commercial phosphorus fertilizers with available organic resources may be the key to increasing and sustaining phosphorus capital. High-value trees, 'Cinderella' species, can fit in specific niches on farms, thereby making the system ecologically stable and more rewarding economically, in addition to diversifying and increasing rural incomes and improving food security. In the most heavily populated areas of East Africa, where farm size is extremely small, the number of trees on farms is increasing as farmers seek to reduce labour demands, compatible with the drift of some members of the family into the towns to earn off-farm income. Contrary to the concept that population pressure promotes deforestation, there is evidence that demonstrates that there are conditions under which increasing tree planting is occurring on farms in the tropics through successful agroforestry as human population density increases.

Sanchez, P. A.; Buresh, R. J.; Leakey, R. R. B.

1997-01-01

378

A protocol guided by transpulmonary thermodilution and lactate levels for resuscitation of patients with severe burns.  

PubMed

Over-resuscitation is deleterious in many critically ill conditions, including major burns. For more than 15 years, several strategies to reduce fluid administration in burns during the initial resuscitation phase have been proposed, but no single or simple parameter has shown superiority. Fluid administration guided by invasive hemodynamic parameters usually resulted in over-resuscitation. As reported in the previous issue of Critical Care, Sánchez-Sánchez and colleagues analyzed the performance of a 'permissive hypovolemia' protocol guided by invasive hemodynamic parameters (PiCCO, Pulsion Medical Systems, Munich, Germany) and vital signs in a prospective cohort over a 3-year period. The authors' results confirm that resuscitation can be achieved with below-normal levels of preload but at the price of a fluid administration greater than predicted by the Parkland formula (2 to 4 mL/kg per% burn). The classic approach based on an adapted Parkland equation may still be the simplest until further studies identify the optimal bundle of resuscitation goals. PMID:24229466

Berger, Mette M; Que, Yok Ai

2013-01-01

379

Immune System 1 Running Head: IMMUNE SYSTEM  

E-print Network

Immune System 1 Running Head: IMMUNE SYSTEM Immune System Structure and Function Mary W. Meagher: 979-845-4727 CITATION: Meagher, M. W. (2004). Immune system structure and function. In A. Christensen System 2 Immune System Structure and Function The immune system is engaged in a constant surveillance

Meagher, Mary

380

The Nervous System Nervous System Functions  

E-print Network

1 The Nervous System Nervous System Functions The primary functions of the nervous system are...the whole nervous system #12;5 Nervous System Organization Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System Somatic NS--receives/sends messages to muscles Autonomic NS

Brown, Christopher A.

381

D System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

D-System is conducting research into program analysis, code generation, and programming tools for data-parallel languages like High Performance Fortran. If this research is successful, computational scientists and engineers will be able to write machine-independent, data-parallel programs for a broad spectrum of scientific applications, and achieve high performance with these programs on a variety of parallel architectures.

382

Sonia system  

Microsoft Academic Search

For use in heating or cooling a building, there is provided a solar energy collecting system which includes a solar energy collecting device comprising a trough having internal surfaces for reflecting the rays of the sun onto solar energy collecting plates positioned in the trough, the internal reflecting walls of the trough and the positioning of the plates therein being

Radenkovic

1978-01-01

383

Auditory system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical correlations of hearing, i.e. the acoustic stimuli, are reported. The auditory system, consisting of external ear, middle ear, inner ear, organ of Corti, basilar membrane, hair cells, inner hair cells, outer hair cells, innervation of hair cells, and transducer mechanisms, is discussed. Both conductive and sensorineural hearing losses are also examined.

Ades, H. W.

1973-01-01

384

Circulatory system  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The circulatory system includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood. Arteries take blood with oxygen to our organs; veins bring deoxygenated blood to the heart (to be pumped to the lungs to get oxygen). Arteries and veins bring essential nutrients from digestion (such as glucose) to our tissues as well.

Katie Hale (CSUF; )

2007-01-22

385

Support Systems  

E-print Network

thesis: SUPORT SYSTEMS Commite: __________________________ Chairperson __________________________ __________________________ Date approved: March 24, 2009 iii Abstract Support... has a double-edged consequence. On one hand it offers anonymity. But the resulting privacy comes at a cost ? it requires emotional distance; that distance is what can make someone fel lonely in a crowded room. A study published in 2006 by American...

Wood, Jody

2009-04-28

386

Tychonic System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world system proposed in 1583 by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601). Unable to accept the Copernican doctrine that the Earth moves around the Sun, he put forward the view, later disproved by Kepler (1571-1630), that the planets move around the Sun, but the Sun and Moon move around the Earth. The theory explained the observed variations of the

P. Murdin

2000-01-01

387

Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a section of an online Biology Textbook - developed by Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College - providing a concise overview of the digestive system. It describes the enzymes, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids involved in digestion and outlines the role that each part of the body plays from the mouth the large intestine.

Gregory, Michael

388

Welding system  

SciTech Connect

An electric arc welding gas system utilizing a welding gas comprising a mixture of argon, helium, carbon dioxide and oxygen; electrode currents in the range of 100 to 1100 amperes so as to form electrode metal globules of at least the size of the electrode diameter at the rate of 400 to 1200 globules per second.

Church, J.G.

1984-07-31

389

Immune System  

EPA Science Inventory

A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

390

Irrigation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under contract with Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a Lubrication Handbook intended as a reference source for designers and manufacturers of aerospace hardware and crews responsible for maintenance of such equipment. Engineers of Lindsay Manufacturing Company learned of this handbook through NASA Tech Briefs and used it for supplemental information in redesigning gear boxes for their center pivot agricultural irrigation system.

1984-01-01

391

Embedded Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The April 2003 issue of ACM Queue, the online magazine of the Association for Computing Machinery, is dedicated to embedded systems. Seven articles are included in the issue, dealing with the design and construction process of embedded devices, programming, and the hardware/software interface.

392

Interactions between carbon sequestration and shade tree diversity in a smallholder coffee cooperative in El Salvador.  

PubMed

Agroforestry systems have substantial potential to conserve native biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. In particular, agroforestry systems have the potential to conserve native tree diversity and sequester carbon for climate change mitigation. However, little research has been conducted on the temporal stability of species diversity and aboveground carbon stocks in these systems or the relation between species diversity and aboveground carbon sequestration. We measured changes in shade-tree diversity and shade-tree carbon stocks in 14 plots of a 35-ha coffee cooperative over 9 years and analyzed relations between species diversity and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration was positively correlated with initial species richness of shade trees. Species diversity of shade trees did not change significantly over the study period, but carbon stocks increased due to tree growth. Our results show a potential for carbon sequestration and long-term biodiversity conservation in smallholder coffee agroforestry systems and illustrate the opportunity for synergies between biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation. PMID:24283921

Richards, Meryl Breton; Méndez, V Ernesto

2014-04-01

393

Acclimation to sun and shade of three accessions of the Chilean native berry-crop murta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) is an evergreen shrub of the native forest understorey of southern Chile that produces berries which are consumed\\u000a in the local markets. Because of the natural adaptation of murta to growing under the shade of trees, we propose that an adequate\\u000a way of domesticating this species would be its cultivation in agroforestry systems. In order to

Nicolás Franck; Sylvia Winkler; Claudio Pastenes; Rodrigo Infante

2007-01-01

394

Assessment of the domestication state of ackee ( Blighia sapida K.D. Koenig) in Benin based on AFLP and microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ackee (Blighia sapida) is a native multipurpose species important for the livelihoods of the rural populations in Benin. Trees are found in natural\\u000a forests or are managed by farmers in different traditional agroforestry systems. Genetic variation at amplified fragment length\\u000a polymorphism (AFLP) markers, four nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs) and one chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) were investigated\\u000a in 279 individuals from six wild

Marius R. M. Ekué; Oliver Gailing; Barbara Vornam; Reiner Finkeldey

2011-01-01

395

Quantity and quality of organic inputs from coppicing leguminous trees influence abundance of soil macrofauna in maize crops in eastern Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil invertebrates are the major determinants of soil processes such as organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling.\\u000a However, the effect of quantity and quality of organic inputs on soil biota has not been studied in agroforestry systems in\\u000a southern Africa. Variations in soil macrofauna abundance under maize grown in fallows of Gliricidia sepium, Acacia anguistissima, Leucaena collinsii, Leucaena diversifolia, Leucaena

G. Sileshi; P. L. Mafongoya

2007-01-01

396

Germination requirements of Allanblackia parviflora seeds and early growth of seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allanblackia parviflora A. Chev, is an indigenous fruit tree species that could be used in agroforestry systems with both environmental and economic\\u000a benefits. The seed oil is of prime importance as a foreign exchange earner and is being developed as a rural based enterprise\\u000a in many African countries notably Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon and Tanzania. Methods for propagation and conservation of

D. A. Ofori; T. Peprah; J. R. Cobbinah; H. A. Atchwerebour; F. Osabutey; Z. Tchoundjeu; A. J. Simons; R. Jamnadass

2011-01-01

397

Transitioning from wild collection to forest cultivation of indigenous medicinal forest plants in eastern North America is constrained by lack of profitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forest flora of eastern North America includes many herbaceous plant species traded in domestic and international medicinal\\u000a markets. Conservation concerns surrounding wild-collection exist and transitioning to cultivation in agroforestry systems\\u000a has potential economic and ecological benefits. Costs and revenues associated with adopting forest cultivation were modeled\\u000a for eight North American medicinal forest plants. Sensitivity analysis examined profit potential in

Eric P. Burkhart; Michael G. Jacobson

2009-01-01

398

The Functioning, Management and Persistence of Dehesas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dehesas are the most widespread agroforestry systems in Europe, where they cover 3.1 million hectares. They are multipurpose\\u000a open woodlands, mostly created by clearing the natural forests, where livestock rearing, cereal cropping, cork and firewood\\u000a harvesting, and hunting are combined. In dehesas, trees can be seen as “ecosystem engineers”, as they allow the maintenance\\u000a of grass production in poor soils

G. Moreno; F. J. Pulido

399

Multipositronic Systems  

SciTech Connect

The stability and structure of systems comprising a negative ion and positrons are investigated by the stochastic variational method. It is shown that the H{sup -} and the Li{sup -} ions can bind not only one but two positrons. The binding energies of these double positronic atoms, E(H{sup -} , e{sup +}, e{sup +})=0.57 eV , and E(Li{sup -} , e{sup +}, e{sup +})=0.15 eV are somewhat smaller than those of their single positronic counterparts [E(HPs)=1.06 eV and E(LiPs)=0.32 eV ]. We have also found that two Ps{sup -} 's can form a bound system with a proton. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

Varga, Kalman

1999-12-27

400

Surveying System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sunrise Geodetic Surveys are setting up their equipment for a town survey. Their equipment differs from conventional surveying systems that employ transit rod and chain to measure angles and distances. They are using ISTAC Inc.'s Model 2002 positioning system, which offers fast accurate surveying with exceptional signals from orbiting satellites. The special utility of the ISTAC Model 2002 is that it can provide positioning of the highest accuracy from Navstar PPS signals because it requires no knowledge of secret codes. It operates by comparing the frequency and time phase of a Navstar signal arriving at one ISTAC receiver with the reception of the same set of signals by another receiver. Data is computer processed and translated into three dimensional position data - latitude, longitude and elevation.

1988-01-01

401

Burner systems  

DOEpatents

A burner system particularly useful for downhole deployment includes a tubular combustion chamber unit housed within a tubular coolant jacket assembly. The combustion chamber unit includes a monolithic tube of refractory material whose inner surface defines the combustion zone. A metal reinforcing sleeve surrounds and extends the length of the refractory tube. The inner surface of the coolant jacket assembly and outer surface of the combustion chamber unit are dimensioned so that those surfaces are close to one another in standby condition so that the combustion chamber unit has limited freedom to expand with that expansion being stabilized by the coolant jacket assembly so that compression forces in the refractory tube do not exceed about one-half the safe compressive stress of the material; and the materials of the combustion chamber unit are selected to establish thermal gradient parameters across the combustion chamber unit to maintain the refractory tube in compression during combustion system start up and cool down sequences.

Doherty, Brian J. (Marblehead, MA)

1984-07-10

402

Injection System  

SciTech Connect

Felton Medical identified a market need for a handheld portable single shot needleless injection system. This market need was being driven by a global need to eliminate the hazards of medical needle disposal by providing an alternative injection method. Felton Medical brought to this partnership individuals experienced in the research, development, design, assembly, marketing, and servicing of precision animal health medical devices. AlliedSignal provided manufacturing understanding and a facility proficient in product development for small precision mechanical parts and assemblies.

Thomas, J.E.

1998-06-15

403

Tychonic System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world system proposed in 1583 by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601). Unable to accept the Copernican doctrine that the Earth moves around the Sun, he put forward the view, later disproved by Kepler (1571-1630), that the planets move around the Sun, but the Sun and Moon move around the Earth. The theory explained the observed variations of the phases of Venus, for which the Ptolemai...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

404

Gasification system  

DOEpatents

A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

1985-01-01

405

Gasification system  

DOEpatents

A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

1983-01-01

406

Neuroendocrine System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological systems of the human body are placed under a great deal of stress during the process of exercise training.\\u000a Within elite athletes this stress can be of enormous levels because of the volume and intensity of work they perform in their\\u000a training regimes . When training stress is of an appropriate level then there is a positive adaptation

A. C. Hackney

407

Copernican System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heliocentric (i.e. `Sun-centered') theory proposed by the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), and published by him in 1543 in his book, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium. In this system Copernicus placed the Sun at the center of the universe and regarded the Earth and the planets as moving around it in circular orbits. Because of his retention of the notion of circular motion...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

408

Braking system  

DOEpatents

A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

Norgren, D.U.

1982-09-23

409

Multiprocessor system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an input/output system for a multiprocessor system of the kind in which a plurality of separate processor modules are interconnected for processing, each of the processor modules having a central processing unit and an associated main memory, at least pair of the processor modules each having an input/output channel with each such channel being independent of other such channels, the input/output system comprising: device controller for controlling the transfer of data between the pair of processor modules and a peripheral device, the device controller having multiple ports, with each such port being failure-independent of the other such ports and connected to a respective one of the input/output channels, each port including an enable latch operable in response to a disable command communicated to the port by the associated processor module to disable the port from any further data communication; the device controller including interface logic means responsive to signaling from a one of the processor modules for selecting one of the ports to the exclusion of the other of the ports for data transfers between the peripheral device and the one processor module connected to the selected port through its associated input/output channel; and interprocessor bus means communicating the pair of processor modules to one another for data transfer therebetween; each of processors modules being operable to provide a data communication path to the peripheral device for itself and for the other of the pair of processor modules.

Katzman, J.A.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bixler, R.M.; Davidow, W.H.; Despotakis, J.A.; Graziano, P.J.; Green, M.D.; Greig, D.A.; Hayashi, S.J.; Mackie, D.R.

1987-06-09

410

Systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

Systemic Sclerosis is a multisystemic disease characterized by sclerosis of the skin and visceral organs, vasculopathy (Raynaud's phenomenon) and autoantibodies. The criteria for the classification of the disease requires either proximal scleroderma (major criteria) or the presence of 2 of the 3 minor features namely sclerodactyly, digital pitting scars and bibasilar pulmonary fibrosis. There are 3 subsets of this condition--diffuse variant, limited variant (CREST syndrome) and Overlap Syndrome (where patients have features of other rheumatic diseases). There are localized forms of scleroderma and pseudoscleroderma states. The presenting features of Systemic Sclerosis are usually Raynaud's, skin changes and arthralgia. Systemic complaints like breathlessness, dyspepsia, etc depending on the organ involved may be present. Management starts with patient education regarding the disease, skin care, exercises and regular medical check-up. There is no miracle cure but much can be done to improve the quality of life of the patient. Nifedepine and other drugs may improve Raynaud's phenomenon. Drugs can be used to treat other complications. Various medication have been tested as disease modifying drugs for scleroderma. These include drugs which inhibit collagen like D-penicillamine, colchicine, and immunosupressive drugs like cyclosporin. Ketotifen, a mast cell stabilizer has been reported to be effective in scleroderma. As it is a relatively safe drug, clinical trials are underway. PMID:1621127

Ng, S C

1992-04-01

411

Lightning protection decision system (an expert system)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expert systems are fast becoming the leading branch of artificial intelligence technology. An expert system tool, ‘The Deciding Factor’, was investigated for use in building a Lightning protection decision system, an expert system for structures. The system described in this paper is a diagnostic expert system, developed for IBM PCs. There are a number of factors affecting the risk of

P. Sivakumar; H. B. Aravind; T. L. Muralidharan; G. V. Suryakumar

1989-01-01

412

ESMDIS: Earth System Model Data Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the development of the Earth System Model Data Information System (ESMDIS) are to provide Earth scientists with: 1) an output management system of Earth System Model (ESM) to browse the metadata and retrieve a desired subset of ESM output; 2) an analysis system of ESM output and other related datasets; 3) an automated pipelining system for ESM

Yuechen Chi; Carlos R. Mechoso; Michael Stonebraker; Keith Sklower; Richard Troy; Richard R. Muntz; Edmond Mesrobian

1997-01-01

413

Well system  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a well system, particularly adapted to pumpdown operation in which lowering an easily retrievable tool string, including an improved standing valve, into an improved foot valve opens the foot valve for production flow. The standing valve prevents flow into the producing formation when the foot valve is open. Lifting the tool string from the foot valve closes the foot valve to protect the producing formation when the tool string is retrieved. Means are provided retaining the foot valve in open or closed positions. Provisions are made for pumping into the formation around both the standing valve and foot valve when closed.

Thurman, R. L.; Williamson Jr., J. R.

1985-03-05

414

Relaxation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

1987-01-01

415

Bearing system  

DOEpatents

A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

Kapich, Davorin D. (Carlsbad, CA)

1987-01-01

416

Balance System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

1988-01-01

417

Sterilization System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

1990-01-01

418

Purification system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for prolonging the life of a granulated activated charcoal (GAC) water treatment device is disclosed in which an ultraviolet light transparent material is used to constrain water to flow over carbon surfaces. It is configured to receive maximum flux from a UV radiation source for the purpose of preventing microbial proliferation on the carbon surfaces; oxidizing organic contaminants adsorbed from the water onto the carbon surfaces and from biodegradation of adsorbed microbial forms; disinfecting water; and oxidizing organic contaminants in the water.

Flanagan, David T. (inventor); Gibbons, Randall E. (inventor)

1992-01-01

419

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA is charting a bold new course into the cosmos, a journey that will take humans back to the Moon, and eventually to Mars and beyond. Exploration of the solar system and beyond will be guided by compelling questions of scientific and societal importance. NASA exploration programs will seek profound answers to questions about the origins of our solar system, whether life exists beyond Earth, and how we could live on other worlds. The NASA Vision for space exploration calls for a combination of human and robotic missions to achieve new exploration goals. Robotic missions to the Moon will be followed by an extended human expedition as early as 2015. Lunar exploration will lay the groundwork for future exploration of Mars and other destinations. A new spacecraft to support these journeys--the Crew Exploration Vehicle--will be tested before the end of this decade. Space exploration holds a special place in the human imagination. Youth are especially drawn to Mars rovers, astronauts, and telescopes. If used effectively and creatively, space can inspire children to seek careers in math, science, and engineering. Exploration and discovery are key agents of growth in society--technologically, economically, socially, internationally, and intellectually. This module is a first step in engaging today's youth in space exploration and serves as an invitation to participate in the excitement of discovery.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

420

Solar System!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to our solar system—the planets, our Sun and Moon. To begin, students learn about the history and engineering of space travel. They make simple rockets to acquire a basic understanding Newton's third law of motion. They explore energy transfer concepts and use renewable solar energy for cooking. They see how engineers design tools, equipment and spacecraft to go where it is too far and too dangerous for humans. They explore the Earth's water cycle, and gravity as applied to orbiting bodies. They learn the steps of the design process as they create their own models of planetary rovers made of edible parts. Students conduct experiments to examine soil for signs of life, and explore orbit transfers. While studying about the International Space Station, they investigate the realities of living in space. Activities explore low gravity on human muscles, eating in microgravity, and satellite tracking. Finally, students learn about the context of our solar system—the universe—as they learn about the Hubble Space Telescope, celestial navigation and spectroscopy.

2014-09-18

421

Space Station propulsion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on space station propulsion systems are presented. Topics covered include: space station propulsion system requirements; space station propulsion system design; space station propulsion system drivers; hydrazine technology development; waste fluid disposal system; space station propulsion system evolution; propellant selection trade study; technology needs to water electrolysis/oxygen-hydrogen propulsion system; and technology needs for bipropellant systems.

Henderson, J.

1990-01-01

422

Computer Systems Administrator  

E-print Network

Computer Systems Administrator Fort Collins, CO POSITION A Computer Systems Administrator (Non activities. RESPONSIBILITIES The System Administrator will provide Unix/Linux, Windows computer system or computer science, and three years computer systems administration experience. DURATION The work is planned

423

Prosthetic Knee Systems  

MedlinePLUS

... of fluid control systems — pneumatic (using air) and hydraulic (using fluid). Pneumatic control. These systems: compress air ... control than friction systems are less effective than hydraulic systems. Hydraulic control. These systems: use liquid (usually ...

424

Power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant events in current, prototype, and experimental utility power generating systems in 1981 are reviewed. The acceleration of licensing and the renewal of plans for reprocessing of fuel for nuclear power plants are discussed, including the rise of French reactor-produced electricity to over 40% of the country's electrical output. A 4.5 MW fuel cell neared completion in New York City, while three 2.5 MW NASA-designed windpowered generators began producing power in the state of Washington. Static bar compensators, nonflammable-liquid cooled power transformers, and ZnO surge arrestors were used by utilities for the first time, and the integration of a coal gasifier-combined cycle power plant approached the planning phase. An MHD generator was run for 1000 hours and produced 50-60 kWe, while a 20 MVA superconducting generator was readied for testing.

Kaplan, G.

1982-01-01

425

Skeletal System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this unit, written for an honors anatomy and physiology class, students become familiar with the human skeletal system and answer the Challenge Question: When you get home from school, your mother grabs you, and you race to the hospital. Your grandmother fell and was rushed to the emergency room. The doctor tells your family your grandmother has a fractured hip, and she is referring her to an orthopedic specialist. The orthopedic doctor decides to perform a DEXA scan. The result show her BMD is -3.3. What would be a probable diagnosis to her condition? What are some possible causes of her condition? Should her daughter and granddaughter be worried about this condition, and if so, what are measures they could take to prevent this from happening to them?

2014-09-18

426

Transfer system  

DOEpatents

A transport system includes a traveling rail (1) which constitutes a transport route and a transport body (3) which is capable of traveling on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. Flexible drive tubes (5) are arranged on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. The transport body includes a traveling wheel (4) which is capable of rolling on the traveling rail and drive wheels (2) which are capable of rolling on the drive tubes upon receiving the rotational drive power generated by pressure of a pressure medium supplied to the drive tubes while depressing the drive tubes. The traveling rail includes a plurality of transport sections and the transport body is capable of receiving a rotational drive force from the drive tubes at every transport sections. If necessary, a transport route changeover switch which changes over the transport route can be provided between the transport sections.

Kurosawa, Kanji (Tokyo, JP); Koga, Bunichiro (Miyagi, JP); Ito, Hideki (Miyagi, JP); Kiriyama, Shigeru (Miyagi, JP); Higuchi, Shizuo (Kanagawa, JP)

2003-05-20

427

Turbocompound system  

SciTech Connect

A turbocompound system is described for improving the performance of an internal combustion engine without substantially increasing an end viewed profile of the engine to which it is mounted in use. The system consists of: (a) an exhaust driven turbocharger means having an exhaust manifold means extending in an axial direction for collecting exhaust gases from engine cylinders and delivering the gases to an outlet end thereof, exhaust turbine means for extracting energy from the exhaust gases, the exhaust turbine means being provided with an inlet connected to the outlet end of the manifold and an outlet for discharging the exhaust gases, compressor means coupled to the exhaust turbine means for providing a supply of charge air under pressure to an air outlet thereof for delivery to air intake means of an internal combustion engine in use; (b) a power turbine means for extracting additional energy from the exhaust gases, the power turbine means having an intake connected to the outlet of the exhaust turbine means, and mounting means on a side of the power turbine means facing in a direction parallel to the axial direction of the exhaust manifold means that is constructed for being mounted, in use, on an end of an engine adjacent one end of a crankshaft of the engine; and (c) coupling means connected to the power turbine means for transferring mechanical energy produced by the power turbine means, the coupling means extending from the power turbine means to a power take-off end in a direction parallel to the axial length of the exhaust manifold means by an amount that is sufficient for enabling the power take-off end to be connected, in use, to an opposite end of the engine crankshaft from the one end thereof in a manner for transferring the mechanical energy produced by the power turbine means adjacent the one end of the crankshaft to the opposite end of the crankshaft without having to pass therethrough.

Fox, L.D.

1986-05-06

428

Wireless Communications Systems, I Cellular Telephone System  

E-print Network

Standards 2nd Generation Digital Systems, 2G 1990: Global System for Mobile Comms (GSM) (66% of world at 1.9 GHz for cellular systems IS-95b, IS-95 was modified to provide data services GSM with dataWireless Communications Systems, I · Cellular Telephone System ­ US AMPS: Tx: 869-894 MHz, Rx: 824

Cetiner, Bedri A.

429

Artificial Immune Systems 209 Artificial Immune Systems  

E-print Network

Artificial Immune Systems 209 Chapter XI Artificial Immune Systems: Using the Immune System, Idea Group Publishing. The immune system is highly distributed, highly adaptive, self encounters. From a computational view- point, the immune system has much to offer by way of inspiration

Timmis, Jon

430

Elec 331 -Nervous System Nervous System  

E-print Network

Elec 331 - Nervous System 1 Nervous System · Central Nervous System ­ Brain ­ Spinal Chord · Peripheral Nervous System ­ "Conductive" network between CNS & organs ­ Neurones · Individual cells · May act Flow of Information neurone #12;Elec 331 - Nervous System 2 Cell States · Resting Potential (Vc = -70m

Pulfrey, David L.

431

Intelligent Engine Systems: Bearing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall requirements necessary for sensing bearing distress and the related criteria to select a particular rotating sensor were established during the phase I. The current phase II efforts performed studies to evaluate the Robustness and Durability Enhancement of the rotating sensors, and to design, and develop the Built-in Telemetry System concepts for an aircraft engine differential sump. A generic test vehicle that can test the proposed bearing diagnostic system was designed, developed, and built. The Timken Company, who also assisted with testing the GE concept of using rotating sensors for the differential bearing diagnostics during previous phase, was selected as a subcontractor to assist General Electric (GE) for the design, and procurement of the test vehicle. A purchase order was prepared to define the different sub-tasks, and deliverables for this task. The University of Akron was selected to provide the necessary support for installing, and integrating the test vehicle with their newly designed test facility capable of simulating the operating environment for the planned testing. The planned testing with good and damaged bearings will be on hold pending further continuation of this effort during next phase.

Singh, Arnant P.

2008-01-01

432

System architecture of offshore oil production systems  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an approach to applying Systems Architecture methods to the development of large, complex, commercial systems, particularly offshore oil and gas productions systems. The aim of this research was to ...

Keller, James (James Thomas)

2008-01-01

433

Instructional Support Units: The Final Frontier... The Voyages of a Two-Year Community College in Institutional Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a summary of the Parkland College (Illinois) Institutional Effectiveness model, designed to provide a measure of how well Parkland's instructional support units are achieving their stated goals and document how they contribute to the College's mission. The assessment format includes the following steps: (1) evaluating the…

Leake, David; Kristovich, Sharon A. R.

434

Separation system  

DOEpatents

A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. Separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. Inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. Centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized.

Rubin, Leslie S. (Newton, MA)

1986-01-01

435

Integrated Nanofluidic Systems for Systems Biotechnology  

E-print Network

Integrated Nanofluidic Systems for Systems Biotechnology Wednesday October 28 2009 Burchard 118, 11 in prestigious journals including Science and Nature Biotechnology. Hong's research interests include Bio

Fisher, Frank

436

perovskite system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments using laser-heated diamond anvil cells combined with synchrotron X-ray diffraction and SEM-EDS chemical analyses have confirmed the existence of a complete solid solution in the MgSiO3-MnSiO3 perovskite system at high pressure and high temperature. The (Mg, Mn)SiO3 perovskite produced is orthorhombic, and a linear relationship between the unit cell parameters of this perovskite and the proportion of MnSiO3 components incorporated seems to obey Vegard's rule at about 50 GPa. The orthorhombic distortion, judged from the axial ratios of a/ b and monotonically decreases from MgSiO3 to MnSiO3 perovskite at about 50 GPa. The orthorhombic distortion in (Mg0.5, Mn0.5)SiO3 perovskite is almost unchanged with increasing pressure from 30 to 50 GPa. On the other hand, that distortion in (Mg0.9, Mn0.1)SiO3 perovskite increases with pressure. (Mg, Mn)SiO3 perovskite incorporating less than 10 mol% of MnSiO3 component is quenchable. A value of the bulk modulus of 256(2) GPa with a fixed first pressure derivative of four is obtained for (Mg0.9, Mn0.1)SiO3. MnSiO3 is the first chemical component confirmed to form a complete solid solution with MgSiO3 perovskite at the P- T conditions present in the lower mantle.

Li, Lin; Nagai, Takaya; Ishido, Tomoki; Motai, Satoko; Fujino, Kiyoshi; Itoh, Shoichi

2014-06-01

437

Weakened Immune Systems  

MedlinePLUS

... Immunizations > Weakened Immune Systems Safety & Prevention Listen Weakened Immune Systems Article Body Some children have weakened immune systems because of chronic diseases or medications they’re ...

438

Complex System Classification  

E-print Network

The use of terms such as “Engineering Systems”, “System of systems” and others have been coming into greater use over the past decade to denote systems of importance but with implied higher complexity than for the term ...

Magee, Christopher

2004-07-24

439

Mechanical systems: A compilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation of several mechanized systems is presented. The articles are contained in three sections: robotics, industrial mechanical systems, including several on linear and rotary systems and lastly mechanical control systems, such as brakes and clutches.

1975-01-01

440

Multiple System Atrophy  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Multiple System Atrophy Information Page Condensed from Multiple System Atrophy Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multiple System Atrophy? Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive ...

441

The V distributed system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The V distributed System was developed at Stanford University as part of a research project to explore issues in distributed systems. Aspects of the design suggest important directions for the design of future operating systems and communication systems.

David R. Cheriton

1988-01-01

442

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the parts of our solar system? Let's learn about the parts of our Solar System! First, use the Solar System Chart Now read the Introduction to the Solar System and begin filling out the Solar System Chart by listing one fact for each planet. Now watch the Video 1 on the Solar System and fill out one characteristic about each planet in our Solar System. Now read the Facts about the Solar System and find ...

kathrynbyers

2012-04-05

443

Control and dynamic systems  

SciTech Connect

This book covers analysis and control system techniques for electric power systems. Topics include: concurrent processing in power system analysis, power system protection, voltage collapse, reliability techniques in large electric power systems, optimization in hydroelectric systems, and linear programming methods for optimal energy plant operation.

Leondes, C.T. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

1991-01-01

444

Universal Dynamical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the problem of finding a universal dynamical system for all dynamical systems on separable metric spaces. Special care is given to exhibit a universal dynamical system which was used to motivate the definition of a dynamical system. We establish that this class of dynamical systems is topologically as narrow as a system describable by a

David H. Carlson

1972-01-01

445

Systems Science Harder House  

E-print Network

Systems Science Harder House 1604 SW 10th Avenue 503-725-4960 www.sysc.pdx.edu/ M.S. Ph.D. Systems, cybernetics, operations research, systems dynamics, systems engineering, and systems analysis. The core.D. in systems science. Core option: The student pursues interdisciplinary studies with a strong emphasis

446

Land use change effects on trace gas fluxes in the forest margins of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use changes and land use intensification are considered important processes contributing to the increasing concentrations of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) and of nitric oxide (NO), a precursor of ozone. Studies on the effects of land use changes and land use intensification on soil trace gas emissions were mostly conducted in Latin America and only very few in Asia. Here we present results from Central Sulawesi where profound changes in land use and cultivation practices take place: traditional agricultural practices like shifting cultivation and slash-and-burn agriculture are replaced by permanent cultivation systems and introduction of income-generating cash crops like cacao. Our results showed that N2O emissions were higher from cacao agroforestry (35 ± 10 ?g N m-2 h-1) than maize (9 ± 2 ?g N m-2 h-1), whereas intermediate rates were observed from secondary forests (25 ± 11 ?g N m-2 h-1). NO emissions did not differ among land use systems, ranging from 12 ± 2 ?g N m-2 h-1 for cacao agroforestry and secondary forest to 18 ± 2 ?g N m-2 h-1 for maize. CH4 uptake was higher for maize (-30 ± 4 ?g C m-2 h-1) than cacao agroforestry (-18 ± 2 ?g C m-2 h-1) and intermediate rates were measured from secondary forests (-25 ± 4 ?g C m-2 h-1). Combining these data with results from other studies in this area, we present chronosequence effects of land use change on trace gas emissions from natural forest, through maize cultivation, to cacao agroforestry (with or without fertilizer). Compared to the original forests, this typical land use change in the study area clearly led to higher N2O emissions and lower CH4 uptake with age of cacao agroforestry systems. We conclude that this common land use sequence in the area combined with the increasing use of fertilizer will strongly increase soil trace gas emissions. We suggest that the future hot spot regions of high N2O (and to a lesser extend NO) emissions in the tropics are those areas where climatic and edaphic conditions allow for intensive agriculture. This scenario is probably preferable over the alternative of agriculture extensification, which would imply a dramatic increase in deforestation rates with accompanying CO2 emissions.

Veldkamp, Edzo; Purbopuspito, Joko; Corre, Marife D.; Brumme, Rainer; Murdiyarso, Daniel

2008-06-01

447

On Systemic Destruction of Human Locomotor System  

E-print Network

Locomotor system disorders affect a vast majority of people at some time in their life bringing pain, functional limitations, social and economic implications. Modern medicine cannot offer prevention and effective treatment for most chronic musculoskeletal conditions, because their etiology and pathogenesis are unknown. This is due to the lack of systemic understanding of the locomotor system functioning in both healthy and unhealthy states. Here we apply systems sciences to analyze the human locomotor system and develop a general theory that reveals the systemic destructive process in the locomotor system, linking together all its disorders. The systemic destruction involves adaptation and self-organization processes in the locomotor system, whose side effects introduce a positive feedback loop with nervous and vascular disturbances. Most chronic musculoskeletal conditions are just manifestations and consequences of this process. On the basis of our theoretical findings, we developed the world's first techno...

Medjanik, Zoja; Popov, Sergiy

2013-01-01

448

System Software Framework for System of Systems Avionics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Project Constellation implements NASA's vision for space exploration to expand human presence in our solar system. The engineering focus of this project is developing a system of systems architecture. This architecture allows for the incremental development of the overall program. Systems can be built and connected in a "Lego style" manner to generate configurations supporting various mission objectives. The development of the avionics or control systems of such a massive project will result in concurrent engineering. Also, each system will have software and the need to communicate with other (possibly heterogeneous) systems. Fortunately, this design problem has already been solved during the creation and evolution of systems such as the Internet and the Department of Defense's successful effort to standardize distributed simulation (now IEEE 1516). The solution relies on the use of a standard layered software framework and a communication protocol. A standard framework and communication protocol is suggested for the development and maintenance of Project Constellation systems. The ARINC 653 standard is a great start for such a common software framework. This paper proposes a common system software framework that uses the Real Time Publish/Subscribe protocol for framework-to-framework communication to extend ARINC 653. It is highly recommended that such a framework be established before development. This is important for the success of concurrent engineering. The framework provides an infrastructure for general system services and is designed for flexibility to support a spiral development effort.

Ferguson, Roscoe C.; Peterson, Benjamin L; Thompson, Hiram C.

2005-01-01

449

76 FR 9534 - Development of Technical Guidelines and Scientific Methods for Quantifying GHG Emissions and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...technologies, liming, water management, cover crops, agroforestry, wetland restoration, residue removal and alternatives...restoration, fertilization, and species selection. 2.3.3 Agroforestry practices and technologies to increase carbon...

2011-02-18

450

March 23, 2008 Databases: Information Systems 1 Information Systems  

E-print Network

+ Evolution of Information Systems + Information System Management + Performance Requirements of ISs + #12: Transaction processing systems. 1960s: Management information systems. Office automation systems. 1970s Systems Management ... The most important roles of an information system in an organization are to

Adam, Salah

451

Freedom System Text and Graphics System (TAGS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Text and Graphics System (TAGS) is a high-resolution facsimile system that scans text or graphics material and converts the analog SCAN data into serial digital data. This video shows the TAGS in operation.

1989-01-01

452

Influence strategies for systems of systems  

E-print Network

Distributed decision making has been identified as a source of managerial complexity for leaders of systems of systems (SoS). A new framework, AIR (Anticipation-Influence-Reaction), is proposed to capture the feedback ...

Shah, Nirav Bharat, 1979-

2013-01-01

453

Biometric System Security Systems and Computer Engineering  

E-print Network

on system vulnerabilities which are a consequence of this core biometric chal- lenge. Since biometric in detail. Maltoni et al. [27], classify biometric system vulnerabilities as follows: #12;· Circumvention). Such vulnerabilities bypass the computer security system, since the biometric features are legitimate. It may

Adler, Andy

454

Liberating Systems Theory: Toward Critical Systems Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article contains an exploration of a number of the many interpretations of its title Liberating Systems Theory. It is in fact a point of reflection on the way to realizing Critical Systems Thinking. Particular points of focus are critical theory integrated to practice in systems \\

R. L. Flood

1990-01-01

455

Intelligent tutoring systems for systems engineering methodologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general goal is to provide the technology required to build systems that can provide intelligent tutoring in IDEF (Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing Definition Method) modeling. The following subject areas are covered: intelligent tutoring systems for systems analysis methodologies; IDEF tutor architecture and components; developing cognitive skills for IDEF modeling; experimental software; and PC based prototype.

Meyer, Richard J.; Toland, Joel; Decker, Louis

1991-01-01

456

LRRB Pavement Management Systems Pavement Management Systems  

E-print Network

LRRB Pavement Management Systems Pavement Management Systems Presented by: Michael Marti SRF devoted to local road research § Research is: · Managed by the LRRB · Conducted by DOT, U of M, Mn for implementing and monitoring research results (RIC) #12;LRRB Pavement Management Systems LRRB Structure LRRB

Minnesota, University of

457

General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)

Salisbury, David F.

1990-01-01

458

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA SYSTEMS: SYSTEMS OVERVIEW MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a systems overview manual and technical reference guide for the Environmental Assessment Data Systems (EADS), a group of related computerized data bases which describe multimedia discharges from energy systems and industrial processes. The EADS have been designed to...

459

System Design of the SWRL Financial System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To produce various management and accounting reports in order to maintain control of SWRL (Southwest Regional Laboratory) operational and financial activities, a computer-based SWRL financial system was developed. The system design is outlined, and various types of system inputs described. The kinds of management and accounting reports generated…

Ikeda, Masumi

460

Communication Systems Chair of Communication Systems  

E-print Network

of GSM overview ­ GSM interfaces ­ GSM network components Mobile switching center,visitor location;3 | 36 Communication Systems GSM interfaces and components #12;4 | 36 Communication Systems GSM (HLR) #12;5 | 36 Communication Systems GSM interfaces and components The several MSC

Schindelhauer, Christian

461

Heliostat Beam Characterization System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Beam Characterization System utilizes video radiometer techniques to quantitatively describe the solar energy projected by a heliostat. This system is designed to evaluate prototype heliostats and to improve the performance of the Central Receiver Test Facility heliostats. The system consists of a beam target, video camera, analog image analyzer, calibration system, video digitizer and a minicomputer system. The calibration

E. D. Thalhammer; G. S. Phipps

1979-01-01

462

Collaborative Systems Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative systems are widely used today in various activity fields. Their complexity is high and the development involves numerous resources and costs. Testing collaborative systems has a very important role for the systems' success. In this paper we present taxonomy of collaborative systems. The collaborative systems are classified in many…

Pocatilu, Paul; Ciurea, Cristian

2009-01-01

463

integration division Human Systems  

E-print Network

integration division Human Systems Exploration of Human Systems Integration Issues in Next to understand potential human performance and human- system interactions issues related to NextGen concepts together as a single system. We accomplish this by exploring human-system interaction issues in a high

464

Energy Systems Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PRESTO, a COSMIC program, handles energy system specifications and predicts design efficiency of cogeneration systems. These systems allow a company to use excess energy produced to generate electricity. PRESTO is utilized by the Energy Systems Division of Thermo Electron Corporation in the custom design of cogeneration systems.

1986-01-01

465

Carburetion system for engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved carburetion system is described for spark-ignited, gaseous fueled engines having an intake system and an exhaust system, the carburetion system comprising: a fuel and air mixer having an outlet for connection to the intake system; pressure regulated fuel supply means connected to the mixer; air supply means connected to the mixer; first valve means in the air supply

1987-01-01

466

Immune System 101  

MedlinePLUS

... Body : Immune System 101 Translate Text Size Print Immune System 101 How does your immune system work? Your immune system works because your body ... tactics to destroy it. Major Players of the Immune System Lymph nodes (also called "lymph glands"): These small, ...

467

Heliospheric coordinate systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview and reference to the most common coordinate systems currently used in space science. While coordinate systems used in near-Earth space physics have been described in previous work we extend that description to systems used for physical observations of the Sun and the planets and to systems based on spacecraft location. For all systems, we define

M. Fränz; D. Harper

2002-01-01

468

DDL system: Design systhesis of digital systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital Systems Design Language was integrated into the CADAT system environment of NASA-MSFC. The major technical aspects of this integration are summarized. Automatic hardware synthesis is now possible starting with a high level description of the system to be synthesized. The DDL system provides a high level design verification capability, thereby minimizing design changes in the later stages of the design cycle. An overview of the DDL system covering the translation, simulation and synthesis capabilities is provided. Two companion documents (the user's and programmer's manuals) are to be consulted for detailed discussions.

Shiva, S. G.

1983-01-01

469

Microwave landing system autoland system analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was to investigate the ability of present day aircraft equipped with automatic flight control systems to fly advanced Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) approaches. The tactical approach used to achieve this objective included reviewing the design and autoland operation of the MD-80 aircraft, simulating the MLS approaches using a batch computer program, and assessing the performance of the autoland system from computer generated data. The results showed changes were required to present Instrument Landing System (ILS) procedures to accommodate the new MLS curved paths. It was also shown that in some cases, changes to the digital flight guidance systems would be required so that an autoland could be performed.

Feather, J. B.; Craven, B. K.

1991-01-01

470

Lighting system with thermal management system  

DOEpatents

Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

2013-05-07

471

Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System  

MedlinePLUS

Levonorgestrel intrauterine system (Mirena, Skyla) is used to prevent pregnancy. The manufacturer states that Mirena brand intrauterine system ... in a class of medications called hormonal contraceptives. Levonorgestrel intrauterine system works by thinning the lining of the ...

472

Wind energy systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

Stewart, H. J.

1978-01-01

473

Female Reproductive System  

MedlinePLUS

... egg or sperm. Continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ... estrogen and progesterone. Back Continue What the Female Reproductive System Does The female reproductive system enables a woman ...

474

Female Reproductive System  

MedlinePLUS

... female reproductive systems. Continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ... reason other than pregnancy. Infections of the Female Reproductive System Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) . Also called sexually transmitted ...

475

Lesson 44: Nonlinear Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using a cost/revenue application problem, the lesson begins with systems involving quadratic equations. Systems with conics are introduced next along with the elimination method for solving these systems.

2011-01-01

476

Electric flight systems, overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Materials illustrating a presentation on electric flight systems are presented. Fuel consumption, the power plant assembly, flight control technology, electromechanical actuator systems and components of possible power systems are surveyed.

Cronin, M. J.

1982-01-01

477

Unlocking the Endocrine System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how the endocrine system works and compare it to the mail delivery system. Students discuss the importance of communication in human body systems and relate that to engineering and astronauts.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

478

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

MedlinePLUS

... an autoimmune disorder, meaning that a person's own immune system attacks his or her own healthy cells and tissues, causing inflammation and damage. Because systemic lupus erythematosus can affect any organ system, no two people have identical ...

479

Autonomic Nervous System Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

480

JUDICIAL SYSTEM NORTH CAROLINA  

E-print Network

THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM IN NORTH CAROLINA ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE OF THE COURTS Raleigh, North Carolina #12;THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM IN NORTH CAROLINA ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE OF THE COURTS Raleigh, North Carolina / 2007 #12;Contents The North Carolina Court System............................... 3 The Appellate

Shamos, Michael I.

481

TWRSview system requirements specification  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

1995-12-01

482

Alternative Videodisc Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses consumer and industrial videodisc systems for information storage including cost, technology utilized, formats, and features. Reflective and transmissive laser optical systems are described, as well as the grooved and grooveless mechanical systems. Tables containing product data are included. (JJD)

Heath, Ted

1981-01-01

483

Air cushion landing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

1978-01-01

484

What Are Expert Systems?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for potential business users, this paper describes the main characteristics of expert systems; discusses practical use considerations; presents a taxonomy of the systems; and reviews several expert system development projects in business and industry. (MBR)

d'Agapeyeff, A.

1986-01-01

485

Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

1993-01-01

486

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify basic components of our solar system, including the sun, planets, and Earth's moon. We have just learned about the Solar System. Click here to watch an informational overview of the Solar System: Overview of the Solar System.. The planets in our Solar System are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto. Every planet in our Solar System revolves around the sun. The sun provides the energy ...

Ms. Smithson

2009-07-07

487

System status display information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the flight crew with enhanced capabilities for monitoring and managing aircraft systems. Guidelines for the design of the electronic system displays were established. The technical approach involved the application of a system engineering approach to the design of candidate displays and the evaluation of a Hernative concepts by part-task simulation. The system engineering and selection of candidate displays are covered.

Summers, L. G.; Erickson, J. B.

1984-01-01

488

Umbra's system representation.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Umbra System representation. Umbra System representation, initially developed in the spring of 2003, is implemented in Incr/Tcl using concepts borrowed from Carnegie Mellon University's Architecture Description Language (ADL) called Acme. In the spring of 2004 through January 2005, System was converted to Umbra 4, extended slightly, and adopted as the underlying software system for a variety of Umbra applications that support Complex Systems Engineering (CSE) and Complex Adaptive Systems Engineering (CASE). System is now a standard part Of Umbra 4. While Umbra 4 also includes an XML parser for System, the XML parser and Schema are not described in this document.

McDonald, Michael James

2005-07-01

489

Lightside Atmospheric Revitalization System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system was studied as a replacement to the present baseline LiOH system for extended duration shuttle missions. The system consists of three subsystems: a solid amine water desorbed regenerable carbon dioxide removal system, a water vapor electrolysis oxygen generating system, and a Sabatier reactor carbon dioxide reduction system. The system is designed for use on a solar powered shuttle vehicle. The majority of the system's power requirements are utilized on the Sun side of each orbit, when solar power is available.

Colling, A. K.; Cushman, R. J.; Hultman, M. M.; Nason, J. R.

1980-01-01

490

Control system design method  

DOEpatents

A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

Wilson, David G. (Tijeras, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM)

2012-02-21

491

INSENS sensor system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an unattended ground sensor system that has been developed for the immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The system, known as INSENS, was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use by the United States Border Patrol. This system assists in the detection of illegal entry of aliens and contraband (illegal drugs, etc.) into the United States along its land borders. Key to the system is its flexible modular design which allows future software and hardware enhancements to the system without altering the fundamental architecture of the system. Elements of the system include a sensor system capable of processing signals from multiple directional probes, a repeater system, and a handheld monitor system. Seismic, passive infrared (PIR), and magnetic probes are currently supported. The design of the INSENS system elements and their performance are described.

Myers, D.W.; Baker, J.; Benzel, D.M.; Fuess, D.A.

1993-09-29

492

Systems engineering for very large systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

Lewkowicz, Paul E.

1993-01-01

493

Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

2011-01-01

494

Immune System as a Sensory System  

PubMed Central

As suggested by the well-known gestalt concept the immune system can be regarded as an integrated complex system, the functioning of which cannot be fully characterized by the behavior of its constituent elements. Similar approaches to the immune system in particular and sensory systems in general allows one to discern similarities and differences in the process of distinguishing informative patterns in an otherwise random background, thus initiating an appropriate and adequate response. This may lead to a new interpretation of difficulties in the comprehension of some immunological phenomena. PMID:21686066

Dozmorov, Igor M.; Dresser, D.

2010-01-01

495

Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

Grygiel, M.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-05-03

496

Microsphere insulation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new insulation system is provided that contains microspheres. This insulation system can be used to provide insulated panels and clamshells, and to insulate annular spaces around objects used to transfer, store, or transport cryogens and other temperature-sensitive materials. This insulation system provides better performance with reduced maintenance than current insulation systems.

Allen, Mark S. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

497

Broad Bandwidth Telecommunications Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Broad bandwidth transmission systems have been around for years. They include microwave, assorted cable systems, and recently, satellites. With the exception of some privately owned systems, broadband services have been furnished by the common carriers. Recently, a new element has been added--Cable Antenna Television (CATV) distribution systems.…

Sodolski, John

498

Cogeneration power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cogeneration is defined as the combination of electrical generation and process heat for more efficient use of fuel. Comparisons of energy utilization in conventional electric power plants and cogeneration electric power plants are presented. Characteristics of various cogeneration systems are also presented. Systems are analyzed for use in utility systems and industrial systems. Economic and cost analysis are reviewed.

Davis, H. S.

1978-01-01

499

Electronic Document Supply Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…

Cawkell, A. E.

1991-01-01

500

Computer Center: CIBE Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differentiates between computer systems and Computers in Biological Education (CIBE) systems (computer system intended for use in biological education). Describes several CIBE stand alone systems: single-user microcomputer; single-user microcomputer/video-disc; multiuser microcomputers; multiuser maxicomputer; and local and long distance computer…

Crovello, Theodore J.

1982-01-01