Science.gov

Sample records for parque provincial aconcagua

  1. Study of the quasi-tragic snow-avalanche event occurred on August 2009 at Aconcagua Provincial Park, Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, J. C.; Casteller, A.; Martínez, H. H.; Norte, F. A.; Simonelli, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    Snow avalanches commonly threaten people and infrastructure in mountainous areas worldwide. Winter precipitation events in the Central Andes are caused by the interaction of the atmospheric general circulation and their steep orography. Almost every winter season snow storms and winds cause the blockage of routes and lead to the snowpack conditions that generate avalanche events. The amount of winter snow accumulation is highly variable and is one of the most important factors for assessing the impacts of climate change not only on the water availability, but also to plan future mitigation measures to reduce the avalanche hazard. The authors have conducted studies on snow avalanches that regularly affect the international route linking Mendoza (Argentina) with Santiago de Chile (Chile) but none of them was done at the Aconcagua Provincial Park The park is nearby this route, about 13 km kilometers east from the international border, which in this sector of the Andes coincides with the continental divide. On the night of 17 August 2009, seven people were caught by an avalanche that hit the Aconcagua Park rangers refuge (32° 48' 40'' S, 69° 56' 33'' W; 2950 masl).This paper describes the meteorological and snow precipitation conditions originating the event. On August 14 th. the synoptic surface and upper-air conditions from NCEP reanalysis were those associated with a severe Zonda wind occurrence in the region, that is: a 500 hPa level trough, a deep low-pressure surface system located over the Pacific Ocean close to the Chilean coast, approximately over 48 ° S and 80° W, and a jet stream at middle upper-air levels. The avalanche event occurred during a new and very heavy snowfall a while more than two days later of these extreme episodes. The topographical characteristics of the avalanche path, the snow storm intensity and the snow accumulation on the avalanche starting zone allowed the authors to simulate the avalanche flow. Snow storm intensity and snow

  2. Mountaineering fatalities on Aconcagua: 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Westensee, Jeffrey; Rogé, Ignacio; Van Roo, Jon D; Pesce, Carlos; Batzli, Sam; Courtney, D Mark; Lazio, Matthew P

    2013-09-01

    High altitude mountaineering is a dangerous endeavor due to the hypoxic hypobaric environment, extreme weather, and technical skills required. One of the seven summits, Aconcagua (6962 m) is the highest mountain outside of Asia. Its most popular route is nontechnical, attracting >3000 mountaineers annually. Utilizing data from the Servicio Médico Aconcagua (park medical service), we performed a retrospective descriptive analysis with the primary objective of deriving a fatality rate on Aconcagua from 2001 to 2012. The fatality rate on Aconcagua was then compared to other popular mountains. For climbers who died, we report all available demographic data, mechanisms of death, and circumstances surrounding the death. Between 2001 and 2012, 42,731 mountaineers attempted to summit Aconcagua. There were 33 fatalities. The fatality rate was 0.77 per 1000, or 0.077%. The fatality rate on Aconcagua is lower than that on Everest or Denali but higher than that on Rainier. PMID:24028641

  3. Prior altitude experience of climbers attempting to summit Aconcagua.

    PubMed

    Borm, Nicholas; Van Roo, Jon D; Pesce, Carlos; Courtney, D Mark; Malik, Sanjeev; Lazio, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    Aconcagua (6962 m) is one of the seven summits and the highest mountain outside of Asia. Climbers of varying experience are drawn to its nontechnical route. Our objective was to detail the prior altitude experience of climbers attempting to summit Aconcagua. We asked all climbers on the normal route of Aconcagua to complete questionnaires with demographics and prior high altitude experience while acclimatizing at Plaza de Mulas base camp during 9 nonconsecutive days in January 2009. 127 volunteers from 22 countries were enrolled. Mean age was 39.8 years and 88.2% were male. Median altitude at place of residence was 200 m (IQR: 30, 700). Median previous maximum altitude reached was 5895 m (IQR: 5365, 6150). 7.1% of climbers had never been above 4000 m. Median previous maximum sleeping altitude was 4800 m (IQR: 4300, 5486). 12.6% of climbers had never slept above 4000 m. Climbers who performed acclimatization treks spent a mean of 3.6 (2.5, 4.7) days at>3000 m in the previous 2 months. However, 50.4% of climbers performed no acclimatization treks. Although the majority of mountaineers who attempt Aconcagua have prior high altitude experience, a substantial minority has never been above 4000 m. PMID:22206564

  4. Physics 300 Provincial Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This document consists of the physics 300 provincial examination (English version), a separate "provincial summary report" on the results of giving the test, and a separate French language version of the examination. This physics examination contains a 53-item multiple choice section and an 12 item free response section. Subsections of the test…

  5. Assessing environmental drivers of microbial communities in estuarine soils of the Aconcagua River in Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Sebastián; Ding, Guo-Chun; Cárdenas, Franco; Smalla, Kornelia; Seeger, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Aconcagua River basin (Central Chile) harbors diverse economic activities such as agriculture, mining and a crude oil refinery. The aim of this study was to assess environmental drivers of microbial communities in Aconcagua River estuarine soils, which may be influenced by anthropogenic activities taking place upstream and by natural processes such as tides and flood runoffs. Physicochemical parameters were measured in floodplain soils along the estuary. Bacteria, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Fungi were studied by DGGE fingerprinting of 16S rRNA gene and ribosomal ITS-1 amplified from community DNA. Correlations between environment and communities were assessed by distance-based redundancy analysis. Mainly hydrocarbons, pH and the composed variable copper/arsenic/calcium but in less extent nitrogen and organic matter/phosphorous/magnesium correlated with community structures at different taxonomic levels. Aromatic hydrocarbons degradation potential by bacterial community was studied. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases genes were detected only at upstream sites. Naphthalene dioxygenase ndo genes were heterogeneously distributed along estuary, and related to Pseudomonas, Delftia, Comamonas and Ralstonia. IncP-1 plasmids were mainly present at downstream sites, whereas IncP-7 and IncP-9 plasmids showed a heterogeneous distribution. This study strongly suggests that pH, copper, arsenic and hydrocarbons are main drivers of microbial communities in Aconcagua River estuarine soils. PMID:26362923

  6. 77 FR 18786 - Eastern Washington Cascades Provincial Advisory Committee and the Yakima Provincial Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Forest Service Eastern Washington Cascades Provincial Advisory Committee and the Yakima Provincial Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Washington.... During this meeting information will be shared about the Forest Service Chief's 10-Year...

  7. 75 FR 1749 - Eastern Washington Cascades Provincial Advisory Committee and the Yakima Provincial Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... Forest Service Eastern Washington Cascades Provincial Advisory Committee and the Yakima Provincial Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Washington... Corridor Implementation Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, and Bureau of Land Management...

  8. 75 FR 16424 - Eastern Washington Cascades Provincial Advisory Committee and the Yakima Provincial Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    .... During this meeting information will be shared about Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest Travel Management... Forest Service Eastern Washington Cascades Provincial Advisory Committee and the Yakima Provincial Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern...

  9. 76 FR 34962 - Eastern Washington Cascades Provincial Advisory Committee and the Yakima Provincial Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Forest Travel Management Planning, Forest Plan Revision and an overview of forest activities that have... Forest Service Eastern Washington Cascades Provincial Advisory Committee and the Yakima Provincial Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern...

  10. 77 FR 21526 - Eastern Washington Cascades Provincial Advisory Committee and the Yakima Provincial Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Holden Mine Remediation progress, and an update on the Forest Plan... Forest Service Eastern Washington Cascades Provincial Advisory Committee and the Yakima Provincial Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern...

  11. Geometric evolution of the Horcones Inferior Glacier (Mount Aconcagua, Central Andes) during the 2002-2006 surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitte, Pierre; Berthier, Etienne; Masiokas, Mariano H.; Cabot, Vincent; Ruiz, Lucas; Ferri Hidalgo, Lidia; Gargantini, Hernán.; Zalazar, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The Central Andes of Chile and Argentina (31-35°S) contain a large number and variety of ice masses, but only two surging glaciers have been studied in this region. We analyzed the 2002-2006 surge of the Horcones Inferior Glacier, Mount Aconcagua, Argentina, based on medium spatial resolution (15-30 m) satellite images and digital elevation models. During the buildup phase the glacier was stagnant, with velocities lower than 0.1 m/d. In the active-phase velocities reached 14 m/d and the glacier front advanced 3.1 km. At the peak of the active phase (2003-2004), the area-averaged elevation change was -42 m in the reservoir zone (2.53 km2) and +30 m in the receiving zone (3.31 km2). The estimated ice flux through a cross section located at 4175 meter above sea level was 108 m3 during a period of 391 days, a flux that suggests a mean glacier thickness at this location of ~90 m. The depletion phase showed a recovery of the reservoir zone elevation, the down wasting of the receiving zone (-17 m, 2007-2014), and a return to quiescent velocities. The short active phase, the abrupt change in the velocities, and the high level of the proglacial stream indicate a hydrological switch (Alaska type) trigger. The 2002-2006 and 1984-1990 surges of Horcones Inferior were synchronous with the surges of nearby Grande del Nevado Glacier. These events occurred after periods of positive mass balance, so we hypothesize a climate driver.

  12. Is Ontario Moving to Provincial Negotiation of Teaching Contracts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    2008-01-01

    In Canada, the statutes governing public school teachers' collective bargaining are a combination of the provincial Labour Relations Act or Code and the respective provincial Education/School/Public Schools Act. As education is within the provincial, not federal, domain of legal responsibility, the specifics of each act or code can vary.…

  13. 77 FR 50979 - Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Solicitation of nominees to the Northwest Forest Plan Provincial... on the Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees (the Eastern Washington Cascades and...

  14. Provincial geology and the Industrial Revolution.

    PubMed

    Veneer, Leucha

    2006-06-01

    In the early nineteenth century, geology was a new but rapidly growing science, in the provinces and among the gentlemen scientists of London, Oxford and Cambridge. Industry, particularly mining, often motivated local practical geologists, and the construction of canals and railways exposed the strata for all to see. The most notable of the early practical men of geology was the mineral surveyor William Smith; his geological map of England and Wales, published in 1815, was the first of its kind. He was not alone. The contributions of professional men, and the provincial societies with which they were connected, are sometimes underestimated in the history of geology. PMID:16697043

  15. Good medical ethics, justice and provincial globalism.

    PubMed

    Prah Ruger, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The summer 2014 Ebola virus outbreak in Western Africa illustrates global health's striking inequalities. Globalisation has also increased pandemics, and disparate health system conditions mean that where one falls ill or is injured in the world can mean the difference between quality care, substandard care or no care at all, between full recovery, permanent ill effects and death. Yet attention to the normative underpinnings of global health justice and distribution remains, despite some important exceptions, inadequate in medical ethics, bioethics and political philosophy. We need a theoretical foundation on which to build a more just world. Provincial globalism (PG), grounded in capability theory, offers a foundation; it provides the components of a global health justice framework that can guide implementation. Under PG, all persons possess certain health entitlements. Global health justice requires progressively securing this health capabilities threshold for every person. PMID:25516948

  16. 76 FR 35185 - Deschutes Provincial Advisory Committee (DPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Deschutes Provincial Advisory Committee (DPAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting... restoration and sustainable recreation subcommittees. Members will meet at the Deschutes National...

  17. 75 FR 13252 - Deschutes Provincial Advisory Committee (DPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Deschutes Provincial Advisory Committee (DPAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... rechartering and to provide subcommittee updates on forest restoration, sustainable recreation,...

  18. 77 FR 16802 - Deschutes Provincial Advisory Committee (DPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Deschutes Provincial Advisory Committee (DPAC) AGENCY: Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... Restoration Act (CFLRA) and the sustainable recreation subcommittee. Members will meet at the...

  19. 77 FR 40565 - Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Forest Service Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... of Decision for Amendments to the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management Planning Documents... provide advice and recommendations to promote better integration of forest management activities...

  20. 76 FR 76359 - Deschutes Provincial Advisory Committee (DPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ..., Aspen conference room (63095 Deschutes Market Road, Bend, Oregon) from 9 AM until 2 PM. All Deschutes Provincial Advisory Committee meetings are open to the public. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael...

  1. Computers in the Schools: State/Provincial Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiessen, S. J.

    The Alberta goverment has attempted to systematically address educational computing issues through programs of the provincial (K-12) education department (Alberta Education), which have included the development of computer literacy curricula for elementary, junior, and senior high schools; the Computer Technology Project (CTP); evaluation studies;…

  2. Provincial elections and timing of cancer drug funding

    PubMed Central

    Srikanthan, A.; Gill, S.S.; Chan, K.K.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised about the potential influence of political pressures on drug funding decisions. We evaluated the temporal relationship between cancer drug funding and provincial elections in 9 Canadian provinces. Methods New indications for cancer drugs between January 2003 and December 2012 were identified, and the dates of official provincial funding dates and election dates between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2014 were retrieved. The probability of drug funding announcements in the 60-day period preceding a provincial election was evaluated using binomial probability distribution analysis. Results Data from 9 provinces (all Canadian provinces except Quebec) were available. During the period of interest, 69 new indications for 39 individual drugs were identified. Variation in the availability of funding dates was identified. At the time of data collection, 2 provinces did not have data available for all 69 indications. For the 9 provinces, the number of funded indications during the 60-day period preceding an election ranged from 0 to 3; however, no differences in the proportion of indications funded pre-election were identified. Additional analyses also failed to demonstrate any significant associations with the 90-day period before an election, or the 60- and 90-day periods after an election. Conclusions We observed no clear temporal relationship between provincial election dates and funding decisions in this recent Canadian sample of new indications for cancer drugs. PMID:27330343

  3. 75 FR 13252 - Oregon Coast Provincial Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Oregon Coast Provincial Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Oregon Coast Province Advisory Committee will meet at the Siuslaw National...

  4. Provincially and Locally Initiated Curriculum Program Assessment, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This report is an independent assessment of the Provincially Initiated Curriculum (PIC) and Locally Initiated Curriculum (LIC) for British Columbia's Centre for Curriculum, Transfer and Technology (C2T2), which manages both PIC and LIC projects. The report makes four recommendations for C2T2's consideration: (1) a renewed emphasis on communication…

  5. State and Provincial Fish And Wildlife Agencies Librarians National Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Donna M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses agency library information activities, production and dissemination, and resource access as presented at the first conference of state and provincial fish and game agency librarians. Agencies represented include the Fish and Wildlife Reference Service, Aquaculture, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Management,…

  6. The determinants of Chinese provincial government health expenditures: evidence from 2002-2006 data.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jay; Liu, Gordon G

    2012-07-01

    There is great divergence in provincial government health expenditures in China. Real per capita provincial government health expenditures (GHE) over the period 2002-2006 are examined using panel regression analysis. Key determinants of real per capita provincial GHE are real provincial per capita general budget revenue, real provincial per capita transfers from the central government, the proportion of provincial population under age 15, urban employee basic health insurance coverage, and proportion of urban population. Roughly equal and relatively low elasticities of budget revenue and transfers imply that the GHE is a necessity rather than a luxury good, and transfers have yet to become efficient instruments for the fair allocation of health resources by policy makers. Moreover, severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak has increased the GHE, but we find no statistical evidence that provincial GHE have fluctuated according to the public health status. PMID:21560182

  7. Exploring work-life issues in provincial corrections settings.

    PubMed

    Almost, Joan; Doran, Diane; Ogilvie, Linda; Miller, Crystal; Kennedy, Shirley; Timmings, Carol; Rose, Don N; Squires, Mae; Lee, Charlotte T; Bookey-Bassett, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Correctional nurses hold a unique position within the nursing profession as their work environment combines the demands of two systems, corrections and health care. Nurses working within these settings must be constantly aware of security issues while ensuring that quality care is provided. The primary role of nurses in correctional health care underscores the importance of understanding nurses' perceptions about their work. The purpose of this study was to examine the work environment of nurses working in provincial correctional facilities. A mixed-methods design was used. Interviews were conducted with 13 nurses and healthcare managers (HCMs) from five facilities. Surveys were distributed to 511 nurses and HCMs in all provincial facilities across the province of Ontario, Canada. The final sample consisted of 270 nurses and 27 HCMs with completed surveys. Participants identified several key issues in their work environments, including inadequate staffing and heavy workloads, limited control over practice and scope of practice, limited resources, and challenging workplace relationships. Work environment interventions are needed to address these issues and subsequently improve the recruitment and retention of correctional nurses. PMID:24158097

  8. The Impact of Provincial Examinations on Education in British Columbia: General Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John O.; And Others

    The impacts of the Grade 12 Provincial Examination Program on the educational system in British Columbia and its participants were studied. Beginning with the 1983-84 school year, students in British Columbia have been required to take an end-of-course provincial examination in each academic course they take. The study began with a review of…

  9. Attitudes of Employees of Provincial Directorates of National Education and School Administrators towards Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altinkurt, Yahya

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the attitudes of employees of Provincial Directorates of National Education and school administrators towards strategic planning. The research was designed as a survey model study. The population of the research consisted of employees of Provincial Directorate of National Education of Kutahya and school…

  10. Practicing oncology in provincial Mexico: a narrative analysis.

    PubMed

    Hunt, L M

    1994-03-01

    This paper examines the discourse of oncologists treating cancer in a provincial capital of southern Mexico. Based on an analysis of both formal interviews and observations of everyday clinical practice, it examines a set of narrative themes they used to maintain a sense of professionalism and possibility as they endeavored to apply a highly technologically dependent biomedical model in a resource-poor context. They moved between coexisting narrative frameworks as they addressed their formidable problems of translating between theory and practice. In a biomedical narrative frame, they drew on biomedical theory to produce a model of cellular dysfunction and of clinical intervention. However, limited availability of diagnostic and treatment techniques and patients inability or unwillingness to comply, presented serious constraints to the application of this model. They used a practical narrative frame to discuss the socio-economic issues they understood to be underlying these limitations to their clinical practice. They did not experience the incongruity between theory and practice as a continual challenge to their biomedical model, nor to their professional competency. Instead, through a reconciling narrative frame, they mediated this conflict. In this frame, they drew on culturally specific concepts of moral rightness and order to produce accounts that minimized the problem, exculpated themselves and cast blame for failed diagnosis and treatment. By invoking these multiple, coexisting narrative themes, the oncologists sustained an open vision of their work in which deficiencies and impotency were vindicated, and did not stand in the way of clinical practice. PMID:8184335

  11. Assessing accuracy of an electronic provincial medication repository

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Jurisdictional drug information systems are being implemented in many regions around the world. British Columbia, Canada has had a provincial medication dispensing record, PharmaNet, system since 1995. Little is known about how accurately PharmaNet reflects actual medication usage. Methods This prospective, multi-centre study compared pharmacist collected Best Possible Medication Histories (BPMH) to PharmaNet profiles to assess accuracy of the PharmaNet profiles for patients receiving a BPMH as part of clinical care. A review panel examined the anonymized BPMHs and discrepancies to estimate clinical significance of discrepancies. Results 16% of medication profiles were accurate, with 48% of the discrepant profiles considered potentially clinically significant by the clinical review panel. Cardiac medications tended to be more accurate (e.g. ramipril was accurate >90% of the time), while insulin, warfarin, salbutamol and pain relief medications were often inaccurate (80–85% of the time). 1215 sequential BPMHs were collected and reviewed for this study. Conclusions The PharmaNet medication repository has a low accuracy and should be used in conjunction with other sources for medication histories for clinical or research purposes. This finding is consistent with other, smaller medication repository accuracy studies in other jurisdictions. Our study highlights specific medications that tend to be lower in accuracy. PMID:22621690

  12. Pharmaceutical policies in Canada: another example of federal-provincial discord

    PubMed Central

    Anis, A H

    2000-01-01

    Pharmaceutical policy in Canada is set at both the federal and provincial levels of government. The federal government is responsible for intellectual property rights of manufacturers (patents) and the initial approval and labelling of prescription drugs and for ensuring overall market competitiveness. The provincial government has responsibility and jurisdiction over the funding of all health care services, including pharmaceuticals. Various interactions between the pharmaceutical industry, the federal and provincial governments and consumers have shaped the current landscape for prescription drugs in Canada. One key failing of the system is that the federal government is almost completely insulated from the impact of its policies because, although it regulates drug prices, it does not buy any drugs. In contrast, provincial governments have no jurisdiction over market competitiveness or pricing, yet end up paying for most of the drug expenditures incurred. PMID:10701389

  13. The Rural Type of Settlement through the Eyes of Provincial College Students in Penza Oblast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davydova, N. E.

    2013-01-01

    Research on provincial students in Russia indicates that the barriers to living and working in rural areas are seen as real, but that they may also be outweighed by the perceived benefits for family life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  14. Assessment of Provincial and Sectoral Emissions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Saikawa, E.; Young, C. L.; Kurokawa, J. I.; Zhao, Y.; Janssens-Maenhout, G. G. A.; Zhang, Q.; Ohara, T.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollutant emissions have been steadily increasing in China, and the need for emission mitigations has become crucial. In order to better understand the source and uncertainties of these emissions in China, we evaluated four global and regional emissions inventories: Regional Emission inventory in Asia version 2.1 (REASv2.1), Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 4.2 (EDGAR v4.2), Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC), and the other by Dr. Yu Zhao. We compared emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10), that of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from 2000 to 2008, and analyzed differences in emissions estimates by source sectors and provinces as well as the national total. In order to understand the cause of these differences in the transport sector, we also analyzed emission factors in depth. We find that the differences of China's total CO2 emissions among the inventories is small (~2%), whereas that of PM10 emissions is large (200% ~ 350%) for 2008. Furthermore, emissions at the source sector level showed considerable differences for some species. For example, the differences among the inventories for the industry sector for PM10 ranged at 27 ~ 48%, and that for the transport sector for PM10 was larger than an order of magnitude for 2008. These discrepancies were also visible at the provincial level for various species and sectors. Residential sector tended to have the largest, and industry the smallest difference among inventories, though this was not true for all the species. Transportation sector had comparatively small difference, ranging usually in 10 ~ 30%, except for PM10.

  15. Central-Provincial Relations for Anti-Schistosomiasis Policy in China

    PubMed Central

    FAN, Ka-wai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses central-local relations for healthcare policy in China from a principal-agent perspective, based on schistosomiasis control. In order to control the disease, the central government produced the Outline of the Mid-Long-Term National Plan for Schistosomiasis Prevention and Control (2004–2015) in 2004. By discussing the implementation of the National Outline at the provincial level, the author uses principal-agent theory to examine conflict and coordination between the central and provincial governments. The documents were collected from the Internet. Although the central and provincial governments all want to eliminate schistosomiasis, allocating funding among them creates conflict and forms an obstacle to achieving the goal. This paper extensively discusses the topics related to central-provincial relation and schistosomiasis control program. Further case study on a single province may be needed to intensify the discussion from a micro perspective. The conflict between central and provincial relations needs to be resolved in order to implement the national policy. PMID:23113188

  16. Central-provincial relations for anti-schistosomiasis policy in china.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ka-Wai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses central-local relations for healthcare policy in China from a principal-agent perspective, based on schistosomiasis control. In order to control the disease, the central government produced the Outline of the Mid-Long-Term National Plan for Schistosomiasis Prevention and Control (2004-2015) in 2004. By discussing the implementation of the National Outline at the provincial level, the author uses principal-agent theory to examine conflict and coordination between the central and provincial governments. The documents were collected from the Internet. Although the central and provincial governments all want to eliminate schistosomiasis, allocating funding among them creates conflict and forms an obstacle to achieving the goal. This paper extensively discusses the topics related to central-provincial relation and schistosomiasis control program. Further case study on a single province may be needed to intensify the discussion from a micro perspective. The conflict between central and provincial relations needs to be resolved in order to implement the national policy. PMID:23113188

  17. Key issues relating to decentralization at the provincial level of health management in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Men, Bunnan; Grundy, John; Cane, Jeff; Rasmey, Lon Chan; An, Nguon Sim; Soeung, Sann Chan; Jenkinson, Karl; Boreland, Marian; Maynard, Jim; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2005-01-01

    The following study was conducted as part of a review of management systems at a Provincial Health Department (Kampong Cham Province) and a National Health Programme (National Immunization Program) in 2002-2003 in Cambodia. The aim of this paper is to identify, analyse and recommend those management system factors that are critical to the success of health management performance, with a particular focus on provincial management. The review has identified critical success factors associated with health management performance at the sub-national level that include a stronger role for effective human resource management in health sector reform, elevation of the status of planning in senior level management, and the development of a more comprehensive and transparent finance system. These success factors will position the provincial level of health management to respond more effectively to the reform challenges of administrative de-concentration and political decentralization that are currently underway across a range of government sectors in Cambodia. PMID:15799454

  18. Male marriage squeeze and inter-provincial marriage in central China: evidence from Anhui

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lige; Brown, Melissa J.; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, inter-provincial female migration for marriage has become important in central and eastern rural China. Using survey data from X County in rural Anhui Province, we explore the arrangement of inter-provincial marriages, as well as the characteristics of husbands and wives, marital satisfaction, and marital stability for these marriages. We find that inter-provincial marriage is an important option for local men to respond to the marriage squeeze and the increasing expense of marriage. It helps to relieve the shortage of marriageable women in the local marriage market. Because this kind of marriage is based on economic exchange, but not affection, it is often subject to a higher risk of marriage instability, and can lead to such illegal behaviors as marriage fraud and mercenary marriage. PMID:26594102

  19. FLOATING COMMUNITIES OF ALGAE IN AN ARTIFICIAL POND IN THE PARQUE DO ESTADO, SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL(1).

    PubMed

    de Mattos Bicudo, C E; Teixeira Bicudo, R M

    1967-12-01

    A fresluvater floating algal community was repeatedly observed in an artificial pond in the Parque do Estado São Paulo, Brazil. The ontogeny and composition of the community are discussed and are related to oxygen liberation during photosynthesis of the periphyton, or of the pond-bottom algne, which carries up portions of the algae growing there. PMID:27065035

  20. Advancing Coordinated Care in Four Provincial Healthcare Systems: Evaluating a Knowledge-Exchange Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Renee; Parker, Victoria; Phillips, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This research project created and evaluated a knowledge-exchange intervention designed to facilitate an increase in organizational readiness for implementing coordinated stroke care in four primarily rural provincial healthcare systems. Intervention: Knowledge brokers were linked to networks within, across and outside the provinces to support, inform and disseminate best practice recommendations for coordinated stroke care within the provincial healthcare systems. Findings: The intervention increased awareness and dissemination of recommendations, which stimulated the implementation of coordinated stroke care. Similar knowledge-exchange interventions might work in other healthcare jurisdictions with similar demographics, to promote evidence-informed improvements in healthcare. PMID:22851988

  1. Provincial drug plan officials' views of the Canadian drug safety system.

    PubMed

    Lexchin, Joel; Wiktorowicz, Mary; Moscou, Kathy; Eggertson, Laura

    2013-06-01

    The Canadian constitution divides the responsibility for pharmaceuticals between the federal and provincial governments. While the provincial governments are responsible for establishing public formularies, the majority of the safety and efficacy information that the provinces use comes from the federal government. We interviewed drug plan officials from eight of the ten provinces and two of three territories regarding their views on the Canadian drug safety system. Here we report on the following categories: the federal drug approval system; the strengths and weaknesses of the federal system of postmarket pharmaceutical safety (i.e., pharmacosurveillance); resources available to support provincial formulary decision making; provincial roles in pharmacosurveillance; how the drug safety system could be improved; and the role of the Drug Safety and Effectiveness Network, a recently established virtual network designed to connect researchers throughout Canada who conduct postmarket drug research. Next, we place the Canadian system within an international context by comparing informational asymmetry between government institutions in the United States and the European Union and by looking at how institutions support each other's roles in sharing information and in jointly developing policy through the International Conference on Harmonization. Finally, we draw on international experiences and suggest potential solutions to the concerns that our key informants have identified. PMID:23418364

  2. Physician numbers as a driver of provincial government health spending in Canadian health policy.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, Livio

    2014-03-01

    Physician spending is one of the fastest growing Canadian public sector health categories of recent years but despite their recent growth physician numbers are a relatively small contributor to the increases in total provincial government health expenditure. Regression models of the determinants of provincial government health spending are estimated and show physician numbers are a positive and significant driver of provincial government health care spending after controlling for other factors though the overall contribution is relatively small. From 1975 to 2009, the increases in physician numbers accounted for a range of 3.2-13.3 percent of the increase in real per capita total provincial government health expenditures ranging from a low of 1.9 to 7.6 percent for Manitoba to a high of 5.3 to 18.3 percent for Quebec. These are modest contributions to total health spending but vary more substantially across provinces when hospital and physician spending alone are considered particularly for Quebec and British Columbia. Nevertheless, these results suggest that physician numbers alone are a modest policy concern when it comes to restraining health costs and other factors such as utilization and fees are more important. PMID:23895879

  3. The BC Provincial Education Number (PEN): Considerations for Assigning the PEN to Post-Secondary Applicants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The BC Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) has had a long-standing interest in measures of student mobility and the potential of the Provincial Education Number (PEN) being applied in post-secondary institutions at the applicant stage. The Admissions Committee of BCCAT included a project in its 2004/05 Work Plan to conduct a thorough…

  4. Chemistry 300. Administration Manual for Supervising Teachers, Provincial Examination, Answer Key--Multiple-Choice and Written-Answer Questions, and Provincial Summary Report = Chimie 300. Guide d'administration a l'intention des surveillants d'examen, Examen provincial, Cle de correction--Questions choix multiple et Questions responses ouvertes, et Rapport sommaire provincial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This collection of manuals contains the Manitoba Provincial Chemistry Examination for students seeking credit in Senior 4 Chemistry (Chemistry 300) and instructions for its use and grading. The examination is based on the Core Topics of the Senior 4 Chemistry course and accounts for 30% of the student's final grade in the course. The examination…

  5. [Purveyors of technology: provincial engineers and the construction of road infrastructure in Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Lidiany Silva

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the role played by engineers in the construction of road infrastructure in Minas Gerais between the 1840s and 1880s. Building and providing regular maintenance for roads and bridges was a task carried out by the Minas Gerais provincial government, which since the 1830s had a specific agency assigned to designing, building, and maintaining public communication routes. Engineers were part of the agency from its inception, playing a significant role in designing projects and in the actual execution of certain works. The current study is grounded in administrative documentation in which the details of work progress are reported to the provincial government. The gathered records provide technical, administrative, and financial information, along with data on labor power and the agents engaged in construction works. PMID:22012105

  6. A General Provincial Situation Visualization System Based on iPhone Operating System of Shandong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Z.; Xiang, H.

    2014-04-01

    The paper discusses the basic principles and the problem solutions during the design and implementation of the mobile GIS system, and base on the research result, we developed the General Provincial Situation Visualization System Based on iOS of Shandong Province. The system is developed in the Objective-C programming language, and use the ArcGIS Runtime SDK for IOS as the development tool to call the "World-map Shandong" services to implement the development of the General Provincial Situation Visualization System Based on iOS devices. The system is currently available for download in the Appstore and is chosen as the typical application case of ESRI China ArcGIS API for iOS.

  7. Genus age, provincial area and the taxonomic structure of marine faunas

    PubMed Central

    Harnik, Paul G.; Jablonski, David; Krug, Andrew Z.; Valentine, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Species are unevenly distributed among genera within clades and regions, with most genera species-poor and few species-rich. At regional scales, this structure to taxonomic diversity is generated via speciation, extinction and geographical range dynamics. Here, we use a global database of extant marine bivalves to characterize the taxonomic structure of climate zones and provinces. Our analyses reveal a general, Zipf–Mandelbrot form to the distribution of species among genera, with faunas from similar climate zones exhibiting similar taxonomic structure. Provinces that contain older taxa and/or encompass larger areas are expected to be more species-rich. Although both median genus age and provincial area correlate with measures of taxonomic structure, these relationships are interdependent, nonlinear and driven primarily by contrasts between tropical and extra-tropical faunas. Provincial area and taxonomic structure are largely decoupled within climate zones. Counter to the expectation that genus age and species richness should positively covary, diverse and highly structured provincial faunas are dominated by young genera. The marked differences between tropical and temperate faunas suggest strong spatial variation in evolutionary rates and invasion frequencies. Such variation contradicts biogeographic models that scale taxonomic diversity to geographical area. PMID:20534619

  8. Provincial variation of carbon emissions from bituminous coal: Influence of inertinite and other factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quick, J.C.; Brill, T.

    2002-01-01

    We observe a 1.3 kg C/net GJ variation of carbon emissions due to inertinite abundance in some commercially available bituminous coal. An additional 0.9 kg C/net GJ variation of carbon emissions is expected due to the extent of coalification through the bituminous rank stages. Each percentage of sulfur in bituminous coal reduces carbon emissions by about 0.08 kg C/net GJ. Other factors, such as mineral content, liptinite abundance and individual macerals, also influence carbon emissions, but their quantitative effect is less certain. The large range of carbon emissions within the bituminous rank class suggests that rank- specific carbon emission factors are provincial rather than global. Although carbon emission factors that better account for this provincial variation might be calculated, we show that the data used for this calculation may vary according to the methods used to sample and analyze coal. Provincial variation of carbon emissions and the use of different coal sampling and analytical methods complicate the verification of national greenhouse gas inventories. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. (Ir)reconcilable differences? Local reactions to provincial neoliberal educational reform.

    PubMed

    Shoveller, Jean; Elliott, Danielle; Johnson, Joy

    2005-01-01

    In this case study, we explore the intersections of neoliberal educational reform and the everyday experiences of people living in a rural region in northern British Columbia, Canada. Reflecting on the provincial Ministry of Education's Strategic Plan, we explore one region's responses to a set of provincial promises, which include providing regional school districts with more autonomy and control over the delivery of education services and a mandate for a balanced budget. The region faced declining student enrolments and funding shortfalls. As a cost-saving measure, the local school district in the region launched a four-day school week. We used ethnographic fieldwork techniques to examine a set of local practices and consequences that arose following the implementation of this measure. The findings demonstrate how provincial promises of educational reform can conflict with local educational needs and create a set of problematic everyday realities with repercussions on youth health, amplifying health inequalities that are irreconcilable with the purported goals of advancing the interests of students and society. PMID:16161848

  10. Genus age, provincial area and the taxonomic structure of marine faunas.

    PubMed

    Harnik, Paul G; Jablonski, David; Krug, Andrew Z; Valentine, James W

    2010-11-22

    Species are unevenly distributed among genera within clades and regions, with most genera species-poor and few species-rich. At regional scales, this structure to taxonomic diversity is generated via speciation, extinction and geographical range dynamics. Here, we use a global database of extant marine bivalves to characterize the taxonomic structure of climate zones and provinces. Our analyses reveal a general, Zipf-Mandelbrot form to the distribution of species among genera, with faunas from similar climate zones exhibiting similar taxonomic structure. Provinces that contain older taxa and/or encompass larger areas are expected to be more species-rich. Although both median genus age and provincial area correlate with measures of taxonomic structure, these relationships are interdependent, nonlinear and driven primarily by contrasts between tropical and extra-tropical faunas. Provincial area and taxonomic structure are largely decoupled within climate zones. Counter to the expectation that genus age and species richness should positively covary, diverse and highly structured provincial faunas are dominated by young genera. The marked differences between tropical and temperate faunas suggest strong spatial variation in evolutionary rates and invasion frequencies. Such variation contradicts biogeographic models that scale taxonomic diversity to geographical area. PMID:20534619

  11. Urban-Rural and Provincial Disparities in Child Malnutrition in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yichao; Qi, Di

    2016-10-01

    This article investigates how the nutritional deprivation and inequality among children in China by provinces and urban/rural areas has changed over time from 1991 to 2009 using the China Health and Nutrition Survey data. The children who were undernourished in stunting and underweight have declined over years, but provincial disparities were significant and urban children performed better than the rural peers. The nutritional deprivation of children has been alleviated in China over time, but more efforts should be made by the government to improve the nutritional condition in less developed provinces and for those children who are severely undernourished. PMID:27315054

  12. An enigmatic frog of the genus Atelopus (Family Bufonidae) from Parque Nacional Chirripó, Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jay M; Bolaños, Federico

    2009-01-01

    A distinctive new species of Atelopus is described from Parque Nacional Chirrip6 Grande, Cordillera de Talamanca (3,400-3,500 m). It closely resembles populations of the Atelopus ignescens complex from the Andes of northern Ecuador and southern Colombia. It differs most significantly from these frogs in the pattern of spiculae and coni development on the throat, chest, hands and feet. The Costa Rican species appears to be an outlier of the complex inexplicably separated geographically from its nearest allies by an over land distance of about 1,600 km. PMID:19637715

  13. The development of floristic provinciality during the Middle and Late Paleozoic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wnuk, C.

    1996-01-01

    Phytogeographic reconstructions have been published for most Paleozoic series since the Pr??i??doli??, but there have been few attempts to synthesize this data into a comprehensive review of the characteristics and causes of the changing phytogeographic patterns for the whole Paleozoic history of the vascular flora. Existing floristic analyses have been compiled in this manuscript and the resulting data are used to reconstruct the evolution of floristic provinces since the Silurian. The earliest plant fossil records indicate that provinciality was characteristic of terrestrial vascular plant distributions right from the beginning of terrestrial colonization by vascular plants. This interpretation differs markedly from the views of many workers who still maintain that pre-Upper Carboniferous floras were uniform and cosmopolitan in distribution. Three of the four major phytogeographic units, i.e. Angara, Euramerica, and Gondwana, can be recognized in the earliest fossil floras. The fourth unit, Cathaysia, differentiated from Euramerica during the late Upper Carboniferous. Phytogeographic differentiation occurs in direct response to climatic gradients and physiographic barriers. As these gradients and barriers change, provincial boundaries expand and contract, fragment, reassemble and reassort. Phytogeographic units are dynamic through time. ?? 1996 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cuba's Salgen: a provincial informatics network for genetic services to pregnant women and newborns.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Miguel; Pérez, Rubén; Valero, Damicel; Santiago, Darío G

    2014-01-01

    The Sancti Spíritus Provincial Medical Genetics Network has been using the Salgen IT platform since 2009 for health care, administrative and research activities concerning pregnant mothers and newborns. The network uses the national Infomed backbone to provide real-time connection between community-based polyclinics in primary health care and the Provincial Medical Genetics Reference Center. The platform has records for 23,025 pregnant women and sequential clinical data on genetic risk assessment in early pregnancy, first trimester ultrasound, sickle cell anemia screening, alpha-fetoprotein levels, cytogenetic antenatal diagnosis, second trimester ultrasound, delivery and newborn characteristics, neonatal metabolic screening, and infant clinical assessment. The system makes health care results immediately available and provides health alerts to enable timely preventive care for pregnant women. It also provides guidelines for processes and practices, and streamlines administrative and monitoring activities through statistical reports. The database generates indicators for assessing fetal growth and applies international standards for antenatal ultrasound quality control. Salgen provides a new source of information for medical research and knowledge management, and its use in this case fulfills Cuba's criteria for an integrated health services network. PMID:25208122

  15. China's provincial CO2 emissions embodied in trade with implications for regional climate policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhangqi; Huang, Rui; Tang, Qinneng; Cong, Xiaonan; Wang, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    CO2 emissions embodied in trade have an important and far-reaching impact on CO2 emissions reduction obligations. Based on a multi-regional input-output analysis, this paper calculates China's provincial CO2 emissions embodied in trade and analyzes CO2 emissions embodied in trade per unit of value of trade in 30 Chinese provinces. Several climate policy options that potentially reduce the impact of trade on individual provinces are discussed. One finding from this study is that provincial CO2 emissions embodied in trade accounted for approximately 60.02% of China's CO2 emissions in 2007. The CO2 emissions embodied in imports and exports for 30 Chinese provinces differ widely, and remarkable differences in the CO2 emissions embodied in trade per unit of value of trade exist. Another important finding is that if provinces take binding commitments as a part of a coalition, instead of as individual provinces, then the impacts of trade can be reduced. Notably, however, the extent of reduction in a coalition varies in different provinces.

  16. Uncovering regional disparity of China's water footprint and inter-provincial virtual water flows.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huijuan; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Minoru; Hao, Dong; Yu, Xiaoman

    2014-12-01

    With rapid economic development in China, water crisis is becoming serious and may impede future sustainable development. The uneven distribution of water resources further aggravates such a problem. Under such a circumstance, the concepts of water footprint and virtual water have been proposed in order to respond water scarcity problems. This paper focuses on studying provincial disparity of China's water footprints and inter-provincial virtual water trade flows by adopting inter-regional input-output (IRIO) method. The results show that fast developing areas with larger economic scales such as Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, Zhejiang, Shanghai and Xinjiang had the largest water footprints. The most developed and water scarce areas such as Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin and Shandong intended to import virtual water, a rational choice for mitigating their water crisis. Xinjiang, Jiangsu, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Guangxi and Hunan, had the largest per GDP water intensities and were the main water import regions. Another key finding is that agriculture water footprint was the main part in water footprint composition and water export trade. On the basis of these findings, policy implications on agriculture geographical dispersion, consumption behavior changes, trade structure adjustment and water use efficiency improvement are further discussed. PMID:25222751

  17. Provincialization of terrestrial faunas following the end-Permian mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Sidor, Christian A; Vilhena, Daril A; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Huttenlocker, Adam K; Nesbitt, Sterling J; Peecook, Brandon R; Steyer, J Sébastien; Smith, Roger M H; Tsuji, Linda A

    2013-05-14

    In addition to their devastating effects on global biodiversity, mass extinctions have had a long-term influence on the history of life by eliminating dominant lineages that suppressed ecological change. Here, we test whether the end-Permian mass extinction (252.3 Ma) affected the distribution of tetrapod faunas within the southern hemisphere and apply quantitative methods to analyze four components of biogeographic structure: connectedness, clustering, range size, and endemism. For all four components, we detected increased provincialism between our Permian and Triassic datasets. In southern Pangea, a more homogeneous and broadly distributed fauna in the Late Permian (Wuchiapingian, ∼257 Ma) was replaced by a provincial and biogeographically fragmented fauna by Middle Triassic times (Anisian, ∼242 Ma). Importantly in the Triassic, lower latitude basins in Tanzania and Zambia included dinosaur predecessors and other archosaurs unknown elsewhere. The recognition of heterogeneous tetrapod communities in the Triassic implies that the end-Permian mass extinction afforded ecologically marginalized lineages the ecospace to diversify, and that biotic controls (i.e., evolutionary incumbency) were fundamentally reset. Archosaurs, which began diversifying in the Early Triassic, were likely beneficiaries of this ecological release and remained dominant for much of the later Mesozoic. PMID:23630295

  18. A 3D Model Based Imdoor Navigation System for Hubei Provincial Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Kruminaite, M.; Onrust, B.; Liu, H.; Xiong, Q.; Zlatanova, S.

    2013-11-01

    3D models are more powerful than 2D maps for indoor navigation in a complicate space like Hubei Provincial Museum because they can provide accurate descriptions of locations of indoor objects (e.g., doors, windows, tables) and context information of these objects. In addition, the 3D model is the preferred navigation environment by the user according to the survey. Therefore a 3D model based indoor navigation system is developed for Hubei Provincial Museum to guide the visitors of museum. The system consists of three layers: application, web service and navigation, which is built to support localization, navigation and visualization functions of the system. There are three main strengths of this system: it stores all data needed in one database and processes most calculations on the webserver which make the mobile client very lightweight, the network used for navigation is extracted semi-automatically and renewable, the graphic user interface (GUI), which is based on a game engine, has high performance of visualizing 3D model on a mobile display.

  19. Survival of captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots released in Parque Nacional del Este, Dominican Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collazo, J.A.; White, T.H., Jr.; Vilella, F.J.; Guerrero, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    We report first-year survival rates of 49 captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) released in Parque Nacional del Este, Dominican Republic. Our goal was to learn about factors affecting postrelease survival. Specifically, we tested if survival was related to movements and whether modifying prerelease protocols influenced survival rates. We also estimated survival in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges (22 September 1998). Twenty-four parrots, fitted with radio-transmitters, were released between 14 September and 12 December 1997. Twenty-five more were released between 29 June and 16 September 1998. First-year survival rates were 30% in 1997 and 29% in 1998. Survival probability was related to bird mobility. In contrast to birds released in 1997, none of the 25 parrots released in 1998 suffered early postrelease mortality (i.e., 3-5 days after release). Two adjustments to prerelease protocols (increased exercise and reduced blood sampling) made in 1998 may have contributed to differences in mobility and survival between years. The reduction of early postrelease mortality in 1998 was encouraging, as was the prospect for higher first-year survival (e.g., 30% to 65%). Only one death was attributed to the immediate impact of the hurricane. Loss of foraging resources was likely a major contributor to ensuing mortality. Birds increased their mobility, presumably in search of food. Survival rates dropped 23% in only eight weeks posthurricane. This study underscores the value of standardized prerelease protocols, and of estimating survival and testing for factors that might influence it. Inferences from such tests will provide the best basis to make adjustments to a release program.

  20. The origin of oriented lakes in the Andean foreland, Parque Nacional Torres del Paine (Chilean Patagonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, Joseph; Aydin, Atilla

    2008-05-01

    The Parque Nacional Torres Del Paine and surrounding area in the Magallanes foreland basin in Chilean Patagonia is the site for numerous lakes fed by glaciers and rivers in the Andean highlands to the west. The lakes are elongate and have conspicuously systematic orientations. We hypothesize that the origin of the oriented lakes lies in the fault system, composed of a right-lateral strike-slip fault set oriented 58° from north, a left-lateral strike-slip set oriented 87°, and a thrust fault set oriented 167°, that exists within the underlying rocks. To test this hypothesis quantitatively, we determined the shape and orientation of the lakes by fitting each lake with an ellipse of appropriate aspect ratio, and later with multiple ellipses consistent with the composite geometry of some lakes. We then examined the faults in the area in terms of their kinematics, orientation and distribution. The distribution of lake orientations showed three distinct groups which appear to correspond to the three main fault groups. For lakes fitted with multiple ellipses, the difference in means between the right-lateral, left-lateral, and thrust faults and their corresponding groups of lakes are 3.05°, 1.57°, and 5.17°. Using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) statistical test to compare the orientations of faults with respect to the lakes suggests that there is not a strongly significant difference between the fault orientations and the corresponding lake groups. These results indicate that the faults have a profound control on the orientation, shape, and distribution of the lakes. We attribute this to faults and their damage zones being weaker and therefore prone to a faster rate of erosion, and to stress perturbations associated with discontinuous faults resulting in localized high density fracturing and surface subsidence. These results have implications for lake and drainage system morphologies in other foreland basins along the Andes and other similar settings.

  1. Total Revenue and Expenses for Provincially Assisted Universities of Ontario for the Fiscal Year Ended April 30, 1980. Volume I--Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    Data on the total revenue and expenses of the provincially-assisted universities of Ontario, Canada, for the fiscal year ended April 30, 1980 are presented. This volume includes those 21 universities and related institutions that receive provincial grants directly from the government. A separate volume (HE 013 381) includes 22 institutions…

  2. Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis of Chinese Inter-Provincial Industrial Chemical Oxygen Demand Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Xianjin; Liu, Yibo

    2012-01-01

    A spatial autocorrelation analysis method is adopted to process the spatial dynamic change of industrial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) discharge in China over the past 15 years. Studies show that amount and intensity of industrial COD discharges are on a decrease, and the tendency is more remarkable for discharge intensity. There are large differences between inter-provincial discharge amount and intensity, and with different spatial differentiation features. Global spatial autocorrelation analysis reveals that Global Moran’s I of discharge amount and intensity is on the decrease. In space, there is an evolution from an agglomeration pattern to a discretization pattern. Local spatial autocorrelation analysis shows that the agglomeration area of industrial COD discharge amount and intensity varies greatly in space with time. Stringent environmental regulations and increased funding for environmental protections are the crucial factors to cut down industrial COD discharge amount and intensity. PMID:22829788

  3. [Epidemic situation of schistosomiasis in a provincial surveillance site of Shengzhou City, 2008-2011].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Yao-Rong; Ying, Xi-Jun; Zhu, Xiao-Chun

    2013-02-01

    According to "The Scheme of Schistosomiasis Surveillance in Zhejiang Province", the status of Oncomelania snails, and the schistosome infection of permanent residents, floating population, and livestock were surveyed in a provincial surveillance site of Shengzhou City, from 2008 to 2011. In 4 years, the area with residual snails was 3,060 m2, and no infected snails were found among 595 living snails. The positive rate of sero-tests for schistosomiasis of the permanent residents was 0.77%, and that of the floating population was 1.09%. No schistosomiasis cases were found. In conclusion, the area with residual snails is small and its distribution is scattered, and we still should strengthen the surveillance of snail status and imported schistosomiasis cases. PMID:23687831

  4. An exploration of China's mortality decline under Mao: A provincial analysis, 1950–80

    PubMed Central

    Babiarz, Kimberly Singer; Eggleston, Karen; Miller, Grant; Zhang, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    China's growth in life expectancy between 1950 and 1980 ranks as among the most rapid sustained increases in documented global history. However, no study of which we are aware has quantitatively assessed the relative importance of various explanations proposed for these gains. We create and analyse a new province-level panel data set spanning 1950-80 using historical information from Chinese public health archives, official provincial yearbooks, and infant and child mortality records contained in the 1988 National Survey of Fertility and Contraception. Although exploratory, our results suggest that increases in educational attainment and public health campaigns jointly explain 50-70 per cent of the dramatic reductions in infant and under-five mortality during our study period. These results are consistent with the importance of non-medical determinants of population health improvement – and under some circumstances, how general education may amplify the effectiveness of public health interventions. PMID:25495509

  5. Analyzing remote sensing geobotanical trends in Quetico Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada, using digital elevation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Timothy A.; Campagna, David J.; Levandowski, Don W.; Cetin, Haluk; Evans, Carla S.

    1991-01-01

    A 10 x 13-km area in Quetico Provincial Park, Canada has been studied using a digital elevation model to separate different drainage classes and to examine the influence of site factors and lithology on vegetation. Landsat Thematic Mapper data have been classified into six forest classes of varying deciduous-coniferous cover through nPDF, a procedure based on probability density functions. It is shown that forests growing on mafic lithologies are enriched in deciduous species, compared to those growing on granites. Of the forest classes found on mafics, the highest coniferous component was on north facing slopes, and the highest deciduous component on south facing slopes. Granites showed no substantial variation between site classes. The digital elevation derived site data is considered to be an important tool in geobotanical investigations.

  6. Predictions on the Development Dimensions of Provincial Tourism Discipline Based on the Artificial Neural Network BP Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yang; Hu, Jun; Lv, Yingchun; Zhang, Mu

    2013-01-01

    As the tourism industry has gradually become the strategic mainstay industry of the national economy, the scope of the tourism discipline has developed rigorously. This paper makes a predictive study on the development of the scope of Guangdong provincial tourism discipline based on the artificial neural network BP model in order to find out how…

  7. Provincial Coordination and Inter-Institutional Collaboration in British Columbia's College, University College and Institute System. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaber, Devron

    This document addresses a study that aimed to better understand the historical development of British Columbia community college, university college, and institute system with special attention given to recent changes in inter-institutional collaboration in relation to provincial coordination. The study also addresses centralization and…

  8. How the Local and Provincial press in Britain Reported the Relaunch of Mencap: Changing Images of Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, Sue; Corbett, Jenny

    A study examined 90 newspaper reports from the local and provincial press in Great Britain which covered the relaunch of Mencap, the largest national charity for people with learning disabilities. Mencap has adopted a new corporate style, a new logo, and a new "positive" image to reflect changing attitudes about disabilities. Using for analysis…

  9. Gender Mainstreaming in a South African Provincial Education Department: A Transformative Shift or Technical Fix for Oppressive Gender Relations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jenni

    2010-01-01

    Although some gender activists and analysts question the efficacy of gender mainstreaming to take forward women's demands, the South African government has pursued the strategy within a number of government departments including the Department of Education. This article explores how the strategy is being implemented in one provincial education…

  10. Toward Co-operation; The Development of a Provincial Voice for Adult Education in British Columbia, 1953 to 1962.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Gordon R.

    This paper traces the origin and development of the British Columbia provincial adult education organization during 1953-62. A series of biannual conferences for those interested in adult education began in late 1954. A more formal structure, the British Columbia Adult Education Council, was created in 1957 and continued until 1962, when it was…

  11. Secrets and Lies: Sex Education and Gendered Memories of Childhood's End in an Australian Provincial City, 1930s-1950s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Josephine

    2006-01-01

    There are few historical studies about the sex education of Australian youth. Drawing on a range of sources, including the oral histories of 40 women and men who attended two single-sex, selective high schools in a provincial Australian city (Newcastle, New South Wales) in the 1930s-1950s, this paper explores the adolescent experience of sex…

  12. Confessions of a Would-Be Non-Provincial--Or, the English Teacher and Matthew Arnold's Ghost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, W.

    Although Matthew Arnold may appear to be the representative of an increasingly irrelevant elitist vision by advocating a culture ultimately dependent on the exclusion of all but the very best in thought and expression, in fact he remains the writer who reminds us of the necessity for a social vision of ourselves superior to any mere provincialism.…

  13. Rhythm Masters: Developing a Master Program in Popular Music and Folk Music in Provincial Areas in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakeva, Lauri; Kurkela, Vesa

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a project organized by Sibelius-Academy Department of Folk Music and Tampere University, Department of Music Anthropology in 2008-2010. The goal of the project was to develop and implement a master program for "rytmimusiikki" (lit. "rhythm music" in Seinajoki, Finland--a musically active provincial area previously without…

  14. Faunistic Catalog of the Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of Parque Nacional do Itatiaia and its Surroundings in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is considered one of the world's biological diversity hotspots, and is increasingly threatened by the rapid destruction and fragmentation of its natural areas. The caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Itatiaia massif, an Atlantic Forest highland area, are inventoried and cataloged here. The catalog is based on examination of bibliographies, field work on many localities of Itatiaia massif (including Parque Nacional do Itatiaia — PNI), and the entomological collection Professor José Alfredo Pinheiro Dutra (DZRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. A total of 92 species are recorded, representing about 17% of the known Brazilian Trichoptera fauna. Leptoceridae, Hydropsychidae, and Philopotamidae are the families most represented. The high species richness, as well as the remarkable patterns of species distribution, may be related to the characteristics of Mantiqueira mountain range. PMID:22958122

  15. Faunistic catalog of the caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of Parque Nacional do Itatiaia and its surroundings in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is considered one of the world's biological diversity hotspots, and is increasingly threatened by the rapid destruction and fragmentation of its natural areas. The caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Itatiaia massif, an Atlantic Forest highland area, are inventoried and cataloged here. The catalog is based on examination of bibliographies, field work on many localities of Itatiaia massif (including Parque Nacional do Itatiaia - PNI), and the entomological collection Professor José Alfredo Pinheiro Dutra (DZRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. A total of 92 species are recorded, representing about 17% of the known Brazilian Trichoptera fauna. Leptoceridae, Hydropsychidae, and Philopotamidae are the families most represented. The high species richness, as well as the remarkable patterns of species distribution, may be related to the characteristics of Mantiqueira mountain range. PMID:22958122

  16. Evaluating human papillomavirus vaccination programs in Canada: should provincial healthcare pay for voluntary adult vaccination?

    PubMed Central

    Llamazares, Marco; Smith?, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Background Recently, provincial health programs in Canada and elsewhere have begun rolling out vaccination against human papillomavirus for girls aged 9–13. While vaccination is voluntary, the cost of vaccination is waived, to encourage parents to have their daughters vaccinated. Adult women who are eligible for the vaccine may still receive it, but at a cost of approximately CAN$400. Given the high efficacy and immunogenicity of the vaccine, the possibility of eradicating targeted types of the virus may be feasible, assuming the vaccination programs are undertaken strategically. Methods We develop a mathematical model to describe the epidemiology of vaccination against human papillomavirus, accounting for a widespread childhood vaccination program that may be supplemented by voluntary adult vaccination. A stability analysis is performed to determine the stability of the disease-free equilibrium. The critical vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity thresholds are derived, and the minimum level of adult vaccination required for eradication of targeted types is determined. Results We demonstrate that eradication of targeted types is indeed feasible, although the burden of coverage for a childhood-only vaccination program may be high. However, if a small, but non-negligible, proportion of eligible adults can be vaccinated, then the possibility of eradication of targeted types becomes much more favourable. We provide a threshold for eradication in general communities and illustrate the results with numerical simulations. We also investigate the effects of suboptimal efficacy and immunogenicity and show that there is a critical efficacy below which eradication of targeted types is not possible. If eradication is possible, then there is a critical immunogenicity such that even 100% childhood vaccination will not eradicate the targeted types of the virus and must be supplemented with voluntary adult vaccination. However, the level of adult vaccination coverage required is

  17. Marine Ostracod Provinciality in the Late Ordovician of Palaeocontinental Laurentia and Its Environmental and Geographical Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mohibullah, Mohibullah; Williams, Mark; Vandenbroucke, Thijs R. A.; Sabbe, Koen; Zalasiewicz, Jan A.

    2012-01-01

    Background We examine the environmental, climatic and geographical controls on tropical ostracod distribution in the marine Ordovician of North America. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the inter-regional distribution patterns of Ordovician Laurentian ostracods, focussing particularly on the diverse Late Ordovician Sandbian (ca 461 to 456 Ma) faunas, demonstrates strong endemicity at the species-level. Local endemism is very pronounced, ranging from 25% (e.g. Foxe basin) to 75% (e.g. Michigan basin) in each basin, a pattern that is also reflected in other benthic faunas such as brachiopods. Multivariate (ordination) analyses of the ostracod faunas allow demarcation of a Midcontinent Province and a southern Marginal Province in Laurentia. While these are most clearly differentiated at the stratigraphical level of the bicornis graptolite biozone, analyses of the entire dataset suggest that these provinces remain distinct throughout the Sandbian interval. Differences in species composition between the provinces appear to have been controlled by changes in physical parameters (e.g. temperature and salinity) related to water depth and latitude and a possible regional geographic barrier, and these differences persist into the Katian and possibly the Hirnantian. Local environmental parameters, perhaps operating at the microhabitat scale, may have been significant in driving local speciation events from ancestor species in each region. Conclusions/Significance Our work establishes a refined methodology for assessing marine benthic arthropod micro-benthos provinciality for the Early Palaeozoic. PMID:22900000

  18. [Provincial public center for crisis intervention and psycho-social rehabilitation. A path towards communitary suicidology].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This work on the systematic comprehensive approach towards the Prevention and Postvencion of Suicide started to develop back in mid 2011 in Río Gallegos, capital of Santa Cruz Province. The first step on this development was a Pilot Plan for the Training of Professionals and also field intervention. The Center for Crisis Intervention and Psycho-social Rehabilitation was founded eight months later. The case-client in crisis plus family group- undergoes quantitative and qualitative evaluation by means of a triage system, all of which allows starting intensive face-to-face and also phone follow up according to the Crisis Intervention Model. Such intervention is developed by means of the participation in the "Grupo Sostén", the Adolescents Group if the client fits into that age, and also family relationship interviews as well as Multi-family meetings open to the Community. There is also a Community Team in the Center which performs collective assessment in schools, in conjunction with the "Equidad en Redes" Educational Specialty Team, belonging to the Provincial Education Council. The approach takes place on the field, and works as a screening step for the early detection of risk. Such risk is dealt with by means of short term intervention group programs involving the whole of the educational community. When facing situations of committed suicide there are interventions in communities to the interior of the province, fundamentally through the Hospital Team which works as the cluster convener for the social intersectoral frame-work. PMID:25546541

  19. Glacier change in Garibaldi Provincial Park, southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, since the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Johannes; Menounos, Brian; Clague, John J.

    2009-04-01

    Fluctuations of glaciers during the 20th century in Garibaldi Provincial Park, in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia, were reconstructed from historical documents, aerial photographs, and fieldwork. Over 505 km 2, or 26%, of the park, was covered by glacier ice at the beginning of the 18th century. Ice cover decreased to 297 km 2 by 1987-1988 and to 245 km 2 (49% of the early 18th century value) by 2005. Glacier recession was greatest between the 1920s and 1950s, with typical frontal retreat rates of 30 m/a. Many glaciers advanced between the 1960s and 1970s, but all glaciers retreated over the last 20 years. Times of glacier recession coincide with warm and relatively dry periods, whereas advances occurred during relatively cold periods. Rapid recession between 1925 and 1946, and since 1977, coincided with the positive phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), whereas glaciers advanced during its negative phase (1890-1924 and 1947-1976). The record of 20th century glacier fluctuations in Garibaldi Park is similar to that in southern Europe, South America, and New Zealand, suggesting a common, global climatic cause. We conclude that global temperature change in the 20th century explains much of the behaviour of glaciers in Garibaldi Park and elsewhere.

  20. In itinere strategic environmental assessment of an integrated provincial waste system.

    PubMed

    Federico, Giovanna; Rizzo, Gianfranco; Traverso, Marzia

    2009-06-01

    In the paper, the practical problem of analysing in an integrated way the performance of provincial waste systems is approached, in the framework of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In particular, the in itinere phase of SEA is analysed herein. After separating out a proper group of ambits, to which the waste system is supposed to determine relevant impacts, pertinent sets of single indicators are proposed. Through the adoption of such indicators the time trend of the system is investigated, and the suitability of each indicator is critically revised. The structure of the evaluation scheme, which is essentially based on the use of ambit issues and analytical indicators, calls for the application of the method of the Dashboard of Sustainability for the integrated evaluation of the whole system. The suitability of this method is shown through the paper, together with the possibility of a comparative analysis of different scenarios of interventions. Of course, the reliability of the proposed method strongly relies on the availability of a detailed set of territorial data. The method appears to represent a useful tool for public administration in the process of optimizing the policy actions aimed at minimizing the increasing problem represented by waste production in urban areas. PMID:19423602

  1. Ideology and wildlands management: The case of Rondeau Provincial Park, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, D. L.; Nelson, J. G.

    1980-03-01

    This is a critical examination of some of the basic concepts that have guided management of parks and related reserves, often termed wildlands. Study is focussed on Rondeau Provincial Park, Ontario, and on concepts such as wilderness, primeval forest, and the Carolinian forest. Deer culling and other management policies and practices have been based upon the idea that the highly valued sassafras, tulip, and other species of the Carolinian forest are decreasing due to browsing. Field mapping and analysis of historic vegetation records indicate that this trend is not in fact occurring. Historic research also reveals difficulties in defining the Carolinian or other perceived types of forest for management purposes. A major reassessment of ideology and management policy and practice seem to be required in Rondeau and other wildlands. Vague or general concepts such as wilderness or preservation should be strongly complemented and supported by more precise statements of objectives, a learning attitude, and experimentation and research. As a result of the technical uncertainties and value judgments frequently involved, management should also be based upon the expressed preferences and continuing involvement of citizens.

  2. Jacinto Duverger Goyanes, MS, Systems Analyst. Provincial Hygiene, Epidemiology & Microbiology Center, Guantánamo.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Gloria

    2008-01-01

    Jacinto Duverger received his Bachelor's Degree in Economic Cybernetics from the University of Donetsk, Ukraine in 1988 and his Master's Degree in Information and Communications in 2007 from a joint program between the University of Las Villas and Guant�namo University. Since 1994 he has worked almost exclusively on the development of the Health Trends Analysis Units (Unidad de An�lisis de Tendencias en la Salud, UATS) throughout Cuba, participating in their conceptual design, installing their first computer network, and more. Born in the country's easternmost province, Guant�namo, his fascination with programming and Prospective Methodology led him to create health software that helps provincial UATS track and forecast health events and to engage in proactive strategic health planning. Most recently, Duverger developed a software package to study the financial sustainability of Mexico's new catastrophic illness coverage program. Duverger sat down with MEDICC Review to talk about software development, strategic health planning methodologies, and training the new generation of Cuban public health leaders. PMID:21483350

  3. Spatiotemporal Characteristics, Determinants and Scenario Analysis of CO2 Emissions in China Using Provincial Panel Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaojian

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically investigated the spatiotemporal variations, influencing factors and future emission trends of China’s CO2 emissions based on a provincial panel data set. A series of panel econometric models were used taking the period 1995–2011 into consideration. The results indicated that CO2 emissions in China increased over time, and were characterized by noticeable regional discrepancies; in addition, CO2 emissions also exhibited properties of spatial dependence and convergence. Factors such as population scale, economic level and urbanization level exerted a positive influence on CO2 emissions. Conversely, energy intensity was identified as having a negative influence on CO2 emissions. In addition, the significance of the relationship between CO2 emissions and the four variables varied across the provinces based on their scale of economic development. Scenario simulations further showed that the scenario of middle economic growth, middle population increase, low urbanization growth, and high technology improvement (here referred to as Scenario BTU), constitutes the best development model for China to realize the future sustainable development. Based on these empirical findings, we also provide a number of policy recommendations with respect to the future mitigation of CO2 emissions. PMID:26397373

  4. An impact assessment of sustainable technologies for the Chinese urban residential sector at provincial level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Rui; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Kanamori, Yuko; Dai, Hancheng; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-06-01

    Recently, energy use in the urban residential sector of China has drastically increased due to higher incomes and urbanization. The fossil fuels dominant energy supply has since worsened the air quality, especially in urban areas. In this study we estimate the future energy service demands in Chinese urban residential areas, and then use an AIM/Enduse model to evaluate the emission reduction potential of CO2, SO2, NOx and PM. Considering the climate diversity and its impact on household energy service demands, our analysis is down-scaled to the provincial-level. The results show that in most of the regions, penetration of efficient technologies will bring CO2 emission reductions of over 20% compared to the baseline by the year 2030. Deployment of energy efficient technologies also co-benefits GHG emission reduction. However, efficient technology selection appears to differ across provinces due to climatic variation and economic disparity. For instance, geothermal heating technology is effective for the cold Northern areas while biomass technology contributes to emission reduction the most in the warm Southern areas.

  5. Mortality over 12 years of follow-up in people admitted to provincial custody in Ontario: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G.; Kiefer, Lori; Wobeser, Wendy; Gonzalez, Alejandro; Hwang, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to define rates and causes of death in custody and after release in people admitted to provincial custody in Ontario, and to compare these data with data for the general population. Methods: We linked data on adults admitted to provincial custody in Ontario in 2000 with data on deaths between 2000 and 2012. We examined rates and causes of death by age, sex, custodial status and period after release, and compared them with data for the general population, using indirect adjustment for age. Results: Between 2000 and 2012, 8.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.3%-8.8%) of those incarcerated died in provincial custody or after release. The crude death rate was 7.1 (95% CI 6.9-7.3) per 1000 person-years. The standardized mortality ratio for those incarcerated in 2000 was 4.0 (95% CI 3.9-4.1) overall and 1.9 (95% CI 1.5-2.4) while in provincial custody. The most common causes of death were injury and poisoning (38.2% of all deaths), including overdose (13.6%) and suicide (8.2%), diseases of the circulatory system (15.8%) and neoplasms (14.5%). In the 2 weeks after release, the standardized mortality ratio was 5.7 overall and 56.0 for overdose. Life expectancy was 72.3 years for women and 73.4 for men who experienced incarceration in 2000. Interpretation: Mortality was high for people who experienced incarceration, and life expectancy was 4.2 years less for men and 10.6 years less for women compared with the general population. Efforts should be made to reduce the gap in mortality between people who experience incarceration and those who do not. Time in custody could serve as an opportunity to intervene to decrease risk. PMID:27398358

  6. Two new species and new provincial records of aleocharine rove beetles from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae)

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Langor, David W.; Bourdon, Caroline; Gilbert, Amélie; Labrecque, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species, Atheta pseudovestita Klimaszewski & Langor, sp. n., Silusa prettyae Klimaszewski & Langor, sp. n., are described, and 16 new provincial records, including one new country record, of aleocharine beetles are presented for the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Diagnostics, images of habitus and genital structures, distribution, bionomics information and new locality data are provided for the newly recorded species. A new checklist with 189 species of aleocharines recorded from the province is presented. PMID:27408552

  7. Relationship between air pollutants and economic development of the provincial capital cities in China during the past decade.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictors such as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provincial cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China. PMID:25083711

  8. Poverty assessment using DMSP/OLS night-time light satellite imagery at a provincial scale in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen; Cheng, Hui; Zhang, Li

    2012-04-01

    All countries around the world and many international bodies, including the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the International Labor Organization (ILO), have to eliminate rural poverty. Estimation of regional poverty level is a key issue for making strategies to eradicate poverty. Most of previous studies on regional poverty evaluations are based on statistics collected typically in administrative units. This paper has discussed the deficiencies of traditional studies, and attempted to research regional poverty evaluation issues using 3-year DMSP/OLS night-time light satellite imagery. In this study, we adopted 17 socio-economic indexes to establish an integrated poverty index (IPI) using principal component analysis (PCA), which was proven to provide a good descriptor of poverty levels in 31 regions at a provincial scale in China. We also explored the relationship between DMSP/OLS night-time average light index and the poverty index using regression analysis in SPSS and a good positive linear correlation was modelled, with R2 equal to 0.854. We then looked at provincial poverty problems in China based on this correlation. The research results indicated that the DMSP/OLS night-time light data can assist analysing provincial poverty evaluation issues.

  9. [Altruistic public servant or heroic genius? The propagated image of provincial and academic directors of bacteriological laboratories in Belgium (ca. 1900-1940)].

    PubMed

    Onghena, Sofie

    2009-01-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century provincial bacteriological institutes were established in Belgium--in Liège, Mons, Namur and Brussels--in order to combat epidemics, to promote preventive medicine and to pursue the successful research of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. Similar laboratories existed at the universities of Ghent, Louvain and Brussels. The image building played an important role for both kinds of institutes, as bacteriology in pioneering phase had to be publicly confirmed as a new, valuable discipline. However, the directors of provincial and academic institutes--with the same academic training though--were awarded with different qualities at their jubilees, fitting with the purposes and the self-image of their respective institutions, either provincial authorities or universities. The image of academic directors was guided by academic decorum: Emile van Ermengem, Edmond Destrée and Joseph Denys were represented as savants, solely devoted to pure science and paternally educating young researchers, notwithstanding the fact that their laboratories had humanitarian merits as well. On the other hand, the discourse on the first provincial directors--Ernest Malvoz, Martin Herman, Achille Haibe--emphasized their altruistic commitment and their solid work for the provincial government. Jules Bordet, a internationally rewarded scientist, professor and provincial director of the Pasteur Institute in Brussels, was celebrated with both sorts of discourses. PMID:22586760

  10. Effect of a provincial system of stroke care delivery on stroke care and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kapral, Moira K.; Fang, Jiming; Silver, Frank L.; Hall, Ruth; Stamplecoski, Melissa; O’Callaghan, Christina; Tu, Jack V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Systems of stroke care delivery have been promoted as a means of improving the quality of stroke care, but little is known about their effectiveness. We assessed the effect of the Ontario Stroke System, a province-wide strategy of regionalized stroke care delivery, on stroke care and outcomes in Ontario, Canada. Methods: We used population-based provincial administrative databases to identify all emergency department visits and hospital admissions for acute stroke and transient ischemic attack from Jan. 1, 2001, to Dec. 31, 2010. Using piecewise regression analyses, we assessed the effect of the full implementation of the Ontario Stroke System in 2005 on the proportion of patients who received care at stroke centres, and on rates of discharge to long-term care facilities and 30-day mortality after stroke. Results: We included 243 287 visits by patients with acute stroke or transient ischemic attack. The full implementation of the Ontario Stroke System in 2005 was associated with an increase in rates of care at stroke centres (before implementation: 40.0%; after implementation: 46.5%), decreased rates of discharge to long-term care facilities (before implementation: 16.9%; after implementation: 14.8%) and decreased 30-day mortality for hemorrhagic (before implementation: 38.3%; after implementation: 34.4%) and ischemic stroke (before implementation: 16.3%; after implementation: 15.7%). The system’s implementation was also associated with marked increases in the proportion of patients who received neuroimaging, thrombolytic therapy, care in a stroke unit and antithrombotic therapy. Interpretation: The implementation of an organized system of stroke care delivery was associated with improved processes of care and outcomes after stroke. PMID:23713072

  11. Correlates of Stillbirths at Nyeri Provincial General Hospital, Kenya, 2009-2013: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheptum, Joyce J.; Muiruri, Nelly; Mutua, Ernest; Gitonga, Moses; Juma, Mwangi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Death of a baby in-utero is a very devastating event to the mother and the family. Most stillbirths occur during labor and birth with other deaths occurring during the antenatal period. Millions of families experience stillbirths, yet these deaths remain uncounted, and policies have not been clearly stipulated to address this issue. The aim of the study was to identify the possible causes of stillbirths as recorded in the medical records. Methods: A retrospective study looking at medical records of women who experienced stillbirths between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2013 at Nyeri Provincial General Hospital, Kenya. The hospital records containing cases of stillbirths were retrieved and data abstraction forms were used to collect data and information. Results: Both fresh and macerated stillbirths were equally common. The stillbirth rate was 12.2 per 1,000 births. There was significant association between stillbirths and the clients who were referred and reason for referral, (p=0.029) and (p=0.005), respectively. The number of ANC visits during pregnancy was also significant (p=0.05). Mode of delivery and the reason for cesarean section were significantly associated with stillbirths, (p=0.003) and (p=0.032), respectively. The type of labor and delivery complications experienced was associated with stillbirths (p= 0.022). Conclusion and Global Health Implications: There were several factors associated with stillbirths thus efforts should be made to establish approaches aimed at prevention. Addressing the causes of stillbirths will contribute to reduction of perinatal mortality. PMID:27622009

  12. Theropod fauna from southern Australia indicates high polar diversity and climate-driven dinosaur provinciality.

    PubMed

    Benson, Roger B J; Rich, Thomas H; Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Hall, Mike

    2012-01-01

    'Gondwanan' fauna of South America and Africa may therefore reflect climate-driven provinciality, not vicariant evolution driven by continental fragmentation. However, vicariance may still be detected at lower phylogenetic levels. PMID:22615916

  13. Theropod Fauna from Southern Australia Indicates High Polar Diversity and Climate-Driven Dinosaur Provinciality

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Roger B. J.; Rich, Thomas H.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Hall, Mike

    2012-01-01

    hallmark ‘Gondwanan’ fauna of South America and Africa may therefore reflect climate-driven provinciality, not vicariant evolution driven by continental fragmentation. However, vicariance may still be detected at lower phylogenetic levels. PMID:22615916

  14. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium in Goats across Four Provincial Level Areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Rongsheng; Wang, Xiaojuan; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Peng; Liu, Yuxuan; Chen, Yongjun; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Zhaoguo

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence, species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium in goats from Guangdong Province, Hubei Province, Shandong Province, and Shanghai City of China. Six hundred and four fecal samples were collected from twelve goat farms, and the overall infection rate was 11.4% (69/604). Goats infected with Cryptosporidium were found in eleven farms across four provincial areas, and the infection rate ranged from 2.9% (1/35) to 25.0% (9/36). Three Cryptosporidium species were identified. Cryptosporidium xiaoi (45/69, 65.2%) was the dominant species, followed by C. parvum (14/69, 20.3%) and C. ubiquitum (10/69, 14.5%). The infection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. was varied with host age and goat kids were more susceptible to be infected than adult goats. Subtyping C. parvum and C. ubiquitum positive samples revealed C. parvum subtype IIdA19G1 and C. ubiquitum subtype XIIa were the most common subtypes. Other C. parvum subtypes were detected as well, such as IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G1R1, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA17G2R1. All of these subtypes have also been detected in humans, suggesting goats may be a potential source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. This was the first report of C. parvum subtypes IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G1R1 and IIaA17G2R1 infecting in goats and the first molecular identification of C. parvum and its subtypes in Chinese goats. PMID:25343501

  15. Lessons from an Evaluation of a Provincial-Level Smoking Control Policy in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Gao, Junling; Zhang, Zhixing; Wei, Minqi; Zheng, Pinpin; Nehl, Eric J.; Wong, Frank Y.; Berg, Carla J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Shanghai Public Places Smoking Control Legislation was implemented in March 2010 as the first provincial-level legislation promoting smoke-free public places in China. Objective To evaluate the compliance with this policy as well as its impact on exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), respiratory symptoms, and related attitudes among employees in five kinds of workplaces (schools, kindergartens, hospitals, hotels, and shopping malls). Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted six months before and then six months after the policy was implemented. Five types of occupational employees from 52 work settings were surveyed anonymously using multistage stratified cluster sampling. Results Six months after implementation, 82% of the participants agreed that “legislation is enforced most of the time”. The percentage of self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke declined from round up to 49% to 36%. High compliance rates were achieved in schools and kindergartens (above 90%), with less compliance in hotels and shopping malls (about 70%). Accordingly, prevalence of exposure to SHS was low in schools and kindergartens (less than 10%) and high in hotels and shopping malls (40% and above). The prevalence of respiratory and sensory symptoms (e.g., red or irritated eyes) among employees decreased from 83% to 67%. Conclusions Initial positive effects were achieved after the implementation of Shanghai Smoking Control legislation including decreased exposure to SHS. However, compliance with the policies was a considerable problem in some settings. Further evaluation of such policy implementation should be conducted to inform strategies for increasing compliance in the future. PMID:24058544

  16. Prevention-oriented epidemiology of burns in Ardabil provincial burn centre, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi Bazargani, H; Arshi, S; Ekman, R; Mohammadi, R

    2011-05-01

    In preventing burns, it is essential to know how they occur and which population groups, environments and heating appliances can be targeted for prevention work. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of burns leading to hospitalisation in the northwest of Iran with a focus on the pre-event phase of injury. Between 2007 and 2008, 237 burn victims hospitalised in Ardabil provincial burn centre were enrolled into a descriptive study. A questionnaire was filled in during hospital stay for all patients, with a focus on obtaining information necessary for prevention purposes. Males constituted 56% of victims. Mean age was 22 years. The most severe burns occurred between the ages of 18 and 32 years, and were mainly flame related. Both in case of flame and non-flame burns, women suffered more severe burns and mortality than men. However, with respect to non-flame burns of which most were scalds, the majority of the severe cases involved children under the age of 5 years. More than 80% of burns occurred at home. The kitchen was the main place of injury in 47% of cases, followed by living rooms in 28%. Nearly 45% of burns were scalds and 47% were flame burns. The main container was the samovar in 37%, followed by kettles in 32% and pots in 22%. The overturning of a container was the major mechanism of contact with hot liquids in 86%. Bumping into a container was the main scenario of a scald injury, constituting nearly 70% of the cases. The difference between flame and non-flame burns in the distribution of burns in extremities was not statistically significant, but head and neck burns were 3.7 times more likely to be caused by flame. The two most important injury patterns, more common among women, were getting burned while using a camping gas stove or while refilling the chamber of kerosene-burning appliances without first extinguishing them. Domestic burns among children and young women are a priority in injury-prevention programmes

  17. Performance assessment of Saskatchewan's water resource system under uncertain inter-provincial water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Nazemi, Ali; Wheater, Howard

    2014-05-01

    The trans-boundary Saskatchewan River Basin supports livelihoods and the economy of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Water users include irrigated agriculture, hydropower, potash mining, urban centers, and ecosystem services. Water availability in Saskatchewan is highly dependent on the flows from the upstream province of Alberta. These flows mostly originate from the Rocky Mountains headwaters and are highly regulated, due to intensive water use and redistribution before they get to the Alberta/Saskatchewan border. Warming climate and increasing water demands in Alberta have changed the incoming flow characteristics from Alberta to Saskatchewan. It is critical to assess the performance and the viability of Saskatchewan's water resources system under uncertain future inter-provincial inflows. For this purpose, a possible range of future changes in the inflows from Alberta to Saskatchewan is considered in this study. The considered changes include various combinations of shifts in the timing of the annual peak and volumetric change in the annual flow volumes. These shifts are implemented using a copula-based stochastic simulation method to generate multiple realizations of weekly flow series at two key locations of inflow to Saskatchewan's water resources system, in a way that the spatial dependencies between weekly inflows are maintained. Each flow series is of 31-years length and constitutes a possible long term water availability scenario. The stochastically generated flows are introduced as an alternative to the historical inflows for water resources planning and management purposes in Saskatchewan. Both historical and reconstructed inflows are fed into a Sustainability-oriented Water Allocation, Management, and Planning (SWAMP) model to analyze the effects of inflow changes on Saskatchewan's water resources system. The SWAMP model was developed using the System Dynamics approach and entails irrigation/soil moisture, non-irrigation uses and economic

  18. Argyrogrammana Strand (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) from Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil, with the description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2015-01-01

    The species of Argyrogrammana Strand, 1932 collected at the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil (PNSD) are listed and detailed with behavioral notes. In total, 17 species were recorded, including 13 new records for Brazil (marked with an asterisk): A. alstonii (Smart, 1979)*, A. nurtia ludibunda Brévignon & Gallard, 1995*, A. pulchra (Talbot, 1929)*, A. bonita Hall & Willmott, 1995*, A. amalfreda (Staudinger, [1877])*, A. physis phyton (Stichel, 1911), A. halli Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. celata Hall & Willmott, 1995*, A. gallardi Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. aparamilla Hall & Willmott, 1995*, A. praestigiosa (Stichel, 1929), A. johannismarci Brévignon, 1995*, A. brevignoni Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. rameli (Stichel, 1930), A. willmotti Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. iracyi P. Jauffret & J. Jauffret, 2007 and A. saulensis tunari Gallard, 2008, comb. nov.*. Four new species are described, two from "amalfreda complex": A. halli Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov. and A. gallardi Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.; one from "trochilia complex": A. brevignoni Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.; and one from "stilbe complex": A. willmotti Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov. Argyrogrammana iracyi saulensis Gallard, 2008 is recognized as a valid species, A. saulensis saulensis, stat. nov., and a new combination is proposed to A. saulensis tunari Gallard, 2008, comb. nov. The females of A. iracyi P. Jauffret & J. Jauffret, 2007 and A. saulensis tunari are recognized and figured for the first time. The taxonomy of the species found at the PNSD is discussed and adults are figured, including illustrations of the genitalia. PMID:26624307

  19. [Sponges (porifera) distribution along a depth gradient in a coral reef, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Carabobo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Núñez Flores, Mónica; Rodríguez-Quintal, José Gregorio; Cristina Díaz, María

    2010-10-01

    Sponges constitute one of the most diverse and abundant animal groups in the marine tropical benthos especially in coral reefs, though poorly studied to species level. The aim of this study is to characterize the sponge community along a depth gradient at Isla Larga (Parque Nacional San Esteban, Venezuela) fringe reef. Net and total sedimentation, roughness index, sponge species richness, density and proportion of the bottom covered by sponges, were evaluated at seven depths (1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 m), 17 species were identified grouped in 10 demosponges families. The highest densities and coverage corresponded to 6 m of depth (6.03ind/m2; 11%), that coincides with the lowest net sedimentation and highest substrate heterogeneity. Most abundant species were Desmapsamma anchorata, Amphimedon erina and Scopalina rueztleri. Principal component analysis divided this community in three zones according to depth. The shallow zone of the reef (1 and 3 m), where wave force and high irradiance exert a constant stress sponges, shows the lowest density and coverage by sponges. In contrast, medium depth (6, 9 y 12 m) and deep zone (15 y 18 m) with lower light and sedimentation levels seem to enhance sponge growth and survival that are reflected on the higher densities and coverage of sponges. PMID:21302530

  20. Parque Astronómico de Atacama: An Ideal Site for Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Mid-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, R.; Rubio, M.; Otárola, A.; Nagar, N.

    2014-12-01

    The area of Chajnantor, at more than 5000 m altitude in northern Chile, offers unique atmospheric and operational conditions which arguably make it the best site in the world for millimeter, submillimeter, and mid-infrared observatories. Long-term monitoring of the precipitable water vapor (PWV) column on the Chajnantor plateau has shown its extreme dryness with annual median values of 1.1 mm. Simultaneous measurements of PWV on the Chajnantor plateau (5050 m) and on Cerro Chajnantor (5612 m) show that the latter is around 36% lower under normal atmospheric conditions and up to 80% lower than the plateau in the presence of temperature inversion layers. Recently, the Government of Chile has consolidated the creation of the Parque Astronómico de Atacama (Atacama Astronomical Park), an initiative of the Chilean Commission for Science and Technology (CONICYT). This new park offers an opportunity for national and international projects to settle within its boundaries, gain access to an extremely dry site that is suitable for observations over a broad spectral range, especially in the millimeter to mid-infrared wavelengths, and benefit from operational and logistical support within a secure legal framework.

  1. Revised correlation of Silurian Provincial Series of North America with global and regional chronostratigraphic units and δ13Ccarb chemostratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, Bradley D.; Brett, Carlton E.; Melchin, Michael J.; Mannik, Peep; Kleffner, Mark A.; McLaughlin, Patrick I.; Loydell, David K.; Munnecke, Axel; Jeppsson, Lennart; Corradini, Carlo; Brunton, Frank R.; Saltzman, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent revisions to the biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic assignment of strata from the type area of the Niagaran Provincial Series (a regional chronostratigraphic unit) have demonstrated the need to revise the chronostratigraphic correlation of the Silurian System of North America. Recently, the working group to restudy the base of the Wenlock Series has developed an extremely high-resolution global chronostratigraphy for the Telychian and Sheinwoodian stages by integrating graptolite and conodont biostratigraphy with carbonate carbon isotope (??13Ccarb) chemostratigraphy. This improved global chronostratigraphy has required such significant chronostratigraphic revisions to the North American succession that much of the Silurian System in North America is currently in a state of flux and needs further refinement. This report serves as an update of the progress on recalibrating the global chronostratigraphic correlation of North American Provincial Series and Stage boundaries in their type area. The revised North American classification is correlated with global series and stages as well as regional classifications used in the United Kingdom, the East Baltic, Australia, China, the Barrandian, and Altaj. Twenty-four potential stage slices, based primarily on graptolite and conodont zones and correlated to the global series and stages, are illustrated alongside a new composite ??13Ccarb curve for the Silurian. Conodont, graptolite, isotope, New York, Ontario, series, Silurian, stage. ?? 2010 The Authors, Journal compilation ?? 2010 The Lethaia Foundation.

  2. Relationship between Air Pollutants and Economic Development of the Provincial Capital Cities in China during the Past Decade

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictorssuch as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provinical cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China. PMID:25083711

  3. Aetiologies of Central Nervous System Infection in Viet Nam: A Prospective Provincial Hospital-Based Descriptive Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Ho Dang Trung, Nghia; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Wolbers, Marcel; Nguyen Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen Thanh, Vinh; Van, Minh Pham; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Le Van, Tan; Song, Diep To; Le Thi, Phuong; Thi Phuong, Thao Nguyen; Van, Cong Bui; Tang, Vu; Ngoc Anh, Tuan Hoang; Nguyen, Dong; Trung, Tien Phan; Thi Nam, Lien Nguyen; Kiem, Hao Tran; Thi Thanh, Tam Nguyen; Campbell, James; Caws, Maxine; Day, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; Van Vinh, Chau Nguyen; Van Doorn, H. Rogier; Tinh, Hien Tran; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen. Methods We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007– April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology. Results We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52%) of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24%) and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6%) adult patients and 11/624 (2%) paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR) during hospital admission was 73/617 (12%) in adults and to 42/624 (7%) in children. Conclusions Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam. PMID:22662232

  4. Water resources investigation program for Rio Aconcagua Valley, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, John Ezra

    1969-01-01

    This report, prepared at the request of the Government of Chile under the auspices of the U. S. Agency for International Development (US AID), is based on a 2-month assignment (Oct. 22 to Dec. 31, 1969) of the author and outlines a program of water resources studies. The study program, if followed to its conclusion, will provide the basic hydrologic and hydrogeologic information and analysis essential for planning optimum future development and use of the water resources of the valley.

  5. The Leap of a Provincial SME into the Global Market Using E-commerce: The Success of Adequate Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; García Salcines, Enrique; Burón Fernández, F. Javier; López Coronado, Miguel; de Castro Lozano, Carlos

    The leap into the global market is not easy when it involves a provincial family business. This article demonstrates how adequate planning is fundamental in a small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) with the tight budget they have available to them, in order to be able to differentiate themselves in a highly competitive market, taking into accounts the benefits and risks involved. The Information Technology (IT) tools put in place will give the necessary support and allow for the possibility of increasing and improving the infrastructure as the company requires. An adequate strategy for the future to increases sales would be e-marketing techniques as well as the current promotions which contribute to diffusing the brand.

  6. Case studies: Application of SEA in provincial level expressway infrastructure network planning in China - Current existing problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Kaiyi; Sheate, William R.

    2011-11-15

    Since the Law of the People's Republic of China on Environmental Impact Assessment was enacted in 2003 and Huanfa 2004 No. 98 was released in 2004, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been officially being implemented in the expressway infrastructure planning field in China. Through scrutinizing two SEA application cases of China's provincial level expressway infrastructure (PLEI) network plans, it is found that current SEA practice in expressway infrastructure planning field has a number of problems including: SEA practitioners do not fully understand the objective of SEA; its potential contributions to strategic planning and decision-making is extremely limited; the employed application procedure and prediction and assessment techniques are too simple to bring objective, unbiased and scientific results; and no alternative options are considered. All these problems directly lead to poor quality SEA and consequently weaken SEA's effectiveness.

  7. Medical Manpower Projections and Proposals: The Federal/Provincial/Territorial Report and Its Implications for Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    The Federal/Provincial/Territorial Advisory Committee on Health Manpower has projected a surplus of 4,870 family physicians in Canada by the year 2000. Among the committee's recommendations are proposals to reduce the number of family physicians in the future, and to decrease the undergraduate enrollment in Canadian medical schools by 17%. Too many physicians could lead to excessive costs for the government, and to overservicing, underemployment, low morale, and decreased incomes for physicians themselves. A shortfall in physician supply is easily overcome by opening the doors to immigrant physicians. However, quality of care may be sacrificed. The status and quality of family practice will be directly affected by the action ensuing from the advisory committee's report. PMID:21267265

  8. Economic Impacts from PM2.5 Pollution-Related Health Effects in China: A Provincial-Level Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yang; Dai, Hancheng; Dong, Huijuan; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates the PM2.5 pollution-related health impacts on the national and provincial economy of China using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and the latest nonlinear exposure-response functions. Results show that the health and economic impacts may be substantial in provinces with a high PM2.5 concentration. In the WoPol scenario without PM2.5 pollution control policy, we estimate that China experiences a 2.00% GDP loss and 25.2 billion USD in health expenditure from PM2.5 pollution in 2030. In contrast, with control policy in the WPol scenario, a control investment of 101.8 billion USD (0.79% of GDP) and a gain of 1.17% of China's GDP from improving PM2.5 pollution are projected. At the provincial level, GDP loss in 2030 in the WoPol scenario is high in Tianjin (3.08%), Shanghai (2.98%), Henan (2.32%), Beijing (2.75%), and Hebei (2.60%) and the top five provinces with the highest additional health expenditure are Henan, Sichuan, Shandong, Hebei, and Jiangsu. Controlling PM2.5 pollution could bring positive benefits in two-thirds of provinces. Tianjin, Shanghai, Beijing, Henan, Jiangsu, and Hebei experience most benefits from PM2.5 pollution control as a result of a higher PM2.5 pollution and dense population distribution. Conversely, the control investment is higher than GDP gain in some underdeveloped provinces, such as Ningxia, Guizhou, Shanxi, Gansu, and Yunnan. PMID:27063584

  9. Student border crossings between local cultures and classroom science: The transition of urban and provincial students in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina Jerez, William Jesus

    The purpose of this study was to document the student reactions and degrees of harmonization between his/her personal worldviews and that of school science. 250 provincial and urban students in western Colombia participated by responding to a survey, and two questionnaires. 18 of those students participated in a telephone interview regarding their views about home, school science, nature and their relationships with others. An anthropological approach to education allowed for case descriptions in both urban and provincial settings. This research argues that these school communities do little in aiding the student to cross the boundaries that separate their personal worlds from those of school and school science. Educational practices are implemented under the influence of internal and external forces that limit the decision making opportunities available to school administrators and teachers, and leave no room for a mutual discourse [science and student's own perspectives] that values the student as a person. In the investigation, it was observed that although several aspects, including religion, playa major role in the inside and outside school scenarios. On the contrary, students are not distracted as they move from one setting to another, and religious beliefs tend to support their adaptive behaviors. The transitions are characterized as 'apparent' due to impracticability, and are for the most part, aimed at generating ephemeral outcomes that do not efficiently support future life endeavors. Other findings that support this idea are the students' conceptualizations of nature. The compartmentalization of knowledge is not only evident as an 'avoiding strategy' in the classroom, but also as a mechanism to differently address the natural world in everyday experiences and the one portrayed by a Westernized science instruction. This duality of behavior was evidenced in terms of the academic life of the participating students as well as in particular aspects of their

  10. Analysis on Inter-Provincial Disparities of China's Rural Education and Convergence Rate: Empirical Analysis on 31 Provinces' (Municipalities') Panel Data from 2001 to 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Tongwei

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to analyze inter-provincial disparities of rural education and the convergence rate, and to discuss the effects of compulsory education reform after 2001. Design/methodology/approach: The article estimates the rural average education years and education Gini coefficients of China's 31 provinces (municipalities) beside…

  11. A Co-Operative Provincial-Local Project to Evaluate Components of a Local System with a View to Initiating Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilling, H. J.

    This paper describes an evaluation model developed by the Ontario Ministry of Education and illustrates how it was adapted to meet local and provincial needs of the Scarborough School System for accountability data and direction for change. The basic Cooperative Evaluation and Development of School Systems (CEDSS) model includes five stages of…

  12. Bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae) parasitic on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) at Parque Estadual da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brazil: parasitism rates and host-parasite associations.

    PubMed

    Bertola, Patrícia Beloto; Aires, Caroline Cotrim; Favorito, Sandra Elisa; Graciolli, Gustavo; Amaku, Marcos; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo

    2005-02-01

    A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae) from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil), between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae), Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae), Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis), Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae), A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima), A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus), Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus), M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp.), M. levis (A. passosi), M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni), and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea). Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed. PMID:15867959

  13. New karyologycal data and cytotaxonomic considerations on small mammals from Santa Virgínia (Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Di-Nizo, Camilla Bruno; Neves, Carolina Lima; Vilela, Júlio Fernando; Silva, Maria José de J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Atlantic Forest, in the eastern coast of Brazil, is a hotspot of biodiversity of mammals, and Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) is the largest continuous area of this biome. Here, we characterized the karyotype composition of the small mammals from Santa Virgínia, a region in the northern part of PESM. Specimens were collected from July 2008 to September 2009. We identified 17 species (13 rodents and 4 marsupials) from which 7 exhibited species-specific karyotypes, illustrating the importance of karyotype information in cytotaxonomy. We report for first time the karyotype of Monodelphis scalops (Thomas, 1888) and two new records for PESM: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 and Brucepattersonius soricinus Hershkovitz, 1998. Cytogenetic polymorphisms were detected for some species trapped in the area. Our results show the importance of Santa Virgínia / PESM in addressing studies for the conservation of small mammal wildlife in the Atlantic Forest. PMID:24744831

  14. New karyologycal data and cytotaxonomic considerations on small mammals from Santa Virgínia (Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Di-Nizo, Camilla Bruno; Neves, Carolina Lima; Vilela, Júlio Fernando; Silva, Maria José de J

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic Forest, in the eastern coast of Brazil, is a hotspot of biodiversity of mammals, and Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) is the largest continuous area of this biome. Here, we characterized the karyotype composition of the small mammals from Santa Virgínia, a region in the northern part of PESM. Specimens were collected from July 2008 to September 2009. We identified 17 species (13 rodents and 4 marsupials) from which 7 exhibited species-specific karyotypes, illustrating the importance of karyotype information in cytotaxonomy. We report for first time the karyotype of Monodelphis scalops (Thomas, 1888) and two new records for PESM: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 and Brucepattersonius soricinus Hershkovitz, 1998. Cytogenetic polymorphisms were detected for some species trapped in the area. Our results show the importance of Santa Virgínia / PESM in addressing studies for the conservation of small mammal wildlife in the Atlantic Forest. PMID:24744831

  15. Erasmus Darwin, Herbert Spencer, and the origins of the evolutionary worldview in British provincial scientific culture, 1770-1850.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The significance of Herbert Spencer's evolutionary philosophy has been generally recognized for over a century, as the familiarity of his phrase "survival of the fittest" indicates, yet accounts of the origins of his system still tend to follow too closely his own description, written many decades later. This essay argues that Spencer's own interpretation of his intellectual development gives an inadequate impression of the debt he owed to provincial scientific culture and its institutions. Most important, it shows that his evolutionism was originally stimulated by his association with the Derby philosophical community, for it was through this group--of which his father, who also appears to have espoused a deistic evolutionary theory, was a member--that he was first exposed to progressive Englightenment social and educational philosophies and to the evolutionary worldview of Erasmus Darwin, the first president of the Derby Philosophical Society. Darwin's scheme was the first to incorporate biological evolution, associationist psychology, evolutionary geology, and cosmological developmentalism. Spencer's own implicit denials of the link with Darwin are shown to be implausible in the face of Darwin's continuing influence on the Derby savants, the product of insecurity in his later years when he feared for his reputation as Lamarckism became increasingly untenable. PMID:12725102

  16. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sputum using Selective Enrichment Broth and Ashdown's Medium at Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Nhem, Somary; Letchford, Joanne; Meas, Chea; Thann, Sovanndeth; McLaughlin, James C; Baron, Ellen Jo; West, T Eoin

    2014-01-01

    Melioidosis, infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly reported in Cambodia. We hypothesized that implementation of an enhanced sputum testing protocol in a provincial hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratory would increase detection of B. pseudomallei. We tested 241 sputum specimens that were deemed acceptable for culture, comparing culture in selective enrichment broth followed by sub-culture on Ashdown's medium to standard culture methods. Two specimens (0.8%) were positive for B. pseudomallei using the enhanced protocol whereas one specimen (0.4%) was positive using standard methods. Given the low numbers of positive specimens, we could not conclusively determine the utility of the enhanced sputum testing protocol. However, the ramifications of identification of  B. pseudomallei are substantial, and the benefit of the enhanced testing protocol may be more apparent in patients selected based on risk factors and clinical presentation. Promoting clinician awareness of the infection and encouraging utilization of diagnostic microbiology services are also likely to be important factors in facilitating identification of melioidosis. PMID:25717370

  17. Health system regionalization in Canada's provincial and territorial health systems: do citizen governance boards represent, engage, and empower?

    PubMed

    Chessie, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Regionalization of the health care system, through the creation of sub-provincial service-delivery regions and governance authorities (i.e., regional health authorities, RHAs), has been a key part of Canadian health reform initiatives of the past two decades. Increased public participation in health care planning and service delivery is one of the explicit goals of regionalization. Based on a reanalysis of data from a 2001 survey of health system governors from 134 RHAs throughout Canada, this study explores the overall demographic composition of the citizen governance boards, as well as their responses to various opinion and attitude questions. To enable consideration of the extent to which these sites may support public deliberation and community development, overall responses are examined, as are responses within two subtypes of governors: system-experienced citizen governors and lay citizen governors--governors with or without previous health-system employment experience, respectively. The findings suggest that attention needs to be paid to these citizen governance boards if they are truly meant to be sites of citizen engagement in health policy and governance. PMID:19927411

  18. A four year prospective study of injuries in elite Ontario youth provincial and national soccer players during training and matchplay

    PubMed Central

    Mohib, Milad; Moser, Nicholas; Kim, Richard; Thillai, Maathavan; Gringmuth, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: With over 200 million amateur players worldwide, soccer is one of the most popular and internationally recognized sports today. By understanding how and why soccer injuries occur we hope to reduce prevalent injuries amongst elite soccer athletes. Methods: Via a prospective cohort, we examined both male and female soccer players eligible to train with the Ontario Soccer Association provincial program between the ages of 13 to 17 during the period of October 10, 2008 and April 20, 2012. Data collection occurred during all player exposures to potential injury. Exposures occurred at the Soccer Centre, Ontario Training grounds and various other venues on multiple playing surfaces. Results: A total number of 733 injuries were recorded. Muscle strain, pull or tightness was responsible for 45.6% of all injuries and ranked as the most prevalent injury. Discussion: As anticipated, the highest injury reported was muscular strain, which warrants more suitable preventive programs aimed at strengthening and properly warming up the players’ muscles. PMID:25550661

  19. Improvement actions in waste management systems at the provincial scale based on a life cycle assessment evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rigamonti, L. Falbo, A.; Grosso, M.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • LCA was used for evaluating the performance of four provincial waste management systems. • Milano, Bergamo, Pavia and Mantova (Italy) are the provinces selected for the analysis. • Most of the data used to model the systems are primary. • Significant differences were found among the provinces located in the same Region. • LCA was used as a decision-supporting tool by Regione Lombardia. - Abstract: This paper reports some of the findings of the ‘GERLA’ project: GEstione Rifiuti in Lombardia – Analisi del ciclo di vita (Waste management in Lombardia – Life cycle assessment). The project was devoted to support Lombardia Region in the drafting of the new waste management plan by applying a life cycle thinking perspective. The present paper mainly focuses on four Provinces in the Region, which were selected based on their peculiarities. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was adopted as the methodology to assess the current performance of the integrated waste management systems, to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each of them and to design their perspective evolution as of year 2020. Results show that despite a usual business approach that is beneficial to all the provinces, the introduction of technological and management improvements to the system provides in general additional energy and environmental benefits for all four provinces. The same improvements can be easily extended to the whole Region, leading to increased environmental benefits from the waste management sector, in line with the targets set by the European Union for 2020.

  20. Twelve new species and fifty-three new provincial distribution records of Aleocharinae rove beetles of Saskatchewan, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Larson, David J.; Labrecque, Myriam; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Abstract One hundred twenty species of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae) are recognized in the province of Saskatchewan. Sixty-five new provincial records, including twelve new species and one new North American record, are presented. Oligota inflata (Mannerheim), a Palearctic species, is newly recorded for North America. The following twelve species are described as new to science: Acrotona pseudopygmaea Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Agaricomorpha pulchra Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. (new genus record for Canadian fauna), Aleochara elisabethae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) larsonae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) pseudopittionii Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) spermathecorum Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) richardsoni Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Brachyusa saskatchewanae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota langori Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota simulans Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota websteri Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., and Oxypoda domestica Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. Colour images of habitus and black and white images of the median lobe of the aedeagus, spermatheca, and tergite and sternite VIII are presented for all new species, Oligota inflata Mannerheim and Dochmonota rudiventris (Eppelsheim). A new synonymy is established: Tetralina filitarsus Casey, syn. n. = Tetralina helenae Casey, now placed in the genus Brachyusa Mulsant & Rey. PMID:27587977

  1. Twelve new species and fifty-three new provincial distribution records of Aleocharinae rove beetles of Saskatchewan, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Larson, David J; Labrecque, Myriam; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    One hundred twenty species of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae) are recognized in the province of Saskatchewan. Sixty-five new provincial records, including twelve new species and one new North American record, are presented. Oligota inflata (Mannerheim), a Palearctic species, is newly recorded for North America. The following twelve species are described as new to science: Acrotona pseudopygmaea Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Agaricomorpha pulchra Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. (new genus record for Canadian fauna), Aleochara elisabethae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) larsonae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) pseudopittionii Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) spermathecorum Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) richardsoni Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Brachyusa saskatchewanae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota langori Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota simulans Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota websteri Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., and Oxypoda domestica Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. Colour images of habitus and black and white images of the median lobe of the aedeagus, spermatheca, and tergite and sternite VIII are presented for all new species, Oligota inflata Mannerheim and Dochmonota rudiventris (Eppelsheim). A new synonymy is established: Tetralina filitarsus Casey, syn. n. = Tetralina helenae Casey, now placed in the genus Brachyusa Mulsant & Rey. PMID:27587977

  2. ‘For me… it’s a miracle’: injecting beauty among kathoeis in a provincial Thai city

    PubMed Central

    Poompruek, Panoopat; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Guadamuz, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Thai term kathoei refers to non-gender-normative females, males and intersexual individuals at different stages of the transitional spectrum with recognized social and cultural roles in society. Nevertheless, kathoeis are only tolerated in Thai society. Many kathoeis seek social acceptance through beauty and turn to the off-label injection of various ‘beauty drugs’. Methods The first author conducted an ethnographic study of injection parties at a wedding studio in a Central Thai provincial city between April and September 2011. Data were gathered through participant observation, focus group discussions and narrative interviews with six participants. All data were collected and analyzed in Thai, and later translated. Findings While injection parties provide opportunities for kathoeis to socialize, bond, and share experiential knowledge on chemically-assisted transformation, they also reproduce ideologies of gender, beauty and sexuality that reinforce the notion that if a kathoei is to maintain her beauty, she must use medicines more frequently and in higher doses. Conclusion Injection parties among Thai kathoeis feature drug use that is entirely reasonable in terms of their own lay knowledge. Empowering kathoeis, by providing accessible information on chemicals and health in a way that reflects the complexity and diversity of their practices, would be one way to reduce health risks. Society must give more long-term options to kathoeis to build their sense of self, based on things besides being beautiful. PMID:25047007

  3. The Perceived Implications of an Outsourcing Model on Governance within British Columbia Provincial Parks in Canada: A Quantitative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagles, Paul; Havitz, Mark; McCutcheon, Bonnie; Buteau-Duitschaever, Windekind; Glover, Troy

    2010-06-01

    Good governance is of paramount importance to the success of parks and protected areas. This research utilized a questionnaire for 10 principles of governance to evaluate the outsourcing model used by British Columbia Provincial Parks, where profit-making corporations provide all front country visitor services. A total of 246 respondents representing five stakeholder groups evaluated the model according to each principle, using an online survey. Principal component analysis resulted in two of the 10 principles (equity and effectiveness) each being split into two categories, leading to 12 governance principles. Five of the 12 criteria received scores towards good governance: effectiveness outcome; equity general; strategic vision; responsiveness; and effectiveness process. One criterion, public participation, was on the neutral point. Six criteria received scores below neutral, more towards weak governance: transparency; rule of law; accountability; efficiency; consensus orientation; and, equity finance. The five stakeholder groups differed significantly on 10 of the 12 principles ( P < .05). The 2 exceptions were for efficiency and effectiveness process. Seven of the 12 criteria followed a pattern wherein government employees and contractors reported positive scores, visitors and representatives of NGOs reported more negative scores, and nearby residents reported mid-range scores. Three criteria had government employees and contractors reporting the most positive scores, residents and visitors the most negative scores, and NGO respondents reporting mid-range scores. This research found evidence that perceptions of governance related to this outsourcing model differed significantly amongst various constituent groups.

  4. Amendments to Provincial Regulations on Protecting the Legal Rights and Interests of Women and Children, November 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    In early November 1989 the government of Fujian, China made the following amendments to its Provincial Regulations on Protecting the Legal Rights and Interests of Women and Children: "a) if state policy on the recruitment of students and workers is violated, and if the law is broken through the imposition of restrictions on women seeking education and jobs, the party concerned or his guardian may file a complaint with the department in charge of recruitment of students or workers within 30 days after learning about the matter; the latter should handle the case within 30 days after receiving the complaint. b) when handling divorce cases the People's Court should follow the law and divide up the property jointly owned by the two sides when the husband- wife relationship still existed; the court is forbidden from increasing the unreasonable economic burden of the wife simply because it was the wife that asked for the divorce. c) in proceedings relating to saving women and children who have been abducted for purposes of selling later, it is necessary to respect the will of the abducted women; no one is allowed to demand compensation from the victimized women, children, or their families." PMID:12344070

  5. A survey of radiation treatment planning peer-review activities in a provincial radiation oncology programme: current practice and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Brundage, Michael; Foxcroft, Sophie; McGowan, Tom; Gutierrez, Eric; Sharpe, Michael; Warde, Padraig

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe current patterns of practice of radiation oncology peer review within a provincial cancer system, identifying barriers and facilitators to its use with the ultimate aim of process improvement. Design A survey of radiation oncology programmes at provincial cancer centres. Setting All cancer centres within the province of Ontario, Canada (n=14). These are community-based outpatient facilities overseen by Cancer Care Ontario, the provincial cancer agency. Participants A delegate from each radiation oncology programme filled out a single survey based on input from their multidisciplinary team. Outcome measures Rated importance of peer review; current utilisation; format of the peer-review process; organisation and timing; case attributes; outcomes of the peer-review process and perceived barriers and facilitators to expanding peer-review processes. Results 14 (100%) centres responded. All rated the importance of peer review as at least 8/10 (10=extremely important). Detection of medical error and improvement of planning processes were the highest rated perceived benefits of peer review (each median 9/10). Six centres (43%) reviewed at least 50% of curative cases; four of these centres (29%) conducted peer review in more than 80% of cases treated with curative intent. Fewer than 20% of cases treated with palliative intent were reviewed in most centres. Five centres (36%) reported usually conducting peer review prior to the initiation of treatment. Five centres (36%) recorded the outcomes of peer review on the medical record. Thirteen centres (93%) planned to expand peer-review activities; a critical mass of radiation oncologists was the most important limiting factor (median 6/10). Conclusions Radiation oncology peer-review practices can vary even within a cancer system with provincial oversight. The application of guidelines and standards for peer-review processes, and monitoring of implementation and outcomes, will require effective knowledge

  6. Factors associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario 2001-2007: implications for food animal syndromic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ontario provincial abattoirs have the potential to be important sources of syndromic surveillance data for emerging diseases of concern to animal health, public health and food safety. The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe provincially inspected abattoirs processing cattle in Ontario in terms of the number of abattoirs, the number of weeks abattoirs process cattle, geographical distribution, types of whole carcass condemnations reported, and the distance animals are shipped for slaughter; and (2) identify various seasonal, secular, disease and non-disease factors that might bias the results of quantitative methods, such as cluster detection methods, used for food animal syndromic surveillance. Results Data were collected from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs and the Ontario Cattlemen's Association regarding whole carcass condemnation rates for cattle animal classes, abattoir compliance ratings, and the monthly sales-yard price for various cattle classes from 2001-2007. To analyze the association between condemnation rates and potential explanatory variables including abattoir characteristics, season, year and commodity price, as well as animal class, negative binomial regression models were fit using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to account for autocorrelation among observations from the same abattoir. Results of the fitted model found animal class, year, season, price, and audit rating are associated with condemnation rates in Ontario abattoirs. In addition, a subset of data was used to estimate the average distance cattle are shipped to Ontario provincial abattoirs. The median distance from the farm to the abattoir was approximately 82 km, and 75% of cattle were shipped less than 100 km. Conclusions The results suggest that secular and seasonal trends, as well as some non-disease factors will need to be corrected for when applying quantitative methods for syndromic surveillance involving these data. This

  7. A new species of Anomognathus and new Canadian and provincial records of aleocharine rove beetles from Alberta, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae)

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Langor, David W.; Hammond, H.E. James; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Anomognathus athabascensis Klimaszewski, Hammond & Langor, sp. n., and nine new provincial records including one new country record of aleocharine beetles are presented for the province of Alberta. Diagnostics, images of habitus and genital structures, distribution, natural history information and new locality data are provided for the newly recorded species. A checklist for all recorded aleocharines from Alberta is updated. PMID:27199584

  8. BIOLOGY OF THE LEECH ACTINOBDELLA INEQUIANNULATA MOORE, 1901 (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA: RHYNCHOBDELLIDA: GLOSSIPHONIIDAE), PARASITIC ON THE WHITE SUCKER, CATOSTOMUS COMMERSONI LACEPEDE, 1803 AND THE LONGNOSE SUCKER, CATOSTOMUS CATOSTOMUS FORSTER, 1773, IN ALGONQUIN PROVINCIAL PARK, ONTARIO, CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Actinobdella inequiannulata was found on the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and less frequently on the longnose sucker, Catostomus catostomus, in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. Catostomus commersoni parasitized with Act. inequiannulata was collected from July ...

  9. Prognosis of tetanus patients in the intensive care unit of Provincial Hospital Jason Sendwe, Lubumbashi, DR Congo

    PubMed Central

    Muteya, Michel Manika; Kabey, Alain Kabey a; Lubanga, Théophile Muyumba; Tshamba, Henri Mundongo; Nkoy, Albert Mwembo Tambwe a

    2013-01-01

    Tetanus is still a public health problem in developing countries including the Democratic Republic of Congo. The objective of this study was to determine the prognosis of patients with tetanus admitted in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Provincial Hospital Jason Sendwe, Lubumbashi, DR Congo. This is a descriptive study which collected information from registers and medical records of patients admitted for tetanus in the ICU of Jason Sendwe Hospital, between January 2005 and December 2009. We calculated the parameters of position, dispersion as well as frequencies. We used the test of independent association of prognosis (death versus survival). Tetanus constituted 2.1% of admissions in the ICU during the 5-year period. The average age of patients was 39.38 ± 17; majority of patients were males (95.5%). The majority of patients lived the townships of Kampemba (27.3%), Kenya (22.7%), and Annexe (18.2%). All patients presented the generalized form of the infection. The door of entry was detectable in 71.5% of cases, localized mainly to the lower limbs (61.9%). The average length of stay was 11.29 ± 11.39 days. Mortality was observed in 52.4% of cases. This mortality was statistically significant in patients aged mrore than 40 years (p=0.029) but not not related to the length of stay (p=0.080) nor the location of point of entry(p=0.28). In our environment the prognosis of tetanus remains severe. This disease is still frequent in the city of Lubumbashi; sensibilisation of population on preventive strategies as well as setting up appropriate structures for better management of cases is required. PMID:23717709

  10. Negotiating structural vulnerability following regulatory changes to a provincial methadone program in Vancouver, Canada: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Ryan; Kerr, Thomas; Anderson, Solanna; Maher, Lisa; Keewatin, Chereece; Milloy, M J; Wood, Evan; Small, Will

    2015-05-01

    While regulatory frameworks governing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) require highly regimented treatment programs that shape treatment outcomes, little research has examined the effects of regulatory changes to these programs on those receiving treatment, and located their experiences within the wider context of social-structural inequities. In British Columbia (BC), Canada, provincial regulations governing MMT have recently been modified, including: replacing the existing methadone formulation with Methadose(®) (pre-mixed and 10 times more concentrated); prohibiting pharmacy delivery of methadone; and, prohibiting pharmacies incentives for methadone dispensation. We undertook this study to examine the impacts of these changes on a structurally vulnerable population enrolled in MMT in Vancouver, BC. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 people enrolled in MMT and recruited from two ongoing observational prospective cohort studies comprised of drug-using individuals in the six-month period in 2014 following these regulatory changes. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically, and by drawing on the concept of 'structural vulnerability'. Findings underscore how these regulatory changes disrupted treatment engagement, producing considerable health and social harms. The introduction of Methadose(®) precipitated increased withdrawal symptoms. The discontinuation of pharmacy delivery services led to interruptions in MMT and co-dispensed HIV medications due to constraints stemming from their structural vulnerability (e.g., poverty, homelessness). Meanwhile, the loss of pharmacy incentives limited access to material supports utilized by participants to overcome barriers to MMT, while diminishing their capacity to assert some degree of agency in negotiating dispensation arrangements with pharmacies. Collectively, these changes functioned to compromise MMT engagement and increased structural vulnerability to harm, including re-initiation of injection drug

  11. Breast reconstruction following prophylactic or therapeutic mastectomy for breast cancer: Recommendations from an evidence-based provincial guideline

    PubMed Central

    Shea-Budgell, Melissa; Quan, May Lynn; Mehling, Blair; Temple-Oberle, Claire

    2014-01-01

    The side effects of mastectomy can be significant. Breast reconstruction may alleviate some distress; however, there are currently no provincial recommendations regarding the integration of reconstruction with breast cancer therapy. The purpose of the present article is to provide evidence-based strategies for the management of patients who are candidates for reconstruction. A systematic review of meta-analyses, guidelines, clinical trials and comparative studies published between 1980 and 2013 was conducted using the PubMed and EMBASE databases. Reference lists of publications were manually searched for additional literature. The National Guidelines Clearinghouse and SAGE directory, as well as guideline developers’ websites, were also searched. Recommendations were developed based on the available evidence. Reconstruction consultation should be made available for patients undergoing mastectomy. Tumour characteristics, cancer therapy, patient comorbidities, body habitus and smoking history may affect reconstruction outcomes. Although immediate reconstruction should be considered whenever possible, delayed reconstruction is acceptable when immediate is not available or appropriate. The integration of reconstruction and postmastectomy radiotherapy should be addressed in a multidisciplinary setting. The decision as to which type of procedure to perform (autologous or alloplastic with or without acellular dermal matrices) should be left to the discretion of the surgeons and the patient after providing counselling. Skin-sparing mastectomy is safe and appropriate. Nipple-sparing is generally not recommended for patients with malignancy, but could be considered for carefully selected patients. Immediate reconstruction requires resources to coordinate operating room time between the general and plastic surgeons, to provide supplies including acellular dermal matrices, and to develop the infrastructure needed to facilitate multidisciplinary discussions. PMID:25114623

  12. NEGOTIATING STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY FOLLOWING REGULATORY CHANGES TO A PROVINCIAL METHADONE PROGRAM IN VANCOUVER, CANADA: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Ryan; Kerr, Thomas; Anderson, Solanna; Maher, Lisa; Keewatin, Chereece; Milloy, MJ; Wood, Evan; Small, Will

    2015-01-01

    While regulatory frameworks governing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) require highly regimented treatment programs that shape treatment outcomes, little research has examined the effects of regulatory changes to these programs on those receiving treatment, and located their experiences within the wider context of socialstructural inequities. In British Columbia (BC), Canada, provincial regulations governing MMT have recently been modified, including: replacing the existing methadone formulation with Methadose® (pre-mixed and 10 times more concentrated); prohibiting pharmacy delivery of methadone; and, prohibiting pharmacies incentives for methadone dispensation. We undertook this study to examine the impacts of these changes on a structurally vulnerable population enrolled in MMT in Vancouver, BC. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 people enrolled in MMT and recruited from two ongoing observational prospective cohort studies comprised of drug-using individuals in the six-month period in 2014 following these regulatory changes. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically, and by drawing on the concept of ‘structural vulnerability’. Findings underscore how these regulatory changes disrupted treatment engagement, producing considerable health and social harms. The introduction of Methadose® precipitated increased withdrawal symptoms. The discontinuation of pharmacy delivery services led to interruptions in MMT and codispensed HIV medications due to constraints stemming from their structural vulnerability (e.g., poverty, homelessness). Meanwhile, the loss of pharmacy incentives limited access to material supports utilized by participants to overcome barriers to MMT, while diminishing their capacity to assert some degree of agency in negotiating dispensation arrangements with pharmacies. Collectively, these changes functioned to compromise MMT engagement and increased structural vulnerability to harm, including re-initiation of injection drug

  13. Suitability of bovine portion condemnations at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario Canada for food animal syndromic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Abattoir condemnations may play an important role in a food animal syndromic surveillance system. Portion condemnation data may be particularly useful, as these data can provide more specific information on health outcomes than whole carcass condemnation data. Various seasonal, secular, disease, and non-disease factors have been previously identified to be associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in Ontario provincial abattoirs; and if ignored, may bias the results of quantitative disease surveillance methods. The objective of this study was to identify various seasonal, secular, and abattoir characteristic factors that may be associated with bovine portion condemnation rates and compare how these variables may differ from previously identified factors associated with bovine whole carcass condemnation rates. Results Data were collected from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) and the Ontario Cattlemen’s Association regarding “parasitic liver” and pneumonic lung condemnation rates for different cattle classes, abattoir compliance ratings, and the monthly sales-yard price for commodity classes from 2001-2007. To control for clustering by abattoirs, multi-level Poisson modeling was used to investigate the association between the following variables and “parasitic liver” as well as pneumonic lung condemnation rates: year, season, annual abattoir audit rating, geographic region, annual abattoir operating time, annual total number of animals processed, animal class, and commodity sales price. Conclusions In this study, “parasitic liver” condemnation rates were associated with year, season, animal class, audit rating, and region. Pneumonic lung condemnation rates were associated with year, season, animal class, region, audit rating, number of cattle processed per year, and number of weeks abattoirs processed cattle. Unlike previous models based on whole carcass condemnations, commodity price was not

  14. Supporting chronic pain management across provincial and territorial health systems in Canada: Findings from two stakeholder dialogues

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael G; Lavis, John N; Ellen, Moriah E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a serious health problem given its prevalence, associated disability, impact on quality of life and the costs associated with the extensive use of health care services by individuals living with it. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the research evidence and elicit health system policymakers’, stakeholders’ and researchers’ tacit knowledge and views about improving chronic pain management in Canada and engaging provincial and territorial health system decision makers in supporting comprehensive chronic pain management in Canada. METHODS: For these two topics, the global and local research evidence regarding each of the two problems were synthesized in evidence briefs. Three options were generated for addressing each problem, and implementation considerations were assessed. A stakeholder dialogue regarding each topic was convened (with 29 participants in total) and the deliberations were synthesized. RESULTS: To inform the first stakeholder dialogue, the authors found that systematic reviews supported the use of evidence-based tools for strengthening chronic pain management, including patient education, self-management supports, interventions to implement guidelines and multidisciplinary approaches to pain management. While research evidence about patient registries/treatment-monitoring systems is limited, many dialogue participants argued that a registry/system is needed. Many saw a registry as a precondition for moving forward with other options, including creating a national network of chronic pain centres with a coordinating ‘hub’ to provide chronic pain-related decision support and a cross-payer, cross-discipline model of patient-centred primary health care-based chronic pain management. For the second dialogue, systematic reviews indicated that traditional media can be used to positively influence individual health-related behaviours, and that multistakeholder partnerships can contribute to increasing attention devoted to issues on

  15. Capacity and principles of participation of the provincial fund of environmental protection and water management in Cracow in Cracow program of elimination of low emission sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bolek, K.; Sarzynski, H.

    1995-12-31

    In general, the principles of environmental protection was determined by Law issued January 31, 1980. Certain detailed solutions have been included in several amendments in subsequent years and the uniformed text of the Law on Environmental Protection and Creation was published in 1994. The Provincial Fund of Environmental Protection and Water Management was established in 1989 but until 1993 the Fund has no legal status. The main purpose of the creation of such fund was to assign certain financial means to the defined tasks related to environmental protection. This way the fund accumulates financial means from the fees paid for the usage of the natural environmental for business purposes and from penalties becoming due in the case of non-observance of the environmental protection standards. On the other hand, the Fund spends money for tasks in the field of environmental protection requiring urgent implementation. It should be added that - after few amendments brought into force - the Provincial Funds are able to assign a greater amount of money to the implementation of these tasks. The basic purposes of Provincial Fund activity, defined by Law, determine the policy and criteria of the selection of undertaking. This is also a base for making programs of activity and for creation of the list of priorities. The environmental protection problems in the individual provinces are different. Therefore, the scope of works partly financed by the Fund is very differentiated both in essence and in the method of financing. The former system of subsidies is now being replaced with a wide range of partial financing of undertakings in the field of environmental protection. The system of selection of these undertakings has been changed essentially. The selection of tasks and methods of their financing is based on economic criteria.

  16. The Dasypodidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Urso Fóssil Cave (Quaternary), Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, Brazil: paleoecological and taxonomic aspects.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Paulo V; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Oliveira, Edison V; Viana, Maria Somália S

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with xenarthrans osteoderms assigned to Dasypus aff. D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus and Cabassous sp. The material was collected in subsurface, from 0.10 to 0.60 m in the Urso Fóssil Cave, Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. The ages of sediment samples from levels 4 and 5 (depths of 0.40 and 0.50 m) were determined by thermoluminescence technique, and indicated ages of 8,000 and 8,200 years BP for each layer respectively. The presence in these layers of early Holocene xenarthrans taxa can contribute to the understanding of the biotic evolution of the northwest region of Ceará during the last 10,000 years. Two of the three identified taxa still occur in the region: Dasypus novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcinctus. The Dasypodidae fauna here reported includes animals with generalist feeding habits and current wide geographical distribution. It is suggested, therefore, that the climatic and environmental conditions in the early Holocene were very similar the actual ones, and that the absence of Cabassous may be conditioned to other factors, such as anthropogenic action and loss of habitat by fragmentation of the vegetation. PMID:24519005

  17. Feasibility study report for distribution dispatching center project 2nd stage for the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA), Bangkok, Thailand, June 1998. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The study concerns the Provincial Electricity Authority, a state agency within the Ministry of Interior that supplies electricity to 73 of Thailand`s provinces. The primary objective of this study is to help increase the ability of the Authority to meet the rapidly increasing demand for electric power within the Kingdom of Thailand in a reliable, safe and economic manner. This is Volume 1 and it consists of the following: (1) introduction; (2) assessment; (3) conceptual design; (4) economic and financial evaluation; (5) project plan; (6) Thailand impact; (7) industry review; (8) conclusion; and appendices.

  18. [Notes on the abandoned construction project for the provincial psychiatric hospital in Istria in the second half of the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Cergna, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Records about the need for a psychiatric hospital in Istria date back to the early 19th century). This article presents the views on the issue expressed by advisors of the National Council of Istria more than half a century later. It starts with the session held on 15 March 1864 and follows the development of views the National Council held, from the motion to build a new mental hospital in at the feet of Monte Ghiro to the actual construction of the "Santorio Santorio" Provincial Hospital (still existing) at the hill of St Mihovil in Pula. The paper also investigates the reasons why the Council advisors abandoned the project of building the psychiatric hospital in Istria in favour of a home for the mentally ill in Trieste, where many Istrian patients were provided accommodation from as early as the end of the eighteenth century until the end of World War II. During the rule of the Habsburg Monarchy, many other cities of the Empire hospitalised mental patients from Istria, whose pitiful condition was reported by Matteo Campitelli at the session of the Istrian Provincial Parliament in 1886. PMID:24304106

  19. Lessons learned from the implementation of a provincial breastfeeding policy in Nova Scotia, Canada and the implications for childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Sara F L; Sim, Sarah Meaghan; Hemmens, Erin; Price, Sheri L

    2012-04-01

    Healthy public policy plays a central role in creating environments that are supportive of health. Breastfeeding, widely supported as the optimal mode for infant feeding, is a critical factor in promoting infant health. In 2005, the Canadian province of Nova Scotia introduced a provincial breastfeeding policy. This paper describes the process and outcomes of an evaluation into the implementation of the policy. This evaluation comprised focus groups held with members of provincial and district level breastfeeding committees who were tasked with promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding in their districts. Five key themes were identified, which were an unsupportive culture of breastfeeding; the need for strong leadership; the challenges in engaging physicians in dialogue around breastfeeding; lack of understanding around the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes; and breastfeeding as a way to address childhood obesity. Recommendations for other jurisdictions include the need for a policy, the value of leadership, the need to integrate policy with other initiatives across sectors and the importance of coordination and support at multiple levels. Finally, promotion of breastfeeding offers a population-based strategy for addressing the childhood obesity epidemic and should form a core component of any broader strategies or policies for childhood obesity prevention. PMID:22690194

  20. Estimation of the contribution of exports to the provincial economy: an analysis based on China's multi-regional input-output tables.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sanmang; Li, Shantong; Lei, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    This paper developed an estimation model for the contribution of exports to a country's regional economy based on the Chenery-Moses model and conducted an empirical analysis using China's multi-regional input-output tables for 1997, 2002, and 2007. The results indicated that China's national exports make significantly different contributions to the provincial economy in various regions, with the greatest contribution being observed in the eastern region and the smallest in the central region. The provinces are also subjected to significantly different export spillover effects. The boosting effect for the eastern provinces is primarily generated from local exports, whereas the western provinces primarily benefit from the export spillover effect from the eastern provinces. The eastern provinces, such as Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Shanghai, are the primary sources of export spillover effects, and Guangdong is the largest source of export spillover effects for almost all of the provinces in China. PMID:27006865

  1. Aerobic bacterial microflora of Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) oral cavity and cloaca, originating from parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, J S A; Mota, R A; Pinheiro Júnior, J W; Almeida, M C S; Silva, D R; Ferreira, D R A; Azevedo, J C N

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca's samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%), Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%), Escherichia coli (13.68%) and Shigella sp.(11.58%), and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05%) and Salmonella sp. (1.05%).This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms' participation in infectious processes (sepsis) and injuries caused by crocodilians. PMID:24031343

  2. Do Catch-and-Release Guidelines from State and Provincial Fisheries Agencies in North America Conform to Scientifically Based Best Practices?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Christine; Hanson, Kyle C.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2007-06-01

    Many recreational anglers practice catch-and-release angling, where fish are returned to the water with the presumption that they will survive. However, not all fish survive, and those that do often experience sublethal consequences including injury and stress. There is compelling scientific evidence that angler behavior and gear choice can affect the success of catch-and-release as a management and conservation strategy. Because anglers often look to government natural resource agencies for guidance on how to handle and release fish properly, there is a need to assess whether their outreach materials are readily accessible and provide the necessary and correct information on the subject. Therefore, on-line catch-and-release guidelines developed by state and provincial natural resource agencies across North America were evaluated to determine whether their guidelines were consistent with the best available scientific information. This analysis revealed that there was immense variation in the depth and breadth of coverage among jurisdictions. Agency guidelines contradicted one another in several areas including air exposure, angling in deep water, venting trapped gases, and resuscitation. In many cases, the guidelines failed to provide sufficient direction to actually be of use to anglers or provide direction consistent with contemporary scientific literature. This analysis will assist with developing outreach materials that promote sustainable recreational fisheries and in maintaining the welfare status of individual fish.

  3. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sputum using Selective Enrichment Broth and Ashdown’s Medium at Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Nhem, Somary; Letchford, Joanne; Meas, Chea; Thann, Sovanndeth; McLaughlin, James C.; Baron, Ellen Jo; West, T. Eoin

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis, infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly reported in Cambodia. We hypothesized that implementation of an enhanced sputum testing protocol in a provincial hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratory would increase detection of B. pseudomallei. We tested 241 sputum specimens that were deemed acceptable for culture, comparing culture in selective enrichment broth followed by sub-culture on Ashdown’s medium to standard culture methods. Two specimens (0.8%) were positive for B. pseudomallei using the enhanced protocol whereas one specimen (0.4%) was positive using standard methods. Given the low numbers of positive specimens, we could not conclusively determine the utility of the enhanced sputum testing protocol. However, the ramifications of identification of  B. pseudomallei are substantial, and the benefit of the enhanced testing protocol may be more apparent in patients selected based on risk factors and clinical presentation. Promoting clinician awareness of the infection and encouraging utilization of diagnostic microbiology services are also likely to be important factors in facilitating identification of melioidosis. PMID:25717370

  4. Identification of Major Risk Sources for Surface Water Pollution by Risk Indexes (RI) in the Multi-Provincial Boundary Region of the Taihu Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong; Li, Weixin; Qian, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Environmental safety in multi-district boundary regions has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Act of 2014. Five types were categorized concerning the risk sources for surface water pollution in the multi-provincial boundary region of the Taihu basin: production enterprises, waste disposal sites, chemical storage sites, agricultural non-point sources and waterway transportations. Considering the hazard of risk sources, the purification property of environmental medium and the vulnerability of risk receptors, 52 specific attributes on the risk levels of each type of risk source were screened out. Continuous piecewise linear function model, expert consultation method and fuzzy integral model were used to calculate the integrated risk indexes (RI) to characterize the risk levels of pollution sources. In the studied area, 2716 pollution sources were characterized by RI values. There were 56 high-risk sources screened out as major risk sources, accounting for about 2% of the total. The numbers of sources with high-moderate, moderate, moderate-low and low pollution risk were 376, 1059, 101 and 1124, respectively, accounting for 14%, 38%, 5% and 41% of the total. The procedure proposed could be included in the integrated risk management systems of the multi-district boundary region of the Taihu basin. It could help decision makers to identify major risk sources in the risk prevention and reduction of surface water pollution. PMID:26308032

  5. Identification of Major Risk Sources for Surface Water Pollution by Risk Indexes (RI) in the Multi-Provincial Boundary Region of the Taihu Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Li, Weixin; Qian, Xin

    2015-08-01

    Environmental safety in multi-district boundary regions has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Act of 2014. Five types were categorized concerning the risk sources for surface water pollution in the multi-provincial boundary region of the Taihu basin: production enterprises, waste disposal sites, chemical storage sites, agricultural non-point sources and waterway transportations. Considering the hazard of risk sources, the purification property of environmental medium and the vulnerability of risk receptors, 52 specific attributes on the risk levels of each type of risk source were screened out. Continuous piecewise linear function model, expert consultation method and fuzzy integral model were used to calculate the integrated risk indexes (RI) to characterize the risk levels of pollution sources. In the studied area, 2716 pollution sources were characterized by RI values. There were 56 high-risk sources screened out as major risk sources, accounting for about 2% of the total. The numbers of sources with high-moderate, moderate, moderate-low and low pollution risk were 376, 1059, 101 and 1124, respectively, accounting for 14%, 38%, 5% and 41% of the total. The procedure proposed could be included in the integrated risk management systems of the multi-district boundary region of the Taihu basin. It could help decision makers to identify major risk sources in the risk prevention and reduction of surface water pollution. PMID:26308032

  6. Um Projeto de Intervenção nos Espaços de Exposições do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Amaral, L. H.; de Araújo, C. F., Jr.; Matsuura, O. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-08-01

    Cada vez mais a humanidade, em sua imensa maioria, está alheia às próprias conquistas. A insatisfação com esta realidade tem levado muitos pesquisadores, instituições, empresas e governos a procurar formas alternativas de acompanhar e transmitir todo este acervo científico cultural à sociedade, buscando a melhoria da qualidade da divulgação científica e contribuindo para o processo de cultura e alfabetização científica. Não há tempo nem espaço nos limitados planos curriculares do ensino médio e mesmo nos programas de ensino que propiciem a cultura científica e o acompanhamento do vertiginoso progresso científico e tecnológico atual. Neste sentido, a educação formal escolar precisa ser complementada ou acrescida de uma educação informal, extra-escolar, que possa oferecer à sociedade o que a escola não pode oferecer. A interação do público com museus, feiras de ciências, planetários, exposições científicas e/ou culturais é de grande importância para a aquisição e difusão de conhecimentos relacionados ao mundo científico. Reconhecidamente como um modelo de alfabetização científica esses ambientes promovem uma interação social capaz de propiciar de forma efetiva uma melhor relação ensino-aprendizagem com o público. Partindo desta realidade a Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul e a Escola Municipal de Astronomia (EMA) vêm desenvolvendo um projeto de intervenção no espaço em torno do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera com o objetivo de se implantar um ambiente de aprendizagem motivador e desafiador que promova a popularização de conteúdos relacionados à astronomia, astrofísica e cosmologia. Busca-se, também, a aproximação e interação do público com exposições que estão sendo implementadas no planetário. Considerando que se trata de um projeto de mestrado em fase inicial o objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar a concepção básica e os critérios que estão sendo utilizados do ponto de vista pedag

  7. A collaborative quality improvement model and electronic community of practice to support sepsis management in emergency departments: investigating care harmonization for provincial knowledge translation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kendall; Marsden, Julian; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra; Novak Lauscher, Helen; Kamal, Noreen; Stenstrom, Rob; Sweet, David; Goldman, Ran D; Innes, Grant

    2012-01-01

    Emergency medicine departments within several organizations are now advocating the adoption of early intervention guidelines for patients with the signs and symptoms of sepsis. This proposed research will lead to a comprehensive understanding of how diverse emergency department (ED) sites across British Columbia (BC), Canada, engage in a quality improvement collaborative to lead to improvements in time-based process measures and clinical outcomes for septic patients in EDs. To address the challenge of sepsis management, in 2007, the BC Ministry of Health began working with emergency health professionals, including health administrators, to establish a provincial ED collaborative: Evidence to Excellence (E2E). The E2E initiative employs the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) model and is supported by a Web-based community of practice (CoP) in emergency medicine. It aims to (1) support clinicians in accessing and applying evidence to clinical practice in emergency medicine, (2) support system change and clinical process improvement, and (3) develop resources and strategies to facilitate knowledge translation and process improvement. Improving sepsis management is one of the central foci of the E2E initiative. The primary purpose of our research is to investigate whether the application of sepsis management protocols leads to improved time-based process measures and clinical outcomes for patients presenting to EDs with sepsis. Also, we seek to investigate the implementation of sepsis protocols among different EDs. For example: (1) How can sepsis protocols be harmonized among different EDs? (2) What are health professionals' perspectives on interprofessional collaboration with various EDs? and (3) What are the factors affecting the level of success among EDs? Lastly, working in collaboration with the BC Ministry of Health as our policy-maker partner, the research will investigate how the demonstrated efficacy of this research can be applied on a provincial and

  8. Historical geographies of provincial science: themes in the setting and reception of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Britain and Ireland, 1831-c.1939.

    PubMed

    Withers, Charles; Higgitt, Rebekah; Finnegan, Diarmid

    2008-09-01

    The British Association for the Advancement of Science sought to promote the understanding of science in various ways, principally by having annual meetings in different towns and cities throughout Britain and Ireland (and, from 1884, in Canada, South Africa and Australia). This paper considers how far the location of its meetings in different urban settings influenced the nature and reception of the association's activities in promoting science, from its foundation in 1831 to the later 1930s. Several themes concerning the production and reception of science--promoting, practising, writing and receiving--are examined in different urban contexts. We consider the ways in which towns were promoted as venues for and centres of science. We consider the role of local field sites, leading local practitioners and provincial institutions for science in attracting the association to different urban locations. The paper pays attention to excursions and to the evolution and content of the BAAS meeting handbook as a 'geographical' guide to the significance of the regional setting and to appropriate scientific venues. The paper considers the reception of BAAS meetings and explores how far the association's intentions for the promotion of science varied by location and by section within the BAAS. In examining these themes--the geographical setting of the association's meetings, the reception of association science in local civic and intellectual context and the importance of place to an understanding of what the BAAS did and how it was received--the paper extends existing knowledge of the association and contributes to recent work within the history of science which has emphasized the 'local' nature of science's making and reception and the mobility of scientific knowledge. PMID:19244850

  9. Improving Surveillance for Surgical Site Infections Following Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Using Diagnosis and Procedure Codes in a Provincial Surveillance Network.

    PubMed

    Rusk, Alysha; Bush, Kathryn; Brandt, Marlene; Smith, Christopher; Howatt, Andrea; Chow, Blanda; Henderson, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate hospital administrative data to identify potential surgical site infections (SSIs) following primary elective total hip or knee arthroplasty. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING All acute care facilities in Alberta, Canada. METHODS Diagnosis and procedure codes for 6 months following total hip or knee arthroplasty were used to identify potential SSI cases. Medical charts of patients with potential SSIs were reviewed by an infection control professional at the acute care facility where the patient was identified with a diagnosis or procedure code. For SSI decision, infection control professionals used the National Healthcare Safety Network SSI definition. The performance of traditional surveillance methods and administrative data-triggered medical chart review was assessed. RESULTS Of the 162 patients identified by diagnosis or procedure code, 46 (28%) were confirmed as an SSI by an infection control professional. More SSIs were identified following total hip vs total knee arthroplasty (42% vs16%). Of 46 confirmed SSI cases, 20 (43%) were identified at an acute care facility different than their procedure facility. Administrative data-triggered medical chart review with infection control professional confirmation resulted in a 1.1- to 1.7-fold increase in SSI rate compared with traditional surveillance. SSIs identified by administrative data resulted in sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 99%. CONCLUSION Medical chart review for cases identified through administrative data is an efficient supplemental SSI surveillance strategy. It improves case-finding by increasing SSI identification and making identification consistent across facilities, and in a provincial surveillance network it identifies SSIs presenting at nonprocedure facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:699-703. PMID:27018968

  10. [Analysis of the results and considerations on the organizational aspects of the implementation of the Law 194/78 in a provincial hospital].

    PubMed

    Pacilli, L; Arrotta, S; Ansaldi, E; Graffino, W

    1981-09-01

    Law number 94 legalizing abortion passed in Italy in May 1978. This article reports on the situation of induced abortion in the small provincial hospital of Avigliana, Torino, 1 year after the implementation of the law. The paramedical personnel were supportive of the medical and obstetrical personnel who, not being conscientious objectors, accepted to perform abortions. Every woman was thoroughly checked and counseled prior to the operation by the same doctor who was going to perform the abortion; the procedure was always done under general anesthesia and by vacuum aspiration. There were 66 abortions between June-December 1978, and 115 between January-July 1979. Contrary to expectations the number of deliveries also increased, from 66 during the 1st half to 145 during the 2nd half of operations. More than half the number of patients were referred from the ambulatory clinic within the same hospital, as compared to only 25% during the 1st half; only 7.8% were referred by private physicians, as compared to 30% during the 1st half. Almost 50% of patients were housewives both during the 1st and during the 2nd half; age of patients was, for the great majority, between 24-35; parity was 2 in 43.8% of cases for the 1st half, and in 40% of cases in the 2nd half. The majority of operations was performed within the 1st 8 weeks of pregnancy, and many women came from districts outside that of Avigliana. 34.8% of requests for abortion were because of failure of contraception, and almost 40% for socioeconomic reasons; only 8.2% of requests were motivated by reasons of health. Misinformation about contraceptive practices was widespread among the patients. PMID:7322426

  11. Annual and diurnal variations of gaseous and particulate pollutants in 31 provincial capital cities based on in situ air quality monitoring data from China National Environmental Monitoring Center.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Yin, Daiying; He, Jianjun; Liu, Na; Qu, Jianjun; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term air quality data with high temporal and spatial resolutions are needed to understand some important processes affecting the air quality and corresponding environmental and health effects. The annual and diurnal variations of each criteria pollutant including PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively), CO (carbon monoxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), SO2 (sulfur dioxide) and O3 (ozone) in 31 provincial capital cities between April 2014 and March 2015 were investigated by cluster analysis to evaluate current air pollution situations in China, and the cities were classified as severely, moderately, and slightly polluted cities according to the variations. The concentrations of air pollutants in winter months were significantly higher than those in other months with the exception of O3, and the cities with the highest CO and SO2 concentrations were located in northern China. The annual variation of PM2.5 concentrations in northern cities was bimodal with comparable peaks in October 2014 and January 2015, while that in southern China was unobvious with slightly high PM2.5 concentrations in winter months. The concentrations of particulate matter and trace gases from primary emissions (SO2 and CO) and NO2 were low in the afternoon (~16:00), while diurnal variation of O3 concentrations was opposite to that of other pollutants with the highest values in the afternoon. The most polluted cities were mainly located in North China Plain, while slightly polluted cities mostly focus on southern China and the cities with high altitude such as Lasa. This study provides a basis for the formulation of future urban air pollution control measures in China. PMID:26562560

  12. Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Dinosaur Provincial Park area and surrounding plains, Alberta, Canada: the identification of former glacial lobes, drainage diversions and meltwater flood tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.

    2000-06-01

    The Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the lower Red Deer River drainage basin, centred on the Dinosaur Provincial Park badlands, provides information on pre-Late Wisconsinan drainage patterns and the dynamics of former lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in western Canada. Patterns of deglaciation, proglacial lake evolution and spillway incision are also reconstructed based upon the distribution of surface materials and glacial/glaciofluvial landforms. The Empress Group fluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments, which could be as young as 27 ka BP, infill the precursor Red Deer River and its tributaries and document the initial advance of glacier ice into southern Alberta. Glaciotectonic disturbance of older sediments and bedrock, the production of deformation tills and the construction of a megafluting complex and cupola hills record the advances of a glacier lobe centred over the study area. Stratified inter- and intra-till beds record pulses of subglacial meltwater between phases of subsole deformation. The thickening of tills towards the margin of the lobe represents a till wedge, an expected product of sediment advection by glaciers moving over deformable beds. The eastern margin of the glacier lobe is demarcated by the interlobate Suffield hummocky moraine belt which contains overprinted thrust ridges, which record diachronous oscillations of neighbouring lobes within the ice sheet. Proglacial and glaciofluvial sediments were deposited in the area in association with proglacial Lake Bassano/Patricia, which drained eastwards when the Suffield moraine was dissected by spillways. Changes in the size of glacial lake Bassano/Patricia are clearly documented by a sequence of spillway incisions which culminated in the erosion of scabland topography and the initiation of a new course for the Red Deer River, a 15 km southward diversion of the main channel. In distinct contrast to the documented incision histories of other small rivers in Alberta, One Tree Creek and

  13. Care arrangements for community-dwelling people with dementia in Germany as perceived by informal carers - a cross-sectional pilot survey in a provincial-rural setting.

    PubMed

    von Kutzleben, Milena; Reuther, Sven; Dortmann, Olga; Holle, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    The majority of people with dementia live at home, and informal carers assume the role of key care providers, often supported by formal services. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess home-based care arrangements, to illustrate utilisation of formal services over time and to identify factors associated with perceived stability of the care situation from the informal carer's perspective. A self-administered questionnaire (D-IVA 'Instrument for Assessing Home-Based Care Arrangements for People with Dementia') was developed and distributed in a provincial-rural setting in Germany as a cross-sectional survey. Data analysis used descriptive statistics, unbiased conditional inference trees and thematic analysis for open-ended questions. In total, 84 care arrangements were assessed. The majority of participants were direct relatives of the care-dependent person [mostly adult children (48.8%) or spouses (27.4%)]. Formal services were already sought in the first year after onset of memory problems. The most frequently used formal services were home care nursing services (53.0%), day care (49.4%) and respite care (29.6%), whereas 15.5% did not use any type of formal support. Companion home visit, home care nursing service and day care were used over the longest periods of time. The recruitment strategy used in this study may have recruited persons who were relatively more dependent on their informal carers. In this small sample, carers' perceived stability of the care situation was high, and this was associated with the country of origin and sex of the person with dementia (P = 0.004 and 0.023 respectively). Most care arrangements consisted of a mix of informal and formal services. However, informal carers assumed prime responsibility. The questionnaire D-IVA proved to be suitable. It remains a challenge to further examine factors associated with perceived stability and to explain the phenomenon in its whole complexity. Further research using the D-IVA should

  14. Björnnutane and Sembberget basalt lavas and the geochemical provinciality of Karoo magmatism in western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luttinen, Arto V.; Leat, Philip T.; Furnes, Harald

    2010-12-01

    Geochemical provinciality of the Karoo continental flood basalt (CFB) province is complicated by the great diversity of magma types. Our geochemical and Nd and Sr isotopic data indicate derivation of Karoo-related low-Ti CFBs of Björnnutane and Sembberget, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, from different magma plumbing systems that were typified by generation of magma subtypes largely by variable degrees of fractional crystallization and crustal contamination. We associate these plumbing systems with different mantle sources and propose that the Karoo CFBs of Dronning Maud Land can be grouped into two provinces derived from these sources. The Grunehogna province magmas include high-Ti and some low-Ti magma types, have high (Sm/Yb) N (> 2), are enriched in Sr and Eu, and show wide range of initial ɛNd (+ 9 to - 16). Grunehogna province magmas dominate at Björnnutane, Vestfjella, and Ahlmannryggen. The Maud province magmas show low-Ti affinity, have low (Sm/Yb) N (< 2), lack Sr and Eu enrichment, and have relatively narrow range of initial ɛNd (+ 3 to - 4). Maud province magmas are restricted to Sembberget, Kirwanveggen and the Utpostane gabbros in Vestfjella. The enrichment of Sr and Eu and the depletion of heavy rare earth elements in Grunehogna province magmas, and, specifically, geochemical indications of recycled oceanic crust in the least-contaminated high-Ti and low-Ti basalts and picrites lend support to a recycled source component. Grunehogna magmas are ascribed to partial melting of eclogite-bearing asthenospheric mantle source at depth below the Grunehogna craton and contamination of the magmas with lithospheric mantle (high-Ti types) and crust (low-Ti types). The Maud province magmas can be ascribed to relatively low-pressure partial melting probably of a lithospheric mantle source within the zone of rifted lithosphere associated with the Weddell triple junction and lateral flow of magmas to present outcrops overlying thick Maud Belt lithosphere

  15. Prospective, consecutive case series of 158 snakebite patients treated at Savannakhet provincial hospital, Lao People's Democratic Republic with high incidence of anaphylactic shock to horse derived F(ab')2 antivenom.

    PubMed

    Vongphoumy, Inthanomchanh; Chanthilat, Phankham; Vilayvong, Phongmany; Blessmann, Joerg

    2016-07-01

    Snakebites are a seriously neglected public health problem in Lao PDR. Community-based cross-sectional surveys in two districts of Savannakhet province in Southern Laos revealed an incidence of up to 1105 snakebites per 100,000 persons per year. In contrast the number of snakebite patients treated in district and provincial hospitals are low. In order to improve health care for snakebite victims, antivenom was introduced to Savannakhet provincial hospital in July 2013 and medical staff has been trained in management of venomous snakebites at the same time. After the intervention the number of snakebite patients treated at the provincial hospital increased significantly from 4 patients in 2012 to 158 snakebite patients between July 2013 and November 2015. They were included into a prospective, consecutive case series. Median age was 32 years (range 1.5-70 years) and male-to-female ratio 2.2:1. Forty patients were bitten by Malayan pit vipers, 26 by green pit vipers, 24 by cobras, including 3 cases of venom ophthalmia, 5 by kraits, 8 by non-venomous species and in 55 cases the snake could not be identified. Forty-three out of 158 patients received horse derived F(ab')2 antivenom from Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute (QSMI) in Bangkok. Twenty-three patients (53%) developed early adverse reactions (EARs) within one hour after antivenom administration, including 13 patients (30%) with severe anaphylaxis. This extremely high rate of severe EARs turns the use of antivenom into a risky intervention. In contrast a retrospective chart review from Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok found only 3.5% early reactions including 1.2% severe anaphylactic reactions using the same antivenom from QSMI between 1997 and 2006. The reason for this enormous difference remains unclear. A better understanding of the aetiology and pathophysiology behind antivenom induced anaphylaxis is crucial in order to identify patients at risk and to improve safety of antivenom administration. PMID

  16. Acute care hospitals' accountability to provincial funders.

    PubMed

    Kromm, Seija K; Ross Baker, G; Wodchis, Walter P; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    Ontario's acute care hospitals are subject to a number of tools, including legislation and performance measurement for fiscal accountability and accountability for quality. Examination of accountability documents used in Ontario at the government, regional and acute care hospital levels reveals three trends: (a) the number of performance measures being used in the acute care hospital sector has increased significantly; (b) the focus of the health system has expanded from accountability for funding and service volumes to include accountability for quality and patient safety; and (c) the accountability requirements are misaligned at the different levels. These trends may affect the success of the accountability approach currently being used. PMID:25305386

  17. Geriatric care in a provincial hospital.

    PubMed

    De V Meiring, P

    1977-03-26

    Much of the work of the public medical wards at Grey's Hospital is concerned with the care of aged persons. In the absence of separate geriatric facilities, this work forms an integral part of internal medicine. During the last decade two surveys, and experience gained, have determined a comprehensive approach to the social and medical problems encountered. While team work can accomplish much, the responsibility for care of the aged currently remains divided among a number of government and private agencies. Without a unified policy and further expenditure of a certain amount of money, many of our senior citizens will continue to be denied easy access to health care facilities. PMID:857323

  18. Acute Care Hospitals' Accountability to Provincial Funders

    PubMed Central

    Kromm, Seija K.; Ross Baker, G.; Wodchis, Walter P.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Ontario's acute care hospitals are subject to a number of tools, including legislation and performance measurement for fiscal accountability and accountability for quality. Examination of accountability documents used in Ontario at the government, regional and acute care hospital levels reveals three trends: (a) the number of performance measures being used in the acute care hospital sector has increased significantly; (b) the focus of the health system has expanded from accountability for funding and service volumes to include accountability for quality and patient safety; and (c) the accountability requirements are misaligned at the different levels. These trends may affect the success of the accountability approach currently being used. PMID:25305386

  19. 77 FR 4276 - Eastern Washington Cascades Provincial Advisory Committee and the Yakima Provincial Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Melody Lane, Wenatchee, WA. During this meeting information will be shared about Washington State... Official, USDA, Okanogan- Wenatchee National Forest, 215 Melody Lane, Wenatchee, Washington 98801,...

  20. 76 FR 54196 - Eastern Washington Cascades Provincial Advisory Committee and the Yakima Provincial Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Melody Lane, Wenatchee, WA. During this meeting information will be shared about prescribed burning and... Lane, Wenatchee, Washington 98801, phone 509-664-9200. Dated: August 25, 2011. Clinton Kyhl,...

  1. 76 FR 61666 - Eastern Washington Cascades Provincial Advisory Committee and the Yakima Provincial Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Lane, Wenatchee, WA and also on November 9, 2011, from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. at Washington State Park office... Kyhl, Designated Federal Official, USDA, Okanogan- Wenatchee National Forest, 215 Melody...

  2. 76 FR 28414 - Provincial Advisory Committees Charter Re-Establishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Management of Habitat for Late-Succession and Old-Growth Forest Related Species within the Range of the..., for Management of Habitat for Late-Succession and Old-Growth Forest Related Species within the...

  3. New provincial records of skinks (Squamata: Scincidae) from northwestern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Anh Van; Le, Dzung Trung; Nguyen, Son Lan Hung; Ziegler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report six new records of skinks from northwestern Vietnam: Eutropis macularius, Scincella devorator, S. monticola, S. ochracea, Sphenomorphus cryptotis and S. indicus. Our new findings increase the species number of skinks (Scincidae) to nine in Dien Bien Province and to 14 in Son La Province. We also provide additional natural history data of aforementioned species. PMID:25698899

  4. Agricultural variation and household size. A provincial comparison for Iran.

    PubMed

    Aghajanian, A

    1986-01-01

    This research investigates the linkages between agricultural variation and household size in Iran, using data from the 1974 agricultural survey of Iran. Utilizing the agricultural survey data, the author establishes relationships between agricultural density, farm mechanization, land holding inequality, and the size of the household for the rural population. The 3 agricultural variables have significant negative effects on farmers' household size. This suggests that farmers do adjust their household size to various aspects of the agricultural structure. Considering the high rate of current fertility in rural areas, the demographic mechanism for the downward adjustment of household size is the selective migration of young males to work in urban areas. PMID:12280635

  5. A Clear and Present Choice: Global or Provincial Scholar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripses, Jenny S.

    2016-01-01

    Globalization provides rich opportunities to educational administration professors for teach and learn. This position paper explores globalization realities and role options for educational leadership professors: (1) to understand globalization implications for education, (2) collaborate at multiple levels with like minded educational experts, and…

  6. Federal and Provincial Responsibilities to Implement Physician-Assisted Suicide.

    PubMed

    Baker, David; Sharpe, Gilbert; Lauks, Rebeka

    2016-02-01

    In the most significant constitutional decision of the last generation, Carter v. Canada, the Supreme Court of Canada reversed itself and decided that it was possible for Parliament to enact safeguards that would be adequate to protect persons who are vulnerable in times of weakness, then proceeded to declare that Canadians were entitled to a s. 7 Charter right to physician-assisted death. David Baker and Gilbert Sharpe accepted the challenge issued by the Court and drafted a Bill to amend the Criminal Code in a manner they believed would strike a constitutional balance between providing access to the right declared by the Court and protecting the vulnerable. This article represents their attempt, along with co-author Rebeka Lauks, to explain many of the key provisions in their draft. Amongst the most noteworthy are their attempts to ensure that those choosing PAD are informed about quality of life, as well as treatment choices; to define vulnerability and to install safeguards adequate to protect persons while vulnerable; and finally a prior review process that would ensure both ready access to the Charter right declared by the Court and consistent and transparent application of the law. The authors have attempted to establish an alternative model to that currently in effect in the Benelux countries, which they regard as having been ineffective in achieving any of these objectives. PMID:27169208

  7. TeleEducation NB: Developing a Provincial Learning Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGreal, Rory

    1998-01-01

    TeleEducation NB through the Telecampus is creating a virtual environment that will support the development of multimedia courseware and the online delivery of courses throughout New Brunswick. This public-private initiative stimulates the growth of small educational and training companies interested in marketing courseware abroad. (Author/AEF)

  8. Federal-Provincial Relations and Support for Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This policy paper argues that maintaining the universities' role--that of creating and transmitting knowledge over a broad spectrum of disciplines and professions--and supporting the institutional infrastructure, will require a new definition of the Canadian government responsibility in financing universities. Sources of university funding in…

  9. Toward an anthropometric history of provincial France, 1780-1920.

    PubMed

    Heyberger, Laurent

    2007-07-01

    A sample of 237,782 individual observations was obtained in four areas of France: rural Alsace, urban Alsace, Limousin, and Brie (Ile-de-France). Trends in the biological standard of living of conscripts born in these regions between 1780 and 1920 fit well with the recently estimated trends for other parts of Europe. While heights were relatively low, they did not decline much preceding the Revolution in 1789. During the first half of the 19th Century heights varied considerably both spatially and longitudinally, indicating the contrasting effects of modernization among the four areas. Conscripts from the least productive agricultural area, Limousin, were the shortest. Heights in Alsace remained essentially unchanged during the first half of the 19th Century, but those in Brie increased after 1820 and those in Limousin after 1840. The positive trend became more general after 1870, though Brie alone showed the considerable negative impact of the agricultural depression of the last quarter of the 19th Century. Heights diverged until 1850 and converged thereafter. In Limousin, the annual height of conscripts is positively correlated with the weight of cattle. By the early decades of the 20th Century, a marked, long-term increase in anthropometric growth had occurred in these four regions, as elsewhere in Europe. The regional estimates correspond well to the national trends estimated by Komlos and Weir except that they show the great local variation in height until the turn of the 20th Century. PMID:17531551

  10. Adolescents' Attitudes toward Wheelchair Users: A Provincial Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P.

    2010-01-01

    The study aims were to examine (i) adolescents' attitudes towards family members who use a wheelchair in relation to other health problems and conditions, and (ii) the association between perceived wheelchair stigma and socio-demographic factors. Data were based on surveys from 2790 seventh to 12th grade students derived from the 2007 cycle of the…

  11. The Study of Chinese in a Provincial French Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutrait, Noel

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of Chinese instruction in a Bordeaux lycee. Specific questions addressed are: enrollment; reasons for studying Chinese; the study of the written and spoken language; the need for an appropriate textbook; teaching culture; and the need to organize Chinese as a regular course in the curriculum. (AMH)

  12. The Missouri Southern Story: From the Provincial to the International

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Kay

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the international program at Missouri Southern, which began 10 years ago and has expanded in both the number of students and faculty participating, and in the places to go for foreign study. The program affects students two ways, according to university president Julio Leon. While some students do foreign study as part of…

  13. Provincial Variations in Divorce Rates: A Canadian Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makabe, Tomoko

    1980-01-01

    Examines differentials in divorce rates in Canada. Provinces with higher population turnover are characterized by lower degrees of social integration and lower social costs attached to divorce, reflected in higher divorce rates. The hypothesis that divorce rates are higher where more economic opportunities are available for women is explored.…

  14. Intra-Provincial Inequality in Financing Compulsory Education in China: Exploring the Role of Provincial Leaders (1994-2001)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tingjin

    2009-01-01

    Elitism argues that the values and experiences of the political elite shape policy, while institutionalism contends that an individual's behaviour is constrained by institutional settings. This article shows that both perspectives work well overall, while offering persuasive arguments, but the former is dominated by the latter. This explains the…

  15. [Food habits of Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) in the Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guzmán, Andrés; Payán, Esteban; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio

    2011-09-01

    Neotropical puma (Puma concolor) diet is scarcely known, in particular that of mountain dwelling individuals from Northern South America. This is the first study on pumas from the paramo and the first puma diet analysis for Colombia. The puma diet was studied from 2007 to 2009 in the Puracé National Park in the South Colombian Andes. Paramos are unique neotropical high altitude ecosystems which store and regulate water, and are currently threatened by agricultural expansion and climate change. Seven latrines were monitored for three years and scat collected, washed and dried. Items in scat such as hair, bones, claws and others were separated. Hairs were inspected by microscopy and compared to voucher hair museum specimens. Bone fragments, claws and teeth were also compared to museum collections and identified wherever possible. Additionally, six cameras were set along game trails to document puma and potential prey presence in the area. Food items from five species were identified in 60 puma scats; Northern Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles) was the most important prey in their diet. A total of 354 camera trap-nights photographed a male and female puma, Northern pudu and Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus). The main conclusion suggests a strong dependence of puma on the threatened and mysterious Northern Pudu in paramo habitats. This behavior might reflect restricted prey availability in the high Andes mountains of Colombia, and highlights the plasticity in the puma diet. Conservation actions in the paramo should thus, focus on focal wild species, and in particularly those that show a relationship, such as the one evidenced here with the dependence of puma on Northern Pudu. These findings contribute to increase the little known ecology of Andean puma populations and the species as a whole in Colombia. Baseline data on puma prey populations in different ecosystems throughout their range, is critical to understand the regional requirements for survival, and design conservation actions, to follow and evaluate the need for particular protected areas along their geographical gradients. PMID:22017133

  16. [Alpha and beta arthropods diversity from the different environments of Parque Nacional Los Cardones, Salta, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Belén Cava, Maria; Antonio Corronca, José; José Echeverría, Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    The essential role of the National Parks is to protect nature, in order to prevent the deterioration and loss of the ecosystem under protection. Very few records about the diversity of arthropods are known from Los Cardones National Park, where three eco-regions are protected: Puna and Monte eco-regions and the High Andean Grassland of the Yungas. Here, we aimed to compare the alpha and beta diversity of arthropods in these eco-regions, and to prove if sites from the same ecoregion, show greater similarity between them in their assemblages, than with sites of the other eco-regions. We also identified arthropod orders with higher species richness, and indicated the families that contribute the most to the registered beta diversity. Three sampling sites were established on each eco-region and the arthropods were sampled using pitfall traps and suction samples. We evaluated the obtained inventory through nonparametric estimators of species richness, and compared diversity among eco-regions through "diversity profiles" and "effective number of species". Beta diversity was assessed by different methods such as the Morisita Index, nonmetric multidimentional scaling analysis, a multiple permutation procedure, and a Similarity Percentage analysis. We recorded 469 spp/morphospecies and recognized three arthropod orders (spiders, dipterans and hymenopterans) that are diverse and abundant in the Park. Besides, the diversity in Los Cardones National Park was found to be high, but it was observed higher in the High Andean Grassland of the Yungas, and lower in the Puna. The inventory obtained was good, reached up to the 81% of the species richness estimated by nonparametric estimators. Each eco-region of the park showed a very particular arthropod community that was tested by a multi-response permutation procedure. The species turnover between eco-regions was high, so that the different environments of the protected area are contributing to the maintenance of the regional diversity of arthropods in the park. The assemblages of arthropods belonging to the same eco-region sites showed greater similarity among themselves than with those of more distant sites. This represents the first attempt for biodiversity studies in these areas, but more evaluations are required to detail on the possible climate change and human impacts in the ecosystem. PMID:24432534

  17. [Organization of the hospital food service in a provincial general hospital. Criteria and initial evaluation].

    PubMed

    Palmo, A; Narracci, A; Balzola, F

    1982-01-28

    The results of restructuring the meals service in Ivrea Hospital are reported. 7 diet-sheets with food prepared by the central kitchen composed: 2 of normal nutritional content (the first cooked with normal ingredients; the second using special recipes for the bed-ridden); one hypoprotein (50 g/24 hrs of protein), one hypoglycidic (145-170-210 g/24 hrs of glycides), 1 hyposodic (0.6-1.4 g of N/24 hrs), one semiliquid and one divided into 6 small meals. Special diets were needed for 0.5-6-12-2-0.1% of the patients. The amount of uneaten food fell (from 30% to 10%) and there was a real increase in calories (1390 leads into 1870 cals/24 hrs) and protein consumption (70-95 g/24 hrs). The cost remained the same (2079-2176 lire/per day/per capita). PMID:7058011

  18. Uses of Student Outcome Indicators at the Provincial and National Levels: Issues and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    The last decade has seen an enormous increase in interest in and use of educational indicators. This paper focuses on K-12 student outcome indicators and measures of how well students have learned what is expected of them--the raison d'etre of schooling. It provides a Canadian perspective on student outcome indicators and has three major purposes:…

  19. Curing Provincialism: Why We Educate the Way We Do. A Conversation with Jacques Barzun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This interview with author and cultural historian Jacques Barzun discusses the origins of history, science, art, literature, and math, calling them the core of intellectual inheritance. Notes how the frameworks they provide enable people to extend their understanding of the world and reach beyond natural, human parochialism. Discusses the…

  20. The Provincial Educational Communications Organizations in Canada. New Technologies in Canadian Education Series. Paper 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Joy; And Others

    This paper examines the history, functions, and impact of the four existing educational communications organizations in Canada: (1) TVOntario; (2) Radio Quebec; (3) ACCESS Alberta; and (4) the Knowledge Network of the West in British Columbia. It is noted that, while broadcasting and communications have always fallen under federal jurisdiction,…

  1. [Composition of the Araneae (Arachnida) fauna of the provincial Iberá Reserve, Corrientes, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Avalos, Gilberto; Damborsky, Miryam P; Bar, María E; Oscherov, Elena B; Porcel, E

    2009-01-01

    A survey of the spider community composition and diversity was carried out in grasslands and woods in three localities: Colonia Pellegrini, Paraje Galarza and Estancia Rinc6n (Iberá province Reserve). Pit fall traps, leaf litter sifting, foliage beating, hand collecting and sweep nets were used. Shannon's diversity index, evenness, Berger-Parker's dominance index, beta and gamma diversity were calculated, and a checklist of spider fauna was compiled. Species richness was estimated by Chao 1, Chao 2, first and second order Jack-knife. A total of 4,138 spiders grouped into 150 species from 33 families of Araneomorphae and two species from two families of Mygalomorphae were collected. Five species are new records for Argentina and eleven for Corrientes province. Araneidae was the most abundant family (39.8%), followed by Salticidae (10.9%), Anyphaenidae (7.9%), Tetragnathidae (7.4%), and Lycosidae (5.5%). The other families represented less than 5% of the total catch. The web-builder guild had the highest number of specimens and the highest richness index. The abundance, observed richness, Shannon diversity and evenness indexes were highest in Colonia Pellegrini woodland and Paraje Galarza grassland. Alpha diversity represented 89% of the gamma; the remaining 11% corresponded to beta diversity. According to the indexes, between 67% and 97% of the existing spider fauna was represented in the collected specimens from Iberá. PMID:19637711

  2. Comparative Stress Levels among Residents in Three Chinese Provincial Capitals, 2001 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingzhong; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Weifang; Cottrell, Randall R.; Rockett, Ian R. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare stress levels among residents in large Chinese cities between 2001 and 2008. Methods Survey data were collected in three mainland Chinese capital cities in two waves, in 2001 and 2008, respectively. Participants were recruited through a multi-stage stratified sampling process. Stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, Chinese version (CPSS). Descriptive methods were used to estimate mean stress levels and associated 95% confidence intervals. Estimates were adjusted by post-stratification weights. Results Indicating stable stress levels, respective adjusted mean stress scores for the combined samples of study participants were 23.90 (95%CI: 23.68–24.12) in 2001 and 23.69 (95%CI: 23.38–24.01) in 2008. A lower stress level in 2008 than in 2001 manifested among residents who were under 25 years of age; female; with a college or higher level education; divorced, widowed, or separated; members of the managerial and clerical group; students or army personnel; or with an annual income of at least 30,000 RMB. Conclusion The overall stress level did not change among the combined sample of residents in the three Chinese study cities between 2001 and 2008. However, levels remained high and varied across social strata, and may have reflected a national trend among urban residents. Findings indicate a need for a new health policy, and call for the design and implementation of evidence-based interventions that target the highest-risk groups. PMID:23152832

  3. [Sleep habits and traffic accidents in inter-provincial bus drivers of Arequipa, Peru].

    PubMed

    Caso, Alex; Rey de Castro, Jorge; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine sleep habits in bus drivers and their relationship to accidents in the city of Arequipa, Peru, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a non-probabilistic sample of 166 drivers. Driving hours per day were 9.4 ± 3.7. 54% (89) drive over 4 hours without stopping; 74% (123) drive at night; and 87% (145) sleep on the bus. 75% reported fatigue while driving (124). 27% (45) had drowsiness; 24% (40) reported having been in or on the verge of an accident while driving. Sleepiness or fatigue while driving was common in this population and their driving and rest habits could contribute to this. PMID:25597722

  4. It's about the relationships: reflections from a provincial quality council on building a better healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Brossart, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The mandate of Saskatchewan's Health Quality Council (HQC) is to play a hands-on role in health system transformation by working collaboratively with government, regional health authorities, health professions and citizens. Instead of the traditional, representative model, HQC is governed by an "expert board." Because board members do not represent their own organization or profession, they have stayed focused on the "system" nature of HQC's mandate, working with individuals and organizations committed to improving quality at a system level. In recent years, HQC has achieved a significant shift in attitude toward quality improvement throughout Saskatchewan's healthcare system, realized partly through building strong, effective relationships with those managing and delivering care. Hundreds of front-line providers, managers and leaders are now learning and applying quality improvement methods to improve healthcare quality. Since its inception, HQC has moved to a higher level of interdependence with other healthcare system stakeholders, helping advance the quality agenda so that everyone has a greater understanding about mutual responsibilities. PMID:24863113

  5. 76 FR 62342 - Deschutes Provincial Advisory Committee (DPAC); Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ..., 2011 to conduct a field review of stream and riparian restoration projects. The meeting will also... National Forest Supervisor's office, Upper Deschutes Conference Room (1001 SW. Emkay Drive, Bend, Oregon... Highway 20, Sisters, Oregon, 97759, Phone (541) 549-7735. John Allen, Deschutes National Forest...

  6. Stratigraphy and architecture of the Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation, Ischigualasto Provincial Park, San Juan, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Brian S.; Colombi, Carina E.; Tabor, Neil J.; Shipman, Todd C.; Montañez, Isabel P.

    2009-02-01

    The Ischigualasto Formation in northwestern Argentina contains abundant fluvial channel sandstones, overbank mudstones, and paleosols that were deposited in a northwest-trending continental-rift basin during Late Triassic time. In the study area the formation progressively thins from ˜700 m in the west to ˜400 m in the east, over a distance of 7 km. This thinning is accompanied by a relative decrease in the abundance of fluvial channel sandstones and an increase in mud-rich overbank deposits and paleosols. While preserved channel deposits in the formation are highly variable in terms of their size and stratigraphic distribution, four general channel forms can be recognized based on their overall cross sectional geometry and internal sedimentary structures. Of these, the dominant channel-body types are interpreted as the deposits of sandy multi-channel fluvial systems. The internal stratigraphic architecture of the Ischigualasto Formation indicates that during deposition, the central part of the basin was the location of a long-lived, north flowing, fluvial channel belt that received relatively continuous channel and proximal overbank deposition. To the east, however, channel-related deposition was more infrequent, resulting in enhanced pedogenic modification of alluvial deposits. The overall thickness and facies trends observed in the Ischigualasto Formation most likely correspond to variations in fault-related accommodation development within the basin during the time of deposition.

  7. e-Learning in Higher Education Makes Its Debut in Cambodia: The Provincial Business Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdon, Buenafe R.; Ninomiya, Seishi; Raab, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries face a number of challenges in their efforts to compete successfully in the new global economy. Perhaps the most critical resource needed to achieve these goals is trained human capital. While many developing countries are trying to address this need through traditional means, this may not be the most effective or efficient…

  8. Interest and applicability of acute care surgery among surgeons in Quebec: a provincial survey

    PubMed Central

    Joos, Émilie; Trottier, Vincent; Thauvette, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute care surgery (ACS) comprises trauma and emergency surgery. The purpose of this new specialty is to involve trauma and nontrauma surgeons in the care of acutely ill patients with a surgical pathology. In Quebec, few acute care surgery services (ACSS) exist, and the concept is still poorly understood by most general surgeons. This survey was meant to determine the opinions and interest of Quebec general surgeons in this new model. Methods We created a bilingual electronic survey using a Web interface and sent it by email to all surgeons registered with the Association québécoise de chirurgie. A reminder was sent 2 weeks later to boost response rates. Results The response rate was 36.9%. Most respondents had academic practices, and 16% worked in level 1 trauma centres. Most respondents had a high operative case load, and 66% performed at least 10 urgent general surgical cases per month. Although most (88%) thought that ACS was an interesting field, only 45% were interested in participating in an ACSS. Respondents who deemed this concept least applicable to their practices were more likely to be working in nonacademic centres. Conclusion Despite a strong interest in emergency general surgery, few surgeons were interested in participating in an ACSS. This finding may be explained by lack of comprehension of this new model and by comfort with traditional practice. We aim to change this paradigm by demonstrating the feasibility and benefits of the new ACSS at our centre in a follow-up study. PMID:23883506

  9. Federal-provincial agreements for the Eastern Canada Acid Rain Program: Annual report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This report on the Eastern Canada Acid Rain Program compares the previous year`s emissions of sulphur dioxide in the 7 easternmost provinces to the emission targets in the program. The objective is to cap sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions until the year 2000. Coupled with the US Acid Rain Program it is intended to protect sensitive ecosystems from acid deposition. This report discusses emissions for the latest year, concerns, and steps to be taken. Statistical tables give emissions by province and industry, with information for some major air pollution sources in mineral extraction or electric power generation.

  10. Study on Provincial Compulsory Education Financial Equity Based on School-Level Data from One Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gang, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    By applying the multivariable method to elementary school data in one western province, this study shows that per-student budgetary nonpersonnel expenditure in the province is the most unequal index in terms of horizontal equity. In terms of vertical equity, the equity effect of the "poor county" designation by the central or provincial…

  11. Analyses of Child Sex Abuse Cases in Turkey: A Provincial Case.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Sibel

    2016-04-01

    Sexual abuse is a significant problem, especially for children, but only a limited number of sexual abuse cases involving children are reported to the relevant authorities. One hundred and fifty files recorded in the National Judiciary Information System between 2006-2012 relating to cases of child sexual abuse and considered to be within the scope of Offences Against Sexual Integrity pertaining to Turkish Penal Code were analyzed for this research. Statements of the victims, defendants, and witnesses, together with the minutes issued by law enforcement officers, hospital or forensic reports, and arrest warrants were used to collect data. The average values and percentage test analysis were used to assess data. A large portion of the sexually abused children were determined to be between 14 and 17 years of age, female, and had been abused before, while a majority of the abusers were between 19 and 25 years of age, and all of the abusers identified as male. Most of the cases of abuse were planned and carried out under threat, and a certain number of such crimes resulted in pregnancy, were repeated systematically, and became evident when the mothers of the abused children found out or when a pregnant child was referred to a hospital for childbirth. The sexual abuse of children is a significant problem for Turkish society, just as it is for other societies, and it is recommended that further research be conducted with a broader scope in order to present this issue more clearly and to develop solutions. PMID:27135381

  12. Between Local Culture and School Science: The Case of Provincial and Urban Students from Eastern Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina-Jerez, William

    2008-01-01

    A lack of congruency between the teaching and learning of science and the student's personal worlds has long been recognised by the international science education community as an issue deserving space in the research agenda. The purpose of this study was to explore the diversity of student reactions when subcultures such as family, community…

  13. Another Type of Meetinghouse: Puritan Ordinaries and Provincial Taverns in Colonial New England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Disputes the commonly-held view that the Puritans of colonial New England were adamant opponents of alcohol consumption. Maintains that the tavern gradually became a central social institution, where food, drink, conversation, and entertainment ameliorated the stresses of daily living. (CFR)

  14. Management of uveal melanoma: a consensus-based provincial clinical practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Weis, E.; Salopek, T.G.; McKinnon, J.G.; Larocque, M.P.; Temple-Oberle, C.; Cheng, T.; McWhae, J.; Sloboda, R.; Shea-Budgell, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Survival in uveal melanoma has remained unchanged since the early 1970s. Because outcomes are highly related to the size of the tumour, timely and accurate diagnosis can increase the chance for cure. Methods A consensus-based guideline was developed to inform practitioners. PubMed was searched for publications related to this topic. Reference lists of key publications were hand-searched. The National Guidelines Clearinghouse and individual guideline organizations were searched for relevant guidelines. Consensus discussions by a group of content experts from medical, radiation, and surgical oncology were used to formulate the recommendations. Results Eighty-four publications, including five existing guidelines, formed the evidence base. Summary Key recommendations highlight that, for uveal melanoma and its indeterminate melanocytic lesions in the uveal tract, management is complex and requires experienced specialists with training in ophthalmologic oncology. Staging examinations include serum and radiologic investigations. Large lesions are still most often treated with enucleation, and yet radiotherapy is the most common treatment for tumours that qualify. Adjuvant therapy has yet to demonstrate efficacy in reducing the risk of metastasis, and no systemic therapy clearly improves outcomes in metastatic disease. Where available, enrolment in clinical trials is encouraged for patients with metastatic disease. Highly selected patients might benefit from surgical resection of liver metastases. PMID:26966414

  15. Speed enforcement in China: National, provincial and city initiatives and their success.

    PubMed

    He, Jie; King, Mark; Watson, Barry; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Fleiter, Judy

    2013-01-01

    China is motorizing rapidly, with associated urban road development and extensive construction of motorways. Speeding accounts for about 10% of fatalities, which represents a large decrease from a peak of 17.2% in 2004. Speeding has been addressed at a national level through the introduction of laws and procedural requirements in 2004, in provinces either across all road types or on motorways, and at city level. Typically, documentation of speed enforcement programmes has taken place when new technology (i.e. speed cameras) is introduced, and it is likely that many programmes have not been documented or widely reported. In particular, the national legislation of 2004 and its implementation was associated with a large reduction in fatalities attributed to speeding. In Guangdong Province, after using speed detection equipment, motorway fatalities due to speeding in 2005 decreased by 32.5% comparing with 2004. In Beijing, the number of traffic monitoring units which were used to photograph illegal traffic activities such as traffic light violations, speeding and using bus lanes illegally increased to 1958 by April 1, 2009, and in the future such automated enforcement will become the main means of enforcement, expected to account for 60% of all traffic enforcement in Beijing. This paper provides a brief overview of the speeding enforcement programmes in China which have been documented and their successes. PMID:22579218

  16. Canada's Approach to School Funding: The Adoption of Provincial Control of Education Funding in Three Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    The academic success of Finland, South Korea, and others on recent international tests has sparked a renewed interest among educators and those concerned with education policy in the United States in looking to other countries for examples of how we might improve our education system. Teacher training and quality in leading countries has received…

  17. Teaching Reform and Practice of the Provincial-Level Quality Course: Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hongmei

    2010-01-01

    According to the actuality of Dezhou University, some useful reforms in teaching content, teaching method, and teaching measure are introduced, combining with the characteristics of the course of quantum mechanism in this article.

  18. Competitive Intelligence and Regional Development within the Framework of Indonesian Provincial Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Henri; Manullang, Sri Damayanty

    2004-01-01

    Teaching methodologies and uses of competitive intelligence and competitive technical intelligence in countries where the culture and the technological level are very different from the western world cannot be implemented without a cultural understanding of the tacit local knowledge and cultural behavior of people. As an example of…

  19. "Visioning the Whole Elephant": The Case for a Provincial Family Literacy Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Norma; Veeman, Nayda, Ed.

    Training for family literacy began in 1993 with the development of the "Come Read with Me" model. Since that time over 300 facilitators have been trained, but a 1997 survey found only a fraction of these individuals were still active in family literacy programs. The Saskatchewan Literacy Network was faced with the challenge of delivering training…

  20. Trends in postcoronary artery bypass graft sternal wound dehiscence in a provincial population

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Christopher; Nickerson, Duncan; Southern, Danielle A; Kieser, Teresa; Appoo, Jehangir; Dawes, Jeffery; De Souza, Michael A; Harrop, Alan R; Rabi, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It appears that the medical profile of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery has changed. The impact of this demographic shift on CABG outcomes, such as sternal wound dehiscence, is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the incidence and trends of sternal wound dehiscence, quantify the demographic shift of those undergoing CABG and identify patient factors predictive of disease. METHODS: A prospective analysis was performed on a historical cohort of consecutive patients who underwent CABG (without valve replacement) in Alberta between April 1, 2002 and November 30, 2009. The incidence and trends of sternal wound dehiscence were determined. In addition, the trend of the mean Charlson index score and European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) (capturing patient comorbidities) was analyzed. Univariable analysis and multivariable models were performed to determine factors predictive of wound dehiscence. RESULTS: A total of 5815 patients underwent CABG during the study period. The incidence proportion of sternal wound dehiscence in Alberta was 1.86% and the incidence rate was 1.98 cases per 100 person-years. Although both the EuroSCORE and Charlson scores significantly increased over the study period, the incidence of sternal wound dehiscence did not change significantly. Factors predictive of sternal wound dehiscence were diabetes (OR 2.97 [95% CI 1.73 to 5.10]), obesity (OR 1.55 [95% CI 1.05 to 2.27]) and female sex (OR 1.90 [95% CI 1.26 to 2.87]). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence proportion of sternal wound dehiscence in Alberta was comparable with the incidence previously published in the literature. While patients undergoing CABG had worsening medical profiles, the incidence of sternal wound dehiscence did not appear to be increasing significantly. PMID:25332650

  1. Use of Product Listing Agreements by Canadian Provincial Drug Benefit Plans

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Melissa K.; Thomson, Paige A.; Daw, Jamie R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Product listing agreements (PLAs) between drug manufacturers and drug plans are increasingly common worldwide. Use of PLAs by Canadian provinces has not previously been documented. Methods: We collected data from all provinces on funding and PLA use for 25 drugs that were reviewed by the Common Drug Review (CDR) in 2010 or 2011 and funded by at least one province as of May 2012. We measured correlations between coverage and PLA use, and CDR recommendations and PLA use. Results: The number of drugs from our sample funded by provinces ranged from three in Prince Edward Island to 21 in Ontario. PLA use ranged from zero in Quebec, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland and Labrador to 20 in Ontario. The correlation between drugs funded and PLAs used by each province was statistically significant (r=0.57, p=0.04); excluding Ontario, however, the correlation was not significant (r=0.10, p=0.40). There was a stronger correlation between the number of provinces funding a drug and the number using PLAs among the subset of drugs with negative CDR recommendations (r=0.87, p<0.01) versus those with positive recommendations (r=0.52, p=0.03). Of the 12 drugs sampled with a negative CDR recommendation, 10 were funded with a PLA in at least one province. Interpretation: There is wide interprovincial variation in PLA use and evidence that PLAs may be used to fund drugs that are not otherwise cost-effective. If global pricing strategies are making PLAs necessary, Canadian governments should collaborate to improve the equity, transparency and effectiveness of PLAs across provinces. PMID:23968637

  2. Working in Concert: Federal, Provincial and Territorial Actions in Support of Literacy in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godin, Joanne, Ed.

    This document provides a snapshot of literacy programs and activities in Canada for 1995-96. The first section describes the National Literacy Secretariat (NLS), defines literacy, and discusses NLS's mandate, structure, and principles. It describes the following: (1) activity areas supported by NLS (developing learning materials, increasing public…

  3. Macro determinants of Iranian provincial healthcare expenditures from 2006 to 2013: evidence from panel data

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Satar; Fallah, Razieh; Moradi, Khalil; Delavari, Somayeh; Moradi, Siavash Doost; Matin, Behzad Karami

    2015-01-01

    Introduction During the last few decades, healthcare expenditures (HCEs) have increased significantly in Iran and throughout the world. Understanding the determinants of such increases is essential to health policymakers in finding the best policies to manage healthcare costs. This study aimed to determine the impact of some of the key explanatory variables on household healthcare expenditures across the provinces of Iran. Methods A panel data econometric model was used to determine the main factors that affected household healthcare expenditures (HHCEs) across the provinces of Iran from March 21, 2006 to February 19, 2013. The data on household healthcare expenditures per capita, number of physicians per 10,000 population, the degree of urbanization, the proportion of the population that was 65 or older, household income per capita, and literacy rate were obtained from the Household Expenditure and Income Survey (HEIS) data in the Statistical Center of Iran. F-Limer and Hausman tests were used to choose the panel data, and Stata V.12 was used to analyze the data. Results Our findings indicated that income per capita, physicians per 10,000 population, and the degree of urbanization had significant impacts on healthcare expenditures. Also, the results of the study showed the elasticity of income, physicians, urbanization, proportion of the population 65 or older, and the literacy rate were 0.25 (p < 0.002), 0.37 (p < 0.001), 5.01 (p < 0.001), −0.1 (p < 0.73), and −1.02 (p < 0.082), respectively. Conclusion The results of the study indicated that the income elasticity of healthcare expenditures was less than 1; health expenditures were considered to be a “necessity good” across the provinces of Iran during the period that was studied. In addition, there were some other factors that affected healthcare expenditures that were not considered in the study, such as the advancement of new technology and the costs of dying. However, it is recommended that future research examine the effect of these factors on HCEs in Iran. PMID:26816584

  4. Desktop analysis of potential impacts of visitor use: a case study for the highest park in the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Barros, Agustina; Pickering, Catherine; Gudes, Ori

    2015-03-01

    Nature-based tourism and recreation activities have a range of environmental impacts, but most protected area agencies have limited capacity to assess them. To prioritise where and what impacts to monitor and manage, we conducted a desktop assessment using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) by combining recreation ecology research with data on visitor usage and key environmental features for a popular protected area used for mountaineering and trekking, Aconcagua Provincial Park (2400-6962 m a.s.l.) in the Andes of Argentina. First, we integrated visitor data from permits with environmental data using GIS. We then identified key impact indicators for different activities based on the recreation ecology literature. Finally, we integrated this data to identify likely ecological impacts based on the types of activities, amount of use and altitudinal zones. Visitors only used 2% of the Park, but use was concentrated in areas of high conservation value including in alpine meadows and glacier lakes. Impacts on water resources were likely to be concentrated in campsites from the intermediate to the nival/glacial zones of the Park while impacts on terrestrial biodiversity were likely to be more severe in the low and intermediate alpine zones (2400-3800 m a.s.l.). These results highlight how visitor data can be used to identify priority areas for on-ground assessment of impacts in key locations. Improvements to the management of visitors in this Park involves more effective ways of dealing with water extraction and human waste in high altitude campsites and the impacts of hikers and pack animals in the low and intermediate alpine zones. PMID:25500135

  5. The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Barbosa, Vanessa de Araújo; Andrade, José Dilermando; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca) within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%), Migonemyia migonei (20.6%), Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%), Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%), Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%), Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%), Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%), Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%), Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%), Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2%) and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%). Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area. PMID:24141956

  6. Environmental, Ethical and Safety Issues in Chemistry/Science Curricula in Papua New Guinea Provincial High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    Chemistry occupies only a small portion of the Papua New Guinea science curriculum in grades seven to ten. Science itself occupies only a small proportion of the total curriculum. Nevertheless the existing syllabus, and previous and planned future revisions of it, give considerable prominence to environmental, health and safety issues. There is a…

  7. Predictors of seeking emergency medical help during overdose events in a provincial naloxone distribution programme: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Graham; Amlani, Ashraf; Buxton, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to identify factors that may be associated with help-seeking by witnesses during overdoses where naloxone is administered. Setting Overdose events occurred in and were reported from the five regional health authorities across British Columbia, Canada. Naloxone administration forms completed following overdose events were submitted to the British Columbia Take Home Naloxone programme. Participants All 182 reported naloxone administration events, reported by adult men and women and occurring between 31 August 2012 and 31 March 2015, were considered for inclusion in the analysis. Of these, 18 were excluded: 10 events which were reported by the person who overdosed, and 8 events for which completed forms did not indicate whether or not emergency medical help was sought. Primary and secondary outcome measures Seeking emergency medical help (calling 911), as reported by participants, was the sole outcome measure of this analysis. Results Medical help was sought (emergency services—911 called) in 89 (54.3%) of 164 overdoses where naloxone was administered. The majority of administration events occurred in private residences (50.6%) and on the street (23.4%), where reported rates of calling 911 were 27.5% and 81.1%, respectively. Overdoses occurring on the street (compared to private residence) were significantly associated with higher odds of calling 911 in multivariate analysis (OR=10.68; 95% CI 2.83 to 51.87; p<0.01), after adjusting for other variables. Conclusions Overdoses occurring on the street were associated with higher odds of seeking emergency medical help by responders. Further research is needed to determine if sex and stimulant use by the person who overdosed are associated with seeking emergency medical help. The results of this study will inform interventions within the British Columbia Take Home Naloxone programme and other jurisdictions to encourage seeking emergency medical help. PMID:27329442

  8. Pre- and postmortem tyrannosaurid bite marks on the remains of Daspletosaurus (Tyrannosaurinae: Theropoda) from Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hone, Dwe; Tanke, D H

    2015-01-01

    Trace marks on the bones of non-avian dinosaurs may relate to feeding by large carnivores or as a result of combat. Here the cranium and mandible of a specimen of Daspletosaurus are described that show numerous premortem injuries with evidence of healing and these are inferred to relate primarily to intraspecific combat. In addition, postmortem damage to the mandible is indicative of late stage carcass consumption and the taphonomic context suggests that this was scavenging. These postmortem bites were delivered by a large bodied tyrannosaurid theropod and may have been a second Daspletosaurus, and thus this would be an additional record of tyrannosaurid cannibalism. PMID:25870775

  9. Professionalism and High-Stakes Tests: Teachers' Perspectives when Dealing with Educational Change Introduced through Provincial Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Carolyn E.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of high-stakes tests on classroom activity (commonly called washback) is an issue that is receiving heightened attention in the literature. It is yet one more element that teachers need to deal with in their professional contexts. This article focuses on the perspectives of ESL secondary teachers as they experience curriculum…

  10. Total Revenue and Expenses for Provincially Assisted Universities of Ontario for the Fiscal Year Ended April 30, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    Information on the finances and expenditure patterns of Ontario universities are presented in this annual report in a standardized format that allows both interinstitutional comparisons and comparisons with past years. Data are included for these universities: Brock, Carleton, Guelph, Lakehead, Laurentian (Algoma, Nipissing, and Hearst), McMaster,…

  11. The Social Mechanisms of the Reproduction of the Cultural Capital of Families in a Provincial Russian City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochkina, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the reproduction of cultural capital in Russia shows that it requires not only appropriate motivation on the part of parents, close association between parents and children, but also institutional and material support. Inadequate financial resources, breakdowns in the functioning of the system of education and culture, and conflicts in…

  12. Driving factors of carbon dioxide emissions in China: an empirical study using 2006-2010 provincial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Zhan-Ming; Xiao, Hongwei; Yang, Wei; Liu, Danhe; Chen, Bin

    2016-04-01

    The rapid urbanization of China has increased pressure on its environmental and ecological well being. In this study, the temporal and spatial profiles of China's carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed by taking heterogeneities into account based on an integration of the extended stochastic impacts using a geographically and temporally weighted regression model on population, affluence, and technology. Population size, urbanization rate, GDP per capita, energy intensity, industrial structure, energy consumption pattern, energy prices, and economy openness are identified as the key driving factors of regional carbon dioxide emissions and examined through the empirical data for 30 provinces during 2006-2010. The results show the driving factors and their spillover effects have distinct spatial and temporal heterogeneities. Most of the estimated time and space coefficients are consistent with expectation. According to the results of this study, the heterogeneous spatial and temporal effects should be taken into account when designing policies to achieve the goals of carbon dioxide emissions reduction in different regions.

  13. The policy basis for community health financing in Cameroon: establishment of the North West Provincial Special Fund for Health.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Ehry, B; Massow, F V; Monekosso, G; Amida, G; Cosmas, C

    1997-01-01

    National health systems in Africa and around the world have and are still undergoing reforms in response to the Alma Ata Declaration. In Africa, people centred, community based and locally managed strategies are widely accepted. And in many countries like Cameroon, revolving funds for essential drugs have been adopted as an entry point to the implementation of primary health care elements in community health centres. The current reforms are leading to a sharing of financing responsibilities between people and government, with catalytic support from external agencies. Economic, social and political crises in Africa in the past decade have earned the countries stiff structural adjustment policies with severe consequences on health budgets, health manpower, and health status. This paper describes the policy basis for community financing in Cameroon. It suggests that revolving essential drugs funds (as proposed in the Bamako Initiative) cannot be viewed in isolation, but as part of the community and national response to the crises situation; it also demonstrated the capacity of the health sector to fight back to overcome the ill effects of structural adjustment. And last but not the least, these funds have provided an opportunity for the exercise of democracy and the participatory management by these officials of public goods and services. PMID:17583973

  14. Examining Provincial HPV Vaccination Schemes in Canada: Should We Standardise the Grade of Vaccination or the Number of Doses?

    PubMed Central

    Smith?, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection, which is linked to several cancers and genital warts. Depending on the Canadian province, the quadrivalent vaccine is given to girls in grades 4 through 10 with either a two- or three-dose schedule. We use a mathematical model to address the following research questions: (1) Does the grade at which the girls are vaccinated significantly affect the outcome of the program? (2) What coverage rate must the provinces reach in order to reduce the impact of HPV on the Canadian population? (3) What are the implications of vaccinating with two versus three doses? The model suggests the grade of vaccination and the number of doses do not make a significant difference to the outcome of the public vaccination program. The most significant factor is the coverage rate of children and adults. We recommend that provinces vaccinate as early as possible to avoid vaccine failure due to previous infection. We also recommend that the main focus of the program should be on obtaining a large enough coverage rate for children and/or adults in order to achieve the desired outcome with either two or three doses of the vaccine.

  15. "Primary Connections" in a Provincial Queensland School System: Relationships to Science Teaching Self-Efficacy and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albion, Peter R.; Spence, Karen G.

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of science is important, both to meet the need for future workers in fields requiring scientific capability and to equip students for full participation in modern societies where many decisions depend upon knowledge of science. However, many teachers in Australian primary schools do not allocate science education sufficient amounts of…

  16. e-Learning in Higher Education Makes Its Debut in Cambodia: Implications of the Provincial Business Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdon, Buenafe R.; Ninomiya, Seishi; Raab, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries face a number of challenges in their efforts to compete successfully in the new global economy. Perhaps the most critical resource needed to achieve these goals is trained human capital. While many developing countries are trying to address this need through traditional means, this may not be the most effective or efficient…

  17. Biogeography of Triassic tetrapods: evidence for provincialism and driven sympatric cladogenesis in the early evolution of modern tetrapod lineages.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Martin D

    2010-08-22

    Triassic tetrapods are of key importance in understanding their evolutionary history, because several tetrapod clades, including most of their modern lineages, first appeared or experienced their initial evolutionary radiation during this Period. In order to test previous palaeobiogeographical hypotheses of Triassic tetrapod faunas, tree reconciliation analyses (TRA) were performed with the aim of recovering biogeographical patterns based on phylogenetic signals provided by a composite tree of Middle and Late Triassic tetrapods. The TRA found significant evidence for the presence of different palaeobiogeographical patterns during the analysed time spans. First, a Pangaean distribution is observed during the Middle Triassic, in which several cosmopolitan tetrapod groups are found. During the early Late Triassic a strongly palaeolatitudinally influenced pattern is recovered, with some tetrapod lineages restricted to palaeolatitudinal belts. During the latest Triassic, Gondwanan territories were more closely related to each other than to Laurasian ones, with a distinct tetrapod fauna at low palaeolatitudes. Finally, more than 75 per cent of the cladogenetic events recorded in the tetrapod phylogeny occurred as sympatric splits or within-area vicariance, indicating that evolutionary processes at the regional level were the main drivers in the radiation of Middle and Late Triassic tetrapods and the early evolution of several modern tetrapod lineages. PMID:20392730

  18. Provincial division of the Asian part of the Siberian-Canadian paleofloristic region in the Late Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovneva, L. B.

    2014-05-01

    The following provinces are recognized in the Late Cretaceous within the Asian part of the Siberian-Canadian paleofloristic region: Chulym-Yenisei, Lena-Vilyui, North Siberian, Verkhoyansk, Mountain Okhotsk-Chukotka, Anadyr', Amur, Sikhote-Alin, and Sakhalin-Japanese. It is proposed to consider the Central Asian (Turan) Province as belonging to the Euro-Sinian paleofloristic region. In the Cenomanian, the province also included the area of the southern Chulym-Yenisei Depression. In the maritime and northern provinces, a considerable occurrence of Mesozoic relics compared to the southern and continental ones is recorded. Similarity and distinctions between the floras of different provinces varied during the Late Cretaceous. Climatic conditions played a considerable role in species diversity and degree of differentiation or unification of the floras.

  19. How does green technology influence CO2 emission in China?--An empirical research based on provincial data of China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Weina; Han, Botang; Zhao, Xin; Mazzanti, Massimiliano

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates the role of green innovations aimed at reducing carbon dioxide emissions as a factor that compensates for growth and population effects. It has been shown from tests that the positive effect of green innovations on carbon emissions exists within a STIRPAT framework from a local perspective. The panel data is derived from China Statistical Yearbook and China Intellectual Property Office covered from 1999 to 2013. In addition,the static panel model was run to estimate the diversity among three typical regions of China. The main result shows that the green technology change has not played a dominant role yet in promoting environmental protection, while a scale effect (Affluence and Population)still prevails, although green patents show positive influences on the CO2 emission reduction inthe whole country as well as the East and West regions, except the Central region. Moreover, it turns out that the classical EKC hypothesis does stand in China, referring to the three regions with the inverted "U" shape. The analysis gives suggestions to the policy makers, which would support enlarging the investment scale on green patents and encourage international corporation with environmental related innovations. PMID:26387348

  20. Eggs, rags and whist drives: popular munificence and the development of provincial medical voluntarism between the wars

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Nick; Doyle, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on hospital reports, committee minutes and the local press, this article examines the changing landscape of urban civic culture and challenges the pessimistic accounts of charitable financial support for voluntary hospitals in inter-war England.Through case studies of hospitals in four of the largest cities in the country, it assesses the extent to which voluntary resources of time and money continued to underpin day-to-day institutional income, stimulate the development of the hospitals’ estates and investments, and enable hospitals to cut costs through the receipt of gifts in kind. It argues that by broadening the bases of charitable income, hospitals were freed from their dependence on the wealthy thus ensuring their transformation to modern community resources for all. PMID:25258473

  1. Pre- and postmortem tyrannosaurid bite marks on the remains of Daspletosaurus (Tyrannosaurinae: Theropoda) from Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Tanke, DH

    2015-01-01

    Trace marks on the bones of non-avian dinosaurs may relate to feeding by large carnivores or as a result of combat. Here the cranium and mandible of a specimen of Daspletosaurus are described that show numerous premortem injuries with evidence of healing and these are inferred to relate primarily to intraspecific combat. In addition, postmortem damage to the mandible is indicative of late stage carcass consumption and the taphonomic context suggests that this was scavenging. These postmortem bites were delivered by a large bodied tyrannosaurid theropod and may have been a second Daspletosaurus, and thus this would be an additional record of tyrannosaurid cannibalism. PMID:25870775

  2. Achievement Testing Program Provincial Report. June 1993 Administration. Grade Level 3 Language Learning, Grade 6 Social Studies, Grade 9 Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    The annual report on achievement testing in Alberta (Canada) includes test results for third-grade students in language learning (for the regular English program), sixth-grade students in social studies, and ninth-grade students in science. Results are regarded in terms of curriculum standards, assessment standards, and achievement standards.…

  3. Inequity of Education Financial Resources: A Case Study of First Nations School Funding Compared to Provincial School Funding in Saskatchewan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr-Stewart, Sheila; Marshall, Jim; Steeves, Larry

    2011-01-01

    In a review of First Nations band-managed school policies, the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (2002) noted what had been devolved was "the specific operation of the school. What was not devolved was an [education] system which would support the school" (p. 5) delivery of quality educational programming for First Nations'…

  4. Teacher Collaborative Inquiry in Ontario Elementary Schools: An Analysis of Provincial and School Board Policies and Support Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin; Christou, Theodore; Heggie, Lindsay; Murray, James; Deluca, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative inquiry (CI) has emerged as a dominant structure for educators' professional learning in the 21st century. The purpose of this paper is to analyze publicly available documents and policies related to CI in Ontario in order to better understand the documentary scope and spread of this professional learning model in the province. We…

  5. Initial integration of chiropractic services into a provincially funded inner city community health centre: a program description

    PubMed Central

    Passmore, Steven R.; Toth, Audrey; Kanovsky, Joel; Olin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Background: The burden of fees for chiropractic services rendered often falls on the patient and must be provided out-of-pocket regardless of their socioeconomic status and clinical need. Universal healthcare coverage reduces the financial barrier to healthcare utilization, thereby increasing the opportunity for the financially disadvantaged to have access to care. In 2011 the Canadian Province of Manitoba initiated a pilot program providing access to chiropractic care within the Mount Carmel Clinic (MCC), a non-secular, non-profit, inner city community health centre. Objective: To describe the initial integration of chiropractic services into a publically funded healthcare facility including patient demographics, referral patterns, treatment practices and clinical outcomes. Method: A retrospective database review of chiropractic consultations in 2011 (N=177) was performed. Results: The typical patient referred for chiropractic care was a non-working (86%), 47.3(SD=16.8) year old, who self-identified as Caucasian (52.2%), or Aboriginal (35.8%) and female (68.3%) with a body mass index considered obese at 30.4(SD=7.0). New patient consultations were primarily referrals from other health providers internal to the MCC (71.2%), frequently primary care physicians (76%). Baseline to discharge comparisons of numeric rating scale scores for the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacroiliac and extremity regions all exceeded the minimally clinically important difference for reduction in musculoskeletal pain. Improvements occurred over an average of 12.7 (SD=14.3) treatments, and pain reductions were also statistically significant at p<0.05. Conclusion: Chiropractic services are being utilized by patients, and referring providers. Clinical outcomes indicate that services rendered decrease musculoskeletal pain in an inner city population. PMID:26816049

  6. Measuring efficiency and productivity growth of new technology-based firms in business incubators: the Portuguese case study of Madan Parque.

    PubMed

    Grilo, A; Santos, J

    2015-01-01

    Business incubators can play a major role in helping to turn a business idea into a technology-based organization that is economically efficient. However, there is a shortage in the literature regarding the efficiency evaluation and productivity evolution of the new technology-based firms (NTBFs) in the incubation scope. This study develops a model based on the data envelopment analysis (DEA) methodology, which allows the incubated NTBFs to evaluate and improve the efficiency of their management. Moreover, the Malmquist index is used to examine productivity change. The index is decomposed into multiple components to give insights into the root sources of productivity change. The proposed model was applied in a case study with 13 NTBFs incubated. From that study, we conclude that inefficient firms invest excessively in research and development (R&D), and, on average, firms have a productivity growth in the period of study. PMID:25874266

  7. Cycling on Abandoned Second World War Airfields and Jugando a Las Escondidas en El Parque: Examining Play Memories from Adults Growing up around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Julie; Shimpi, Priya Mariana; Jevgjovikj, Maja; Kurnik, Jean; Ufoegbune, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    This study examined play memories from adults who grew up in a wide range of international contexts. Surveys and semi-structured interviews asking adults to recollect play memories were completed with 135 adults (100 Females, 35 Males) who grew up in 21 countries. Play memories were analysed to identify adults' favourite types of childhood play,…

  8. [Diversity of wild and domestic mammal's intestinal helminths from the Caatinga of the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Southeast of Piauí, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Brandão, Martha Lima; Chame, Marcia; Cordeiro, José Luis Passos; de Miranda Chaves, Sérgio Augusto

    2009-12-01

    Biodiversity studies allow ecosystem assessment and monitoring of environmental changes and impacts. Parasite diversity could reflect the host/ parasite coevolutionary process and the environment changes that permit the loss, gain or maintenance of species. This survey used species/morphotypes of helminths eggs found in feces from seven wild mammal species (the groups Dasypodidae and Large Cats, and Tamandua tetradactyla, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Cerdocyon thous, Pecari tajacu) and from two domestic species (Canis familiaris and Sus scrofa), which occur within the Serra da Capivara National Park (PNSC) and surrounding areas in order to analise the diversity of mammal intestinal helminths. This work used the helminthological fauna findings of wild and domestic mammals, to consider a possible helminth flux between these two host groups using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) of the hosts based on helminthological fauna composition. The results indicate that the region of the PNSC still maintains environmental conditions that still keep wild mammal helminthological fauna composition different from the one found for domestic mammals. PMID:20040186

  9. Variation of Indoor Radon Levels in Some Caves of Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR), SP, Brazil with Ventilation and Rain

    SciTech Connect

    Alberigi, Simone; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu

    2008-08-07

    In order to assess the radon exposure for the tour guide workers, radon levels in several galleries of the most visited caves of PETAR (High Ribeira River Turistic State Park), were determined by using Makrofol E tracks detectors. A two-years surveillance, from 2003 to 2005, showed radon average levels varying from 153{+-}44 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3} to 6358{+-}1619 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. Those results showed that the wide variation between the minimum and maximum concentrations values are strongly related with cave ventilation. In order to establish other factors contributing to this variation, beside the well known temperature effect, rain data over the entire period were also considered, showing that, apparently, radon concentrations inside the caves rise with drought.

  10. Measuring Efficiency and Productivity Growth of New Technology-Based Firms in Business Incubators: The Portuguese Case Study of Madan Parque

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, A.; Santos, J.

    2015-01-01

    Business incubators can play a major role in helping to turn a business idea into a technology-based organization that is economically efficient. However, there is a shortage in the literature regarding the efficiency evaluation and productivity evolution of the new technology-based firms (NTBFs) in the incubation scope. This study develops a model based on the data envelopment analysis (DEA) methodology, which allows the incubated NTBFs to evaluate and improve the efficiency of their management. Moreover, the Malmquist index is used to examine productivity change. The index is decomposed into multiple components to give insights into the root sources of productivity change. The proposed model was applied in a case study with 13 NTBFs incubated. From that study, we conclude that inefficient firms invest excessively in research and development (R&D), and, on average, firms have a productivity growth in the period of study. PMID:25874266

  11. Sustainable Water Resources Management in a Complex Watershed Under Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, J. P.; McPhee, J.

    2007-05-01

    The Aconcagua River Basin in central Chile supplies water for over one million people, high-return agriculture, mining and hydropower industries. The Aconcagua river basin has Mediterranean/semi-arid climate, its hydrologic regime varies along its path from snow- to a rainfall-dominated, and significant stream-aquifer interaction is observed throughout the river path. A complex water market operates in the Aconcagua River Basin, where private owners hold surface and subsurface water rights independently of land ownership and/or intended use. The above yield integrated watershed management critical for the sustainability of basin operations, moreover under conditions of significant precipitation interannual variability and uncertain future climatic scenarios. In this work we propose an integrated hydrologic-operational model for the Aconcagua River in order to evaluate sustainable management scenarios under conditions of climatic uncertainty. The modeling software WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning System) serves as the platform for decision support, allowing the assessment of diverse scenarios of water use development and hydrologic conditions. The hydrologic component of the adopted model utilizes conceptual functions for describing the relations between different hydrologic variables. The management component relies on economic valuation for characterizing the space of efficient operational policies.

  12. Short-Term Influence of Revised Provincial Accreditation Standards on Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Weight Status in Alberta, Canada Child Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Valerie; Clark, Dawne; Ogden, Nancy; Harber, Vicki; Kuzik, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In December, 2013, revised Alberta child care accreditation standards were released by the Alberta Government in Canada that included a new standard for physical activity and sedentary behavior in accredited child care settings. The main purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the new accreditation standard in increasing physical…

  13. An Illustration of a Methodology to Maximize Mail Survey Response Rates in a Provincial School-Based Physical Activity Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, John J. M.; Allison, Kenneth R.; Lysy, Daria C.; LeMoine, Karen N.; Adlaf, Edward M.; Faulkner, Guy E. J.; Goodman, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Two mail surveys were conducted as a province-wide needs assessment to examine the opportunities for, barriers to, and participation in physical activity in Ontario elementary and secondary schools. Dillman's Tailored Design Method (TDM) was used to maximize the quality of responses and the response rate. Both surveys entailed five mailings to key…

  14. Total Revenue and Expenses for Provincially Assisted Universities of Ontario for the Fiscal Year Ended April 30, 1976. Report to the Council of Ontario Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    Financial data are presented here for Ontario's twenty universities: Brock, Carleton, Guelph, Lakehead, Laurentian, Algoma, Nipissing, Hearst, McMaster, Oise, Ottawa, Queen's, Ryerson, Toronto, Trent, Waterloo, Western, Wilfrid Laurier, Windsor, and York. Contents include summary tables operating expenses by object of expense and by functional…

  15. A Multilevel Analysis Examining the Association between School-Based Smoking Policies, Prevention Programs and Youth Smoking Behavior: Evaluating a Provincial Tobacco Control Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murnaghan, D. A.; Leatherdale, S. T.; Sihvonen, M.; Kekki, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined how smoking policies and programs are associated with smoking behavior among Grade 10 students (n = 4709) between 1999 and 2001. Data from the Tobacco Module from the School Health Action Planning and Evaluation System were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. We identified that (i) attending a school with…

  16. Rules that Need to Be Broken? Canada's McGill University Announces MBA Tuition Fee Increase in Breach of Provincial Ministry of Education Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Ministry of Education in Canada's province of Quebec is threatening to significantly reduce McGill University (McGill)'s operating grant in response to a proposed Master's of Business Administration (MBA) tuition fee increase. From September 2010, the university's Desautels Faculty of Management is aiming to substantially raise the current…

  17. Educational and Social Correlates of the Digital Divide for Rural and Urban Children: A Study on Primary School Students in a Provincial City of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yan; Ranieri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, the issue of digital divide has received particular attention from international bodies and researchers in Western countries. One of the main reasons for this growing interest is related to the implications that digital inequalities have for social development and particularly for education. Despite the relevance of the…

  18. Evaluation of the use of oseltamivir prophylaxis in the control of influenza outbreaks in long-term care facilities in Alberta, Canada: a retrospective provincial database analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Jacobs, Angela; Khan, Muhammad Naeem; Jaipaul, Joy; Oda, Joanna; Johnson, Marcia; Doroshenko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of oseltamivir prophylaxis in the management and control of influenza outbreaks in long-term care facilities in Alberta, Canada. Setting and participants Long-term care facilities where 127 influenza outbreaks were reported to public health authorities in Alberta, Canada, during two influenza seasons from 2013 to 2015. Design and outcome measures Using routinely collected surveillance and administrative data, we examined the association between decision-making time for oseltamivir recommendation as prophylaxis strategy for influenza outbreaks in long-term care facilities (explanatory variable) and the duration of an influenza outbreak, the postprophylaxis risk of influenza-like illness and hospitalisation among residents of long-term care facilities in Alberta (outcome variables) using multivariable linear and Poisson regression models. Results Oseltamivir prophylaxis decision-making time was positively associated with the postintervention duration of an outbreak, with a 1-day delay in making decision on oseltamivir prophylaxis associated with 2.22 (95% CI 1.37 to 3.06) more days of the duration of an outbreak after controlling for potential confounding effect of the number of residents at risk at intervention, outbreak progression time, prevalence of influenza-like illness during outbreak progression, facility location, presence of mixed strain and based on optimal timing of oseltamivir prophylaxis. Although not statistically significant, a 1-day delay in making decision on oseltamivir prophylaxis was associated with a 5% (95% CI −1% to 11%) increase in the postintervention risk of influenza-like illness, and a 6% (95% CI −8% to 22%) increase in the postintervention risk of hospitalisation after controlling for the same potential confounders. Conclusions Our study demonstrated benefits of using oseltamivir prophylaxis to shorten the duration of influenza outbreaks; however, there were no significant differences in the influenza-like illness and hospitalisation risk occurring after the intervention. Surveillance data may offer means of rapid evaluation of oseltamivir prophylaxis in long-term care facilities as a public health measure. PMID:27381211

  19. Phylogeny and historical biogeography of true morels (Morchella) reveals an early Cretaceous origin and high continental endemism and provincialism in the Holarctic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morel mushrooms (Morchella, phylum Ascomycota) are arguably the most widely recognized and highly prized of the estimated 1.5 million fungi that inhabit our planet. Although field guides treat these epicurean macrofungi as though the species have cosmopolitan distributions, this assumption has not b...

  20. Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus blood culture isolates: results of the Quebec Provincial Surveillance Programme.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, S; Bourgault, A M; Galarneau, L A; Moisan, D; Doualla-Bell, F; Tremblay, C

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) blood culture isolates and to determine their relative importance in both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. A total of 535 MRSA blood culture isolates were analysed. In vitro susceptibility to 14 agents was determined. The genes nuc, mecA and coding for PVL toxin were identified by PCR. All isolates were characterized by PFGE or spa typing to assess their genomic relationships. Most MRSA isolates were retrieved from nosocomial bloodstream infections (474, 89%) and were of the CMRSA2 genotype. Healthcare-associated (HA)-MRSA bloodstream infections were associated with older age (70-89 years, P = 0·002) and most often secondary to central line infections (P = 0·005). Among MRSA strains associated with community-acquired (CA)-MRSA, 28·8% were isolated in intravenous drug users. CA-MRSA genotypes were more frequently found in young adults (20-39 years, P < 0·0001) with skin/soft tissue as the primary sources of infection (P = 0·006). CMRSA10 genotype was the predominant CA-MRSA strain. All MRSA isolates were susceptible to doxycycline, tigecycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and vancomycin. Both the presence of the genes coding for PVL toxin (89·8%) and susceptibility to clindamycin (86·5%) were predictive of CA-MRSA genotypes. Whereas in the USA, HA-MRSA have been replaced by USA300 (CMRSA10) clone as the predominant MRSA strain type in positive blood cultures from hospitalized patients, this phenomenon has not been observed in the province of Quebec. PMID:25140694

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Use of Probiotics for the Prevention of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea in a Provincial Healthcare System.

    PubMed

    Leal, Jenine R; Heitman, Steven J; Conly, John M; Henderson, Elizabeth A; Manns, Braden J

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To conduct a full economic evaluation assessing the costs and consequences related to probiotic use for the primary prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). DESIGN Cost-effectiveness analysis using decision analytic modeling. METHODS A cost-effectiveness analysis was used to evaluate the risk of CDAD and the costs of receiving oral probiotics versus not over a time horizon of 30 days. The target population modeled was all adult inpatients receiving any therapeutic course of antibiotics from a publicly funded healthcare system perspective. Effectiveness estimates were based on a recent systematic review of probiotics for the primary prevention of CDAD. Additional estimates came from local data and the literature. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess how plausible changes in variables impacted the results. RESULTS Treatment with oral probiotics led to direct costs of CDN $24 per course of treatment per patient. On average, patients treated with oral probiotics had a lower overall cost compared with usual care (CDN $327 vs $845). The risk of CDAD was reduced from 5.5% in those not receiving oral probiotics to 2% in those receiving oral probiotics. These results were robust to plausible variation in all estimates. CONCLUSIONS Oral probiotics as a preventive strategy for CDAD resulted in a lower risk of CDAD as well as cost-savings. The cost-savings may be greater in other healthcare systems that experience a higher incidence and cost associated with CDAD. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:1079-1086. PMID:27377992

  2. Climate and environmental effects of electric vehicles versus compressed natural gas vehicles in China: a life-cycle analysis at provincial level.

    PubMed

    Huo, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Fei; He, Kebin

    2013-02-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) and compressed natural gas vehicles (CNGVs), which are mainly coal-based and natural gas-based, are the two most widely proposed replacements of gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) in P.R. China. We examine fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), PM(2.5), PM(10), NO(x), and SO(2) of CNGVs and EVs relative to gasoline ICEVs and hybrids, by Chinese province. CNGVs can currently reduce emissions of GHGs, PM(10), PM(2,5), NO(x), and SO(2) by approximately 6%, 7%, 20%, 18% and 22%, respectively. EVs can reduce GHG emissions by 20%, but increase PM(10), PM(2.5), NO(x), and SO(2) emissions by approximately 360%, 250%, 120%, and 370%, respectively. Nevertheless, results vary significantly by province. Regarding their contribution to national emissions, PM increases from EVs are unimportant, because light-duty passenger vehicles contribute very little to overall PM emissions nationwide (≤0.05%); however, their NO(x) and SO(2) increases are important. Since China is striving to reduce power plant emissions, EVs are expected to have equivalent or even lower SO(2) and NO(x) emissions relative to ICEVs in the future (2030). Before then, however, EVs should be developed according to the cleanness of regional power mixes. This would lower their SO(2) and NO(x) emissions and earn more GHG reduction credits. PMID:23276251

  3. Aboveground carbon in Quebec forests: stock quantification at the provincial scale and assessment of temperature, precipitation and edaphic properties effects on the potential stand-level stocking

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Daniel; Ouimet, Rock; Lambert, Marie-Claude; Logan, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Biological carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems plays an important role in the net balance of greenhouse gases, acting as a carbon sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the abiotic environmental factors (including climate) that control carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests and consequently, about their potential response to climate changes. From a set of more than 94,000 forest inventory plots and a large set of spatial data on forest attributes interpreted from aerial photographs, we constructed a fine-resolution map (∼375 m) of the current carbon stock in aboveground live biomass in the 435,000 km2 of managed forests in Quebec, Canada. Our analysis resulted in an area-weighted average aboveground carbon stock for productive forestland of 37.6 Mg ha−1, which is lower than commonly reported values for similar environment. Models capable of predicting the influence of mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and soil physical environment on maximum stand-level aboveground carbon stock (MSAC) were developed. These models were then used to project the future MSAC in response to climate change. Our results indicate that the MSAC was significantly related to both mean annual temperature and precipitation, or to the interaction of these variables, and suggest that Quebec’s managed forests MSAC may increase by 20% by 2041–2070 in response to climate change. Along with changes in climate, the natural disturbance regime and forest management practices will nevertheless largely drive future carbon stock at the landscape scale. Overall, our results allow accurate accounting of carbon stock in aboveground live tree biomass of Quebec’s forests, and provide a better understanding of possible feedbacks between climate change and carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests. PMID:26966680

  4. Patterns of care and treatment trends for Canadian men with localized low-risk prostate cancer: an analysis of provincial cancer registry data

    PubMed Central

    Tran, K.; Rahal, R.; Fung, S.; Louzado, C.; Porter, G.; Xu, J.; Bryant, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many prostate cancers (pcas) are indolent and, if left untreated, are unlikely to cause death or morbidity in a man’s lifetime. As a result of testing for prostate-specific antigen, more such cases are being identified, leading to concerns about “overdiagnosis” and consequent overtreatment of pca. To mitigate the risks associated with overtreatment (that is, invasive therapies that might cause harm to the patient without tangible benefit), approaches such as active surveillance are now preferred for many men with low-risk localized pca (specifically, T1/2a, prostate-specific antigen ≤ 10 ng/mL, and Gleason score ≤ 6). Here, we report on patterns of care and treatment trends for men with localized low-risk pca. Results The provinces varied substantially with respect to the types of primary treatment received by men with localized low-risk pca. From 2010 to 2013, many men had no record of surgical or radiation treatment within 1 year of diagnosis—a proxy for active surveillance; the proportion ranged from 53.3% in Nova Scotia to 80.8% in New Brunswick. Among men who did receive primary treatment, the use of radical prostatectomy ranged from 12.0% in New Brunswick to 35.9% in Nova Scotia. The use of radiation therapy (external-beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy) ranged from 4.1% in Newfoundland and Labrador to 17.6% in Alberta. Treatment trends over time suggest an increase in the use of active surveillance. The proportion of men with low-risk pca and no record of surgical or radiation treatment rose to 69.9% in 2013 from 46.1% in 2010 for all provinces combined. Conclusions The provinces varied substantially with respect to patterns of care for localized low-risk pca. Treatment trends over time suggest an increasing use of active surveillance. Those findings can further the discussion about the complex care associated with pca and identify opportunities for improvement in clinical practice. PMID:26966405

  5. Aboveground carbon in Quebec forests: stock quantification at the provincial scale and assessment of temperature, precipitation and edaphic properties effects on the potential stand-level stocking.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Louis; Houle, Daniel; Ouimet, Rock; Lambert, Marie-Claude; Logan, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Biological carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems plays an important role in the net balance of greenhouse gases, acting as a carbon sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the abiotic environmental factors (including climate) that control carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests and consequently, about their potential response to climate changes. From a set of more than 94,000 forest inventory plots and a large set of spatial data on forest attributes interpreted from aerial photographs, we constructed a fine-resolution map (∼375 m) of the current carbon stock in aboveground live biomass in the 435,000 km(2) of managed forests in Quebec, Canada. Our analysis resulted in an area-weighted average aboveground carbon stock for productive forestland of 37.6 Mg ha(-1), which is lower than commonly reported values for similar environment. Models capable of predicting the influence of mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and soil physical environment on maximum stand-level aboveground carbon stock (MSAC) were developed. These models were then used to project the future MSAC in response to climate change. Our results indicate that the MSAC was significantly related to both mean annual temperature and precipitation, or to the interaction of these variables, and suggest that Quebec's managed forests MSAC may increase by 20% by 2041-2070 in response to climate change. Along with changes in climate, the natural disturbance regime and forest management practices will nevertheless largely drive future carbon stock at the landscape scale. Overall, our results allow accurate accounting of carbon stock in aboveground live tree biomass of Quebec's forests, and provide a better understanding of possible feedbacks between climate change and carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests. PMID:26966680

  6. Who were his peers? The social and professional milieu of the provincial surgeon-apothecary in the late-eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Alannah

    2011-01-01

    The social standing of the surgeon-apothecary cannot be determined by reference to professional life alone, yet few such men left social documents. The lower middling sort was typically reticent about evaluations of their own social position in any source genre. This article uses a unique archive, and the concept of community connectedness, to investigate the status of Thomas Higgins, surgeon-apothecary and man-midwife of north Shropshire. Higgins embodied the traditional practitioner who relied on local knowledge and his 'friends' for advancement, in contrast to alternative modes of rising professionalism. He was demonstrably a trusted man at the heart of his home town, but his reliance on the 'partiality' of his neighbors brought him into conflict with his colleagues. PMID:21853622

  7. Dressing and Addressing the Mental Patient: The Uses of Clothing in the Admission, Care and Employment of Residents in English Provincial Mental Hospitals, c. 1860–1960

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Nicole; Melling, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Scholars of insanity and its historical antecedents have paid very little attention to personal and institutional clothing. Such dress, distributed to patients in mental institutions, has always been inscribed with the conflicting narratives of the period in which it was made and worn. The language of civil and medical authority is more evident than personal choice in the shape and address of the attire. This article examines clothing worn by patients in three Devon mental hospitals during the century before 1960. We consider the ways in which institutional clothing formed part of a hospital regimen of overt control, as well as suiting considerations of economy and employment that figured in these institutions. PMID:26989271

  8. 77 FR 65405 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ..., Portland, 12000933 PUERTO RICO Aguas Buenas Municipality Parque de Bombas Maximiliano Merced, (Fire Stations in Puerto Rico MPS) 42 Munoz Rivera St., Aguas Buenas, 12000934 Florida Municipality De...

  9. High Performance School Buildings in Portugal: A Life Cycle Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorge, Graca Fonseca; da Costa, Marta Marques

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Portuguese government launched a major school modernisation programme, and has taken steps to ensure the long-term sustainability of facilities. A specially created state-owned company, Parque Escolar (PE) has already completed 104 schools; 70 are work-in-progress and an additional 39 are under design or tender. Parque Escolar is…

  10. S.Res.151 — 113th Congress (2013-2014) A resolution urging the Government of Afghanistan to ensure transparent and credible presidential and provincial elections in April 2014 by adhering to internationally accepted democratic standards...

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Casey, Robert P., Jr. [D-PA

    2013-05-21

    07/09/2013 Resolution agreed to in Senate with an amendment and an amended preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S5572-5575; text of measure as reported in Senate: CR S5573-5574; text as passed Senate: CR S5574-5575) (All Actions)