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Sample records for part iii heat

  1. Electronic communication. Part III.

    PubMed

    Bergren, M D

    1995-02-01

    This is the concluding article of a three-part series on electronic communication for school nurses. The October 1994 column described electronic communication and the hardware and software required. The December 1994 column examined e-mail, bulletin boards, databases, and file transfers. This column will list many health and nursing resources available on-line. Some of the resources are available only through the Internet. Others are accessible by more than one route: dial-in, telnet, gopher, or world wide web. A few of the services, such as MEDLINE, are only accessed with purchased accounts (Glowniak & Bushway, 1994). The electronic resources of interest to school nurses are so numerous it would be impossible to cite all of them in a column of this length. Selected resources for the school health provider will be listed in alphabetical order. PMID:7767047

  2. Transverse heat transfer coefficient in the dual channel ITER TF CICCs. Part III: Direct method of assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska, Monika; Malinowski, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    The data resulting from the thermal-hydraulic test of the ITER TF CICC are used to determine the flow partition and the overall effective heat transfer coefficient (hBC) between bundle and central channel in a direct way, i.e. by analysis of the heat transfer between both flow channels, based on the mass and energy balance equations and the readings of thermometers located inside the cable. In cases without a local heat source in the considered cable segment the obtained hBC values were consistent with those obtained in earlier studies by analysis of experimental data using indirect methods. It was also observed that the transverse heat transfer was strongly enhanced in a cable segment heated from outside. This phenomenon results from the mass transfer from the bundle region to the central channel. The experimental hBC data obtained for the case without a heat source in the considered segment were also compared with those calculated using various heat transfer correlations.

  3. Standards in neurosonology. Part III

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). PMID:27446600

  4. Standards in neurosonology. Part III.

    PubMed

    Wojczal, Joanna; Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). PMID:27446600

  5. Perspectives of precipitation science: Part III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelides, Silas

    2016-03-01

    This Special Issue of Atmospheric Research entitled "Perspectives of Precipitation Science: Part III" encompasses selected papers that were presented at the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union, held in Vienna, Austria, from 27 April to 2 May 2014, within the framework of the (General) Session "Precipitation: Measurement, Climatology, Remote Sensing, and Modeling".

  6. Evaluation of manometric temperature measurement (MTM), a process analytical technology tool in freeze drying, part III: heat and mass transfer measurement.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaolin Charlie; Nail, Steven L; Pikal, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    This article evaluates the procedures for determining the vial heat transfer coefficient and the extent of primary drying through manometric temperature measurement (MTM). The vial heat transfer coefficients (Kv) were calculated from the MTM-determined temperature and resistance and compared with Kv values determined by a gravimetric method. The differences between the MTM vial heat transfer coefficients and the gravimetric values are large at low shelf temperature but smaller when higher shelf temperatures were used. The differences also became smaller at higher chamber pressure and smaller when higher resistance materials were being freeze-dried. In all cases, using thermal shields greatly improved the accuracy of the MTM Kv measurement. With use of thermal shields, the thickness of the frozen layer calculated from MTM is in good agreement with values obtained gravimetrically. The heat transfer coefficient "error" is largely a direct result of the error in the dry layer resistance (ie, MTM-determined resistance is too low). This problem can be minimized if thermal shields are used for freeze-drying. With suitable use of thermal shields, accurate Kv values are obtained by MTM; thus allowing accurate calculations of heat and mass flow rates. The extent of primary drying can be monitored by real-time calculation of the amount of remaining ice using MTM data, thus providing a process analytical tool that greatly improves the freeze-drying process design and control. PMID:17285746

  7. Development of a Two-Dimensional Zonally Averaged Statistical-Dynamical Model. Part III: The Parameterization of the Eddy Fluxes of Heat and Moisture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Peter H.; Yao, Mao-Sung

    1990-07-01

    A number of perpetual January simulations are carried out with a two-dimensional (2-D) zonally averaged model employing various parameterizations of the eddy fluxes of heat (potential temperature) and moisture. The parameterizations are evaluated by comparing these results with the eddy fluxes calculated in a parallel simulation using a three-dimensional (3-D) general circulation model with zonally symmetric forcing. The 3-D model's performance in turn is evaluated by comparing its results using realistic (nonsymmetric) boundary conditions with observations.Branscome's parameterization of the meridional eddy flux of heat and Leovy's parameterization of the meridional eddy flux of moisture simulate the seasonal and latitudinal variations of these fluxes reasonably well, while somewhat underestimating their magnitudes. In particular, Branscome's parameterization underestimates the vertically integrated flux of heat by about 30%, mainly because it misses out the secondary peak in this flux near the tropopause; and Leovy's parameterization of the meridional eddy flux of moisture underestimates the magnitude of this flux by about 20%. The analogous parameterizations of the vertical eddy fluxes of heat and moisture are found to perform much more poorly, i.e., they give fluxes only one quarter to one half as strong as those calculated in the 3-D model. New parameterizations of the vertical eddy fluxes are developed that take into account the enhancement of the eddy mixing slope in a growing baroclinic wave due to condensation, and also the effect of eddy fluctuations in relative humidity. The new parameterizations, when tested in the 2-D model, simulate the seasonal, latitudinal, and vertical variations of the vertical eddy fluxes quite well, when compared with the 3-D model, and only underestimate the magnitude of the fluxes by 10% to 20%.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 261 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false III Appendix III to Part 261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Appendix III to Part 261...

  9. 7. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PART III, SECTION 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDING NO. 10, PRODUCER GAS & EXHAUSTER BLDG., PLANT A.' From U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant A, Parts I, II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  10. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  11. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  12. 40 CFR Appendixes II-Iii to Part 264 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false II Appendixes II-III to Part 264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Appendixes II-III...

  13. 43. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PART III, SECTION 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS H-1 TO H-10 INCL., GRINDING, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT 'B'.' From U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  14. 38. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PART III, SECTION 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS G-1 TO G-10 INCL., PURIFICATION, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLAN 'B'.' From U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  15. Heating, Air Conditioning; Glossary of Key Words. Vocational Reading Power Project, Title III, E.S.E.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Marvin; Schafer, Thomas

    The glossary is one of twenty in various subject areas of vocational education designed to assist the student in vocabulary mastery for particular vocational education courses. They are part of the Vocational Reading Power Project, Title III, E.S.E.A. This glossary is for a course in heating and air conditioning. It is divided into two parts: one…

  16. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart III of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart III

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart III 2 Table 2 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart III of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart III Subpart...

  17. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart III of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart III

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart III 2 Table 2 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart III of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart III Subpart A reference...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. III Appendix III to Part 27—Fair Housing...

  19. 46 CFR Appendix III to Part 150 - Testing Procedures for Determining Exceptions to the Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Testing Procedures for Determining Exceptions to the Chart III Appendix III to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. III Appendix III to Part 150—Testing Procedures for Determining Exceptions to...

  20. 19 CFR Annex III to Part 351 - Deadlines for Parties in Antidumping Investigations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deadlines for Parties in Antidumping Investigations III Annex III to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex III Annex III to Part 351—Deadlines...

  1. 19 CFR Annex III to Part 351 - Deadlines for Parties in Antidumping Investigations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deadlines for Parties in Antidumping Investigations III Annex III to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex III Annex III to Part 351—Deadlines...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation III Appendix III to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. III Appendix III to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation III Appendix III to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. III Appendix III to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation III Appendix III to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. III Appendix III to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 1068 - High-Altitude Counties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-Altitude Counties III Appendix III to Part 1068 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Pt. 1068, App. III Appendix III to Part...

  6. 5 CFR Appendix III to Part 1201 - Approved Hearing Locations By Regional Office

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approved Hearing Locations By Regional Office III Appendix III to Part 1201 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Pt. 1201, App. III Appendix III to Part 1201—Approved Hearing Locations By Regional Office...

  7. GOES Type III Loop Heat Pipe Life Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenstein, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The GOES Type III Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was built as a life test unit for the loop heat pipes on the GOES N-Q series satellites. This propylene LHP was built by Dynatherm Corporation in 2000 and tested continuously for approximately 14 months. It was then put into storage for 3 years. Following the storage period, the LHP was tested at Swales Aerospace to verify that the loop performance hadn t changed. Most test results were consistent with earlier results. At the conclusion of testing at Swales, the LHP was transferred to NASA/GSFC for continued periodic testing. The LHP has been set up for testing in the Thermal Lab at GSFC since 2006. A group of tests consisting of start-ups, power cycles, and a heat transport limit test have been performed every six to nine months since March 2006. Tests results have shown no change in the loop performance over the five years of testing. This presentation will discuss the test hardware, test set-up, and tests performed. Test results to be presented include sample plots from individual tests, along with conductance measurements for all tests performed.

  8. Heats of Formation and Bond Energies in Group III Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Allendorf, Mark D.; Melius, Carl F.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    We present heats of formation and bond energies for Group-III compounds obtained from calculations of molecular ground-state I electronic energies. Data for compounds of the form MXn are presented, where M = B, Al, Ga, and In, X = He H, Cl, and CH3, and n = 1-3. Energies for the B, Al, and Ga compounds are obtained from G2 predictions, while those for the In compounds are obtained from CCSD(T)/CBS calculations; these are the most accurate calculations for indium-containing compounds published to date. In most cases, the calculated thermochemistry is in good agreement with published values derived from experiments for those species that have well-established heats of formation. Bond energies obtained from the heats of formation follow the expected trend (Cl much greater than CH3 approx. H). However, the CH3M-(CH3)2 bond energies obtained for trimethylgallium and trimethylindium are considerably stronger (greater than 15 kcal/mol) than currently accepted values.

  9. 77 FR 60743 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040... Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Schedule F... Number: Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040). Abstract: Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040)...

  10. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart III of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart III

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart III 2 Table 2 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart III of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart...

  11. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart III of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart III

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart III 2 Table 2 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart III of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart...

  12. Heat pipe design handbook, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skrabek, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of heat pipes are examined. The subjects discussed are: (1) principles of operation, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) pressure gradient effects, (4) variable conductance, (5) design procedure, and (6) performance limit evaluation.

  13. 11. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND THE PARTS HEATING FURNACE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND THE PARTS HEATING FURNACE. THE PARTS OR METALS WERE HEATED PRIOR TO BEING PRESSED. THE MANIPULATOR ARM WAS USED TO INSERT AND REMOVE PARTS OR METALS FROM THE FURNACE. (2/9/79) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Heat-treatment of metal parts facilitated by sand embedment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briscoe, C. C.; Kelley, R. C.

    1966-01-01

    Embedding metal parts of complex shape in sand contained in a steel box prevents strains and warping during heat treatment. The sand not only provides a simple, inexpensive support for the parts but also ensures more uniform distribution of heat to the parts.

  15. Observational Analysis of Tropical Cyclone Formation. Part III: Budget Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, John L.

    1981-06-01

    Vertically integrated budgets of moisture, heat, angular momentum and kinetic energy are calculated from the composite data sets of Part I (McBride, 1981).The transition from cloud cluster to typhoon/hurricane is characterized by a warming of the troposphere and increase of tangential wind. Observations are presented to show that these effects are not restricted to the system's inner core region, but rather take place over a volume extending out to at least 6° latitude radius from the system center. Accordingly, in this paper cyclogenesis is investigated by analyzing budgets over this large scale.The heat budget calculations show that the observed warming of the troposphere is an order of magnitude smaller than the other terms in the budget equation. Most of the released latent heat LP0 is exported laterally through the boundaries of the region through conversion to the term ·Vs. The portion of LP0 which is released within the volume acts to counter the net radiative cooling QR.All the composite weather systems export moist static energy h through their transverse circulation. This means that intensification cannot be brought about simply in response to increased cumulus heating due to increased mass circulation. To bring about an increase in h, any change must be such that the quantity (E0 ·Vh) is increased, where E0 is the surface evaporation.All the composite weather systems export kinetic energy. The export takes place completely in the upper tropospheric outflow layer.The kinetic energy budgets show a residual requirement for a generation of kinetic energy by subgrid-scale processes. This eddy generation appears to be of the same magnitude as the generation by the mean radial flow, ·¯.Compared to non-developing systems, developing cloud clusters have twice to three times as much import of relative angular momentum through their lateral boundaries. This is related to the developing system having greater outer radius low-level positive and upper level

  16. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 92 - Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized Measurements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized.... III Appendix III to Part 92—Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized Measurements Table III-1—Equivalent Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized Measurements Path length If the path length is: cm inches...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 92 - Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized Measurements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized.... III Appendix III to Part 92—Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized Measurements Table III-1—Equivalent Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized Measurements Path length If the path length is: cm inches...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 92 - Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized Measurements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized.... III Appendix III to Part 92—Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized Measurements Table III-1—Equivalent Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized Measurements Path length If the path length is: cm inches...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 92 - Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized Measurements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized.... III Appendix III to Part 92—Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized Measurements Table III-1—Equivalent Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized Measurements Path length If the path length is: cm inches...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 92 - Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized Measurements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized.... III Appendix III to Part 92—Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized Measurements Table III-1—Equivalent Smoke Standards for Non-Normalized Measurements Path length If the path length is: cm inches...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 280 - Statement for Shipping Tickets and Invoices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. III Appendix III to Part 280—Statement for Shipping... (Pub. L. 98-616)) requires owners of certain underground storage tanks to notify designated State or... (40 CFR part 280) to determine if you are affected by this law....

  2. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 280 - Statement for Shipping Tickets and Invoices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. III Appendix III to Part 280—Statement for Shipping... (Pub. L. 98-616)) requires owners of certain underground storage tanks to notify designated State or... (40 CFR part 280) to determine if you are affected by this law....

  3. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 280 - Statement for Shipping Tickets and Invoices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. III Appendix III to Part 280—Statement for Shipping... (Pub. L. 98-616)) requires owners of certain underground storage tanks to notify designated State or... (40 CFR part 280) to determine if you are affected by this law....

  4. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 280 - Statement for Shipping Tickets and Invoices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. III Appendix III to Part 280—Statement for Shipping... (Pub. L. 98-616)) requires owners of certain underground storage tanks to notify designated State or... (40 CFR part 280) to determine if you are affected by this law....

  5. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 280 - Statement for Shipping Tickets and Invoices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (40 CFR part 280) to determine if you are affected by this law. ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Statement for Shipping Tickets and... OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. III Appendix III to Part 280—Statement for...

  6. Heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert; Hofler, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    A heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts receives heat from a heat source. The acoustic cooling engine comprises an elongated resonant pressure vessel having first and second ends. A compressible fluid having a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave is contained in the resonant pressure vessel. The heat source supplies heat to the first end of the vessel. A first heat exchanger in the vessel is spaced-apart from the first end and receives heat from the first end. A first thermodynamic element is adjacent to the first heat exchanger and converts some of the heat transmitted by the first heat exchanger into acoustic power. A second thermodynamic element has a first end located spaced-apart from the first thermodynamic element and a second end farther away from the first thermodynamic element than is its first end. The first end of the second thermodynamic element heats while its second end cools as a consequence of the acoustic power. A second heat exchanger is adjacent to and between the first and second thermodynamic elements. A heat sink outside of the vessel is thermally coupled to and receives heat from the second heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one-fourth wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir.

  7. Design of long pulse heating systems for Doublet III-D

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, J.M.; Baker, D.R.; Colleraine, A.P.; Doll, D.W.; Remson, D.

    1984-08-01

    Replacement of the Doublet III vacuum vessel by a large dee-shaped vessel is now in progress. Multisecond auxiliary heating will be needed to reach peak plasma parameters. Plans for modifying the existing neutral beam injection system to a 5 s capability and for a new, high power, long pulse ion cyclotron heating system are described.

  8. 19. VIEW OF THE BAKEOUT FURNACE, WHERE PARTS WERE HEATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF THE BAKE-OUT FURNACE, WHERE PARTS WERE HEATED UNDER A VACUUM TO HEAT TREAT OR TO BAKE OUT ANY IMPURITIES. (9/19/72) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. 12. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND PARTS HEATING FURNACE. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND PARTS HEATING FURNACE. THE METALS WERE HEATED PRIOR TO BEING PRESSED. THE ARM IS DRAPED WITH FIRE RESISTANT MATERIAL. (2/9/79) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. 46 CFR Appendix III to Part 390 - U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration-Sample Semiannual Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration-Sample Semiannual Report III Appendix III to Part 390 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND Pt. 390, App. III Appendix III to Part 390—U.S. Department...

  11. 46 CFR Appendix III to Part 390 - U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration-Sample Semiannual Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration-Sample Semiannual Report III Appendix III to Part 390 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND Pt. 390, App. III Appendix III to Part 390—U.S. Department...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 265 - EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards III Appendix III to Part 265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Water Standards Parameter Maximum level (mg/l) Arsenic 0.05 Barium 1.0 Cadmium 0.01 Chromium...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 265 - EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards III Appendix III to Part 265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES...

  14. 36 CFR Appendix A to Part 1234 - Minimum Security Standards for Level III Federal Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum Security Standards... FACILITIES Pt. 1234, App. A Appendix A to Part 1234—Minimum Security Standards for Level III Federal Facilities Recommended Standards Chart Level III Perimeter Security Parking: Control of facility...

  15. 36 CFR Appendix A to Part 1234 - Minimum Security Standards for Level III Federal Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Minimum Security Standards for.... 1234, App. A Appendix A to Part 1234—Minimum Security Standards for Level III Federal Facilities Recommended Standards Chart Level III Perimeter Security Parking: Control of facility parking...

  16. 29 CFR Appendix III to Part 1918 - The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory.... 1918, App. III Appendix III to Part 1918—The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory) Note: This appendix is non-mandatory and provides an explanation of the mechanics in the correct spotting...

  17. 29 CFR Appendix III to Part 1918 - The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory.... 1918, App. III Appendix III to Part 1918—The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory) Note: This appendix is non-mandatory and provides an explanation of the mechanics in the correct spotting...

  18. 29 CFR Appendix III to Part 1918 - The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory.... 1918, App. III Appendix III to Part 1918—The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory) Note: This appendix is non-mandatory and provides an explanation of the mechanics in the correct spotting...

  19. 29 CFR Appendix III to Part 1918 - The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory.... 1918, App. III Appendix III to Part 1918—The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory) Note: This appendix is non-mandatory and provides an explanation of the mechanics in the correct spotting...

  20. 29 CFR Appendix III to Part 1918 - The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory.... 1918, App. III Appendix III to Part 1918—The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory) Note: This appendix is non-mandatory and provides an explanation of the mechanics in the correct spotting...

  1. Benchmarking the Sandia Pulsed Reactor III cavity neutron spectrum for electronic parts calibration and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.G.; Griffin, P.J.; Fan, W.C.

    1993-08-01

    The SPR III bare cavity spectrum and integral parameters have been determined with 24 measured spectrum sensor responses and an independent, detailed, MCNP transport calculation. This environment qualifies as a benchmark field for electronic parts testing.

  2. Damascus Steel-Part III; The Wadsworth-Sherby mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Baker, H.H.; Peterson, D.T. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Clark, H.F. ); Yater, W.M. )

    1990-04-01

    Several blades have been forged from a Fe-1.6 wt% C alloy after heat treating to form austenite grain boundary allotriomorph (GBA) cementite (Cm). This is the Wadsworth--Sherby technique proposed as the mechanism for forming the pattern on Damascus blades. Both the forging temperature and the severity of metal flow during forging were systematically varied. The patterns obtained are compared to a genuine Damascus sword and shown to be macroscopically somewhat similar, but microscopically quite different. It is concluded that the Wadsworth--Sherby technique is probably not the technique used by ancient blacksmiths to produce the Damask pattern in their blades.

  3. Inactivation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type III by heat, chemicals, and irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinnan, G.V. Jr.; Wells, M.A.; Wittek, A.E.; Phelan, M.A.; Mayner, R.E.; Feinstone, S.; Purcell, R.H.; Epstein, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    Infectivity of human T-cell lymphotropic virus, Type III (HTLV-III) was inactivated by heat more rapidly if in liquid medium than if lyophilized and more rapidly at 60 than 56/sup 0/C. When HTLV-III was added to factor VIII suspension, then lyophilized and heated at 60/sup 0/C for 2 hours or longer there was elimination of 1 X 10(6) in vitro infectious units (IVIU) of virus. Much of the viral inactivation appeared to result from lyophilization. The application of water-saturated chloroform to the lyophilized material containing virus also resulted in elimination of infectivity. HTLV-III was efficiently inactivated by formalin, beta-propiolactone, ethyl ether, detergent, and ultraviolet light plus psoralen. The results are reassuring regarding the potential safety of various biological products.

  4. A Design that Inspires All. Education by Design: Part III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theimer, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Too many schools are still being built today as warehouses with windows; they get the job done on some minimal level, but beyond that, they simply do not excite the children who spend a great deal of their lives within their walls. Creating an environmentally friendly building is important, but that's only part of the equation. The author and his…

  5. Guide to the Archives of International Organizations. Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabbs, A. W., Comp.

    This compilation forms Part 3 of the guide according to the plan conceived by a working party of the Section of Archivists of International Organizations in 1974-1975. An information gathering questionnaire was sent to 246 organizations in two categories: intergovernmental organizations created before 1950 and non-governmental organizations with…

  6. Critical Thinking: The Art of Socratic Questioning, Part III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In the last two articles, the authors introduced the concept of Socratic questioning and its relationship to critical thinking. They illuminated how understanding the concepts embedded in critical thinking naturally generates questions. For example, a thinker who understands the elements of thought asks questions which probe the parts of thinking.…

  7. Minimizing Glovebox Glove Breaches, Part III: Deriving Service Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M.E.; Wilson, K.V.; Maestas, M.M.; Schreiber, S.

    2006-07-01

    At the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, various isotopes of plutonium along with other actinides are handled in a glove box environment. Weapons-grade plutonium consists mainly in Pu-239. Pu-238 is another isotope used for heat sources. The Pu-238 is more aggressive regarding gloves due to its higher alpha-emitting characteristic ({approx}300 times more active than Pu-239), which modifies the change-out intervals for gloves. Optimization of the change-out intervals for gloves is fundamental since Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division generates approximately 4 m{sup 3}/yr of TRU waste from the disposal of glovebox gloves. To reduce the number of glovebox glove failures, the NMT Division pro-actively investigates processes and procedures that minimize glove failures. Aging studies have been conducted that correlate changes in mechanical (physical) properties with degradation chemistry. This present work derives glovebox glove change intervals based on mechanical data of thermally aged Hypalon{sup R}, and Butasol{sup R} glove samples. Information from this study represent an important baseline in gauging the acceptable standards for polymeric gloves used in a laboratory glovebox environment and will be used later to account for possible presence of dose-rate or synergistic effects in 'combined-environment'. In addition, excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone and excess exposure to the radiological sources associated with unplanned breaches in the glovebox are reduced. (authors)

  8. Shell-and-tube heat exchangers in refrigeration. Part 3

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.A.

    1997-12-01

    This article is a continuation of a discussion of shell-and-tube heat exchangers (S and T HX) in refrigeration applications. Part 1 (December 1996) covered the basics of sizing and selection. Part 2 (January 1997) dealt with their application as evaporators with liquid chillers. The flooded cooler, the direct expansion (DX) chiller, and the spray chiller were mentioned. This segment will address major design problems that must be solved for heat exchangers to meet the requirements of specific applications and will focus on the DX chiller.

  9. NEW RENIN-INHIBITORS--STABILITY AND ACTIVITY DETERMINATION. PART III.

    PubMed

    Marszałek, Dorota; Goldnik, Anna; Winiecka, Iwona; Jaworski, Paweł; Mazurek, Aleksander P

    2016-01-01

    A series of new four potential renin inhibitors containing pseudodipeptides were synthesized. Stability for all compounds (1-4) in homogenates of liver, kidney, lung and in serum, gastric, intestinal juice and in the presence of α-chymotrypsin was determined. Compound 1 was unstable, compounds 2, 3 were stable, compound 4 was partly unstable, (liver and kidney homogenates, (α-chymotrypsin solution). Inhibitory activity of the compounds was measured in vitro by HPLC determination of lowering concentration of substrate (angiotensinogen) in the presence of renin and the potential renin inhibitor (compounds 1-4). Compound 1, 2, 3 and 4 showed inhibitory activity (1.7 x 10(-6), 9.6 x 10(-7), 1.05 x 10(-9) and 1.31 x 10(-7)M, respectively). PMID:27180425

  10. 10 CFR Appendix III to Part 960 - Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process III Appendix III to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. III Appendix III to...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix III to Part 960 - Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process III Appendix III to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. III Appendix III to...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix III to Part 960 - Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process III Appendix III to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. III Appendix III to...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix III to Part 960 - Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process III Appendix III to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. III Appendix III to...

  14. 36 CFR Appendix A to Part 1234 - Minimum Security Standards for Level III Federal Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum Security Standards for Level III Federal Facilities A Appendix A to Part 1234 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT FACILITY STANDARDS FOR RECORDS STORAGE FACILITIES Pt. 1234, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  15. PROBABILITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR LIQUID WASTE TANKS - PART III

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.; Edwards, T.

    2010-12-09

    The liquid waste chemistry control program is designed to reduce the pitting corrosion occurrence on tank walls. The chemistry control program has been implemented, in part, by applying engineering judgment safety factors to experimental data. However, the simple application of a general safety factor can result in use of excessive corrosion inhibiting agents. The required use of excess corrosion inhibitors can be costly for tank maintenance, waste processing, and in future tank closure. It is proposed that a probability-based approach can be used to quantify the risk associated with the chemistry control program. This approach can lead to the application of tank-specific chemistry control programs reducing overall costs associated with overly conservative use of inhibitor. Furthermore, when using nitrite as an inhibitor, the current chemistry control program is based on a linear model of increased aggressive species requiring increased protective species. This linear model was primarily supported by experimental data obtained from dilute solutions with nitrate concentrations less than 0.6 M, but is used to produce the current chemistry control program up to 1.0 M nitrate. Therefore, in the nitrate space between 0.6 and 1.0 M, the current control limit is based on assumptions that the linear model developed from data in the <0.6 M region is applicable in the 0.6-1.0 M region. Due to this assumption, further investigation of the nitrate region of 0.6 M to 1.0 M has potential for significant inhibitor reduction, while maintaining the same level of corrosion risk associated with the current chemistry control program. Ongoing studies have been conducted in FY07, FY08, FY09 and FY10 to evaluate the corrosion controls at the SRS tank farm and to assess the minimum nitrite concentrations to inhibit pitting in ASTM A537 carbon steel below 1.0 molar nitrate. The experimentation from FY08 suggested a non-linear model known as the mixture/amount model could be used to predict

  16. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart III of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart III

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart III 2 Table 2 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  17. 43 CFR Appendix III to Part 11 - Format for Data Inputs and Modifications to the NRDAM/GLE

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Format for Data Inputs and Modifications to the NRDAM/GLE III Appendix III to Part 11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Pt. 11, App. III Appendix III to Part 11—Format for Data Inputs and Modifications to the NRDAM/GLE...

  18. Assessing the Denominational Identity of American Evangelical Colleges and Universities, Part III: The Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davignon, Phil; Glanzer, Perry; Rine, P. Jesse

    2013-01-01

    As the conclusion to a three-part series assessing the denominational identity of American evangelical colleges and universities, this article presents findings from Phase III of the CCCU Denominational Study. Data for this research were gathered via an online survey that was completed by 3,160 full-time undergraduate students attending 16…

  19. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation... Appendix III to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation Suppose that a manufacturer called Mizer Motors has a product line composed of eight car lines. Of these eight, four are available with the...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation... Appendix III to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation Suppose that a manufacturer called Mizer Motors has a product line composed of eight car lines. Of these eight, four are available with the...

  1. Explicit approximations to estimate the perturbative diffusivity in the presence of convectivity and damping. III. Cylindrical approximations for heat waves traveling inwards

    SciTech Connect

    Berkel, M. van; Tamura, N.; Ida, K.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Zwart, H. J.; Inagaki, S.; Baar, M. R. de

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, a number of new explicit approximations are introduced to estimate the perturbative diffusivity (χ), convectivity (V), and damping (τ) in cylindrical geometry. For this purpose, the harmonic components of heat waves induced by localized deposition of modulated power are used. The approximations are based on the heat equation in cylindrical geometry using the symmetry (Neumann) boundary condition at the plasma center. This means that the approximations derived here should be used only to estimate transport coefficients between the plasma center and the off-axis perturbative source. If the effect of cylindrical geometry is small, it is also possible to use semi-infinite domain approximations presented in Part I and Part II of this series. A number of new approximations are derived in this part, Part III, based upon continued fractions of the modified Bessel function of the first kind and the confluent hypergeometric function of the first kind. These approximations together with the approximations based on semi-infinite domains are compared for heat waves traveling towards the center. The relative error for the different derived approximations is presented for different values of the frequency, transport coefficients, and dimensionless radius. Moreover, it is shown how combinations of different explicit formulas can be used to estimate the transport coefficients over a large parameter range for cases without convection and damping, cases with damping only, and cases with convection and damping. The relative error between the approximation and its underlying model is below 2% for the case, where only diffusivity and damping are considered. If also convectivity is considered, the diffusivity can be estimated well in a large region, but there is also a large region in which no suitable approximation is found. This paper is the third part (Part III) of a series of three papers. In Part I, the semi-infinite slab approximations have been treated. In Part II

  2. Building human resources capability in health care: a global analysis of best practice--Part III.

    PubMed

    Zairi, M

    1998-01-01

    This is the last part of a series of three papers which discussed very comprehensively best practice applications in human resource management by drawing special inferences to the healthcare context. It emerged from parts I and II that high performing organisations plan and intend to build sustainable capability through a systematic consideration of the human element as the key asset and through a continuous process of training, developing, empowering and engaging people in all aspects of organisational excellence. Part III brings this debate to a close by demonstrating what brings about organisational excellence and proposes a road map for effective human resource development and management, based on world class standards. Healthcare human resource professionals can now rise to the challenge and plan ahead for building organisational capability and sustainable performance. PMID:10346320

  3. 10 CFR Appendix III to Part 960 - Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Siting Process III Appendix III to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE... 960—Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process 1. This appendix... decision points of the siting process. The decision points, as referenced in the table, are defined...

  4. Social class, political power, and the state: their implications in medicine--part III.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    1977-01-01

    This is the third part of an article on the distribution of power and the nature of the state in Western industrialized societies and their implications in medicine. Parts I and II were published in the preceding issue of this Journal. Part I presented a critique of contemporary theories of the Western system of power; discussed the countervailing pluralist and power of elite theories, as well as those of bureaucratic and professional control; and concluded with an examination of the Marxist theories of economic determinism, structural determinism, and corporate statism. Part II presented a Marxist theory of the role, nature, and characteristics of state intervention. Part III focuses on the mode of that intervention and the reasons for its growth, with an added analysis of the attributes of state intervention in the health sector, and of the dialectical relationship between its growth and the current fiscal crisis of the state. In all three parts, the focus is on Western European countries and on North America, with many examples and categories from the area of medicine. PMID:870557

  5. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... part with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations. 410.1 Section 410.1 Conservation...

  6. Heat pipe design handbook, part 2. [digital computer code specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skrabek, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    The utilization of a digital computer code for heat pipe analysis and design (HPAD) is described which calculates the steady state hydrodynamic heat transport capability of a heat pipe with a particular wick configuration, the working fluid being a function of wick cross-sectional area. Heat load, orientation, operating temperature, and heat pipe geometry are specified. Both one 'g' and zero 'g' environments are considered, and, at the user's option, the code will also perform a weight analysis and will calculate heat pipe temperature drops. The central porous slab, circumferential porous wick, arterial wick, annular wick, and axial rectangular grooves are the wick configurations which HPAD has the capability of analyzing. For Vol. 1, see N74-22569.

  7. Characterization of heat transfer in nutrient materials, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, J. E.; Bannerot, R. B.; Chen, C. K.; Witte, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    The principles involved in food heating are discussed. The food heating system for Skylab is described. Thermal models of nutrient materials are analyzed including models in zero-g and low pressure conditions. Results are presented of parametric studies to establish the effect of individual parameters on the thermal response of the system.

  8. Mumps Virus Induces Protein-Kinase-R-Dependent Stress Granules, Partly Suppressing Type III Interferon Production.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shin; Yamamoto, Soh; Ogasawara, Noriko; Sato, Toyotaka; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Katoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toru; Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Kojima, Takashi; Himi, Tetsuo; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic granular aggregations that are induced by cellular stress, including viral infection. SGs have opposing antiviral and proviral roles, which depend on virus species. The exact function of SGs during viral infection is not fully understood. Here, we showed that mumps virus (MuV) induced SGs depending on activation of protein kinase R (PKR). MuV infection strongly induced interferon (IFN)-λ1, 2 and 3, and IFN-β through activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) via retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) pathway. MuV-induced IFNs were strongly upregulated in PKR-knockdown cells. MuV-induced SG formation was suppressed by knockdown of PKR and SG marker proteins, Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3-domain-binding protein 1 and T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1, and significantly increased the levels of MuV-induced IFN-λ1. However, viral titer was not altered by suppression of SG formation. PKR was required for induction of SGs by MuV infection and regulated type III IFN (IFN-λ1) mRNA stability. MuV-induced SGs partly suppressed type III IFN production by MuV; however, the limited suppression was not sufficient to inhibit MuV replication in cell culture. Our results provide insight into the relationship between SGs and IFN production induced by MuV infection. PMID:27560627

  9. Mumps Virus Induces Protein-Kinase-R-Dependent Stress Granules, Partly Suppressing Type III Interferon Production

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shin; Yamamoto, Soh; Ogasawara, Noriko; Sato, Toyotaka; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Katoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toru; Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Kojima, Takashi; Himi, Tetsuo; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic granular aggregations that are induced by cellular stress, including viral infection. SGs have opposing antiviral and proviral roles, which depend on virus species. The exact function of SGs during viral infection is not fully understood. Here, we showed that mumps virus (MuV) induced SGs depending on activation of protein kinase R (PKR). MuV infection strongly induced interferon (IFN)-λ1, 2 and 3, and IFN-β through activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) via retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) pathway. MuV-induced IFNs were strongly upregulated in PKR-knockdown cells. MuV-induced SG formation was suppressed by knockdown of PKR and SG marker proteins, Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3-domain-binding protein 1 and T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1, and significantly increased the levels of MuV-induced IFN-λ1. However, viral titer was not altered by suppression of SG formation. PKR was required for induction of SGs by MuV infection and regulated type III IFN (IFN-λ1) mRNA stability. MuV-induced SGs partly suppressed type III IFN production by MuV; however, the limited suppression was not sufficient to inhibit MuV replication in cell culture. Our results provide insight into the relationship between SGs and IFN production induced by MuV infection. PMID:27560627

  10. Solar/subambient heating system, Part I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heinig, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    A solar/subambient seawater heating system was designed and intalled at the Intertide Corporation shellfish hatchery located in Harpswell, Maine in February of 1982. Data was collected on the performance of the unit over two operating seasons. Results show up to 72.6% and 66.1% greater efficiency over direct electrical heating and gas heating, respectively, on given months. However, the high initial cost of installation results in an extensive payback period in short to moderate running time applications. Modifications, and alternative designs are discussed.

  11. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain or inspect a copy at the Delaware River... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations. 410.1 Section 410.1 Conservation...

  12. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain or inspect a copy at the Delaware River... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations. 410.1 Section 410.1 Conservation...

  13. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain or inspect a copy at the Delaware River... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations. 410.1 Section 410.1 Conservation...

  14. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations. 410.1 Section 410.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS; WATER CODE AND ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL-PART...

  15. Characterization of heat transfer in nutrient materials, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, J. E.; Bannerot, R. B.; Chen, C. K.; Witte, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A thermal model is analyzed that takes into account phase changes in the nutrient material. The behavior of fluids in low gravity environments is discussed along with low gravity heat transfer. Thermal contact resistance in the Skylab food heater is analyzed. The original model is modified to include: equivalent conductance due to radiation, radial equivalent conductance, wall equivalent conductance, and equivalent heat capacity. A constant wall-temperature model is presented.

  16. Nonlinear aspects of high heat flux nucleate boiling heat transfer. Part 1, Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sadasivan, P.; Unal, C.; Nelson, R.

    1994-04-01

    This paper outlines the essential details of the formulation and numerical implementation of a model used to study nonlinear aspects of the macrolayer-controlled heat transfer process associated with high heat flux nucleate boiling and the critical heat flux. The model addresses the three-dimensional transient conduction heat transfer process within the problem domain comprised of the macrolayer and heater. Heat dissipation from the heater is modeled as the sum of transient transport into the macrolayer, and the heat loss resulting from evaporation of menisci associated with vapor stems.

  17. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's...

  18. Control of power to an inductively heated part

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, Douglas R.; Frost, Charles A.; Kahle, Philip M.; Kelley, J. Bruce; Stanton, Suzanne L.

    1997-01-01

    A process for induction hardening a part to a desired depth with an AC signal applied to the part from a closely coupled induction coil includes measuring the voltage of the AC signal at the coil and the current passing through the coil; and controlling the depth of hardening of the part from the measured voltage and current. The control system determines parameters of the part that are functions of applied voltage and current to the induction coil, and uses a neural network to control the application of the AC signal based on the detected functions for each part.

  19. Control of power to an inductively heated part

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, D.R.; Frost, C.A.; Kahle, P.M.; Kelley, J.B.; Stanton, S.L.

    1997-05-20

    A process for induction hardening a part to a desired depth with an AC signal applied to the part from a closely coupled induction coil includes measuring the voltage of the AC signal at the coil and the current passing through the coil; and controlling the depth of hardening of the part from the measured voltage and current. The control system determines parameters of the part that are functions of applied voltage and current to the induction coil, and uses a neural network to control the application of the AC signal based on the detected functions for each part. 6 figs.

  20. Airbreathing Laser Propulsion Experiments with 1 {mu}m Terawatt Pharos III Laser: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Myrabo, L. N.; Lyons, P. W.; Jones, R. A.; Liu, S.; Manka, C.

    2011-11-10

    This basic research study examines the physics of airbreathing laser propulsion at the extreme flux range of 1-2x10{sup 11} W/cm{sup 2}--within the air breakdown threshold for l {mu}m radiation--using the terawatt PHAROS III neodymium-glass pulsed laser. Six different experimental setups were tested using a 34 mm line focus with 66 {mu}m focal waist, positioned near the flat impulse surface. The first campaign investigated impulse generation with the beam oriented almost normal to the target surface, with energies ranging from 23 to 376 J, and pulses of 5 to 30 ns FWHM. Air breakdown/ plasma dynamics were diagnosed with GOI cameras and color photography. Laser generated impulse was quantified with both vertical pendulums and piezoelectric pressure transducers using the standard performance metric, C{sub M}--the momentum coupling coefficient. Part 1 of this 2-part paper covers Campaign no. 1 results including laser plasma diagnostics, pressure gage and vertical pendulum data.

  1. Investigational drug tracking: phases I-III and NDA submissions--Part II.

    PubMed

    Grant, K L

    1994-10-01

    The author catalogs over 800 investigational drugs/biologicals currently in Phase I, II or III clinical trials or drugs/biologicals submitted to the FDA as new drug applications. Part I of this article appeared in the September issue of Hospital Pharmacy. The list assists in predicting when new drugs will be marketed. The entries include generic/chemical name, investigational drug number, synonyms, trade names, manufacturers, clinical trial status, predicted approval year, indications or drug class, whether the drug has been developed through biotechnology, and references. Entries were gleaned from medical journals, stock market analysis publications, and the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association's Medicines in Development Series. The list is alphabetized by the generic/chemical name or investigational drug number and cross-indexed by the trade name and synonyms. The list reflects those drugs which were not FDA approved as of April 15, 1994. Part I concludes with the remaining alphabetical listing by generic/chemical name or investigational drug number. PMID:10137850

  2. Double tube heat exchanger with novel enhancement: part II—single phase convective heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiruselvam, R.; Chin, W. M.; Raghavan, Vijay R.

    2012-08-01

    The study is conducted to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics of two new and versatile enhancement configurations in a double tube heat exchanger annulus. The novelty is that they are usable in single phase forced convection, evaporation and condensation. Heat transfer coefficients are determined by the Wilson Plot technique in laminar and turbulent flow and correlations are proposed for Nusselt numbers. Comparisons are then made between heat transfer and flow friction.

  3. Beam Heating of Samples: Modeling and Verification. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazmierczak, Michael; Gopalakrishnan, Pradeep; Kumar, Raghav; Banerjee Rupak; Snell, Edward; Bellamy, Henry; Rosenbaum, Gerd; vanderWoerd, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Energy absorbed from the X-ray beam by the sample requires cooling by forced convection (i.e. cryostream) to minimize temperature increase and the damage caused to the sample by the X-ray heating. In this presentation we will first review the current theoretical models and recent studies in the literature, which predict the sample temperature rise for a given set of beam parameters. It should be noted that a common weakness of these previous studies is that none of them provide actual experimental confirmation. This situation is now remedied in our investigation where the problem of x-ray sample heating is taken up once more. We have theoretically investigated, and at the same time, in addition to the numerical computations, performed experiments to validate the predictions. We have modeled, analyzed and experimentally tested the temperature rise of a 1 mm diameter glass sphere (sample surrogate) exposed to an intense synchrotron X-ray beam, while it is being cooled in a uniform flow of nitrogen gas. The heat transfer, including external convection and internal heat conduction was theoretically modeled using CFD to predict the temperature variation in the sphere during cooling and while it was subjected to an undulator (ID sector 19) X-ray beam at the APS. The surface temperature of the sphere during the X-ray beam heating was measured using the infrared camera measurement technique described in a previous talk. The temperatures from the numerical predictions and experimental measurements are compared and discussed. Additional results are reported for the two different sphere sizes and for two different supporting pin orientations.

  4. Premium performance heating oil - Part 2, Field trial results

    SciTech Connect

    Jetter, S.M.; Hoskin, D.; McClintock, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Limited field trial results of a heating oil additive package developed to minimize unscheduled maintenance indicate that it achieves its goal of keeping heating oil systems cleaner. The multifunctional additive package was developed to provide improved fuel oxidation stability, improved corrosion protection, and dispersency. This combination of performance benefits was chosen because we believed it would retard the formation of sludge, as well as allow sludge already present to be carried through the system without fouling the fuel system components (dispersency should keep sludge particles small so they pass through the filtering system). Since many unscheduled maintenance calls are linked to fouling of the fuel filtering system, the overall goal of this technology is to reduce these maintenance calls. Photographic evidence shows that the additive package not only reduces the amount of sludge formed, but even removes existing sludge from filters and pump strainers. This {open_quotes}clean-up{close_quotes} performance is provided trouble free: we found no indication that nozzle/burner performance was impaired by dispersing sludge from filters and pump strainers. Qualitative assessments from specific accounts that used the premium heating oil also show marked reductions in unscheduled maintenance.

  5. Direct contact heat exchange interfacial phenomena for liquid metal reactors : Part I - heat transfer.

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, D.H.; Page, R.J.; Hurtault, D.; Abdulla, S.; Liu, X.; Anderson, M.H.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.

    2002-02-26

    Experiments on direct-contact heat exchange between molten metal and water for steam production were conducted. These experiments involved the injection of water into molten lead-bismuth eutectic for heat transfer measurements in a 1-D geometry. Based on the initial results of the experiments, the effects of the water flow rate and the molten metal superheat (temperature difference between molten metal and saturated water) on the volumetric heat transfer coefficient were discussed.

  6. A Structural Molar Volume Model for Oxide Melts Part III: Fe Oxide-Containing Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibodeau, Eric; Gheribi, Aimen E.; Jung, In-Ho

    2016-04-01

    As part III of this series, the model is extended to iron oxide-containing melts. All available experimental data in the FeO-Fe2O3-Na2O-K2O-MgO-CaO-MnO-Al2O3-SiO2 system were critically evaluated based on the experimental condition. The variations of FeO and Fe2O3 in the melts were taken into account by using FactSage to calculate the Fe2+/Fe3+ distribution. The molar volume model with unary and binary model parameters can be used to predict the molar volume of the molten oxide of the Li2O-Na2O-K2O-MgO-CaO-MnO-PbO-FeO-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 system in the entire range of compositions, temperatures, and oxygen partial pressures from Fe saturation to 1 atm pressure.

  7. The impacts of cooling construction on the ability distract the heat of condensation part of the heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čaja, A.; Nemec, P.; Malcho, M.; Gavlas, S.

    2013-04-01

    Heat pipes as cooling devices have a high potential. Their power to affect a variety of factors - the vapour pressure, the amount of media work etc. Itis therefore necessary to verify the calculated parameters also practically. To determine the performance of transmitted heat pipe is the best calorimetric method. When it is out of the flow and the temperature difference the cooling part of the heat pipe determines its transmitted power. The contribution is focused on comparison of two types of coolers. The first type is looped capillary cooler for the condenser section. The small diameter capillary is secured high coolant turbulence and hence heat dissipation. The second type is non-contact cooling, where cooling fluid washes direct heat pipe wall.

  8. 18 CFR 382.201 - Annual charges under Parts II and III of the Federal Power Act and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Annual charges under Parts II and III of the Federal Power Act and related statutes. 382.201 Section 382.201 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REVISED...

  9. 18 CFR 382.201 - Annual charges under Parts II and III of the Federal Power Act and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Annual charges under Parts II and III of the Federal Power Act and related statutes. 382.201 Section 382.201 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REVISED...

  10. 18 CFR 382.201 - Annual charges under Parts II and III of the Federal Power Act and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annual charges under Parts II and III of the Federal Power Act and related statutes. 382.201 Section 382.201 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REVISED...

  11. 18 CFR 382.201 - Annual charges under Parts II and III of the Federal Power Act and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Annual charges under Parts II and III of the Federal Power Act and related statutes. 382.201 Section 382.201 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REVISED...

  12. 18 CFR 382.201 - Annual charges under Parts II and III of the Federal Power Act and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual charges under Parts II and III of the Federal Power Act and related statutes. 382.201 Section 382.201 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REVISED...

  13. 29 CFR 1918.51 - General requirements (See also § 1918.11 and appendix III of this part).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General requirements (See also § 1918.11 and appendix III of this part). 1918.51 Section 1918.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.51 General requirements (See also § 1918.11 and appendix...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 310 - Form: Application for Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Appendix III to Part 310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... apparatus; disposable, protective suits and gloves; and sampling supplies. EQ Equipment EQ1: Replacement—for... of equipment owned by others Equipment replacement costs will be considered if applicant...

  15. Committee of the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics Geometry Conference, Part III: Geometric Transformation Groups and Other Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durst, Lincoln K., Ed.

    This is Part III of the first volume of the proceedings of the Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics (CUPM) Geometry Conference, held at Santa Barbara in June, 1967. The purpose of the conference was to consider the status of geometry in colleges at the undergraduate level. The conference, attended by undergraduate mathematics…

  16. 29 CFR 1918.51 - General requirements (See also § 1918.11 and appendix III of this part).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General requirements (See also § 1918.11 and appendix III of this part). 1918.51 Section 1918.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.51 General requirements (See also § 1918.11 and appendix...

  17. 29 CFR 1918.51 - General requirements (See also § 1918.11 and appendix III of this part).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General requirements (See also § 1918.11 and appendix III of this part). 1918.51 Section 1918.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.51 General requirements (See also § 1918.11 and appendix...

  18. 29 CFR 1918.51 - General requirements (See also § 1918.11 and appendix III of this part).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements (See also § 1918.11 and appendix III of this part). 1918.51 Section 1918.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.51 General requirements (See also § 1918.11 and appendix...

  19. 29 CFR 1918.51 - General requirements (See also § 1918.11 and appendix III of this part).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements (See also § 1918.11 and appendix III of this part). 1918.51 Section 1918.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.51 General requirements (See also § 1918.11 and appendix...

  20. Joining of parts via magnetic heating of metal aluminum powders

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Ian

    2013-05-21

    A method of joining at least two parts includes steps of dispersing a joining material comprising a multi-phase magnetic metal-aluminum powder at an interface between the at least two parts to be joined and applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The AMF has a magnetic field strength and frequency suitable for inducing magnetic hysteresis losses in the metal-aluminum powder and is applied for a period that raises temperature of the metal-aluminum powder to an exothermic transformation temperature. At the exothermic transformation temperature, the metal-aluminum powder melts and resolidifies as a metal aluminide solid having a non-magnetic configuration.

  1. Heating the intergalactic medium by X-rays from population III binaries in high-redshift galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Ahn, Kyungjin; Wise, John H.; O'Shea, Brian W. E-mail: mlnorman@ucsd.edu E-mail: jwise@gatech.edu

    2014-08-20

    Due to their long mean free path, X-rays are expected to have an important impact on cosmic reionization by heating and ionizing the intergalactic medium (IGM) on large scales, especially after simulations have suggested that Population III (Pop III) stars may form in pairs at redshifts as high as 20-30. We use the Pop III distribution and evolution from a self-consistent cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulation of the formation of the first galaxies and a simple Pop III X-ray binary model to estimate their X-ray output in a high-density region larger than 100 comoving (Mpc){sup 3}. We then combine three different methods—ray tracing, a one-zone model, and X-ray background modeling—to investigate the X-ray propagation, intensity distribution, and long-term effects on the IGM thermal and ionization state. The efficiency and morphology of photoheating and photoionization are dependent on the photon energies. The sub-kiloelectronvolt X-rays only impact the IGM near the sources, while the kiloelectronvolt photons contribute significantly to the X-ray background and heat and ionize the IGM smoothly. The X-rays just below 1 keV are most efficient in heating and ionizing the IGM. We find that the IGM might be heated to over 100 K by z = 10 and the high-density source region might reach 10{sup 4} K, limited by atomic hydrogen cooling. This may be important for predicting the 21 cm neutral hydrogen signals. On the other hand, the free electrons from X-ray ionizations are not enough to contribute significantly to the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background to the Thomson scattering.

  2. A Midlatitude Cirrus Cloud Climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing. Part III: Radiative Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, K.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2001-08-01

    In Part III of a series of papers describing the extended time high-cloud observations from the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS) supporting the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment, the visible and infrared radiative properties of cirrus clouds over Salt Lake City, Utah, are examined. Using {approx}860 h of combined ruby (0.694 {micro}m) lidar and midinfrared (9.5-11.5 {micro}m) radiometer data collected between 1992 and 1999 from visually identified cirrus clouds, the visible optical depths {tau} and infrared layer emittance epsilon of the varieties of midlatitude cirrus are characterized. The mean and median values for the cirrus sample are 0.75 {+-} 0.91 and 0.61 for {tau}, and 0.30 {+-} 0.22 and 0.25 for epsilon. Other scattering parameters studied are the visible extinction and infrared absorption coefficients, and their ratio, and the lidar backscatter-to-extinction ratio, which has a mean value of 0.041 sr{sup -1}. Differences among cirrus clouds generated by general synoptic (e.g., jet stream), thunderstorm anvil, and orographic mechanisms are found, reflecting basic cloud microphysical effects. The authors draw parameterizations in terms of midcloud temperature T{sub m} and physical cloud thickness {Delta}z for epsilon and {tau}: both macrophysical variables are needed to adequately address the impact of the adiabatic process on ice cloud content, which modulates radiative transfer as a function of temperature. For the total cirrus dataset, the authors find epsilon = 1 -exp [-8.5 x 10{sup -5} (T{sub m} + 80 C) {Delta}z]. These parameterizations, based on a uniquely comprehensive dataset, hold the potential for improving weather and climate model predictions, and satellite cloud property retrieval methods.

  3. Mass Spectrometry of 3D-printed plastic parts under plasma and radiative heat environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, W. F.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Bates, E. M.; Birmingham, W.; Takeno, J.; Knop, S.

    2015-11-01

    We present the design and preliminary results of a mass spectrometry system used to assess vacuum compatibility of 3D-printed parts, developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory of the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC). A decrease in outgassing was observed when electroplated parts were inserted in the test chamber vs. non electroplated ones. Outgassing will also be tested under different environments such as plasma and radiative heat. Heat will be generated by a titanium getter pump placed inside a 90 degree elbow, such that titanium does not coat the part. A mirror inside the elbow will be used to throttle the heat arriving at the part. Plasma exposure of 3D printed parts will be achieved by placing the parts in a separate chamber connected to the spectrometer by a vacuum line that is differentially pumped. The signals from the mass spectrometer will be analyzed to see how the vacuum conditions fluctuate under different plasma discharges.

  4. Process of preparing metal parts to be heated by means of infrared radiance

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Howard Robinson; Blue, Craig A.

    2009-06-09

    A method for preparing metal for heating by infrared radiance to enable uniform and consistent heating. The surface of one or more metal parts, such as aluminum or aluminum alloy parts, is treated to alter the surface finish to affect the reflectivity of the surface. The surface reflectivity is evaluated, such as by taking measurements at one or more points on the surface, to determine if a desired reflectivity has been achieved. The treating and measuring are performed until the measuring indicates that the desired reflectivity has been achieved. Once the treating has altered the surface finish to achieve the desired reflectivity, the metal part may then be exposed to infrared radiance to heat the metal part to a desired temperature, and that heating will be substantially consistent throughout by virtue of the desired reflectivity.

  5. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range...

  6. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY AND WATER USE LABELING FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information Capacity... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5...

  7. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range...

  8. Measurement of frost characteristics on heat exchanger fins. Part 2: Data and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Thomas, L.; Besant, R.W.

    1999-07-01

    Part 1 of this paper described the frost growth test facility and instrumentation. In Part 2, results are presented for typical operating conditions with frost growth on heat exchanger fins. Typical data are presented for frost height distributions on fins, increase in pressure loss for airflow through a finned test section, frost mass accumulation on fins, and heat rate. Special attention is given to the uncertainty in each of these measurements and calculations.

  9. Heat transfer in porous medium embedded with vertical plate: Non-equilibrium approach - Part B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadir, G. A.; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum

    2016-06-01

    This work is continuation of the paper Part A. Due to large number of results, the paper is divided into two section with section-A (Part A) discussing the effect of various parameters such as heat transfer coefficient parameter, thermal conductivity ratio etc. on streamlines and isothermal lines. Section-B highlights the heat transfer characteristics in terms of Nusselt number The Darcy model is employed to simulate the flow inside the medium. It is assumed that the heat transfer takes place by convection and radiation. The governing partial differential equations are converted into non-dimensional form and solved numerically using finite element method.

  10. Solar Energy School Heating Augmentation Experiment. Sections I, II, and III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    InterTechnology Corp., Warrenton, VA.

    An experimental solar heating system heats five modular classrooms at the Fauquier County High School in Warrenton, Virginia. The present report covers the operation, maintenance, and modifications to the system over the 1974-75 and 1975-76 heating seasons. The solar system has shown the capability of providing essentially 100 percent of the…

  11. On the heat flux vector for flowing granular materials--part II: derivation and special cases

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad

    2006-09-10

    Heat transfer plays a major role in the processing of many particulate materials. The heat flux vector is commonly modelled by the Fourier's law of heat conduction and for complex materials such as non-linear fluids, porous media, or granular materials, the coefficient of thermal conductivity is generalized by assuming that it would depend on a host of material and kinematical parameters such as temperature, shear rate, porosity or concentration, etc. In Part I, we will give a brief review of the basic equations of thermodynamics and heat transfer to indicate the importance of the modelling of the heat flux vector. We will also discuss the concept of effective thermal conductivity (ETC) in granular and porous media. In Part II, we propose and subsequently derive a properly frame-invariant constitutive relationship for the heat flux vector for a (single phase) flowing granular medium. Standard methods in continuum mechanics such as representation theorems and homogenization techniques are used. It is shown that the heat flux vector in addition to being proportional to the temperature gradient (the Fourier's law), could also depend on the gradient of density (or volume fraction), and D (the symmetric part of the velocity gradient) in an appropriate manner. The emphasis in this paper is on the idea that for complex non-linear materials it is the heat flux vector which should be studied; obtaining or proposing generalized form of the thermal conductivity is not always appropriate or sufficient.

  12. Part I, FAB evaluation & application trials AFUE measurements: Part II, Integrated heating system (IHS) development

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, R.W.; Fisher, L.

    1996-07-01

    An oil burner/boiler efficiency test stand has been set up in the BNL oil heat laboratory which can measure the Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) of burner/boiler combinations in accordance with ASHRAE and DOE standards. Measurements include both steady state efficiencies and heat-up and cool-down characteristics so that cycling effects can be included in an estimate of seasonal average performance. In addition to AFUE measurements, the direct conversion of fuel energy content to enthalpy increase in the boiler water is monitored. The system is largely automated, with most control functions under computer control and data taken electronically and permanently recorded on disks for future reference. To date, a retention-head burner and a fan atomized burner (FAB) have been tested in a steel boiler, the latter operating at two different fuel flow rates. The results are presented below, and verify that the very tight construction of the FAB`s fan results in a significant decrease in off-cycle sensible heat losses. Tests were also performed on a center-flue water heater fired with a conventional retention-head burner and with an FAB. The tests conformed to DOE standard procedures for hot water heaters, and the results are discussed below.

  13. Institute for High Heat Flux Removal (IHHFR). Phases I, II, and III

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Ronald D.

    2014-08-31

    The IHHFR focused on interdisciplinary applications as it relates to high heat flux engineering issues and problems which arise due to engineering systems being miniaturized, optimized, or requiring increased high heat flux performance. The work in the IHHFR focused on water as a coolant and includes: (1) the development, design, and construction of the high heat flux flow loop and facility; (2) test section development, design, and fabrication; and, (3) single-side heat flux experiments to produce 2-D boiling curves and 3-D conjugate heat transfer measurements for single-side heated test sections. This work provides data for comparisons with previously developed and new single-side heated correlations and approaches that address the single-side heated effect on heat transfer. In addition, this work includes the addition of single-side heated circular TS and a monoblock test section with a helical wire insert. Finally, the present work includes: (1) data base expansion for the monoblock with a helical wire insert (only for the latter geometry), (2) prediction and verification using finite element, (3) monoblock model and methodology development analyses, and (4) an alternate model development for a hypervapotron and related conjugate heat transfer controlling parameters.

  14. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part III. Determining which practices are most effective and installing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The training program is designed to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. A teacher guide and student workbook are available to supplement the basic manual. Subjects covered in Part III are: determining which practices are most efficient and economical; installing energy-saving materials; and improving efficiency of equipment.

  15. Heat, Energy, and Order, Part Two of an Integrated Science Sequence, Student Guide, 1970 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Project Committee, OR.

    Part two of the first year in the Portland Project, a three-year high school integrated science curriculum, is contained in this student guide. This volume, one of four parts in the year course, involves activities relating to what is considered the most powerful unifying concept in science: energy. The macroscopic aspects of heat as embodied in…

  16. Prediction of residual stress and distortion from residual stress in heat treated and machined aluminum parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert

    Parts machined from relatively large thickness cross sections can experience significant deformations from high residual stresses that develop in the part during the heat treatment used to form the aluminum alloy. Uphill quenching is a process that can create a part with low residual stress and stable dimensions when the process is controlled properly. The uphill quenching process involves a solution heat treat, quench, cool to liquid nitrogen, steam blast, and then age to final temper. In this thesis two parts were modeled using ANSYS. The first part underwent the uphill quench process in the rough machined state. The second part was modeled in the stock material shape and only underwent a solution heat treat, quench, and age to final temper. After the residual stress in the second part was predicted the excess material was removed by killing the associated elements and the deformation of the final machined part was predicted. For both parts analyzed measurements were made and compared against predictions with fairly good results.

  17. Heating and Ventilating III, 11-4. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Engineer School, Fort Belvoir, VA.

    This third course in a four-course series on heating and ventilating for the secondary/postsecondary level is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The three lessons in the course cover these topics: (1) Warm-Air Heating, (2)…

  18. Working Smarter, Not Harder: Reaching the Tough to Teach. Part III--Strategies and Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    "Working Smarter, Not Harder: Reaching the Tough to Teach" is the topic of an exclusive four-part series by the author for the "Kappa Delta Pi Record." Part I, Prior Knowledge and Concept Development, appeared in the Fall 2007 issue of the "Record". Part II, Content Integration, appeared in the Winter 2008 issue. This article is the third of the…

  19. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part III. Shrinkage of composite pellets during reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J.

    2008-12-15

    This article involves the evaluation of the volume change of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets and its implications on reduction kinetics under conditions prevalent in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) that were simulated in the laboratory. The pellets, in general, were found to shrink considerably during the reduction due to the loss of carbon and oxygen from the system, sintering of the iron-oxide, and formation of a molten slag phase at localized regions inside the pellets due to the presence of binder and coal/wood-charcoal ash at the reduction temperatures. One of the shortcomings of the RHF ironmaking process has been the inability to use multiple layers of composite pellets because of the impediment in heat transport to the lower layers of a multilayer bed. However, pellet shrinkage was found to have a strong effect on the reduction kinetics by virtue of enhancing the external heat transport to the lower layers. The volume change of the different kinds of composite pellets was studied as a function of reduction temperature and time. The estimation of the change in the amount of external heat transport with varying pellet sizes for a particular layer of a multilayer bed was obtained by conducting heat-transfer tests using inert low-carbon steel spheres. It was found that if the pellets of the top layer of the bed shrink by 30 pct, the external heat transfer to the second layer increases by nearly 6 times.

  20. Reduction of Iron-Oxide-Carbon Composites: Part III. Shrinkage of Composite Pellets during Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    This article involves the evaluation of the volume change of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets and its implications on reduction kinetics under conditions prevalent in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) that were simulated in the laboratory. The pellets, in general, were found to shrink considerably during the reduction due to the loss of carbon and oxygen from the system, sintering of the iron-oxide, and formation of a molten slag phase at localized regions inside the pellets due to the presence of binder and coal/wood-charcoal ash at the reduction temperatures. One of the shortcomings of the RHF ironmaking process has been the inability to use multiple layers of composite pellets because of the impediment in heat transport to the lower layers of a multilayer bed. However, pellet shrinkage was found to have a strong effect on the reduction kinetics by virtue of enhancing the external heat transport to the lower layers. The volume change of the different kinds of composite pellets was studied as a function of reduction temperature and time. The estimation of the change in the amount of external heat transport with varying pellet sizes for a particular layer of a multilayer bed was obtained by conducting heat-transfer tests using inert low-carbon steel spheres. It was found that if the pellets of the top layer of the bed shrink by 30 pct, the external heat transfer to the second layer increases by nearly 6 times.

  1. Advanced turbine cooling, heat transfer, and aerodynamic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Je-Chin Han; Schobeiri, M.T.

    1995-10-01

    The contractual work is in three parts: Part I - Effect of rotation on enhanced cooling passage heat transfer, Part II - Effect on Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) spallation on surface heat transfer, and Part III - Effect of surface roughness and trailing edge ejection on turbine efficiency under unsteady flow conditions. Each section of this paper has been divided into three parts to individually accommodate each part. Part III is further divided into Parts IIIa and IIIb.

  2. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part II: Parametric Evaluation and Topological Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2013-06-01

    A comprehensive numerical model has been proposed to model thermoelectric generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. Details of the model and results from the analysis of General Motors' prototype TEG were described in part I of the study. In part II of this study, parametric evaluations are considered to assess the influence of heat exchanger, geometry, and thermoelectric module configurations to achieve optimization of the baseline model. The computational tool is also adapted to model other topologies such as transverse and circular configurations (hexagonal and cylindrical) maintaining the same volume as the baseline TEG. Performance analysis of these different topologies and parameters is presented and compared with the baseline design.

  3. Characterization and Optimization of EDELWEISS-III FID800 Heat Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billard, J.; De Jesus, M.; Juillard, A.; Queguiner, E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results from a dedicated study of the heat signals as observed by the EDELWEISS FID800 (Full Interdigit Detector) Ge bolometers. We show how, with a combined set of measurements, we constructed a coherent thermal model and extracted the relevant heat capacities and thermal conductances at play in our detectors, as well as the origin of the heat signal. Eventually, we show that our heat energy resolution could potentially be improved by a factor of five leading to nuclear recoil energy thresholds ranging from 400 to 100 eVnr, depending on the applied voltage across the crystal, which would provide great sensitivity to low-mass dark matter down to 0.5 GeV.

  4. Thermal evolution and sintering of chondritic planetesimals. III. Modelling the heat conductivity of porous chondrite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henke, Stephan; Gail, Hans-Peter; Trieloff, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Context. The construction of models for the internal constitution and temporal evolution of large planetesimals, which are the parent bodies of chondrites, requires as accurate as possible information on the heat conductivity of the complex mixture of minerals and iron metal found in chondrites. The few empirical data points on the heat conductivity of chondritic material are severely disturbed by impact-induced microcracks modifying the thermal conductivity. Aims: We attempt to evaluate the heat conductivity of chondritic material with theoretical methods. Methods: We derived the average heat conductivity of a multi-component mineral mixture and granular medium from the heat conductivities of its mixture components. We numerically generated random mixtures of solids with chondritic composition and packings of spheres. We solved the heat conduction equation in high spatial resolution for a test cube filled with such matter. We derived the heat conductivity of the mixture from the calculated heat flux through the cube. Results: For H and L chondrites, our results are in accord with empirical thermal conductivity at zero porosity. However, the porosity dependence of heat conductivity of granular material built from chondrules and matrix is at odds with measurements for chondrites, while our calculations are consistent with data for compacted sandstone. The discrepancy is traced back to subsequent shock modification of the currently available meteoritic material resulting from impacts on the parent body over the last 4.5 Ga. This causes a structure of void space made of fractures/cracks, which lowers the thermal conductivity of the medium and acts as a barrier to heat transfer. This structure is different from the structure that probably exists in the pristine material where voids are represented by pores rather than fractures. The results obtained for the heat conductivity of the pristine material are used for calculating models for the evolution of the H chondrite

  5. Thermal evolution and sintering of chondritic planetesimals. III. Modelling the heat conductivity of porous chondrite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henke, Stephan; Gail, Hans-Peter; Trieloff, Mario

    2016-05-01

    Context. The construction of models for the internal constitution and temporal evolution of large planetesimals, which are the parent bodies of chondrites, requires as accurate as possible information on the heat conductivity of the complex mixture of minerals and iron metal found in chondrites. The few empirical data points on the heat conductivity of chondritic material are severely disturbed by impact-induced microcracks modifying the thermal conductivity. Aims: We attempt to evaluate the heat conductivity of chondritic material with theoretical methods. Methods: We derived the average heat conductivity of a multi-component mineral mixture and granular medium from the heat conductivities of its mixture components. We numerically generated random mixtures of solids with chondritic composition and packings of spheres. We solved the heat conduction equation in high spatial resolution for a test cube filled with such matter. We derived the heat conductivity of the mixture from the calculated heat flux through the cube. Results: For H and L chondrites, our results are in accord with empirical thermal conductivity at zero porosity. However, the porosity dependence of heat conductivity of granular material built from chondrules and matrix is at odds with measurements for chondrites, while our calculations are consistent with data for compacted sandstone. The discrepancy is traced back to subsequent shock modification of the currently available meteoritic material resulting from impacts on the parent body over the last 4.5 Ga. This causes a structure of void space made of fractures/cracks, which lowers the thermal conductivity of the medium and acts as a barrier to heat transfer. This structure is different from the structure that probably exists in the pristine material where voids are represented by pores rather than fractures. The results obtained for the heat conductivity of the pristine material are used for calculating models for the evolution of the H chondrite

  6. Active Control of Low-Speed Fan Tonal Noise Using Actuators Mounted in Stator Vanes: Part III Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Remington, Paul J.; Walker, Bruce E.

    2003-01-01

    A test program to demonstrate simplification of Active Noise Control (ANC) systems relative to standard techniques was performed on the NASA Glenn Active Noise Control Fan from May through September 2001. The target mode was the m = 2 circumferential mode generated by the rotor-stator interaction at 2BPF. Seven radials (combined inlet and exhaust) were present at this condition. Several different error-sensing strategies were implemented. Integration of the error-sensors with passive treatment was investigated. These were: (i) an in-duct linear axial array, (ii) an induct steering array, (iii) a pylon-mounted array, and (iv) a near-field boom array. The effect of incorporating passive treatment was investigated as well as reducing the actuator count. These simplified systems were compared to a fully ANC specified system. Modal data acquired using the Rotating Rake are presented for a range of corrected fan rpm. Simplified control has been demonstrated to be possible but requires a well-known and dominant mode signature. The documented results here in are part III of a three-part series of reports with the same base title. Part I and II document the control system and error-sensing design and implementation.

  7. Basic Metrics--Part I, II and III. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes, Joan

    Individualized classroom activities for use in learning centers to teach junior and senior high school students about the metric system are provided. The activities are organized into three sequential parts, each of which takes from four to six hours to complete. There is a teacher's guide and a student booklet for each part. The teachers' guides…

  8. Pre-Career Curriculum Guide for Deaf-Blind. Parts I-III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, LaVernya K.; And Others

    The two-volume document provides a pre-career curriculum guide for professionals and teachers working with deaf-blind students. Part 1 contains professionals and teachers working with deaf-blind students. Part I contains introductory information. Pointed out is the void in providing adequate programs for deaf-blind students over the age of 10.…

  9. User Feedback Procedures; Part III of Scientific Report No. ISR-18, Information Storage and Retrieval...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Computer Science.

    Part Three of this five part report on Salton's Magical Automatic Retriever of Texts (SMART) project contains four papers. The first: "Variations on the Query Splitting Technique with Relevance Feedback" by T. P. Baker discusses some experiments in relevance feedback performed with variations on the technique of query splitting. The results…

  10. Land-Grant College Education, 1910 to 1920. Part III: Agriculture. Bulletin, 1925, No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, C. John, Ed.

    1925-01-01

    This bulletin represents the third of a 5-part survey of land-grant college education. Other parts are: (1) History and Educational Objectives of Land-Grant College Education; (2) The Liberal Arts and Sciences and Miscellaneous Subjects in Land-Grant Colleges; (4) Engineering and Mechanic Arts in Land-Grant Colleges; and (5) Home Economics in…

  11. Preparing Instructional Designers for Game-Based Learning: Part III. Game Design as a Collaborative Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirumi, Atsusi; Appelman, Bob; Rieber, Lloyd; Van Eck, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this three part series, four professors who teach graduate level courses on the design of instructional video games discuss their perspectives on preparing instructional designers to optimize game-based learning. Part I set the context for the series and one of four panelists discussed what he believes instructional designers should know about…

  12. English as a Second Language Resource Manual, Volume III, Part One. Supplement 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC.

    This is the first part of a two-part volume of supplementary materials intended for use in the Department of State's Intensive English as a Second Language, Cultural Orientation and Pre-Employment Training Program for United States-bound Southeast Asian refugees. It contains an introductory section on the program's history and the development of…

  13. Behind the scene with the fathead team: Part III. Molecular, biochemical, and in vitro analyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a research team focused on aquatic toxicity testing using fathead minnows as a model species, this presentation is the third in the three-part series, giving an overview of the types of field and laboratory studies as well as sample processing our team conducts at the ...

  14. 2 CFR Appendix III to Part 200 - Indirect (F&A) Costs Identification and Assignment, and Rate Determination for Institutions of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Assignment, and Rate Determination for Institutions of Higher Education (IHEs) III Appendix III to Part 200... and Assignment, and Rate Determination for Institutions of Higher Education (IHEs) A. General This... “Labs for the 21st Century” benchmarking tool http://labs21benchmarking.lbl.gov/CompareData.php and...

  15. Heat shock factor 1 binds to and transcribes satellite II and III sequences at several pericentromeric regions in heat-shocked cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eymery, Angeline; INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 ; Souchier, Catherine; INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 ; Vourc'h, Claire; INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 ; Jolly, Caroline; INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700

    2010-07-01

    Cells respond to stress by activating the synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) which protect the cells against the deleterious effects of stress. This mechanism is controlled by the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). In parallel to HSP gene transcription, in human cells, HSF1 also binds to and transcribes satellite III repeated sequences present in numerous copies in the 9q12 pericentromeric region of chromosome 9. These HSF1 accumulation sites are termed nuclear stress bodies (nSBs). In tumor cells, however, the number of nSBs is higher than the number of 9q12 copies, suggesting the existence of other HSF1 targets. In this paper, we were interested in characterizing these other HSF1 binding sites. We show that HSF1 indeed binds to the pericentromeric region of 14 chromosomes, thereby directing the formation of 'secondary nSBs'. The appearance of secondary nSBs depends on the number of satellite sequences present in the target locus, and on the cellular amount of HSF1 protein. Moreover, secondary nSBs also correspond to transcription sites, thus demonstrating that heat shock induces a genome-wide transcription of satellite sequences. Finally, by analyzing published transcriptomic data, we show that the derepression of these large heterochromatic blocks does not significantly affect the transcription of neighboring genes.

  16. HEAT: High accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry. III. Additional improvements and overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, M. E.; Vazquez, J.; Ruscic, B.; Wilson, A. K.; Gauss, J.; Stanton, J. F.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Univ. t Mainz; The Univ. of Texas; Univ. of North Texas

    2008-01-01

    Effects of increased basis-set size as well as a correlated treatment of the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer approximation are studied within the context of the high-accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry (HEAT) theoretical model chemistry. It is found that the addition of these ostensible improvements does little to increase the overall accuracy of HEAT for the determination of molecular atomization energies. Fortuitous cancellation of high-level effects is shown to give the overall HEAT strategy an accuracy that is, in fact, higher than most of its individual components. In addition, the issue of core-valence electron correlation separation is explored; it is found that approximate additive treatments of the two effects have limitations that are significant in the realm of <1 kJ mol{sup -1} theoretical thermochemistry.

  17. History of Lung Diseases of Coal Miners in Great BritainPART III, 1920-1952*

    PubMed Central

    Meiklejohn, Andrew

    1952-01-01

    All sciences are connected; they lend each other material aid as parts of one great whole, each doing its own work not for itself alone but for the other parts, as the eye guides the whole body and the foot sustains it and leads it from place to place. As with an eye torn out or a foot cut off, so it is with the different departments of knowledge; none can attain its proper result separately, since all are parts of one and the same complete wisdom. ROGER BACON (1214-1294). PMID:14944741

  18. An improved absorption generator for solar-thermal powered heat pumps. Part 2: Energy and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Fineblum, S.

    1997-12-31

    Solar heated absorption chiller installations have been very expensive for their rating. To enhance collector thermal efficiency the liquid flowing within the collectors must be kept as cool as possible. However, there is also a need to operate the absorption reported earlier. The compromise usually results in poor collector efficiency as well as a relatively poor specific chiller effect. The proposed vortex generator permits a heat pump to operate efficiently with relatively low temperature solar heated fluid (70--80 C). As a result, the collectors are cooler and more efficient. As noted in Part 1, the specific heat pumping capacity is about 27% greater than conventional systems operating at the same reduced generator temperatures. Therefore, a smaller, less expensive chiller is required. The reduced investment in solar arrays and absorption chillers is estimated along with a range of paybacks.

  19. An improved absorption generator for solar-thermal powered heat pumps. Part 1: Feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Fineblum, S.

    1997-12-31

    Solar heated absorption chiller installations have been, typically, very expensive for their rating. The need to keep the liquid flowing within the collectors as cool as possible to enhance collector thermal efficiency, conflicts with the need to operate the absorption chiller at a higher temperature. The compromise usually results in poor collector efficiency as well as a relatively poor specific chiller effect. The proposed vortex generator permits a heat pump to operate efficiently with relatively low temperature solar heated fluid (70--80 C). As a result, the collectors are cooler and much more efficient. In addition, the specific heat pumping capacity is about 27% greater than conventional systems operating at the same reduced generator temperatures and, therefore, a smaller chiller is required. The economic consequences of these benefits will be presented in Part 2.

  20. A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area, heat removal storage casks. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area, heat removal storage casks. Plan, section, and details. Ralph M. Parsons 1480-7 ANP/GE-3-720-S-1. Date: November 1958. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index no. 034-0720-60-693-107459 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Mixed-convective, conjugate heat transfer during molten salt quenching of small parts

    SciTech Connect

    Chenoweth, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    It is common in free quenching immersion heat treatment calculations to locally apply constant or surface-averaged heat-transfer coefficients obtained from either free or forced steady convection over simple shapes with small temperature differences from the ambient fluid. This procedure avoids the solution of highly transient, non-Boussinesq conjugate heat transfer problems which often involve mixed convection, but it leaves great uncertainty about the general adequacy of the results. In this paper we demonstrate for small parts (dimensions of the order of inches rather than feet) quenched in molten salt, that it is feasible to calculate such nonuniform surface heat transfer from first principles without adjustable empirical parameters. We use literature physical property salt data from the separate publications of Kirst et al., Nissen, Carling, and Teja, et al. for T<1000 F, and then extrapolate it to the initial part temperature. The reported thermal/chemical breakdown of NaNO{sub 2} for T>800 F is not considered to be important due to the short time the surface temperature exceeds that value for small parts. Similarly, for small parts, the local Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers are below the corresponding critical values for most if not all of the quench, so that we see no evidence of the existence of significant turbulence effects, only some large scale unsteadiness for brief periods. The experimental data comparisons from the open literature include some probe cooling-rate results of Foreman, as well as some cylinder thermal histories of Howes.

  2. Electron-cyclotron-heating results on JFT-2, and their implications for the Doublet III ECH design

    SciTech Connect

    Prater, R.; Moeller, C.P.

    1982-03-01

    Electron cyclotron heating experiments are described in which 28 GHz microwave power is injected into the JFT-2 tokamak. Ordinary mode power injected from the low field side increased the central electron temperature from 600 eV to 1000 eV with 110 kW, for densities below the ordinary mode cutoff density of 1.0 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/. Extraordinary mode power launched obliquely from the high field side increased the temperature from 600 eV to 1200 eV with 85 kW, for densities well below the extraordinary mode cutoff density, and effective heating was maintained close to the cutoff density of 1.6 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/. The extraordinary mode launched obliquely was also found to heat more efficiently and to a higher density than the extraordinary wave launched perpendicularly. On this basis, the Doublet III ECH experiments which will use up to 2 MW of 60 GHz power are designed to make use of oblique inside launch of a pure extraordinary mode. The waveguide transmission system to accomplish this is discussed.

  3. Preliminary energy sector assessments of Jamaica. Volume III: renewable energy. Part II: solar energy - agricultural

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The study is concerned with the use of solar heat for drying agricultural products (crops, timber, and fish). The study finds that Jamaica has an ideal climate for solar agricultural product drying with the following methods offering the greatest promise; sun drying using open barbeques; drying in transparent buildings (with or without attached collectors) for small operations; new drying systems using solar air heaters with forced air drying; preheating air for existing commercial fossil-fueled dryers; and fish drying via chemical dehydration with solar regeneration of the chemical. The primary needs are to develop and construct environmentally suitable solar dryers and to train engineers in solar system design and installation.

  4. Wetlands & Wildlife: Alaska Wildlife Curriculum Teacher Information Manual, Parts I-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigman, Marilyn; And Others

    This document consists of a teacher manual and a set of information cards. The teacher manual is designed to educate Alaskan students about the important functions of Alaska's wetlands and about the fish and wildlife that live there. Part I of the manual explores Alaska's wetland habitats, the plants and animals that live there, and the…

  5. Providing for Energy Efficiency in Homes and Small Buildings, Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

    Presented is part three of a training program designed to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy efficient buildings. Alternatives are provided in this program to allow for specific instruction in…

  6. About the International System of Units (SI) Part III. SI Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrecht, Gordon J., II; French, Anthony P.; Iona, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Before discussing more details of SI, we will summarize the essentials in a few tables that can serve as ready references. If a unit isn't listed in Tables I-IV, it is not part of SI or specifically allowed for use with SI. The units and symbols that are sufficient for most everyday applications are given in bold.

  7. Mathematics Through Science, Part III: An Experimental Approach to Functions. Teacher's Commentary. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolduc, Elroy J., Jr.; And Others

    The purpose of this project is to teach learning and understanding of mathematics at the ninth grade level through the use of science experiments. This part of the program contains significant amounts of material normally found in a beginning algebra class. The material should be found useful for classes in general mathematics as a preparation for…

  8. Tone Systems of Tibeto-Burman Languages of Nepal. Part III, Texts, I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, F. K., Ed.

    The present volume, the third of a four-part report on the Tibeto-Burman languages of Nepal, includes text materials on Burung, by Warren Glover; on Tamang, by Doreen Taylor, and on Thakali, by Annemarie Hari and Anita Maibaum. For each language, a list of included texts is given, with the native language divided into sequentially-numbered…

  9. Modern Standard Arabic: Intermediate Level, Part III, Drills, Glossary and Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abboud, Peter; And Others

    This volume, the last in a three-volume series for use in intermediate Arabic language courses, is intended primarily for use outside of class. All written drills are contained in it, including those that test the student's comprehension of passages in Parts 3 and 5, the more complex drills on grammar, and most of the review drills in the first…

  10. The History of AAVSO Charts, Part III: The Henden Era (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) In this paper we pick up where “The History of AAVSO Charts, Part II: The 1960s Through 2006” left off and discuss the evolution of the automated chart plotter, the comp star database, the new tools available to the chart and sequences team and Director Arne Henden's influence and legacy.

  11. Beyond the Evident Content Goals Part III. An Undercurrent-Enhanced Approach to Trigonometric Identities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, Sharon

    1990-01-01

    The third in a series of 3 articles, a study of 30 students was conducted to test the effect of restructuring a unit on trigonometric identities around microcomputer activities based on the themes of educational undercurrents identified in Part II. Experimental-group students scored significantly higher relating trigonometric functions to their…

  12. Thermal conductance and basal metabolic rate are part of a coordinated system for heat transfer regulation

    PubMed Central

    Naya, Daniel E.; Spangenberg, Lucía; Naya, Hugo; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Thermal conductance measures the ease with which heat leaves or enters  an organism's body. Although the analysis of this physiological variable in relation to climatic and ecological factors can be traced to studies by Scholander and colleagues, only small advances have occurred ever since. Here, we analyse the relationship between minimal thermal conductance estimated during summer (Cmin) and several ecological, climatic and geographical factors for 127 rodent species, in order to identify the exogenous factors that have potentially affected the evolution of thermal conductance. In addition, we evaluate whether there is compensation between Cmin and basal metabolic rate (BMR)—in such a way that a scale-invariant ratio between both variables is equal to one—as could be expected from the Scholander–Irving model of heat transfer. Our major findings are (i) annual mean temperature is the best single predictor of mass-independent Cmin. (ii) After controlling for the effect of body mass, there is a strong positive correlation between log10 (Cmin) and log10 (BMR). Further, the slope of this correlation is close to one, indicating an almost perfect compensation between both physiological variables. (iii) Structural equation modelling indicated that Cmin values are adjusted to BMR values and not the other way around. Thus, our results strongly suggest that BMR and thermal conductance integrate a coordinated system for heat regulation in endothermic animals and that summer conductance values are adjusted (in an evolutionary sense) to track changes in BMRs. PMID:23902915

  13. The Health of Healthcare, Part III: Dissolving (curing) the cancer in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Deane

    2013-01-01

    In a previous part of this "The Health of Healthcare" series, the etiology of sickness in our healthcare system was established as cancer. This article offers a method to "cure" healthcare, taken from strategic management thinking called VOSIE. In this article, the use of VOSIE is described as well as who needs to apply this cure: the public. A unifying mantra is suggested: Think and decide. PMID:24772497

  14. Making the CHARA Array, Part III: engineering decisions. to build or not to build

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; McAlister, Harold A.; Ridgway, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    The CHARA Array has been a PI led, low budget, and low manpower operation, and has followed a fairly unconventional path in its development. In this, the third paper of a series of three, we discuss some of the engineering and design decisions made along the way, some right and some wrong, with a focus on the choice between in-house development and the purchase of pre-built, or sub-contracted, subsystems. Along with these issues we will also address a few parts of the system that we might have done differently given our current knowledge, and those that somehow turned out very well.

  15. Building Worlds and Learning Astronomy on Facebook Part III: Testing, Launch, and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harold, J.; Hines, D.; Vidugiris, E.; Goldman, K. H.

    2015-11-01

    James Harold (SSI), Dean Hines (STScI/SSI) and a team at the National Center for Interactive Learning at the Space Science Institute are developing Starchitect, an end-to-end stellar and planetary evolution game for the Facebook platform. Supported by NSF and NASA, and based in part on a prototype presented at ASP several years ago, Starchitect uses the “sporadic play” model of games such as Farmville, where players might only take actions a few times a day, but may continue playing for months. This paper is an update to a presentation at last year's ASP conference.

  16. The History of Articulators: The Wonderful World of "Grinders," Part III.

    PubMed

    Starcke, Edgar N; Engelmeier, Robert L

    2016-02-01

    This is the third article in a three-part series on the history of denture occlusal grinders. The first article reviewed the earliest attempts to "grind in" denture occlusion by hand manipulating simple articulators with special features to those more complex devices powered by hand cranks. The second article explored devices that were motor driven, either those with cast holders to grind the occlusion of processed dentures or those designed to utilize an articulator's condylar or incisal controls for that purpose. This article examines those articulators that have a rotary occlusal grinder as an essential feature. Additionally, this article reviews those grinding devices produced as attachments for popular contemporary articulators. PMID:25754238

  17. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part III - Abdominal Treatment Procedures (Short Version).

    PubMed

    Dietrich, C F; Lorentzen, T; Appelbaum, L; Buscarini, E; Cantisani, V; Correas, J M; Cui, X W; D'Onofrio, M; Gilja, O H; Hocke, M; Ignee, A; Jenssen, C; Kabaalioğlu, A; Leen, E; Nicolau, C; Nolsøe, C P; Radzina, M; Serra, C; Sidhu, P S; Sparchez, Z; Piscaglia, F

    2016-02-01

    The third part of the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound assesses the evidence for ultrasound-guided and assisted interventions in abdominal treatment procedures. Recommendations for clinical practice are presented covering indications, contraindications, safety and efficacy of the broad variety of these techniques. In particular, drainage of abscesses and fluid collections, interventional tumor ablation techniques, interventional treatment of symptomatic cysts and echinococcosis, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and drainage, percutaneous gastrostomy, urinary bladder drainage, and nephrostomy are addressed (short version; a long version is published online). PMID:26871408

  18. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part III - Abdominal Treatment Procedures (Long Version).

    PubMed

    Dietrich, C F; Lorentzen, T; Appelbaum, L; Buscarini, E; Cantisani, V; Correas, J M; Cui, X W; D'Onofrio, M; Gilja, O H; Hocke, M; Ignee, A; Jenssen, C; Kabaalioğlu, A; Leen, E; Nicolau, C; Nolsøe, C P; Radzina, M; Serra, C; Sidhu, P S; Sparchez, Z; Piscaglia, F

    2016-02-01

    The third part of the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS) assesses the evidence for ultrasound-guided and assisted interventions in abdominal treatment procedures. Recommendations for clinical practice are presented covering indications, contraindications, and safe and effective performance of the broad variety of these techniques. In particular, drainage of abscesses and fluid collections, interventional tumor ablation techniques, interventional treatment of symptomatic cysts and echinococcosis, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and drainage, percutaneous gastrostomy, urinary bladder drainage, and nephrostomy are addressed (long version). PMID:26670019

  19. Managing the multicultural laboratory, Part III: Putting the cross-cultural tools to work.

    PubMed

    Ketchum, S M

    1993-01-01

    This third article provides two case studies that enable laboratory managers to see how the cross-cultural model postulated by Dr. Geert Hofstede can be practically applied to two important issues--staff training and conflict resolution between employees. In addition, the opinions of several managers from a variety of industries are presented to add realism and perspective. This encourages laboratory managers to step outside the laboratory environment and learn from other managers who have years of experience supervising culturally diverse groups of employees. Part I of this series explained what is meant by "culture" and featured the research-based model set forth by Dutch social psychologist and management consultant, Dr. Geert Hofstede. His four dimensions of culture (Power Distance, Masculinity/Femininity, Individualism/Collectivism, and Uncertainty Avoidance) provide a useful framework for understanding the different values, attitudes, and behaviors exhibited by those of different cultural backgrounds. Part II presented advice in the form of 13 anecdotes from experienced cross-cultural managers. Issues of performance management, interpersonal skills, and language and safety were explored in light of the four dimensions. In this third article, abbreviated reference tables adapted from Hofstede's research are presented that make these cross-cultural data more useful for management decision making. Laboratory managers will receive practical, "real world" advice that will help them to positively resolve conflicts and to take full advantage of staff training opportunities. PMID:10123894

  20. Are plastic heat exchangers feasible for solar water heaters? Part 2: Material choices

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R.; Mantell, S.; Davidson, J.

    1999-07-01

    Development of low cost plastic heat exchangers for solar water heating depends, at least in part, on the suitability of polymers for this demanding environment. Since the heat exchanger is in contact with pressurized potable water, some technical issues must be addressed that are not necessarily relevant to the development of polymer-based collectors. These include long-term pressure and temperature capabilities; compatibility with municipal drinking water and propylene glycol, and compliance with applicable plumbing codes. In this paper, polymers that are most appropriate for this application are identified. Because polymer strength, stiffness, and thermal conductivity requirements depend on the heat exchanger design, no single polymer emerged as ideal for every heat exchanger component. Fiber reinforced PolyPhthalAmide (PPA) and PolyPhenylene Sulphide (PPS) are recommended for fittings and manifolds. Unreinforced high temperature nylon (HTN) is recommended for thin walled tubes (either straight or coiled). Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) is also recommended for coiled tubes. The selection process was based on three criteria levels: (1) polymer compatibility with potable water, (2) polymer behavior in hot water or propylene glycol, and (3) polymer attributes such as strength, stiffness, thermal conductivity and cost.

  1. Safe immobilization of Cr(III) in heat-treated zeolite tuff compacts.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Barbara; Cassese, Antonio; Colella, Carmine

    2006-09-21

    The possibility to remove chromium ions from a simulated electroplating wastewater by a discontinuous ion-exchange process based on phillipsite-rich Neapolitan yellow tuff (NYT) has been investigated. The immobilization of the pollutant cation in the resulting sludge through a heat-treatment has been realized, demonstrating that compacts made of Cr-loaded NYT powder, fired at temperatures of 1000 degrees C or over, are safe materials with negligible Cr3+ leaching. The set up overall process allows, in addition, a volume reduction of the waste with associated lower disposal costs or, better, the obtainment of a ceramic material, whose physical and mechanical properties are comparable to those of similar ordinary ceramics, such as bricks. In summary, the proposed strategy looks at the polluted sludge as a resource to be exploited, instead of a dangerous material to safely dispose of. PMID:16704904

  2. Dental caries: A complete changeover, PART III: Changeover in the treatment decisions and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Carounanidy, Usha; Sathyanarayanan, R

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive management of dental caries should involve the management of disease as well as the lesion. Current decision making process in cariology is influenced by numerous factors such as the size/ depth/ activity of the carious lesion and age/ the caries risk status of the patient. Treatment decisions should involve planning the non-operative/ preventive treatment for non-cavitated or early cavitated lesions and also formulating operative treatment for cavitated lesions. Apart from these two responsibilities, a clinician should also be knowledgeable enough to decide when not to interfere in the caries dynamics and how frequently to recall the patient for follow-ups. The non-operative treatment prescriptions vary in dose, intensity and mode of delivery according to the caries risk status. Minimal invasion and maximal conservation of tooth structure has become the essence of current operative treatments. This part of the series elaborates on the paradigm shift in the management of dental caries. PMID:21217948

  3. Effect of two-scale roughness on boundary layer transition over a heated flat plate: Part 1 -- Surface heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Pinson, M.W.; Wang, T.

    2000-04-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate surface heat transfer and boundary layer development associated with flow over a flat test surface covered with two roughness scales. Two-scale roughness was used because in-service aeroengines commonly display larger roughness concentrated at the leading edge with smaller roughness distributed downstream. The first scale, covering up to the first 5 cm of the test surface, was in the form of a sandpaper strip, an aluminum strip, or a cylinder. The second roughness scale covered the remainder of the test surface (2 m) in the form of sandpaper or a smooth surface. In Part 1, the surface heat transfer results are examined. Even though the roughness scales were hydraulically smooth, they induced significantly earlier transition onset, with the two-dimensional roughness causing earlier transition than three-dimensional roughness. All of the rough/smooth cases unexpectedly triggered earlier transition than rough/rough cases. This indicated that the scale of the step-change at the joint between two roughness scales was predominant over the downstream roughness on inducing early transition. Reducing the overall height of the step change was shown to have a greater effect on transition than the specific geometry of the roughness scale.

  4. Idaho Habitat and Natural Production Monitoring Part III, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schrader, W.C.; Petrosky, Charles E. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Fisheries Research Section, Boise, ID

    1994-03-01

    Effective management of wild anadromous fisheries is partly dependent on defining relationships between escapement and production. These productivity relationships (or reproduction curves) depend on the nature of density-dependent mechanisms that control the population. Inherent is developing any relationship is specifying the fish population of interest and what is meant by escapement and production by that population. This report is a summary of sampling programs at all existing and proposed anadromous fish weirs in Idaho as of fall 1992. Only permanent or semi-permanent structures where long-term data could be collected are included. The summary is stratified by class of fish and by cell or drainage using the same classifications as the Idaho Anadromous Fish Management Plan. Included in the summary are escapement objectives above the existing and proposed weirs. Recommendations based on this summary were developed to provide coverage for all classes and most major drainages, yet minimize cost and duplication of efforts. this was a usefull approach as some chinook salmon weirs were identified that could be modified to monitor steelhead trout.

  5. Demonstration of anaerobic biogas digesters in developing countries. Part III. The Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.H.; Morales, E.C.

    1980-03-01

    The main theme of this series of articles is that ours is now a world-wide society, short on meeting needs for energy yet long on waste from our industrial, agricultural and human consumption processes. This is a study report about developments in the Philippines where waste management has been recognized and considered as an important practical source of energy. This is revealed by several reports of the number of biogas plants in operation in this country. According to the July 31, 1977 survey made by the Philippines Bureau of Animal Industries, 200 biogas plants were then installed and in operation of which 46 were government-owned and 154 privately-owned. More have been installed since then. This report presents some of the operating observations and developments from the joint engineering analyses project of the Philippines Bureau of Animal Industry, Man and the Biosphere Inter-Agency Committee on Ecological Studies, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources and the National Institute of Science and Technology. The project's main objective was to show that establishing a biogas plant involves not only the production of a methane gas mixture but the integration of its other products as part of a system (i.e., using effluent water from the biogas digester for production of algae chlorell sp. for livestock and poultry feed, production of fish and fertilizing-irrigating of pasture and vegetable plots.). Housing development sewer systems with added biogas generators are also discussed.

  6. High Btu gas from peat. Volume III. Part B. Environmental and socioeconomic feasibility assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    In September 1980, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant (No. DE-FG01-80RA50348) to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the current commercial viability - technical, economic, environmental, financial, and regulatory - of producing 80 million SCF/day of substitute natural gas (SNG). Minnegasco's project team for this study consisted of Dravo Engineers and Constructors (for design, engineering, and economics of peat harvesting, dewatering, and gasification systems), Ertec, Inc. (for environmental and socio-economic analyses), IGT (for providing gasification process information, and technical and engineering support to Minnegasco), and Deloitte Haskins and Sells (for providing management structural support to Minnegasco). This Final Report presents the work conducted by Ertec, Inc. under tasks 6 and 7. The study objective was to provide an initial environmental and socio-economic evaluation of the proposed facility to assess project feasibility. To accomplish this objective, detailed field studies were conducted in the areas of Hydrology, Air Quality and Socio-Economics. Less extensive surveys were conducted in the areas of Geology, Ecology, Acoustics, Land Use, Archaeology and Resource Assessment. Part B of Volume 3 contains the following contents: (1) project impact assessment which covers geological impacts, hydrology, ecological impacts, air quality and meteorology, land use, archaeology, aesthetics, acoustics, socioeconomic impacts, and peat resources; (2) impact mitigation which covers hydrology, ecology, air quality, archaeology, acoustics, and socioeconomics; (3) conclusions; and (4) appendices. 2 figures, 18 tables.

  7. The Systemic Theory of Living Systems and Relevance to CAM: the Theory (Part III)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Western medical science lacks a solid philosophical and theoretical approach to disease cognition and therapeutics. My first two articles provided a framework for a humane medicine based on Modern Biophysics. Its precepts encompass modern therapeutics and CAM. Modern Biophysics and its concepts are presently missing in medicine, whether orthodox or CAM, albeit they probably provide the long sought explanation that bridges the abyss between East and West. Key points that differentiate Systemic from other systems' approaches are ‘Intelligence’, ‘Energy’ and the objective ‘to survive’. The General System Theory (GST) took a forward step by proposing a departure from the mechanistic biological concept—of analyzing parts and processes in isolation—and brought us towards an organismic model. GST examines the system's components and results of their interaction. However, GST still does not go far enough. GST assumes ‘Self-Organization’ as a spontaneous phenomenon, ignoring a causative entity or central controller to all systems: Intelligence. It also neglects ‘Survive’ as the directional motivation common to any living system, and scarcely assigns ‘Energy’ its true inherent value. These three parameters, Intelligence, Energy and Survive, are vital variables to be considered, in our human quest, if we are to achieve a unified theory of life. PMID:16136205

  8. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part III: Technology scale-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Serra, L.; Dumenil, S.; Brichard, G.; Alias, M.; Jammet, B.; Vinit, L.

    2015-12-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid technology employs new carbon/carbon composites with ordered 3D structure instead of the classic lead-acid battery current collectors. The technology is laboratory scaled up from small size grids corresponding to electrodes with a capacity of 3 Ah to current collectors suitable for assembly of lead-acid batteries covering the majority of the typical lead-acid battery applications. Two series of 150 grids each (one positive and one negative) are manufactured using low-cost lab-scale equipment. They are further subjected to pasting with active materials and the resulting battery plates are assembled in 12 V AGM-VLRA battery mono-blocks for laboratory testing and outdoor demonstration in electric scooter replacing its original VRLAB pack. The obtained results demonstrate that the technology can replace successfully the state of the art negative grids with considerable benefits. The use of the carbon honeycomb grids as positive plate current collectors is limited by the anodic corrosion of the entire structure attacking both the carbon/carbon composite part and the electroplated lead-tin alloy coating.

  9. Stratigraphic sections of the Phosphoria formation in Idaho, 1947-48, Part III

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Malley, F.W.; Davidson, D.F.; Hoppin, R.A.; Sheldon, R.P.

    1951-01-01

    .The U.S. Geological Survey has measured and sampled the Phosphoria formation at many localities in Idaho and other western states. These data will not be fully synthesized and analyzed for several years but segments of the data, accompanied by little or no interpretation, are published as preliminary reports as they are assembled. This report, which contains abstracts of many of the sections in southeastern Idaho (fig. 1), is one of this series and is the third report of data gathered in Idaho during 1947 and 1948. The field and laboratory procedures adopted in these investigations are described rather fully in a companion report (McKelvey and others, 1953). Many people have taken part in this investigation, which was organized and supervised by V. E. McKelvey. D. A. Bostwick, R. M. Campbell, R. A. Gulbrandsen, R. A. Harris, R. L. Parker, R. A. Smart, J. E. Smedley, R. H. Thurston, and R. G. Waring participated in the description of strata and collection of samples referred to in this report. D. B. Dimick, Jack George, W. S. Hunziker, J. E. Jones, H. A. Larsen, and T. K. Rigby assisted in the preparation of trenches and collection, crushing, and splitting of samples in the field. The laboratory preparation of samples for chemical analysis was done in Denver, Colo., under the direction of W. P. Huleatt.

  10. Figures and institutions of the neurological sciences in Paris from 1800 to 1950. Part III: neurology.

    PubMed

    Broussolle, E; Poirier, J; Clarac, F; Barbara, J-G

    2012-04-01

    We present a short historical review of the major figures, their administrative functions and their works that contributed to make Paris a renowned centre of physiology and neurology during the xixth and the first half of the xxth century. We purposely chose to focus on the period 1800-1950, as 1800 corresponds to the actual beginning of neurosciences, and 1950 marks their exponential rise. Our presentation is divided into four chapters, matching the main disciplines which have progressed and contributed the most to the knowledge we have of the brain sciences: anatomy, physiology, neurology, and psychiatry-psychology. The present article is the third of four parts of this review, and deals with neurology. A special credit should be given to Jean-Martin Charcot who founded the Salpêtrière School of neurology and became one of the world's most important neurologists of the xixth century. We provide below the biographical sketches of Armand Trousseau, Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne, Jean-Martin Charcot, Alfred Vulpian, Désiré-Magloire Bourneville, Paul Richer, Henri Parinaud, Albert Pitres, Jules Joseph Dejerine, Mrs. Augusta Dejerine-Klumpke, Édouard Brissaud, Pierre Marie, Georges Édouard Brutus Gilles de la Tourette, Joseph Babinski, André Thomas, Georges Marinesco, Achille Alexandre Souques, Georges Guillain and Charles Foix. PMID:22387204

  11. Surgical considerations in aortitis. Part III: Syphilitic and other forms of aortitis.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J M; Cooley, D A

    1983-12-01

    The majority of cases involving clinically significant aortitis result from Takayasu's disease, syphilis, and mycotic aneurysms, although aortitis may occur as a part of the clinical manifestation in other diseases of known and unknown etiology. Syphilitic aortitis can be treated successfully if an accurate diagnosis is made early and if appropriate antibiotic therapy is instituted. Untreated or treated inadequately, late cardiovascular complications can occur, namely, aortic aneurysm, aortic valvular insufficiency and coronary osteal stenosis. Surgical treatment should be considered when any of these late complications become manifest. Aortitis can occur with rheumatic fever and, occasionally, in rheumatoid arthritis. Giant-cell arteritis is a disease that can affect large, medium or small arteries, and usually occurs in patients over 50 years of age, chiefly women. The entire aorta may be affected. It is the only form of aortitis commonly associated with dissecting aneurysm of the aorta. Corticosteroids are effective in treating the active form of the disease and can usually prevent the development of later severe complications. Surgery is indicated when a dissecting aneurysm develops. PMID:15226966

  12. 14 CFR 61.21 - Duration of a Category II and a Category III pilot authorization (for other than part 121 and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of a Category II and a Category III pilot authorization (for other than part 121 and part 135 use). 61.21 Section 61.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND...

  13. PACE. A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Part III: Being an Entrepreneur. Unit D: Marketing Management. Research and Development Series No. 194 C-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This three-part curriculum for entrepreneurship education is primarily for postsecondary level, including four-year colleges and adult education, but it can be adapted for special groups or vocational teacher education. The emphasis of the eight instructional units in Part III is operating a business. Unit D focuses on market management. It…

  14. PACE. A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Part III: Being an Entrepreneur. Unit H: Business Protection. Research and Development Series No. 194 C-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This three-part curriculum for entrepreneurship education is primarily for postsecondary level, including four-year colleges and adult education, but it can be adapted for special groups or vocational teacher education. The emphasis of the eight instructional units in part III is operating a business. Unit H focuses on business protection. It…

  15. Influence of mold surface temperature on polymer part warpage in rapid heat cycle molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, G. R.; Pacher, G. A.; Pichler, A.; Friesenbichler, W.; Gruber, D. P.

    2014-05-01

    Dynamic mold surface temperature control was examined for its influence on the warpage. A test mold, featuring two different rapid heat cycle molding (RHCM) technologies was used to manufacture complex plate-shaped parts having different ribs, varying thin-wall regions, and both, circular and rectangular cut-outs. The mold's nozzle side is equipped with the areal heating and cooling technology BFMOLD®, where the heating/cooling channels are replaced by a ball-filled slot near the cavity surface flooded through with hot and cold water sequentially. Two local electrical ceramic heating elements are installed into the mold's ejection side. Based on a 23 full-factorial design of experiments (DoE) plan, varying nozzle temperature (Tnozzle), rapid heat cycle molding temperature (TRHCM) and holding pressure (pn), specimens of POM were manufactured systematically. Five specimens were examined per DoE run. The resulting warpage was measured at 6 surface line scans per part using the non-contact confocal topography system FRT MicroProf®. Two warpage parameters were calculated, the curvature of a 2nd order approximation a, and the vertical deflection at the profile center d. Both, the influence strength and the acting direction of the process parameters and their interactions on a and d were calculated by statistical analysis. Linear mathematical process models were determined for a and d to predict the warpage as a function of the process parameter settings. Finally, an optimum process setting was predicted, based on the process models and Microsoft Excel GRG solver. Clear and significant influences of TRHCM, pn, Tnozzle, and the interaction of TRHCM and pn were determined. While TRHCM was dominant close to the gate, pn became more effective as the flow length increased.

  16. A Study of Future Communications Concepts and Technologies for the National Airspace System-Part III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wichgersm Joel M.; Haynes, Brian; Roy, Aloke

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is investigating current and anticipated wireless communications concepts and technologies that the National Airspace System (NAS) may need in the next 50 years. NASA has awarded three NASA Research Announcements (NAR) studies with the objective to determine the most promising candidate technologies for air-to-air and air-to-ground data exchange and analyze their suitability in a post-NextGen NAS environment. This paper will present progress made in the studies and describe the communications challenges and opportunities that have been identified as part of the study. NASA's NextGen Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project integrates solutions for a safe, efficient and high-capacity airspace system through joint research efforts and partnerships with other government agencies. The CTD Project is one of two within NASA's Airspace Systems Program and is managed by the NASA Ames Research Center. Research within the CTD Project is in support the 2011 NASA Strategic Plan Sub-Goal 4.1: Develop innovative solutions and advanced technologies, through a balanced research portfolio, to improve current and future air transportation. The focus of CTD is on developing capabilities in traffic flow management, dynamic airspace configuration, separation assurance, super density operations and airport surface operations. Important to its research is the development of human/automation information requirements and decisionmaking guidelines for human-human and human-machine airportal decision-making. Airborne separation, oceanic intrail climb/descent and interval management applications depend on location and intent information of surrounding aircraft. ADS-B has been proposed to provide the information exchange, but other candidates such as satellite-based receivers, broadband or airborne internet, and cellular communications are possible candidate's.

  17. Transient PVT measurements and model predictions for vessel heat transfer. Part II.

    SciTech Connect

    Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Winters, William S., Jr.; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.

    2010-07-01

    Part I of this report focused on the acquisition and presentation of transient PVT data sets that can be used to validate gas transfer models. Here in Part II we focus primarily on describing models and validating these models using the data sets. Our models are intended to describe the high speed transport of compressible gases in arbitrary arrangements of vessels, tubing, valving and flow branches. Our models fall into three categories: (1) network flow models in which flow paths are modeled as one-dimensional flow and vessels are modeled as single control volumes, (2) CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) models in which flow in and between vessels is modeled in three dimensions and (3) coupled network/CFD models in which vessels are modeled using CFD and flows between vessels are modeled using a network flow code. In our work we utilized NETFLOW as our network flow code and FUEGO for our CFD code. Since network flow models lack three-dimensional resolution, correlations for heat transfer and tube frictional pressure drop are required to resolve important physics not being captured by the model. Here we describe how vessel heat transfer correlations were improved using the data and present direct model-data comparisons for all tests documented in Part I. Our results show that our network flow models have been substantially improved. The CFD modeling presented here describes the complex nature of vessel heat transfer and for the first time demonstrates that flow and heat transfer in vessels can be modeled directly without the need for correlations.

  18. HLA alleles and haplotypes among the Lakota Sioux: report of the ASHI minority workshops, part III.

    PubMed

    Leffell, Mary S; Fallin, M Daniele; Hildebrand, William H; Cavett, Joshua W; Iglehart, Brian A; Zachary, Andrea A

    2004-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II alleles were defined for 302 Lakota Sioux American Indians as part of the American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics coordinated studies on minority populations. The study group was comprised of adult volunteers from the Cheyenne River and Ogala Sioux tribes residing, respectively, on the Cheyenne River and Pine Ridge Reservations in South Dakota. Of the participants, 263 (87%) claimed full American Indian ancestry through both maternal and paternal grandparents. The study group included 25 nuclear families that were informative for genotyping. HLA phenotypes from 202 adults with no other known first-degree relative included in the study were used for calculation of allele and haplotype frequencies by maximum likelihood estimation. HLA-A, -B, and -Cw alleles were found to be in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. Deviation from equilibrium was observed for DRB1 alleles (p=0.01), but could be attributed to the sample size and the occurrence of some genotypes with low expected frequencies. Polymorphism among the Sioux was limited with four to seven alleles comprising >80% of those observed at each locus. Several alleles were found at high frequency (0.05-0.30) among the Sioux that are also prevalent in other Native Americans and Alaska Natives, including: A*2402, *3101, and *0206; B*3501,*3901, *5101, and *2705; Cw*0702, *0404, and *03041; DRB1*0407, *0404, *1402, and *16021; and DQB1*0301, *0302, and *0402. DRB1*0811, which has been only previously described in Navajo and Tlingit Indians, was found to occur at a frequency of 0.119 among the Sioux. Two new alleles were defined among the Sioux: Cw*0204 and DRB1*040703, which were found in two and four individuals, respectively. In the haplotype analyses, significant linkage disequilibrium (p<0.00001) was seen in all pairwise comparisons of loci and numerous two and three locus haplotypes were found to have strong, positive linkage disequilibrium values. The two most

  19. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems - Part III: Airborne bacteria concentrations and emissions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Zhao, D; Ma, H; Liu, K; Atilgan, A; Xin, H

    2016-07-01

    Airborne microorganism level is an important indoor air quality indicator, yet it has not been well documented for laying-hen houses in the United States. As a part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) environmental monitoring project, this study comparatively monitored the concentrations and emissions of airborne total and Gram-negative (Gram(-)) bacteria in three types of commercial laying-hen houses, i.e., conventional cage (CC), aviary (AV), and enriched colony (EC) houses, over a period of eight months covering the mid and late stages of the flock cycle. It also delineated the relationship between airborne total bacteria and particulate matter smaller than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10). The results showed airborne total bacteria concentrations (log CFU/m(3)) of 4.7 ± 0.3 in CC, 6.0 ± 0.8 in AV, and 4.8 ± 0.3 in EC, all being higher than the level recommended for human environment (3.0 log CFU/m(3)). The much higher concentrations in AV arose from the presence of floor litter and hen activities on it, as evidenced by the higher concentrations in the afternoon (with litter access) than in the morning (without litter access). The overall means and standard deviation of airborne total bacteria emission rates, in log CFU/[h-hen] (or log CFU/[h-AU], AU = animal unit or 500 kg live weight) were 4.8 ± 0.4 (or 7.3 ± 0.4) for CC, 6.1 ± 0.7 (or 8.6 ± 0.7) for AV, and 4.8 ± 0.5 (or 7.3 ± 0.5) for EC. Both concentration and emission rate of airborne total bacteria were positively related to PM10 Gram(-) bacteria were present at low concentrations in all houses; and only 2 samples (6%) in CC, 7 (22%) samples in AV, and 2 (6%) samples in EC out of 32 air samples collected in each house were found positive with Gram(-) bacteria. The concentration of airborne Gram(-) bacteria was estimated to be <2% of the total bacteria. Total bacteria counts in manure on belt (in all houses) and floor litter (only in AV) were similar; however, the manure had

  20. Specific heat anomaly in ferroelectric: Bis(imidazolium) pentachloroantimonate(III) (C3 N2 H5)2[SbCl5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przesławski, J.; Piecha-Bisiorek, A.; Jakubas, R.

    2016-04-01

    Single crystals of ferroelectric bis(imidazolium) pentachloroantimonate(III) (C3N2H5)2 [SbCl5 ] have been grown and the heat capacity was measured by the use of AC calorimetric method. The temperature dependence of excess heat capacity and excess entropy in the ferroelectric phase can be described in the frame of the classical Landau-Devonshire theory of phase transitions. The results of experimental studies were analyzed and the α, γ and δ values of the Landau potential coefficients were calculated. The temperature dependence of the order parameter was also evaluated from the heat capacity data.

  1. CSU Solar Housee III solar heating and cooling system performance. Annual report: technical summary, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.S.; Ward, J.C.; Oberoi, H.S.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test and evaluate the practicality of an integrated flat-plate state-of-the-art liquid-heating solar collector and absorption cooling system installed on Colorado State University (CSU) Solar House III. This objective was accomplished by designing and installing a complete solar heating and cooling system (including appropriate data acquisition equipment and instrumentation), performing a detailed analysis and evaluation of all aspects of the solar system, and comparing the seasonal performance of the system with two other solar heating and cooling systems installed in adjacent buildings with virtually identical thermal characteristics.

  2. Electronics and telecommunications in Poland, issues and perspectives: Part III. Innovativeness, applications, economy, development scenarios, politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modelski, Józef; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2010-09-01

    important role of ET is combined with the existence in the society of an adequate infrastructure which recreates the full development cycle of high technology embracing: people, institutions, finances and logistics, in this also science, higher education, education, continuous training, dissemination and outreach, professional social environment, legal basis, political support and lobbying, innovation structures, applications, industry and economy. The digest of chosen development tendencies in ET was made here from the academic perspective, in a wider scale and on this background the national one, trying to situate this branch in the society, determine its changing role to build a new technical infrastructure of a society based on knowledge, a role of builder of many practical gadgets facilitating life, a role of a big future integrator of today's single bricks into certain more useful unity. This digest does not have a character of a systematic analysis of ET. It is a kind of an arbitrary utterance of the authors inside their field of competence. The aim of this paper is to take an active part in the discussion of the academic community in this country on the development strategy of ET, choice of priorities for cyclically rebuilding economy, in competitive environments. The review paper was initiated by the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunications of Polish Academy of Sciences and was published in Polish as introductory chapter of a dedicated expertise, printed in a book format. This version makes the included opinions available for a wider community.

  3. Metabolism. Part III: Lipids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the metabolic processes of complex lipids, including saponification, activation and transport, and the beta-oxidation spiral. Discusses fatty acid degradation in regard to biochemical energy and ketone bodies. (TW)

  4. RF thermal and new cold part design studies on TTF-III input coupler for Project-X

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Shilun; Adolphsen, Chris E.; Li, Zenghai; Solyak, Nikolay A.; Gonin, Ivan V.

    2015-05-15

    An RF power coupler is one of the key components in a superconducting (SC) linac. It provides RF power to the SC cavity and interconnects different temperature layers (1.8 K, 4.2 K, 70 K and 300 K). The TTF-III coupler is one of the most promising candidates for the High Energy (HE) linac of Project X, but it cannot meet the average power requirements because of the relatively high temperature rise on the warm inner conductor, so some design modifications will be required. In this paper, we describe our simulation studies on the copper coating thickness on the warm inner conductor with RRR values of 10 and 100. Our purpose is to rebalance the dynamic and static loads, and finally lower the temperature rise along the warm inner conductor. Additionally, to get stronger coupling, better power handling and less multipacting probability, one new cold part design was proposed using a 60 mm coaxial line; the corresponding multipacting simulation studies have also been investigated.

  5. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-05-14

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool colored' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland U.S. latitudes, this metric RE891BN can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {le} 5:12 [23{sup o}]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool-roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear-sky air mass one global horizontal ('AM1GH') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer.

  6. Measuring solar reflectance - Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-09-15

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective ''cool colored'' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland US latitudes, this metric R{sub E891BN} can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {<=} 5:12 [23 ]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear sky air mass one global horizontal (''AM1GH'') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. (author)

  7. Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part III--Practitioners and Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin, David; Martinez, David; Aenchbacher, Amy; Aiello, Rocco; Doyle, Mike; Hilgenbrinck, Linda; Busse, Sean; Cappuccio, Jim

    2013-01-01

    In Part III of the feature, physical educators and adapted physical educators offer current best practices as models of implementation for readers. Contributions included are: (1) Answer to the Dear Colleague Letter from the Anchorage School District's Adapted Sport Program (David Poulin); (2) Georgia's Adapted Physical Educators…

  8. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Miscellaneous, Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Miscellaneous, part III section of the proceedings contains the following 11 papers: "The Relationship between Health and Fitness Magazine Reading and Eating-Disordered Weight-Loss Methods among High School Girls" (Steven R. Thomsen, Michelle M. Weber, and Lora Beth Brown); "A Practical Exercise for Teaching Ethical Decision Making to…

  9. Proceedings of the EMU Conference on Foreign Languages for Business and the Professions (Dearborn, Michigan, April 5-7, 1984). Part III: Taking the Humanities to Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voght, Geoffrey M., Ed.

    Part III of the proceedings contains 12 presentations. They are: "The Role of Business Language in the Traditional Curriculum" (Michel Rocchi); "Foreign Languages for Business and the Professions Belong in the Liberal Arts" (Robert A. Kreiter); "How Much and How Far? Commercial French and the Student, Instructor, Administrator, and the Business…

  10. Power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture. Volume III. Final report, 1 November 1976-1 November 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Farmanfarmaian, A.

    1980-03-01

    This report is part of a three year research study on the constructive use of electric generating station waste heat in cooling water effluents for fish production. It describes procedures and methods for the commercial culture of the giant fresh water shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, in the thermal discharge water of the Mercer Power Plant in Trenton, New Jersey. Discharge water from this plant was used in a preliminary assessment of the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio of these species. It was shown that acute or chronic exposure to power plant intake and discharge water; discharge with or without coal particles; and discharge with or without slurry overflow mix does not significantly affect metabolism, short-term survival, growth, or conversion efficiency of shrimp or trout.

  11. Elasto-dynamic analysis of a gear pump-Part III: Experimental validation procedure and model extension to helical gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucchi, E.; Dalpiaz, G.

    2015-01-01

    This work concerns external gear pumps for automotive applications, which operate at high speed and low pressure. In previous works of the authors (Part I and II, [1,2]), a non-linear lumped-parameter kineto-elastodynamic model for the prediction of the dynamic behaviour of external gear pumps was presented. It takes into account the most important phenomena involved in the operation of this kind of machine. The two main sources of noise and vibration are considered: pressure pulsation and gear meshing. The model has been used in order to foresee the influence of working conditions and design modifications on vibration generation. The model's experimental validation is a difficult task. Thus, Part III proposes a novel methodology for the validation carried out by the comparison of simulations and experimental results concerning forces and moments: it deals with the external and inertial components acting on the gears, estimated by the model, and the reactions and inertial components on the pump casing and the test plate, obtained by measurements. The validation is carried out comparing the level of the time synchronous average in the time domain and the waterfall maps in the frequency domain, with particular attention to identify system resonances. The validation results are satisfactory globally, but discrepancies are still present. Moreover, the assessed model has been properly modified for the application to a new virtual pump prototype with helical gears in order to foresee gear accelerations and dynamic forces. Part IV is focused on improvements in the modelling and analysis of the phenomena bound to the pressure evolution around the gears in order to achieve results closer to the measured values. As a matter of fact, the simulation results have shown that a variable meshing stiffness has a notable contribution on the dynamic behaviour of the pump but this is not as important as the pressure phenomena. As a consequence, the original model was modified with the

  12. The Extreme Conditions Beamline at PETRA III, DESY: Possibilities to conduct time resolved monochromatic diffraction experiments in dynamic and laser heated DAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liermann, H.-P.; Morgenroth, W.; Ehnes, A.; Berghäuser, A.; Winkler, B.; Franz, H.; Weckert, E.

    2010-03-01

    We present plans for the new Extreme Conditions Beamline at PETRA III, DESY, Germany. The beamline is being designed and built with the specific goal to explore time resolved high-pressure and -temperature x-ray diffraction experiments in the dynamic and laser heated diamond anvil cell. Within we discuss the conceptual design of the optical components and experimental setup to conduct monochromatic high-pressure powder diffraction experiments in the sub-second time regime.

  13. Electrically induced shape oscillation of drops as a means of direct-contact heat transfer enhancement: Part 2 - Heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Kaji, N. ); Mori, Y.H. ); Tochitani, Y. )

    1988-08-01

    The heat transfer enhancement caused by the application of a low-frequency (1 {approximately} 16 Hz) alternating field having the sinusoidal waveform has been studied experimentally with water drops in a medium of silicone oil. The heat transfer coefficients has been found to peak at three particular frequencies. The data newly obtained with the sinusoidal waveform are compared with earlier results obained with electric fields having other waveforms. The waveform and the frequency that yield the largest enhancement of heat transfer are sought.

  14. Testing of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjective to Variable Accelerations. Part 1; Start-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Rogers, Paul; Hoff, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The effect of accelerating forces on the performance of loop heat pipes (LHP) is of interest and importance to terrestrial and space applications. They are being considered for cooling of military combat vehicles and for spinning spacecraft. In order to investigate the effect of an accelerating force on LHP operation, a miniature LHP was installed on a spin table. Variable accelerating forces were imposed on the LHP by spinning the table at different angular speeds. Several patterns of accelerating forces were applied, i.e. continuous spin at different speeds and periodic spin at different speeds and frequencies. The resulting accelerations ranged from 1.17 g's to 4.7 g's. This paper presents the first part of the experimental study, i.e. the effects of a centrifugal force on the LHP start-up. Tests were conducted by varying the heat load to the evaporator, sink temperature, magnitude and frequency of centrifugal force, and LHP orientation relative to the direction of the accelerating force. The accelerating force seems to have little effect on the loop start-up in terms of temperature overshoot and superheat at boiling incipience. Changes in these parameters seem to be stochastic with or without centrifugal accelerating forces. The LHP started successfully in all tests.

  15. A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part II: Artificial heat exchanges for multiphase shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Petitpas, Fabien; Franquet, Erwin; Saurel, Richard . E-mail: Richard.Saurel@polytech.univ-mrs.fr; Le Metayer, Olivier

    2007-08-10

    The relaxation-projection method developed in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, E. Franquet, E. Daniel, O. Le Metayer, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations, J. Comput. Phys. (2007) 822-845] is extended to the non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model of Kapila et al. [A.K. Kapila, Menikoff, J.B. Bdzil, S.F. Son, D.S. Stewart, Two-phase modeling of deflagration to detonation transition in granular materials: reduced equations, Physics of Fluids 13(10) (2001) 3002-3024]. This model has the ability to treat multi-temperatures mixtures evolving with a single pressure and velocity and is particularly interesting for the computation of interface problems with compressible materials as well as wave propagation in heterogeneous mixtures. The non-conservative character of this model poses however computational challenges in the presence of shocks. The first issue is related to the Riemann problem resolution that necessitates shock jump conditions. Thanks to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations proposed and validated in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, O. Le Metayer, J. Massoni, S. Gavrilyuk, Shock jump conditions for multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation, Shock Waves 16 (3) (2007) 209-232] exact and approximate 2-shocks Riemann solvers are derived. However, the Riemann solver is only a part of a numerical scheme and non-conservative variables pose extra difficulties for the projection or cell average of the solution. It is shown that conventional Godunov schemes are unable to converge to the exact solution for strong multiphase shocks. This is due to the incorrect partition of the energies or entropies in the cell averaged mixture. To circumvent this difficulty a specific Lagrangian scheme is developed. The correct partition of the energies is achieved by using an artificial heat exchange in the shock layer. With the help of an asymptotic analysis this heat exchange takes a similar form as

  16. Contribution of heat transfer to turbine blades and vanes for high temperature industrial gas turbines. Part 2: Heat transfer on serpentine flow passage.

    PubMed

    Takeishi, K; Aoki, S

    2001-05-01

    The improvement of the heat transfer coefficient of the 1st row blades in high temperature industrial gas turbines is one of the most important issues to ensure reliable performance of these components and to attain high thermal efficiency of the facility. This paper deals with the contribution of heat transfer to increase the turbine inlet temperature of such gas turbines in order to attain efficient and environmentally benign engines. Following the experiments described in Part 1, a set of trials was conducted to clarify the influence of the blade's rotating motion on the heat transfer coefficient for internal serpentine flow passages with turbulence promoters. Test results are shown and discussed in this second part of the contribution. PMID:11460663

  17. In-plant demonstration of optimization of energy utilization in beck dyeing of carpet. Proposed Part III, Phase III extension of DOE contract

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    A proposal to demonstrate on a commercial scale an optimized procedure for beck dyeing of carpet to improve energy utilization is discussed. The proposal is for Phase III. A number of energy conserving procedural and equipment modification including lower dyeing temperature, lower liquor ratio, lower air exhaust flows, and recycle of hot spent dyebaths will be demonstrated in the plant dyeings. Pilot-scale experiments suggest that these modifications will reduce direct energy consumption in carpet dyeing by 400 Btu per pound of carpet processed. Adoption of the modified process by only 50% of the carpet industry would yield an annual reduction in energy consumption of 1 x 10/sup 12/ Btu's (1.7 x 10/sup 5/ BOE). The pilot-scale experiments also indicate that a cost savings of approximately 2 cents per pound of carpet dyed can be achieved with the suggested modifications. The demonstrated technology will have application in other types of nylon and polyester fiber dyeing. The Salem Carpet Mills carpet dyeing facility at Chickamauga, Georgia, will be the site of the demonstration.

  18. The late Pleistocene ground surface temperature and corrected heat flow density for northern part of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szewczyk, J.; Gientka, D.

    2003-04-01

    Paleoclimatic ground surface temperature (GST) changes in last 100 ka years are a major factor causing vertical variation of terrestrial heat flow density (HFD). The value of this parameter important for thermal and rheological modelling may be considerably influenced by paleoclimatic factor and should be corrected for this reason. Very important criteria for studying paleoclimatic events on boreholes is the knowledge of depth distribution of thermal conductivity. However, core samples from majority of deep boreholes are hardly available and laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity are very scarce and sometimes not confident. We used a method of estimating the thermal conductivity from well logging data interpretation. The thermal conductivity was calculated using volumetric model of rock with mean geometric formula. The synthetic temperature logs (T_s) based on this data are an "active" method of investigation of vertical variation of HFD and GST determination. For a majority of deep boreholes in Polish Lowlands in uppermost part (<2000 m) we have observed dramatic disagreement between measured temperature (T) and synthetic data (T_s). We consider that the observed vertical variations of HFD in shallow part of profiles are mainly due to Holocene warming. The lower parts of profiles are still in thermal regime of the Weichselian glaciation. Presented results of GST in the Late Pleistocene for the representative data for 59 deep boreholes for the N of Poland. The GST was -5.17 +/- 5.45^oC. The observed big scatter of presented results seems to be consequence of unstable thermal conditions and bad calibration of old temperature logs. The amplitude of post glacial warming (ΔGST) is not less then +13.1^oC. The history of climate for the last 500 ka years shows that this time was spent mainly in ice age and this is "normal" state of HFD. The presented method of investigations seems to be very effective for determination of HFD for this condition.

  19. Contribution of heat transfer to turbine blades and vanes for high temperature industrial gas turbines. Part 1: Film cooling.

    PubMed

    Takeishi, K; Aoki, S

    2001-05-01

    This paper deals with the contribution of heat transfer to increase the turbine inlet temperature of industrial gas turbines in order to attain efficient and environmentally benign engines. High efficiency film cooling, in the form of shaped film cooling and full coverage film cooling, is one of the most important cooling technologies. Corresponding heat transfer tests to optimize the film cooling effectiveness are shown and discussed in this first part of the contribution. PMID:11460641

  20. Contributions of Major Committee Reports to the Teaching of Secondary School Chemistry: 1893-1975. Part III (1946-1975)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, William R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is the third part of a three part report describing the contributions of major committee reports to secondary teaching of chemistry during the period 1893-1975. This third part covers the period 1947-1975, and includes a brief summary of the entire three part series. (SL)

  1. Effect of heat treatment and heat-to-heat variations in the fatigue-crack growth response of Alloy 718. Part 2. Microscopic observation

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.

    1980-04-01

    The microstructural aspects that influenced the room temperature and elevated temperature fatigue-crack propagation response of annealed, conventional, and modified heat-treated Alloy 718 were studied. Electron fractographic examination of Alloy 718 fatigue fracture surfaces revealed that operative crack growth mechanisms were dependent on heat treatment, heat-to-heat variations, temperature, and prevailing crack tip stress intensity level. In the low temperature regime (below 538{sup 0}C), all fracture surfaces exhibited a faceted appearance at low {Delta} levels, which is indicative of crystallographic fracture along intense inhomogeneous slip bands. The facets in the modified Alloy 718, however, were found to be rather poorly defined since the modified heat treatment tends to promote more homogeneous slip processes. Under progressively higher stress intensity levels, the room temperature and elevated temperature fatigue fracture surfaces exhibited striations, followed by a combination of striations and dimple rupture at the highest {Delta} values. Striation spacing measurements in all three heat-treated conditions were generally found to be in agreement with macroscopic growth rates at 24 and 538{sup 0}C. Under high temperature conditions (above 538{sup 0}C), evidence of intergranular fracture was also detected on the fatigue fracture surfaces, particularly at low stress intensity levels. This intergranular failure mechanism was found to be more extensive in the modified heat-treated Alloy 718. 17 figures.

  2. Pepper Heat Shock Protein 70a Interacts with the Type III Effector AvrBsT and Triggers Plant Cell Death and Immunity1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) function as molecular chaperones and are essential for the maintenance and/or restoration of protein homeostasis. The genus Xanthomonas type III effector protein AvrBsT induces hypersensitive cell death in pepper (Capsicum annuum). Here, we report the identification of the pepper CaHSP70a as an AvrBsT-interacting protein. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation assays confirm the specific interaction between CaHSP70a and AvrBsT in planta. The CaHSP70a peptide-binding domain is essential for its interaction with AvrBsT. Heat stress (37°C) and Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria (Xcv) infection distinctly induce CaHSP70a in pepper leaves. Cytoplasmic CaHSP70a proteins significantly accumulate in pepper leaves to induce the hypersensitive cell death response by Xcv (avrBsT) infection. Transient CaHSP70a overexpression induces hypersensitive cell death under heat stress, which is accompanied by strong induction of defense- and cell death-related genes. The CaHSP70a peptide-binding domain and ATPase-binding domain are required to trigger cell death under heat stress. Transient coexpression of CaHSP70a and avrBsT leads to cytoplasmic localization of the CaHSP70a-AvrBsT complex and significantly enhances avrBsT-triggered cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. CaHSP70a silencing in pepper enhances Xcv growth but disrupts the reactive oxygen species burst and cell death response during Xcv infection. Expression of some defense marker genes is significantly reduced in CaHSP70a-silenced leaves, with lower levels of the defense hormones salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Together, these results suggest that CaHSP70a interacts with the type III effector AvrBsT and is required for cell death and immunity in plants. PMID:25491184

  3. The National Council for Geographic Education Competency-Based Geography Test. Secondary Level. Form I. Parts I, II, and III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurfman, Dana G.; And Others

    A 3-part test measures the geography knowledge, skills, and understanding of secondary level students. Part 1, map skills and location, contains 20 questions involving the use of three maps: an imaginary sketch map, a contour map, and a political map of the world. Part 2 consists of 20 questions covering physical geography. Students analyze…

  4. Part I. Bacteriorhodopsin-related materials work for molecular electronics. Part II. Volumetric optical memory based on the branched photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin. Part III. The role of calcium in the bacteriorhodopsin binding site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Jeffrey Alan

    Part I. A protocol for the routine isolation and purification of purple membrane sheets containing the integral membrane protein, bacteriorhodopsin, was developed based upon modifications of protocols already in the literature. This simplified protocol is geared toward the facile isolation of protein for use in molecular electronic devices. Methods for the incorporation of bacteriorhodopsin into various polymeric supports were also developed, primarily in the form of dried films and hydrated cubes. This work also represents the first reported production of dried films of the deionized protein, or blue membrane. Part II. An architecture for a volumetric optical memory based on the branched-photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin is presented. The branching reaction circumvents problems associated with destructive reading and writing processes and allows access to a stable, long-lived state, separated both temporally and energetically from the main photocycle, thereby making long-term data storage possible. The state, denoted as Q, can only be accessed by exposing the protein to two different wavelengths of light in the proper sequence, with the appropriate temporal separation (roughly 2 ms between the light pulses). The Q-state (assigned as a binary one) is transparent to both writing and reading processes, making them rigorously non-destructive. Bacteriorhodopsin in its resting state is assigned as a binary zero. A differential absorption reading process is used to determine the state of each volumetric binary element. Preliminary results are reported. Part III. The nature of the chromophore binding site of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin is analyzed by using all-valence electron MNDO and MNDO-PSDCI molecular orbital theory to interpret previously reported linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopic measurements. It is concluded that the unique two-photon properties of the chromophore are due in part to the electrostatic field associated with a Casp{2+} ion near the

  5. Errors in the Simulated Heat Budget of CGCMs in the Eastern Part of the Tropical Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazel, J.; Masarik, M. T.; Mechoso, C. R.; Small, R. J.; Curchitser, E. N.

    2014-12-01

    The simulation of the tropical climate by coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (CGCMs) shows severe warm biases in the sea-surface temperature (SST) field of the southeastern part of the Pacific and the Atlantic (SEP and SEA, respectively). The errors are strongest near the land mass with a broad plume extending west, Also, the equatorial cold tongue is too strong and extends too far to the west. The simulated precipitation field generally shows a persistent double Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Tremendous effort has been made to improve CGCM performance in general and to address these tropical errors in particular. The present paper start by comparing Taylor diagrams of the SST errors in the SEP and SEA by CGCMs participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phases 3 and 5 (CMIP3 and CMIP5, respectively). Some improvement is noted in models that perform poorly in CMIP3, but the overall performance is broadly similar in the two intercomparison projects. We explore the hypothesis that an improved representation of atmosphere-ocean interaction involving stratocumulus cloud decks and oceanic upwelling is essential to reduce errors in the SEP and SEA. To estimate the error contribution by clouds and upwelling, we examine the upper ocean surface heat flux budget. The resolution of the oceanic component of the CGCMs in both CMIP3 and CMIP5 is too coarse for a realistic representation of upwelling. Therefore, we also examine simulations by the Nested Regional Climate Model (nRCM) system, which is a CGCM with a very high-resolution regional model embedded in coastal regions. The nRCM consists of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM, run at 1°) coupled to the global Parallel Ocean Program Model (POP, run at 1°) to which the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS6, run at 5-10 km) is nested in selected coastal regions.

  6. Testing of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjective to Variable Accelerations. Part 2; Temperature Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Kaya, Taril; Rogers, Paul; Hoff, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The effect of accelerating forces on the performance of loop heat pipes (LHP) is of interest and importance to terrestrial and space applications. LHP's are being considered for cooling of military combat vehicles and for spinning spacecraft. In order to investigate the effect of an accelerating force on LHP operation, a miniature LHP was installed on a spin table. Variable accelerating forces were imposed on the LHP by spinning the table at different angular speeds. Several patterns of accelerating forces were applied, i.e. continuous spin at different speeds and periodic spin at different speeds and frequencies. The resulting accelerations ranged from 1.17 g's to 4.7 g's. This paper presents the second part of the experimental study, i.e. the effect of an accelerating force on the LHP operating temperature. It has been known that in stationary tests the LHP operating temperature is a function of the evaporator power and the condenser sink temperature when the compensation temperature is not actively controlled. Results of this test program indicate that any change in the accelerating force will result in a chance in the LHP operating temperature through its influence on the fluid distribution in the evaporator, condenser and compensation chamber. However, the effect is not universal, rather it is a function of other test conditions. A steady, constant acceleration may result in an increase or decrease of the operating temperature, while a periodic spin will lead to a quasi-steady operating temperature over a sufficient time interval. In addition, an accelerating force may lead to temperature hysteresis and changes in the temperature oscillation. In spite of all these effects, the LHP continued to operate without any problems in all tests.

  7. Preliminary energy sector assessments of Jamaica. Volume III: renewable energy. Part I: solar energy - commercial and industrial

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This study concerns commercial and industrial solar applications, specifically solar water heating and solar air cooling. The study finds that solar domestic water heating and boiler make-up water preheating are technically feasible and, depending on the displaced energy source (electrical or various fuel types), economically justified; and that solar hot water installations could displace the equivalent of 189,842 barrels of fuel oil per year. However, solar cooling requires high performance collectors not currently manufactured in Jamaica, and feasibility studies indicate that solar cooling in the near term is not economically justified.

  8. CMCC’s persistent pursuit of university affiliation Part III: the push for union with the University of Victoria, BC, 1988 to 1992

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Douglas M

    1996-01-01

    The period between 1988 and 1992 is reviewed with respect to the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC) and its attempted affiliation with the University of Victoria in British Columbia. Part I, published earlier, detailed the period between 1945 and 1969 and the proposals for university affiliation with the University of Alberta and Brandon College in Manitoba. Part II focused on the period between 1969 and 1988 and discussed government inquiries, strategic planning and political intervention. In Part III of this triad, the chronology of events with respect to CMCC’s sustained, sophisticated and focused attempt at affiliation with the University of Victoria is discussed and the problems encountered with the Senate are described which lead to the eventual breakdown of any potential union.

  9. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part I: Numerical Modeling and Baseline Model Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2013-04-01

    A numerical model has been developed to simulate coupled thermal and electrical energy transfer processes in a thermoelectric generator (TEG) designed for automotive waste heat recovery systems. This model is capable of computing the overall heat transferred, the electrical power output, and the associated pressure drop for given inlet conditions of the exhaust gas and the available TEG volume. Multiple-filled skutterudites and conventional bismuth telluride are considered for thermoelectric modules (TEMs) for conversion of waste heat from exhaust into usable electrical power. Heat transfer between the hot exhaust gas and the hot side of the TEMs is enhanced with the use of a plate-fin heat exchanger integrated within the TEG and using liquid coolant on the cold side. The TEG is discretized along the exhaust flow direction using a finite-volume method. Each control volume is modeled as a thermal resistance network which consists of integrated submodels including a heat exchanger and a thermoelectric device. The pressure drop along the TEG is calculated using standard pressure loss correlations and viscous drag models. The model is validated to preserve global energy balances and is applied to analyze a prototype TEG with data provided by General Motors. Detailed results are provided for local and global heat transfer and electric power generation. In the companion paper, the model is then applied to consider various TEG topologies using skutterudite and bismuth telluride TEMs.

  10. Conjugate heat transfer of a finned tube. Part B: Heat transfer augmentation and avoidance of heat transfer reversal by longitudinal vortex generators

    SciTech Connect

    Fiebig, M.; Chen, Y.; Grosse-Gorgemann, A.; Mitra, N.K.

    1995-08-01

    Numerical investigations of three-dimensional flow and heat transfer in a finned tube with punched longitudinal vortex generators (LVG`s) are carried out for Reynolds number of 250 and 300. Air with a Prandtl number of 0.7 is used as the fluid. The flow is both thermally and hydrodynamically developing. The LVG is a delta winglet pair (DWP) punched out of the fin and is located directly behind the tube, symmetrically separated by one tube diameter. The DWP generates longitudinal vortices in the wake of the tube, defers flow separation on the tube, deflects the main stream into the tube wake, and strong reduces the ``dead water zone.`` Heat transfer reversal is avoided by the DWP. Comparison of the span-averaged Nusselt numbers for the fin with and without DWP shows significant local heat transfer enhancement of several hundred percent in the tube wake. For Re = 300 and Fi = 200 the global heat transfer augmentation by a DWP, which amounts to only 2.5% of the fin area, is 31%.

  11. Heat transfer in porous medium embedded with vertical plate: Non-equilibrium approach - Part A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Quadir, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Heat transfer in a porous medium embedded with vertical flat plate is investigated by using thermal non-equilibrium model. Darcy model is employed to simulate the flow inside porous medium. It is assumed that the heat transfer takes place by natural convection and radiation. The vertical plate is maintained at isothermal temperature. The governing partial differential equations are converted into non-dimensional form and solved numerically using finite element method. Results are presented in terms of isotherms and streamlines for various parameters such as heat transfer coefficient parameter, thermal conductivity ratio, and radiation parameter

  12. The Development of a Model State Data Analysis Plan (SDAP). (Phase I.) Part III: The SDAP Data Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scientific Educational Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This document is the third part of a 3-part report on the development of a generic State Educational Agency Data Analysis Plan (SDAP). It consists of a compendium of data available by program within the studied State education agencies. The compendium provides a direct comparison of the information elements that are available by program in the two…

  13. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 3. Appendices, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mouradian, E. M.

    1983-12-31

    Thermal analyses for the preliminary design phase of the Receiver of the Carrizo Plains Solar Power Plant are presented. The sodium reference operating conditions (T/sub in/ = 610/sup 0/F, T/sub out/ = 1050/sup 0/F) have been considered. Included are: Nominal flux distribution on receiver panal, Energy input to tubes, Axial temperature distribution; sodium and tubes, Sodium flow distribution, Sodium pressure drop, orifice calculations, Temperature distribution in tube cut (R-0), Backface structure, and Nonuniform sodium outlet temperature. Transient conditions and panel front face heat losses are not considered. These are to be addressed in a subsequent design phase. Also to be considered later are the design conditions as variations from the nominal reference (operating) condition. An addendum, designated Appendix C, has been included describing panel heat losses, panel temperature distribution, and tube-manifold joint thermal model.

  14. Your workers may be contingent but your liability for them is certain: Part III: other employment issues.

    PubMed

    Koen, Clifford M; Mitchell, Michael S; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal land mines that await the unsuspecting employer. This article, the concluding part of a 3-part examination of contingent employment, addresses additional issues including benefits, tax implications, workers' compensation, contract considerations, and the screening of potential staffing partners. PMID:20686392

  15. Vocational-Technical Physics Project. Thermometers: I. Temperature and Heat, II. Expansion Thermometers, III. Electrical Thermometers. Field Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth Technical Inst., Winston-Salem, NC.

    This vocational physics individualized student instructional module on thermometers consists of the three units: Temperature and heat, expansion thermometers, and electrical thermometers. Designed with a laboratory orientation, experiments are included on linear expansion; making a bimetallic thermometer, a liquid-in-gas thermometer, and a gas…

  16. Review of recent research on heat transfer with mixtures. Part 1: Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.P.; Chato, J.C.

    1995-08-01

    During the past 10 years, interest in heat transfer with mixtures has increased for several reasons. First, the use of zeotropic refrigerant mixtures (ZERMs) as working fluids in heat pump and refrigeration systems indicates potential advantages in efficiency and capacity. Second, ZERMs are prospective substitutes for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants (such as R12, R-11, and R-22). However, before the refrigerant mixtures will be put to use in heat pump, refrigerator, and air conditioning systems, the problem of possibly changed heat transfer performance and pressure drop in condensation processes has to be considered to realize the claimed advantages. Thus, it is necessary to study the mechanisms of condensation with mixtures. In this paper, a companion to one on boiling and evaporation, the recent research on condensation heat transfer with mixtures is reviewed. The main points are the thermal resistance of the vapor diffusion layer affecting the condensation, the influence of the flow direction of vapor on the condensation, the turbulence in the vapor generated by the fins, and the enhancement of the condensation performance of mixtures. This review is mainly concerned with the condensation of miscible mixtures, especially ZERMs. Only a few selected papers related to immiscible mixtures are reviewed here.

  17. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 2. Single tube uniformly heated tests -- Part 2: Uncertainty analysis and data

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1990-05-01

    In June 1988, Savannah River Laboratory requested that the Heat Transfer Research Facility modify the flow excursion program, which had been in progress since November 1987, to include testing of single tubes in vertical down-flow over a range of length to diameter (L/D) ratios of 100 to 500. The impetus for the request was the desire to obtain experimental data as quickly as possible for code development work. In July 1988, HTRF submitted a proposal to SRL indicating that by modifying a facility already under construction the data could be obtained within three to four months. In January 1990, HTFR issued report CU-HTRF-T4, part 1. This report contained the technical discussion of the results from the single tube uniformly heated tests. The present report is part 2 of CU-HTRF-T4 which contains further discussion of the uncertainty analysis and the complete set of data.

  18. Effect of heat stable salts on MDEA solution corrosivity: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, P.C.; DuPart, M.S.; Bacon, T.R.

    1997-04-01

    A comprehensive coupon corrosion testing program was undertaken to address the effect of various heat stable salts on methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) corrosivity to carbon steel and various stainless steels. Corrosion rates of carbon steel, 304SS, 316SS and 410SS liquid and vapor coupons towards MDEA, and MDEA containing various anions, at 180 F and 250 F, were measured in a reactor. Corrosion results of two refinery plant solutions before and after caustic neutralization were also performed. Based on these results, guidelines were determined for heat stable amine salt (HSAS) levels of oxalates, sulfates, formates, acetates and thiosulfates. In addition, caustic neutralization guidelines for MDEA heat stable salts were determined. Ongoing results include MDEA corrosivity with succinates, and malonates, glycolates, SO{sub 2} and ammonia.

  19. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 3. Appendices. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. K.

    1983-12-31

    The auxiliary heat transport systems of the Carrisa Plains Solar Power Plant (CPSPP) comprise facilities which are used to support plant operation and provide plant safety and maintenance. The facilities are the sodium purification system, argon cover gas system, sodium receiving and filling system, sodium-water reaction product receiving system, and safety and maintenance equipment. The functions of the facilities of the auxiliary system are described. Design requirements are established based on plant operating parameters. Descriptions are given on the system which will be adequate to perform the function and satisfy the requirements. Valve and equipment lists are included in the appendix.

  20. Predictability in orbital reconstruction. A human cadaver study, part III: Implant-oriented navigation for optimized reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Leander; Essig, Harald; Schreurs, Ruud; Jansen, Jesper; Maal, Thomas J J; Gooris, Peter J J; Becking, Alfred G

    2015-12-01

    Navigation-assisted orbital reconstruction remains a challenge, because the surgeon focuses on a two-dimensional multiplanar view in relation to the preoperative planning. This study explored the addition of navigation markers in the implant design for three-dimensional (3D) orientation of the actual implant position relative to the preoperative planning for more fail-safe and consistent results. Pre-injury computed tomography (CT) was performed for 10 orbits in human cadavers, and complex orbital fractures (Class III/IV) were created. The orbits were reconstructed using preformed orbital mesh through a transconjunctival approach under image-guided navigation and navigation by referencing orientating markers in the implant design. Ideal implant positions were planned using preoperative CT scans. Implant placement accuracy was evaluated by comparing the planned and realized implant positions. Significantly better translation (3.53 mm vs. 1.44 mm, p = 0.001) and rotation (pitch: -1.7° vs. -2.2°, P = 0.52; yaw: 10.9° vs. 5.9°, P = 0.02; roll: -2.2° vs. -0.5°, P = 0.16) of the placed implant relative to the planned position were obtained by implant-oriented navigation. Navigation-assisted surgery can be improved by using navigational markers on the orbital implant for orientation, resulting in fail-safe reconstruction of complex orbital defects and consistent implant positioning. PMID:26454321

  1. A New Road to Reaction, Part 3. Teaching the Heat Effect of Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the need to present beginning chemistry students with a variety of experiences dealing with chemical reactions to develop the individual student's concept of these processes. Presents information and experiments dealing with the heat effect of chemical reactions. Includes a discussion on exothermic and endothermic processes in laboratory…

  2. Measurement of frost characteristics on heat exchanger fins. Part 1: Test facility and instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.; Chen, H.; Besant, R.W.

    1999-07-01

    A special test facility was developed to characterize frost growing on heat exchanger fins where the cold surfaces and the air supply conditions were similar to those experienced in freezers, i.e., cold surface temperatures ranging from {minus}35 C to {minus}40 C, air supply temperatures from {minus}10 C to {minus}20 C, and 80% to 100% relative humidity (RH). This test facility included a test section with removable fins to measure the frost height and mass concentration. Frost height on heat exchanger fins was measured using a new automated laser scanning system to measure the height of frost and its distribution on selected fins. The increase in air pressure loss resulting from frost growth on the fins was measured directly in the test loop. The frost mass accumulation distribution was measured for each test using special pre-etched fins that could be easily subdivided and weighed. The total heat rate was measured using a heat flux meter. These frost-measuring instruments were calibrated and the uncertainty of each is stated.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 268 - List of Halogenated Organic Compounds Regulated Under § 268.32

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false List of Halogenated Organic Compounds... Part 268—List of Halogenated Organic Compounds Regulated Under § 268.32 In determining the... defined the HOCs that must be included in a calculation as any compounds having a carbon-halogen...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 268 - List of Halogenated Organic Compounds Regulated Under § 268.32

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false List of Halogenated Organic Compounds... Part 268—List of Halogenated Organic Compounds Regulated Under § 268.32 In determining the... defined the HOCs that must be included in a calculation as any compounds having a carbon-halogen...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 268 - List of Halogenated Organic Compounds Regulated Under § 268.32

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of Halogenated Organic Compounds... Part 268—List of Halogenated Organic Compounds Regulated Under § 268.32 In determining the... defined the HOCs that must be included in a calculation as any compounds having a carbon-halogen...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 268 - List of Halogenated Organic Compounds Regulated Under § 268.32

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false List of Halogenated Organic Compounds... Part 268—List of Halogenated Organic Compounds Regulated Under § 268.32 In determining the... defined the HOCs that must be included in a calculation as any compounds having a carbon-halogen...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 268 - List of Halogenated Organic Compounds Regulated Under § 268.32

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false List of Halogenated Organic Compounds... Part 268—List of Halogenated Organic Compounds Regulated Under § 268.32 In determining the... defined the HOCs that must be included in a calculation as any compounds having a carbon-halogen...

  8. Final Report for Dynamic Models for Causal Analysis of Panel Data. Dynamic Analysis of Event Histories. Part III, Chapter 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuma, Nancy Brandon; Hannan, Michael T.

    The document, part of a series of chapters described in SO 011 759, examines sociological research methods for the study of change. The advantages and procedures for dynamic analysis of event-history data (data giving the number, timing, and sequence of changes in a categorical dependent variable) are considered. The authors argue for grounding…

  9. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 2, Language Policy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard

    This document, the second part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, discusses the problems aroused by language in the region. Chapters I-IV cover assumptions of the study, common problems of the region, current solutions, and future outlook.…

  10. Project SOUL: Computer Training Program for High School Students from Disadvantaged Areas. Part III, The Scientific Programming Course. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Art

    This report details the Scientific Programming Course that is a part of "Project SOUL." The course is intended for underprivileged high school juniors and seniors having an interest in mathematics or science and aspirations to attend college. The report is divided into three sections. In section I, the administration and operation of the course as…

  11. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 1, High-level Manpower for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Guy

    This document, the first part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, appraises the high-level manpower needs of the region. The report is divided into two sections: the first includes the major comments on the position of high-level manpower in…

  12. Scaling of divertor power footprint width in RF-heated type-III ELMy H-mode on the EAST superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Guo, H. Y.; Xu, G. S.; Liu, S. C.; Gan, K. F.; Wang, H. Q.; Gong, X. Z.; Liang, Y.; Zou, X. L.; Hu, J. S.; Chen, L.; Xu, J. C.; Liu, J. B.; Yan, N.; Zhang, W.; Chen, R.; Shao, L. M.; Ding, S.; Hu, G. H.; Feng, W.; Zhao, N.; Xiang, L. Y.; Liu, Y. L.; Li, Y. L.; Sang, C. F.; Sun, J. Z.; Wang, D. Z.; Ding, H. B.; Luo, G. N.; Chen, J. L.; Gao, X.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J.; the EAST Team

    2014-11-01

    Dedicated experiments for the scaling of divertor power footprint width have been performed in the ITER-relevant radio-frequency (RF)-heated H-mode scheme under the lower single null, double null and upper single null divertor configurations in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) under lithium wall coating conditioning. A strong inverse scaling of the edge localized mode (ELM)-averaged power fall-off width with the plasma current (equivalently the poloidal field) has been demonstrated for the attached type-III ELMy H-mode as λq \\propto Ip-1.05 by various heat flux diagnostics including the divertor Langmuir probes (LPs), infra-red (IR) thermograph and reciprocating LPs on the low-field side. The IR camera and divertor LP measurements show that λq,IR ≈ {λq,div{-LPs}}/{1.3}=1.15Bp,omp-1.25 , in good agreement with the multi-machine scaling trend during the inter-ELM phase between type-I ELMs or ELM-free enhanced Dα (EDA). H-mode. However, the magnitude is nearly doubled, which may be attributed to the different operation scenarios or heating schemes in EAST, i.e., dominated by electron heating. It is also shown that the type-III ELMs only broaden the power fall-off width slightly, and the ELM-averaged width is representative for the inter-ELM period. Furthermore, the inverse Ip (Bp) scaling appears to be independent of the divertor configurations in EAST. The divertor power footprint integral width, fall-off width and dissipation width derived from EAST IR camera measurements follow the relation, λint ≅ λq + 1.64S, yielding λ_intEAST =(1.39+/- 0.03)λqEAST +(0.97+/- 0.35) mm . Detailed analysis of these three characteristic widths was carried out to shed more light on their extrapolation to ITER.

  13. Steady state boiling crisis in a helium vertically heated natural circulation loop - Part 1: Critical heat flux, boiling crisis onset and hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furci, H.; Baudouy, B.; Four, A.; Meuris, C.

    2016-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on a 2-m high two-phase helium natural circulation loop operating at 4.2 K and 1 atm. The same loop was used in two experiments with different heated section internal diameter (10 and 6 mm). The power applied on the heated section wall was controlled in increasing and decreasing sequences, and temperature along the section, mass flow rate and pressure drop evolutions were recorded. The values of critical heat flux (CHF) were found at different positions of the test section, and the post-CHF regime was studied. The predictions of CHF by existing correlations were good in the downstream portion of the section, however CHF anomalies have been observed near the entrance, in the low quality region. In resonance with this, the re-wetting of the surface has distinct hysteresis behavior in each of the two CHF regions. Furthermore, hydraulics effects of crisis, namely on friction, were studied (Part 2). This research is the starting point to future works addressing transients conducing to boiling crisis in helium natural circulation loops.

  14. Review article: A primer for clinical researchers in the emergency department: Part III: How to write a scientific paper.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Andrew; McD Taylor, David; Babl, Franz E

    2012-08-01

    In this series we address key topics for clinicians who conduct research as part of their work in the ED. Analysis of research data does not represent the completion of a project as the findings need to be communicated to clinicians and other researchers in the field. In this section, we describe how to write up clinical research data for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. We also describe the editorial and peer-review process. PMID:22862751

  15. Extending the collisional fluid equations into the long mean-free-path regime in toroidal plasmas. III. Parallel heat conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K. C.

    2006-09-15

    It is illustrated that plasma transport processes in the direction of the magnetic field are local in the vicinity of the magnetic island in the long mean-free-path regime where the collisionality parameter {nu}{sub *} is larger than 10{sup -2}, and the width of the island is about 3% of the minor radius or smaller. This is because the plasma temperature variation on the magnetic surface that results from the magnetic reconnection is gentle. Both the electron and the ion parallel transport fluxes including parallel heat flow in the banana regime where {nu}{sub *}<1 are calculated using a model Coulomb collision operator that conserves momentum.

  16. Finite element modeling of borehole heat exchanger systems. Part 2. Numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diersch, H.-J. G.; Bauer, D.; Heidemann, W.; Rühaak, W.; Schätzl, P.

    2011-08-01

    Single borehole heat exchanger (BHE) and arrays of BHE are modeled by using the finite element method. Applying BHE in regional discretizations optimal conditions of mesh spacing around singular BHE nodes are derived. Optimal meshes have shown superior to such discretizations which are either too fine or too coarse. The numerical methods are benchmarked against analytical and numerical reference solutions. Practical application to a borehole thermal energy store (BTES) consisting of 80 BHE is given for the real-site BTES Crailsheim, Germany. The simulations are controlled by the specifically developed FEFLOW-TRNSYS coupling module. Scenarios indicate the effect of the groundwater flow regime on efficiency and reliability of the subsurface heat storage system.

  17. Variation in mouthguard thickness due to different heating conditions during fabrication: part 2.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mutsumi; Koide, Kaoru; Mizuhashi, Fumi

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in the thickness of mouthguard sheets under different heating conditions during fabrication. Mouthguards were fabricated with polyolefin-polystyrene co-polymer (OS) and olefin co-polymer (OL) sheets (4.0-mm thick) utilizing a vacuum-forming machine under the following three conditions: (A) the sheet was moulded when it sagged 15 mm below the sheet frame (i.e. the normally used position); (B) the sheet frame was lowered to and heated at 30 mm below the top of the post and moulded when it sagged by 15 mm; and (C) the sheet frame was lowered to and heated at 50 mm below the top of the post and moulded when it sagged by 15 mm. The working model was trimmed to a height of 20 mm at the incisor and 15 mm at the first molar. Post-moulding thickness was determined for the incisal portion (incisal edge and labial surface) and molar portion (cusp, central groove and buccal surface). Dimensions were measured, and differences in the change in thickness due to heating condition were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Under condition C, OS and OL decreased in thickness from 0.36-0.54 mm to 0.26-0.30 mm, respectively, at the incisal portion and from 0.34-0.66 mm to 0.17-0.47 mm, respectively, at the molar portion. It may be clinically useful when moulding a mouthguard to maintain the thickness of the incisal and molar portions by adjusting the height of the sheet frame. PMID:25039434

  18. Mist/steam cooling in a heated horizontal tube -- Part 1: Experimental system

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, T.; Wang, T.; Gaddis, J.L.

    2000-04-01

    To improve the airfoil cooling significantly for the future generation of advanced turbine systems (ATS), a fundamental experimental program has been developed to study the heat transfer mechanisms of mist/steam cooling under highly superheated wall temperatures. The mist/steam mixture was obtained by blending fine water droplets (3 {approximately} 15 {micro}m in diameter) with the saturated steam at 1.5 bars. Two mist generation systems were tested by using the pressure atomizer and the steam-assisted pneumatic atomizer, respectively. The test section, heated directly by a DC power supply, consisted of a thin-walled ({approximately} 0.9 mm), circular stainless steel tube with an ID of 20 mm and a length of 203 mm. Droplet size and distribution were measured by a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) system through view ports grafted at the inlet and the outlet of the test section. Mist transportation and droplet dynamics were studied in addition to the heat transfer measurements. The experiment was conducted with steam Reynolds numbers ranging from 10,000 to 35,000, wall superheat up to 300 C, and droplet mass ratios ranging from 1 {approximately} 6%.

  19. Analytic Corrections to CFD Heating Predictions Accounting for Changes in Surface Catalysis. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Inger, George R.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach for combining the insight afforded by integral boundary-layer analysis with comprehensive (but time intensive) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flowfield solutions of the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations is described. The approach extracts CFD derived quantities at the wall and at the boundary layer edge for inclusion in a post-processing boundary-layer analysis. It allows a designer at a work-station to address two questions, given a single CFD solution. (1) How much does the heating change for a thermal protection system (TPS) with different catalytic properties than was used in the original CFD solution? (2) How does the heating change at the interface of two different TPS materials with an abrupt change in catalytic efficiency? The answer to the second question is particularly important, because abrupt changes from low to high catalytic efficiency can lead to localized increase in heating which exceeds the usually conservative estimate provided by a fully catalytic wall assumption. Capabilities of this approach for application to Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) design are demonstrated. If the definition of surface catalysis is uncertain early in the design process, results show that fully catalytic wall boundary conditions provide the best baseline for CFD design points.

  20. Metal-ligand interaction of lanthanides with coumarin derivatives. Part I. Complexation of 3-(1-aminoethylidene)-2H-chromene-2,4(3H)-dione with La(III), Ce(III), Nd(III) and Ho(III).

    PubMed

    Swiatek, Mirosława; Kufelnicki, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    Solutions of lanthanum(III), cerium(III), neodymium(III) and holmium(III) nitrates with 3-(1-aminoethylidene)-2H-chromene-2,4(3H)-dione (1) in 10% v/v dioxane-water medium were used. Coordination modes of 1 with the selected lanthanides have been examined. Hydroxo-complexes with deprotonated water molecules from the inner coordination sphere have been stated in basic medium. Stability constants of the forming complex species were determined by potentiometric titrations using Superquad and Hyperquad2003 programs. The most stable complexes are formed with La(III). The UV-Vis spectra of the Nd(III)-1 system confirmed the L:M = 1:1 stoichiometry evaluated potentiometrically. PMID:23285658

  1. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part III. Deleterious effects: infections of humans, animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Kinga Lemieszek, Marta; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-06-01

    (Arrhenatherum elatius). Some plant-pathogenic strains of P. agglomerans are tumourigenic, inducing gall formation on table beet, an ornamental plant gypsophila (Gypsophila paniculata), wisteria, Douglas-fir and cranberry. Recently, a Pantoea species closely related to P. agglomerans has been identified as a cause of bacterial blight disease in the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii cultivated in China. The genetically governed determinants of plant pathogenicity in Pantoea agglomerans include such mechanisms as the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) system, phytohormones, the quorum-sensing (QS) feedback system and type III secretion system (T3SS) injecting the effector proteins into the cytosol of a plant cell. PMID:27294620

  2. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA booster subcritical assembly, Part III : low enriched uranium conversion analyses.

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.

    2011-05-12

    This study investigates the performance of the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly, located in Belarus, during operation with high (90%), medium (36%), and low (21%) enriched uranium fuels in the assembly's fast zone. The YALINA Booster is a zero-power, subcritical assembly driven by a conventional neutron generator. It was constructed for the purpose of investigating the static and dynamic neutronics properties of accelerator driven subcritical systems, and to serve as a fast neutron source for investigating the properties of nuclear reactions, in particular transmutation reactions involving minor-actinides. The first part of this study analyzes the assembly's performance with several fuel types. The MCNPX and MONK Monte Carlo codes were used to determine effective and source neutron multiplication factors, effective delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron lifetime, neutron flux profiles and spectra, and neutron reaction rates produced from the use of three neutron sources: californium, deuterium-deuterium, and deuterium-tritium. In the latter two cases, the external neutron source operates in pulsed mode. The results discussed in the first part of this report show that the use of low enriched fuel in the fast zone of the assembly diminishes neutron multiplication. Therefore, the discussion in the second part of the report focuses on finding alternative fuel loading configurations that enhance neutron multiplication while using low enriched uranium fuel. It was found that arranging the interface absorber between the fast and the thermal zones in a circular rather than a square array is an effective method of operating the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly without downgrading neutron multiplication relative to the original value obtained with the use of the high enriched uranium fuels in the fast zone.

  3. Global ocean tides. Part III. The semidiurnal principal solar tide (S2), atlas of tidal charts and maps. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwiderski, E.W.

    1981-03-15

    In Part I of this report (AD-A060 913), a unique hydrodynamical interpolation technique was introduced, extensively tested, and evaluated in order to compute partial global ocean tides in great detail and with a high degree of accuracy. This novel method has been applied to construct the semidiurnal principal solar (S2) ocean tide with a relative accuracy of better than 5 cm anywhere in the open oceans. The resulting tidal amplitudes and phases are tabulated on a 1 deg x 1 deg grid system in an atlas of 42 deg x 71 deg overlapping charts covering the whole oceanic globe. A corresponding atlas of global corange and cotidal maps is included to provide the reader with a quick general overview of the major tidal phenomena. The specifying hydrodynamical parameters of the model are listed along with quoted sources of empirical tide data, and significant tidal features are explained and discussed. The S2 ocean tide is found to resemble closely the corresponding lunar M2 tide presented in Part II of this report (AD-A084 694).

  4. Estimation of energetic efficiency of heat supply in front of the aircraft at supersonic accelerated flight. Part II. Mathematical model of the trajectory boost part and computational results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latypov, A. F.

    2009-03-01

    The fuel economy was estimated at boost trajectory of aerospace plane during energy supply to the free stream. Initial and final velocities of the flight were given. A model of planning flight above cold air in infinite isobaric thermal wake was used. The comparison of fuel consumption was done at optimal trajectories. The calculations were done using a combined power plant consisting of ramjet and liquid-propellant engine. An exergy model was constructed in the first part of the paper for estimating the ramjet thrust and specific impulse. To estimate the aerodynamic drag of aircraft a quadratic dependence on aerodynamic lift is used. The energy for flow heating is obtained at the sacrifice of an equivalent decrease of exergy of combustion products. The dependencies are obtained for increasing the range coefficient of cruise flight at different Mach numbers. In the second part of the paper, a mathematical model is presented for the boost part of the flight trajectory of the flying vehicle and computational results for reducing the fuel expenses at the boost trajectory at a given value of the energy supplied in front of the aircraft.

  5. Calculation of inviscid surface streamlines and heat transfer on shuttle type configurations. Part 2: Description of computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.; Jones, M. H.

    1971-01-01

    A description of the computer program used for heating rate calculation for blunt bodies in hypersonic flow is given. The main program and each subprogram are described by defining the pertinent symbols involved and presenting a detailed flow diagram and complete computer program listing. Input and output parameters are discussed in detail. Listings are given for the computation of heating rates on (1) a blunted 15 deg half-angle cone at 20 deg incidence and Mach 10.6, (2) a blunted 70 deg slab delta wing at 10 deg incidence and Mach 8, and (3) the HL-10 lifting body at 20 deg incidence and Mach 10. In addition, the computer program output for two streamlines on the blunted 15 deg half-angle cone is listed. For Part 1, see N71-36186.

  6. COYOTE II - a finite element computer program for nonlinear heat conduction problems. Part I - theoretical background

    SciTech Connect

    Gartling, D.K.; Hogan, R.E.

    1994-10-01

    The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE II, is presented in detail. COYOTE II is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems and other types of diffusion problems. A general description of the boundary value problems treated by the program is presented. The finite element formulation and the associated numerical methods used in COYOTE II are also outlined. Instructions for use of the code are documented in SAND94-1179; examples of problems analyzed with the code are provided in SAND94-1180.

  7. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part III: Cyanotic Heart Diseases and Complex Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    From the stand point of radiographic analysis most of the complex cyanotic congenital heart diseases (CHD), can be divided into those associated with decreased or increased pulmonary vascularity. Combination of a specific cardiac configuration and status of lung vasculature in a clinical context allows plain film diagnosis to be predicted in some CHD. Correlation of the position of the cardiac apex in relation to the visceral situs is an important information that can be obtained from the plain film. This information helps in gathering information about the atrio-ventricular, ventricular arterial concordance or discordance. Categorization of the cyanotic heart disease based on vascularity is presented below. Thorough understanding of cardiac anatomy by different imaging methods is essential in understanding and interpreting complex cardiac disease. Basic anatomical details and background for interpretation are provided in the previous parts of this presentation.

  8. Systematics of the parasitic wasp genus Oxyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s.l.), part III: African fauna

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Roger A.; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.; Austin, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract African species of Oxyscelio (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae s.l.) are revised. A total of 14 species are recognized, 13 of which are described as new: Oxyscelio absentiae Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio galeri Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio gyri Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio idoli Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio intensionis Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio io Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio kylix Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio lunae Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio nemesis Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio pulveris Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio quassus Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio teli Burks, sp. n. and Oxyscelio xenii Burks, sp. n. The genus Freniger Szabó, syn. n. is recognized as part of an endemic African species group of Oxyscelio with incomplete hind wing venation, and Oxyscelio bicolor (Szabó), comb. n. is therefore recognized as the only previously described species of Oxyscelio from Africa. The Oxyscelio crateris and Oxyscelio cuculli species groups, previously known from southeast Asia, are represented in Africa by seven and one species respectively. PMID:27081336

  9. Anatomical and functional perspectives of the cervical spine: Part III: the “unstable” cervical spine †

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Marion

    1990-01-01

    In this, the last of the three part series on the anatomical and functional perspectives of the cervical spine, the clinical entity-instability-is addressed. A summative definition of instability, addressing both the clinical and radiographic issues, is presented based on current available literature. The etiology of instability is discussed as it pertains to three possible mechanisms: acute trauma, latent evidence of trauma and repetitive microtrauma. The anatomical, clinical and radiographic aspects in each of these meachanisms is discussed. A case report is presented to illustrate the salient features of this potentially disastrous condition. The conclusion emphasizes the importance of defineable limits in each of the presented definitions, calling for future research into the clinical and radiographic correlations of abnormal cervical motion. ImagesFigure 4Figure 5Figure 6

  10. Functional role of inorganic trace elements in angiogenesis part III: (Ti, Li, Ce, As, Hg, Va, Nb and Pb).

    PubMed

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Orangi, Jafar; Asatourian, Armen; Sorenson, Christine M; Sheibani, Nader

    2016-02-01

    Many essential elements exist in nature with significant influence on human health. Angiogenesis is vital in developmental, repair, and regenerative processes, and its aberrant regulation contributes to pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer. Thus, it is of great importance to explore the role of these elements in such a vital process. This is third in a series of reviews that serve as an overview of the role of inorganic elements in regulation of angiogenesis and vascular function. Here we will review the roles of titanium, lithium, cerium, arsenic, mercury, vanadium, niobium, and lead in these processes. The roles of other inorganic elements in angiogenesis were discussed in part I (N, Fe, Se, P, Au, and Ca) and part II (Cr, Si, Zn, Cu, and S) of these series. The methods of exposure, structure, mechanisms, and potential activities of these elements are briefly discussed. An electronic search was performed on the role of these elements in angiogenesis from January 2005 to April 2014. These elements can promote and/or inhibit angiogenesis through different mechanisms. The anti-angiogenic effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles comes from the inhibition of angiogenic processes, and not from its toxicity. Lithium affects vasculogenesis but not angiogenesis. Nanoceria treatment inhibited tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis. Vanadium treatment inhibited cell proliferation and induced cytotoxic effects through interactions with DNA. The negative impact of mercury on endothelial cell migration and tube formation activities was dose and time dependent. Lead induced IL-8 production, which is known to promote tumor angiogenesis. Thus, understanding the impact of these elements on angiogenesis will help in development of new modalities to modulate angiogenesis under various conditions. PMID:26638864

  11. Thermal Imaging Applied to Cryocrystallography: Cryocooling and Beam Heating (Part I)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, Edward; Bellamy, Henry; Rosenbaum, Gerd; vanderWoerd, Mark; Kazmierczak, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Thermal imaging provides a non-invasive method to study both the cryocooling process and the heating due to the X-ray beam interaction with a sample. The method has been used successfully to image cryocooling in a number of experimental situations, i.e. cooling as a function of sample volume and as a function of cryostream orientation. Although there are experimental limitations to the method, it has proved a powerful technique to aid cryocrystallography development. Due to the rapid spatial temperature information provided about the sample it is also a powerful tool in the testing of mathematical models. Recently thermal imaging has been used to measure the temperature distribution on both a model and typical crystal samples illuminated with an X-ray beam produced by an undulator. A brief overview of thermal imaging and previous results will be presented. In addition, a detailed description of the calibration and experimental aspects of the beam heating measurements will be described. This will complement the following talk on the mathematical modeling and analysis of the results.

  12. Multi-Evaporator Miniature Loop Heat Pipe for Small Spacecraft Thermal Control. Part 2; Validation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Douglas, Donya; Hoang, Triem

    2010-01-01

    Under NASA s New Millennium Program Space Technology 8 (ST 8) Project, Goddard Space Fight Center has conducted a Thermal Loop experiment to advance the maturity of the Thermal Loop technology from proof of concept to prototype demonstration in a relevant environment , i.e. from a technology readiness level (TRL) of 3 to a level of 6. The thermal Loop is an advanced thermal control system consisting of a miniature loop heat pipe (MLHP) with multiple evaporators and multiple condensers designed for future small system applications requiring low mass, low power, and compactness. The MLHP retains all features of state-of-the-art loop heat pipes (LHPs) and offers additional advantages to enhance the functionality, performance, versatility, and reliability of the system. An MLHP breadboard was built and tested in the laboratory and thermal vacuum environments for the TRL 4 and TRL 5 validations, respectively, and an MLHP proto-flight unit was built and tested in a thermal vacuum chamber for the TRL 6 validation. In addition, an analytical model was developed to simulate the steady state and transient behaviors of the MLHP during various validation tests. The MLHP demonstrated excellent performance during experimental tests and the analytical model predictions agreed very well with experimental data. All success criteria at various TRLs were met. Hence, the Thermal Loop technology has reached a TRL of 6. This paper presents the validation results, both experimental and analytical, of such a technology development effort.

  13. New perspectives in the use of ink evidence in forensic science: Part III: Operational applications and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Cedric; Margot, Pierre

    2009-11-20

    The research reported in this series of article aimed at (1) automating the search of questioned ink specimens in ink reference collections and (2) at evaluating the strength of ink evidence in a transparent and balanced manner. These aims require that ink samples are analysed in an accurate and reproducible way and that they are compared in an objective and automated way. This latter requirement is due to the large number of comparisons that are necessary in both scenarios. A research programme was designed to (a) develop a standard methodology for analysing ink samples in a reproducible way, (b) comparing automatically and objectively ink samples and (c) evaluate the proposed methodology in forensic contexts. This report focuses on the last of the three stages of the research programme. The calibration and acquisition process and the mathematical comparison algorithms were described in previous papers [C. Neumann, P. Margot, New perspectives in the use of ink evidence in forensic science-Part I: Development of a quality assurance process for forensic ink analysis by HPTLC, Forensic Sci. Int. 185 (2009) 29-37; C. Neumann, P. Margot, New perspectives in the use of ink evidence in forensic science-Part II: Development and testing of mathematical algorithms for the automatic comparison of ink samples analysed by HPTLC, Forensic Sci. Int. 185 (2009) 38-50]. In this paper, the benefits and challenges of the proposed concepts are tested in two forensic contexts: (1) ink identification and (2) ink evidential value assessment. The results show that different algorithms are better suited for different tasks. This research shows that it is possible to build digital ink libraries using the most commonly used ink analytical technique, i.e. high-performance thin layer chromatography, despite its reputation of lacking reproducibility. More importantly, it is possible to assign evidential value to ink evidence in a transparent way using a probabilistic model. It is therefore

  14. Injury and the orchestral environment: part III. the role of psychosocial factors in the experience of musicians undertaking rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Rickert, Dale Ll; Barrett, Margaret S; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2014-09-01

    Workplace rehabilitation in the orchestral setting poses a number of challenges that arise in part due to a poor fit between generic injury insurance and medical care and the elite performance requirements of professional musicians. Currently, the orchestral profession lacks information and strategies to best deal with the unique challenges of this complex rehabilitation environment. In order to inform future directions for research and suggest possible changes of practice, the researchers conducted a qualitative case-study aimed at understanding the injury and rehabilitation experiences of professional musicians. In-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with three chronically injured professional cellists from a single Australian orchestra. After initial data analysis, further interviews were undertaken with a set of five orchestral management staff as a means of data triangulation. All data were analysed using a themes-based analysis-of-narrative approach. The findings indicate that injury concealment played a considerable role in the development of chronic injuries for these musicians, and management staff felt that this concealment may be the norm amongst orchestral musicians. The musicians in this study suffered emotional and psychological trauma as the result of their injuries, and two participants felt socially marginalised. During rehabilitation, the musicians in this study encountered difficulties with medical staff not understanding the elite performance requirements of orchestral work. The article proposes recommendations that may assist in dealing with the complex challenges of injury rehabilitation in the orchestral environment. PMID:25194109

  15. Kinetic modeling of hardwood prehydrolysis. Part III. Water and dilute acetic acid prehydorlysis of southern red oak

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.L.; Lorenz, L.F.

    1986-04-01

    Most processes for utilizing wood as a source of chemicals and liquid fuels include a prehydrolysis step to remove the hemicellulose prior to the main hydrolysis of the cellulose to glucose. Two promising prehydrolysis methods, the Iotech steam explosion process and the Stake process, are based on water prehydrolysis (autohydrolysis). The kinetics of water and of dilute (5%) acetic acid prehydrolysis of southern red oak wood over the temperature range of 170 to 240 C were investigated. Kinetic parameters were determined that permitted modeling not only of xylan removal from the wood but also of the occurrence of xylan oligosaccharides, free xylose, furfural, and further degradation products in the prehydrolyzate. At lower temperatures (approximately 170 to 200 C), xylan removal could be modeled as the sum of two parallel reactions (one for an easily hydrolyzed portion and one for a more resistant portion of xylan) using the equation derived in Part I. At the highest temperature studied (236.9 C), the removal of xylan from the wood was best modeled as a single reaction with a small fraction of the xylan being essentially nonreactive. The occurrence of xylan oligosaccharides, xylose, furfural, and further degradation products in the prehydrolyzate was modeled as consecutive, irreversible pseudo first-order reactions. A timelag associated with the depolymerization of the xylan oligosaccharides to xylose was accounted for in the model by allowing the apparent rate constant for the formation of xylose to increase exponentially with time to a maximum value.

  16. Controlled production of camembert-type cheeses: part III role of the ripening microflora on free fatty acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Leclercq-Perlat, Marie-Noëlle; Corrieu, Georges; Spinnler, Henry-Eric

    2007-05-01

    Phenomena generating FFAs, important flavour precursors, are significant in cheese ripening. In Camembert-like cheeses, it was intended to establish the relationships between the dynamics of FFA concentrations changes and the succession of ripening microflora during ripening. Experimental Camembert-type cheeses were prepared in duplicate from pasteurised milk inoculated with Kluyveromyces lactis, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum under aseptic conditions. For each cheese and each cheesy medium, concentrations of FFAs with odd-numbered carbons, except for 9:0 and 13:0, did not change over time. For long-chain FFAs, concentrations varied with the given cheese part (rind or core). K. lactis produced only short or medium-chain FFAs during its growth and had a minor influence on caproic, caprylic, capric, and lauric acids in comparison with G. candidum, the most lipolytic of the strains used here. It generated all short or medium-chain FFAs (4:0-12:0) during its exponential and slowdown growth periods and only long-chain ones (14:0-18:0) during its stationary phase. Pen. camemberti produced more long-chain FFAs (14:0-18:0) during its sporulation. Brev. aurantiacum did not generate any FFAs. The evidence of links between specific FFAs and the growth of a given microorganism is shown. PMID:17291387

  17. High temperature thermal conductivity measurements of UO/sub 2/ by Direct Electrical Heating. Final report. [MANTRA-III

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, B

    1980-10-01

    High temperature properties of reactor type UO/sub 2/ pellets were measured using a Direct Electrical Heating (DEH) Facility. Modifications to the experimental apparatus have been made so that successful and reproducible DEH runs may be carried out while protecting the pellets from oxidation at high temperature. X-ray diffraction measurements on the UO/sub 2/ pellets have been made before and after runs to assure that sample oxidation has not occurred. A computer code has been developed that will model the experiment using equations that describe physical properties of the material. This code allows these equations to be checked by comparing the model results to collected data. The thermal conductivity equation for UO/sub 2/ proposed by Weilbacher has been used for this analysis. By adjusting the empirical parameters in Weilbacher's equation, experimental data can be matched by the code. From the several runs analyzed, the resulting thermal conductivity equation is lambda = 1/4.79 + 0.0247T/ + 1.06 x 10/sup -3/ exp(-1.62/kT/) - 4410. exp(-3.71/kT/) where lambda is in w/cm K, k is the Boltzman constant, and T is the temperature in Kelvin.

  18. Use of rumination and activity monitoring for the identification of dairy cows with health disorders: Part III. Metritis.

    PubMed

    Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Caixeta, L S; Al-Abri, M A; Giordano, J O

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the performance of an automated health-monitoring system (AHMS) to identify cows with metritis based on an alert system (health index score, HIS) that combines rumination time and physical activity; (2) the number of days between the first HIS alert and clinical diagnosis (CD) of metritis by farm personnel; and (3) the daily rumination time, physical activity, and HIS patterns around CD. In this manuscript, the overall performance of HIS to detect cows with all disorders of interest in this study [ketosis, displaced abomasum, indigestion (companion paper, part I), mastitis (companion paper, part II), and metritis] is also reported. Holstein cattle (n=1,121; 451 nulliparous and 670 multiparous) were fitted with a neck-mounted electronic rumination and activity monitoring tag (HR Tags, SCR Dairy, Netanya, Israel) from at least -21 to 80 d in milk (DIM). Raw data collected in 2-h periods were summarized per 24 h as daily rumination and activity. An HIS (0 to 100 arbitrary units) was calculated daily for individual cows with an algorithm that used rumination and activity. A positive HIS outcome was defined as an HIS of <86 units during at least 1 d from -5 to 2 d after CD. Blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total calcium, and haptoglobin were determined in a subgroup of cows (n=459) at -11±3, -4±3, 0, 3±1, 7±1, 14±1, and 28±1 DIM. The overall sensitivity of HIS was 55% for all cases of metritis (n=349), but it was greater for cows with metritis and another disorder (78%) than for cows with metritis only (53%). Cows diagnosed with metritis and flagged based on HIS had substantial alterations in their rumination, activity, and HIS patterns around CD, alterations of blood markers of metabolic and health status around calving, reduced milk production, and were more likely to exit the herd than cows not flagged based on the HIS and cows without disease, suggesting that cows flagged

  19. Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions from Satellite Passive Microwave Radiometry. Part 1; Method and Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Yang, Song; Petty, Grant W.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Bell, Thomas L.; Braun, Scott A.; Wang, Yansen; Lang, Stephen E.; Johnson, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    A revised Bayesian algorithm for estimating surface rain rate, convective rain proportion, and latent heating/drying profiles from satellite-borne passive microwave radiometer observations over ocean backgrounds is described. The algorithm searches a large database of cloud-radiative model simulations to find cloud profiles that are radiatively consistent with a given set of microwave radiance measurements. The properties of these radiatively consistent profiles are then composited to obtain best estimates of the observed properties. The revised algorithm is supported by an expanded and more physically consistent database of cloud-radiative model simulations. The algorithm also features a better quantification of the convective and non-convective contributions to total rainfall, a new geographic database, and an improved representation of background radiances in rain-free regions. Bias and random error estimates are derived from applications of the algorithm to synthetic radiance data, based upon a subset of cloud resolving model simulations, and from the Bayesian formulation itself. Synthetic rain rate and latent heating estimates exhibit a trend of high (low) bias for low (high) retrieved values. The Bayesian estimates of random error are propagated to represent errors at coarser time and space resolutions, based upon applications of the algorithm to TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) data. Errors in instantaneous rain rate estimates at 0.5 deg resolution range from approximately 50% at 1 mm/h to 20% at 14 mm/h. These errors represent about 70-90% of the mean random deviation between collocated passive microwave and spaceborne radar rain rate estimates. The cumulative algorithm error in TMI estimates at monthly, 2.5 deg resolution is relatively small (less than 6% at 5 mm/day) compared to the random error due to infrequent satellite temporal sampling (8-35% at the same rain rate).

  20. "Why Not Stoichiometry" versus "Stoichiometry—Why Not?" Part III: Extension of GATES/GEB on Complex Dynamic Redox Systems.

    PubMed

    Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna M; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Toporek, Marcin; Asuero, Agustin G

    2015-01-01

    In the third part of a series of articles issued under a common title, some examples of complex dynamic redox systems are presented and considered from analytical and physico-chemical viewpoints; the analysis is a leitmotiv for detailed, physico-chemical considerations. All attainable physico-chemical knowledge is involved in algorithms applied for resolution of the systems, realized with use of iterative computer programs. The first redox system (System I) is related to titration of FeSO4 + H2C2O4 with KMnO4 solution in acidic (H2SO4) medium, where simultaneous determination of both analytes from a single curve of potentiometric titration is possible. The possibility of the formation of precipitates (FeC2O4 and/or MnC2O4) in this system is taken into considerations. The second system (System II) relates to the complete analytical procedure involved in the iodometric determination of Cu; four consecutive steps of this analysis are considered. As a reasonable tool for explanation of processes occurring during simulated redox titration, speciation diagrams are suggested. This explanation is based on graphical presentation of results obtained from the calculations. The calculations made for this purpose are performed in accordance with principles of the generalized approach to electrolytic systems (GATES) with generalized electron balance (GEB) or GATES/GEB and realized with use of iterative computer programs offered by MATLAB. The reactions proceeding in this system can be formulated, together with their efficiencies, at any stage of the titration. Stoichiometry is considered as the derivative concept when put in context with GATES/GEB. The article illustrates the enormous possibilities and advantages offered by GATES/GEB. PMID:25830547

  1. Numerical Modeling of Hailstorms and Hailstone Growth. Part III: Simulation of an Alberta Hailstorm--Natural and Seeded Cases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Richard D.

    1987-07-01

    This paper reports on simulations of a multicellular hailstorm case observed during the 1983 Alberta Hail Project. The field operations on that day concentrated on two successive feeder cells which were subjected to controlled seeding experiments. The fist of these cells received the placebo treatment and the second was seeded with dry ice. The principal tool of this study is a modified version of the two-dimensional, time dependent hail category model described in Part I of this series of papers. It is with this model that hail growth processes are investigated, including the simulated effects of cloud seeding techniques as practiced in Alberta.The model simulation of the natural case produces a very good replication of the observed storm, particularly the placebo feeder cell. This is evidenced, in particular, by the high degree of fidelity of the observed and modeled radar reflectivity in terms of magnitudes, structure, and evolution. The character of the hailfall at the surface and the scale of the storm are captured nicely by the model, although cloud-top heights are generally too high, particularly for the mature storm system.Seeding experiments similar to those conducted in the field have also been simulated. These involve seeding the feeder cell early in its active development phase with dry ice (CO2) or silver iodide (AgI) introduced near cloud top. The model simulations of these seeded cases capture some of the observed seeding signatures detected by radar and aircraft. In these model experiments, CO2 seeding produced a stronger response than AgI seeding relative to inhibiting hail formation. For both seeded cases, production of precipitating ice was initially enhanced by the seeding, but retarded slightly in the later stages, the net result being modest increases in surface rainfall, with hail reduced slightly. In general, the model simulations support several subhypotheses of the operational strategy of the Alberta Research Council regarding the earlier

  2. Cleavage initiation in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat affected zone. Part 2: Failure criteria and statistical effects

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C.L.; King, J.E.

    1996-10-01

    In part 1 of this article, cleavage initiation in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat affected zone (IC CG HAZ) of high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels was determined to occur between two closely spaced blocky MA particles. Blunt notch, crack tip opening displacement (CTOD), and precracked Charpy testing were used in this investigation to determine the failure criteria required for cleavage initiation to occur by this mechanism in the IC CG HAZ. It was found that the attainment of a critical level of strain was required in addition to a critical level of stress. This does not occur in the case of high strain rate testing, for example, during precracked Charpy testing. A different cleavage initiation mechanism is then found to operate. The precise fracture criteria and microstructural requirements (described in part 1 of this article) result in competition between potential cleavage initiation mechanisms in the IC CG HAZ.

  3. Fast ignition when heating the central part of an inertial confinement fusion target by an ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gus’kov, S. Yu.; Zmitrenko, N. V.; Il’in, D. V.; Sherman, V. E.

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the ignition and burning of a precompressed laser fusion target when it is rapidly heated by an ion beam with the formation of a temperature peak in the central part of the target. We present the results of our comprehensive numerical simulations of the problem that include the following components: (1) the target compression under the action of a profiled laser pulse, (2) the heating of the compressed target with spatially nonuniform density and temperature distributions by a beam of high-energy ions, and (3) the burning of the target with the initial spatial density distribution formed at the instant of maximum target compression and the initial spatial temperature distribution formed as a result of the compressed-target heating by an ion beam. The dependences of the threshold energies of the igniting ion beam and the thermonuclear gain on the width of the Gaussian beam ion energy spectrum have been established. The peculiarities of fast ignition by an ion beam related to the spatial distribution of parameters for the target precompressed by a laser pulse are discussed.

  4. SCAI/AATS/ACC/STS operator and institutional requirements for transcatheter valve repair and replacement, Part III: Pulmonic valve.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Ziyad M; Ruiz, Carlos E; Zahn, Evan; Ringel, Richard; Aldea, Gabriel S; Bacha, Emile A; Bavaria, Joseph; Bolman, R Morton; Cameron, Duke E; Dean, Larry S; Feldman, Ted; Fullerton, David; Horlick, Eric; Mack, Michael J; Miller, D Craig; Moon, Marc R; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Trento, Alfredo; Tommaso, Carl L

    2015-07-01

    surgeons was formed to include a majority of members with no relevant RWI and to be led by an interventional cardiology cochair and a surgical cochair with no relevant RWI. Authors with relevant RWI were not permitted to draft or vote on text or recommendations pertaining to their RWI. RWI were reviewed on all conference calls and updated as changes occurred. Author and peer reviewer RWI pertinent to this document are disclosed in the Appendices. In addition, to ensure complete transparency, authors' comprehensive disclosure information (including RWI not pertinent to this document) is available in Appendix AII. The work of the writing committee was supported exclusively by the partnering societies without commercial support. SCAI, AATS, ACC, and STS believe that adherence to these recommendations will maximize the chances that these therapies will become a successful part of the armamentarium for treating valvular heart disease in the United States. In addition, these recommendations will hopefully facilitate optimum quality during the delivery of this therapy, which will be important to the development and successful implementation of future, less invasive approaches to structural heart disease. PMID:25809590

  5. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: Part III. Investigation of European standard methods.

    PubMed

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Larry A; Kashon, Michael L; Harper, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Lee et al. (Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2014a;58:60-73) introduced an approach to measure pump pulsation (PP) using a real-world sampling train, while the European Standards (EN) (EN 1232-1997 and EN 12919-1999) suggest measuring PP using a resistor in place of the sampler. The goal of this study is to characterize PP according to both EN methods and to determine the relationship of PP between the published method (Lee et al., 2014a) and the EN methods. Additional test parameters were investigated to determine whether the test conditions suggested by the EN methods were appropriate for measuring pulsations. Experiments were conducted using a factorial combination of personal sampling pumps (six medium- and two high-volumetric flow rate pumps), back pressures (six medium- and seven high-flow rate pumps), resistors (two types), tubing lengths between a pump and resistor (60 and 90 cm), and different flow rates (2 and 2.5 l min(-1) for the medium- and 4.4, 10, and 11.2 l min(-1) for the high-flow rate pumps). The selection of sampling pumps and the ranges of back pressure were based on measurements obtained in the previous study (Lee et al., 2014a). Among six medium-flow rate pumps, only the Gilian5000 and the Apex IS conformed to the 10% criterion specified in EN 1232-1997. Although the AirChek XR5000 exceeded the 10% limit, the average PP (10.9%) was close to the criterion. One high-flow rate pump, the Legacy (PP=8.1%), conformed to the 10% criterion in EN 12919-1999, while the Elite12 did not (PP=18.3%). Conducting supplemental tests with additional test parameters beyond those used in the two subject EN standards did not strengthen the characterization of PPs. For the selected test conditions, a linear regression model [PPEN=0.014+0.375×PPNIOSH (adjusted R2=0.871)] was developed to determine the PP relationship between the published method (Lee et al., 2014a) and the EN methods

  6. COYOTE : a finite element computer program for nonlinear heat conduction problems. Part I, theoretical background.

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, Micheal W.; Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Gartling, David K.

    2010-03-01

    The need for the engineering analysis of systems in which the transport of thermal energy occurs primarily through a conduction process is a common situation. For all but the simplest geometries and boundary conditions, analytic solutions to heat conduction problems are unavailable, thus forcing the analyst to call upon some type of approximate numerical procedure. A wide variety of numerical packages currently exist for such applications, ranging in sophistication from the large, general purpose, commercial codes, such as COMSOL, COSMOSWorks, ABAQUS and TSS to codes written by individuals for specific problem applications. The original purpose for developing the finite element code described here, COYOTE, was to bridge the gap between the complex commercial codes and the more simplistic, individual application programs. COYOTE was designed to treat most of the standard conduction problems of interest with a user-oriented input structure and format that was easily learned and remembered. Because of its architecture, the code has also proved useful for research in numerical algorithms and development of thermal analysis capabilities. This general philosophy has been retained in the current version of the program, COYOTE, Version 5.0, though the capabilities of the code have been significantly expanded. A major change in the code is its availability on parallel computer architectures and the increase in problem complexity and size that this implies. The present document describes the theoretical and numerical background for the COYOTE program. This volume is intended as a background document for the user's manual. Potential users of COYOTE are encouraged to become familiar with the present report and the simple example analyses reported in before using the program. The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE, is presented in detail. COYOTE is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems

  7. A Latent Heat Retrieval and its Effects on the Intensity and Structure Change of Hurricane Guillermo (1997). Part I: The Algorithm and Observations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guimond, Stephen R.; Bourassa, mark A.; Reasor, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    The release of latent heat in clouds is an essential part of the formation and I intensification ohurricanes. The community knows very little about the intensity and structure of latent heating due largely to inadequate observations. In this paper, a new method for retrieving the latent heating field in hurricanes from airborne Dopple radar is presented and fields from rapidly intensifying Hurricane Guillermo (1997) are shown.

  8. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part III. Effectively effecting and sustaining change.

    PubMed

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    Reaping the optimal rewards from any quality improvement project mandates sustainability after the initial implementation. In Part III of this three-part ATS Seminars series, we discuss strategies to create a culture for change, improve cooperation and interaction between multidisciplinary teams of clinicians, and position the intensive care unit (ICU) optimally within the hospital environment. Coaches are used throughout other industries to help professionals assess and continually improve upon their practice; use of this strategy is as of yet infrequent in health care, but would be easily transferable and potentially beneficial to ICU managers and clinicians alike. Similarly, activities focused on improving teamwork are commonplace outside of health care. Simulation training and classroom education about key components of successful team functioning are known to result in improvements. In addition to creating an ICU environment in which individuals and teams of clinicians perform well, ICU managers must position the ICU to function well within the hospital system. It is important to move away from the notion of a standalone ("siloed") ICU to one that is well integrated into the rest of the institution. Creating a "pull-system" (in which participants are active in searching out needed resources and admitting patients) can help ICU managers both provide better care for the critically ill and strengthen relationships with non-ICU staff. Although not necessary, there is potential upside to creating a unified critical care service to assist with achieving these ends. PMID:24601653

  9. Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions from Satellite Passive Microwave Radiometry. Part 2; Evaluation of Estimates Using Independent Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Olson, William S.; Wang, Jian-Jian; Bell, Thomas L.; Smith, Eric A.; Kummerow, Christian D.

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall rate estimates from space-borne k&ents are generally accepted as reliable by a majority of the atmospheric science commu&y. One-of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRh4M) facility rain rate algorithms is based upon passive microwave observations fiom the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). Part I of this study describes improvements in the TMI algorithm that are required to introduce cloud latent heating and drying as additional algorithm products. Here, estimates of surface rain rate, convective proportion, and latent heating are evaluated using independent ground-based estimates and satellite products. Instantaneous, OP5resolution estimates of surface rain rate over ocean fiom the improved TMI algorithm are well correlated with independent radar estimates (r approx. 0.88 over the Tropics), but bias reduction is the most significant improvement over forerunning algorithms. The bias reduction is attributed to the greater breadth of cloud-resolving model simulations that support the improved algorithm, and the more consistent and specific convective/stratiform rain separation method utilized. The bias of monthly, 2.5 deg. -resolution estimates is similarly reduced, with comparable correlations to radar estimates. Although the amount of independent latent heating data are limited, TMI estimated latent heating profiles compare favorably with instantaneous estimates based upon dual-Doppler radar observations, and time series of surface rain rate and heating profiles are generally consistent with those derived from rawinsonde analyses. Still, some biases in profile shape are evident, and these may be resolved with: (a) additional contextual information brought to the estimation problem, and/or; (b) physically-consistent and representative databases supporting the algorithm. A model of the random error in instantaneous, 0.5 deg-resolution rain rate estimates appears to be consistent with the levels of error determined from TMI comparisons to collocated radar

  10. The Mushroom Place. Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichter, Carol

    1978-01-01

    The final installment of a series of articles on the "Mushroom Place" learning center program, which involves creative thinking activities for young, gifted students, describes "Doing It the Hard Way," a performance task which involves the actual construction of objects from a selected set of materials in the absence of the usual project tools.…

  11. A Child's Brain: Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1982-01-01

    This article, the last in a series about the human brain, focuses on the skin and its importance for the brain. Physiological functions of the skin, concerning touch and body protection, are explained, as well as its social role in nonverbal communication. Suggestions for student discussions are given. (PP)

  12. Progressing in Spanish: Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Contents of this Spanish text of instructional materials focus on a city in Spain, a city in South America, and a hypothetical visit to a railroad station. Students learn about the imperfect tense, reflexive pronouns, and several other grammatical concepts. Exercises and readings related to the stories "La Despedida" and "Recuerdos Juveniles" are…

  13. ASIST 2003: Part III: Posters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIST Annual Meeting, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-three posters address topics including access to information; metadata; personal information management; scholarly information communication; online resources; content analysis; interfaces; Web queries; information evaluation; informatics; information needs; search effectiveness; digital libraries; diversity; automated indexing; e-commerce;…

  14. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  15. Heat transport and solidification in the electromagnetic casting of aluminum alloys. Part 2: Development of a mathematical model and comparison with experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Prasso, D.C.; Evans, J.W.; Wilson, I.J.

    1995-12-01

    In this second article of a two-part series, a mathematical model for heat transport and solidification of aluminum in electromagnetic casting is developed. The model is a three-dimensional one but involves a simplified treatment of convective heat transport in the liquid metal pool. Heat conduction in the solid was thought to play a dominant role in heat transport, and the thermal properties of the two alloys used in measurements reported in Part 1 (AA 5182 and 3104) were measured independently for input to the model. Heat transfer into the water sprays impacting the sides of the ingot was approximated using a heat-transfer coefficient from direct chill casting; because this heat-transfer step appears not to be rate determining for solidification and cooling of most of the ingot, there is little inaccuracy involved in this approximation. Joule heating was incorporated into some of the computations, which were carried out using the finite element software FIDAP. There was good agreement between the computed results and extensive thermocouple measurements (reported in Part 1) made on a pilot-scale caster at Reynolds Metals Company (Richmond, VA).

  16. Heat transport and solidification in the electromagnetic casting of aluminum alloys: Part II. Development of a mathematical model and comparison with experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasso, D. C.; Evans, J. W.; Wilson, I. J.

    1995-02-01

    In this second article of a two-part series, a mathematical model for heat transport and solidification of aluminum in electromagnetic casting is developed. The model is a three-dimensional one but involves a simplified treatment of convective heat transport in the liquid metal pool. Heat conduction in the solid was thought to play a dominant role in heat transport, and the thermal properties of the two alloys used in measurements reported in Part I (AA 5182 and 3104) were measured independently for input to the model. Heat transfer into the water sprays impacting the sides of the ingot was approximated using a heat-transfer coefficient from direct chill casting; because this heat-transfer step appears not to be rate determining for solidification and cooling of most of the ingot, there is little inaccuracy involved in this approximation. Joule heating was incorporated into some of the computations, which were carried out using the finite element software FIDAP. There was good agreement between the computed results and extensive thermocouple measurements (reported in Part I) made on a pilot-scale caster at Reynolds Metals Company (Richmond, VA).

  17. Variation in mouthguard thickness according to heating conditions during fabrication Part 2: sheet shape and effect of thermal shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mutsumi; Koide, Kaoru

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the thermal shrinkage to thickness of the mouthguard with the heating method by the setting position of a sheet and the working model using an ethylene vinyl acetate sheet prepared by extrusion. Mouthguards were fabricated with EVA sheets (4.0 mm thick) using a vacuum-forming machine. Two forming conditions were compared: the square sheet was pinched by the clamping frame attached to the forming machine (S); and the round sheet was pinched at the top and bottom and stabilized by the circle tray (R). The sheet was aligned to make the sheet's extrusion direction vertical (V) or parallel (P) to the midline of the working model. The following two heating conditions were compared: (i) the sheet was molded when it sagged 15 mm below the level of the sheet frame measured at the top of the post in condition S (S-0), or that sagged 10 mm in condition R (R-0) in the usual position; (ii) the sheet frame was lowered by 50 mm from the ordinary height (S-50, R-50). Postmolding thickness was determined using a measuring device. Measurement points were the incisal and molar portion. Differences in the change of thickness of mouthguards molded under different heating conditions and extrusion directions for each sheet shape were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (anova). The results of this study showed that by lowering the height of the sheet frame, the difference of the sheet temperature of each part was reduced. Among all sheets, condition V produced under S-50 and R-50 had the largest thickness independently of shape sheet. Furthermore, thickness reduction is effectively suppressed by aligning the direction of the extruded sheet to be vertical to the midline of the model. PMID:26337263

  18. Cooling/heating augmentation during turbine startup/shutdown using a seal positioned by thermal response of turbine parts and consequent relative movement thereof

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher

    2000-01-01

    In a turbine rotor, a thermal mismatch between various component parts of the rotor occurs particularly during transient operations such as shutdown and startup. A thermal medium flows past and heats or cools one part of the turbine which may have a deleterious thermal mismatch with another part. By passively controlling the flow of cooling medium past the one part in response to relative movement of thermally responsive parts of the turbine, the flow of thermal medium along the flow path can be regulated to increase or reduce the flow, thereby to regulate the temperature of the one part to maintain the thermal mismatch within predetermined limits.

  19. Impact of Heating Rate During Exposure of Laser Molten Parts on the Processing Window of PA12 Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummer, Dietmar; Drexler, Maximilian; Wudy, Katrin

    The additive component manufacturing by selective beam melting of thermoplastic polymer powders can be divided essentially into the following sub-processes: Powder coating, exposure and material consolidation. The mechanical and geometrical properties of a part produced by the selective melting of polymer powders depend toa large extent on these sub-processes. To increase process repeatability basic knowledge about the mutual interactions within the sub-process is of major interest. In the following article the exposure process is focused. Therefore the time dependent energy input into the powder bed is analyzed in its impact on the usable processing window of PA12powder. Thereby parameters like surface temperature, density and strength of molten layers as well as complex body specimens are quantified for varying exposure heating rates. Therefore methods of statistical design of experiments are used. Due to these investigations the derivation of new, the time dependent material behavior of polymers fitting processing strategies is possible.

  20. Numerical modeling of landfill gas and heat transport in the deformable MSW landfill body. Part 1. Development of the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsyi, D. V.

    2015-06-01

    The article is devoted to studying the parameters of wells that are used as part of vertical gas extraction systems for degassing landfills. To this end, approaches to modeling the main processes occurring in the landfill's porous medium are considered. The considered approaches served as a basis for elaborating a thermophysical gas and heat transport model that takes into account variation in the hydrodynamic properties of wastes resulting from their secondary settlement. The adequacy of the results obtained using the developed model is confirmed by the data of classic works. The effect the secondary settlement of wastes has on the distribution of pressure and temperature in the landfill body is determined. It is shown that compaction of wastes due to their secondary settlement results in a growth of pressure by 40% on the average.

  1. Organic Rankine Cycle for Residual Heat to Power Conversion in Natural Gas Compressor Station. Part I: Modelling and Optimisation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaczykowski, Maciej

    2016-06-01

    Basic organic Rankine cycle (ORC), and two variants of regenerative ORC have been considered for the recovery of exhaust heat from natural gas compressor station. The modelling framework for ORC systems has been presented and the optimisation of the systems was carried out with turbine power output as the variable to be maximized. The determination of ORC system design parameters was accomplished by means of the genetic algorithm. The study was aimed at estimating the thermodynamic potential of different ORC configurations with several working fluids employed. The first part of this paper describes the ORC equipment models which are employed to build a NLP formulation to tackle design problems representative for waste energy recovery on gas turbines driving natural gas pipeline compressors.

  2. Regularities pertinent to heat transfer between torch gas layers and steam boiler firebox waterwalls. Part I. Geometrical and physical torch model as a source of heat radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, A. N.

    2014-09-01

    The progress seen in the 19th-21st centuries in the development of methods for calculating heat transfer in torch furnaces, fireboxes, and combustion chambers is analyzed. Throughout the 20th century, calculations of heat transfer were carried out based on the law for radiation from solid bodies deduced by Y. Stefan and L. Boltzmann. It is shown that the use of this law for calculating heat transfer of a torch (a gaseous source of radiation) in heating furnaces and power-generating installations leads to incorrect results. It is substantiated that there is crisis of methods for calculating heat transfer in torch furnaces and power-generating installations. Geometrical and physical torch models in the form of radiating cylindrical gas volumes as sources of heat radiation are proposed for overcoming this crisis.

  3. Reflecting Equity and Diversity. Part I: Guidelines and Procedure for Evaluating Bias in Instructional Materials. Part II: Bias Awareness Training Worksheets. Part III: Bias Awareness and Procedure Training Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bebermeyer, Jim; Edmond, Mary, Ed.

    Reflecting a need to prepare students for working in diverse organizations, this document was developed to increase school officials' awareness of bias in instructional materials and help them select bias-free materials. A number of the examples illustrate situations dealing with diversity in the workplace. The guide is divided into three parts:…

  4. Estimation of energetic efficiency of heat supply in front of the aircraft at supersonic accelerated flight. Part 1. Mathematical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latypov, A. F.

    2008-12-01

    Fuel economy at boost trajectory of the aerospace plane was estimated during energy supply to the free stream. Initial and final flight velocities were specified. The model of a gliding flight above cold air in an infinite isobaric thermal wake was used. The fuel consumption rates were compared at optimal trajectory. The calculations were carried out using a combined power plant consisting of ramjet and liquid-propellant engine. An exergy model was built in the first part of the paper to estimate the ramjet thrust and specific impulse. A quadratic dependence on aerodynamic lift was used to estimate the aerodynamic drag of aircraft. The energy for flow heating was obtained at the expense of an equivalent reduction of the exergy of combustion products. The dependencies were obtained for increasing the range coefficient of cruise flight for different Mach numbers. The second part of the paper presents a mathematical model for the boost interval of the aircraft flight trajectory and the computational results for the reduction of fuel consumption at the boost trajectory for a given value of the energy supplied in front of the aircraft.

  5. USE OF SOLAR ENERGY TO HEAT ANAEROBIC DIGESTERS. PART I. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY STUDY. PART II. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two distinct, yet related studies were conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using solar energy as the source of heat for the anaerobic digestion process. Retrofitting a solar energy collection and heat transfer system to a digester at Annapolis, Maryla...

  6. APEX-CHAMP+ high-J CO observations of low-mass young stellar objects. III. NGC 1333 IRAS 4A/4B envelope, outflow, and ultraviolet heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, Umut A.; Kristensen, Lars E.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Belloche, Arnaud; van Kempen, Tim A.; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.; Güsten, Rolf; van der Marel, Nienke

    2012-06-01

    Context. The NGC 1333 IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B sources are among the most well-studied Stage 0 low-mass protostars, which drive prominent bipolar outflows. Spectrally resolved molecular emission lines provide crucial information about the physical and chemical structure of the circumstellar material as well as the dynamics of the different components. Most studies have so far concentrated on the colder parts (T ≤ 30 K) of these regions. Aims: The aim is to characterize the warmer parts of the protostellar envelope using the new generation of submillimeter instruments. This will allow us to quantify the feedback of the protostars on their surroundings in terms of shocks, ultraviolet (UV) heating, photodissociation, and outflow dispersal. Methods: The dual frequency 2 × 7 pixel 650/850 GHz array receiver CHAMP+ mounted on APEX was used to obtain a fully sampled, large-scale ~4' × 4' map at 9″ resolution of the IRAS 4A/4B region in the 12CO J = 6-5 line. Smaller maps were observed in the 13CO 6-5 and [C i] J = 2-1 lines. In addition, a fully sampled 12CO J = 3-2 map made with HARP-B on the JCMT is presented and deep isotopolog observations are obtained at selected outflow positions to constrain the optical depth. Complementary Herschel-HIFI and ground-based lines of CO and its isotopologs, from J = 1-0 up to 10-9 (Eu/k ≈ 300 K), are collected at the source positions and used to construct velocity-resolved CO ladders and rotational diagrams. Radiative-transfer models of the dust and lines are used to determine the temperatures and masses of the outflowing and photon-heated gas and infer the CO abundance structure. Results: Broad CO emission-line profiles trace entrained shocked gas along the outflow walls, which have an average temperature of ~100 K. At other positions surrounding the outflow and the protostar, the 6-5 line profiles are narrow indicating UV excitation. The narrow 13CO 6-5 data directly reveal the UV heated gas distribution for the first time. The

  7. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Sudhagar; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Togore, Sam; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam3). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.

  8. Novel, cyclic heat dissipation method for the correction of natural temperature gradients in sap flow measurements. Part 2. Laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Acosta, J Leonardo; Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy; Lubczynski, Maciek W

    2012-07-01

    Sap flow measurements conducted with thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) are vulnerable to natural temperature gradient (NTG) bias. Few studies, however, attempted to explain the dynamics underlying the NTG formation and its influence on the sensors' signal. This study focused on understanding how the TDP signals are affected by negative and positive temperature influences from NTG and tested the novel cyclic heat dissipation (CHD) method to filter out the NTG bias. A series of three experiments were performed in which gravity-driven water flow was enforced on freshly cut stem segments of Fagus sylvatica L., while an artificial temperature gradient (ATG) was induced. The first experiment sought to confirm the incidence of the ATG on sensors. The second experiment established the mis-estimations caused by the biasing effect of the ATG on standard TDP measurements. The third experiment tested the accuracy of the CHD method to account for the ATG biasing effect, as compared with other cyclic correction methods. During experiments, sap flow measured by TDP was assessed against gravimetric measurements. The results show that negative and positive ATGs were comparable in pattern but substantially larger than field NTGs. Second, the ATG bias caused an overestimation of the standard TDP sap flux density of ∼17 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1) by 76%, and the sap flux density of ∼2 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1) by over 800%. Finally, the proposed CHD method successfully reduced the max. ATG bias to 25% at ∼11 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1) and to 40% at ∼1 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1). We concluded that: (i) the TDP method is susceptible to NTG especially at low flows; (ii) the CHD method successfully corrected the TDP signal and resulted in generally more accurate sap flux density estimates (mean absolute percentage error ranging between 11 and 21%) than standard constant power TDP method and other cyclic power methods; and (iii) the ATG enforcing system is a suitable way of re-creating NTG for future tests. PMID

  9. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part III: performance evaluation of place-based monitoring strategies.

    PubMed

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the USA. In this three part series, we present over 30 years of evidence to demonstrate unique patterns in water quality contaminants over space and time, develop alternative place-based monitoring approaches that exploit such patterns, and evaluate the economic performance of such approaches to current monitoring practice. Part III: Place-based (PBA) and current SDWA monitoring approaches were implemented on test datasets (1995-2001) from 19 water systems and evaluated based on the following criteria: percent of total detections, percent detections above threshold values (e.g. 20, 50, 90% of MCL), and cost. The PBA outperformed the current SDWA monitoring requirements in terms of total detections, missed only a small proportion of detections below the MCL, and captured all detections above 50% of the MCL. Essentially the same information obtained from current compliance monitoring requirements can be gained at approximately one-eighth the cost by implementing the PBA. Temporal sampling strategies were implemented on test datasets (1995-2001) from four water systems and evaluated by the following criteria: parameter estimation, percent deviation from "true" 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles, and number of samples versus accuracy of the estimate. Non event-based (NEB) strategies were superior in estimating percentiles 1-50, but underestimated the higher percentiles. Event-based strategies were

  10. Heat Transfer in Segregated Fluidized Beds Part 2: Particle Motion and Its Effects on the Heat transfer in the Segregated Fluidized Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yihua; Satoh, Isao; Saito, Takushi; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya

    In our previous paper, particle and temperature segregations in a fluidized bed of binary particle mixtures were experimentally examined, and heat transfer in the segregated fluidized bed was investigated. As the results, it was shown that the temperature segregation results mainly from low heat transfer coefficient through the interface layer, which exists between the flotsam-rich and jetsam-rich layers, and that the heat transfer coefficient increases rapidly with increasing the excess gas velocity. Following our previous paper, particle motion in the segregated fluidized bed was experimentally investigated in this paper, in order to make quantitative discussion on the relation between the heat transfer coefficient and particle motion in the interface layer. In the experiment, the Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) method was applied to study the concentration and motion of particles in the segregated fluidized bed. A modified solid circulation model was built up to model the particle motion in the segregated fluidized bed. The experiment results showed that the vertical particle exchange rate of the interface layer increases with the excess gas velocity, and that the vertical heat transfer coefficient through the interface layer is mainly determined by the average particle exchange rate in the interface layer. Variations of the apparent thermal conductivity at different height in the particle layers were also determined by the vertical variation of the particle exchange rate. It was shown that the heat transfer coefficient or the thermal conductivity in the interface layer is influenced by the densities and specific heat capacities of the particles.

  11. ACRIM III

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-12-30

    ACRIM III Data and Information Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance ... the ACRIMSAT spacecraft on December 20, 1999. ACRIM III data are reprocessed every 90 days to utilize instrument recalibration.   ... ACRIM III Instrument Team Page ACRIM II Data Sets SCAR-B Block:  SCAR-B Products ...

  12. Literature Search and Development of an Evaluation System in Early Childhood Education. III. Part C--Matching Objectives and Recommendations for Development of Measures. Part D--Titles I and III Program-Evaluation Survey Instruments: Scope and Design. Part E--Sampling Recommendations or Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Annie L.; And Others

    As part of the overall study of the development of behavioral objectives for preschool children, the three parts of this report discusses matching procedures, survey instruments, and sampling guidelines. Part C, Matching Objectives and Recommendations for Development of Measures, contains discussions of the following: A Matching of Existing…

  13. A consistent and conservative scheme for incompressible MHD flows at a low magnetic Reynolds number. Part III: On a staggered mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ming-Jiu; Li, Jun-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The consistent and conservative scheme developed on a rectangular collocated mesh [M.-J. Ni, R. Munipalli, N.B. Morley, P. Huang, M.A. Abdou, A current density conservative scheme for incompressible MHD flows at a low magnetic Reynolds number. Part I: on a rectangular collocated grid system, Journal of Computational Physics 227 (2007) 174-204] and on an arbitrary collocated mesh [M.-J. Ni, R. Munipalli, P. Huang, N.B. Morley, M.A. Abdou, A current density conservative scheme for incompressible MHD flows at a low magnetic Reynolds number. Part II: on an arbitrary collocated mesh, Journal of Computational Physics 227 (2007) 205-228] has been extended and specially designed for calculation of the Lorentz force on a staggered grid system (Part III) by solving the electrical potential equation for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) at a low magnetic Reynolds number. In a staggered mesh, pressure ( p) and electrical potential ( φ) are located in the cell center, while velocities and current fluxes are located on the cell faces of a main control volume. The scheme numerically meets the physical conservation laws, charge conservation law and momentum conservation law. Physically, the Lorentz force conserves the momentum when the magnetic field is constant or spatial coordinate independent. The calculation of current density fluxes on cell faces is conducted using a scheme consistent with the discretization for solution of the electrical potential Poisson equation, which can ensure the calculated current density conserves the charge. A divergence formula of the Lorentz force is used to calculate the Lorentz force at the cell center of a main control volume, which can numerically conserve the momentum at constant or spatial coordinate independent magnetic field. The calculated cell-center Lorentz forces are then interpolated to the cell faces, which are used to obtain the corresponding velocity fluxes by solving the momentum equations. The "conservative" is an important property of

  14. Transverse heat transfer coefficient in the dual channel ITER TF CICCs Part II. Analysis of transient temperature responses observed during a heat slug propagation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska, Monika; Herzog, Robert; Malinowski, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    A heat slug propagation experiment in the final design dual channel ITER TF CICC was performed in the SULTAN test facility at EPFL-CRPP in Villigen PSI. We analyzed the data resulting from this experiment to determine the equivalent transverse heat transfer coefficient hBC between the bundle and the central channel of this cable. In the data analysis we used methods based on the analytical solutions of a problem of transient heat transfer in a dual-channel cable, similar to Renard et al. (2006) and Bottura et al. (2006). The observed experimental and other limits related to these methods are identified and possible modifications proposed. One result from our analysis is that the hBC values obtained with different methods differ by up to a factor of 2. We have also observed that the uncertainties of hBC in both methods considered are much larger than those reported earlier.

  15. Effects of plumbing attachments on heat losses from solar domestic hot water storage tanks. Final report, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.; Wood, B.D.; Ji, L.J.

    1998-03-01

    The Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) has established a standardized methodology for determining the performance rating of the Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems it certifies under OG-300. Measured performance data for the solar collector component(s) of the system are used along with numerical models for the balance of the system to calculate the system`s thermal performance under a standard set of rating conditions. SRCC uses TRNSYS to model each of the components that comprise the system. The majority of the SRCC certified systems include a thermal storage tank with an auxiliary electrical heater. The most common being a conventional fifty gallon electric tank water heater. Presently, the thermal losses from these tanks are calculated using Q = U {center_dot} A {center_dot} {Delta}T. Unfortunately, this generalized formula does not adequately address temperature stratification both within the tank as well as in the ambient air surrounding the tank, non-uniform insulation jacket, thermal siphoning in the fluid lines attached to the tank, and plumbing fittings attached to the tank. This study is intended to address only that part of the problem that deals with the plumbing fittings attached to the tank. Heat losses from a storage tank and its plumbing fittings involve three different operating modes: charging, discharging and standby. In the charging mode, the tank receives energy from the solar collector. In the discharge mode, water flows from the storage tank through the distribution pipes to the faucets and cold city water enters the tank. In the standby mode, there is no forced water flow into or out of the tank. In this experimental study, only the standby mode was considered.

  16. Ten Year Operating Test Results and Post-Test Analysis of a 1/10 Segment Stirling Sodium Heat Pipe, Phase III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John, H; Minnerly, Kenneth, G; Dyson, Christopher, M.

    2012-01-01

    High-temperature heat pipes are being evaluated for use in energy conversion applications such as fuel cells, gas turbine re-combustors, Stirling cycle heat sources; and with the resurgence of space nuclear power both as reactor heat removal elements and as radiator elements. Long operating life and reliable performance are critical requirements for these applications. Accordingly, long-term materials compatibility is being evaluated through the use of high-temperature life test heat pipes. Thermacore, Inc., has carried out a sodium heat pipe 10-year life test to establish long-term operating reliability. Sodium heat pipes have demonstrated favorable materials compatibility and heat transport characteristics at high operating temperatures in air over long time periods. A representative one-tenth segment Stirling Space Power Converter heat pipe with an Inconel 718 envelope and a stainless steel screen wick has operated for over 87,000 hr (10 yr) at nearly 700 C. These life test results have demonstrated the potential for high-temperature heat pipes to serve as reliable energy conversion system components for power applications that require long operating lifetime with high reliability. Detailed design specifications, operating history, and post-test analysis of the heat pipe and sodium working fluid are described.

  17. A heat transfer study for beamline components in high-power wiggler and undulator beamlines. Part I. Beam stops

    SciTech Connect

    Bedzyk, M. J.; Keeffe, M. J.; Schildkamp, W.; Shen, Q.

    1989-07-01

    The heat transfer capabilities of beam stops in CHESS wiggler and undulator beamlines is described. The thermal analysis for the design of these crucial in-vacuum beamline components is based on the use of a finite element analysis computer calculation and experimental heat loading tests.

  18. Predictive modeling of infrared radiative heating in tomato dry-peeling process: Part II. Model validation and sensitivity analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A predictive mathematical model was developed to simulate heat transfer in a tomato undergoing double sided infrared (IR) heating in a dry-peeling process. The aims of this study were to validate the developed model using experimental data and to investigate different engineering parameters that mos...

  19. Conceptual design of a laser-fusion power plant. Part II. Two technical options: 1. JADE reactor; 2. Heat transfer by heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    A laser fusion reactor concept is described that employs liquid metal walls. The concept envisions a porous medium, called the JADE, of specific geometry lining the reactor cavity. Some advantages and disadvantages of the concept are pointed out. The possibility of using heat pipes for passive cooling in ICF reactors is discussed. Some of the problems are outlined. (MOW)

  20. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part II: Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Kaijian

    2007-10-15

    The predictive ability of the available state-of-the-art heat transfer correlations of refrigerant-oil mixture is evaluated with the present experiment data of small tubes with inside diameter of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm. Most of these correlations can be used to predict the heat transfer coefficient of 6.34 mm tube, but none of them can predict heat transfer coefficient of 2.50 mm tube satisfactorily. A new correlation of two-phase heat transfer multiplier with local properties of refrigerant-oil mixture is developed. This correlation approaches the actual physical mechanism of flow boiling heat transfer of refrigerant-oil mixture and can reflect the actual co-existing conditions of refrigerant and lubricant oil. More than 90% of the experiment data of both test tubes have less than {+-}20% deviation from the prediction values of the new correlations. (author)

  1. Further Characterization of a Type III Secretion System (T3SS) and of a New Effector Protein from a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas Hydrophila - Part I

    EPA Science Inventory

    A type III secretion system (T3SS)-associated cytotoxin, AexT, with ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and homology to Pseudomonas aeruginosa bifuncational toxins ExoT/S, was recently identified from a fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. In this study, we reported the molecular cha...

  2. Development of Simultaneous Corrosion Barrier and Optimized Microstructure in FeCrAl Heat-Resistant Alloy for Energy Applications. Part 1: The Protective Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, G.; Aranda, M. M.; Chao, J.; González-Carrasco, J. L.; Capdevila, C.

    2015-09-01

    Coarse-grained Fe-based oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels are a class of advanced materials for combined cycle gas turbine systems to deal with operating temperatures and pressures of around 1100°C and 15-30 bar in aggressive environments, which would increase biomass energy conversion efficiencies up to 45% and above. This two-part paper reports the possibility of the development of simultaneous corrosion barrier and optimized microstructure in a FeCrAl heat-resistant alloy for energy applications. The first part reports the mechanism of generating a dense, self-healing α-alumina layer by thermal oxidation, during a heat treatment that leads to a coarse-grained microstructure with a potential value for high-temperature creep resistance in a FeCrAl ODS ferritic alloy, which will be described in more detail in the second part.

  3. A study on an efficient prediction of welding deformation for T-joint laser welding of sandwich panel PART I : Proposal of a heat source model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae Woong; Jang, Beom Seon; Kim, Yong Tai; Chun, Kwang San

    2013-09-01

    The use of I-Core sandwich panel has increased in cruise ship deck structure since it can provide similar bending strength with conventional stiffened plate while keeping lighter weight and lower web height. However, due to its thin plate thickness, i.e. about 4~6 mm at most, it is assembled by high power CO2 laser welding to minimize the welding deformation. This research proposes a volumetric heat source model for T-joint of the I-Core sandwich panel and a method to use shell element model for a thermal elasto-plastic analysis to predict welding deformation. This paper, Part I, focuses on the heat source model. A circular cone type heat source model is newly suggested in heat transfer analysis to realize similar melting zone with that observed in experiment. An additional suggestion is made to consider negative defocus, which is commonly applied in T-joint laser welding since it can provide deeper penetration than zero defocus. The proposed heat source is also verified through 3D thermal elasto-plastic analysis to compare welding deformation with experimental results. A parametric study for different welding speeds, defocus values, and welding powers is performed to investigate the effect on the melting zone and welding deformation. In Part II, focuses on the proposed method to employ shell element model to predict welding deformation in thermal elasto-plastic analysis instead of solid element model.

  4. Transverse heat transfer coefficient in the dual channel ITER TF CICCs. Part I: Analysis of steady state temperature profiles resulting from annular heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska, Monika; Herzog, Robert

    2011-10-01

    Two ITER TF dual channel Cable-in-Conduit Conductors (CICCs) have been tested in the SULTAN test facility. The samples were heated either by foil heaters mounted on the outside of the conductor jacket or by induced AC losses. The steady-state temperature response of several thermometers installed on the jacket surface as well as inside the cable were analyzed using the two-channel analytical model proposed by Renard et al. to obtain the equivalent transverse heat transfer coefficient between the bundle and central channel as a function of the mass flow rate. In addition, on the basis of the measured pressure drop and helium flow velocities, the friction factors for helium flow in the bundle and in the central channel were determined. The obtained results may serve as a reference for these cables.

  5. Geology of quadrangles H-12, H-13, and parts of I-12 and I-13, (zone III) in northeastern Santander Department, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, Dwight Edward; Goldsmith, Richard; Cruz, Jaime B.; Restrepo, Hernan A.

    1974-01-01

    A program of geologic mapping and mineral investigation in Colombia was undertaken cooperatively by the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Geologico-Mineras (formerly known as the Inventario Minero Nacional), and the U. S. Geological Survey; by the Government of Colombia and the Agency for International Development, U. S. Department of State. The purpose was to study, and evaluate mineral resources (excluding of petroleum, coal, emeralds, and alluvial gold) of four selected areas, designated Zones I to IV, that total about 70,000 km2. The work in Zone III, in the Cordillera Oriental, was done from 1965 to 1968. The northeast trend of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia swings abruptly to north-northwest in the area of this report, and divides around the southern end of the Maracaibo Basin. This section of the Cordillera Oriental is referred to as the Santander Massif. Radiometric age determinations indicate that the oldest rocks of the Santander massif are Precambrian and include high-grade gneiss, schist, and migmatite of the Bucaramanga Formation. These rocks were probably part of the Precambrian Guayana Shield. Low- to medium-grade metamorphic rocks of late Precambrian to Ordovician age .include phyllite, schist, metasiltstone, metasandstone, and marble of the Silgara Formation, a geosynclinal series of considerable extent in the Cordillera Oriental and possibly the Cordillera de Merida of Venezuela. Orthogneiss ranging from granite to tonalite is widely distributed in the high- and medium-grade metamorphic rocks of the central core of the massif and probably represents rocks of two ages, Precambrian and Ordovician to Early Devonian. Younger orthogneiss and the Silgara are overlain by Middle Devonian beds of the Floresta Formation which show a generally low but varying degree of metamorphism. Phyllite and argillite are common, and infrequent marble and other calcareous beds are fossiliferous. Except for recrystallization in limestones of !the

  6. Columbia University Flow Instability Experimental Program, Volume 1. Single tube uniformly heated tests: Part 1, Technical discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to investigate flow instability in circular tubes under vertical down-flow conditions. The test section L/D ratio range was 86 to 270. The maximum test section surface heat flux was one million Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}. Over 1700 data points were obtained. The effect of flowrate, inlet temperature, exit pressure, and heat flux on the initiation of flow instability was determined. In addition, the data was used to evaluate various methods of predicting the onset of flow instability. Using the measured wall temperatures, surface temperatures and heat transfer coefficients have been obtained. Correlations for the heat transfer coefficient along the tube under both single and two phase conditions were developed.

  7. Heat Transfer and Flow on the First Stage Blade Tip of a Power Generation Gas Turbine. Part 2; Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, A. A.; Bunker, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational study has been performed to investigate the detailed distribution of convective heat transfer coefficients on the first stage blade tip surface for a geometry typical of large power generation turbines (>1OOMW). This paper is concerned with the numerical prediction of the tip surface heat transfer. Good comparison with the experimental measured distribution was achieved through accurate modeling of the most important features of the blade passage and heating arrangement as well as the details of experimental rig likely to affect the tip heat transfer. A sharp edge and a radiused edge tip were considered. The results using the radiused edge tip agreed better with the experimental data. This improved agreement was attributed to the absence of edge separation on the tip of the radiused edge blade.

  8. SAGE III

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-15

    SAGE III Data and Information The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas ... on the spacecraft. SAGE III produced L1 and L2 scientific data from 5/07/2002 until 12/31/2005. The flight of the second instrument is as ... Guide Documents:  Project Guide Data Products User's Guide  (PDF) Relevant Documents:  ...

  9. Experimental Determination of Heat Transfer Within the Metal/Mold Gap in a DC Casting Mold: Part II. Effect of Casting Metal, Mold Material, and Other Casting Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Arvind; Bainbridge, Ian F.

    2013-07-01

    Extensive experimental studies were conducted to quantify the effect of different parameters that can affect the heat transfer from the metal to the mold during the steady-state phase of DC casting. In the first part previously published, the experimental technique was established and results were reported for the effect of gas type (atmosphere within the mold) and the gap between the metal and the mold. The results showed the significant effect of gas thermal conductivity and the metal-mold gap on the mold wall heat transfer coefficient. In this second publication on heat transfer in the mold wall region of a DC casting mold, the results from the effect of casting temperature, gas flow rate, casting alloy, mold material, and the mold insert material on the mold wall heat transfer coefficient are described. The experiments reported in the current paper show that these additional factors tested do not affect the heat flux through the mold wall to the same extent as the gap size or the gas type. The heat transfer coefficient changes by less than 5 pct when casting temperature is changed by ±25 K, less than 15 pct when the gas flow rate within the metal-mold gap flows at up to 3 LPM, and approximately 30 pct when the mold material is changed from stainless steel to AA601 to copper. Similar results were obtained when different insert materials were used. These results are explained with the help of an electrical analogy of heat transfer and are consistent with the heat transfer theory.

  10. Heat Transfer in a Complex Trailing Edge Passage for a High Pressure Turbine Blade - Part 1: Experimental Measurements. Part 1; Experimental Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, Ronald S.; Wetzel, Todd G.; Rigby, David L.; Reddy, D. R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational study has been performed to investigate the detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions within a complex blade trailing edge passage. The experimental measurements are made using a steady liquid crystal thermography technique applied to one major side of the passage. The geometry of the trailing edge passage is that of a two-pass serpentine circuit with a sharp 180-degree turning region at the tip. The upflow channel is split by interrupted ribs into two major subchannels, one of which is turbulated. This channel has an average aspect ratio of roughly 14:1. The spanwise extent of the channel geometry includes both area convergence from root to tip, as well as taper towards the trailing edge apex. The average section Reynolds numbers tested in this upflow channel range from 55,000 to 98,000. The tip section contains a turning vane near the extreme comer. The downflow channel has an aspect ratio of about 5:1, and also includes convergence and taper. Turbulators of varying sizes are included in this channel also. Both detailed heat transfer and pressure distribution measurements are presented. The pressure measurements are incorporated into a flow network model illustrating the major loss contributors.

  11. Simulating the thermal operating conditions in the thermal wells of ground-source heat-pump heat supply systems. Part I: Porous moisture freezing processes in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, G. P.; Peskov, N. V.; Lichman, V. A.; Gornov, V. F.; Kolesova, M. V.

    2015-08-01

    The mathematical models laid down in the new blocks of the INSOLAR.GSHP.12 software system simulating unsteady operating conditions of ground-source heat-pump (GSHP) heat supply systems are presented. The new model blocks take into account the effect the freezing of porous moisture in soil has on the GSHP system performance efficiency. Illustration is given to the need of taking into account the porous moisture freezing/thawing processes in soil, and the results from investigations devoted to the opening possibilities of constructing adaptive GSHP systems with controlled intensity of heat transfer in the soil-thermal well system are presented. The development of software simulating the porous moisture phase state variation processes in soil was preceded by development of mathematical equations representing the thermal conditions of soil body involving porous moisture freezing/thawing processes. A description of these equations is also given in the article. In constructing the mathematical model, the notion "effective thermal conductivity" of soil was introduced for taking into account the latent heat of phase transition that releases during the freezing of moisture. The above-mentioned effective thermal conductivity of soil involves two components: the soil thermal conductivity coefficient itself and an additional term modifying the thermal conductivity value for taking into account the influence of phase transition. For quantitatively evaluating the soil effective thermal conductivity component that takes into account the influence of phase transition, the soil freezing zone radius around the thermal well was determined. The obtained analytic solutions have been implemented in the form of computer program blocks, after which a "numerical experiment" was carried out for estimating the effect the porous moisture freezing/thawing processes have on the soil thermal conditions. It was demonstrated during that experiment that the soil thermal conductivities determined

  12. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part I: Experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Kaijian

    2007-10-15

    Two-phase flow pattern and heat transfer characteristics of refrigerant-oil mixture flow boiling inside small tubes with inside diameters of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm are investigated experimentally. The test condition of nominal oil concentration is from 0% to 5%, mass flux from 200 to 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, heat flux from 3.2 to 14 kW m{sup -2}, evaporation temperature of 5 C, inlet quality from 0.1 to 0.8, and quality change from 0.1 to 0.2. Wavy, wavy-annular, annular and mist-annular flow pattern in 6.34 mm tube are observed, while only slug-annular and annular flow pattern are observed in 2.50 mm tube. Oil presence can make annular flow to form early and to retard to diminish in quality direction at nominal oil concentration {>=}3%. Augmentation effect of oil on heat transfer coefficient becomes weakened or even diminishes for small diameter tube while detrimental effect of oil on small tube performance becomes more significant than large tube. For both test tubes, variation of heat transfer coefficient and enhanced factor with oil concentration is irregular. Two-phase heat transfer multiplier with refrigerant-oil mixture properties increases consistently and monotonically with local oil concentration at different vapor quality. (author)

  13. Three dimensional numerical simulation of shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Part 1: Foundation and fluid mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Prithiviraj, M.; Andrews, M.J.

    1998-06-01

    A three-dimensional, colocated, fully implicit, control volume based calculation procedure, HEATX, has been used to simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in shell-and-tube heat exchangers. The three-dimensional numerical model uses the distributed resistance method along with volumetric porosities and surface permeabilities to model the tubes in the heat exchanger. Turbulence effects are modeled using a modified {kappa}-{var_epsilon} model with additional source terms for turbulence generation and dissipation by tubes. Shell and baffle walls are modeled using the wall function approach. Tubes and baffles are modeled using volumetric porosities and surface permeabilities. Baffle-shell and baffle-tube leakages are modeled using a Bernoulli type formulation. Specialized geometry generators compute baffle, nozzle, and tube region porosities and permeabilities. This article presents the foundation and fluid mechanics of the problem. A subsequent article will discuss modeling of shell-side and tube-side heat transfer. The three-dimensional numerical model is validated by comparison of computed pressure drops with the experiments conducted at Argonne National Labs in E shell type heat exchangers. The effect of baffle cut and baffle spacing on the pressure drop is studied. Good agreement is obtained between the computed results and the experiments.

  14. Development of corrosion resistant aluminum heat exchanger, Part 1: Development of new aluminum alloy sheets for sacrificial anode

    SciTech Connect

    Hagiwara, M.; Baba, Y.; Tanabe, Z.; Miura, T.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iijima, K.

    1986-01-01

    The sacrificial anodic effect of Al-Zn alloy reduced markedly in aluminium heat exchanger as car air conditioner manufactured by vacuum brazing conventionally used, as zinc elements preferentially evaporate in vacuum-heating. It was found that Al-Sn alloy had superior electrochemical characteristics than Al-Zn alloy (AA7072) as the sacrificial anodic material used in vacuum brazing. According to many experimental results, the new brazing sheet-fin with Al-Mn-Sn alloy core metal has been developed. This fin has favorable formability and prominent sacrificial anodic effect. Therefore, this fin is excellent material for car air conditioner manufactured by vacuum brazing.

  15. Optimal heating condition of mouthguard sheet in vacuum-pressure formation: part 2 Olefin-based thermoplastic elastomer.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mutsumi; Koide, Kaoru

    2016-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to clarify the suitable heating conditions during vacuum-pressure formation of olefin copolymer sheets and to examine the sheet temperature at molding and the thickness of the molded mouthguard. Mouthguards were fabricated using 4.0-mm-thick olefin copolymer sheets utilizing a vacuum-pressure forming device, and then, 10 s of vacuum forming and 2 min of compression molding were applied. Three heating conditions were investigated. They were, defined by the degree of sagging observed at the center of the softened sheet (10, 15, or 20 mm lower than the clamp (H-10, H-15, or H-20, respectively)). The working model was trimmed to the height of 20 mm at the maxillary central incisor and 15 mm at the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar. The temperature on both the directly heated and the non-heated surfaces of the mouthguard sheet was measured by the radiation thermometer for each condition. The thickness of mouthguard sheets after fabrication was determined for the incisal portion (incisal edge and labial surface) and molar portion (cusp and buccal surface), and dimensional measurements were obtained using a measuring device. Differences in the thickness due to the heating condition of the sheets were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests. The temperature difference between the heated and non-heated surfaces was highest under H-10. Sheet temperature under H-15 and H-20 was almost the same. The thickness differences were noted at incisal edge, cusp, and buccal surface, and H-15 was the greatest. This study demonstrated that heating of the sheet resulting in sag of 15 mm or more was necessary for sufficient softening of the sheet and that the mouthguard thickness decreased with increased sag. In conclusion, sag of 15 mm can be recommended as a good indicator of appropriate molding timing for this material. PMID:26341504

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Loop Heat Pipes with Multiple Capillary Pumps and Multiple Condensers. Part 1; Stead State Stimulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoang, Triem T.; OConnell, Tamara; Ku, Jentung

    2004-01-01

    Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) have proven themselves as reliable and robust heat transport devices for spacecraft thermal control systems. So far, the LHPs in earth-orbit satellites perform very well as expected. Conventional LHPs usually consist of a single capillary pump for heat acquisition and a single condenser for heat rejection. Multiple pump/multiple condenser LHPs have shown to function very well in ground testing. Nevertheless, the test results of a dual pump/condenser LHP also revealed that the dual LHP behaved in a complicated manner due to the interaction between the pumps and condensers. Thus it is redundant to say that more research is needed before they are ready for 0-g deployment. One research area that perhaps compels immediate attention is the analytical modeling of LHPs, particularly the transient phenomena. Modeling a single pump/single condenser LHP is difficult enough. Only a handful of computer codes are available for both steady state and transient simulations of conventional LHPs. No previous effort was made to develop an analytical model (or even a complete theory) to predict the operational behavior of the multiple pump/multiple condenser LHP systems. The current research project offered a basic theory of the multiple pump/multiple condenser LHP operation. From it, a computer code was developed to predict the LHP saturation temperature in accordance with the system operating and environmental conditions.

  17. Superfund TIO videos. Set A. Regulatory overview - CERCLA's relationship to other programs: RCRA, Title III, UST, CWA, SDWA. Part 1. Audio-Visual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The videotape is divided into five sections. Section 1 provides definitions and historical information on both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The four types of RCRA regulatory programs - Subtitles C, D, I, and J - are described. Treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) and recycling facilities are also discussed. Section 2 discusses the history behind the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (Title III). The four major provisions of Title III, which are emergency planning, emergency release notification, community right-to-know reporting, and the toxic chemical release inventory are covered. Section 3 outlines the UST program covering notification, record keeping, and the UST Trust Fund. Section 4 outlines the six major provisions of the Clean Water Act (CWA): water quality, pretreatment, prevention of oil and hazardous substance discharges, responses to oil and hazardous substance discharges, discharges of hazardous substances into the ocean, and dredge and fill. Section 5 explains the purpose, regulations, and standards of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Specific issues such as underground injection, sole source aquifers, and lead contamination are discussed.

  18. Heat and mass transfer scale-up issues during freeze-drying, III: control and characterization of dryer differences via operational qualification tests.

    PubMed

    Rambhatla, S; Tchessalov, S; Pikal, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate differences in heat and mass transfer between freeze dryers due to inherent design characteristics using data obtained from sublimation tests. This study also aimed to provide guidelines for convenient scale-up of the freeze-drying process. Data obtained from sublimation tests performed on laboratory-scale, pilot, and production freeze dryers were used to evaluate various heat and mass transfer parameters: nonuniformity in shelf surface temperatures, resistance of pipe, refrigeration system, and condenser. Emissivity measurements of relevant surfaces such as the chamber wall and the freeze dryer door were taken to evaluate the impact of atypical radiation heat transfer during scale-up. "Hot" and "cold" spots were identified on the shelf surface of different freeze dryers, and the impact of variation in shelf surface temperatures on the primary drying time and the product temperature during primary drying was studied. Calculations performed using emissivity measurements on different freeze dryers suggest that a front vial in the laboratory lyophilizer received 1.8 times more heat than a front vial in a manufacturing freeze dryer operating at a shelf temperature of -25 degrees C and a chamber pressure of 150 mTorr during primary drying. Therefore, front vials in the laboratory are much more atypical than front vials in manufacturing. Steady-state heat and mass transfer equations were used to study a combination of different scale-up issues pertinent during lyophilization cycles commonly used for the freeze-drying of pharmaceuticals. PMID:16796357

  19. Thermal performance of multilayer insulation; Part 1, Derivation of a prediction-based heat-flux equation

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Toshiyuki

    1994-09-01

    How to reduce the heat loss at cryogenic temperatures in superconducting magnets used for MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), magnetically levitated trains, nuclear fusion, etc., is an important subject. The topic is important in providing a superconducting magnet with high-performance thermal insulation. A prediction-based equation for heat flux through a multilayer insulator was derived from comparison of experimental results between room temperature and liquid-nitrogen temperature. The employed multilayer insulator was a laminated material with a polyester net inserted between aluminized Mylar films. The prediction equation consists of one thermal-radiation and two thermal-conduction terms. The first conduction term is that of ordinary thermal-contact conductance. The second conduction term depends on the self-compression of the multilayer insulation. The predicted values resulting from the obtained coincided fairly well with measured values.

  20. Non-local photo-polymerization kinetics including multiple termination mechanisms and dark reactions: Part III. Primary radical generation and inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, Michael R.; Liu Shui; Guo Jinxin; Sheridan, John T.

    2010-09-15

    Photopolymers are playing an ever more important role in diverse areas of research such as holographic data storage, hybrid photonic circuits, and solitary waves. In each of these applications, the production of primary radicals is the driving force of the polymerization processes. Therefore an understanding of the production, removal, and scavenging processes of free radicals in a photopolymer system is crucial in determining a material's response to a given exposure. One such scavenging process is inhibition. In this paper the non-local photo-polymerization driven diffusion model is extended to more accurately model the effects of (i) time varying primary radical production, (ii) the rate of removal of photosensitizer, and (iii) inhibition. The model is presented to specifically analyze the effects of inhibition, which occur most predominantly at the start of grating growth, and comparisons between theory and experiment are performed which quantify these effects.

  1. COYOTE II: A Finite Element Computer Program for nonlinear heat conduction problems. Part 2, User`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Gartling, D.K.; Hogan, R.E.

    1994-10-01

    User instructions are given for the finite element computer program, COYOTE II. COYOTE II is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems including the effects of enclosure radiation and chemical reaction. The theoretical background and numerical methods used in the program are documented in SAND94-1173. Examples of the use of the code are presented in SAND94-1180.

  2. Smooth- and enhanced-tube heat transfer and pressure drop : Part II. The role of transition to turbulent flow.

    SciTech Connect

    Obot, N. T.; Das, L.; Rabas, T. J.

    2000-11-14

    The objectives of this presentation are two-fold: first, to demonstrate the connection between the attainable coefficients and transition to turbulent flow by using the transition-based corresponding states method to generalize results obtained with smooth tubes and enhanced tubes, and second, to provide guidelines on the calculation of heat transfer coefficients from pressure-drop data and vice versa by using the transition concept or the functional law of corresponding states.

  3. Heat-induced gelation of globular proteins: part 3. Molecular studies on low pH beta-lactoglobulin gels.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, G M; Clark, A H; Ross-Murphy, S B

    2000-10-10

    Heat-set gels and aggregates from beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg), one of the major globular proteins from milk, have been studied on a molecular distance scale using negative-staining transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The microscopy showed long linear aggregates forming in solutions at pH 2 (and sometimes 2.5) after prolonged heating. While there appeared to be no differences in aggregates formed under these conditions in H(2)O as compared with D(2)O, at all other pH and pD values, and in the presence of added salt, much shorter linear aggregates were formed. These became slightly more extended the further the pH was removed from pI. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) showed a diffuse beta-sheet halo at 2θ=19 degrees in patterns for both dried native and aggregated protein (irrespective of pH) with only a small change (sharpening) of this feature on heat treatment. Solution FTIR spectra, measured at pD=2, 2.5, 3, and 7, during heating, indicated shoulder development at 1612 cm(-1) in the carbonyl-stretching Amide I region diagnostic of a modest increase in intermolecular beta-sheet. In terms of the shoulder size, no distinctions could be made between acid and neutral aggregate structures. At all pHs, beta-lactoglobulin showed only limited secondary and tertiary structural changes in aggregation, in contrast to previous studies of insulin aggregation, where highly ordered crystalline fibrils were indicated. The current work has implications both in structural studies of food biopolymers and in ongoing studies of pathological protein self-assembly in disease states, such as spongiform encephalopathies. PMID:11033176

  4. Modeling Improvements for Air Source Heat Pumps using Different Expansion Devices at Varied Charge Levels Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes steady-state performance simulations performed on a 3-ton R-22 split heat pump in heating mode. In total, 150 steady-state points were simulated, which covers refrigerant charge levels from 70 % to 130% relative to the nominal value, the outdoor temperatures at 17 F (-8.3 C), 35 F (1.7 C) and 47 F (8.3 C), indoor air flow rates from 60% to 150% of the rated air flow rate, and two types of expansion devices (fixed orifice and thermostatic expansion valve). A charge tuning method, which is to calibrate the charge inventory model based on measurements at two operation conditions, was applied and shown to improve the system simulation accuracy significantly in an extensive range of charge levels. In addition, we discuss the effects of suction line accumulator in modeling a heat pump system using either a fixed orifice or thermal expansion valve. Last, we identify the issue of refrigerant mass flow mal-distribution at low charge levels and propose an improved modeling approach.

  5. Semi-analytical solutions for nonisothermal fluid injection including heat loss from the reservoir: Part 1. Saturation and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaForce, T.; Ennis-King, J.; Paterson, L.

    2014-11-01

    This work introduces the derivation and solution of the conservation laws for nonisothermal immiscible two-phase flow in one dimension (1D) with heat loss to surrounding strata. Purely advective flow is assumed so that the method of characteristics can be applied to the fluid flow and thermal equations with an arbitrary relative permeability model. The formulation allows for a wide class of time-dependent models for heat loss into surrounding strata. One-dimensional linear and radial displacements are considered. Thermal losses to the under- and over-burden are modelled using a heat-loss coefficient derived from the classic Lauwerier model. In order to demonstrate the two kinds of solution that may occur, examples are shown for cold methane injection into an aquifer and cold water injection into a natural gas reservoir. Finally the new analytical solutions are compared with two literature models which assume piston-like displacement, and numerical reservoir simulations. The solutions from the proposed model match the thermal profile from the reservoir simulation much better than either of the literature models in the examples considered.

  6. Critical Heat Flux Phenomena at HighPressure & Low Mass Fluxes: NEUP Final Report Part I: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, Michael; Wu, Qiao

    2015-04-30

    This report is a preliminary document presenting an overview of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) phenomenon, the High Pressure Critical Heat Flux facility (HPCHF), preliminary CHF data acquired, and the future direction of the research. The HPCHF facility has been designed and built to study CHF at high pressure and low mass flux ranges in a rod bundle prototypical of conceptual Small Modular Reactor (SMR) designs. The rod bundle is comprised of four electrically heated rods in a 2x2 square rod bundle with a prototypic chopped-cosine axial power profile and equipped with thermocouples at various axial and circumferential positions embedded in each rod for CHF detection. Experimental test parameters for CHF detection range from pressures of ~80 – 160 bar, mass fluxes of ~400 – 1500 kg/m2s, and inlet water subcooling from ~30 – 70°C. The preliminary data base established will be further extended in the future along with comparisons to existing CHF correlations, models, etc. whose application ranges may be applicable to the conditions of SMRs.

  7. Heat Transfer and Flow on the First Stage Blade Tip of a Power Generation Gas Turbine. Part 1; Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, Ronald S.; Bailey, Jeremy C.; Ameri, Ali A.

    1999-01-01

    A combined computational and experimental study has been performed to investigate the detailed distribution of convective heat transfer coefficients on the first stage blade tip surface for a geometry typical of large power generation turbines(>100MW). This paper is concerned with the design and execution of the experimental portion of the study. A stationary blade cascade experiment has been run consisting of three airfoils, the center airfoil having a variable tip gap clearance. The airfoil models the aerodynamic tip section of a high pressure turbine blade with inlet Mach number of 0.30, exit Mach number of 0.75, pressure ratio of 1.45, exit Reynolds number based on axial chord of 2.57 x 10(exp 6), and total turning of about 110 degrees. A hue detection based liquid crystal method is used to obtain the detailed heat transfer coefficient distribution on the blade tip surface for flat, smooth tip surfaces with both sharp and rounded edges. The cascade inlet turbulence intensity level took on values of either 5% or 9%. The cascade also models the casing recess in the shroud surface ahead of the blade. Experimental results are shown for the pressure distribution measurements on the airfoil near the tip gap, on the blade tip surface, and on the opposite shroud surface. Tip surface heat transfer coefficient distributions are shown for sharp-edge and rounded-edge tip geometries at each of the inlet turbulence intensity levels.

  8. Heat Transfer in a Complex Trailing Edge Passage for a High Pressure Turbine Blade. Part 2:; Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, David L.; Bunker, Ronald S.

    2002-01-01

    A combined experimental and numerical study to investigate the heat transfer distribution in a complex blade trailing edge passage was conducted. The geometry consists of a two pass serpentine passage with taper toward the trailing edge, as well as from hub to tip. The upflow channel has an average aspect ratio of roughly 14:1, while the exit passage aspect ratio is about 5:1. The upflow channel is split in an interrupted way and is smooth on the trailing edge side of the split and turbulated on the other side. A turning vane is placed near the tip of the upflow channel. Reynolds numbers in the range of 31,000 to 61,000, based on inlet conditions, were simulated numerically. The simulation was performed using the Glenn-HT code, a full three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver using the Wilcox k-omega turbulence model. A structured multi-block grid is used with approximately 4.5 million cells and average y+ values on the order of unity. Pressure and heat transfer distributions are presented with comparison to the experimental data. While there are some regions with discrepancies, in general the agreement is very good for both pressure and heat transfer.

  9. Development of a single-family absorption chiller for use in a solar heating and cooling system. Phase III, final report. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1984-10-01

    The appendices provide supporting information on: properties of a chemical system for solar fired, air-cooled absorption equipment, air-side performance of a one-inch tube, absorber plate-fin coil, listings of the programs used for simulation and data reduction, and evaluation of the Carrier 3-ton chiller in an integrated heating and cooling system. (LEW)

  10. Spectral Retrieval of Latent Heating Profiles from TRMM PR data. Part 3; Moistening Estimates over Tropical Ocean Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shige, S.; Takayabu, Y.; Tao, W.-K.

    2007-01-01

    The global hydrological cycle is central to the Earth's climate system, with rainfall and the physics of precipitation formation acting as the key links in the cycle. Two-thirds of global rainfall occurs in the tropics with the associated latent heating (LH) accounting for threefourths of the total heat energy available to the Earth's atmosphere. In the last decade, it has been established that standard products of LH from satellite measurements, particularly TRMM measurements, would be a valuable resource for scientific research and applications. Such products would enable new insights and investigations concerning the complexities of convection system life cycles, the diabatic heating controls and feedbacks related to rne-sosynoptic circulations and their forecasting, the relationship of tropical patterns of LH to the global circulation and climate, and strategies for improving cloud parameterizations In environmental prediction models. However, the LH and water vapor profile or budget (called the apparent moisture sink, or Q2) is closely related. This paper presented the development of an algorithm for retrieving Q2 using 'TRMM precipitation radar. Since there is no direct measurement of LH and Q2, the validation of algorithm usually applies a method called consistency check. Consistency checking involving Cloud Resolving Model (CRM)-generated LH and 42 profiles and algorithm-reconstructed is a useful step in evaluating the performance of a given algorithm. In this process, the CRM simulation of a time-dependent precipitation process (multiple-day time series) is used to obtain the required input parameters for a given algorithm. The algorithm is then used to "econsti-LKth"e heating and moisture profiles that the CRM simulation originally produced, and finally both sets of conformal estimates (model and algorithm) are compared each other. The results indicate that discrepancies between the reconstructed and CM-simulated profiles for Q2, especially at low levels

  11. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part I of II, datum design conditions and approach.

    SciTech Connect

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01

    Energy network optimization (ENO) models identify new strategies for designing, installing, and controlling stationary combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) with the goals of (1) minimizing electricity and heating costs for building owners and (2) reducing emissions of the primary greenhouse gas (GHG) - carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). A goal of this work is to employ relatively inexpensive simulation studies to discover more financially and environmentally effective approaches for installing CHP FCSs. ENO models quantify the impact of different choices made by power generation operators, FCS manufacturers, building owners, and governments with respect to two primary goals - energy cost savings for building owners and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. These types of models are crucial for identifying cost and CO{sub 2} optima for particular installations. Optimal strategies change with varying economic and environmental conditions, FCS performance, the characteristics of building demand for electricity and heat, and many other factors. ENO models evaluate both 'business-as-usual' and novel FCS operating strategies. For the scenarios examined here, relative to a base case of no FCSs installed, model results indicate that novel strategies could reduce building energy costs by 25% and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80%. Part I of II articles discusses model assumptions and methodology. Part II of II articles illustrates model results for a university campus town and generalizes these results for diverse communities.

  12. Electrically induced shape oscillation of drops as a means of direct-contact heat transfer enhancement: Part 1 - Drop dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kaji, N. ); Mori, Y.H. ); Tochitani, Y. )

    1988-08-01

    The shape oscillation of liquid drops passing through an immiscible liquid medium subject to a low-frequency (1 {approximately} 16 Hz) alternating electric field having a sinusoidal waveform has been studied experimentally with the intention of investigating the enhancement of the direct-contact heat exahange between the two liquids. The authors have found that the field can induce, depending on its frequency, not only the resonant oscillation of the second mode of the drops, but also another peculiar oscillation that is related to the resonant oscillation of the third mode superposed on the second-mode oscillation.

  13. Heat-Transfer Coupling For Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesmith, Bill J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed welded heat-transfer coupling joins set of heat pipes to thermoelectric converter. Design avoids difficult brazing operation. Includes pair of mating flanged cups. Upper cup integral part of housing of thermoelectric converter, while lower cup integral part of plate supporting filled heat pipes. Heat pipes prefilled. Heat of welding applied around periphery of coupling, far enough from heat pipes so it would not degrade working fluid or create excessive vapor pressure in the pipes.

  14. Fort Gordon energy survey and analysis of boiler and chiller plants, Building 25910, Building 25330 and heating loads. Volume III. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-03

    The Trace 600 program was used to generate the heating requirements for each of the building types surveyed during the field study. The data produced from the program was based on several conditions that will be explained here. The weather data for the simulation was based on standard weather tables in the Trace Program for the Augusta area. The design outside dry bulb temperature was 230F, and internal loads such as people, lights, and miscellaneous equipment were not considered. Ventilation and infiltration were considered. Ventilation was defined as 15 cfin/person, infiltration for heating purposes was defined as 0.1 cfm/sf. The report produced heating requirements for the building hourly for five day type conditions. Design, Weekday, Saturday, Sunday, and Monday. The only one column from each building type was selected for the analysis and reporting process. This day type was usually the weekday column. The worst case condition was selected as a conservative approach to providing requirements that may tend toward the high side. Particular attention was paid to the values to assure that the data produced a smooth curve with few spikes and valleys. The information for all twelve months was transferred to Table 3C or 4C for further data reduction. Appendix I contains the Trace output heat load data for Building 25910, North Central Utility Plan Appendix II contains the Trace output data for the South Central Plant Building 25330. The data was used to accumulate the hourly load requirements on each of the two central utility plants.

  15. Multi-Evaporator Miniature Loop Heat Pipe for Small Spacecraft Thermal Control. Part 1; New Technologies and Validation Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Douglas, Donya; Hoang, Triem

    2010-01-01

    Under NASA s New Millennium Program Space Technology 8 (ST 8) Project, four experiments Thermal Loop, Dependable Microprocessor, SAILMAST, and UltraFlex - were conducted to advance the maturity of individual technologies from proof of concept to prototype demonstration in a relevant environment , i.e. from a technology readiness level (TRL) of 3 to a level of 6. This paper presents the new technologies and validation approach of the Thermal Loop experiment. The Thermal Loop is an advanced thermal control system consisting of a miniature loop heat pipe (MLHP) with multiple evaporators and multiple condensers designed for future small system applications requiring low mass, low power, and compactness. The MLHP retains all features of state-of-the-art loop heat pipes (LHPs) and offers additional advantages to enhance the functionality, performance, versatility, and reliability of the system. Details of the thermal loop concept, technical advances, benefits, objectives, level 1 requirements, and performance characteristics are described. Also included in the paper are descriptions of the test articles and mathematical modeling used for the technology validation. An MLHP breadboard was built and tested in the laboratory and thermal vacuum environments for TRL 4 and TRL 5 validations, and an MLHP proto-flight unit was built and tested in a thermal vacuum chamber for the TRL 6 validation. In addition, an analytical model was developed to simulate the steady state and transient behaviors of the MLHP during various validation tests. Capabilities and limitations of the analytical model are also addressed.

  16. A process model for the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steel weldments: Part I. the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmer, H.; Grong, Ø.

    1999-11-01

    The present investigation is concerned with modeling of the microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steels under thermal conditions applicable to welding. The important reactions that have been modeled are the dissolution of austenite during heating, subsequent grain growth in the delta ferrite regime, and finally, the decomposition of the delta ferrite to austenite during cooling. As a starting point, a differential formulation of the underlying diffusion problem is presented, based on the internal-state variable approach. These solutions are later manipulated and expressed in terms of the Scheil integral in the cases where the evolution equation is separable or can be made separable by a simple change of variables. The models have then been applied to describe the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution during both thick-plate and thin-plate welding of three commercial duplex stainless steel grades: 2205, 2304, and 2507. The results may conveniently be presented in the form of novel process diagrams, which display contours of constant delta ferrite grain size along with information about dissolution and reprecipitation of austenite for different combinations of weld input energy and peak temperature. These diagrams are well suited for quantitative readings and illustrate, in a condensed manner, the competition between the different variables that lead to structural changes during welding of duplex stainless steels.

  17. A process model for the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steel weldments: Part I. The model

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmer, H.; Grong, O.

    1999-11-01

    The present investigation is concerned with modeling of the microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steels under thermal conditions applicable to welding. The important reactions that have been modeled are the dissolution of austenite during heating, subsequent grain growth in the delta ferrite regime, and finally, the decomposition of the delta ferrite to austenite during cooling. As a starting point, a differential formulation of the underlying diffusion problem is presented, based on the internal-state variable approach. These solutions are later manipulated and expressed in terms of the Scheil integral in the cases where the evolution equation is separable or can be made separable by a simple change of variables. The models have then been applied to describe the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution during both thick-plate and thin-plate welding of three commercial duplex stainless steel grades: 2205, 2304, and 2507. The results may conveniently be presented in the form of novel process diagrams, which display contours of constant delta ferrite grain size along with information about dissolution and reprecipitation of austenite for different combinations of weld input energy and peak temperature. These diagrams are well suited for quantitative readings and illustrate, in a condensed manner, the competition between the different variables that lead to structural changes during welding of duplex stainless steels.

  18. Nonlinear evolution of the first mode supersonic oblique waves in compressible boundary layers. Part 1: Heated/cooled walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gajjar, J. S. B.

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear stability of an oblique mode propagating in a two-dimensional compressible boundary layer is considered under the long wave-length approximation. The growth rate of the wave is assumed to be small so that the concept of unsteady nonlinear critical layers can be used. It is shown that the spatial/temporal evolution of the mode is governed by a pair of coupled unsteady nonlinear equations for the disturbance vorticity and density. Expressions for the linear growth rate show clearly the effects of wall heating and cooling and in particular how heating destabilizes the boundary layer for these long wavelength inviscid modes at O(1) Mach numbers. A generalized expression for the linear growth rate is obtained and is shown to compare very well for a range of frequencies and wave-angles at moderate Mach numbers with full numerical solutions of the linear stability problem. The numerical solution of the nonlinear unsteady critical layer problem using a novel method based on Fourier decomposition and Chebychev collocation is discussed and some results are presented.

  19. Adamantyl-group containing mixed-mode acrylamide-based continuous beds for capillary electrochromatography. Part III. Optimization of the chromatographic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Al-Massaedh, Ayat Allah; Pyell, Ute

    2014-01-17

    In a previous article we described the synthesis of amphiphilic monolithic stationary phases by in situ free radical copolymerization of cyclodextrin-solubilized N-adamantyl acrylamide, piperazinediacrylamide, methacrylamide and vinylsulfonic acid in aqueous medium in pre-treated fused silica capillaries of 100μ.m I.D. In this work, a series of N-adamantyl-group containing acrylamide-based continuous beds is synthesized under variation of different synthesis parameters. The studied synthesis parameters are (i) concentration of the lyotropic salt ammonium sulfate, (ii) concentration of the initiator ammonium persulfate, and (iii) concentration of the negatively charged monomer vinylsulfonic acid in the polymerization mixture. The influence of the synthesis parameters on the chromatographic efficiency is studied under isocratic conditions for a homologues series of alkylphenones in the reversed-phase mode at constant composition of the mobile phase via capillary electrochromatography with varied electric field strength. With varied concentration of the lyotropic salt ammonium sulfate or varied concentration of the initiator ammonium persulfate in the polymerization mixture, a strong impact on the chromatographic efficiency is observed, while there is only a minor influence when varying the molar fraction of the charged monomer VSA. The absence of a significant influence of extra-column band broadening effects on the determined efficiency is confirmed. There is a good repeatability (with respect to capillary-to-capillary variation and run-to-run variation) reached for the theoretical plate heights obtained for DMF and selected alkylphenones in the reversed-phase mode. PMID:24296296

  20. Job-Linked Literacy: Innovative Strategies at Work. Part III. Moving Ahead: Basic Skills for Career Advancement. A Work in America Policy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosow, Jerome M.; Zager, Robert

    This volume, Interim Report No. 3 in a 3-year study, considers literacy programs designed to qualify employees for promotions or professional advancement. It adopts a multidimensional definition of moving ahead, one that extends to monetary rewards, career development, and employment security. The volume is divided into two parts: report and case…

  1. Final Report for Dynamic Models for Causal Analysis of Panel Data. Approaches to the Censoring Problem in Analysis of Event Histories. Part III, Chapter 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuma, Nancy Brandon; Hannan, Michael T.

    The document, part of a series of chapters described in SO 011 759, considers the problem of censoring in the analysis of event-histories (data on dated events, including dates of change from one qualitative state to another). Censoring refers to the lack of information on events that occur before or after the period for which data are available.…

  2. Fringe Benefits for Teachers, 1975-76. Part III of National Survey of Fringe Benefits for Professional Personnel in Public Schools, 1975-76. ERS Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieber, Gertrude N.

    The major part of this report consists of a system-by-system listing of information on the 1,052 responding systems. Information is given on the benefits the districts provide to teachers in a number of areas--the number of days of vacation and sick leave, the maximum accumulation granted for each type of leave, the number of emergency or personal…

  3. Final Report for Dynamic Models for Causal Analysis of Panel Data. Alternative Estimation Procedures for Event-History Analysis: A Monte Carlo Study. Part III, Chapter 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Glenn R.; And Others

    This document is part of a series of chapters described in SO 011 759. The chapter examines the merits of four estimators in the causal analysis of event-histories (data giving the number, timing, and sequence of changes in a categorical dependent variable). The four procedures are ordinary least squares, Kaplan-Meier least squares, maximum…

  4. Welding III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding III, an advanced course in arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with the proficiency necessary for industrial certification. The course objectives, which are outlined first, specify that students will…

  5. LANDVIEW III

    EPA Science Inventory

    LandView III is a desktop mapping system that includes database extracts from the Environmental Protection Agency, the Bureau of the Census, The U.S. Geological Survey, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Transportation, and the Federal Emergency Management Agenc...

  6. Characteristics of heat and cold waves in Ukraine and North-Western part of Russia and its long-term variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evstigneev, Vladyslav; Naumova, Valentina; Evstigneev, Maxim; Lemeshko, Natalya

    2014-05-01

    Extreme events have a strong impact on economic and ecological systems, causing dramatic effects on agriculture, health and other socio-economic activities. Predicting these impacts is of great importance, and that is why climate studies over the last decades have focused on weather and climate change extremes both in the future and in the past. Heat and cold waves are weather extremes which are forced by synoptic-scale processes and can be amplified by positive regional feedbacks (e.g., soil-atmosphere feedback for heat waves). At the same time, tendencies in the heat/cold wave frequency and auxiliary characteristics are the result of the global processes in the climate system. The goal of the present study is to investigate long-term variability of characteristics of heat/cold waves on the territory of Ukraine and North-Western part of Russia using the routine meteorological observations for the period of 1936-2012. Method of extraction of heat and cold waves is crucial issue, which is addressed in this study. In order to reach the goal the following tasks have been solved: 1. Development of the new objective method to extract heat/cold wave events and to describe its main characteristics such as initial period of the wave formation, intensity and duration. The method is based on the recently developed concept of modulated annual cycle (MAC) and application of adaptive and temporally local time series analysis approach, i.e. empirical mode decomposition (EMD). 2. Analysis of statistical distributions of each type of the extracted characteristics and their joint probabilities with special treatment of extremes. 3. Analysis of its relationship to large-scale atmospheric circulation regimes using simulated annealing clustering of NCEP-NCAR reanalysis patterns of 500 hPa geopotential height. The analysis was accomplished for the period of 1948-2012. 4. Analysis of intrinsic modes of long-term variability of heat/cold wave events frequency, its seasonal-averaged and

  7. A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for GCMs. Part III: The greening of the Colorado State University general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, D.A.; Dazlich, D.A.; Zhang, C.; Denning, A.S.

    1996-04-01

    SiB2, the second-generation land-surface parameterization developed by Sellers et al., has been incorporated into the Colorado State University general circulation model and tested in multidecade simulations. The control run uses a {open_quotes}bucket{close_quotes} hydrology but employs the same surface albedo and surface roughness distributions as the SiB2 run. Results show that SiB2 leads to a general warming of the continents, as evidenced in the ground temperature, surface air temperature, and boundary-layer-mean potential temperature. The surface sensible heat flux increases and the latent heat flux decreases. This warming occurs virtually everywhere but is most spectacular over Siberia in winter. Precipitation generally decreases over land but increases in the monsoon regions, especially the Amazon basin in January and equatorial Africa and Southeast Asia in July. Evaporation decreases considerably, especially in dry regions such as the Sahara. The excess of precipitation over evaporation increases in the monsoon regions. The precipitable water (vertically integrated water vapor content) generally decreases over land but increases in the monsoon regions. The mixing ratio of the boundary-layer air decreases over nearly all continental areas, however, including the monsoon regions. The net surface longwave cooling of the surface increases quite dramatically over land, in accordance with the increased surface temperatures and decreased cloudiness. The solar radiation absorbed at the ground also increases. SiB2 has modest effects on the simulated general circulation of the atmosphere. Its most important impacts on the model are to improve the simulations of surface temperature and snow cover and to enable the simulation of the net rate of terrestrial carbon assimilation. 39 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 2. Biomarkers of exposure.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Michael W; Marano, Kristin M; Jones, Bobbette A; Morgan, Walter T; Stiles, Mitchell F

    2015-01-01

    A randomized, multi-center study of adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) was conducted, and subjects' experience with the products was followed for 24 weeks. Differences in biomarkers of tobacco exposure between smokers and never smokers at baseline and among groups relative to each other and over time were assessed. Results indicated reduced exposure to many potentially harmful constituents found in cigarette smoke following product switching. Findings support differences in exposure from the use of various tobacco products and are relevant to the understanding of a risk continuum among tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26554277

  9. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 3. Biomarkers of biological effect.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Michael W; Marano, Kristin M; Jones, Bobbette A; Morgan, Walter T; Stiles, Mitchell F

    2015-01-01

    A randomized, multi-center study of adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) for 24 weeks was conducted. Evaluation of biomarkers of biological effect (e.g. inflammation, lipids, hypercoaguable state) indicated that the majority of consistent and statistically significant improvements over time within each group were observed in markers of inflammation. Consistent and statistically significant differences in pairwise comparisons between product groups were not observed. These findings are relevant to the understanding of biomarkers of biological effect related to cigarette smoking as well as the risk continuum across various tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26525962

  10. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 1. Study design and methodology.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Michael W; Marano, Kristin M; Jones, Bobbette A; Stiles, Mitchell F

    2015-01-01

    A randomized, multi-center study was conducted to assess potential improvement in health status measures, as well as changes in biomarkers of tobacco exposure and biomarkers of biological effect, in current adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) evaluated over 24 weeks. Study design, conduct and methodology are presented here along with subjects' disposition, characteristics, compliance and safety results. This design and methodology, evaluating generally healthy adult smokers over a relatively short duration, proved feasible. Findings from this randomized study provide generalized knowledge of the risk continuum among various tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26525849

  11. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 2. Biomarkers of exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Michael W.; Marano, Kristin M.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Morgan, Walter T.; Stiles, Mitchell F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A randomized, multi-center study of adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) was conducted, and subjects’ experience with the products was followed for 24 weeks. Differences in biomarkers of tobacco exposure between smokers and never smokers at baseline and among groups relative to each other and over time were assessed. Results indicated reduced exposure to many potentially harmful constituents found in cigarette smoke following product switching. Findings support differences in exposure from the use of various tobacco products and are relevant to the understanding of a risk continuum among tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26554277

  12. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 3. Biomarkers of biological effect

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Michael W.; Marano, Kristin M.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Morgan, Walter T.; Stiles, Mitchell F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A randomized, multi-center study of adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) for 24 weeks was conducted. Evaluation of biomarkers of biological effect (e.g. inflammation, lipids, hypercoaguable state) indicated that the majority of consistent and statistically significant improvements over time within each group were observed in markers of inflammation. Consistent and statistically significant differences in pairwise comparisons between product groups were not observed. These findings are relevant to the understanding of biomarkers of biological effect related to cigarette smoking as well as the risk continuum across various tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26525962

  13. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 1. Study design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Michael W.; Marano, Kristin M.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Stiles, Mitchell F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A randomized, multi-center study was conducted to assess potential improvement in health status measures, as well as changes in biomarkers of tobacco exposure and biomarkers of biological effect, in current adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) evaluated over 24 weeks. Study design, conduct and methodology are presented here along with subjects’ disposition, characteristics, compliance and safety results. This design and methodology, evaluating generally healthy adult smokers over a relatively short duration, proved feasible. Findings from this randomized study provide generalized knowledge of the risk continuum among various tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26525849

  14. Comparative study of eddy current and Barkhausen noise methods in microstructural assessment of heat treated steel parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahebalam, Alireza; Kashefi, Mehrdad; Kahrobaee, Saeed

    2014-07-01

    The present paper describes details of the comparison on the capability of eddy current (EC) and magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) techniques in the assessment of different microstructures in mild steel. To produce various microstructures, AISI 1045 steel samples were subjected to different heat treatment processes including annealing, normalising, quenching and tempering. EC outputs (induced voltage, normalised impedance and phase angle) as well as MBN outputs (peak width, position and amplitude) were evaluated. Comparing the EC/MBN outputs for the microstructures, the MBN peak characteristics show better agreement with changes in the microstructures. Besides, using regression analysis, peak width has been proved to be the optimum output to separate the microstructures with high accuracy.

  15. Deformation and heat treatment of NiAl-Y2O3-based powder alloys: II. fabrication of parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skachkov, O. A.; Povarova, K. B.; Drozdov, A. A.; Morozov, A. E.; Pozharov, S. V.; Samsonova, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    Hydrostatic pressing of mechanically activated calcium hydride reduction (CHR) powders of plain intermetallic compound NiAl is used to fabricate parts of a complex shape that have a density and strength that allow the application of mechanical processing. The sections of a nozzle blade from an aviation gas turbine engine are produced from mechanically activated CHR mixtures of NiAl-2.5% Y2O3 powders by isothermal forging.

  16. Development of a two-dimensional zonally averaged statistical-dynamical model. III - The parameterization of the eddy fluxes of heat and moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Peter H.; Yao, Mao-Sung

    1990-01-01

    A number of perpetual January simulations are carried out with a two-dimensional zonally averaged model employing various parameterizations of the eddy fluxes of heat (potential temperature) and moisture. The parameterizations are evaluated by comparing these results with the eddy fluxes calculated in a parallel simulation using a three-dimensional general circulation model with zonally symmetric forcing. The three-dimensional model's performance in turn is evaluated by comparing its results using realistic (nonsymmetric) boundary conditions with observations. Branscome's parameterization of the meridional eddy flux of heat and Leovy's parameterization of the meridional eddy flux of moisture simulate the seasonal and latitudinal variations of these fluxes reasonably well, while somewhat underestimating their magnitudes. New parameterizations of the vertical eddy fluxes are developed that take into account the enhancement of the eddy mixing slope in a growing baroclinic wave due to condensation, and also the effect of eddy fluctuations in relative humidity. The new parameterizations, when tested in the two-dimensional model, simulate the seasonal, latitudinal, and vertical variations of the vertical eddy fluxes quite well, when compared with the three-dimensional model, and only underestimate the magnitude of the fluxes by 10 to 20 percent.

  17. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part III. Geologic and hydrologic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Brady, B.T.

    1985-12-31

    This report describes the first phase in evaluating the geology and hydrology of the Basin and Range Province for potential suitability of geohydrologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. The geologic and hydrologic factors considered in the Province evaluation include distribution of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions and data on ground-water hydrology. Potential host media considered include argillaceous rocks, tuff, basaltic rocks, granitic rocks, evaporites, and the unsaturated zone. The tectonic factors considered are Quaternary faults, late Cenozoic volcanics, seismic activity, heat flow, and late Cenozoic rates of vertical uplift. Hydrologic conditions considered include length of flow path from potential host rocks to discharge areas, interbasin and geothermal flow systems and thick unsaturated sections as potential host media. The Basin and Range Province was divided into 12 subprovinces; each subprovince is evaluated separately and prospective areas for further study are identified. About one-half of the Province appears to have combinations of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions, and ground-water hydrology that merit consideration for further study. The prospective areas for further study in each subprovince are summarized in a brief list of the potentially favorable factors and the issues of concern. Data compiled for the entire Province do not permit a complete evaluation of the favorability for high-level waste isolation. The evaluations here are intended to identify broad regions that contain potential geohydrologic environments containing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  18. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part III. Geologic and hydrolic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Brady, B.T.

    1983-12-31

    The geologic and hydrologic factors considered in the Province evaluation include distribution of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions and data on ground-water hydrology. Potential host media considered include argillaceous rocks, tuff, basaltic rocks, granitic rocks, evaporites, and the unsaturated zone. The tectonic factors considered are Quaternary faults, late Cenozoic volcanics, seismic activity, heat flow, and late Cenozoic rates of vertical uplift. Hydrologic conditions considered include length of flow path from potential host rocks to discharge areas, interbasin and geothermal flow systems and thick unsaturated sections as potential host media. The Basin and Range Province was divided into 12 subprovinces; each subprovince is evaluated separately and prospective areas for further study are identified. About one-half of the Province appears to have combinations of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions, and ground-water hydrology that merit consideration for further study. The prospective areas for further study in each subprovince are summarized in a brief list of the potentially favorable factors and the issues of concern. Data compiled for the entire Province do not permit a complete evaluation of the favorability for high-level waste isolation. The evaluations here are intended to identify broad regions that contain potential geohydrologic environments containing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  19. Heat treatment of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel: Part I. Mechanical properties and microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochanadel, P. W.; Edwards, G. R.; Robino, C. V.; Cieslak, M. J.

    1994-04-01

    The microstructure of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel heat-treated to various conditions was studied using light and electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The mechanical properties were investigated by using uniaxial tensile testing, hardness testing, and Charpy impact testing. The Β-NiAl strengthening precipitates, though detectable by electron diffraction, were difficult to resolve by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in specimens aged at low temperatures (566 °C and below). A high dislocation density was observed in the lath martensitic structure. The higher strength and lower ductility observed at low aging temperatures was attributed to both the high dislocation density and the precipitation of Β-NiAl. When samples were aged at high temperatures (> 566 °C), a lower dislocation density and a reverted austenite fraction on the order of 15 pct were observed. Spherical Β-NiAl precipitates were observed in the overaged condition. The decrease in strength and corresponding increase in ductility observed in samples aged at temperatures above 566 °C were attributed to the reverted austenite and recovery. Mechanical properties were improved when the homogenizing temperature and time were increased. Electron probe microanalysis quantified the increased homogeneity realized by increasing homogenizing temperature and time. Elimination of the refrigeration step, which normally follows the solution treatment, did not degrade the mechanical properties. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed only minor decreases in the fraction of retained austenite when refrigeration followed the solution treatment.

  20. Frost characteristics and heat transfer on a flat plate under freezer operating conditions: Part 1, Experimentation and correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Y.; Besant, R.W.; Chen, H.

    1999-07-01

    An experimental investigation of frost growth on a flat, cold surface supplied by subfreezing, turbulent, humid, parallel flow of air is presented. The operating conditions are typical of many commercial freezers. A test loop was constructed to perform the tests, and the frost height, frost mass concentration, and cold surface heat flux were measured using specially designed and calibrated instrumentation. Twenty tests were done for steady operating conditions, each starting with no initial frost accumulation, and were run for two to six hours giving 480 data samples. Measured results show that the frost characteristics differ significantly with frost growth data taken previously for room temperature airflow. Depending on the temperature of the cold plate and the relative humidity of the subfreezing supply air, the frost could appear to be either smooth or rough. Smooth frost, which occurred at warmer plate temperatures and lower supply air relative humidities, gave rise to frost growth that was much thinner and denser than that for the rough, thick, low-density frost. Frost growth characteristics are correlated as a function of five independent variables (time, distance from the leading edge, cold plate temperature ratio, humidity ratio, and Reynolds number). These correlations are presented separately for the full data set, the rough frost data, and the smooth frost data.

  1. Transport phenomena relevant to the impact regime of the process of spray deposition: A review. Part 1: Heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Poulikakos, D.; Waldvogel, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Spray deposition is a novel rapid solidification technology for the creation of advanced metals and metal composites. This technology is particularly attractive to manufacturing because it shows promise to provide materials and products that combine superior properties and near net shape. With reference to the former, the extremely high cooling rates present in the process of spray deposition capture non equilibrium states that cannot be captured by more conventional casting methods because the atomic mobility in the liquid phase of a metal is far greater than that in the solid phase. To this end, the cooling rates at the early stages of the spray deposition process are of the order of (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8}) {sup 0}C/s. With reference to the latter, the spray deposition process has been shown to produce near net shape products which eliminates the need for additional finishing steps in the manufacturing process. Moreover, the fine and homogeneous microstructure that appears to be resulting from the spray deposition process may eliminate the need for additional mechanical working. In this, as well as its companion paper appearing subsequently in this volume, a review is presented of the existing knowledge base of the impact regime of the process of spray deposition, focusing on issues in which transport phenomena are relevant. Further, this paper addresses only heat transfer aspects of the process which do not involve sophisticated modeling of the accompanying complex fluid dynamics.

  2. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume III. Strategy for international collaborations in the areas of plasma materials interactions and high heat flux materials and components development

    SciTech Connect

    Gauster, W.B.; Bauer, W.; Roberto, J.B.; Post, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this summary is to assess opportunities for such collaborations in the specific areas of Plasma Materials Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Development, and to aid in developing a strategy to take advantage of them. After some general discussion of international collaborations, we summarize key technical issues and the US programs to address them. Then follows a summary of present collaborations and potential opportunities in foreign laboratories.

  3. Viability testing of material derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to removal from a Containment Level-III Laboratory as part of a Laboratory Risk Assessment Program

    PubMed Central

    Blackwood, Kym S; Burdz, Tamara V; Turenne, Christine Y; Sharma, Meenu K; Kabani, Amin M; Wolfe, Joyce N

    2005-01-01

    Background In the field of clinical mycobacteriology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can be a difficult organism to manipulate due to the restrictive environment of a containment level 3 (CL3) laboratory. Tests for rapid diagnostic work involving smears and molecular methods do not require CL3 practices after the organism has been rendered non-viable. While it has been assumed that after organism deactivation these techniques can be performed outside of a CL3, no conclusive study has consistently confirmed that the organisms are noninfectious after the theoretical 'deactivation' steps. Previous studies have shown that initial steps (such as heating /chemical fixation) may not consistently kill MTB organisms. Methods An inclusive viability study (n = 226) was undertaken to determine at which point handling of culture extraction materials does not necessitate a CL3 environment. Four different laboratory protocols tested for viability included: standard DNA extractions for IS6110 fingerprinting, crude DNA preparations for PCR by boiling and mechanical lysis, protein extractions, and smear preparations. For each protocol, laboratory staff planted a proportion of the resulting material to Bactec 12B medium that was observed for growth for 8 weeks. Results Of the 208 isolates initially tested, 21 samples grew within the 8-week period. Sixteen (7.7%) of these yielded positive results for MTB that included samples of: deactivated culture resuspensions exposed to 80°C for 20 minutes, smear preparations and protein extractions. Test procedures were consequently modified and tested again (n = 18), resulting in 0% viability. Conclusions This study demonstrates that it cannot be assumed that conventional practices (i.e. smear preparation) or extraction techniques render the organism non-viable. All methodologies, new and existing, should be examined by individual laboratories to validate the safe removal of material derived from MTB to the outside of a CL3 laboratory. This

  4. A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Composites. Part III; Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Ceramic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Ramsey, Jack; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the third part of a three part report of the project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing" funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce ceramic matrix composite materials and aircraft engine components by the binder jet process. Different SiC powders with median sizes ranging from 9.3 to 53.0 microns were investigated solely and in powder blends in order to maximize powder packing. Various infiltration approaches were investigated to include polycarbosilane (SMP-10), phenolic, and liquid silicon. Single infiltrations of SMP-10 and phenolic only slightly filled in the interior. When the SMP-10 was loaded with sub-micron sized SiC powders, the infiltrant gave a much better result of filling in the interior. Silicon carbide fibers were added to the powder bed to make ceramic matrix composite materials. Microscopy showed that the fibers were well distributed with no preferred orientation on the horizontal plane and fibers in the vertical plane were at angles as much as 45deg. Secondary infiltration steps were necessary to further densify the material. Two to three extra infiltration steps of SMP-10 increased the density by 0.20 to 0.55 g/cc. However, the highest densities achieved were 2.10 to 2.15 g/cc. Mechanical tests consisting of 4 point bend tests were conducted. Samples from the two CMC panels had higher strengths and strains to failure than the samples from the two nonfiber reinforced panels. The highest strengths were from Set N with 65 vol% fiber loading which had an average strength of 66 MPa. Analysis of the fracture surfaces did not reveal pullout of the reinforcing fibers. Blunt fiber failure suggested that there was not composite behavior. The binder jet additive manufacturing method was used to also demonstrate the fabrication of turbine engine vane components of two different designs and sizes. The

  5. Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coal. Final report. Part III. Petrographic characterization of the Upper Elkhorn No. 2 coal zone of eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Raione, R.P.; Hower, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the study of the Upper Elkhorn No. 2 coal zone in the Big Sandy Reserve District and the surrounding area of eastern Kentucky. The seams were analyzed using megascopic and microscopic petrography and chemical methods. The Upper Elkhorn No. 2 consists predominantly of clarain. A fair degree of correlation of fusain bands and clay partings between data sites is apparent. Microscopically, the vitrinite group of macerals are dominant. A rank increase from high volatile B to high volatile A bituminous to the southwest was noted. Pseudovitrinite is associated negatively with vitrinite and has a higher reflectance and microhardness than vitrinite. Both factors may indicate source material and/or environmental differences in the respective origins of the maceral. High inertinite and lipinite areas, low ash and sulfur contents, and the distribution of thin coals may be indicative of paleotopographic highs. 62 references, 26 figures, 8 tables.

  6. Studies of the pulse charge of lead-acid batteries for PV applications. Part III. Electrolyte concentration effects on the electrochemical performance of the positive plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Delaille, A.; Karoui, F.; Perrin, M.; Lemaire, E.; Mattera, F.

    2008-05-01

    In the third part of this work the effects of the sulphuric acid concentration on the positive plate discharge capacity, impedance and oxygen overvoltage are discussed. It has been found that the full discharge capacity of the positive plate is available down to electrolyte concentrations of 3 mol l-1 (s.g. 1.18 g ml-1). At further acid dilution, capacity of the positive plate declines, keeping the utilization of the sulphuric acid about 50%. Decreasing the acid concentration, the oxygen overvoltage decreases with a factor of 12-18 mV M-1, excluding the effect of the equilibrium potential of the oxygen electrode as a function of pH. The capacitance of the electrical double layer decrease linearly with the dilution of the sulphuric acid suggesting strong adsorption effects. This suggestion has been confirmed from the measurements of potential of the zero charge of the positive plate, which increases from 1.11 to 1.34 V vs. Ag/Ag2SO4 in the region 1.11-4.60 M H2SO4. From the measurement of the time constant of the electronic transfer through the gel part of the lead dioxide (Tgel) as a function of the acid concentration and the applied potential, a change in the mechanism of the lead dioxide hydration has been estimated-below 1 M H2SO4Tgel increases sharply, showing sharp increases of the extent of the hydration. The dilution of the electrolyte increases substantially the value of average double layer current in the beginning of the charge. During the pulse overcharge at the employed frequency of 1 Hz, the average double layer current is equal to the pulse amplitude, suggesting that the maximal efficiency of the pulse charge is reached.

  7. Application of flowing stream techniques to water analysis Part III. Metal ions: alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, elemental and harmful transition metals, and multielemental analysis.

    PubMed

    Miró, Manuel; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2004-05-28

    In the earlier parts of this series of reviews [1,2], the most relevant flowing stream techniques (namely, segmented flow analysis, continuous flow analysis, flow injection (FI) analysis, sequential injection (SI) analysis, multicommuted flow injection analysis and multisyringe flow injection analysis) applied to the determination of several core inorganic parameters for water quality assessment, such as nutrients and anionic species including nitrogen, sulfur and halogen compounds, were described. In the present paper, flow techniques are presented as powerful analytical tools for the environmental monitoring of metal ions (alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, and elemental and harmful transition metals) as well as to perform both multielemental and speciation analysis in water samples. The potentials of flow techniques for automated sample treatment involving on-line analyte separation and/or pre-concentration are also discussed in the body of the text, and demonstrated for each individual ion with a variety of strategies successfully applied to trace analysis. In this context, the coupling of flow methodologies with atomic spectrometric techniques such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) or hydride-generation (HG)/cold-vapor (CV) approaches, launching the so-called hyphenated techniques, is specially worth mentioning. PMID:18969420

  8. The Atomic-to-Molecular Transition: Anatomy of a Forming Molecular Cloud. (Part III: CO(J=1-0) with Mopra)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Joanne; Mcclure-Griffiths, Naomi; Jones, Paul; Dickey, John; Cunningham, Maria; Jones, Courtney; Jachym, Pavel; Palouš, Jan; Sidorin, Vojt?ch

    2011-10-01

    The condensation of molecular clouds from the atomic ISM is a key link in the lifecycle of material in galactic systems, but one that remains poorly observationally constrained. This project will obtain HI, OH and CO line data at parsec and sub-parsec resolutions in order to form a comprehensive picture of the anatomy of a region in which this atomic-molecular transition is occurring. This combination of complementary tracers will reveal the medium throughout this evolutionary process, providing an unparalleled dataset for comparison with theoretical models, and allowing the testing of key predictions such as structure formation size scales and the degree of interpenetration of the molecular and atomic phases. This proposal requests 110 hours to observe the J=1-0 transitions of 12CO, 13CO and C18O, in order to complete mapping of the evolved molecular component of this region. This data will allow us to determine the detailed spatio-velocity distribution of the evolved molecular gas, and obtain column density, density and mass estimates in order to assess its relationship to the atomic and transition-state material. This document comprises one of a set of three observing proposals submitted this semester as part of this project.

  9. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid. Part Iii: Truncation Effect Without Flow and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.

    2000-11-01

    The response of simply supported circular cylindrical shells to harmonic excitation in the spectral neighbourhood of one of the lowest natural frequencies is investigated by using improved mode expansions with respect to those assumed in Parts I and II of the present study. Two cases are studied: (1) shells in vacuo; and (2) shells filled with stagnant water. The improved expansions allow checking the accuracy of the solutions previously obtained and giving definitive results within the limits of Donnell's non-linear shallow-shell theory. The improved mode expansions include: (1) harmonics of the circumferential mode number n under consideration, and (2) only the principal n, but with harmonics of the longitudinal mode included. The effect of additional longitudinal modes is absolutely insignificant in both the driven and companion mode responses. The effect of modes with 2 n circumferential waves is very limited on the trend of non-linearity, but is significant in the response with companion mode participation in the case of lightly damped shells (empty shells). In particular, the travelling wave response appears for much lower vibration amplitudes and presents a frequency range without stable responses, corresponding to a beating phenomenon. A liquid (water) contained in the shell generates a much stronger softening behaviour of the system. Experiments with a water-filled circular cylindrical shell made of steel are in very good agreement with the present theory.

  10. Self-accommodation of B19' martensite in Ti-Ni shape memory alloys. Part III. Analysis of habit plane variant clusters by the geometrically nonlinear theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamura, T.; Nishiura, T.; Kawano, H.; Hosoda, H.; Nishida, M.

    2012-06-01

    Competition between the invariant plane (IP) condition at the habit plane, the twin orientation relation (OR) and the kinematic compatibility (KC) at the junction plane (JP) of self-accommodated B19‧ martensite in Ti-Ni was investigated via the geometrically nonlinear theory to understand the habit plane variant (HPV) clusters presented in Parts I and II of this work. As the IP condition cannot be satisfied simultaneously with KC, an additional rotation Q is necessary to form compatible JPs for all HPV pairs. The rotation J necessary to form the exact twin OR between the major correspondence variants (CVs) in each HPV was also examined. The observed HPV cluster was not the cluster with the smallest Q but the one satisfying Q = J with a { ? 1}B19‧ type I twin at JP. Both Q and J are crucial to understanding the various HPV clusters in realistic transformations. Finally, a scheme for the ideal HPV cluster composed of six HPVs is also proposed.

  11. Motorcycle Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    An article in NASA Tech Briefs describing a vacuum bagging process for forming composite parts helped a small Oklahoma Company to improve its manufacturing process. President of Performance Extremes, Larry Ortega, and his partners make motorcycle parts from carbon/epoxy to reduce weight. Using vacuum bags, parts have a better surface and fewer voids inside. When heat used in the vacuum bag process caused deformation upon cooling, a solution found in another tech brief solved the problem. A metal plate inside the vacuum bag made for more even heat transfer. A third article described a simple procedure for repairing loose connector pins, which the company has also utilized.

  12. Organic Rankine Cycle for Residual Heat to Power Conversion in Natural Gas Compressor Station. Part II: Plant Simulation and Optimisation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaczykowski, Maciej

    2016-06-01

    After having described the models for the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) equipment in the first part of this paper, this second part provides an example that demonstrates the performance of different ORC systems in the energy recovery application in a gas compressor station. The application shows certain specific characteristics, i.e. relatively large scale of the system, high exhaust gas temperature, low ambient temperature operation, and incorporation of an air-cooled condenser, as an effect of the localization in a compressor station plant. Screening of 17 organic fluids, mostly alkanes, was carried out and resulted in a selection of best performing fluids for each cycle configuration, among which benzene, acetone and heptane showed highest energy recovery potential in supercritical cycles, while benzene, toluene and cyclohexane in subcritical cycles. Calculation results indicate that a maximum of 10.4 MW of shaft power can be obtained from the exhaust gases of a 25 MW compressor driver by the use of benzene as a working fluid in the supercritical cycle with heat recuperation. In relation to the particular transmission system analysed in the study, it appears that the regenerative subcritical cycle with toluene as a working fluid presents the best thermodynamic characteristics, however, require some attention insofar as operational conditions are concerned.

  13. Topics in Finance Part III--Leverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates operating and financial leverage from the perspective of the financial manager, accenting the relationships to stockholder wealth maximization (SWM), risk and return, and potential agency problems. It also covers some of the pertinent literature related specifically to the implications of operating and financial risk and…

  14. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Part III. Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of the FT-IR spectrometer in analyses that were previously avoided. Examines some of the applications of this spectroscopy with aqueous solutions, circular internal reflection, samples with low transmission, diffuse reflectance, infrared emission, and the infrared microscope. (TW)

  15. Essential Oils, Part III: Chemical Composition.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Data on the chemistry of essential oils which have caused contact allergy are provided. The largest group of chemicals found in essential oils consists of terpenes. The number of identified components usually ranges from 100 to 250, but in some oils (lavender, geranium, rosemary) 450 to 500 chemicals have been found. Many chemicals are present in a large number of oils, up to 98% for β-caryophyllene and 97% for limonene. Chemicals that are important constituents of >20 oils are limonene, linalool, and α-pinene. In many essential oils, there are 2 to 5 components which together constitute over 50% to 60% of the oil. In some oils, however, there is one dominant ingredient, making up more than 50% of the oil, including (E)-anethole in aniseed and star anise oil, carvone in spearmint oil, 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) in Eucalyptus globulus oil, and (E)-cinnamaldehyde in cassia oil. The most important chemicals in 93 individual oils are specified. PMID:27427817

  16. Principles of Preschool Pedagogy: Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaporozhets, A. V.; Markova, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    Topics discussed in this issue include the cognitive education of the preschooler, general problems in aesthetic education and child development, educating children through play, family influence on the preschooler's personality, and the preparation of children for school. (RM)

  17. How to Get Published, Part III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David

    2013-01-01

    A very high proportion of librarians are neither required to publish nor rewarded if they do. The would-be librarian/writer would be well advised to take a brief self-examination before developing a research and publication plan. The author provides a list of questions to consider and also suggests consultation with a colleague with greater…

  18. Management of hypodontia: restorative considerations. Part III.

    PubMed

    Forgie, Andrew H; Thind, Bikram S; Larmour, Colin J; Mossey, Peter A; Stirrups, David R

    2005-06-01

    This paper, the third in the series, initially details the role of the restorative dentist in treating patients with hypodontia. (See Quintessence Int 2005;36:263-270 and 345-353 for the first two papers.) A range of treatment options, including implants, adhesive techniques, and removable prostheses, are covered. The investigators have detailed the clinical indications, and noted their relative advantages and disadvantages. PMID:15954249

  19. Who's On Your Roots: Part III

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry forms specific associations with ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (EMF), yet there is almost no information concerning how these fungi influence the physiology of their host plants in horticultural production systems. Although the importance of EMF in a few natural ecosystems has been documented,...

  20. Atomization of liquid fuels. Part III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, R

    1925-01-01

    This report provides a critical discussion of the results of the experiments conducted in the previous NACA-TM's 329 and 330. The main object of this investigation was to determine the size of the drops in mechanical atomization.

  1. Interdisciplinary Studies Program. Teacher's Guide: Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    This teacher's guide was developed for the third of four courses in Valencia Community College's Interdisciplinary Studies program, a 2-year core general education curriculum which chronologically examines the major developments in the evolution of human knowledge. The guide provides an introductory overview of the course's topic (i.e., Western…

  2. Computer Education for Engineers, Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Earl S.; Lofy, Frank J.

    1989-01-01

    Reports the results of the third survey of computer use in engineering education conducted in the fall of 1987 in comparing with 1981 and 1984 results. Summarizes survey data on computer course credits, languages, equipment use, CAD/CAM instruction, faculty access, and computer graphics. (YP)

  3. KURDISH READERS. PART III, KURDISH SHORT STORIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ABDULLA, JAMAL JALAL; MCCARUS, ERNEST N.

    THE SIX STORIES IN THIS COLLECTION ARE WRITTEN IN THE KURDISH DIALECT OF SULAIMANIA, THE LANGUAGE OF OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS AND TEXTBOOKS IN IRAQI KURDISTAN. THE VARIOUS THEMES INCLUDED ARE REPRESENTATIVE OF KURDISH CULTURE AND TRADITION. EACH SELECTION (WRITTEN IN KURDISH SCRIPT) IS FOLLOWED BY VOCABULARY AND EXPLANATORY NOTES IN ORDER OF…

  4. Long-term evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell candidate materials in a 3-cell generic stack test fixture, part III: Stability and microstructure of Ce-(Mn,Co)-spinel coating, AISI441 interconnect, alumina coating, cathode and anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2014-07-01

    A generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials and processing under realistic conditions. Part III of the work investigated the stability of Ce-(Mn,Co) spinel coating, AISI441 metallic interconnect, alumina coating, and cell's degradation. After 6000 h test, the spinel coating showed densification with some diffusion of Cr. At the metal interface, segregation of Si and Ti was observed, however, no continuous layer formed. The alumina coating for perimeter sealing areas appeared more dense and thick at the air side than the fuel side. Both the spinel and alumina coatings remained bonded. EDS analysis of Cr within the metal showed small decrease in concentration near the coating interface and would expect to cause no issue of Cr depletion. Inter-diffusion of Ni, Fe, and Cr between spot-welded Ni wire and AISI441 interconnect was observed and Cr-oxide scale formed along the circumference of the weld. The microstructure of the anode and cathode was discussed relating to degradation of the top and middle cells. Overall, the Ce-(Mn,Co) spinel coating, alumina coating, and AISI441 steel showed the desired long-term stability and the developed generic stack fixture proved to be a useful tool to validate candidate materials for SOFC.

  5. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  6. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  7. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  8. REACH. Heating Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Carter; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized units in the area of heating. The instructional units focus on electric heating systems, gas heating systems, and oil burning systems. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit…

  9. Heat-flow measurements at shot points along the 1978 Saudi Arabia seismic deep-refraction line; Part I, Results of the measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.; Showail, Abdullah

    1982-01-01

    Heat-flow measurements were made at five onland shot points of the 1978 Saudi Arabian seismic deep-refraction line, which sample major tectonic elements of the Arabian Shield along a profile from Ar Riyad to the Farasan Islands. Because of the pattern drilling at each shot point, several holes (60 m deep) could be logged for temperature at each site and thus allow a better estimate of the geothermal gradient. Each site was mapped and sampled in detail, and modal and. chemical analyses of representative specimens were made in the laboratory. Thermal conductivities were computed from the modal analyses and single-mineral conductivity data. The resulting heat-flow values, combined with published values for the Red Sea and coastal plain, indicate a three-level pattern, with a heat flow of about 4.5 heat-flow unit (HFU) over the Red Sea axial trough, about 3.0 HFU over the shelf and coastal plain, and an essentially constant 1.0 HFU over the Arabian Shield at points well away from the suture zone with the oceanic crust. At three sites where the rocks are granitic, gamma-ray spectrometry techniques were employed to estimate thorium, potassium, and uranium concentrations. The resulting plot of heat generation versus heat flow suggests that in the Arabian Shield the relationship between heat flow and heat production is not linear. More heat-flow data are essential to establish or reject this conclusion.

  10. The case of King Richard III.

    PubMed

    Skrziepietz, A

    2011-11-01

    In this short essay we will discuss the possible diseases of King Richard III according to the descriptions in Shakespeare's plays King Richard III and Henry VI. Furthermore, it is shown that the description of the defeated enemy as physically and mentally deformed is part of a long tradition which has its roots in Ancient Greece. PMID:22089046

  11. Experimental measurements and analytical analysis related to gas turbine heat transfer. Part 1: Time-averaged heat-flux and surface-pressure measurements on the vanes and blades of the SSME fuel-side turbine and comparison with prediction. Part 2: Phase-resolved surface-pressure and heat-flux measurements on the first blade of the SSME fuel-side turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Time averaged Stanton number and surface-pressure distributions are reported for the first-stage vane row, the first stage blade row, and the second stage vane row of the Rocketdyne Space Shuttle Main Engine two-stage fuel-side turbine. Unsteady pressure envelope measurements for the first blade are also reported. These measurements were made at 10 percent, 50 percent, and 90 percent span on both the pressure and suction surfaces of the first stage components. Additional Stanton number measurements were made on the first stage blade platform blade tip, and shroud, and at 50 percent span on the second vane. A shock tube was used as a short duration source of heated and pressurized air to which the turbine was subjected. Platinum thin-film heat flux gages were used to obtain the heat flux measurements, while miniature silicon-diaphragm flush-mounted pressure transducers were used to obtain the pressure measurements. The first stage vane Stanton number distributions are compared with predictions obtained using a version of STAN5 and a quasi-3D Navier-Stokes solution. This same quasi-3D N-S code was also used to obtain predictions for the first blade and the second vane.

  12. Heat-flow measurements at shot points along the 1978 Saudi Arabia seismic deep-refraction line; Part II, Discussion and interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    The heat-flow profile across the Arabian Shield from Ar Riyad to Ad Darb and across the Red Sea is examined for compatibility with the lithospheric structure of the area as deduced from geologic and other geophysical data. Broad continental uplift associated with Red Sea rifting is symmetric about the Red Sea axis, and geologic and geochronologic evidence indicate that uplift has occurred mainly in the interval 25-13 Ma (mega-annum) ago. Thermal-profile changes in the upper mantle resulting from an influx of hot material associated with rifting yield the correct order of magnitude of uplift, and this mechanism is suggested as the explanation for the regional doming. A lithospheric section, constructed from seismic refraction, gravity, and regional geologic data, provides the framework for construction of thermal models. Thermal gradient measurements were made in drill holes at five shot points. Geotherms for the Shield, which assume a radiogenic heat-source distribution that decreases exponentially with depth, yield temperatures of about 450?C at a depth of 40 km (base of the crust) for shot points 2 (Sabhah) and 3. The geotherm for shot point 4 (near Bishah) yields a distinctly higher temperature (about 580?C) for the same depth. Static models used to model the heat flow in the oceanic crust of the Red Sea shelf and coastal plain either yield too small a heat flow to match the observed heat flow or give lithosphere thicknesses that are so thin as to be improbable. Dynamic (solid-state accretion) models, which account for mantle flow at the base of the lithosphere, adequately match the observed heat-flow values. In the deep-water trough of the Red Sea, which is presently undergoing active sea-floor spreading, classical models of heat flow for a moving slab with accretion at the spreading center are adequate to explain the average heat-flow level. At shot point 5 (Ad Darb), the anomalous heat flow of 2 HFU (heat-flow units) can be explained in terms of a Shield

  13. Development of media for dynamic latent heat storage for the low-temperature range. Part 1: Thermal analyses of selected salt hydrate systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanwischer, H.; Tamme, R.

    1985-01-01

    Phase change temperatures and phase change enthalpies of seventeen salt hydrates, three double salts, and four eutectics were measured thermodynamically and the results reported herein. Good results were obtained, especially for congruently melting salt hydrates. Incongruently melting salt hydrates appear less suitable for heat storage applications. The influence of the second phase - water, acid and hydroxide - to the latent heat is described. From these results, basic values of the working temperatures and storage capabilities of various storage media compositions may be derived.

  14. Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater Part 1: Southern and South Central Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Geoghegan, Patrick J; Shen, Bo; Keinath, Christopher M.; Garrabrant, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial hot water heating accounts for approximately 0.78 Quads of primary energy use with 0.44 Quads of this amount from natural gas fired heaters. An ammonia-water based commercial absorption system, if fully deployed, could achieve a high level of savings, much higher than would be possible by conversion to the high efficiency nonheat-pump gas fired alternatives. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system is able to maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. The ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. A thermodynamic model of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system for commercial space and water heating was developed, and its performance was investigated for a range of ambient and return water temperatures. This allowed for the development of a performance map which was then used in a building energy modeling software. Modeling of two commercial water heating systems was performed; one using an absorption heat pump and another using a condensing gas storage system. The energy and financial savings were investigated for a range of locations and climate zones in the southern and south central United States. A follow up paper will analyze northern and north/central regions. Results showed that the system using an absorption heat pump offers significant savings.

  15. Ultrasonic and acoustic emission results from the Stripa heater experiments. Part I. Cross-hole investigation of a rock mass subjected to heating. Part II. Acoustic emission monitoring during cool-down of the Stripa heater experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsson, B.N.P.; King, M.S.; Rachiele, R.

    1980-12-01

    A cross-hole high-frequency acoustic investigation of a granitic rock mass subjected to sustained heating is reported. Compressional and shear-wave velocity measurements along four different paths between four vertical boreholes were made prior to turning on the heater, during 398 days of heating, and after the heater was turned off. These measurements correlated well with the presence of fracture zones, in which the fractures were closed by thermal expansion of the rock upon heating. When the rock mass cooled, the velocity measurements indicated a greater intensity of fracturing than had existed before heating. Laboratory compressional and shear-wave velocity measurements were also made on intact rock specimens obtained from the site and subjected to axial stress. When used to interpret the increases in velocities measured in the field upon heating the rock mass, these measurements implied increases in horizontal normal stresses to between 30 and 40 MPa. Increases in these magnitudes agree with stress measurements made by the other techniques. The ratio of measured compressional to shear-wave velocity appears to provide a sensitive measure of the fraction of crack porosity containing water or gas.

  16. Balloon Borne Soundings of Water Vapor, Ozone and Temperature in the Upper Tropospheric and Lower Stratosphere as Part of the Second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voemel, Holger

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of our work was to provide in situ water vapor and ozone profiles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere as reference measurements for the validation of SAGE III water vapor and ozone retrievals. We used the NOAA/CMDL frost point hygrometer and ECC ozone sondes on small research balloons to provide continuous profiles between the surface and the mid stratosphere. The NOAA/CMDL frost point hygrometer is currently the only lightweight balloon borne instrument capable of measuring water vapor between the lower troposphere and middle stratosphere. The validation measurements were based in the arctic region of Scandinavia for northern hemisphere observations and in New Zealand for southern hemisphere observations and timed to coincide with overpasses of the SAGE III instrument. In addition to SAGE III validation we also tried to coordinate launches with other instruments and studied dehydration and transport processes in the Arctic stratospheric vortex.

  17. 17 CFR Table III to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES..., Table III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S....

  18. 17 CFR Table III to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES..., Table III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S....

  19. 17 CFR Table III to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES..., Table III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S....

  20. 17 CFR Table III to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES..., Table III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S....

  1. 17 CFR Table III to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES..., Table III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S....

  2. Conceptual design study of geothermal district heating of a thirty-house subdivision in Elko, Nevada, using existing water-distribution systems, Phase III. Final technical report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, D.R.

    1980-09-30

    A conceptual design study for district heating of a 30-home subdivision located near the southeast extremity of the city of Elko, Nevada is presented. While a specific residential community was used in the study, the overall approach and methodologies are believed to be generally applicable for a large number of communities where low temperature geothermal fluid is available. The proposed district heating system utilizes moderate temperature, clean domestic water and existing community culinary water supply lines. The culinary water supply is heated by a moderate temperature geothermal source using a single heat exchanger at entry to the subdivision. The heated culinary water is then pumped to the houses in the community where energy is extracted by means of a water supplied heat pump. The use of heat pumps at the individual houses allows economic heating to result from supply of relatively cool water to the community, and this precludes the necessity of supplying objectionably hot water for normal household consumption use. Each heat pump unit is isolated from the consumptive water flow such that contamination of the water supply is avoided. The community water delivery system is modified to allow recirculation within the community, and very little rework of existing water lines is required. The entire system coefficient of performance (COP) for a typical year of heating is 3.36, exclusive of well pumping energy.

  3. A process model for the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steel weldments: Part II. Application to electron beam welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmer, H.; Grong, Ø.; Klokkehaug, S.

    2000-03-01

    In the present investigation, a process model for electron beam (EB) welding of different grades of duplex stainless steels (i.e. SAF 2205 and 2507) has been developed. A number of attractive features are built into the original finite element code, including (1) a separate module for prediction of the penetration depth and distribution of the heat source into the plate, (2) adaptive refinement of the three-dimensional (3-D) element mesh for quick and reliable solution of the differential heat flow equation, and (3) special subroutines for calculation of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) microstructure evolution. The process model has been validated by comparison with experimental data obtained from in situ thermocouple measurements and optical microscope examinations. Subsequently, its aptness to alloy design and optimization of welding conditions for duplex stainless steels is illustrated in different numerical examples and case studies pertaining to EB welding of tubular joints.

  4. Organophosphorus reagents as extractants-part 3. Synergic effect of triphenyl phosphine oxide and bis(diphenyl phosphinyl) alkanes on extraction of iron(III) from thiocyanate medium with 2,4-pentdione.

    PubMed

    Lobana, T S; Bhatia, P K

    1992-06-01

    The extraction of iron(III) from thiocyanate medium was carried out with a synergic combination of 2,4-pentdione (Hacac) and either triphenyl phosphine oxide (Ph(3) PO) or bis (diphenylphosphinyl) alkanes, Ph(2)P(O)(CH(2))(n).P(O)PH(2) [ligand abbreviation, n: dpeO(2), 2; dpbO(2), 4]. Iron(III) was quantitatively separated from its binary mixture with chromium(III), manganese(III), cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II), mercury(II), lead(II), magnesium(II) and from steel samples. Copper(II) and silver(I) however, interfered. The percentage extraction was 99.0%. The respective extraction constants, K(HA), K(L) or K(syn), for the extracted species, [Fe(NCS)(acac)(2)(H(2)O)] (HA Hacac), Fe(NCS)(3)L(2) [L b Ph(3)PO, dpeO(2) or dpbO(2)], or Fe(NCS)(acac)(2)L were found to be: K(HA), 1.48 x 10(3), K(L), 1.80 x 10(2) (L Ph(3)PO), 2.02 x 10(2) (L dpeO(2) or dpbO(2)) and K(syn), 1.87 x 10(6) (L Ph(3)PO), 2.56 x 10(6) [L dpeO(2) or dpbO(2)]. PMID:18965433

  5. Modification of Doublet III to a large dee facility

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.G.; Rawls, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    General Atomic Company's Doublet III tokamak now in its fourth year of operation, is dedicated to investigating non-circular plasmas. The first three years constituted the ohmic heating phase were circular, doublet, and dee configurations were studied. Reactor-like densities were achieved to assure adequate target plasmas for the neutral beam heating phase now beginning. Emphasis during neutral beam heating will be on does where IOMV of heating power will ultimately be delivered. Impurity control via magnetic limiters or simplified divertors will be further studed during the heating experiments. Electron Cycltron Heating (ECH) will add 1-2 MW of heating and provide for current profile control.

  6. Capabilities of the Extreme Conditions Beamline at PETRA III, DESY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Konôpková, Zuzana; Morgenroth, Wolfgang; Rothkirch, Andre; Wittich, Eugen; Delitz, Jan-Torben; Ehnes, Anita

    2013-06-01

    At the end of 2010 the Extreme Conditions Beamline (ECB) at PETRA III received first beam and entered the commissioning phase. Since 2012 we are offering beamtime to general users to conduct a variety of different experiments such as powder and single diffraction in the laser/resistive heated and cryogenically cooled Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC). Particularly attractive has been our ability to conducted diffraction experiments at high energies of 60 and 77 keV for pair distribution function (PDF) studies as well as possibility to preform time resolved powder diffraction experiments at 26 and 43 keV with a maximum time resolution of 15 Hz. Within we present some of the current capabilities of the beamline as well as future plans to promote single crystal diffraction at high pressures and temperatures using both monochromatic and pink beam. Finally, we emphasis the present and future time resolved capabilities to conduct powder and single crystal diffraction experiments under dynamic compression and heating conditions in the DAC. Part of this project was funded by the ``Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung'' under contracts 05KS7RF1 and 05K10RFA ``Verbundprojekt: Messeinrichtungen fuer die Material- und Strukturforschung an PETRA III, 2: Laserheizung for ``ECB''.

  7. Tip Leakage Flow and Heat Transfer on Turbine Blade Tip and Casing, Part 1: Effect of Tip Clearance Height and Rotation Speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidur Rahman, M.; In Kim, Sung; Hassan, Ibrahim

    2013-06-01

    Steady simulations were performed to investigate tip leakage flow and heat transfer characteristics on the rotor blade tip and casing in a single-stage gas turbine engine. A typical high-pressure gas turbine stage was modeled with a pressure ratio of 3.2. The predicted isentropic Mach number and adiabatic wall temperature on the casing showed good agreement with available experimental data under similar operating condition. The present numerical study focuses extensively on the effects of tip clearance heights and rotor rotational speeds on the blade tip and casing heat transfer characteristics. It was observed that the tip leakage flow structure is highly dependent on the height of the tip gap and the speed of the rotor. In all cases, the tip leakage flow was seen to separate and recirculate just around the corner of the pressure side of the blade tip. This region of re-circulating flow enlarges with increasing clearance heights. The separated leakage flow reattaches afterwards on the tip surface. Leakage flow reattachment was shown to enhance surface heat transfer at the tip. The interaction between tip leakage flow and secondary flows that is induced by the relative casing motion is found to significantly influence the blade tip and casing heat transfer distribution. A region of critical heat transfer exists on the casing near the blade tip leading edge and along the pressure-side edge for all the clearance heights that were investigated. At high rotation speed, the region of critical heat transfer tends to move towards the trailing edge due to the change in inflow angle.

  8. Global diabatic heating during FGGE SOP-1 and SOP-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Tsing-Chang; Baker, Wayman E.

    1986-01-01

    With the increase in the observational data provided by FGGE and the use of global circulation models with full physics for the data assimilation, it is now becoming feasible to attempt to estimate globally the atmospheric diabatic heating. The thermodynamic equation in isobaric coordinates and the data generated by the FGGE III-b analysis of the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) are employed to serve this purpose. The results of the present study generally agree with other previous investigations. However, some important differences are also revealed. (1) The diabatic heating obtained in the tropics in the present study is larger than that obtained elsewhere; (2) the relatively large heating over the mountainous areas shown in other studies does not appear; (3) no significant negative values of diabatic heating are found in the polar regions; and (4) unlike other studies, cooling is noted over parts of Eurasia in the summer.

  9. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  10. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 1: Cost of feedstock supply logistics

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Mani, Sudhagar; Togore, Sam; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F

    2010-01-01

    Supply of corn stover to produce heat and power for a typical 170 dam3 dry mill ethanol plant is proposed. The corn ethanol plant requires 5.6 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat, which creates the annual stover demand of as much as 140 Gg. The corn stover supply system consists of collection, preprocessing, transportation and on-site fuel storage and preparation to produce heat and power for the ethanol plant. Economics of the entire supply system was conducted using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) simulation model. Corn stover was delivered in three formats (square bales, dry chops and pellets) to the combined heat and power plant. Delivered cost of biomass ready to be burned was calculated at 73 $ Mg-1 for bales, 86 $ Mg-1 for pellets and 84 $ Mg-1 for field chopped biomass. Among the three formats of stover supply systems, delivered cost of pelleted biomass was the highest due to high pelleting cost. Bulk transport of biomass in the form of chops and pellets can provide a promising future biomass supply logistic system in the US, if the costs of pelleting and transport are minimized.

  11. Survey Instrument Validity Part II: Validation of a Survey Instrument Examining Athletic Trainers' Knowledge and Practice Beliefs Regarding Exertional Heat Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Laura J.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of developing and validating an instrument to investigate an athletic trainer's attitudes and behaviors regarding the recognition and treatment of exertional heat stroke. Background: Following up from our initial paper, which discussed the process of survey instrument design and…

  12. THE ORIGIN OF THE INFRARED EMISSION IN RADIO GALAXIES. III. ANALYSIS OF 3CRR OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dicken, D.; Axon, D.; Robinson, A.; Kharb, P.; Tadhunter, C.; Morganti, R. E-mail: djasps@rit.ed E-mail: c.tadhunter@sheffield.ac.u

    2010-10-20

    We present Spitzer photometric data for a complete sample of 19 low-redshift (z< 0.1) 3CRR radio galaxies as part of our efforts to understand the origin of the prodigious mid- to far-infrared (MFIR) emission from radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our results show a correlation between AGN power (indicated by [O III]{lambda}5007 emission line luminosity) and 24 {mu}m luminosity. This result is consistent with the 24 {mu}m thermal emission originating from warm dust heated directly by AGN illumination. Applying the same correlation test for 70 {mu}m luminosity against [O III] luminosity we find this relation to suffer from increased scatter compared to that of 24 {mu}m. In line with our results for the higher-radio-frequency-selected 2 Jy sample, we are able to show that much of this increased scatter is due to heating by starbursts that boost the far-infrared emission at 70 {mu}m in a minority of objects (17%-35%). Overall this study supports previous work indicating AGN illumination as the dominant heating mechanism for MFIR emitting dust in the majority of low-to-intermediate redshift radio galaxies (0.03 < z < 0.7), with the advantage of strong statistical evidence. However, we find evidence that the low-redshift broad-line objects (z < 0.1) are distinct in terms of their positions on the MFIR versus [O III] correlations.

  13. Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer - first results from a feasibility study Part III: Preliminary results on physicochemical model performance using two "clean air mass" reference scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmuth, O.

    2006-09-01

    In Paper I of four papers, a revised columnar high-order model to investigate gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions in the convective boundary layer (CBL) was proposed. In Paper II, the model capability to predict first-, second- and third-order moments of meteorological variables in the CBL was demonstrated using available observational data. In the present Paper III, the high-order modelling concept is extended to sulphur and ammonia chemistry as well as to aerosol dynamics. Based on the previous CBL simulation, a feasibility study is performed using two "clean air mass" scenarios with an emission source at the ground but low aerosol background concentration. Such scenarios synoptically correspond to the advection of fresh post-frontal air in an anthropogenically influenced region. The aim is to evaluate the time-height evolution of ultrafine condensation nuclei (UCNs) and to elucidate the interactions between meteorological and physicochemical variables in a CBL column. The scenarios differ in the treatment of new particle formation (NPF), whereas homogeneous nucleation according to the classical nucleation theory (CNT) is considered. The first scenario considers nucleation of a binary system consisting of water vapour and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) vapour, the second one nucleation of a ternary system additionally involving ammonia (NH3). Here, the two synthetic scenarios are discussed in detail, whereas special attention is payed to the role of turbulence in the formation of the typical UCN burst behaviour, that can often be observed in the surface layer. The intercomparison of the two scenarios reveals large differences in the evolution of the UCN number concentration in the surface layer as well as in the time-height cross-sections of first-order moments and double correlation terms. Although in both cases the occurrence of NPF bursts could be simulated, the burst characteristics and genesis of the bursts are completely different. It is demonstrated, that

  14. Quenching fundamentals: Heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, D.S.; Totten, G.E.; Webster, G.M.

    1996-12-31

    Quenching is essentially a heat transfer problem. It is necessary to quench parts fast enough that adequate mechanical and corrosion properties are achieved, but not so fast that detrimental distortion and residual stresses are formed. In addition, non-uniform heat transfer across the surface of a part will produce thermal gradients which will also create distortion or residual stresses. In this paper, the role of agitation will be discussed in terms of the heat transfer coefficient. A brief review of the published heat transfer literature will be discussed in terms of the fluid flow on heat transfer coefficient, with implications on quenching.

  15. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  16. The Impact of Refrigerant Charge, Air Flow and Expansion Devices on the Measured Performance of an Air-Source Heat Pump Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes extensive tests performed on a 3-ton R-22 split heat pump in heating mode. The tests contain 150 steady-state performance tests, 18 cyclic tests and 18 defrost tests. During the testing work, the refrigerant charge level was varied from 70 % to 130% relative to the nominal value; the outdoor temperature was altered by three levels at 17 F (-8.3 C), 35 F (1.7 C) and 47 F (8.3 C); indoor air flow rates ranged from 60% to 150% of the rated air flow rate; and the expansion device was switched from a fixed-orifice to a thermal expansion value. Detailed performance data from the extensive steady state cyclic and defrost testing performed were presented and compared.

  17. The effects of cosmic Particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: V. Preflight studies on tolerance of pocket mice to oxygen and heat. Part I. physiological studies.

    PubMed

    Leon, H A; Suri, K; McTigue, M; Smith, J; Cooper, W; Miquel, J; Ashley, W W; Behnke, A R; Saunders, J F

    1975-04-01

    Tests were carried out on pocket mice to ascertain their tolerance to elevated oxygen pressures alone and to a combination of hyperoxta and heat in excess of that expected during the flight of the mice on Apollo XVII. the mice withstood oxygen partial pressures up to 12 pst at normal room temperature (24 degrees C, 75 degrees F) over a period of 7 days. A few mice previously exposed to increased PO2 died in the course of exposure to an oxygen pressure of 10 pst or 12 psi (517 mm or 620 mm Hg) for 13 d in ambient heat of 32 degrees C (90 degrees F). Supplemental vitamin E and physiological saline loading given prior to exposure had no apparent protective effect. The overall conclusion was that the pocket mice which were to go on Apollo XVII could readily survive the ambient atmosphere to which they would be exposed. PMID:1156267

  18. Heat transfer analysis of the Bridgman-Stockbarger configuration for crystal growth. Part 1: Analytical treatment of the axial temperature distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, T. J.; Rohsenow, W. M.; Witt, A. F.

    1982-01-01

    All first order effects on the axial temperature distribution in a solidifying charge in a Bridgman-Stockbarger configuration for crystal growth are analyzed on the basis of a one dimensional model whose validity can be verified through comparison with published finite difference ana;uses of two dimensional models. The model presented includes an insulated region between axially aligned heat pipes and considers the effects of charge diameter, charge motion, thickness, and thermal conductivity of a confining crucible, thermal conductivity change at the crystal-melt interface, generation of latent heat at the interface, and finite charge length. Results are primarily given in analytical form and can be used without recourse to computer work for both improve furnace design and optimization of growth conditions in a given thermal configuration.

  19. Sintassi e Tassonomia: Teoria della valenza e lessico-grammatica in tedesco e in italiano (III) (Syntax and Taxonomy: Theory of Valence and Lexical Grammar in German and Italian, Part 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianco, Maria Teresa

    1987-01-01

    In this article, the author concludes a three-part series in which she analyzes verb complements in German and Italian. Parts 1 and 2 of the series appear in volume 18, numbers 2 and 3, respectively. (CFM)

  20. Weld heat-affected zone in Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Part 2: Modeling and experimental simulation of growth and phase transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, A.K.; Kulkarni, S.D.; Gopinathan, V.; Krishnan, R.

    1995-10-01

    The work carried out involved development of theoretical models to predict the {alpha} + {beta} {R_arrow} {beta} transformation during heating, grain growth, and subsequent transformation of {beta} on cooling in the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The data for correlation of microstructure to mechanical properties have been generated experimentally using simulated HAZ (heat-affected zone) specimens. The overall effect of the weld variables on the HAZ microstructure can be visualized from the HAZ microstructure diagram which depicts various phase transformations occurring during the weld thermal cycle in t{sub 8/5}-T{sub p} space. The results of computer modeling indicate that due to the rapid heating and cooling cycles encountered in welding, the shift in {beta} transus may be hundreds of degrees. Also, in the near-HAZ region, the grains can grow an order of magnitude larger than the original grain size. The formation of lamellar {alpha} can be minimized by reducing the t{sub 8/5} parameter. The experimental simulation results confirm excessive grain growth in the HAZ region. The hardness values do not show any significant trend, but the fracture toughness is found to deteriorate in the HAZ.

  1. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters. Topical report for part 1 of high temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, K.E.; Crossland, C.E.; Shelleman, D.L.; Tressler, R.E.

    1997-12-11

    This program consists of two separate research areas. Part 1, for which this report is written, studied the high temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic hot gas filters, while Part 2 studied the long-term durability of ceramic heat exchangers to coal combustion environments. The objectives of Part 1 were to select two candidate ceramic filter materials for flow-through hot corrosion studies and subsequent corrosion and mechanical properties characterization. In addition, a thermodynamic database was developed so that thermochemical modeling studies could be performed to simulate operating conditions of laboratory reactors and existing coal combustion power plants, and to predict the reactions of new filter materials with coal combustion environments. The latter would make it possible to gain insight into problems that could develop during actual operation of filters in coal combustion power plants so that potential problems could be addressed before they arise.

  2. Evidence that the 45-kD glycoprotein, part of a putative dengue virus receptor complex in the mosquito cell line C6/36, is a heat-shock related protein.

    PubMed

    Salas-Benito, Juan; Reyes-Del Valle, Jorge; Salas-Benito, Mariana; Ceballos-Olvera, Ivonne; Mosso, Clemente; del Angel, Rosa M

    2007-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Although several molecules have been described as part of DENV receptor complex in mosquito cells, none of them have been identified. Our group characterized two glycoproteins (40 and 45 kD) as part of the DENV receptor complex in C6/36 cells. Because identification of the mosquito cell receptor has been unsuccessful and some cell receptors described for DENV in mammalian cells are heat-shock proteins (HSPs), the role of HSPs in DENV binding and infection in C6/36 cells was evaluated. Our results indicate that gp45 and a 74-kD molecule (p74), which interact with DENV envelope protein, are immunologically related to HSP90. Although p74 is induced by heat shock, gp45 apparently is not. However, these proteins are relocated to the cell surface after heat-shock treatment, causing an increase in virus binding without any effect on virus yield. PMID:17690400

  3. The Mark III Hypercube-Ensemble Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John C.; Tuazon, Jesus O.; Lieberman, Don; Pniel, Moshe

    1988-01-01

    Mark III Hypercube concept applied in development of series of increasingly powerful computers. Processor of each node of Mark III Hypercube ensemble is specialized computer containing three subprocessors and shared main memory. Solves problem quickly by simultaneously processing part of problem at each such node and passing combined results to host computer. Disciplines benefitting from speed and memory capacity include astrophysics, geophysics, chemistry, weather, high-energy physics, applied mechanics, image processing, oil exploration, aircraft design, and microcircuit design.

  4. GapIII, a new brain-enriched member of the GTPase-activating protein family.

    PubMed

    Baba, H; Fuss, B; Urano, J; Poullet, P; Watson, J B; Tamanoi, F; Macklin, W B

    1995-08-15

    Ras GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are negative regulators of ras, which controls proliferation and differentiation in many cells. Ras GAPs have been found in a variety of species from yeast to mammals. We describe here a newly identified mammalian GAP, GapIII, which was obtained by differential screening of a rat oligodendrocyte cDNA library. GapIII putatively encodes a 834 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 96 kDa, which contains a consensus GAP-related domain (GRD). The protein encoded by this cDNA has high homology with Gap1m, which was recently identified as a putative mammalian homolog of Drosophila Gap1. These proteins contain three structural domains, an N-terminal calcium-dependent phospholipid binding domain, GRD, and a C-terminal PH/Btk domain. Because of the sequence homology and the structural similarities of this protein with Gap1m, we hypothesize that GapIII and Gap1m may be members of a mammalian GAP gene family, separate from p120GAP, neurofibromin (NF1), and IQGAP. To confirm the GapIII protein activity, constructs containing different GapIII-GRD domains were transformed into iral mutant yeast to determine their relative ability to replace IRA1 functionally. Constructs that contained essentially the full-length protein (all three domains), the GRD alone, or the GRD plus PH/Btk domain suppressed heat shock sensitivity of ira1, whereas constructs that contained the GRD with part of the PH/Btk domain had only a weak ability to suppress heat shock sensitivity. These results suggest that the GapIII GRD itself is sufficient to down-regulate ras proteins in yeast. Expression of GapIII mRNA (4.2 kb) was examined by Northern analysis and in situ hybridization. This mRNA was expressed at highest levels in the brain, where its expression increased with development. Lower levels of the mRNA were expressed in the spleen and lung. Among neural cells, GapIII mRNA was expressed in neurons and oligodendrocytes, but not in astrocytes

  5. Starch-based coatings for colon-specific drug delivery. Part I: the influence of heat treatment on the physico-chemical properties of high amylose maize starches.

    PubMed

    Cristina Freire, A; Fertig, Christiane C; Podczeck, Fridrun; Veiga, Francisco; Sousa, João

    2009-08-01

    In this study, the changes in the physico-chemical properties of different high amylose maize starches, i.e., Hylon VII, Hylon V and IM-DS acetate starch, were studied prior and after heat treatment used in the preparation of film coatings (WO 2008/012573 A1). Characterisation of the unprocessed maize starches was carried out with regard to the outer particle morphology, particle size distribution, specific surface area, moisture content, apparent particle density, swelling, polarised light microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction and modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (mDSC). Pure amylopectin and low amylopectin samples (LAPS) were also used to aid the interpretation of the results. The effect of heat processing was evaluated in terms of degree of crystallinity, FT-IR and mDSC. Enzymatic digestibility of both processed and unprocessed maize starches was estimated qualitatively using various alpha-amylases resembling those present under in vivo conditions. A significant decrease in the degree of crystallinity of the dried samples after processing was observed, in particular for amylopectin. Only LAPS and Hylon VII samples showed differences in their thermal behaviour upon heat treatment, thus suggesting that a minimum amount of amylose is required for an effect to be detectable. High amylose starches maintained a well-ordered arrangement of their macromolecular chains, as was seen by X-ray and FT-IR studies. This effect could be explained by a formation of retrograded forms of the starches. The retrograded starches were found to be less digestible by various types of amylase, in particular those found in the upper intestines, indicating that the formation of a butanol complex as claimed elsewhere is not essential in the preparation of colon delivery devices. PMID:19233267

  6. A robust multisyringe system for process flow analysis. Part II. A multi-commuted injection system applied to the photometric determination of free acidity and iron(III) in metallurgical solutions.

    PubMed

    Albertús, F; Cladera, A; Cerda, V

    2000-12-01

    A new software-controlled volume-based system for sample introduction in process flow injection analysis was developed. By using a multi-syringe burette coupled with one or two additional commutation valves, the multi-commuted injection of precise sample volumes was accomplished. Characteristics and performance of the injection system were studied by injecting an indicator in a buffered carrier. Three configurations were implemented in order to achieve two different tasks: the single injection of a sample in a two- or three-channels manifold, and the dual injection into different streams. The two channel flow system using the single injection was applied to the determination of free acidity in diluted samples containing high levels of iron(III), by employing the single point titration methodology. The precipitation of ferric hydroxide was prevented using the ammonium and sodium salts of oxalate and acetate as buffer titrant. Methyl Red was employed as indicator. The procedure allows determination of acid concentration in solutions with a Fe(III)/H+ molar ratio up to 0.2. Samples with higher Fe(III)/H+ molar ratios were spiked with a known strong acid at dilution. The three-channel configuration was applied to the determination of ferric ions, using, as reagent, a merging mixture of sulfuric acid and potassium thiocyanate. The double injection system was implemented in series in a single (three-channel) manifold in such a way that a different injection volume and a changed reagent were used for each analyte. It was applied to the separated or sequential determination of free acidity and ferric ions. In this configuration, iron(III) was determined using 0.5-0.7% (w/v) sodium salicylate solution as reagent. The systems can operate at up to 100, 84 and 78 injections per hour, respectively. Determinations on synthetic and process samples compared well with the reference values and procedures. Recoveries of 95-102% with a maximum RSD value of 5.4% were found for acidity

  7. Selectivity of bis-triazinyl bipyridine ligands for americium(III) in Am/Eu separation by solvent extraction. Part 1. Quantum mechanical study on the structures of BTBP complexes and on the energy of the separation.

    PubMed

    Narbutt, Jerzy; Oziminski, Wojciech P

    2012-12-21

    Theoretical studies were carried out on two pairs of americium and europium complexes formed by tetra-N-dentate lipophilic BTBP ligands, neutral [ML(NO(3))(3)] and cationic [ML(2)](3+) where M = Am(III) or Eu(III), and L = 6,6'-bis-(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine (C2-BTBP). Molecular structures of the complexes have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level and total energies of the complexes in various media were estimated using single point calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and MP2/6-311G(d,p) levels of theory. In the calculations americium and europium ions were treated using pseudo-relativistic Stuttgart-Dresden effective core potentials and the accompanying basis sets. Selectivity in solvent extraction separation of two metal ions is a co-operative function of contributions from all extractable metal complexes, which depend on physico-chemical properties of each individual complex and on its relative amount in the system. Semi-quantitative analysis of BTBP selectivity in the Am/Eu separation process, based on the contributions from the two pairs of Am(III) and Eu(III) complexes, has been carried out. To calculate the energy of Am/Eu separation, a model of the extraction process was used, consisting of complex formation in water and transfer of the formed complex to the organic phase. Under the assumptions discussed in the paper, this simple two-step model results in reliable values of the calculated differences in the energy changes for each pair of the Am/Eu complexes in both steps of the process. The greater thermodynamic stability (in water) of the Am-BTBP complexes, as compared with the analogous Eu species, caused by greater covalency of the Am-N than Eu-N bonds, is most likely the main reason for BTBP selectivity in the separation of the two metal ions. The other potential reason, i.e. differences in lipophilic properties of the analogous complexes of Am and Eu, is less important with regard to this selectivity. PMID

  8. Effects of flight on noise radiated from convected ring sources in coaxial dual flow. Part 2: The noise from heated jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of flight on noise from heated jets are discussed. The effects of the additionally, extraneously-generated dipole and simple source terms which arise as a result of the density gradients across the fluid interfaces were incorporated. The coaxial flows with inverted profiles are shown to be quieter than the conventional profiles; however, the benefit of noise reduction at higher outer-to-inner area ratios is totally offset as the inverted profile incurs a significant massloss and thrust-loss. Amongst all the possible coaxial configurations when on of the coaxial streams is heated-conventional profile (CP), inverted profile (IP) and the variable stream control engine (VSCE) cycle-and at constant massflow and thrust, a VSCE-cycle is the most desirable and the best possible engine cycle inasmuch as it provides over more than 18.0 dB reduction in SPL (as compared against noise from a CP-cycle) at all angles, both statically and in flight, for area ratios Sigma 0.25.

  9. SUPERSTARS III: K-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  10. CITY III Player's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game in which participants make decisions affecting the economic, governmental, and social conditions of a simulated urban area. In CITY III, the computer stores all the relevant statistics for the area, updates data when changes are made, and prints out yearly reports. The computer also simulates…

  11. CITY III Operator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game of an urban system involving player operation of and interaction with economic, social, and government components. The role of operator in the game is to take the handwritten inputs (decisions) from the CITY III participants, process them, and return output which initiates the next round of…

  12. Effect of mechanical cleaning on seawater corrosion of candidate OTEC heat exchanger materials. Part 1. Tests with M. A. N. brushes

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, D G

    1980-09-01

    Corrosion evaluations were conducted on 3003 Alclad, 5052 aluminum, C7 0600 copper-nickel, AL-6X stainless steel, and commercially-pure titanium in natural seawater under simulated OTEC heat exchanger conditions to investigate the erosion-corrosion effects of mechanical tube cleaning. Test conditions of M.A.N. brush cleaning and M.A.N. brush cleaning + chlorination were compared with no mechanical cleaning over a seven month period. M.A.N. brushing significantly accelerated corrosion of 5052 aluminum and C7 0600 copper-nickel. Chlorination significantly accelerated erosion-corrosion of 3003 Alclad and 5052 aluminium. Chlorination somewhat decreased erosion-corrosion of C7 0600 copper-nickel. There was no detectable effect of M.A.N. brushing or chlorination on AL-6X stainless steel or titanium, although AL-6X exhibited crevice corrosion at tubing connections. 3003 Alclad and 5052 aluminum exhibited piting corrosion in all 3 test environments.

  13. Mathematical Modeling of the Thermal State of an Isothermal Element with Account of the Radiant Heat Transfer Between Parts of a Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alifanov, O. M.; Paleshkin, A. V.; Terent‧ev, V. V.; Firsyuk, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    A methodological approach to determination of the thermal state at a point on the surface of an isothermal element of a small spacecraft has been developed. A mathematical model of heat transfer between surfaces of intricate geometric configuration has been described. In this model, account was taken of the external field of radiant fluxes and of the differentiated mutual influence of the surfaces. An algorithm for calculation of the distribution of the density of the radiation absorbed by surface elements of the object under study has been proposed. The temperature field on the lateral surface of the spacecraft exposed to sunlight and on its shady side has been calculated. By determining the thermal state of magnetic controls of the orientation system as an example, the authors have assessed the contribution of the radiation coming from the solar-cell panels and from the spacecraft surface.

  14. Thermal surveillance of active volcanoes using the LANDSAT-1 data collection system. Part 3: Heat discharge from Mount St. Helens, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D.; Frank, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two thermal anomalies, A at 2740 m altitude on the north slope, and B between 2650 and 2750 m altitude on the southwest slope at the contact of the dacite summit dome of Mount St. Helens, Washington were confirmed by aerial infrared scanner surveys between 1971 and 1973. LANDSAT 1 data collection platform 6166, emplaced at site B anomaly, transmitted 482 sets of temperature values in 1973 and 1974, suitable for estimating the differential radiatin emission as 84 W/sq m, approximately equivalent to the Fourier conductive flux of 89 W/sq m in the upper 15 cm below the surface. The differential geothermal flux, including heat loss via evaporation and convection, was estimated at 376 W/sq m. Total energy yield of Mount St. Helens probably ranges between 0.1 and 0.4 x 10 to the 6th power W.

  15. Thermal-hydraulic simulation of natural convection decay heat removal in the High Flux Isotope Reactor using RELAP5 and TEMPEST: Part 1, Models and simulation results

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, D.G.; Wendel, M.W.; Chen, N.C.J.; Ruggles, A.E.; Cook, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine decay heat removal requirements in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) following shutdown from 85 MW. The objective of the study was to determine when forced flow through the core could be terminated without causing the fuel to melt. This question is particularly relevant when a station blackout caused by an external event is considered. Analysis of natural circulation in the core, vessel upper plenum, and reactor pool indicates that 12 h of forced flow will permit a safe shutdown with some margin. However, uncertainties in the analysis preclude conclusive proof that 12 h is sufficient. As a result of the study, two seismically qualified diesel generators were installed in HFIR. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  16. A study of the fundamental operations of a capillary driven heat transfer device in both normal and low gravity Part 1. Liquid slug formation in low gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Jeffrey S.; Hallinan, Kevin; Lekan, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Research has been conducted to observe the operation of a capillary pumped loop (CPL) in both normal and low gravity environments in order to ascertain the causes of device failure. The failures of capillary pumped heat transport devices in low gravity; specifically; evaporator dryout, are not understood and the available data for analyzing the failures is incomplete. To observe failure in these devices an idealized experimental CPL was configured for testing in both a normal-gravity and a low-gravity environment. The experimental test loop was constructed completely of Pyrex tubing to allow for visualization of system operations. Heat was added to the liquid on the evaporator side of the loop using resistance heaters and removed on the condenser side via forced convection of ambient air. A video camera was used to record the behavior of both the condenser and the evaporator menisci simultaneously. Low-gravity experiments were performed during the Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission performed onboard the Space Shuttle Columbia in July of 1997. During the MSL-1 mission, a failure mechanism, heretofore unreported, was observed. In every experiment performed a slug of liquid would form at the transition from a bend to a straight run in the vapor line. Ultimately, this liquid slug prevents the flow of vapor to the condenser causing the condenser to eventually dryout. After condenser dryout, liquid is no longer fed into the evaporator and it, too, will dry out resulting in device failure. An analysis is presented to illustrate the inevitable formation of such liquid slugs in CPL devices in low gravity.

  17. U(IV)/LN(III) unexpected mixed site in polymetallic oxalato complexes. Part II. Substitution of U(IV) for Ln(III) in the new oxalates (N 2H 5) Ln(C 2O 4) 2· nH 2O ( Ln=Nd, Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapelet-Arab, B.; Nowogrocki, G.; Abraham, F.; Grandjean, S.

    2005-10-01

    Two new hydrazinium lanthanide(III) oxalates, (N 2H 5)[Nd(C 2O 4) 2(H 2O)]·4H 2O ( 1) and (N 2H 5)[Gd(C 2O 4) 2(H 2O)]·4.5H 2O ( 2) have been prepared and their crystal structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structures were solved by the direct methods and Fourier difference techniques, and refined by a least-squares method on the basis of F2 for all unique reflections. Crystallographic data: 1, triclinic, space group P1¯, a=8.507(3) Å, b=9.762(4), c=10.249(4) Å, α=62.378(5), β=76.681(5), γ=73.858(5), Z=2, R1=0.0335 for 172 parameters with 3430 reflections with I⩾2σ(I); 2, triclinic, space group P1¯, a=8.52(3) Å, b=9.51(3), c=10.14(3) Å, α=62.11(4), β=76.15(5), γ=73.73(5), Z=2, R1=0.0325 for 172 parameters with 1742 reflections with I⩾2σ(I). The two isotypic structures are built from a three-dimensional (3D) arrangement of lanthanide and oxalate ions. The lanthanide atom is coordinated by eight oxygen atoms from four tetradentate oxalate ions and one aqua oxygen. Alternating lanthanide and oxalate ions form six-membered rings that delimit tunnels running down three directions and occupied by hydrazinium and water molecules. Starting from these lanthanide(III) compounds two isotypic mixed Ln(III)/U(IV) oxalates, (N 2H 5) 0.75[Nd 0.75U 0.25(C 2O 4) 2(H 2O)]·4.5H 2O ( 3) and (N 2H 5) 0.75[Gd 0.75U 0.25(C 2O 4) 2(H 2O)]·4H 2O ( 4), are obtained by partial substitution of Ln(III) by U(IV) in the nine-coordinated site, the charge excess being compensated by removal of monovalent ions from the tunnels. Finally, using Na + gel, two mixed Ln(III)/U(IV) sodium oxalates, Na 0.5[Nd 0.5U 0.5(C 2O 4) 2(H 2O)]·3H 2O ( 5) and Na 0.65[Gd 0.65U 0.35(C 2O 4) 2(H 2O)]·4.5H 2O ( 6) have been obtained without any change in the 3D framework.

  18. Heat Waves

    MedlinePlus

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  19. Heat emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Heat emergencies or illnesses are caused by exposure to extreme heat and sun. Heat illnesses can be prevented by ... to regulate the temperature, and make a heat emergency more likely: Drinking alcohol before or during exposure ...

  20. The Stress-Relief Cracking Susceptibility of a New Ferritic Steel - Part I: Single-Pass Heat-Affected Zone Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    NAWROCKI,J.G.; DUPONT,J.N.; ROBINO,CHARLES V.; MARDER,A.R.

    1999-12-15

    The stress-relief cracking susceptibility of single-pass welds in a new ferritic steel, HCM2S, has been evaluated and compared to 2.25Cr-1Mo steel using Gleeble techniques. Simulated coarse-grained heat-affected zones (CGHAZ) were produced under a range of energy inputs and tested at various post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) temperatures. Both alloys were tested at a stress of 325 MPa. The 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel was also tested at 270 MPa to normalize for the difference in yield strength between the two materials. Light optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the CGHAZ microstructure. The ''as-welded'' CGHAZ of each alloy consisted of lath martensite or bainite and had approximately equal prior austenite grain sizes. The as-welded hardness of the 2.25Cr-1Mo steel CGHAZ was significantly higher than that of the HCM2S alloy. Over the range studied energy input had no effect on the as-welded microstructure or hardness of either alloy. The energy input also had no effect on the stress-relief cracking susceptibility of either material. Both alloys failed intergranularly along prior austenite grain boundaries under all test conditions. The 2.25Cr-1Mo steel samples experienced significant macroductility and some microductility when tested at 325 MPa. The ductility decreased significantly when tested at 270 MPa but was still higher that than of HCM2S at each test condition. The time to failure decreased with increasing PWHT Temperature for each material. There was no significant difference in the times to failure between the two materials. Varying energy input and stress had no effect on the time-to failure. The ductility, as measured by reduction in are% increased with increasing PWHT temperature for 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel tested at both stresses. However, PWHT temperature had no effect on the ductility of HCM2S. The hardness of the CGHAZ for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel decreased significantly after PWHT, but remained constant for HCM2S. The differences in stress

  1. Implementing Title III -- Air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) is taking three basic approaches to implementing the new National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) from the Title III program: accept and implement, as written, the NESHAPs where few sources are located in the South Coast Air Basin; incorporate with simplification of the NESHAP requirements into AQMD rules when many sources are involved; then seek equivalency by the US EPA; and incorporate with a market-based rule (VOC RECLAIM), part of many NESHAPs which control volatile organic compound as HAPs. Whatever the approach, emphasis will be placed on: streamlining and simplification; helping sources understand requirements and comply; and common sense.

  2. Experimental and numerical investigations of internal heat transfer in an innovative trailing edge blade cooling system: stationary and rotation effects, part 2: numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniaiche, Ahmed; Ghenaiet, Adel; Carcasci, Carlo; Facchini, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a numerical validation of the aero-thermal study of a 30:1 scaled model reproducing an innovative trailing edge with one row of enlarged pedestals under stationary and rotating conditions. A CFD analysis was performed by means of commercial ANSYS-Fluent modeling the isothermal air flow and using k-ω SST turbulence model and an isothermal air flow for both static and rotating conditions (Ro up to 0.23). The used numerical model is validated first by comparing the numerical velocity profiles distribution results to those obtained experimentally by means of PIV technique for Re = 20,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. The second validation is based on the comparison of the numerical results of the 2D HTC maps over the heated plate to those of TLC experimental data, for a smooth surface for a Reynolds number = 20,000 and 40,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. Two-tip conditions were considered: open tip and closed tip conditions. Results of the average Nusselt number inside the pedestal ducts region are presented too. The obtained results help to predict the flow field visualization and the evaluation of the aero-thermal performance of the studied blade cooling system during the design step.

  3. Effect of mechanical cleaning on seawater corrosion of candidate OTEC heat exchanger materials. Part 2. Tests with Amertap sponge rubber balls

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, D.G.

    1981-06-01

    Corrosion evaluations were conducted on 3003 Alclad, C70600 copper-nickel, and commercially-pure titanium in natural seawater under simulated OTEC heat exchanger conditions to investigate the erosion-corrosion effects of mechanical tube cleaning under aggressive over-cleaning conditions. Test conditions for 3003 Alclad included Amertap soft sponge ball cleaning with and without chlorination. Amertap abrasive sponge ball cleaning with and without chlorination, and no mechanical cleaning as a control. C70600 was exposed to Amertap soft sponge ball cleaning with and without chlorination and with no mechanical cleaning as a control. Titanium was cleaned by abrasive Amertap sponge balls with and without chlorination and compared to no mechanical cleaning as a control. Test exposures of 8, 16, 30, 60, 90 and 180 days were made. The sequence of Amertap sponge ball cleaning utilized in the present tests significantly accelerated corrosion of 3003 Alclad. Chlorination brought about a further acceleration of erosion-corrosion of Alclad. Amertap soft sponge ball cleaning of C70600 caused significant acceleration of corrosion under these over-cleaning conditions. Chlorination somewhat decreased erosion corrosion of C70600. Titanium showed no substantial effect of Amertap abrasive sponge ball cleaning on corrosion, although measurable weight losses were incurred. Chlorination had no measurable effect on erosion-corrosion of titanium.

  4. A study of the fundamental operation of a Capillary-driven Heat Transfer device in both normal and low gravity Part 2. Effect of evaporator meniscus oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Jeffrey S.; Hallinan, Kevin P.

    1999-01-01

    Research has been conducted to observe the operation of a capillary-pumped loop (CPL) in both normal and low-gravity environments in order to ascertain the causes of device failure. The failures of capillary pumped loops in low gravity are not understood and the available data for analyzing the failures has been scarce. To observe failure in these devices, an idealized experimental CPL was configured for testing. The experimental test loop was constructed of Pyrex tubing to allow for visualization of system operations. Heat was added to the liquid on the evaporator side of the loop using resistance heaters and removed on the condenser side via forced convection of ambient air. A video camera was used to record the behavior of both the condenser and the evaporator menisci simultaneously. Low-gravity experiments were performed during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission onboard the Space Shuttle Columbia in July of 1997. From this experiment, wall temperature and vapor pressure fluctuations have been correlated directly to oscillations of the evaporating meniscus. This correlation provides evidence that the oscillatory behavior of the evaporating meniscus contributes to evaporator dry out which is the primary cause of failure in capillary-pumped loops in low gravity.

  5. Experimental and numerical investigations of internal heat transfer in an innovative trailing edge blade cooling system: stationary and rotation effects, part 1—experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniaiche, Ahmed; Ghenaiet, Adel; Facchini, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    The aero-thermal behavior of the flow field inside 30:1 scaled model reproducing an innovative smooth trailing edge of shaped wedge discharge duct with one row of enlarged pedestals have been investigated in order to determine the effect of rotation, inlet velocity and blowing conditions effects, for Re = 20,000 and 40,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. Two configurations are presented: with and without open tip configurations. Thermo-chromic liquid crystals technique is used to ensure a local measurement of the heat transfer coefficient on the blade suction side under stationary and rotation conditions. Results are reported in terms of detailed 2D HTC maps on the suction side surface as well as the averaged Nusselt number inside the pedestal ducts. Two correlations are proposed, for both closed and open tip configurations, based on the Re, Pr, Ro and a new non-dimensional parameter based on the position along the radial distance, to assess a reliable estimation of the averaged Nusselt number at the inter-pedestal region. A good agreement is found between prediction and experimental data with about ±10 to ±12 % of uncertainty, for the simple form correlation, and about ±16 % using a complex form. The obtained results help to predict the flow field visualization and the evaluation of the aero-thermal performance of the studied blade cooling system during the design step.

  6. Numerical modeling of landfill gas and heat transport in the deformable MSW landfill body. Part 2. Verification and application of the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsyi, D. V.

    2015-07-01

    The article is devoted to studying the parameters of wells that are used as part of vertical landfill gas collection systems for degassing landfills. To this end, the thermophysical model developed in the first part of this work is considered. The model is constructed using the initial data obtained at real dump and landfill with subsequently comparing the calculation results with the data of experimental measurements. A method for determining the average hydrodynamic properties of wastes is proposed, using which the heterogeneity of wastes can be taken into account. The effect the operating and design parameters of the well have on its performance is investigated on the basis of these properties. It has been determined that increasing the suction pressure, drilling diameter, and perforation height allows the well production rate to be increased by around 10%. The effect the increase of the well production rate has on the landfill gas collection project's payback period is demonstrated taking typical dump and landfill as an example.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix III to Subpart S... - As-Received Inspection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... III to Subpart S of Part 86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles Pt. 86, Subpt. S, App. III Appendix III to Subpart S of Part 86—As-Received Inspection Items to be recorded at time of Initial Inspection of...

  8. Evidence-Based Practice and the Recognition and Treatment of Exertional Heat Stroke, Part I: A Perspective From the Athletic Training Educator

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Ruiz, Roberto C.; Casa, Douglas J.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Pinkus, Danielle E.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Maresh, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Athletic trainers (ATs) know to diagnose exertional heat stroke (EHS) via rectal thermometry (Tre) and to treat EHS via cold-water immersion (CWI) but do not implement these recommendations in clinical practice. Objective: To gain an understanding of educational techniques used to deliver content regarding EHS. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: In-person focus groups at the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) Annual Meeting in June 2009 and 2 follow-up telephone interviews to confirm emergent themes. Patients or Other Participants: Thirteen AT educators (11 men, 2 women) from programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education, with an average of 22 ± 9 years of clinical experience and 16 ± 10 years of experience as educators. Five NATA districts were represented. Data Collection and Analysis: Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Peer review and data source triangulation also were conducted to establish trustworthiness. Results: Four themes emerged from the analysis: educational techniques, educational competencies, previous educational training, and privacy/public opinion. Educational techniques highlighted the lack of hands-on training for Tre and CWI. Educational competencies referred to the omission of Tre and CWI as psychomotor skills. Previous educational training addressed educators not having the skills or comfort with the skills necessary to properly educate students. Privacy/public opinion comprised external inputs from various groups (parents and coaches), legal considerations, and social bias. Conclusions: Educators supplied students with the appropriate didactic knowledge about EHS, but their lack of training and misgivings about Tre prevented them from allowing students to gain competence with this skill. Until the NATA competencies state the need to teach Tre and CWI and until educators are provided with their own learning opportunities, evidence-based practice regarding EHS

  9. Antibodies against small heat-shock proteins in Alzheimer's disease as a part of natural human immune repertoire or activation of humoral response?

    PubMed

    Papuć, Ewa; Krupski, Witold; Kurys-Denis, Ewa; Rejdak, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    Characterization of autoantibodies specific for some disease-related proteins, would allow to better assess their role as diagnostic and prognostic markers. In the light of increasing evidence for both humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and data on the increased small heat-shock proteins (sHSP) expression in this disease, it seemed justified to assess humoral response against sHSP in AD patients. The aim of the study was to check whether AD has the ability to elicit immune response against small HSP, which could also serve as disease biomarkers. IgG and IgM autoantibodies against alpha B-crystallin and anti-HSP 60 IgG autoantibodies were assessed in 59 AD patients and 59 healthy subjects. Both IgM and IgG autoantibodies against alpha B-crystallin in AD patients were significantly higher compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found between AD patients and healthy subjects were found in anti-HSP60 IgG autoantibody titers (p = 0.29). Anti-HSP60 antibodies present in AD patients may indeed belong to natural human immune repertoire, and chronic neurodegenerative process does not have significant inducing effect on the systemic immunoreactivity against HSP60. Increased titers of IgM and IgG autoantibodies against alpha B-crystallin in AD patients may reflect activation of humoral immune response in the course of this chronic disease, probably secondary to its increased expression. Further prospective studies, on larger group of AD patients and measuring a change in antibodies titers with disease progression are necessary to assess the exact role of these antibodies in AD. PMID:26566902

  10. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume III. Emission source identification and source-specific pollution control applications. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The present volume is the third major deliverable of the title study. The document accomplished two objectives: (1) It identifies all major emission sources within an integrated flowsheet of oil shale operations encompassing mining, preparation, retorting, and upgrading; and (2) It delineates the logic process for selecting and instigating source-specific pollution controls, selected among all currently commercially available options. Specific pollutants dealt with in the present Volume III are sulfur species, (H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/ primarily), particulates, fugitive dust, and arsenic species. The present Volume III is divided into two separate Parts. Part 1 covers: (1) Sulfur species (H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/); (2) Particulates and fugitive dust; and (3) Arsenic. Retort off-gas control processes considered include: MDEA; Benfield Process; Physical absorption systems; Sulfinol Process; and The Holmes-Stretford Process. Processes considered for the control of SO/sub 2/ in flue gas are: Wellman-Lord Process; Limestone Slurry Process; Lime Slurry Process; Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121; Lime Slurry Spray Dryer/Fabric Filter Process; Resox Process; Magnesia Slurry Process; Double Alkali Process; Citrate/Phosphate Absorption Process; Ammonia-Ammonium Bisulfite Process; IFP Process; Activated Carbon Process; Catalytic Oxidation processes; Shell/UOP Copper Oxide Process; and Davy S-H Process. For removal of dusts and particulates, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators, afterburners, scrubbers, mist eliminators, fabric filters and sonic agglomeration are evaluated. Wastewater, off-gas, and product oil controls for arsenic removal are also presented. (DMC)

  11. Engineering design of ARIES-III

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.; Wong, C.; Cheng, E.

    1993-07-01

    An efficient organic cooled low activation ferritic steel first wall and shield has been designed for the D-{sup 3}He power reactor ARIES-III. The design allows removal of the large surface heat load without exceeding temperature and stress design limits. The structure is expected to last for the whole reactor life. The major concerns regarding using the organic coolant in fusion reactors have been greatly alleviated.

  12. Antithrombin III blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AT III) is a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of ... may mean you have an increased risk of blood clotting. This can occur when there is not enough ...

  13. Antithrombin III blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be due to: Bone marrow transplant Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) AT III deficiency, an inherited condition Liver ... Schmaier AH, Miller JL. Coagulation and fibrinolysis. In: McPherson ... Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  14. Seasonal and interannual variability of atmospheric heat sources and moisture sinks as determined from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis: Part II variability associated with ENSO

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, Tomohiko; Yanai, Michio

    1997-11-01

    The link between the Asian monsoon and the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has been demonstrated by a number of studies. This study examines two ENSO withdrawal periods and discusses if the Asian monsoon played a role in the differences between them. The 1986 event occurred in the later half of 1986 and retreated in 1988. The 1951 and 1991 events were similar to each other and seemed to continue to the second year after onset and not to have the clear La Nina phase after the events. In the central and eastern Pacific, three variables progress in phase as the ENSO cycle: sea surface temperature (SST), heat source (Q1), and divergence. Correlation coefficients were calculated and examined with the mean SST on the equator and with the standard deviation of the interannual components of SST. In the central and eastern Pacific, the standard deviation is large and three correlation coefficients are large (over 0.6). Strong air-sea interaction associated with ENSO cycle is deduced. In the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific, the correlation coefficients with SST become small rapidly, while the correlation coefficient between Q1 and the divergence is still large. The interannual variability of SSt may not be crucial for those of Q1 and of the divergence in this region because of the potential to generate well organized convection through the high mean SST. This suggests that various factors, such as effects from mid-latitudes, may modify the interannual variability in the region. To examine the effects of the Asian winter monsoon, the anomalous wind field at 850 hPa was investigated. The conditions of the Asian winter monsoon were quite different between the withdrawal periods in the 1986 and 1991 ENSO events. The Asian winter monsoon seems to be a factor to modify the ENSO cycle, especially in the retreat periods. In addition, the SST from the tropical Indian Ocean to western Pacific may be important for the modulation of the ENSO/monsoon system. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  15. HISTORY OF EMPLOYMENT AND MANPOWER POLICY IN THE UNITED STATES. PARTS III AND IV, LOOKING AHEAD TO THE POSTWAR ECONOMY AND THE CONCEPT OF FULL EMPLOYMENT IN CONGRESS. SELECTED READINGS IN EMPLOYMENT AND MANPOWER, VOLUME 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    THE SELECTED READINGS WERE COMPILED TO PROVIDE SUBCOMMITTEE MEMBERS WITH A BROAD BACKGROUND OF DEVELOPMENTS LEADING TO THE EMPLOYMENT ACT OF 1946 AND ARE CONCERNED WITH THE FORMULATION OF U.S. EMPLOYMENT POLICIES FOLLOWING WORLD WAR II. PARTS I AND II (VT 004 819) PROVIDE THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND FROM THE LATE 1920'S THROUGH THE GREAT DEPRESSION.…

  16. Final Report for Dynamic Models for Causal Analysis of Panel Data. Quality of Maximum Likelihood Estimates of Parameters in a Log-Linear Rate Model. Part III, Chapter 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Mary L.; And Others

    This document is part of a series of chapters described in SO 011 759. This chapter reports the results of Monte Carlo simulations designed to analyze problems of using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE: see SO 011 767) in research models which combine longitudinal and dynamic behavior data in studies of change. Four complications--censoring of…

  17. Final Report for Dynamic Models for Causal Analysis of Panel Data. The Impact of Measurement Error in the Analysis of Log-Linear Rate Models: Monte Carlo Findings. Part III, Chapter 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Glenn R.; And Others

    This document is part of a series of chapters described in SO 011 759. The chapter advocates the analysis of event-histories (data giving the number, timing, and sequence of changes in a categorical dependent variable) with maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) applied to log-linear rate models. Results from a Monte Carlo investigation of the impact…

  18. How Principals Level the Playing Field of Accountability in Florida's High-Poverty/Low-Performing Schools--Part III: Effects of High-Poverty Schools on Teacher Recruitment and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touchton, Debra; Acker-Hocevar, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Report on part of a study of 10 principals who were asked about their views toward the state's accountability measures in reference to their schools and their roles, and what, if any, effect external accountability had on internal accountability or developing the organizational capacity of their school. (Contains 19 references.) (WFA)

  19. U(IV)/ Ln(III) unexpected mixed site in polymetallic oxalato complexes. Part I. Substitution of Ln(III) for U(IV) from the new oxalate (NH 4) 2U 2(C 2O 4) 5·0.7H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapelet-Arab, Benedicte; Nowogrocki, Guy; Abraham, Francis; Grandjean, Stephane

    2005-10-01

    A new ammonium uranium (IV) oxalate (NH 4) 2U 2(C 2O 4) 5·0.7H 2O ( 1) and three mixed uranium (IV)-lanthanide (III) oxalates, (N 2H 5) 2.6U 1.4M0.6(C 2O 4) 5· xH 2O ( M=Nd ( 2) and M=Sm ( 3)), Na 2.56U 1.44Nd 0.56(C 2O 4) 5·7.6H 2O ( 4) and Na 3UCe(C 2O 4) 5·10.4H 2O ( 5), have been prepared. The crystal structures of compounds 1, 4 and 5 have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structures were solved by the direct methods and Fourier difference techniques, and refined by a least square method on the basis of F2 for all unique reflections. Compounds 2 and 3 are isotypic with 1. Crystallographic data: 1, hexagonal, space group P6 3/ mmc, a=19.177(3), c=12.728(4) Å, Z=6, R1=0.0575 for 52 parameters with 1360 reflections with I⩾2 σ( I); 2, hexagonal, space group P6 3/ mmc, a=19.243(4), c=12.760(5) Å, Z=6; 3, hexagonal, space group P6 3/ mmc, a=19.211(3), c=12.274(4) Å, Z=6; 4, orthorhombic, space group Pbcn, a=18.79(3), b=11.46(1), c=12.77(2) Å, Z=4, R1=0.0511 for 183 parameters with 3026 reflections with I⩾2σ(I); 5, monoclinic, space group C2/ c, a=18.878(6), b=11.684(4), c=12.932(4) Å, β=95.97(1)°, Z=4, R1=0.0416 for 213 parameters with 4060 reflections with I⩾2 σ( I). The honeycomb-like structure of the five compounds is built from the same three-dimensional arrangement of metallic and oxalate ions. Similar hexagonal rings of alternating metallic and oxalate ions form layers parallel to the (001) plane that are pillared by another oxalate ion. Indeed, some torsions or rotations of the bridging oxalate ligands led to modifications of the network symmetry. The monovalent cations and the water molecules occupy the hexagonal tunnels running down the [001] direction. Starting from the uranium (IV) compound A 2U 2(C 2O 4) 5·0.7H 2O with A=NH 4+ ( 1), the mixed U(IV)/ Ln(III) oxalates are obtained by partial substitution of U(IV) by Ln(III) in a ten-coordinated site, the charge deficit being compensated by intercalation

  20. Heat Without Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubkin, Elihu

    1997-04-01

    Logic of the Second Law of Thermodynamics demands acquisition of naked entropy. Accordingly, the leanest liaison between systems is not a diathermic membrane, it is a purely informational tickler, leaking no appreciable energy. The subsystem here is a thermodynamic universe, which gets `heated' entropically, yet without gaining calories. Quantum Mechanics graciously supports that(Lubkin, E. and Lubkin, T., International Journal of Theoretical Physics,32), 933-943 (1993) (at a cost of about 1 bit) through entanglement---across this least permeable of membranes---with what is beyond that universe. Heat without heat(Also v. forthcoming Proceedings of the 4th Drexel University Conference of September 1994) is the aspirin for Boltzmann's headache, conserving entropy in mechanical isolation, even while increasing entropy in thermodynamic isolation.

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart III of... - Emission Limitations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission Limitations 1 Table 1 to... Before November 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. III, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart III of Part 62—Emission Limitations For the air pollutant You must meet this emission limitation a Using this averaging time...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart III of... - Emission Limitations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission Limitations 1 Table 1 to... Before November 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. III, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart III of Part 62—Emission Limitations For the air pollutant You must meet this emission limitation a Using this averaging time...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart III of... - Emission Limitations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission Limitations 1 Table 1 to... Before November 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. III, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart III of Part 62—Emission Limitations For the air pollutant You must meet this emission limitation a Using this averaging time...

  4. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis heats brain and body as part of the brain-coordinated ultradian basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC)

    PubMed Central

    Ootsuka, Youichirou; de Menezes, Rodrigo C.; Alimoradian, Abbas; Zaretsky, Dmitry V.; Hunt, Joseph; Stefanidis, Aneta; Oldfield, Brian J.; Blessing, William W.

    2009-01-01

    by brain central command as part of the 1–2 hour ultradian basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC) proposed by Kleitman. PMID:19679172

  5. SAGE III Aerosol Extinction Validation in the Arctic Winter: Comparisons with SAGE II and POAM III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, L. W.; Poole, L. R.; Randall, C. E.

    2007-01-01

    The use of SAGE III multiwavelength aerosol extinction coefficient measurements to infer PSC type is contingent on the robustness of both the extinction magnitude and its spectral variation. Past validation with SAGE II and other similar measurements has shown that the SAGE III extinction coefficient measurements are reliable though the comparisons have been greatly weighted toward measurements made at mid-latitudes. Some aerosol comparisons made in the Arctic winter as a part of SOLVE II suggested that SAGE III values, particularly at longer wavelengths, are too small with the implication that both the magnitude and the wavelength dependence are not reliable. Comparisons with POAM III have also suggested a similar discrepancy. Herein, we use SAGE II data as a common standard for comparison of SAGE III and POAM III measurements in the Arctic winters of 2002/2003 through 2004/2005. During the winter, SAGE II measurements are made infrequently at the same latitudes as these instruments. We have mitigated this problem through the use potential vorticity as a spatial coordinate and thus greatly increased the number of coincident events. We find that SAGE II and III extinction coefficient measurements show a high degree of compatibility at both 1020 nm and 450 nm except a 10-20% bias at both wavelengths. In addition, the 452 to 1020-nm extinction ratio shows a consistent bias of approx. 30% throughout the lower stratosphere. We also find that SAGE II and POAM III are on average consistent though the comparisons show a much higher variability and larger bias than SAGE II/III comparisons. In addition, we find that the two data sets are not well correlated below 18 km. Overall, we find both the extinction values and the spectral dependence from SAGE III are robust and we find no evidence of a significant defect within the Arctic vortex.

  6. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  7. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. Part III. Dynamics of long-range hydrophobic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2010-01-01

    A 20-residue peptide, IG(42–61), derived from the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus was studied using CD, NMR spectroscopy at various temperatures and by differential scanning calorimetry. Unlike other related peptides studied so far, this peptide displays two heat capacity peaks in DSC measurements (at a scanning rate of 1.5 deg/min at a peptide concentration of 0.07mM) which suggests a three-state folding/unfolding process. The results from DSC and NMR measurements suggest the formation of a dynamic network of hydrophobic interactions stabilizing the structure, which resembles a β-hairpin shape over a wide range of temperatures (283 – 313 K). Our results show that IG(42–61) possesses a well-organized three-dimensional structure stabilized by long-range hydrophobic interactions (Tyr50 ··· Phe57 and Trp48 ··· Val59) at T = 283 K and (Trp48 ··· Val59) at 305 and 313 K. The mechanism of β-hairpin folding and unfolding, as well as the influence of peptide length on its conformational properties, are also discussed. PMID:19847914

  8. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  9. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

  10. Pioneer III Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Looking more like surgeons, these technicians wearing 'cleanroom' attire inspect the Pioneer III probe before shipping it to Cape Canaveral, Florida. Pioneer III was launched on December 6, 1958 aboard a Juno II rocket at the Atlantic Missile Range, Cape Canaveral, Florida. The mission objectives were to measure the radiation intensity of the Van Allen radiation belt, test long range communication systems, the launch vehicle and other subsystems. The Juno II failed to reach proper orbital escape velocity. The probe re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on December 7th ending its brief mission.

  11. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... are found in 40 CFR part 355. ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related Title III issues. 300.220 Section 300.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND,...

  12. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... are found in 40 CFR part 355. ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Related Title III issues. 300.220 Section 300.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND,...

  13. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... are found in 40 CFR part 355. ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Related Title III issues. 300.220 Section 300.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND,...

  14. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are found in 40 CFR part 355. ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Related Title III issues. 300.220 Section 300.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND,...

  15. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... are found in 40 CFR part 355. ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Related Title III issues. 300.220 Section 300.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND,...

  16. Lightweight Long Life Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    A shuttle orbiter flight configuration aluminum heat exchanger was designed, fabricated, and tested. The heat exchanger utilized aluminum clad titanium composite parting sheets for protection against parting sheet pin hole corrosion. The heat exchanger, which is fully interchangeable with the shuttle condensing heat exchanger, includes slurpers (a means for removing condensed water from the downstream face of the heat exchanger), and both the core air passes and slurpers were hydrophilic coated to enhance wettability. The test program included performance tests which demonstrated the adequacy of the design and confirmed the predicted weight savings.

  17. Summary of Session III

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-06-19

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002.

  18. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  19. CITY III Director's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game which allows the participants to make decisions affecting various aspects of the economic, governmental, and social sectors of a simulated urban area. The game director selects one of five possible starting city configurations, may set a number of conditions in the city before the start of play, and…

  20. The effect of mining and related activities on the sediment-trace element geochemistry of Lake Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, USA. Part III. Downstream effects: the Spokane River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosbois, Cecile A.; Horowitz, Arthur J.; Smith, James J.; Elrick, Kent A.

    2001-04-01

    During 1998/1999, surface and subsurface sediment samples were collected along the entire length of the Spokane River from its outlet at the northern end of Lake Coeur d'Alene (CDA), Idaho, to Lake Roosevelt on the Columbia River, Washington. The study was conducted to determine if the trace element enrichments observed in Lake CDA and on the floodplain and in the CDA River extend through the Spokane River Basin (SRB).As in Lake CDA, surface sediments in the SRB are enriched in Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Sb and Hg relative to local background levels. Pb, Cd and Zn are the most elevated, with maximum enrichment occurring in the upper Spokane River in close proximity to Lake CDA. On average, enrichment decreases downstream, apparently reflecting both increased distance from the inferred source (the CDA River Basin), as well as increased dilution by locally derived but unenriched materials. Only Cd and Zn display marked enrichment throughout the SRB. Pb, Zn and Cd seem to be associated mainly with an operationally defined iron oxide phase, whereas the majority of the As and Sb seem to be matrix-held.Subsurface sediments also are enriched in Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Sb and Hg relative to background levels. Based on 137Cs and excess 210Pb dating, trace element enrichment began in the middle part of the SRB (Long Lake) between 1900 and 1920. This is contemporaneous with similar enrichments observed in Lake CDA, as well as the completion of Long Lake Dam (1913). In the most downstream part of the basin (Spokane River Arm of Lake Roosevelt), enrichment began substantially later, between 1930 and 1940. The temporal difference in enrichment between Long Lake and the River Arm may reflect the latter's greater distance from the presumed source of the enrichment (the CDA River Basin); however, the difference is more likely the result of the completion of Grand Coulee Dam (1934-1941), which formed Lake Roosevelt, backed up the Spokane River, and increased water levels in the River Arm by about 30 m.